WorldWideScience

Sample records for students athletes representatives

  1. The Effect of Athletic Identity and Locus of Control on the Stress Perceptions of Community College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Over 72,000 student-athletes compete annually in athletic programs at the community college level. However, research addressing the effect of athletic participation on the psychological well-being of the community college student-athlete is sparse. This study represents an attempt to address this gap by examining the relationship among perceived…

  2. Female Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Motherhood and Retention in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Context: Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. Objective: To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education–accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic study. Data Collection and Analysis: The participants responded to a series of questions related to work–life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. Results: The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work–life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work–life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. Conclusions: A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work–life balance strategies, which can

  3. Female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Qualitative study. Athletic training education program. A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic STUDY. The participants responded to a series of questions related to work-life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work-life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work-life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work-life balance strategies, which can be helpful in reducing attrition from the profession.

  4. "The Student Athlete": Too Little, Too Late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Ewald B.

    1982-01-01

    There are vast differences in life experiences and advantages for all college students, not just student athletes; to shunt off the super athlete lacking minimum skills into a second-rate educational training is inexcusable. Institutions that have "turned professional" have become football franchises dabbling in education. (MLW)

  5. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  6. Support Services for Student-Athletes: Assessing the Differences in Usage among Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usage rates of support services for student-athletes at a small, private college in the southeast with membership in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), in efforts to understand how universities and sport organizations can assist in the challenges student-athletes face when…

  7. Student retention in athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M

    2009-01-01

    The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r = 0.515, P accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the qualitative data was the presence of a strong peer-support group that surrounded many of the senior-level students. Understanding student retention in athletic training is

  8. The career planning, athletic identity, and student role identity of intercollegiate student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Patricia S; Kerr, Gretchen A

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent career objectives and invested heavily in their athletic roles. In the latter years of their college career, the participants discarded their sport career ambitions and allowed the student role to become more prominent in their identity hierarchies. The current findings support Brown and Hartley's (1998) suggestion that student athletes may invest in both the athlete and student role identities simultaneously and that investing in the latter may permit the exploration of nonsport career options.

  9. The Impact of Athletic Facilities on the Recruitment of Potential Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ray; Messenger, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that athletic facilities and other college choice factors have on the recruitment of student-athletes to play Division I college hockey compared to the influence of other college choice factors. Although athletic facilities and their seeming importance in the recruitment of top level student-athletes are…

  10. Studying to Play, Playing to Study: Nine College Student-Athletes' Motivational Sense of Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Althea L.; Schallert, Diane L.

    2008-01-01

    This study represents a grounded theory investigation of how motivation and self-perceptions influence students' emotions, cognitions, and behaviors by focusing on student-athletes, individuals who may experience conflicting sets of motivation and self issues. From observing and interviewing nine student-athletes at a Research 1 university, we…

  11. Validation of the student athletes' motivation towards sports and academics questionnaire to Korean student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung

    2015-08-01

    The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement.

  12. Division I Student Athletes' Perceptions: How Well Does the Athletic Department Promote Student Athlete Development in an Urban-Serving University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to identify student athletes' perceptions of their athletic department regarding student development. Student athletes from a Division I athletic department were surveyed (n = 369) in order to monitor their development. Regression analyses, which included respondent's sport, gender, classification, reports of abuse,…

  13. Collegiate Student-Athletes' Academic Success: Academic Communication Apprehension's Impact on Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kai'Iah A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study examines the impact of traditional and non-cognitive variables on the academic prediction model for a sample of collegiate student-athletes. Three hundred and fifty-nine NCAA Division IA male and female student-athletes, representing 13 sports, including football and Men's and Women's Basketball provided demographic…

  14. Faculty Perceptions of Division I Male Student-Athletes: The Relationship between Student-Athlete Contact, Athletic Department Involvement, and Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that student-athletes, especially in the sports of men's basketball and football, endure stereotyping (Bowen & Levin, 2003; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita, & Jensen, 2007, Baucom & Lantz, 2001). Although stereotypes about male basketball and football student-athletes academic behaviors are expressed by many sectors of the…

  15. Motivational Factors of Student Nurse Athletes Attributing to Academic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Kimberly A

    Student nurse athletes experience difficulties achieving academic success in nursing programs. The purpose of this study was to identify facilitators, barriers, and motivators of student nurse athletes that attribute to their academic success. Athletes ranked time management and prioritization as critical skills to success in the nursing program. This study reinforced the importance of academic support services for student nurse athletes to assist in their academic success.

  16. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome in collegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Buckley, Thomas A; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2016-04-01

    represents one of the most impactful sequelae of SRC. In this study of exclusively collegiate student-athletes, the authors found that recurrent concussions and various concussion-related symptoms were associated with PCS. The identification of initial risk factors for the development of PCS may assist sports medicine clinicians in providing timely interventions and treatments to prevent morbidity and shorten recovery time after SRC.

  17. Understanding the Academic Struggles of Community College Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, Jason

    2017-01-01

    When students begin their education at community colleges, they may face more obstacles to obtaining their college education than students starting in four-year institutions. Research has shown the importance of academic and student services in the support of student athletes, that community college student athletes are often at academic risk, and…

  18. Self-Directed Learning and the Millennial Athletic Training Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brian J.; Berry, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Athletic training educators (ATEs) have a responsibility to remain aware of the current student population, particularly how they learn and give meaning to what they have learned. Just as clinical athletic trainers (ATs) must adapt to ever changing work schedules and demands, so too must athletic training educators. In addition to adapting to…

  19. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  20. Self Reported Perceptions of Physical Demands on Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Jeffrey K.; Babcock, Garth; Little, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Context: According to the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) Standards for the Accreditation of Entry-Level Athletic Training Education Programs, athletic training students (ATSs) must complete clinical experiences that provide opportunities to integrate cognitive function, psychomotor skills, and affective…

  1. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  2. Sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Takafumi; Ando, Akira; Asanuma, Tohru; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Yoshida, Goichiro; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ebine, Naoyuki; Takeda, Satoko; Omi, Naomi; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Takeda, Fumi

    2018-04-01

    To clarify sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes, this study examined the relationship between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders. Student athletes (N = 906; male: 70.1%; average age: 19.1 ± 0.8 years) in five university sports departments from four Japanese regions were targeted for analysis. Survey items were attributes (age, gender, and body mass index), sleep disorders (recorded through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), lifestyle habits (bedtime, wake-up time, smoking, drinking alcohol, meals, part-time jobs, and use of electronics after lights out), competition activities (activity contents and competition stressors), and psychological distress (recorded through the K6 scale). The relation between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders was explored using logistic regression analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis with attributes as adjustment variables showed that "bedtime," "wake-up time," "psychological distress," "part-time jobs," "smartphone/cellphone use after lights out," "morning practices," and "motivation loss stressors," were risk factors that were independently related to sleep disorders. Sleep disorders among student athletes are related to lifestyle habits such as late bedtime, early wake-up time, late night part-time jobs, and use of smartphones/cellphones after lights out; psychological distress; and competition activities such as morning practices and motivation loss stressors related to competition. Therefore, this study suggests the importance of improving these lifestyle habits, mental health, and competition activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between sleep and mood states among student-athlete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to examine the relationship between sleep and mood states on student-athlete. The respondent consists of 89 student-athletes from MajlisSukanNegeri, Perak. There were 53 male respondent (59.3%) and 36 female respondent (40.4%). These respondent were range from age 13 to 21 years old are chosen ...

  4. Sexual Harassment Training and Reporting in Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Jamie; Moffit, Dani M.; Russ, Anne C.; Thorpe, Justin N.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Sexual harassment is a growing concern in higher education. Athletic training students should feel safe in their programs, whether in the didactic or clinical setting. Though the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education creates standards to keep the students safe, there are none regarding sexual harassment training for…

  5. Can Environmental Education Increase Student-Athletes' Environmental Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, Lauren E.; Green, Gary T.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education was incorporated within a mentoring program (i.e. treatment group) for student-athletes at the University of Georgia. These student-athletes' environmental attitudes, behavioral intent, knowledge, self-efficacy, self-regulatory learning, motivation, and learning strategies were assessed before and after their environmental…

  6. Physical activity participation and constraints among athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Justin; Rogers, Katherine; Anderson, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have examined the physical activity (PA) habits of certified athletic trainers; however, none have looked specifically at athletic training students. To assess PA participation and constraints to participation among athletic training students. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level athletic training education programs (undergraduate and graduate) across the United States. Participants were 1125 entry-level athletic training students. Self-reported PA participation, including a calculated PA index based on a typical week. Leisure constraints and demographic data were also collected. Only 22.8% (252/1105) of athletic training students were meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for PA through moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise. Although 52.3% (580/1105) were meeting the recommendations through vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise, 60.5% (681/1125) were meeting the recommendations based on the combined total of moderate or vigorous cardiorespiratory exercise. In addition, 57.2% (643/1125) of respondents met the recommendations for resistance exercise. Exercise habits of athletic training students appear to be better than the national average and similar to those of practicing athletic trainers. Students reported structural constraints such as lack of time due to work or studies as the most significant barrier to exercise participation. Athletic training students experienced similar constraints to PA participation as practicing athletic trainers, and these constraints appeared to influence their exercise participation during their entry-level education. Athletic training students may benefit from a greater emphasis on work-life balance during their entry-level education to promote better health and fitness habits.

  7. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: Athletes completed a demographic, health and sport questionnaire; pathogenic body weight control questionnaire; menstrual history questionnaire; four 24-hour dietary recalls and one three-day diet and exercise record form. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual ...

  8. An Investigation of Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Janet M.

    2009-01-01

    As less than 3% of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance.…

  9. The Student-Athlete and the National Collegiate Athletic Association: The Need for a Prima Facie Tort Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Roy D., III

    1975-01-01

    In examining whether courts have jurisdiction to hear student-athlete grievances against the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) the author rejects the position that the NCAA's activities are under cover of state law, and instead proposes that the student-athlete's remedy lies in an action against the NCAA for a prima facie tort. (JT)

  10. Athletics for All: Providing Opportunities for Students of All Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    The glory days of high school sports are no longer reserved for dream team athletes, as athletic directors are increasingly opening up sports to all students, regardless of ability, and seeing winning results on the field and off. This push is reflected in the most recent National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) survey, which…

  11. Student Athletes Work toward a Drug-Free School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Jerome P.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Student Athlete Leadership Program (SALP), part of the Long Beach (New York) City School District's comprehensive drug education program. SALP trains high-profile high school athletes to conduct drug and alcohol prevention activities in the elementary schools. (FMW)

  12. Athletes as Students: Ensuring Positive Cognitive and Affective Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayles, Joy Gaston; Hu, Shouping

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has become increasingly concerned about the educational experience of student athletes, beyond enforcement of eligibility rules and regulations. Perhaps this growing interest is in response to public criticism of the poor performance--and even misconduct--associated with the…

  13. Noncognitive Predictors of Student Athletes' Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Herbert D.; Van Rheenen, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of four noncognitive variables in predicting academic performance in 200 Division I athletes. Studies the noncognitive variables of athletic-academic commitment, feelings of being exploited, academic self-worth, self-handicapping excuses as well as several background and academic preparation variables. Finds all four noncognitive…

  14. Motivation towards dual career of European student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Guidotti, Flavia; Goncalves, Carlos E; Moreira, Liliana; Doupona Topic, Mojca; Bellardini, Helena; Tonkonogi, Michail; Colin, Allen; Capranica, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate motivations for the dual career of European student-athletes living in countries providing different educational services for elite athletes: State-centric regulation-State as sponsor/facilitator (State), National Sporting Federations/Institutes as intermediary (Federation) and Laisser Faire, no formal structures (No Structure). Therefore, the European Student-athletes' Motivation towards Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-EU) was administered to 524 European student-athletes. Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to test the factor structure, and the reliability and validity of the SAMSAQ-EU, respectively. A multivariate approach was applied to verify subgroup effects (P ≤ 0.05) according to gender (i.e., female and male), age (i.e., ≤ 24 years, > 24 years), type of sport (i.e., individual sport and team sport) and competition level (i.e., national and international). Insufficient confirmatory indexes were reported for the whole European student-athlete group, whereas distinct three factor models [i.e., Student Athletic Motivation (SAM); Academic Motivation (AM); Career Athletic Motivation (CAM)] emerged, with acceptable reliability estimates, for State (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.75; and CAM = 0.75), Federation (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.66; and CAM = 0.87) and No Structure (SAM = 0.78; AM = 0.74; and CAM = 0.79) subgroups. Differences between subgroups were found only for competition level (P student-athletes' motivation for dual career has to be specifically investigated according to social contexts.

  15. Association between eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are of common problems in adolescence and adulthood especially among athletes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 athlete students and 350 non-athlete students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences during 2013-2014. Students who followed a specific sport field and had participated in at least one sport event were considered as athlete students. All athlete students were entered the study by census method. Non-athlete students were selected among students who had not any exercise activity and by random sampling method. Data were collected through demographic questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. Data were analyzed using T-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean age was 21.92±3.19 years and mean body mass index (BMI was 22.24±3.18 kg/m2. The frequency of eating disorders was 11.5% among the athlete students and 11.2% among the non-athlete students. Anorexia nervosa was found to be more prevalent than bulimia nervosa in both groups. The students with normal BMI had better body image perception and less eating disorders symptoms than other students. The association of age, educational level, and gender with eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. The association of eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. Eating disorders were more prevalent in males than females but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction are relatively prevalent among both athletes and non-athlete students and BMI is predictor of eating disorders.

  16. Student versus athlete: Professional socialisation influx | Burnett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... sport and increased professional opportunities for high performance athletes, ... Continued participation and self-reported high levels of motivation relate to sporting success (69.4%), ...

  17. Minority, Student, and Athlete: Multiracial Division I College Athletes' Stereotype Threat Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Angel L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to understand the meanings ascribed by multiracial male and female NCAA Division I student athletes in the Southeast region of the United States to the lived experiences of stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is a phenomenon that is boundless and can influence any…

  18. Psychosocial Influences on College Adjustment in Division I Student-Athletes: The Role of Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Mickey C.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, graduation rates have been employed as a primary measure of college success for student-athletes. However, other sport related factors influencing college success and adjustment have yet to be adequately researched in the literature. The purpose of this study was to examine more closely the impact of race, gender, and athletic…

  19. Factor structure of the integrated training of elite athletes - representatives of mountain sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of the factor structure of the readiness of mountaineers and climbers of different specializations. The study involved 26 athletes, among them - 10 masters of sports of international class (speed climbing , 10 masters of sports of international class ( climbing difficulty and 6 world-class climbers. The age of the athletes was 19-22 years. Identified 10 factors in the overall readiness of the surveyed athletes. It is shown that the most prominent climbers factors are adaptive capacity of the cardiovascular system, special endurance. Do climbers ( climbing difficulty - relative strength, stability, reaction speed, arm strength and the press. Do climbers ( climbing speed - spigot size hand, the mobility of the nervous system, the reaction rate. Shows the complexity of the manifestations of power-speed in relation to the performance of morphological and functional characteristics and capabilities of psychophysiological representatives of mountain sports. Found that the development of the power-speed positive effect on the improvement of psycho-physiological regulation of the body. The obtained data on the characteristics of the severity of different factors in representatives of different types of rock climbing and mountaineering can be used to predict future specialization novice climbers.

  20. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  1. Construction and Validation of the Student-Athlete Environmental and Academic Orientation Survey (SEAOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, Lauren E.; Green, Gary T.

    2016-01-01

    Many surveys exist that measure environmental orientations, yet few measure learning outcomes, such as self-efficacy, and even fewer specifically target student-athletes. Hence, this study created a survey, named the Student-Athlete Environmental and Academic Orientation Survey (SEAOS), which measured student-athletes' environmental attitudes,…

  2. Research Analysis of Conflicting Behaviour Peculiarities Among Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Tamošauskas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost always there is a certain degree of tension, irritation, and conflicts among athletes of various types of sports. The objective of the research is to evaluate conflicting behaviour of student wrestlers in the public safety faculties (PSF at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU and Mykolas Romeris University (MRU. In the introduction of the research, conflict descriptions, types, criteria, solutions, and psychological climate factors as theorized by different authors are introduced. Survey data on student athletes is analyzed. In addition to this, psychological climate and predominant features among wrestling teams in higher education schools are assessed and emerging conflict types and solutions are determined. Finally, the differences in athletes and coaches‘ evaluation of psychological climate and indications are described.

  3. Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment (SHINE) Students - Student Representatives' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahud, D. M.; Niembro, T.

    2014-12-01

    The SHINE workshop is an annual meeting of solar and heliospheric scientists which, in addition to aiming to improve understanding of solar disturbances and their propagation to, and effect, on the Earth (shinecon.org), is dedicated to actively supporting students. This dedication is substantiated in part through the National Science Foundation (NSF) providing funding for student attendance to the workshop, which enables student participation. Another example of SHINE's commitment to its student members is the incorporation of a Student Day prior to the workshop since 2003, entirely organized and run by two student representatives. While there are variations in format from year to year, Student Day consists of tutorials and research talks exclusively by student volunteers to an audience of only students. The day is intended to provide a low-stress environment for students to learn about the various topics addressed during the workshop, to ask questions freely, and to engage in scientific discussion with other students which hopefully is a catalyst for collaboration. As a result of positive experiences, over the past decade student attendance and participation in the workshop have increased. At the SHINE 2014 workshop, nearly a third of attendees were students. SHINE student visibility has increased over the years, with student posters being advertised at breakfast, inclusion of a student day summary by the student representatives during a plenary session, and continued support from the steering committee. Students are also promoting a broader impact of SHINE sciences via increased social media presence. From a student representative's perspective, SHINE has built and fostered a healthy student community and encourages students to engage in shaping the future of the field.

  4. Mentorship of Black Student-Athletes at a Predominately White American University: Critical Race Theory Perspective on Student-Athlete Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Mentoring programs are evolving as common practice in athletic departments across national collegiate athletic association member institutions in the USA as means to address sociocultural issues faced by their student-athletes and to enhance their holistic development. There is a dearth of research exploring mentoring in the contexts of…

  5. Student-Athletes as Employees: Income Tax Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Courts have employed contract principles and workman's compensation theory in certain cases finding a student-athlete an employee of the institution. Should this impression be expanded and gain widespread judicial acceptance, the Internal Revenue Service could require the inclusion of scholarship amounts in the recipient's gross income.…

  6. Developing Objective Criteria for Evaluating Student Athletic Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Linda

    In devising a form for the evaluation of students preparing to become athletic trainers, it is helpful to have a checklist in which objectives and behavioral responses are organized into categories, such as prevention of injury, first aid, emergency care, treatment, rehabilitation, and taping and wrapping. It is also important to have records and…

  7. Academic Clustering and Major Selection of Intercollegiate Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ray G.; Ross, Sally R.; Fisher, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Although journalists and reporters have written about academic clustering among college student-athletes, there has been a dearth of scholarly analysis devoted to the subject. This study explored football players' academic major selections to determine if academic clustering actually existed. The seasons 1996, 2001, and 2006 were selected for…

  8. Promoting Athletic Participation for Students with Disabilities: Trends and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Melissa; Ennis, Robin Parks; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2018-01-01

    Engaging in physical activity is important for school-age children, as it promotes a healthy and active lifestyle. However, barriers to participation in physical education and athletics often prevent students with disabilities from engaging in these important activities. There are several legal precedents that should be considered as schools seek…

  9. Division I Student Athletes and the Experience of Academic Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Vaughn A.

    2012-01-01

    Have you ever watched a televised college football or basketball game where they show the starting lineup's academic majors? If so, you may have noticed that many of the student athletes have the same academic majors, be it communications, criminal justice, sociology, etc. Nevertheless, many have taken notice and labeled this phenomenon as…

  10. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM edu-cations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  11. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    ’ potential identities. It shows that the students preferred STEM representatives resembled themselves in some aspects (primarily social and health aspects) and fit their perceptions of a typical person working in STEM in other aspects (knowledge seeking, hard-working etc.). At least two different...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...

  12. Effects of Team Climate on Substance Use Behaviors, Perceptions, and Attitudes of Student-Athletes at a Large, Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomon, Jennifer E.; Ting, S. Raymond

    2010-01-01

    College student-athletes comprise a special group on the college campus owing to their dual roles as students and athletes. Although many positives are associated with being a student-athlete, researchers have found that this population is faced with unique academic, physical, and social stressors that put student-athletes at greater risk for…

  13. Reading the Defense: Conceptualizations of Literacy by Male Football Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how college football student-athletes conceptualize the academic and athletic literacies they experience inside and outside the classroom. Participants included sophomore, junior, and senior football student-athletes who all attended a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic area. Three distinct research tools…

  14. Substance use by college students: the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for athletic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockafellow, Bradley D; Saules, Karen K

    2006-09-01

    Certain types of athletic involvement may confer risk for substance use by college students. This study investigated whether motivational factors play a role in the relationship between athletic involvement and substance use. Intercollegiate athletes (n=98) and exercisers (n=120) were surveyed about substance use and motivation for athletic involvement. Athletes and exercisers who were extrinsically motivated had significantly higher rates of alcohol use than their intrinsically motivated counterparts. Results suggest that college students who are extrinsically motivated for involvement in physical activity/athletics--particularly those involved in team sports--may be in need of targeted prevention efforts. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Dissociation in the phenomenological perspective (in athletes and representatives of extreme careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Vlasik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze dissociation from the perspective of phenomenology as experience of persons engaged in activities related to high stress (physical and/ or psychological. Dissociation is usually correlated with the so-called reaction fading in life-threatening situations, which along with the reactions of “fight or flight” reveal both in humans and the representatives of the animal world (“fight, flight or freeze”. However, unlike animals humans are often able to act purposefully in dissociative states, or randomly enter them. Specific features and diversity of manifestations of dissociation in humans are determined by the linguistic nature of human consciousness, which is logical to appeal to the philosophers of the phenomenological direction within which consciousness is the subject matter of their research. Based on the concept of Henri Bergson and Gilles Deleuze various manifestations of dissociation are detected: from the grave symptoms of PTSD (the so-called invasion of symptoms to controlled arbitrarily selected dissociative strategies for athletes. Dissociative experiences by experts of extreme careers are considered: law enforcement officers who participated in missions in «hot spots», and EMERCOM psychologists. Dissociation mechanism in terms of phenomenology is defined. The development and application of adequate diagnostic tools, psychological work with the athletes to regulate the focus of attention during the competition is supposed to contribute to the achievement of a high sports results.

  16. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%. Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors.

  17. Who Dropped the Ball: Examining the Relationship between Race, Memorable Messages about Academic and Athletic Achievement, and Graduation Rates for Football Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored memorable messages that former football student-athletes recalled regarding academics and athletics. Respondents were asked via interviews and a survey questionnaire to recall memorable messages and to describe the source, context, and importance of the message. Student-athletes were asked what memorable messages were evoked…

  18. Programmatic Factors Associated with Undergraduate Athletic Training Student Retention and Attrition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Wathington, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training programs (ATPs) are charged with meeting an increased demand for athletic trainers with adequate graduates. Currently, the retention rate of athletic training students in ATPs nationwide and the programmatic factors associated with these retention rates remain unknown. Objective: Determine the retention rate for athletic…

  19. Go for the Win: A Collaborative Model for Supporting Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Jacqueline S.; James, Tammy; Martin, Gerardina; Milliner, Kellianne

    2015-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics is a transformative component in the structure of many institutions of higher education. Campuses benefit from the inclusion of athletic sporting events in assorted ways, and student-athletes are at the core of the events. Their academic success is essential to the success of the team. Studies show college athletes…

  20. Critical-Thinking Skills of First-Year Athletic Training Students Enrolled in Professional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dana K.; Sikkema, Jill A.; Nynas, Suzette M.; Culp, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    Context: The Examination of Professional Degree Level document presented to the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Directors states that research in athletic training education has not investigated differences in the critical-thinking skills of professional athletic training students. Objective: Investigate the differences in…

  1. Concussion and the Student-Athlete: Considerations for the Secondary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Andrea; Ploeg, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The number of high school students who participate in athletics has increased over the past decade. There has also been an increased emphasis placed on athletic involvement and physical strength and ability. This has led to increased awareness of athletic injuries such as concussions. While concussions are not a new injury, the medical community…

  2. Susceptibility to eating disorders among collegiate female student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student-athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student-athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern.

  3. Student-Athlete Perceptions of a Summer Pre-Enrollment Experience at an NCAA Division I-AAA Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgety, Michael Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine student-athlete perceptions of the role of summer pre-enrollment in their adjustment and transition to college. The study focused on student-athletes who received athletically-related financial aid at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-AAA institution. The…

  4. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…

  5. Low Graduation Rates among Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alvin D.

    2017-01-01

    A review of literature reveals that there is a dearth of research examining the low graduation rates among student-athletes at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU's). By comparison, there has been numerous studies that have examined the African American student-athlete attending predominately White institutions (PWI's). The…

  6. An Academic Survey of Engineering Student Athletes at a Division I University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the academic success of NCAA Division I collegiate student athletes that enroll in engineering majors. At the University of South Carolina, which is a member of the NCAA Division I Southeastern Conference, nineteen engineering students were on an active athletic roster during the spring semester of 2005. The mean cumulative…

  7. Physical Aggression in Higher Education: Student-Athletes' Perceptions and Reporting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Jason Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study examined internal (personal) and external (situational) factors that previous research found affected perceptions of physical aggression and associated reporting behaviors among student-athletes. Results of this study suggested certain factors significantly impacted a student-athlete's decision to report and who received that report.…

  8. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  9. Perceived stress and coping skills of university student-athletes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student-athletes are expected to cope with their studies and participation in sport simultaneously as well as to satisfy the expectations of coaches, teammates, friends, and family. Once student-athletes perceive a situation as stressful and struggle to cope with the anticipation thereof, their satisfaction with life will be ...

  10. Coaches' Perspectives on Their Roles in Facilitating the Personal Development of Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Jenessa; Kerr, Gretchen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coaches' perspectives on the personal development student-athletes experience through interuniversity sport. Additionally, it explored the ways in which coaches understand, enable, and facilitate the personal development of student-athletes. Eight in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

  11. Examining Factors That Influence Donor Motivation among Former Student-Athletes and NCAA DI Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchette, Brett M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify motivational factors that contribute to the philanthropic decision making of the former NCAA Division I student-athlete. A 47-item survey instrument was modified from a prior study and distributed electronically to 8,461 male and female former student-athletes at three participating NCAA Division I…

  12. Promoting the Academic Engagement and Success of Black Male Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…

  13. Alcohol-Related Consequences among Intercollegiate Student Athletes: The Role of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)

  14. Gambling and health risk behaviors among U.S. college student-athletes: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina; Paskus, Thomas S

    2007-05-01

    To examine prevalence and associations of gambling problems and health risk behaviors among college athletes from the first national survey of gambling among U.S. college student-athletes. Conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), this self-administered and anonymous survey collected information from a nationally representative sample of 20,739 student-athletes. Males consistently had higher past-year prevalence of gambling than females (e.g., 62.4% of males reported some type of gambling vs. 42.8% of females). Based on DSM-IV Gambling Screen, this study identified 4.3% of males and 0.4% of females as problem/pathological gamblers. A general upward trend existed that as the level of gambling problems increased, so did the prevalence of substance use, gorging/vomiting, and unprotected sex. Cross-group comparisons by gambler type were all significant. Problem and pathological gamblers also experienced significantly more drug/alcohol-related problems than non-gamblers and social gamblers. Direct associations found between gambling and multiple risk behaviors in college student-athletes support the persistence of the youth problem-behavior syndrome and suggest the need for multi-faceted initiatives to tackle these risk behaviors simultaneously.

  15. Performance Comparison of Student-Athletes and General College Students on the Functional Movement Screen and the Y Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Katherine D; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2015-08-01

    Although various studies have assessed performance of athletes on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y Balance Test (YBT), no study to date has directly evaluated a comparison of performance between athletes and members of the general population. Thus, to better understand the application of the FMS and the YBT to general college students, this study examined whether or not general college students performed similarly to student-athletes on the FMS (composite and movement pattern scores) and the YBT (composite and reach directions). This study evaluated 167 Division I student-athletes and 103 general college students from the same university on the FMS and the YBT. No difference was found in FMS composite scores between student-athletes and general college students. For FMS movement patterns, female student-athletes scored higher than general college students in the deep squat. No difference was found for men in any FMS movement pattern. Female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in YBT composite scores; no difference was found for men in YBT composite scores. In analysis of YBT reach directions, female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in all reach directions, whereas no difference was found in men. Existing research on the FMS composite score in athletic populations may apply to a general college population for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc. Existing research on the YBT in male athletic populations is expected to apply equally to general college males for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc.

  16. An Analysis of NCAA Division 1 Student Athlete Social Media Use, Privacy Management, and Perceptions of Social Media Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The intercollegiate athletic subculture knows very little about how social media policies are perceived by students-athletes. Athletic department administrators, conference commissioners, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) who are in charge of creating new policies lack any meaningful data to help understand or negotiate new…

  17. Athletic Training Student Core Competency Implementation During Patient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallario, Julie M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Pribesh, Shana L

    2018-03-01

      Health care research evidence suggests that early patient encounters (PEs), as well as the purposeful implementation of professional core competencies (CCs), for athletic training students (ATSs) may be beneficial to their ability to provide care. However, no investigators have related facets of the clinical education experience with CC implementation as a form of summative assessment of the clinical experience.   To determine the relationship between the frequency and length of PEs, as well as the student's role and clinical site during PEs, and the students' perceived CC implementation during these encounters.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional athletic training program, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution.   We purposefully recruited 1 athletic training program that used E*Value software; 40 participants (31 females, 9 males) enrolled in the professional phase (12 first year, 14 second year, 14 third year) participated.   Participants viewed a 20-minute recorded CC educational module followed by educational handouts, which were also posted online for reference throughout the semester. The E*Value software was used to track PEs, including the type of encounter (ie, actual patient, practice encounter, didactic practice scenario), the type of site where the encounter occurred (university, high school), and the participant's role (observed, assisted, performed), as well as responses to an added block of questions indicating which, if any, of the CCs were implemented during the PE.   Variables per patient were PE length (minutes), participant role, site at which the encounter occurred, and whether any of the 6 CCs were implemented ( yes/ no). Variables per participant were average encounter length (minutes), encounter frequency, modal role, clinical site assignment, and the number of times each CC was implemented. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were used to examine the relationships between role or clinical site

  18. Holistic life-span health outcomes among elite intercollegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M; Martin, Brandon E; Gordon, James E; Azen, Stanley P; Schroeder, E Todd; Salem, George J

    2014-01-01

    Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes (SAs). Cross-sectional study. A large Division I university. Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17-84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P students (P 99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = -0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs. No differences were observed between SAs and NAs in physical component HRQL. The SAs demonstrated significant, clinically meaningful evidence of greater joint health concerns later in life, comparable

  19. A Volunteer Basketball Clinic for Children with Disabilities: Professional Development Impact on Student-Athletes and Physical Therapy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Peter; Wilson, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the change in perceptions of student-athletes, physical therapy students, and parents of children who helped to facilitate an athletic skills camp for children with disabilities. Participants experienced 3 hours of basketball activity yearly. Data were collected for 3 consecutive years from a total of 51 parents, 15 student-athletes, and 22 physical therapy students. Pre- and post-survey data were evaluated by two independent researchers. Common themes were developed for all participant groups and cross-group comparisons were evaluated. Findings indicated a synergistic benefit for student-athletes and physical therapy students derived from their impact and children with disabilities. Perceptual changes in students included a decrease in fear in working with disabled children, an appreciation for the value of having fun, and increased growth in civic identity and desire to volunteer.

  20. Post-concussion driving behaviors and opinions: A survey of collegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julianne D; Lynall, Robert C; Lempke, Landon Bryce; Weber, Michelle L; Devos, Hannes

    2018-05-08

    Post-concussion driving restrictions are eminent, but we lack understanding of current behaviors and opinions about driving following concussion among populations at risk of concussion. We aimed to describe post-concussion driving behaviors and opinions among collegiate student-athletes. Student-athletes completed a survey (response rate=45.3%, 223/492) regarding their post-concussion driving behaviors and opinions. Response frequencies and percentages are presented. Student-athletes self-reported a total of 169 lifetime concussions (0.76±1.02 each). Of the 169 concussions, 52.1% (88/169) were diagnosed and 52.7% (89/169) occurred while the student-athlete possessed a valid driver's license. Student-athletes refrained from driving following 43.8% (39/89) of the concussive events. Student-athletes that refrained most commonly did so for only 24-48 hours (20.5%, 8/39) and because a health care provider advised them to (33.3%: 13/39). Student-athletes most commonly reported that they would feel "very unsafe" driving a car immediately following injury (38.4%, 84/219). When asked whether driving restrictions would influence your decision to report the injury to a health care provider, 7.9% reported that it "definitely would" (17/214), 26.6% "probably would" (57/214), 17.8% "neutral" (38/214), 24.8% "probably would not" (53/214), and 22.9% "definitely would not" (49/214). Despite generally believing that driving immediately following a concussion is unsafe, a majority of student-athletes did not refrain from driving at any point following their previous concussions. Post-concussion driving restrictions may have some influence on student-athletes' decisions to report the injury to a health care provider. Health care providers play a critical role in post-concussion driving restriction, but lack standardized recommendations to guide their care.

  1. Power Soccer: Experiences of Students Using Power Wheelchairs in a Collegiate Athletic Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Roger D.; Wentz, Joel; Markle, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics provides an opportunity for improving the societal perceptions and overall quality of life of physically disabled persons. Athletic opportunities in the collegiate atmosphere allow such students to be socially, psychologically, and physically engaged. This study focused on how involvement in a Power Soccer collegiate…

  2. Sports Betting and Other Gambling in Athletes, Fans, and Other College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to…

  3. Academic Fit of Student-Athletes: An Analysis of NCAA Division 1-A Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Eric; Finster, Mark; McDonald, David

    2004-01-01

    Federal law mandates that universities reveal their graduation rates purportedly to inform policy makers and constituencies about efforts to support educational attainment for students and athletes. These rates are widely used to compare universities. Analysis of 10 years of graduation rates across all major athletic programs concludes that…

  4. The Association between Coach and Teammate Injunctive Norm Reference Groups and College Student-Athlete Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Wyrick, David L.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Strack, Robert W.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed perceptions about teammate and coach approval of alcohol and other drug use (i.e., injunctive norms) among a sample of 3,155 college student-athletes in their first year of athletic eligibility. Student-athletes perceived that their teammates were more approving of alcohol and other drug use as compared to coaches. A…

  5. The Stress and Coping Responses of Certified Graduate Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sources of stress and coping responses of certified graduate athletic training students. Design and Setting: We interviewed certified graduate athletic training students 3 times over a 9-month period. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Subjects: Three male and 3 female certified graduate athletic training students from a postcertification graduate athletic training program volunteered to participate in this investigation. The participants were full-time graduate students, with a mean age of 23 years, who had worked an average of 1.5 years as certified athletic trainers at the time of the first interview. Measurements: We used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Results: A total of 6 general sources of stress and 11 coping dimensions were revealed. The stress dimensions were labeled athletic training duties, comparing job duties, responsibilities as student, time management, social evaluation, and future concerns. The coping responses were planning, instrumental social support, adjusting to job responsibilities, positive evaluations, emotional social support, humor, wishful thinking, religion, mental or behavioral disengagement, activities outside the profession, and other outcomes. Conclusions: Certified graduate athletic training students should be encouraged to use problem-focused (eg, seeking advice, planning) and emotion-focused (eg, positive evaluations, humor) forms of coping with stress. PMID:15173872

  6. Poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep of a collegiate student-athlete population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Cheri D; Kezirian, Eric J; Marcello, Brandon M; Dement, William C

    2018-06-01

    Poor and inadequate sleep negatively impact cognitive and physical functioning and may also affect sports performance. The study aim is to examine sleep quality, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness in collegiate student-athletes across a wide range of sports. Questionnaire. University setting. 628 athletes across 29 varsity teams at Stanford University. Athletes completed a questionnaire inquiring about sleep quality via a modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness via Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep quality on campus and while traveling for competition was rated on a 10-point scale. Collegiate athletes were classified as poor sleepers (PSQI 5.38 ± 2.45), and 42.4% of athletes experience poor sleep quality (reporting PSQI global scores >5). Athletes reported lower sleep quality on campus than when traveling for competition (7.1 vs 7.6, Pquality, regularly obtain insufficient sleep, and commonly exhibit daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.

  7. A Short Stress Coping Intervention in Female Collegate Student-Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Steadman, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a stress coping based intervention in the lives of female student-athletes. Sixteen female student-athletes attending Utah State University participated in a 60 minute intervention teaching skills such as progressive muscle relaxation, stressor identification, and stress coping. Participants completed the Inventory of College Students’ Recent Life Experiences before and after the intervention. The scores collected from the inventory were used to determine ...

  8. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes' Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Mosso, Cristina Onesta; Guidotti, Flavia; Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale's internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes' identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects.

  9. Title IX and Sexual Harassment of Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolohan, John T.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…

  10. Motivation Factors as Indicators of Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes Academic and Social Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedescleaux, Jonell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…

  11. Perceived levels of frustration during clinical situations in athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinerichs, Scott; Curtis, Neil; Gardiner-Shires, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Athletic training students (ATSs) are involved in various situations during the clinical experience that may cause them to express levels of frustration. Understanding levels of frustration in ATSs is important because frustration can affect student learning, and the clinical experience is critical to their development as professionals. To explore perceived levels of frustration in ATSs during clinical situations and to determine if those perceptions differ based on sex. Cross-sectional study with a survey instrument. A total of 14 of 19 professional, undergraduate athletic training programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education in Pennsylvania. Of a possible 438 athletic training students, 318 (72.6%) completed the survey. The Athletic Training Student Frustration Inventory was developed and administered. The survey gathered demographic information and included 24 Likert-scale items centering on situations associated with the clinical experience. Descriptive statistics were computed on all items. The Mann-Whitney U was used to evaluate differences between male and female students. A higher level of frustration was perceived during the following clinical situations: lack of respect by student-athletes and coaching staffs, the demands of the clinical experience, inability of ATSs to perform or remember skills, and ATSs not having the opportunity to apply their skills daily. Higher levels of frustration were perceived in female than male ATSs in several areas. Understanding student frustration during clinical situations is important to better appreciate the clinical education experience. Low levels of this emotion are expected; however, when higher levels exist, learning can be affected. Whereas we cannot eliminate student frustrations, athletic training programs and preceptors need to be aware of this emotion in order to create an environment that is more conducive to learning.

  12. Students' inclusion to the value of physical culture during the process of athletic training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychov S.O.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Means and methods of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture, during the process of athletic training on the classes of physical education are opened in this article. 52 students took part in research. It is developed the recommendation for the application of pedagogical conditions of use in the expressway strength and strength training, ability to determine dosing load for students with different level of physical background, methods of power properties development both for boys and for girls. It is shown that using of athletic training at the classes of physical education is contributing of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture.

  13. Perceptions of Mental Illness Stigma: Comparisons of Athletes to Nonathlete Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, Emily; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Johnson, Mitchell D.; Strunk, Kathleen; Davis, Joanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Stigma related to mental health and its treatment can thwart help-seeking. The current study assessed college athletes' personal and perceived public mental illness stigma and compared this to nonathlete students. Athletes (N = 304) were National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes representing 16 teams. Results indicated…

  14. Alcohol use and related consequences among students with varying levels of involvement in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, J S; Meilman, P W; Presley, C A; Cashin, J R

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol use, binge drinking, and substance abuse-related consequences among students with varying levels of participation in intercollegiate athletics were examined. Between October 1994 and May 1996, 51,483 students at 125 institutions answered questions about their involvement in athletics, ranging from noninvolvement to participant to leadership positions, on the long form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. In comparisons with nonathletes, both male and female athletes consumed significantly more alcohol per week, engaged in binge drinking more often, and suffered more adverse consequences from their substance use. No support was found for the hypothesis that athletic leaders were more responsible than other team participants in using alcohol. Male team leaders appeared to be at significantly greater risk than female team leaders; they also consumed more alcohol, binged more often, and suffered more consequences than other team members.

  15. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.

  16. Differences in Exercise Identity between Secondary Physical Education Students and Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Gregory J., Sr.; Henrich, Timothy W.; Barton-Weston, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Texas (USA) public schools require high school students to take one year of physical education to graduate. However, students can meet this requirement by participating on a state sanctioned athletic team for a year. The Texas Education Agency states the physical education curriculum should teach affective attitudes and values that will encourage…

  17. A Qualitative Study of Male Student-Athletes and Coaches Attitudes towards Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The success of a team relies as much on the relationship between coaches and players as it does on athletic skill. Coaches, at times, become surrogate parental figures in the lives of their athletes and teammates become siblings who all work together towards a common goal. Athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I…

  18. Interassociation Consensus Statement on Cardiovascular Care of College Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Brian; Drezner, Jonathan; Baggish, Aaron; Harmon, Kimberly G; Emery, Michael S; Myerburg, Robert J; Sanchez, Eduardo; Molossi, Silvana; Parsons, John T; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular evaluation and care of college student-athletes is gaining increasing attention from both the public and medical communities. Emerging strategies include screening of the general athlete population, recommendations of permissible levels of participation by athletes with identified cardiovascular conditions, and preparation for responding to unanticipated cardiac events in athletic venues. The primary focus has been sudden cardiac death and the utility of screening with or without advanced cardiac screening. The National Collegiate Athletic Association convened a multidisciplinary task force to address cardiovascular concerns in collegiate student-athletes and to develop consensus for an interassociation statement. This document summarizes the task force deliberations and follow-up discussions, and includes available evidence on cardiovascular risk, pre-participation evaluation, and the recognition of and response to cardiac arrest. Future recommendations for cardiac research initiatives, education, and collaboration are also provided. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.527.) ©2016 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

  19. Variability in Institutional Screening Practices Related to Collegiate Student-Athlete Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for mental health concerns, as part of the preparticipation examination in collegiate sports medicine settings, can be an important and feasible strategy for facilitating early detection of mental health disorders. To assess whether sports medicine departments at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member colleges have policies related to identifying student-athlete mental health problems, the nature of preparticipation examination screening related to mental health, and whether other departmental or institutional screening initiatives are in place. I also aimed to characterize the variability in screening by institutional characteristics. Cross-sectional study. College sports medicine departments. Team physicians and head athletic trainers at NCAA member colleges (n = 365, 30.3% response rate). Electronic survey of departmental mental health screening activities. A total of 39% of respondents indicated that their institution had a written plan related to identifying student-athletes with mental health concerns. Fewer than half reported that their sports medicine department administers a written or verbal screening instrument for symptoms of disordered eating (44.5%), depression (32.3%), or anxiety (30.7%). The strongest predictors of mental health screening were the presence of a written plan related to identifying student-athlete mental health concerns and the employment of a clinical psychologist. Additionally, Division I institutions and institutions with a greater ratio of athletic trainers to student-athletes tended to engage in more screening. The substantial among-institutions variability in mental health screening suggests that opportunities exist to make these practices more widespread. To address this variability, recent NCAA mental health best-practice guidelines suggested that institutions should screen for a range of mental health disorders and risk behaviors. However, at some institutions, staffing deficits may need to

  20. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  1. Male Student-Athlete Perceptions of University Academic Staff Expectations: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions, Value and Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeck, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 male collegiate student-athletes in a revenue-generating sport in an effort to better inform current academic support practitioners how to best serve this population. The inquiry focused on student-athlete perceptions of two areas: (1) perceptions regarding the expectations academic personnel have…

  2. Perceived Norms and Alcohol Use among First-Year College Student-Athletes' Different Types of Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massengale, Kelley E. C.; Ma, Alice; Rulison, Kelly L.; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Wyrick, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe first-year college student-athletes' friendship contexts and test whether their perceptions of alcohol use and approval by different types of friends are associated with their own alcohol use. Participants: First-year student-athletes (N = 2,622) from 47 colleges and universities participating in National Collegiate Athletic…

  3. An examination of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale using collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Mark; Dodder, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    The purpose was to examine the construct validity of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). The construct validity of the scale was examined by applying it to collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes at an NCAA sanctioned wheelchair basketball tournament at a mid-sized university in the south central United States (N=68). In accordance with previous research on the scale, Cronbach alpha was .86; confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor structure. The scale is useful for measuring global self-esteem in collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.

  4. Using Regrets to Elicit Behavior Change in Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Leilani A.; Robbins, Jamie E.; Stanley, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to support the notion of regret as a useful tool rather than merely a negative emotion. The article introduces means for using feelings of regret to change past behaviors, increase motivation to reach goals, and minimize future regrets in athletes and teams.

  5. Caring for Student-Athletes following a Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piebes, Sarah K.; Gourley, Meganne; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2009-01-01

    The school nurse plays a dynamic role in the care and treatment of a concussed athlete. Concussions in the adolescent populations are of special concern due to their potential impact on mental development and cognitive function, as well as an increased risk of serious complications including second impact syndrome. The complexity of a concussion…

  6. Bidirectional relations between different forms of prosocial behaviors and substance use among female college student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Hardy, Sam A; Olthuis, Janine V; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2017-01-01

    Bidirectional, longitudinal relations between alcohol and marijuana use and prosocial behaviors in women college student athletes were examined. Participants were 187 female college students (M age  = 19.87 years; 91% White) who completed questionnaires on their use of marijuana and alcohol, and six forms of prosocial behaviors across 6 years (2004-2010). The findings yield overall evidence that earlier marijuana use predicted lower levels of most specific forms of prosocial behaviors for women athletes in later young adulthood. Early expressions of altruistic behaviors predicted less marijuana use in later young adulthood. Expression of public prosocial behaviors early in young adulthood predicted higher levels of hazardous drinking in late young adulthood. These novel findings have important implications for links between prosocial development and substance use in women college athletes.

  7. Exploring Levels of Student-Athlete Burnout at Two Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc-Charbonneau, Nicole; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Forneris, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the levels of burnout among student-athletes at two Canadian universities and to investigate whether there were significant differences related to gender, sport, year of university sport participation, academic year, and academic program. Burnout was measured by administering Raedeke and Smith's…

  8. Exploring Senior Level Athletic Training Students' Perceptions on Burnout and Work-Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jessica L.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The professional socialization process enables athletic training students (ATSs) to gain insights into behaviors, values, and attitudes that characterize their chosen profession. However, the process often focuses on skill development over professional issues. ATSs may be exposed to burnout and work-life conflict, which may impact their…

  9. Student-Athletes' Perceptions of Mental Illness and Attitudes toward Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Jordan D.

    2016-01-01

    Given that there is evidence that college student-athletes may be at risk for psychological disturbances (Pinkerton, Hintz, & Barrow, 1989), and possibly underutilizing college mental health services (Watson & Kissinger, 2007), the purpose of this study was to examine attitudes toward mental illness and help seeking among college…

  10. The Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Knowledge and Behavior to Provide Culturally Competent Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynas, Suzette Marie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…

  11. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  12. Division III Student-Athletes' Experiences of Institutional Social and Academic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becht, Louis A., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to expand the literature on Division III student-athletes by examining their integration into the social and academic systems at one institution located in northeastern United States. This study examined participants' experiences within institutional social and academic systems designed for…

  13. Individual moral philosophies and ethical decision making of undergraduate athletic training students and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

    2008-01-01

    Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training programs. Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 +/- 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) x 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 +/- 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 +/- 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 +/- 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, eta (2) = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, eta (2) = .013), relativism

  14. The role of legitimation in the professional socialization of second-year undergraduate athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossner, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Professional socialization during formal educational preparation can help students learn professional roles and can lead to improved organizational socialization as students emerge as members of the occupation's culture. Professional socialization research in athletic training is limited. To present the role of legitimation and how it influences the professional socialization of second-year athletic training students. Modified constructivist grounded theory and case study methods were used for this qualitative study. An accredited undergraduate athletic training education program. Twelve second-year students were selected purposively. The primary sample group (n = 4) was selected according to theoretical sampling guidelines. The remaining students made up the cohort sample (n = 8). Theoretically relevant data were gathered from 14 clinical instructors to clarify emergent student data. Data collection included document examination, observations, and interviews during 1 academic semester. Data were collected and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Data triangulation, member checking, and peer-review strategies were used to ensure trustworthiness. Legitimation from various socializing agents initiated professional socialization. Students viewed trust and team membership as rewards for role fulfillment. My findings are consistent with the socialization literature that shows how learning a social or professional role, using rewards to facilitate role performance, and building trusting relationships with socializing agents are important aspects of legitimation and, ultimately, professional socialization.

  15. Features of blood pressure in student-athletes from different directions of the training process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenichenko Aleksej Vladimirovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Performed blood pressure (BP and hemodynamics of 85 students: 30 non-athletes (group I, 27 athletes power enforcement types (group II and 28 - endurance sports (group III. It was found that the second and third groups had higher systolic and mean arterial pressure than in the I group. There are differences in blood pressure reactivity to changes in body position, mental and physical activity among the various groups studied. It is shown that the formation of moderate hypertension in group III is carried out by increasing peripheral vascular resistance, and II - at the expense of increased cardiac output.

  16. Clinical integration and how it affects student retention in undergraduate athletic training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F(1,92) = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F(1,92) = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F(1,92) = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F(1,92) = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences.

  17. Clinical Integration and How It Affects Student Retention in Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M

    2013-01-01

    Context A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. Objective To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Design Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Setting Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F1,92 = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F1,92 = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F1,92 = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F1,92 = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. Conclusions A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences. PMID:23672327

  18. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  19. Outside the Lines and beyond the Classroom: African American Football Student-Athletes' Experiences with Race in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Carissa Marie

    2016-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics are a multi-million-dollar business on which many universities strive to become dependent for economic profits and marketing leverage. The increased commercialization and revenues of collegiate sports have drawn attention to the overall college experiences of student-athletes, specifically those in revenue generating…

  20. Leadership Ability and Achieving Styles among Student-Athletes at a NCAA-II University in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Mary Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined student-athletes' self-reported leadership ability and achieving styles. It analyzed leadership ability and achieving style preferences as they related to gender, class status, ethnicity, and sport classification: individual-sport vs. team-sport athletes. A paper and pencil survey consisting of a composite variable of six…

  1. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  2. An Analysis of the Academic Behaviors and Beliefs of Division I Student-Athletes: The Impact of the Increased Percentage toward Degree Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulics, Jennifer M.; Kornspan, Alan S.; Kretovics, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the academic decision making beliefs of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Championship Series (FBS) student-athletes and to determine if the variables of gender and type of sport related to academic decision making behavior of student-athletes. Participants…

  3. A National Study of the Reasons for Use and Non-Use of Alcohol among College Student-Athletes by Sex, Race, and NCAA Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Kelly, Samantha E.; Burley, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among college student-athletes should be of great concern due to their risk for excessive consumption and related negative consequences compared to their non-athlete peers. Previous research has focused on reasons and/or motives for alcohol and other drug use among student-athletes, rather than non-use. Additionally, previous studies…

  4. Merits and demerits of engaging in athletic, academic and part-time job roles among university student-athletes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Ebara, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2011-12-01

    Although role conflict management is necessary for the prevention of dropout from participation in sports, little has been known about it, especially regarding Japanese university student-athletes. Hence, this study examined the aspects of merit and demerit involved in their performances of academic, athletic, part-time job, family and human relationship roles. The merits and demerits were evaluated using the theoretical concepts of negative spillover (NSP), positive spillover (PSP), compensation and segmentation. In the research, a total of 108 participants (63 males, 45 females) described information about their multiple roles in the Multiple Roles Map (MRM) form. NSP with high frequency rates (3rd quartile) showed demerit that negative condition in athletic and part-time job roles tended to disturb performance of other roles (male ≥ 17.5%, female ≥ 15.6%). The results of PSP showed merit that positive condition in the athletic, part-time job and academic roles contributes to accomplishment of good performance in other roles (male ≥ 19.0%, female ≥ 17.8%). Compensation indicated that negative conditions in the roles were compensated by satisfaction in the human relationships and family roles and private time (male ≥ 9.5%, female ≥ 11.1%). The family role was segmented from other roles (male ≥ 71.4%, female ≥ 68.9%). Sharing these findings will be effective in helping to solve role conflict problems of university student-athletes in Japan.

  5. Prediction of intention to continue sport in athlete students: A self-determination theory approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Keshtidar

    Full Text Available Grounded on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000 and achievement goals theory (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1989, this study via structural equation modelling, predicted intention to continue in sport from goal orientations and motivations among athlete students. 268 athlete students (Mage = 21.9, in Iranian universities completed a multi-section questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM offered an overall support for the proposed model. The results showed that there are positive relationships between intention to continue in sport and both orientations as well as both motivations. A task-involving orientation emerged as a positive predictor of the autonomous motivation, while an ego-involving orientation was a positive predictor controlled motivation as well as autonomous motivation. The results also support positive paths between autonomous motivation and future intention to participate in sport. Autonomous motivation also was a positive mediator in relationship between task orientation and the intentions. As a conclusion, the implications of the task-involving orientation are discussabled in the light of its importance for the quality and potential maintenance of sport involvement among athlete students.

  6. Prediction of intention to continue sport in athlete students: A self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtidar, Mohammad; Behzadnia, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Grounded on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000) and achievement goals theory (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1989), this study via structural equation modelling, predicted intention to continue in sport from goal orientations and motivations among athlete students. 268 athlete students (Mage = 21.9), in Iranian universities completed a multi-section questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) offered an overall support for the proposed model. The results showed that there are positive relationships between intention to continue in sport and both orientations as well as both motivations. A task-involving orientation emerged as a positive predictor of the autonomous motivation, while an ego-involving orientation was a positive predictor controlled motivation as well as autonomous motivation. The results also support positive paths between autonomous motivation and future intention to participate in sport. Autonomous motivation also was a positive mediator in relationship between task orientation and the intentions. As a conclusion, the implications of the task-involving orientation are discussabled in the light of its importance for the quality and potential maintenance of sport involvement among athlete students.

  7. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  8. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Christiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  9. Sport Education and Direct Instruction Units: Comparison of Student Knowledge Development in Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Bessa, Cristiana; Mesquita, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted a comparative analysis of students’ knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students’ gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task. Key points The results in this study showed that regardless of students’ sex, both DI and SE were efficient in the promotion of improvements in students’ content knowledge of athletics. Both boys and girls improved from the pre-test to the post-test in SE and DI. SE was particularly beneficial to lower skill-level. On the contrary, in the DI unit

  10. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  11. An evaluation of an educational intervention in psychology of injury for athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L; Gould, Daniel R; Covassin, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    "Psychosocial Intervention and Referral" is 1 of the 12 content areas in athletic training education programs, but knowledge gained and skill usage after an educational intervention in this area have never been evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention in increasing psychology-of-injury knowledge and skill usage in athletic training students (ATSs). Observational study. An accredited athletic training education program at a large Midwestern university. Participants included 26 ATSs divided into 2 groups: intervention group (4 men, 7 women; age = 21.4 +/- 0.67 years, grade point average = 3.37) and control group (7 men, 8 women; age = 21.5 +/- 3.8 years, grade point average = 3.27). All participants completed the Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention. Psychology-of-injury knowledge tests and skill usage surveys were administered to all participants at the following intervals: baseline, intervention week 3, and intervention week 6. Retention tests were administered to intervention-group participants at 7 and 14 weeks after intervention. Analysis techniques included mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated-measures ANOVA. The Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention effectively increased psychology-of-injury knowledge (29-point increase from baseline to intervention week 6; F(2,23) = 29.358, P evaluating an educational intervention designed to improve ATSs' knowledge and skill usage revealed that the intervention was effective. Although both knowledge and skill usage scores decreased by the end of the retention period, the scores were still higher than baseline scores, indicating that the intervention was effective.

  12. Leadership Is Positively Related to Athletic Training Students' Clinical Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Leadership development by health professionals positively affects patient outcomes. Objective: To 1) determine if there is any relationship between demonstrated leadership behaviors and clinical behaviors among entry-level AT students (ATS); 2) to explore if the level of leadership behavior changes between ATS level; and 3) to determine…

  13. Mouthguard usage by middle and high school student-athletes in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B; Johnson, Cleverick D; Cooley, Ralph A; Sharp, Holly; Servos, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    This survey recorded utilization levels of stock and custom mouthguards among middle and high school athletes in a US metropolitan area and gathered data on the prevalence of traumatic injuries that have occurred as a consequence of school-based athletic competition. The data also included reasons for the athletes' noncompliance. A 23-question, online survey form was developed. A geographically diverse list of public and private schools in the Houston metropolitan area was identified and included 30 public middle schools, 32 public high schools, 8 private middle schools, and 10 private high schools. The sports surveyed were baseball, basketball, field hockey, football, lacrosse, soccer, softball, volleyball, and wrestling. Only 1 private middle school participated. Only 5 of 32 public high schools and 1 private high school participated, representing response rates of 16% and 10%, respectively. Overall, there were 503 responses, and 56% of the respondents did not have a mouthguard. Among athletes who owned a mouthguard, most (70%) had stock versions purchased in a retail store, while 11% had a custom mouthguard fabricated by a dentist, and 19% had both types. The most frequent reasons cited for not wearing a mouthguard were forgetting to use it and a lack of comfort. The injury rates reported by respondents in the stock and custom mouthguard groups were 26% and 9%, respectively. A consistent, concerted effort by local dental societies should be aimed at school administrators and coaches to encourage enforcement or reinforcement of mouthguard usage policies among high school athletes, but, ultimately, parents need to step up to protect their children.

  14. Global-Service Learning and Student-Athletes: A Model for Enhanced Academic Inclusion at the University of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Holly M

    The University of Washington (UW) continues to create opportunities to engage all students in transformational undergraduate educational opportunities, such as study abroad. This article describes specific efforts to increase inclusion for student-athletes in study abroad, particularly for first-generation students, including low-income students of color. Given the overrepresentation of students of color in sports vis-à-vis the larger student body at predominantly white institutions (PWIs), like UW, service-learning in communities beyond campus boundaries provides opportunities to apply international learning to a local context and to create a continuum of learning. By coupling educational theories from the classroom-particularly theories related to power and privilege-with community-based leadership in local communities, students are better prepared to actively engage in improving their own institutions. During the summers of 2013, 2014, and 2015, the author was the instructor for study abroad courses to French Polynesia with student-athletes. The courses were for 12 days (10 days on the ground and 2 days of flying), the maximum time that football players could be away from required summer workouts. This paper examines student evaluations from the French Polynesia trip in 2015. Student-athlete evaluations of a study abroad experience underscored: the transformative impact of study abroad to their academic, social, and athletic lives; the benefit of creating family-like relationships outside the confines of their sport; an appreciation for the many forms where indigenous knowledge resides, such as in navigation, dance, fishing, weaving, and cooking; intense feelings of culture shock upon return to the US, even when the trip is short in duration; a desire to engage with the diverse communities in Seattle beyond the scope of the program's structure, and; frustration, particularly for the male student-athletes, about the ways coaches, family, and friends wanted to

  15. Sport Education and Direct Instruction Units: Comparison of Student Knowledge Development in Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira, Rui Araújo, Cláudio Farias, Cristiana Bessa, Isabel Mesquita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted a comparative analysis of students’ knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls. Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students’ gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task.

  16. Disordered eating attitudes and body shame among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskiene, R; Pajaujiene, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the disordered eating attitudes and sociocultural body ideals internalization among university athletes (N.=98), exercisers (N.=125) and sedentary (N.=81) undergraduate female students. The mean age (SD) of the sample was 20.17 (2.00). The students completed Eating Attitude Test - 26, Body Areas Satisfaction subscale of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Body Shame subscale from the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, Appearance subscale from the Motives for Physical Activity Measure--Revised, reported their physical activity and fluid manipulation-related behaviour. We observed no significant differences in disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem and fluid manipulation-related behaviour among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female students. Body shame predicted disordered eating in all groups of women. Students high in body shame reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, appearance-related exercise motives, fluid manipulation-related behaviour and lower self-esteem, regardless of their physical activity level. The results show that internalization of the sociocultural body standards provide a mechanism through which different physical activity levels are associated with negative eating and physical activity-related outcomes in college-aged women.

  17. Organizational commitment among intercollegiate head athletic trainers: examining our work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, A P

    1998-01-01

    To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. THE FINDINGS REINFORCE A CENTRAL THEME IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINING: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student-athletes and student athletic trainers define the cluster membership or head athletic

  18. A Comparison of the Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Leadership Skills and Citizenship Traits of JROTC, Student Athletes, and Other Students in an Urban High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Bonds, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three groups: JROTC students, student athletes, and other students, to determine if there were differences in academic achievement. Gaining an understanding of the necessary skills required to become academically successful and make healthy life choices, could provide educators working within an urban…

  19. The psychological response to injury in student athletes: a narrative review with a focus on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putukian, Margot

    2016-02-01

    Injury is a major stressor for athletes and one that can pose significant challenges. Student athletes must handle rigorous academic as well as athletic demands that require time as well as significant physical requirements. Trying to perform and succeed in the classroom and on the playing field has become more difficult as the demands and expectations have increased. If an athlete is injured, these stressors increase. Stress is an important antecedent to injuries and can play a role in the response to, rehabilitation and return to play after injury. The psychological response to injury can trigger and/or unmask mental health issues including depression and suicidal ideation, anxiety, disordered eating, and substance use/abuse. There are barriers to mental health treatment in athletes. They often consider seeking help as a sign of weakness, feeling that they should be able to 'push through' psychological obstacles as they do physical ones. Athletes may not have developed healthy coping behaviours making response to injury especially challenging. I discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the psychological response to injury and delineate resources necessary to direct the injured athlete to a mental health care provider if appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF TEACHING AIDS «PHYSICS IN SPORTS» FOR STUDENT-ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Kamаleyeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A small number of audience hours (6 hours of lectures and 10 hours of practical training, provided for the study of the discipline «Natural scientific basics of physical culture and sports: Physics» student-athletes who are forced not to attend classes because of their participation in sports events and competitions, is not always enough for a complete mastery of their respective standard competencies.The way out of this situation may be the use of new methodological approaches, remote technologies, innovative teaching tools such as, for example, «Physics in sport» - designed by us as teaching methodical aid. The formulation of this allowance based on the idea of modular integration, the activity, the competency, concentrated, historical, personal and multi-dimensional approaches. As a result, the precise structure of the textbook, each topic which includes specific components (problem, unit upgrades, historical block, the theoretical block, generalization and systematization, block expansion and deepening, block of individual works, literature, allows student-athletes to study the laws physics in relation to the sport that allows you to use and transform the physical culture of the laws of natural science disciplines.The teaching methodical aid can be used with success for students of other directions, for example, «Adaptive physical education».

  1. A COMPARISON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS, ANXIETY AND SLEEPING DISORDERS AND DISORDERS IN SOCIAL FUNCTION AMONG MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES AND NONATHLETES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nili Ahmadabady Zahra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to comparison mental health, Physical symptoms, Anxiety and sleeping disorders and Disorders in social function among male and female athletes and non-athletes students. Methods: The target population consisted entirely male of female athletes and non-athletes students in University of Guilan. After translate of standard General Health Questionnaires (GHQ, and adjust of some question, questionnaires were evaluated by professors of faculty of physical education and sport sciences. The reliability guided Cronbach Alpha value of (0.83. Among them 90 male athlete and 90 male non-athlete with mean. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: There were significant difference mean scores between in four mental health scales, physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders and impaired social functioning athlete and non-athlete in both groups. Conclusion: Therefore, with fewer psychological problems in an athlete, physical activity can be purpose strategies as appropriate, easy and inexpensive to improve mental health among male and female non- athlete students.

  2. Implicit theory of athletic ability and self-handicapping in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Kuo, Chin Fang; Shui, Shang-Hsueh

    2008-10-01

    Self-handicapping is a maladaptive behavior which undermines students' achievements, but the antecedents of self-handicapping are not well studied in physical education. The aim was to examine the relations of implicit theory of abilities and self-handicapping in physical education. 264 college students, whose mean age was 20.3 yr. (SD = 1.7), completed the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire-2 and Self-handicapping Scale for Sport. Analysis indicated entity beliefs positively predicted reduced effort and making excuses. Also, incremental beliefs negatively predicted reduced effort. Results are discussed in terms of implicit theory of ability and self-handicapping. Directions for research and implications are stated.

  3. [A comparison of opinions about disabled sports between students of University in Szczecin and disabled athletes ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dywejko, Barbara; Rotter, Iwona; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Sport among disabled people is becoming more and more popular. It is happening mostly due to the growing number of sports centres for the disabled, and the widespread popularization of this form of activity by organi- zations working for the benefit of disabled people. Also, the mass media play an important role in the process. The aim of the study a comparison of the knowledge and opinions about disabled sports of physical education students and disabled athletes. The research was conducted using two dif- ferent questionnaires. One of them was given to students of Physical Education, the other to members of a disabled sports club, "Start". The questionnaires consisted of two sections: a personal profile, and 17 questions about disabled sports. 45 full-time students of Physical Education at the University of Szczecin: 30 (66.7%) women and 15 (33.3%) men. The average age of the group was 23.6 years. The second group, from the disabled sports club, consisted of 33 people, 18 (54.5%) women and 15 (45.5%) men; the aver- age age of the participants was 28.6 years. Among the disabled people, 10 (30.3%) people were unable to name any disabled athlete; among the. group of able-bodied students, there were 33 (73.3%) people who were not able to do the same thing. According to students, disabled people do sports mainly for rehabilitation purposes (51.1%). According to the disabled students' group, however, sport for disabled people means satisfaction and higher self-esteem (36.36%). When it comes to the best source of information on the subject, television proved to be the best one among the media. The able-bodied students rated their knowledge of disabled sports as satisfactory (66.7%), while only 6% of disabled students considered the knowledge of able-bodied people about disabled sports to be satisfactory. 1. The knowledge about disabled sports among students of physical education is superficial. The disabled also do not possess an extensive knowledge about disabled sports

  4. Model analysis: Representing and assessing the dynamics of student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Bao

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Decades of education research have shown that students can simultaneously possess alternate knowledge frameworks and that the development and use of such knowledge are context dependent. As a result of extensive qualitative research, standardized multiple-choice tests such as Force Concept Inventory and Force-Motion Concept Evaluation tests provide instructors tools to probe their students’ conceptual knowledge of physics. However, many existing quantitative analysis methods often focus on a binary question of whether a student answers a question correctly or not. This greatly limits the capacity of using the standardized multiple-choice tests in assessing students’ alternative knowledge. In addition, the context dependence issue, which suggests that a student may apply the correct knowledge in some situations and revert to use alternative types of knowledge in others, is often treated as random noise in current analyses. In this paper, we present a model analysis, which applies qualitative research to establish a quantitative representation framework. With this method, students’ alternative knowledge and the probabilities for students to use such knowledge in a range of equivalent contexts can be quantitatively assessed. This provides a way to analyze research-based multiple choice questions, which can generate much richer information than what is available from score-based analysis.

  5. Medical Student Views on Interactions with Pharmaceutical Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzini, Linda; Chen, Zunqiu; Peters, Dawn; Misra, Sahana; Macht, Madison; Osborne, Molly; Keepers, George

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In 2006, the Housestaff Association presented the Dean at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) with a proposal to effectively end the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on campus. The Dean convened a workgroup to examine the issue, and faculty, residents, and medical students were surveyed on their views and interactions.…

  6. The Epidemiology of Severe Injuries Sustained by National Collegiate Athletic Association Student-Athletes, 2009–2010 Through 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C.; Register-Mihalik, Johna K.; Gray, Aaron D.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Few researchers have described the incidence of the most severe injuries sustained by student-athletes at the collegiate level. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of severe injuries within 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports in the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Aggregate injury and exposure data from 25 NCAA sports. Patients or Other Participants: Collegiate student-athletes in the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program were analyzed. A severe injury (1) occurred during a sanctioned competition or practice, (2) required medical attention by an athletic trainer or physician, and (3) resulted in at least 21 days lost from sport activity or a premature end to the sport season. Injury counts, proportions, rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 3183 severe injuries were reported, for an injury rate of 0.66/1000 AEs. Wrestling had the highest severe injury rate (1.73/1000 AEs), followed by women's gymnastics (1.40/1000 AEs) and football (0.97/1000 AEs). Overall, the severe injury rate was higher in competition than in practice (RR = 4.25, 95% CI = 3.97, 4.56). Most severe injuries were reported during the regular season (69.3%, n = 2206); however, severe injury rates did not differ between the preseason and regular season (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.06). Common severely injured body parts were the knee (32.9%, n = 1047), lower leg/ankle/foot (22.5%, n = 715), and head/face/neck (11.2%, n = 358). Common severe injury diagnoses were sprains (32.9%, n = 1048), strains (16.9%, n = 538), and fractures (14.4%, n = 458). Common severe injury mechanisms were player contact (39.3%, n = 1251), noncontact (25.1%, n = 800), and surface contact (12.0%, n = 383). Conclusions

  7. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  8. Relationship of physical self concept and athletic performance in male medical students in Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Tabiee

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it was found that athletic performance improves physical self-esteem and self-esteem of students. Therefore, health system policy makers can promote the necessary facilities for expanding the culture of sports activities and also create an environment with sufficient facilities in the university.

  9. Effects of Text Messaged Self-Monitoring on Class Attendance and Punctuality of At-Risk College Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicard, David F.; Lott, Valorie; Mills, Jessica; Bicard, Sara; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text messaging class arrival to an academic counselor on the attendance and punctuality of 4 college student athletes. Each participant had a history of class tardiness and was considered to be at risk for academic failure. Class attendance and punctuality improved for all participants. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. The Long-Term Benefits of Cross-Racial Engagement on Workforce Competencies for Division I White Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which cross-racial interaction (CRI) influences postcollege pluralistic orientation and leadership skills for Division I White student-athlete graduates and the degree to which engagement effects are conditional on their precollege neighborhoods. Findings revealed that CRI during college had lasting benefits on…

  11. Comprehensive Headache Experience in Collegiate Student-Athletes: An Initial Report From the NCAA Headache Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Tad; Sufrinko, Alicia; Cowan, Robert; Scott Black, W; Watson, Dave; Edwards, Bill; Livingston, Scott; Webster, Keith; Akers, David; Lively, Mathew; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of primary headache disorders in the general population provides a unique challenge in the evaluation of headache occurring in the context of sport. Despite a wealth of studies exploring the epidemiology of headache in the layperson, little is known about the prevalence and nature of headaches in collegiate student-athletes. These scenarios are challenging in the return to play context, as it is often unclear whether an athlete has an exacerbation of a primary headache disorder, new onset headache unrelated to trauma, or has suffered a concussive injury. To establish the prevalence and nature of headaches in collegiate student-athletes. Retrospective cross-sectional survey. This cross-sectional survey evaluated the characteristics and prevalence of headache in 834 student-athletes from four NCAA Division-I institutions. Because headache occurrence may vary by sport (collision, contact, non-contact), by sex, and medical history, our sample included male and female athletes in a variety of sports, with differing degrees of contact exposure. The 20 question survey collected data on personal and family history of headache, as well as concussion history. A total of 23.7% (n = 198) of participants reported having a personal history of migraine, 25.2% (n = 210) history of sinus headache, and 12.3% (n = 103) history of tension type headache. Among athletes with a prior history of concussion, 46.3% (n = 25) of females reported a history of migraine, while only 32.2% of males reported history of migraine (χ 2  = 3.421, P = .064). The etiology of increased prevalence of migraine in our study is unclear. Whether this is due to increased awareness of headache disorders, a consequence of contact exposure, or a predisposition for migraine development in this age group remains unclear. Further studies are indicated. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  12. Student-sportowiec w amerykańskim modelu sportu - charakterystyka sportu uniwersyteckiego w USA = Student-Athletes in american model of sport – characteristic of university sport in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Owsianny

    2016-10-01

    Abstract This article concerns the continously actual issue of deeming student-athletes in United States of America employees of their universities, where they study and which they represent in various sports competitions. This text is not an attempt to take a stand on an aforementioned issue, however it does present the most important factors creating that dispute. Moreover it adduces the most representative and significant judicial cases and other from federal level which are connected with this issue, i.e.: the Northwestern University petition, the Ed O’Bannon’s lawsuit or the lawsuit of Samantha Sackos. What is more, the author tries to identify the essential frames where bylaws sholud be altered in order to improve the situation of student-athletes, which does not necessarily result in granting them an employee status on the other hand. The author based his characteristic and analysis of this issue on a representative collection of publications by american authors, various documents and other materials issued by organizations which function in the American sports environment (e.g. NCAA and the most significant rulings connected with academic sport. In order to exemplify the above-mantioned issues, the author used several times chosen press materials. This article presents major features of the American academic sport. It brings closer the most important matters linked with practinig sport by students at universities in the United States and relationships between student-athletes, univesities, agents, different types of organizations and professional leagues. Description of the system established in academic sport in the United States gives also the opportunity to identify and evaluate its advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Athletic and sporting interests of students in the physical education classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosyns’kyi E.O.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Athletic and sporting interests of students in the physical education classes. The aim is to study the structure of sports and sporting interests and motivation for physical activities first year students. An anonymous questionnaire was attended by 209 students (116 girls, 93 boys. The presence of additional independent study of organized physical activity, lack of missed classes. High self-esteem health of boys and girls due to the high level of interest in physical training. The main condition for the formation of interest in physical culture is the introduction of innovative technologies in physical education and attracting students to sports events. The highest level of interest in girls revealed their studies shaping, the young men - martial arts. Found that the high level of interest indicated 44.19% of the boys, the average - 51.16%, low - 4.65%. Found that the high level of interest indicated 15.15% of the girls, the average - 77.27%, low - 7.58%.

  14. Applying Representative Bureaucracy Theory to Academia: Representation of Women in Faculty and Administration and Title IX Compliance in Intercollegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-joo; Won, Doyeon

    2016-01-01

    The representative bureaucracy theory posits that the passive representation of women in an organization leads to their active representation in terms of gender equity in policy implementation. The present study examines how women's representation in administration and faculty positions may explain gender equity-oriented policy outcomes, focusing…

  15. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  16. Comparison of disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties between female college athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Gena; Shriver, Lenka H; Gates, Gail E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of disordered eating between female college athletes and non-athletes and explore emotion regulation as a potential mediator of the link between participation in athletics and disordered eating symptoms. Data for this cross-sectional study came from 527 college students in a mid-western state of the USA in fall of 2013 (376 non-athletes and 151 athletes). Disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation were assessed utilizing the Eating Attitudes Test and the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale in a survey-based format. The prevalence of disordered eating was higher in non-athletes (16.5%, vs. 6.6%; X(2)=62.8; pathletes reported more signs and symptoms of disordered eating than athletes (pathletic-status on disordered eating via emotion regulation; however, this effect did not reach practical significance. Our findings show that female athletes in our sample were somewhat protected from disordered eating compared to non-athletes, but the mechanism of this relationship is unclear. A further in-depth examination of other factors, such as self-esteem and body satisfaction, that may have contributed to this finding is warranted utilizing a large sample of female college students and athletes representing a variety of sports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving athletic performance of basketball student team with the classical yoga exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Brynzak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the effect of yoga exercises on the preparedness of the student basketball team. The study involved 25 athletes aged 17-20 years. The experimental group consisted of 13 players dealt in accordance with the proposed set of yoga exercises, which were used in the introductory, preparatory and final part. In the main part of the problem solved basketball directions. Classes in both groups were conducted 4 times a week for 2 hours for 9 months. Found that the use of exercises yoga pose direct impact on the physical indicators of preparedness players. Found an increase in the level of indicators: vertical jump, speed endurance, speed, retention of equilibrium (balance, free throw, with the movement, three-point shots, free throws, tactical execution.

  18. An Analysis of How Participating in a NCAA Division I-A Football Program Impacts the Christian Faith Development of Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, James B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The current study described and analyzed the perspectives of traditional-aged college student-athletes who participated in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football regarding the impact the sport had on Christian faith development. The study entailed a qualitative research method approach using in-depth semi-structured…

  19. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  20. FEATURES OF NEED-MOTIVATION ORIENTATION OF STUDENTS WHO REPRESENT THE CHINESE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mayasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is investigated the features of need-motivational orientation of students who represent the Chinese culture, studying in the higher educational institutions of Russia. As personal characteristics are analyzed the degree of satisfaction of basic needs, the level of motivation to succeed, motivational structure of personality in Chinese and Russian students. The importance of the study of personality characteristics of foreign students of the university helps professionals find the conditions for successful social and cross-cultural adaptation of students in a foreign country. The analysis obtained during the empirical research results confirm that there are certain differences in the needs and motivation of the students, representatives of Chinese and Russian culture. There were significant differences in rates of interpersonal needs, need for recognition, motivation and the comfort level of motivation to the "total activity" in Chinese and Russian students, which allows to predict the occurrence of adaptation and socialization difficulties of foreign students during training.

  1. Can Written Disclosure Reduce Psychological Distress and Increase Objectively Measured Injury Mobility of Student-Athletes? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Elaine; Gidron, Yori; Lavallee, David

    2013-01-01

    Injured students-athletes took part in a randomized controlled trial to test whether written disclosure could reduce psychological distress and improve injury mobility. Writing took place alongside prescribed physical rehabilitation and consisted of three 20-minute writing sessions, once a week for three consecutive weeks. Participants in the experimental injury-writing group followed a structured form of written disclosure, called the guided disclosure protocol (GDP). They firstly, wrote abo...

  2. The co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout among student-athletes: The role of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkkila, M; Aunola, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Tolvanen, A; Ryba, T V

    2018-02-17

    Student-athletes who strive for success in high-level sports while pursuing upper secondary education may be prone to sport and school burnout. This study examined the co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout in Finnish adolescent student-athletes (N time 1  = 391; N time 2  = 373) across the first year of upper secondary school using cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM). Furthermore, we used sport and school-related achievement goals as predictors of sport and school burnout, namely sport and school-related exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of inadequacy. The results showed that burnout dimensions in a particular domain were substantially stable within the same domain during the first year of upper secondary school and that school-related exhaustion at the beginning of upper secondary school predicted sport-related exhaustion at the end of the school year. Mastery goals in sport and school were negatively associated with cynicism and feelings of inadequacy within the same domain. Furthermore, performance goals in school were positively associated with school-related cynicism. The results can be used by healthcare professionals for early prevention of student-athletes' burnout. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The multi-faceted development of the athlete-student in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to explore the social worlds of African athletes who participated at the 7th All Africa Games in Johannesburg, South Africa. By reporting and interpreting data collected from 410 athletes from 22 African counties, of whom 343 completed questionnaires and 67 were interviewed, insight is created into ...

  4. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  5. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake on Endurance Exercise Performance and Anti-fatigue in Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Naoko; Okamoto, Ken; Nakada, Kenta; Masuda, Kazumi

    2017-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) intake has been reported to reduce body fat mass or increase lean body mass and to improve exercise outcome by modulating testosterone in humans. These reports have studied mostly overweight subjects; few were athletes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of CLA intake on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes was investigated. A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male student athletes. Each subject was administered with either CLA (net 0.9 g/day) or a placebo for 14 days. They were subjected to an exercise tolerance test (steady loading) using a cycle ergometer on days 0 and 14. Peak VO 2 was determined for each subject using a graded loading test. The steady loading test was performed with a pedaling exercise load of 50% peak VO 2 for 40 min and then with a load of 70% peak VO 2 until exhaustion. Blood sampling and measurement of critical flicker frequency (CFF) were performed before and after exercise. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured serially during exercise. In the results, amount of body weight variation significantly increased and amount of body fat percentage variation tended to decrease by CLA intake, it might have an effect by increase in muscle mass. In addition, amount of exercise time variation significantly increased, amount of variation of CFF before and after exercise tended to increase, that of RPE during exercise tended to decrease, and that of creatine phosphokinase before and after exercise tended to decrease in the CLA group. These results suggested that CLA intake for 14 days might have an effect on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes.

  6. Participation in ball sports may represent a prehabilitation strategy to prevent future stress fractures and promote bone health in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam Sebastian; Sainani, Kristin Lynn; Carter Sayres, Lauren; Milgrom, Charles; Fredericson, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation has many benefits for the young athlete, including improved bone health. However, a subset of athletes may attain suboptimal bone health and be at increased risk for stress fractures. This risk is greater for female than for male athletes. In healthy children, high-impact physical activity has been shown to improve bone health during growth and development. We offer our perspective on the importance of promoting high-impact, multidirectional loading activities, including ball sports, as a method of enhancing bone quality and fracture prevention based on collective research. Ball sports have been associated with greater bone mineral density and enhanced bone geometric properties compared with participation in repetitive, low-impact sports such as distance running or nonimpact sports such as swimming. Runners and infantry who participated in ball sports during childhood were at decreased risk of future stress fractures. Gender-specific differences, including the coexistence of female athlete triad, may negate the benefits of previous ball sports on fracture prevention. Ball sports involve multidirectional loading with high ground reaction forces that may result in stiffer and more fracture-resistant bones. Encouraging young athletes to participate in ball sports may optimize bone health in the setting of adequate nutrition and in female athletes, eumenorrhea. Future research to determine timing, frequency, and type of loading activity could result in a primary prevention program for stress fracture injuries and improved life-long bone health. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of gender on computerized electrocardiogram measurements in college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Fonda, Holly; Dewey, Frederick; Le, Vy-van; Stein, Ricardo; Wheeler, Matt; Ashley, Euan A; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor F

    2010-06-01

    Broad criteria for classifying an electrocardiogram (ECG) as abnormal and requiring additional testing prior to participating in competitive athletics have been recommended for the preparticipation examination (PPE) of athletes. Because these criteria have not considered gender differences, we examined the effect of gender on the computerized ECG measurements obtained on Stanford student athletes. Currently available computer programs require a basis for "normal" in athletes of both genders to provide reliable interpretation. During the 2007 PPE, computerized ECGs were recorded and analyzed on 658 athletes (54% male; mean age, 19 +/- 1 years) representing 22 sports. Electrocardiogram measurements included intervals and durations in all 12 leads to calculate 12-lead voltage sums, QRS amplitude and QRS area, spatial vector length (SVL), and the sum of the R wave in V5 and S wave in V2 (RSsum). By computer analysis, male athletes had significantly greater QRS duration, PR interval, Q-wave duration, J-point amplitude, and T-wave amplitude, and shorter QTc interval compared with female athletes (all P < 0.05). All ECG indicators of left ventricular electrical activity were significantly greater in males. Although gender was consistently associated with indices of atrial and ventricular electrical activity in multivariable analysis, ECG measurements correlated poorly with body dimensions. Significant gender differences exist in ECG measurements of college athletes that are not explained by differences in body size. Our tables of "normal" computerized gender-specific measurements can facilitate the development of automated ECG interpretation for screening young athletes.

  8. A Cautionary Analysis of a Billion Dollar Athletic Expenditure: The History of the Renovation of California Memorial Stadium and the Construction of the Barclay Simpson Student Athlete High Performance Center. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.3.17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a description and analysis of the history of the renovation of Memorial Stadium and the building of the Barclay Simpson Student Athlete High Performance Center (SAHPC) on the Berkeley campus, showing how incremental changes over time result in a much riskier and financially less viable project than originally anticipated. It…

  9. From Boffing to Body Flying, UCSC Students Are Discovering the Joys of New Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    College and University Business, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The new athletic program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, is designed to provide noncompetitive, nonspectator physical activities and recreational opportunities, including jogging, sailing, mountaineering, aikido, backpacking, kayaking and body flying. (Author/PG)

  10. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  11. Student perception and conceptual development as represented by student mental models of atomic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Jung

    The nature of matter based upon atomic theory is a principal concept in science; hence, how to teach and how to learn about atoms is an important subject for science education. To this end, this study explored student perceptions of atomic structure and how students learn about this concept by analyzing student mental models of atomic structure. Changes in student mental models serve as a valuable resource for comprehending student conceptual development. Data was collected from students who were taking the introductory chemistry course. Responses to course examinations, pre- and post-questionnaires, and pre- and post-interviews were used to analyze student mental models of atomic structure. First, this study reveals that conceptual development can be achieved, either by elevating mental models toward higher levels of understanding or by developing a single mental model. This study reinforces the importance of higher-order thinking skills to enable students to relate concepts in order to construct a target model of atomic structure. Second, Bohr's orbital structure seems to have had a strong influence on student perceptions of atomic structure. With regard to this finding, this study suggests that it is instructionally important to teach the concept of "orbitals" related to "quantum theory." Third, there were relatively few students who had developed understanding at the level of the target model, which required student understanding of the basic ideas of quantum theory. This study suggests that the understanding of atomic structure based on the idea of quantum theory is both important and difficult. Fourth, this study included different student assessments comprised of course examinations, questionnaires, and interviews. Each assessment can be used to gather information to map out student mental models. Fifth, in the comparison of the pre- and post-interview responses, this study showed that high achieving students moved toward more improved models or to advanced

  12. Student Views on Classroom Representative Meetings in the Preparatory Program of a Turkish University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Özbilen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to focus on the concept of “student voice” in higher education. Since democracy necessitates freedom and contribution, it cannot be underestimated that democracy can be maintained by the involvement of students in administration. The research conducted aims to shed a light onto the university students’ perception of “student voice” in university administration. Within this framework, classroom representatives of preparatory school elementary level students of a foundation university in Istanbul were analyzed. The data of the study were collected by focus group interviews and analyzed by content analysis using the qualitative analysis software Nvivo 10. According to the results, the classroom representatives consider themselves important and assume that their ideas are being valued. However, there are still some concerns about the future decisions of the administration in that some of their ideas might not be taken into account. They assume that the class representative meetings should be held more frequently to enable a more democratic university environment. The results of this study will be the basis for a larger scale study that includes the perception of more classroom representatives from different levels. In further studies the leadership style of the administrators will also be studied to find out the rationale behind the students’ attitudes towards the concept of student participation at the administration level.

  13. Athletic Training Students' and Preceptors' Perceptions of Active Learning Time and Bug-in-Ear Technology during Clinical Education Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara L.; Kasamatsu, Tricia M.; Montgomery, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Engaging clinical experiences that allow extensive active learning and patient care interactions are important for the professional development of athletic training students. Understanding students' use of clinical time is important when attempting to improve these experiences. Objective: To gain participants' perspectives on active…

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association-accredited postprofessional athletic training education: attractors and career intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Dodge, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotally, we know that students select graduate programs based on location, finances, and future career goals. Empirically, however, we lack information on what attracts a student to these programs. To gain an appreciation for the selection process of graduate study. Qualitative study. Postprofessional programs in athletic training (PPATs) accredited by the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 19 first-year PPAT students participated, representing 13 of the 16 accredited PPAT programs. All interviews were conducted via phone and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the interview data followed the procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Trustworthiness was secured by (1) participant checks, (2) participant verification, and (3) multiple analyst triangulations. Athletic training students select PPAT programs for 4 major reasons: reputation of the program or faculty (or both), career intentions, professional socialization, and mentorship from undergraduate faculty or clinical instructors (or both). Participants discussed long-term professional goals as the driving force behind wanting an advanced degree in athletic training. Faculty and clinical instructor recommendations and the program's prestige helped guide the decisions. Participants also expressed the need to gain more experience, which promoted autonomy, and support while gaining that work experience. Final selection of the PPAT program was based on academic offerings, the assistantship offered (including financial support), advanced knowledge of athletic training concepts and principles, and apprenticeship opportunities. Students who attend PPAT programs are attracted to advancing their entry-level knowledge, are committed to their professional development as athletic trainers, and view the profession of athletic training as a life-long career. The combination of balanced academics, clinical experiences, and additional professional socialization and mentorship from the PPAT program

  15. Tri-Squared Qualitative and Mixed Methods Analysis of Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Student Athlete Leadership Academy [SALA]: A Character Development and College Preparatory Program for Young African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Harvey; Osler, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the major dimensions and overall effectiveness of the Student Athlete Leadership Academy (or "SALA"). SALA is a character development and college preparatory program designed for middle grade student athletes. The focus of this paper is to provide information about year 1 of SALA. At the same time the paper will…

  16. Sport Psychology Teaching Approaches for High School Coaches and Their Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.

    2017-01-01

    Coaches lacking a formal background in sport psychology may shy away from teaching these skills in favor of teaching physical skills with which they are more familiar. Other coaches may assume that athletes will learn sport psychology skills as a byproduct of their coaching pedagogy. Regardless, high school coaches are responsible for teaching…

  17. Athletes' Perception of Athletic Trainer Empathy: How Important Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon; Larson, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Health care practitioners face increasing expectations to provide patient-centered care. Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance, and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes. There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. To gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded-theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-age Division I student-athletes (8 female, 7 male; 19.3 ± 1.2 y) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocol designed to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded-theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer (AT) representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the AT. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enabling the best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and approachability. Empathy

  18. Pro-health and anti-health behaviours of student-athletes. the basis for preparing common pro-health program for students from different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Szpakow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. The most important factor determining human health is life style and pro-health behaviours associated with it. Among significant prophylactic factors there is disuse of psychoactive substances by educated people, including students who should set an example for the rest of the society due to their general knowledge about health. This report is a fragment of much bigger entirety, which are multifaceted monitoring procedures of pro- and anti-health behaviours among students from border cities in 3 countries conducted by a group of scientists from universities of Grodno, Białystok, Suwałki and Kaunas. [b]Aim of the study.[/b] Analysis of the relationship between smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol and using other psychoactive substances and pro-health attitudes among student-athletes from the Faculty of Physical Training as well as consideration of transferring worked out study models to activities in other regional units situated on both border sides of the Eastern Wall. [b]Material and methods[/b]. 445 students of 1-3 year from the Faculty of Physical Training(209 males and 236 females participated in the study. Research tool was an anonymous questionnaire of unified survey(PAV-10 (based on modified questionnaire from the ESPAD program. [b]Results[/b]. In the group of student-athletes occurrence of a problem connected with smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol was confirmed. Differences between males and females in the statement of smoking tobacco were not found as well as manifestation of improper attitude associated with smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Nearly half of respondents(43,9% did not condemn their peers abusing alcohol. From the population of the respondent students 22,7% smoked cigarettes, 62% did not smoke and the rest had smoked in the past but they do not do it now... [b]Conclusions[/b]. A worrying phenomenon is ascertainment of a large percentage of risk behaviours in the population of student-athletes

  19. Intercollegiate Athletics and Modeling Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Research about student athletes contends that participation enhances both learning and character development, including leadership, interpersonal skills, social self-esteem, discipline, personal health, motivation, dedication, and life lessons. Other research expresses concern about the cognitive outcomes of student athletes relative to…

  20. The Musician as (In)Active Athlete?: Exploring the Association Between Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Complaints in Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadjou, Vera A E; Verbunt, Jeanine A M C F; van Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D F; Huysmans, Stephanie M D; Smeets, Rob J E M

    2015-12-01

    Musicians are often compared to athletes because of the physical exertion required to play music. The aim of this study was to explore the physical activity level of music students and to study its relationship with musculoskeletal complaints. A second goal was to assess associations between physical activity and pain, quality of life, and disability. This cross-sectional study among third- and fourth-year music students used an electronic survey including measures for physical activity (SQUASH-Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-enhancing physical activity), musculoskeletal complaints (DMQ-Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire), disability (DASH-Disability Arm, Shoulder, Hand questionnaire) and quality of life (Short Form-12). Students were classified as compliers or non-compliers with moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity recommendations. Statistical analysis was done using (non)parametric tests (t-test, Pearson chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test) and correlational testing. Participants were 132 students, 63.6% female, with a median age of 23 yrs (range 21.3-25.0). 67% reported musculoskeletal complaints in the past 7 days. Their median physical activity level was 6,390 MET-min/wk, and 62% and 10% of the students accomplished recommendations for moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity levels, respectively. No significant differences were found in prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints between students who met moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity recommendations and students who did not. Physical activity level was not associated with musculoskeletal complaints (r=0.12, p=0.26). Higher pain intensity was associated with a lower quality of life (r=-0.53 pMusic students are mainly involved in light- to moderate-intensity physical activities and rarely in vigorous-intensity activities. No correlation was found between physical activity level in the past months and musculoskeletal complaints in music students.

  1. Evaluation of a gender-based violence prevention program for student athletes in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.

  2. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  3. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432

  4. NCAA's Latest Pay-to-Play Scheme Would Sack Concept of Amateur Student Athlete, Raise Antitrust Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Now that members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) have voted to approve a sweeping, if not radical, proposal giving the five largest athletic conferences "autonomy" to establish new governance rules regarding a compensation pay package for the recruitment of athletes, some important public policy concerns need to be…

  5. The Effects of Visual Feedback on CPR Skill Retention in Graduate Student Athletic Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies examining the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR chest compressions have found compression depth and rate to be less than optimal and recoil to full release to be incomplete. Objective: To determine if visual feedback affects the rate and depth of chest compressions and chest recoil values during CPR training of athletic trainers and to determine retention of proficiency over time. Design: Pre-test, post-test. Setting: Medical simulation laboratory. Participants: Eleven females and one male (23.08+.51 years old, from an Athletic Training Graduate Program. All participants were Certified Athletic Trainers (1.12+.46 years of experience and certified in CPR for the Professional Rescuer. Interventions: Participants completed a pre-test, practice sessions, and a post-test on a SimMan® (Laerdal Medical manikin with visual feedback of skills in real time. After the pre-test, participants received feedback by the investigators. Participants completed practice sessions as needed (range=1-4 sessions, until they reached 100% skill proficiency. After achieving proficiency, participants returned 8 weeks later to perform the CPR skills. Main Outcome Measures: The average of all compression outcome measures (rate, depth, recoil was captured every 10 seconds (6x per min. All participants performed 5 cycles of 30 compressions. A two-tailed paired samples t-test (pre to post was used to compare rate of chest compressions, depth of chest compressions, and recoil of the chest. Significance was set a priori at pResults: There was a significant difference between pre and post-test compression depth average, p=.002. The pre-depth average was 41mm + 9.83mm compared to the post-depth average of 52.26mm + 5mm. There were no significant differences between pre and post-test chest compression rates and recoil. Conclusions: The use of a simulated manikin with visual feedback facilitated participants to reach the recommended compression

  6. Association between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a representative student sample in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-04-01

    The study examined the prevalence of the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) to determine whether IPV is a factor associated with the latter. A total of 5,841 students from a representative sample of schools in Hong Kong were surveyed. The results show that the lifetime and preceding-year co-occurrence rates of IPV and CM were 12.3% and 3.6%, respectively. IPV and parents' use of psychological aggression and corporal punishment led to increased odds of physical violence. This study suggests a need for the comprehensive assessment of IPV and CM. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Visual efficiency among teenaged athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokiah Omar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare visual efficiency, specifically accom-modation, vergence, and oculomotor functions among athletes and non-athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on sports vision screening was used to evaluate the visual skills of 214 elementary students (107 athletes, 107 non-athletes, aged between 13 and 16y. The visual screening assessed visual parameters such as ocular motor alignment, accommodation, and vergence functions. RESULTS: Mean visual parameters were compared between age-group matched athletes (mean age 14.82±0.98y and non-athletes (mean age 15.00±1.04y. The refractive errors of all participants were corrected to maximal attainable best corrected visual acuity of logMAR 0.0. Accommodation function assessment evaluated amplitude of accommodation and accommodation facility. Vergence functions measured the near point of convergence, vergence facility, and distance fusional vergence at break and recovery point. Ocular motor alignment was not statistically significant between both groups. Athletes had a statistically significant amplitude of accommodation for both the right eye (t=2.30, P=0.02 and the left eye (t=1.99, P=0.05. Conversely, non-athletes had better accommodation facility (t=-2.54, P=0.01 and near point of convergence (t=4.39, P<0.001 when compared to athletes. Vergence facility was found to be better among athletes (t=2.47, P=0.01. Nevertheless, non-athletes were significantly better for both distance negative and positive fusional vergence. CONCLUSION: Although the findings are still inconclusive as to whether athletes had superior visual skills as compared to non-athletes, it remains important to identify and elucidate the key visual skills needed by athletes in order for them to achieve higher performance in their sports.

  8. Does Love Influence Athletic Performance? The Perspectives of Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kelly; Hosseini, Cheyenne; Myers, Kelly; Calub, Nina

    2016-06-01

    In this brief report, we provide an initial account of the association between love and athletic performance from the perspective of Olympic athletes. We posit that Romantic Passionate Love (RPL) and athletic performance may both involve the reward-motivation system of the brain. Based on this premise, we explored whether activation in one domain (love) might influence the other (sport). Our investigation was framed using Sternberg's triangular theory of love. Twenty Olympic athletes representing different sports were interviewed at the Games. Most athletes (n = 15) reported that their performance was better while in love; however, qualitative responses suggested that the benefits were correlated with rather than resulting from RPL. Although the athletes were provided with a definition of RPL and affirmed that their relationship met the criteria, interview responses reflected companionate rather than passionate love, suggesting that RPL may be differentially conceptualized across cultures. The study provides preliminary data that may be used to inform and refine future work on this topic.

  9. Standardized Patients Provide a Reliable Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Providing students reliable objective feedback regarding their clinical performance is of great value for ongoing clinical skill assessment. Since a standardized patient (SP) is trained to consistently portray the case, students can be assessed and receive immediate feedback within the same clinical encounter; however, no research, to our…

  10. Strength and Motivation: What College Athletes Bring to Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyett, Anna; Dean, Charlotte; Zeitlin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    College athletes develop many strengths and skills during their athletic career, such as dedication, ability to work across cultures, leadership, and community building. Social workers need many of these same skills. This study explores the potential transfer of skills from athletics to social work among 15 former college athlete MSW students.…

  11. 34 CFR 668.48 - Report on completion or graduation rates for student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.48 Report on completion or graduation... Management and Budget under control number 1845-0004) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1092) [60 FR 61788, Dec. 1, 1995...

  12. Examining the Moral Development of Emerging Adult Student-Athletes: The Connection to Engaged Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Kristie M.

    2017-01-01

    With university mission statements focused on preparing emerging adult students for globally inclusive professional careers, moral and leadership development has become a central focus of many colleges and universities (Bass, 1991; Binghamton University, 2016; Zimmerman-Oster & Burkhardt, 1999). Colleges and universities utilize interactions…

  13. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among College Students: A Comparison between Athletes and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Given the substantial increase in nonmedical prescription drug use in recent years and a lack of research on the topic, the author analyzed data on nonmedical prescription drug use among college students. Participants and Methods: Using data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study (N = 10,904), the author examined variation in nonmedical…

  14. The Epidemiology of Stress Fractures in Collegiate Student-Athletes, 2004-2005 Through 2013-2014 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katherine H; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Roos, Karen G; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-10-01

      Stress fractures are injuries caused by cumulative, repetitive stress that leads to abnormal bone remodeling. Specific populations, including female athletes and endurance athletes, are at higher risk than the general athletic population. Whereas more than 460 000 individuals participate in collegiate athletics in the United States, no large study has been conducted to determine the incidence of stress fractures in collegiate athletes.   To assess the incidence of stress fractures in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and investigate rates and patterns overall and by sport.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   National Collegiate Athletic Association institutions.   National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes.   Data were analyzed from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program for the academic years 2004-2005 through 2013-2014. We calculated rates and rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).   A total of 671 stress fractures were reported over 11 778 145 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 5.70 per 100 000 AEs. The sports with the highest rates of stress fractures were women's cross-country ( 28.59/100  000 AEs), women's gymnastics ( 25.58/100  000 AEs), and women's outdoor track ( 22.26/100  000 AEs). Among sex-comparable sports (baseball/softball, basketball, cross-country, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, indoor track, and outdoor track), stress fracture rates were higher in women (9.13/100 000 AEs) than in men (4.44/100 000 AEs; RR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.71, 2.47). Overall, stress fracture rates for these NCAA athletes were higher in the preseason (7.30/100 000 AEs) than in the regular season (5.12/100 000 AEs; RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.67). The metatarsals (n = 254, 37.9%), tibia (n = 147, 21.9%), and lower back/lumbar spine/pelvis (n = 81, 12.1%) were the most common locations of injury. Overall, 21.5% (n = 144) of stress fractures were

  15. Retention: An Inductive Study of Representative Student Groups at Middlesex County College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrower, Gordon, Jr.; And Others

    This five-part report describes a study conducted by Middlesex County College (MCC) to examine the problems and experiences of various segments of its student body and to determine, on the basis of this examination, factors that aggravate student/college interaction and increase student attrition. Part I details study procedures, which involved a…

  16. Considerations for Expanding, Eliminating, and Maintaining Community College Athletic Teams and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Heather J.; Mullin, Christopher M.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Collegiate athletic programs have often been referred to as the "front porch" of an institution. Coaches, athletic teams, student athletes, and athletic department staff serve as a "link between the immediate campus family and the larger community. It is this front-porch principle that makes managing intercollegiate athletics a unique and…

  17. Leadership Development of Team Captains in Collegiate Varsity Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandzol, Christian; Perlis, Susan; Draina, Lois

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the leadership development of team captains and student-athletes engaged in NCAA Division III intercollegiate athletics at 6 private institutions of higher education. Student-athletes in the sports of men's and women's soccer, women's field hockey, men's and women's cross country, and women's tennis completed the 2nd edition of…

  18. While representing teaching, I myself become a teacher: a research with Music student teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro Bellochio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper derives from a research that aimed to investigaterepresentations about student teaching in the academic-professional formation of the undergraduate course in Music offered by the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (FUSM. Based on studies concerning teacher’s formation, supervised student teaching and musical education, this work aimed to understand and analyze the representations, beliefs, ideas and values of music students in relation to the student teaching model, as well as to understand the processes of genesis and transformation regarding the development of teaching as a whole. The fi ndings indicate that the representations of the supervised student teaching change along the formation and that the central aspect regarding teaching conveys the positive aspiration of being a “good music teacher” in different educational contexts.

  19. Trends Concerning Four Misconceptions in Students' Intuitively-Based Probabilistic Reasoning Sourced in the Heuristic of Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustos, Paul Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Student difficulty in the study of probability arises in intuitively-based misconceptions derived from heuristics. One such heuristic, the one of note for this research study, is that of representativeness, in which an individual informally assesses the probability of an event based on the degree to which the event is similar to the sample from…

  20. Are psychology university student gamblers representative of non-university students and general gamblers? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Students recruited from psychology undergraduate university populations are commonly used in psychology research, including gambling studies. However, the extent to which the use of this subpopulation produces findings that can be extrapolated to other groups is questionable. The present study was designed to compare results from university-recruited psychology student gamblers to those obtained from a sample of gamblers recruited from the general population that also included students. An online survey measuring gambling behavior and Internet gambling, attitudes and knowledge about gambling and problem gambling severity was posted on websites accessed by gamblers. Participants were recruited from two sources, a psychology undergraduate university population (n = 461) and online websites (n = 4,801). Results showed university-recruited students differed significantly from both adults and students recruited from the general population in respect to demographic variables and gambling behavior. Psychology undergraduate students were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower incomes. When relevant demographic variables were controlled, psychology undergraduate students were found to gamble less frequently, at different times, and to be at lower-risk for gambling-related problems, but had more irrational beliefs and more negative attitudes towards gambling than gamblers recruited from the general population. Results suggest that caution should be used in extrapolating findings from research using university-recruited psychology student gamblers to wide community populations due to differences related to gambling thoughts, attitudes and behaviors.

  1. Smoking and its risk factors in Chinese elementary and middle school students: a nationally representative sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghui; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Qin; Lu, Furong; Wang, Yun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of smoking in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate its risk factors from families and schools. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC), in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the relationships between smoking and the risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate odds ratios. The prevalence of ever smokers and current smokers were 19.0% and 5.4%. Focusing on current smokers, boys, middle school students, rural students, boarding students, non-only children and those owning parents with low educational levels reported smoking significantly more than girls, elementary school students, urban students, non-boarding students, only children and those owning parents with high educational levels. Lower trust and support from teachers and higher parent-child conflict positively predicted both smoking and smoking frequency. Lower trust and support from classmates was associated with higher possibility of smoking. However, higher trust and support from classmates was associated with higher smoking frequency. Teacher smoking and friend smoking were only predictive of smoking, but not of smoking frequency. Boys, middle school students, rural students, boarding students, non-only children and those owning parents with low educational levels need special attention. The most risk factors for smoking and smoking frequency were lower trust and support from teachers and higher parent-child conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among studentsrepresentatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masculinity / femininity "Processing and statistical data. Results: based on the testing method established S. Bam percentage masculine, androgynous and feminine personalities among athletes and athletes in various sports classification groups depending on their athletic skills. Conclusions: among sportsmen and women in a variety of classification groups of sports is not revealed feminine personalities; masculine identity, among both men and women predominate in sports; androgyny attitude towards men and women are different.

  3. Athlete endorsements in food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Yanamadala, Swati; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults. One hundred professional athletes were selected on the basis of Bloomberg Businessweek's 2010 Power 100 rankings, which ranks athletes according to their endorsement value and prominence in their sport. Endorsement information was gathered from the Power 100 list and the advertisement database AdScope. Endorsements were sorted into 11 endorsement categories (eg, food/beverages, sports apparel). The nutritional quality of the foods featured in athlete-endorsement advertisements was assessed by using a Nutrient Profiling Index, whereas beverages were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of calories from added sugar. Marketing data were collected from AdScope and Nielsen. Of 512 brands endorsed by 100 different athletes, sporting goods/apparel represented the largest category (28.3%), followed by food/beverages (23.8%) and consumer goods (10.9%). Professional athletes in this sample were associated with 44 different food or beverage brands during 2010. Seventy-nine percent of the 62 food products in athlete-endorsed advertisements were energy-dense and nutrient-poor, and 93.4% of the 46 advertised beverages had 100% of calories from added sugar. Peyton Manning (professional American football player) and LeBron James (professional basketball player) had the most endorsements for energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Adolescents saw the most television commercials that featured athlete endorsements of food. Youth are exposed to professional athlete endorsements of food products that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor.

  4. Dual career pathways of transnational athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, T. V.; Stambulova, N. B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Transnationalism, as part of the globalization processes, has transformed the lifestyle and the course of athletes' careers. This presents previously unexplored challenges encountered by student-athletes in combining athletic and academic pursuits. In this article, we propose a concep......Objectives: Transnationalism, as part of the globalization processes, has transformed the lifestyle and the course of athletes' careers. This presents previously unexplored challenges encountered by student-athletes in combining athletic and academic pursuits. In this article, we propose...... patterns of transnational DC were discerned from the narratives based on the direction of geographic mobility and the core migration motive underpinning the storyline. Within the present dataset, the taxonomies are: (1) Within EU mobility: the sport exile DC pathway; (2) Mobility to the U.S.A.: the sport...

  5. The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C

    2015-01-01

    Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students. The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses. The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample. These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior.

  6. Risk Factors for Suicidality among a Nationally Representative Sample of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Spirito, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Using the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (n = 13,917) of high school students, we examined the association between four domains of risk factors (alcohol/drug use, aggression, HIV risk-related behaviors, and health problems) and indicators of suicidality (considering a suicide attempt, making a plan to attempt suicide, and actually…

  7. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…

  8. Functions Represented as Linear Sequential Data: Relationships between Presentation and Student Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' ways of attending to linear sequential data in two tasks, and conjectures possible relationships between those ways and elements of the task design. Drawing on the substantial literature about such situations, we focus for this paper on linear rate of change, and on covariation and correspondence approaches to…

  9. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  10. Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and around therapeutic whirlpools in college athletic training rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A

    2015-04-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.

  11. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.

  12. The Effect of High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Plasma Levels of Resistin in Male Non-athlete Students (A Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adipose tissue as a source of energy, is known as an important endocrine organ that releases various hormones including resistin. Resistin plays an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. The effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on resistin concentration in individuals is not clearly defined. The present study aimed to determine the effect of 10-weeks of HIIT on plasma resistin levels in male non-athlete students.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 26 male non-athlete students were randomly selected and divided into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group performed interval trainings, in a 10-week training program (3 times a week according to the training program with the intensity of 85-100% HRmax. Blood samples were taken after 14 hours of fasting at different stages and similar conditions, and plasma levels of resistin were measured using a resistin kit (BOSTER Company, USA. The data were analyzed using independent and dependent t-tests at the significance level of α < 0.05.   Results: In this study, 10 weeks of HIIT caused a significant decrease in the plasma levels of resistin in the experimental group compared to the control group (p≤0.05.   Conclusion: From the obtained results, it can be said that HIIT, as a new and effective training method, has a preventive effect on cardiovascular diseases through a significant reduction of resistin.

  13. New Media and Models for Engaging Under-Represented Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Laurel M.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2008-10-01

    We describe the University of Colorado Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) program in which university students participate in classroom and after school science activities with local precollege children. Across several different formal and informal educational environments, we use new technological tools, such as stop action motion (SAM) movies [1] to engage children so that they may develop an understanding of science through play and "show and tell". This approach provides a complementary avenue for reaching children who are otherwise underrepresented in science and under-supported in more formal educational settings. We present the model of university community partnership and demonstrate its utility in a case study involving an African American third grade student learning about velocity and acceleration.

  14. Mental Health and Substance Use of Sexual Minority College Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Davoren, Ann Kearns

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the mental health and substance use of sexual minority collegiate student-athletes in the United States, as compared with heterosexual college students and heterosexual student-athletes. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 196,872) who completed the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Christine Bergmann; Dirk Baier

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumpt...

  16. Comparatives of Expressive Activities of Junior High School Students with Different Types of Representative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geydebrekht N.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data from a study of drawings of children of primary school age to identify the сcomparative diagnostic parameters that allow to define the leading representative system in the child. 164 drawings of 51 persons under test of the two grades of primary school were analyzed. The observation and modified in relation to primary school age version of the method «Representational systems bias test» (Lewis A., Puselik R., 2012 were used as elements of the diagnostic unit. Based on these results it is concluded that the drawings of children of primary school age with different types of representative systems have differences, sufficient to justify their diagnostic informative value. The results of the study make comparative profiles of children of primary school age with different types of representational systems to facilitate the diagnostic part of the work with children's drawings.

  17. Comparison of Mental Health Components among Athlete and Non-athlete Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ghiami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may expand the risk of mental health issues. Objective: This study aimed to compare the mental health of male and female athletes and non-athletes among a high school student groups. Methodology: On this base 100 students (50 athletes and 50 non-athletes, Mage = 16 (SD = ±1 were selected through multi stage random sampling and divided equally into four groups (female athlete / non-athlete, male athlete / non-athlete. General Health Questionnaire designed by Goldberg and Hiller (1979 was used for data collections. Results: The analysis of one-way ANOVA displayed significant differences between the mean scores in mental health among the groups in terms of mental health, F (3, 96 =39, P = .01 with less prevalence of these symptoms among athletes comparing to non-athletes. Conclusion: Increasing opportunities for students to take part in sport competitions can protect them against poor psychological well-being. Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Anxiety; Social dysfunction; Somatic

  18. Nutrition for Athletes. A Handbook for Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook contains nutritional information for athletic coaches and others who provide this information and guidance to high school and college students. The purposes of the handbook are to review briefly the content of a sound basic diet and to analyze theories and practices that would relate to nutrition and athletic performance. The…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively. PMID:29415426

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christine Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-02-06

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  2. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  3. Representing time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Poncellini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of natural phenomena applied to architectural planning and design is facing the most fascinating and elusive of the four dimensions through which man attempts to define life within the universe: time. We all know what time is, said St. Augustine, but nobody knows how to describe it. Within architectural projects and representations, time rarely appears in explicit form. This paper presents the results of a research conducted by students of NABA and of the Polytechnic of Milan with the purpose of representing time considered as a key element within architectural projects. Student investigated new approaches and methodologies to represent time using the two-dimensional support of a sheet of paper.

  4. Use of relaxation skills in differentially skilled athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudlackova, K.; Eccles, D. W.; Dieffenbach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the use of relaxation skills by differentially skilled athletes in relation to the deliberate practice framework. Design: Differentially skilled athletes completed a survey about their use of relaxation skills. Method: 150 athletes representing three skill levels (recreational, college, and professional) completed the deliberate relaxation for sport survey, which assessed relaxation on three deliberate practice dimensions (relevancy, concentration, and ...

  5. Leadership Styles of College and University Athletic Directors and the Presence of NCAA Transgender Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Randall; McCauley, Kayleigh

    2016-01-01

    In September 2011, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) announced the "Policy on Transgender Inclusion." It provides guidelines for transgender student athletes to participate in sex-separated athletic teams according to their gender identity. The "2012 LGBTQ National College Athlete Report," the first of its…

  6. Servant Leadership in Intercollegiate Athletics: Follower Perceptions of NCAA Division II Athletic Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harlan L.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership in the intercollegiate athletic setting has come under pressure in recent years due to problem of unethical behavior and falling short of the expectation of serving students in higher education. While servant leadership has been examined in many different contexts, the literature is limited within the intercollegiate athletic setting.…

  7. Team physicians in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Mark E; Quigley, D Bradford; Wang, Frank; Balint, Christopher R; Boland, Arthur L

    2005-10-01

    There has been little documentation of what constitutes the clinical work of intercollegiate team physicians. Team physicians could be recruited based on the needs of athletes. A multidisciplinary team of physicians is necessary to treat college athletes. Most physician evaluations are for musculoskeletal injuries treated nonoperatively. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 2-year period, a database was created that recorded information on team physician encounters with intercollegiate athletes at a major university. Data on imaging studies, hospitalizations, and surgeries were also recorded. The diagnoses for physician encounters with all undergraduates through the university's health service were also recorded. More initial athlete evaluations were for musculoskeletal diagnoses (73%) than for general medical diagnoses (27%) (P respiratory infections and dermatologic disorders, or multiple visits for concussions. Football accounted for 22% of all physician encounters, more than any other sport (P athletes did not require a greater number of physician encounters than did the general undergraduate pool of students on a per capita basis. Intercollegiate team physicians primarily treat musculoskeletal injuries that do not require surgery. General medical care is often single evaluations of common conditions and repeat evaluations for concussions.

  8. Mental health problems and their association to violence and maltreatment in a nationally representative sample of Tanzanian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin; Goessmann, Katharina; Hecker, Tobias

    2018-04-12

    Little is known about the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research consistently determined violence and maltreatment to be important risk factors. In this study, we examined the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in Tanzania, as well as the association with exposure to violence and maltreatment. We administered a set of questionnaires (e.g., strength and difficulties questionnaire; conflict tactic scale) to a nationally representative sample of 700 Tanzanian secondary school children (52% girls; age 14.92 years, SD = 1.02) and 333 parents or primary caregivers (53% females; age 43.47 years, SD = 9.02). 41% of the students reported an elevated level of mental health problems (emotional problems 40%, peer problems 63%, conduct problems 45%, hyperactivity 17%) in the past 6 months. Concordantly, 31% of parents reported observing an elevated level of mental health problems in their children (emotional problems 37%, peer problems 54%, conduct problems 35%, hyperactivity 17%). After controlling for other risk factors, we found significant associations between physical violence by parents and adolescent's mental health problems reported by students (β = 0.15) and their parents (β = 0.33). Our findings suggest a high prevalence of mental health problems using screening tools among secondary school students in Tanzania as well as an association between physical violence by parents and adolescents' mental health problems. Our findings emphasize the need to inform the population at large about the potentially adverse consequences associated with violence against children and adolescents.

  9. Peer-Assisted Learning in the Athletic Training Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jolene M; Weidner, Thomas G; Jones, James

    2006-01-01

    Context: Athletic training educators often anecdotally suggest that athletic training students enhance their learning by teaching their peers. However, peer-assisted learning (PAL) has not been examined within athletic training education in order to provide evidence for its current use or as a pedagogic tool. Objective: To describe the prevalence of PAL in athletic training clinical education and to identify students' perceptions of PAL. Design: Descriptive. Setting: “The Athletic Training Student Seminar” at the National Athletic Trainers' Association 2002 Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposia. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 138 entry-level male and female athletic training students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Students' perceptions regarding the prevalence and benefits of and preferences for PAL were measured using the Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey. The Survey is a self-report tool with 4 items regarding the prevalence of PAL and 7 items regarding perceived benefits and preferences. Results: A total of 66% of participants practiced a moderate to large amount of their clinical skills with other athletic training students. Sixty percent of students reported feeling less anxious when performing clinical skills on patients in front of other athletic training students than in front of their clinical instructors. Chi-square analysis revealed that 91% of students enrolled in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs–accredited athletic training education programs learned a minimal to small amount of clinical skills from their peers compared with 65% of students in Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Athletic Training–candidacy schools (χ2 3 = 14.57, P < .01). Multiple analysis of variance revealed significant interactions between sex and academic level on several items regarding benefits and preferences. Conclusions: According to athletic training students, PAL is occurring in

  10. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  11. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among studentsrepresentatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masc...

  12. Frustrations among graduates of athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Dodge, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Although previous researchers have begun to identify sources of athletic training student stress, the specific reasons for student frustrations are not yet fully understood. It is important for athletic training administrators to understand sources of student frustration to provide a supportive learning environment. To determine the factors that lead to feelings of frustration while completing a professional athletic training education program (ATEP). Qualitative study. National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) accredited postprofessional education program. Fourteen successful graduates (12 women, 2 men) of accredited professional undergraduate ATEPs enrolled in an NATA-accredited postprofessional education program. We conducted semistructured interviews and analyzed data with a grounded theory approach using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. We negotiated over the coding scheme and performed peer debriefings and member checks to ensure trustworthiness of the results. Four themes emerged from the data: (1) Athletic training student frustrations appear to stem from the amount of stress involved in completing an ATEP, leading to anxiety and feelings of being overwhelmed. (2) The interactions students have with classmates, faculty, and preceptors can also be a source of frustration for athletic training students. (3) Monotonous clinical experiences often left students feeling disengaged. (4) Students questioned entering the athletic training profession because of the fear of work-life balance problems and low compensation. In order to reduce frustration, athletic training education programs should validate students' decisions to pursue athletic training and validate their contributions to the ATEP; provide clinical education experiences with graded autonomy; encourage positive personal interactions between students, faculty, and preceptors; and successfully model the benefits of a career in athletic training.

  13. Engaging Diverse Students in Statistical Inquiry: A Comparison of Learning Experiences and Outcomes of Under-Represented and Non-Underrepresented Students Enrolled in a Multidisciplinary Project-Based Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierker, Lisa; Alexander, Jalen; Cooper, Jennifer L.; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2016-01-01

    Introductory statistics needs innovative, evidence-based teaching practices that support and engage diverse students. To evaluate the success of a multidisciplinary, project-based course, we compared experiences of under-represented (URM) and non-underrepresented students in 4 years of the course. While URM students considered the material more…

  14. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  15. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  16. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors.

  17. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Palmier, Jane B; Benegas-Segarra, Agnes; Sinson, Fe A

    2013-12-10

    A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths' drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5,290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI=1.06-3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI=1.05-2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI =1.06-2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  18. Student-Athletes' Perceptions of Coaches' Coaching Competency at the Malaysian Public Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lim Khong; Mahat, Nor Idayu; Hua, Khor Phoy; Radzuwan, Radzliyana Bt.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the competency level of coaches at the higher institutions' sports competitions organized by the Universities Sports Council of Malaysia. Multi-dimensional model of leadership behaviors and models of coaching effectiveness were used as the basis for the theoretical framework. A total of 322 student-athletes…

  19. Community College Athletics: The Road Less Traveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Joseph R.; Kirk, Arthur

    1979-01-01

    Community colleges are urged to break away from the commercialized athletics modeled by four-year colleges and develop programs that have educational value, focus on the success of the individual, and encourage wide student participation. Focus should be on lifelong involvement in sports and student learning. (JMD)

  20. Motivation and Goal-Setting in College Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Motivation and goal-setting are important concepts in athletics and sport and exercise psychology. However, little research has compared motivation and goal-setting by gender. The self-determination theory was used and the purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between male and female athletes when looking at amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and goal-setting. One hundred and six student-athletes (fifty one males and f...

  1. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stanojević; Dejan Milenković

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functi...

  2. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Podiatry What is a Podiatrist? Student Profiles Council on Podiatric Medical Education (CPME) American Association of Colleges of Podiatric ... 581-9200 Contact Us Copyright © 2018 American Podiatric Medical Association Useful Links Corporate Opportunities ... Agreement Privacy Policy Connect With Us

  3. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264

  4. Applying Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Examine the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale in a Representative Greek Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2018-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships in early childhood are a fundamental prerequisite for children's social, emotional, and academic development. The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is one of the most widely accepted and used instruments that evaluate the quality of teacher-child relationships. STRS is a 28-item questionnaire that assess three relational dimensions, Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency. The relevant literature has shown a pattern regarding the difficulty to support the STRS factor structure with CFA, while it is well-documented with EFA. Recently, a new statistical technique was proposed to combine the best of the CFA and EFA namely, the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM). The purpose of this study was (a) to examine the factor structure of the STRS in a Greek national sample. Toward this end, the ESEM framework was applied in order to overcome the limitations of EFA and CFA, (b) to confirm previous findings about the cultural influence in teacher-child relationship patterns, and (c) to examine the invariance of STRS across gender and age. Early educators from a representative Greek sample size of 535 child care and kindergarten centers completed the STRS for 4,158 children. CFA as well as ESEM procedures were implemented. Results showed that ESEM provided better fit to the data than CFA in both groups, supporting the argument that CFA is an overly restrictive approach in comparison to ESEM for the study of STRS. All primary loadings were statistically significant and were associated with their respective latent factors. Contrary to the existing literature conducted in USA and northern Europe, the association between Closeness and Dependency yielded a positive correlation. This finding is in line with previous studies conducted in Greece and confirm the existence of cultural differences in teacher-child relationships. In addition, findings supported the configural, metric, scalar, and variance/covariance equivalence of the STRS

  5. Applying Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Examine the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale in a Representative Greek Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tsigilis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Teacher-child relationships in early childhood are a fundamental prerequisite for children's social, emotional, and academic development. The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS is one of the most widely accepted and used instruments that evaluate the quality of teacher-child relationships. STRS is a 28-item questionnaire that assess three relational dimensions, Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency. The relevant literature has shown a pattern regarding the difficulty to support the STRS factor structure with CFA, while it is well-documented with EFA. Recently, a new statistical technique was proposed to combine the best of the CFA and EFA namely, the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM. The purpose of this study was (a to examine the factor structure of the STRS in a Greek national sample. Toward this end, the ESEM framework was applied in order to overcome the limitations of EFA and CFA, (b to confirm previous findings about the cultural influence in teacher-child relationship patterns, and (c to examine the invariance of STRS across gender and age. Early educators from a representative Greek sample size of 535 child care and kindergarten centers completed the STRS for 4,158 children. CFA as well as ESEM procedures were implemented. Results showed that ESEM provided better fit to the data than CFA in both groups, supporting the argument that CFA is an overly restrictive approach in comparison to ESEM for the study of STRS. All primary loadings were statistically significant and were associated with their respective latent factors. Contrary to the existing literature conducted in USA and northern Europe, the association between Closeness and Dependency yielded a positive correlation. This finding is in line with previous studies conducted in Greece and confirm the existence of cultural differences in teacher-child relationships. In addition, findings supported the configural, metric, scalar, and variance/covariance equivalence of

  6. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A

    Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.

  7. Clinical Reasoning in Athletic Training Education: Modeling Expert Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Paul R.; Lazenby, Todd W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the need for a more definitive approach to critical thinking during athletic training educational experiences by introducing the clinical reasoning model for critical thinking. Background: Educators are aware of the need to teach students how to think critically. The multiple domains of athletic training are comprehensive and…

  8. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  9. Practical Advice for Teachers and Coaches: Handling Acute Athletic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin; Ormond, Tom; Griffin, Lisa; Maina, Michael; Jones, Christopher; Goldman, Alexander Steven; McMichael, Callaway

    2016-01-01

    Safety concerns are among the first considerations in the design and implementation of any curriculum. However, in the dynamic worlds of physical education and coaching, athletic injuries will inevitably arise, regardless of the proactive strategies in place. These situations will vary in nature, and the student's or athlete's risk of further…

  10. Impact of Intercollegiate Athletic Participation on Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntrods, Clint S.; An, Brian P.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in intercollegiate athletics on leadership development using a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at four-year institutions. Using Astin's (1993) Input-Environment-Outcome model, we examined whether athletic participation influenced leadership development using the Socially…

  11. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  12. Trophies, Treasure, and Turmoil: College Athletics at a Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Karen

    2015-01-01

    College athletics fans would be hard pressed to find a year like 2014 in college-sports history. In this year alone, the US judicial and arbitration systems have had to address four major legal actions coming from current and former student athletes. All speak to a core issue: that colleges have not done enough to protect or provide for their…

  13. Psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS: measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiang Chiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Although Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen, Kamarack & Mermelstein, 1983 has been validated and widely used in many domains, there is still no validation in sports by comparing athletes and non-athletes and examining related psychometric indices. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of PSS between athletes and non-athletes, and examine construct validity and reliability in the sports contexts. Methods Study 1 sampled 359 college student-athletes (males = 233; females = 126 and 242 non-athletes (males = 124; females = 118 and examined factorial structure, measurement invariance and internal consistency. Study 2 sampled 196 student-athletes (males = 139, females = 57, Mage = 19.88 yrs, SD = 1.35 and examined discriminant validity and convergent validity of PSS. Study 3 sampled 37 student-athletes to assess test-retest reliability of PSS. Results Results found that 2-factor PSS-10 fitted the model the best and had appropriate reliability. Also, there was a measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes; and PSS positively correlated with athletic burnout and life stress but negatively correlated with coping efficacy provided evidence of discriminant validity and convergent validity. Further, the test-retest reliability for PSS subscales was significant (r = .66 and r = .50. Discussion It is suggested that 2-factor PSS-10 can be a useful tool in assessing perceived stress either in sports or non-sports settings. We suggest future study may use 2-factor PSS-10 in examining the effects of stress on the athletic injury, burnout, and psychiatry disorders.

  14. Diet- and Body Size-related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. The research design consisted of cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, ...

  15. Entry-Level Athletic Trainers' Perceived Adequacy of Clinical Education in Preparation for Confident Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinew, Kayla A.

    2011-01-01

    Athletic training educators are responsible for giving athletic training students a proper environment in which they have opportunities to apply didactic knowledge using critical thinking and decision making skills in a real world context (Radtke, 2008). Clinical education needs to play an integral role in developing athletic training students…

  16. Intercollegiate Athletics in Canada and the United States: Differences in Access, Quality, and Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Natalie M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that both the Canadian and American intercollegiate athletic leagues are highly competitive, there are significant differences between the two intercollegiate athletic systems, which may produce different experiences for student-athletes enrolled in each system. The differences between the two systems are related to the…

  17. Moving Elite Athletes Forward: Examining the Status of Secondary School Elite Athlete Programmes and Available Post-School Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study focused specifically on examining the status of and the promotion of two elite athlete programmes (EAPs), the students/elite athlete selection process and available post-school options. The research was guided by Michel Foucault's work in understanding the relationship between power and knowledge. Participants,…

  18. Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stacey A; Allen, Brandon L; Phillips, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event.

  19. Mentoring Through Research as a Catalyst for the Success of Under-represented Minority Students in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K.; Simila, G.; Pedone, V.; Yule, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels (individual and team) to research in the geosciences (such as data analysis for earthquake hazards for 1994 Northridge event, paleoseismology of San Andreas fault, Waipaoa, New Zealand sedimentary system and provenance studies, and the Barstow formation geochronology and geochemistry), and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning (think-pair share), and research on geological data sets. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams and conduct four mini-projects and associated poster presentations, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. This initial research experience has been very beneficial for the student's degree requirements of a senior research project and oral presentation. Evaluation strategies include the student research course presentations, summer field projects, and external review of student experiences. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. A component of peer-tutoring has been implemented for promoting additional student success. The program has been highly successful in its two year development. To date, undergraduates and graduate students have

  20. Assessing the life science knowledge of students and teachers represented by the K-8 national science standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students' performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K-4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5-8 standards.

  1. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  2. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. © 2013.

  3. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  4. Athletes at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L; Seyfert, Jonathan H; VanBaak, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 3. AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention.

  5. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K–8 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards. PMID:24006402

  6. Comparative analysis of prestart condition of students girls in Olympic and non-Olympic kinds of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Ivaskiene

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was studied prestart condition of students girls in Olympic and non-Olympic martial arts. With the help of SAN test and Spielberg-Chanin scale during the Championship in Lithuania among students of year 2011 was conducted 54 judo and 48 sambo athletes students girls (n = 102 aged 20.8 + 2.4 years, their sporting career 5.2 + 1.7 years. The hypothesis is not proved that before competition state of representatives of Olympic (judo and non-Olympic (sambo kinds of sport. Getting indexes shown that emotional state of the most of sambo and judo athletes students girls have high level of feeling of well-being, activity and mood. The most of the athletes (72.2% of judo and 64.0% sambo athletes have very low level of situational anxiety.

  7. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Cook Smith, Nancy; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test…

  8. The Role of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Core Muscle Injury/Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Strosberg, David S.; Ellis, Thomas J.; Renton, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP) and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities, however recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of femoroaceta...

  9. Prevalence of sleep duration on an average school night among 4 nationally representative successive samples of American high school students, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E; Basch, Corey H; Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-12-11

    Consistency, quality, and duration of sleep are important determinants of health. We describe sleep patterns among demographically defined subgroups from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System reported in 4 successive biennial representative samples of American high school students (2007 to 2013). Across the 4 waves of data collection, 6.2% to 7.7% of females and 8.0% to 9.4% of males reported obtaining 9 or more hours of sleep. Insufficient duration of sleep is pervasive among American high school students. Despite substantive public health implications, intervention research on this topic has received little attention.

  10. Negligence and Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Although athletic events generate their share of negligence lawsuits, the relatively small number, compared with other education areas, suggests that defenses (like assumption or risk and contributory negligence) have a better fit in athletics. Implications of newer litigation trends involving coaches' misconduct and interpretation of state…

  11. Panhellenic athletics at Olympia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...

  12. Intercollegiate Athletics in the Roaring Twenties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Robert J.

    College sports were started by students in the post Civil War period of the 1860's and 1870's. By the 1880's football, baseball, crew, and track and field were popular intercollegiate sports. The desire of the nation as a whole for diversion after World War I provided an impetus for sports in general and intercollegiate athletics in particular.…

  13. Prediction of vertical jump height from anthropometric factors in male and female martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m(2). Waist-hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power.

  14. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  15. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  16. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  17. Understanding the notion of function and articulation of semiotic records that represent between students entering a program Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Prada-Núñez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the understanding of the notion of function and the ability to articulate different semiotic registers for representation by new students in the university in Colombia. Immediate context is taken as the Faculty of Engineering at a public university. Epistemologically the study is based on symbolic interaction by analyzing the meanings that students attributed to this mathematical concept when addressing problem solving. The methodology, therefore, is qualitatively and use of theoretical coding is done. For analysis of the results it has been applied grounded theory with a structured approach. The information generated by this study corresponds to a test that showed students two graphic representations with the intent to identify which of them was a function, besides which should argue their response. Altogether 86 arguments around the concept are analyzed. Data analysis was done through atlas.ti 7.0 software. The system allows a glimpse of emerging categories the following findings: conceptual deficiencies, diversity in conceptual approaches, conceptual referents, semiotic representations, and finally highlight the various conceptual variations.

  18. Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in Japanese Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Muroya, Miyuki; Shiina, Masami

    2015-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese collegiate athletes, with a focus on their disruption of athletic performance. Cross-sectional study. A university in Osaka, the largest city in western Japan. 232 female collegiate athletes. Premenstrual symptoms and social activities. The prevalence of each premenstrual symptom was high. The prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD was 8.6% and 2.9%, respectively, the same as in general high school students. The athletic performance of 44.3% of athletes was found to suffer in a game or in practice. "Elite athletes" (OR 8.63, 95% CI: 1.22-120.0), "Difficulty concentrating" (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 1.05-10.6), and "Fatigue or lack of energy" (OR 5.92, 95% CI: 1.32-34.5) increased the risk of poor athletic performance. This study showed that premenstrual symptoms affect not only the daily activities but also the athletic performance of collegiate athletes. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical fitness profile of elite athletes with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vliet, P; Rintala, P; Fröjd, K; Verellen, J; van Houtte, S; Daly, D J; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile of high-performance athletes with intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with able-bodied individuals. Participants were 231 male and 82 female athletes. All evaluations were done using the EUROFIT physical fitness test. In comparison with population data, both male and female athletes with ID score better for flexibility and upper body muscle endurance, but have similar or lower values for running speed, speed of limb movement, and strength measures. Compared with age-matched physical education students, male athletes with ID score better for running speed and flexibility, and worse for strength. Female athletes with ID score not different from able-bodied individuals for flexibility, running speed, and upper body muscle endurance, but worse for strength measures. Athletes with ID also have poorer cardio respiratory endurance capacity compared with sportive peers without ID. Furthermore, male athletes have a more differentiated profile depending upon their sports discipline, compared with female athletes. It can be concluded that high-performance athletes with ID reach physical fitness levels that are equal to or lower than those of able-bodied sportive counterparts. Further research should investigate the importance of reduced muscle strength to be the limiting factor.

  20. Intercollegiate Sports (Part 2). Hearings before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session (June 23 and August 4, 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    The House of Representatives Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness met to hear testimony on sex discrimination in secondary and college level athletic programs. The witnesses on the first panel were all current or former college students and plaintiffs in four recent and significant Title IX cases. Title IX was part of…

  1. Fostering Under-represented Minority Student Success and Interest in the Geosciences: Outcomes of the UNC-Chapel Hill Increasing Diversity and Enhancing Academia (IDEA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. H.; Gray, K.; Drostin, M.

    2016-12-01

    For under-represented minority (URM) students, opportunities to meaningfully participate in academic communities and develop supportive relationships with faculty and peers influence persistence in STEM majors (Figueroa, Hurtado, & Wilkins, 2015; PCAST, 2012; Tsui, 2007). Creating such opportunities is even more important in the geosciences, where a lower percentage of post-secondary degrees are awarded to URM students than in other STEM fields (NSF, 2015; O'Connell & Holmes, 2011; NSF, 2011). Since 2011, Increasing Diversity and Enhancing Academia (IDEA), a program of the UNC-Chapel Hill Institute for the Environment (UNC-IE), has provided 39 undergraduates (predominantly URM and female students) with career-relevant research experiences and professional development opportunities, including a culminating experience of presenting their research at a campus-wide research symposium. External evaluation data have helped to characterize the effectiveness of the IDEA program. These data included pre- and post-surveys assessing students' interest in geosciences, knowledge of career pathways, and perceptions of their abilities related to a specific set of scientific research skills. Additionally, progress towards degrees and dissemination outcomes were tracked. In this presentation, we will share quantitative and qualitative data that demonstrate that participation in the IDEA program has influenced students' interest and persistence in geosciences research and careers. These data range from self-reported competencies in a variety of scientific skills (such as organizing and interpreting data and reading and interpreting science literature) to documentation of student participation in geoscience study and professions. About 69% of participants continued research begun during their internships beyond the internship; and about 38% pursued graduate degrees and secured jobs in geoscience and other STEM fields. (Nearly half are still in school.) Overall, these evaluation data

  2. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways, ...

  3. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...

  4. Trends in screen time on week and weekend days in a representative sample of Southern Brazil students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Adair S; Silva, Kelly S; Barbosa Filho, Valter C; Bezerra, Jorge; de Oliveira, Elusa S A; Nahas, Markus V

    2014-12-01

    Economic and technological improvements can help increase screen time use among adolescents, but evidence in developing countries is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine changes in TV watching and computer/video game use patterns on week and weekend days after a decade (2001 and 2011), among students in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys that included 5 028 and 6 529 students in 2001 and 2011, respectively, aged 15-19 years. The screen time use indicators were self-reported. 95% Confidence intervals were used to compare the prevalence rates. All analyses were separated by gender. After a decade, there was a significant increase in computer/video game use. Inversely, a significant reduction in TV watching was observed, with a similar magnitude to the change in computer/video game use. The worst trends were identified on weekend days. The decrease in TV watching after a decade appears to be compensated by the increase in computer/video game use, both in boys and girls. Interventions are needed to reduce the negative impact of technological improvements in the lifestyles of young people, especially on weekend days. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Upper respiratory tract infections in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clifton L; Diehl, Jason J

    2007-07-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) represent the most common acute illnesses in the general population and account for the leading acute diagnoses in the outpatient setting. Given the athlete's expectation to return to activity as soon as possible, the sports medicine physician should be able to accurately diagnose and aggressively treat these illnesses. This article discusses the common pathogens, diagnosis, treatment options, and return-to-play decisions for URTIs, with a focus on the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and infectious mononucleosis in the athlete.

  7. A National Study on the Effects of Concussion in Collegiate Athletes and US Military Service Academy Members: The NCAA-DoD Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium Structure and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglio, Steven P; McCrea, Michael; McAllister, Thomas; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Katz, Barry; Hack, Dallas; Hainline, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The natural history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion remains poorly defined and no objective biomarker of physiological recovery exists for clinical use. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) established the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium to study the natural history of clinical and neurobiological recovery after concussion in the service of improved injury prevention, safety and medical care for student-athletes and military personnel. The objectives of this paper were to (i) describe the background and driving rationale for the CARE Consortium; (ii) outline the infrastructure of the Consortium policies, procedures, and governance; (iii) describe the longitudinal 6-month clinical and neurobiological study methodology; and (iv) characterize special considerations in the design and implementation of a multicenter trial. Beginning Fall 2014, CARE Consortium institutions have recruited and enrolled 23,533 student-athletes and military service academy students (approximately 90% of eligible student-athletes and cadets; 64.6% male, 35.4% female). A total of 1174 concussions have been diagnosed in participating subjects, with both concussion and baseline cases deposited in the Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) database. Challenges have included coordinating regulatory issues across civilian and military institutions, operationalizing study procedures, neuroimaging protocol harmonization across sites and platforms, construction and maintenance of a relational database, and data quality and integrity monitoring. The NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium represents a comprehensive investigation of concussion in student-athletes and military service academy students. The richly characterized study sample and multidimensional approach provide an opportunity to advance the field of concussion science, not only among student athletes but in all populations at

  8. Academic and Workplace-related Visual Stresses Induce Detectable Deterioration Of Performance, Measured By Basketball Trajectories and Astigmatism Impacting Athletes Or Students In Military Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Separate military establishments across the globe can confirm that a high percentage of their prospective pilots-in-training are no longer visually fit to continue the flight training portion of their programs once their academic coursework is completed. I maintain that the visual stress induced by those intensive protocols can damage the visual feedback mechanism of any healthy and dynamic system beyond its usual and ordinary ability to self-correct minor visual loss of acuity. This deficiency seems to be detectable among collegiate and university athletes by direct observation of the height of the trajectory arc of a basketball's flight. As a particular athlete becomes increasingly stressed by academic constraints requiring long periods of concentrated reading under highly static angular convergence of the eyes, along with unfavorable illumination and viewing conditions, eyesight does deteriorate. I maintain that induced astigmatism is a primary culprit because of the evidence of that basketball's trajectory! See the next papers!

  9. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  10. NATIONAL IDENTITY OF TOP – LEVEL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Doupona Topič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Elite international sports are staged in connection with national symbols and involve competitions between athletes and teams representing nation-states. The victors regularly express their joy by displaying their national flag, and spectators use victories as occasions for reaffirming and articulating national pride. The aim of the study was to determine how national identity is formed in connection with sports, and the ways that national identity is integrated into the lives of athletes. The sample included top-level athletes. All participants were members of the Slovenian national team (handball, voleyball, track and field, swimming, cross country skiing, rowing. Social-demographic variables, value categories, motivation for competition, national pride, awareness to be Slovenianian-ness were analysed. Results shows that sporting achievements do have a strong correlation with the national identity.

  11. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  12. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bread and cereal, and plenty of fruits and vegetables. Drink Up! It's important for young athletes to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, which can zap strength, energy, and coordination and ...

  13. The Athlete Within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Olympians to be memorialized as works of art in oil painting exhibition 0lympic medallists, having already reached the pinnacle of popular acclaim through their athletic feats as seen on TV screens world wide, are

  14. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  15. The Cultural Cover-Up of College Athletics: How Organizational Culture Perpetuates an Unrealistic and Idealized Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Uma M.; Comeaux, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Using a combined grounded theory and case study methodology, Jayakumar and Comeaux examined the role of organizational culture in shaping the lives of college athletes, particularly related to negotiating dual roles as both student and athlete. Data collection involved 20 interviews with athletes and stakeholders in the affairs of intercollegiate…

  16. Sudden death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-15

    Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise testing middle aged/senior athletes engaged in leisure sports activity is likely to be effective in patients with significant coronary risk factors, while it is not useful in low-risk subgroups. The availability of automated external defibrillator on the athletic field provides a "back-up" preventive strategy for unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest, mostly occurring in patients with coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  18. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  19. Current Events and Teachable Moments: Creating Dialog about Transgender and Intersex Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Vikki; Barak, Katie Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help physical educators and coaches better understand the issues raised in recent news stories about transgender and intersex athletes and to encourage them to engage students and athletes in dialogues about these topics. In conversations with students, it is important for teachers and coaches to separate facts…

  20. The study of athletes' body perception and gender role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Gulsum

    2011-12-01

    In this study, it has been aimed to examine athletes' body perception and gender role. 120 male athletes and 120 non-athletic male university students participated in the study voluntarily. In the study, as the data collecting means, The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-MBSRQ was used in order to determine males' body perception levels, BEM Sex Role Inventory-BSRI was used to determine gender roles and Personal Information Form developed by the researcher was used to ascertain personal features of the subjects. When the athletes' body perception levels are examined, the features of physical competence orientation, health orientation, appearance evaluation, fitness evaluation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction have been found to be higher than non-athletes' (p orientation (p > 0.05). When gender roles are examined, athletes have been found to have higher values than non-athletes' in terms of masculinity, femininity and social desirability (p gender role, it is also thought that athletes care about health, appearance and physical competence and are glad of body parts because of their muscled body structure developing due to the exercises and have flexible personality to show feminine and masculine features that the environment needs in terms of gender role.

  1. The role of femoroacetabular impingement in core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEllis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI. CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities, however recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of femoroacetabular impingement in core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia, and the diagnosis and management of this complex disease.

  2. Student Perspectives on Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Context: While burnout has received a great deal of attention within the athletic training profession, there is little data on how it affects athletic training students (ATSs). Objective: To determine what factors influence burnout among ATSs enrolled in accredited athletic training education programs. Design and Setting: Basic, interpretive…

  3. Ready, Set, Go: A Narrative Study on Jamaican Female Track and Field Athletes Who Attended College or University in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Khalilah

    2016-01-01

    At most institutions, track and field can function as the redheaded stepchild of athletic programs because these sports do not draw the revenue nor get the crowds often associated with college football or basketball. Nevertheless, there are multiple correlations common among all college student athletes. Primarily, all student athletes face the…

  4. Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Matthew D; Skaggs, David L; Bishop, Gregory A; Pace, J Lee; Ibrahim, David A; Wren, Tishya A L; Barzdukas, Audrius

    2014-03-01

    Much attention has been given to the relationship between various training factors and athletic injuries, but no study has examined the impact of sleep deprivation on injury rates in young athletes. Information about sleep practices was gathered as part of a study designed to correlate various training practices with the risk of injury in adolescent athletes. Informed consent for participation in an online survey of training practices and a review of injury records was obtained from 160 student athletes at a combined middle/high school (grades 7 to 12) and from their parents. Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years (SD=1.5; range, 12 to 18 y). The students' responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school's athletic department. Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average Sleep deprivation and increasing grade in school appear to be associated with injuries in an adolescent athletic population. Encouraging young athletes to get optimal amounts of sleep may help protect them against athletic injuries. Level III.

  5. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  6. External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G; Steiner, Hans

    2009-03-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

  7. Effects of Sport-Specific Training Intensity on Sleep Patterns and Psychomotor Performance in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.

  8. Impact of alcohol and alcohol mixed with energy drinks on non-medical prescription stimulant use in a nationally representative sample of 12th-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff M; Williams, Ronald D; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use. Pearson-product moment coefficients were used to determine strength of variable relationships. Significant differences were found in frequency of Ritalin (p energy drink and AmED use, as the combined effects of stimulants contained in energy drinks and the depressant effects of alcohol appear to be associated with increased non-medical prescription stimulant use. Research on the influential factors related to energy drinks, alcohol, and non-medical prescription stimulants will help practitioners to more appropriately design prevention and intervention strategies addressing these high-risk behaviors. (Am J Addict 2016;25:378-384). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Prediction of life stress on athletes' burnout: the dual role of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyi, Theresa; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Wang, Erica T W; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chang, Ko-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies adopted Smith's (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout in examining stress-burnout relationship, very few studies examined the mediating/moderating role of perceived stress on the stress-burnout relationship. We sampled 195 college student-athletes and assessed their life stress, perceived stress, and burnout. Correlation analyses found all study variables correlated. Two separate hierarchical regression analyses found that the "distress" component of perceived stress mediated athletes' two types of life stress-burnout relationship but "counter-stress" component of perceived stress-moderated athletes' general-life stress-burnout relationship. We concluded that interweaving relationships among athletes' life stress, perceived stress, and burnout are not straightforward. Future research should consider the nature of athletes life stress, and dual role of perceived stress in examining its' association with related psychological responses in athletic settings.

  10. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  11. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  12. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  13. Gender differences in the electrocardiogram screening of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessem, Bram B; de Bruijn, Matthijs M C; Nieuwland, Wybe W

    2017-02-01

    Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the cardiovascular screening of young athletes. Observational cross-sectional study. In 2013 and 2014 all the ECGs from the cardiovascular screenings performed at University Sports Medical Centre in Groningen of the student athletes who wanted to participate in a college sports program were collected. The ECG characteristics were scored using computer-based measurements and the Seattle ECG criteria. The study population included 1436 athletes, of which 72% were male. Male athletes were older (19.3 years vs. 18.6 years), participated in sports more frequently (4.0/week vs. 3.8/week) and spent more hours per week practising sports (6.4h/week vs. 5.8h/week) than female athletes. Male athletes had significantly higher PR intervals (149ms vs. 141ms), lead voltages and QRS duration (98ms vs. 88ms). Female athletes had significantly higher resting heart rates (69/min vs. 64/min) and QTc intervals (407ms vs. 400ms). Male athletes also had significantly higher amounts of sinus bradycardia (38.3% vs. 23.0%), incomplete RBBB (15.0% vs. 3.7%), early repolarisation (4.5% vs. 1.0%) and isolated QRS voltage criteria for LVH (26.3% vs. 4.6%). All P-values were ≤0.001. ECGs of young athletes demonstrate gender-related differences. These differences could be considered in their cardiovascular screening. For the Seattle ECG criteria we advise additional research into the clinical implications of using gender-based cut-off values for the QRS duration in the intraventricular conduction delay criterion. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustivšek, Suzana; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin

    2015-03-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15-17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6-44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future.

  15. The Value of Sleep on Athletic Performance, Injury, and Recovery in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Elizabeth A; Diamond, Alex B

    2017-03-01

    Adequate sleep can easily become compromised as student-athletes try to balance the multiple demands on their time. People with sleep deficiency are at increased risk for acute illnesses, traumatic sports injuries, and development of chronic diseases. Training sessions or competitions during extremely early or late hours can interfere with circadian and homeostatic rhythms. Adjusting the training schedule to improve sleep duration has a significantly positive impact on several aspects of athletic performance. Pediatricians should increase the time dedicated in well-child visits for sleep hygiene and evaluate for sleep disorders at all ages. Parents, coaching staff, teachers, and pediatricians should advocate for improved education on the importance of sleep during adolescence. Future sleep research specific to adolescent athletes can further delineate requirements specific to sport, gender, training times, and surrounding competitions. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e106-e111.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Does Caffeine Enhance Athletic Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcou Juliana

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caffeine consumption may enhance athletic endurance, based on strong evidence, but further research needs to be conducted. High caffeine doses than the optimal, 3-6 mg/kg, before exercise does not confer any additional improvement in athletic performance. Additional, higher caffeine doses may cause side effects in athletes.

  17. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  18. National collegiate athletic association division and primary job title of athletic trainers and their job satisfaction or intention to leave athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Aaron B; Henning, Jolene M

    2011-01-01

    Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Cross-sectional study. A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. We used separate 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F(2182) = 7.82, P = .001 ) and Operating Conditions (F(2,182) = 12.01, P < .001). The JSS subscale Nature of Work was the'greatest indicator of intention to leave (β = -0.45). We found a strong negative correlation between various facets of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction.

  19. Energy availability in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...

  20. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.

  2. Hypermobility in Adolescent Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Background Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. Objective To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent...

  3. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  4. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  5. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  6. Athletic Coaching Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes a study conducted to identify the competencies appropriate for an athletic coach and to incorporate those competencies into a competency based coaching education program for the four-year colleges and universities within the New York state systems. (JMF)

  7. A legal perspective on athlete screening and disqualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterick, Timothy E; Paterick, Zachary R; Patel, Nachiket; Ammar, Khawaja A; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy; Tajik, Abdul J

    2017-01-01

    Physicians participate in the screening, routine medical supervision, and disqualification of student-athletes. In doing so, they should understand that eligibility/disqualification decisions inevitably have associated liability issues. It is the responsibility of physicians to take the lead role in the student-athlete medical assessment process to allow for optimum safety in sports programmes. The first duty of the physician is to protect the health and well-being of the student-athlete. However, because there is potential liability associated with the screening/disqualification process, physicians are wise to develop sound and reasonable strategies that are in strict compliance with the standard of care. This article focusses on cardiac screening and disqualification for participation in sports.

  8. Perceived stress and coping skills of university student–athletes and the relationship with life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    J. Surujlal; Y. Van Zyl; V.T. Nolan

    2013-01-01

    Student-athletes are expected to cope with their studies and participation in sport simultaneously as well as to satisfy the expectations of coaches, teammates, friends, and family. Once student-athletes perceive a situation as stressful and struggle to cope with the anticipation thereof, their satisfaction with life will be negatively influenced. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between perceived stress and coping skills with satisfaction with life of university student...

  9. Building Leadership Skills in Middle School Girls through Interscholastic Athletics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lawrence; Gary, Juneau Mahan; Duhamel, Christie Creney; Homefield, Kimberly

    For the middle school-aged female athlete, self-esteem, empowerment, and self-confidence are often bolstered through participation in interscholastic competitive sports. These traits are also traits of leadership. This digest discusses how many contributing factors and people mold the student athlete into a leader but the process must be…

  10. Social Psychological Concomitants of Adolescents' Role Identities as Scholars and Athletes: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Eldon E.; Spreitzer, Elmer

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes attitudinal and behavioral correlates of the following four categories of high school students from the High School and Beyond study: (1) scholar-athletes; (2) pure scholars; (3) pure athletes; and (4) nonscholar-nonathletes. Findings are discussed in terms of self-esteem, internal locus of control, and extracurricular involvement. (SLD)

  11. Concussion Management in Community College Athletics: Revealing and Understanding the Gap between Knowledge and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes; Porter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The seriousness of concussions in athletics is only recently becoming fully understood and appreciated. There are significant implications for the concussed student-athlete both in returning to the playing field and the classroom. Although practices are now in place to improve identification and management of concussions in professional sports,…

  12. The comparison of social skill levels of team sports athletes and individual sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Çepikkurt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.

  13. Nutrition and physical activity related school environment/policy factors and child obesity in China: a nationally representative study of 8573 students in 110 middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Xue, H; Wen, M; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9 th graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China. Multilevel models tested associations between school factors and child self-reported weight outcomes and by school urbanicity setting (urban, rural). Overweight/obesity rate is higher among boys and in urban areas. Schools in rural areas, or less developed regions, promote longer on-campus life, as is indicated by the presence of school cafeterias, night study sessions and longer class hours. Multilevel models show that (i) school cafeterias (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.35-4.75) and internet bars close to school (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) are associated with increased overweight/obesity risk in rural areas, especially for boys; (ii) school night study sessions are associated with lower overweight/obesity risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96) in rural areas. China has large regional disparities in school environment/policies related to nutrition and physical activity. Some school factors are associated with students' weight status, which vary across gender and areas. Future school-based interventions should attend to diverse regional contexts. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement in athletes with athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R

    2014-03-01

    Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.

  15. Athletic Trainers' Roles and Responsibilities Regarding Academic Adjustments as Part of the Concussion-Management Process in the Secondary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Cailee E Welch; Kay, Melissa C; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

    2017-10-01

    Athletic trainers (ATs) play a vital role in managing the care of student-athletes after a sport-related concussion, yet little is known about their specific involvement in the implementation of academic adjustments as part of the concussion-management plan.   To explore ATs' perceived roles and responsibilities regarding the implementation of academic adjustments for concussed student-athletes.   Qualitative study.   Individual telephone interviews.   Sixteen ATs employed in the secondary school setting (8 women, 8 men; age = 39.6 ± 7.9 years; athletic training experience = 15.1 ± 5.6 years), representing 12 states, were interviewed.   One telephone interview was conducted with each participant. After the interviews were transcribed, the data were analyzed and coded into themes and categories, which were determined via consensus of a 4-person research team. To decrease researcher bias, triangulation occurred through participant member checking, the inclusion of multiple researchers, and an internal auditor.   Several categories related to participants' perceptions regarding their roles and responsibilities within the academic-adjustments process emerged from data analysis: (1) understanding of academic adjustments, (2) perceptions of their roles in academic adjustments, (3) initiation of academic adjustments, (4) facilitation of academic adjustments, and (5) lack of a role in the academic-adjustments process. Although most ATs perceived that they had a role in the initiation and facilitation of academic adjustments for concussed student-athletes, some reported they did not want a role in the process. Regardless, participants frequently suggested the need for further education.   These findings highlight that ATs either wanted to be involved in the implementation of academic adjustments but felt further education was needed or they did not want to be involved because they felt that it was not in their area of expertise. To create a cohesive

  16. The risk of adolescent suicide across patterns of drug use: a nationally representative study of high school students in the United States from 1999 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shane Shucheng; Zhou, Bo; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2013-10-01

    Substance use is associated with suicidal ideation, planning and attempts among adolescents, but it is unclear how this association varies across different types and number of substances. This study examined the association between patterns of substance use and suicidality among a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States during the last decade. Data from the 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey including 73,183 high school students were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses examined the association between lifetime use of ten common substances of abuse (alcohol, cocaine, ecstasy, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, marijuana, methamphetamines, steroids, and tobacco) and four measures of suicidality over the last year (suicidal ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempt, and severe suicide attempt requiring medical attention), controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic variables, interpersonal violence, sexual intercourse, and symptoms of depression and eating disorder). Among the ten substances, univariate analysis demonstrates that adolescents reporting a history of heroin use have the strongest association with suicidal ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempts and severe suicide attempts in the last year (odds ratio = 5.0, 5.9, 12.0, and 23.6 compared to non-users), followed by users of methamphetamines (OR = 4.3-13.1) and steroids (OR = 3.7-11.8). Cocaine, ecstasy, hallucinogens and inhalants had a moderate association with suicidality (OR = 3.1-10.8). Users of marijuana, alcohol and tobacco also had an increased odds ratio of suicidality (OR = 1.9-5.2). The association between each of ten substances and the four measures of suicidality remained significant with multivariate analysis controlling for multiple confounders (p suicide attempts. The seven illicit substances had a stronger association with severe suicide attempts as compared to all other confounding risk factors except depression. The number of

  17. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschberger, R.; Henning, A.; Graff, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  18. Stress fractures in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschberger, R; Henning, A; Graff, K H

    1984-12-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis.

  19. Epistaxis in the Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, H; Taunton, J E

    1988-12-01

    In brief: Epistaxis is common among nonathletes as well as athletes, but because athletes may be more likely to sustain nasal/facial trauma, they probably are more at risk for epistaxis than nonathletes. An epistaxis tray containing the proper equipment should be kept readily available to be used to stop bleeding that does not stop spontaneously. Supplies should include cotton pledgets, antibiotic ointment, a nasal suction tip, a suction source, a topical anesthetic/vasoconstrictor, and more. In some cases reduction of an associated nasal fracture may be required before bleeding will stop. The author outlines the local and systemic causes of epistaxis, the field and hospital treatment for anterior and posterior epistaxis, and the possible complications.

  20. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  1. The Role of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Core Muscle Injury/Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosberg, David S; Ellis, Thomas J; Renton, David B

    2016-01-01

    Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP) and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities; however, recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of FAI in CMI/AP and the diagnosis and management of this complex disease.

  2. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  3. [Athletic pubalgia and hip impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaudin, A; Schindler, M; Ziltener, J-L; Menetrey, J

    2014-07-16

    Athletic pubalgia is a painful and complex syndrom encountered by athletes involved in pivoting and cutting sports such as hockey and soccer. To date, there is no real consensus on the criteria for a reliable diagnostic, the different investigations, and the appropriate therapy. Current literature underlines intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to athletic pubalgia. This review article reports upon two novelties related to the issue: the importance and efficience of prevention program and the association of femoro-acetabular impingement with the pubalgia.

  4. Understand parental influence on child athletes: From disinterested to fanatical parents

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Elizabeth; Butler, Caerwen; Hedge, Nicola; Cunliffe, Josh

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will investigate the role of parental influence on child athletes and how a parent's behaviour can affect athletes in a variety of ways, from positively enhancing performance through to potentially damaging the health of a child. Parents are acknowledged to represent a significant part of the sport workforce; many children would be unable to continue their involvement in sport without their support.

  5. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  6. [Athletic drinks: body rehydration as a vital aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokshanova, A L; Ozhiganova, E V

    2013-01-01

    106 students of the Faculty of Physical Education and athletes who train at the center of power arts (aged 18 to 30 years) have been investigated. The relation between the amount of lost and consumed liquid during physical activity has been studied. The amount of fluid lost was determined by the method of measuring the body mass of an athlete before and after the workout. The kinds of liquids used for eliminating dehydration have been analyzed. It has been revealed that while doing some physical activity and sports most of those being tested don't restore the lost liquid volume (with an average weight loss of 1,15 kg the amount of fluids they drunk was 0.91 l). In the given research the interrelation between the body weight and the lost liquid amount, and between the lost liquid amount and the kind of sports has not been exposed. Liquid loss of athletes in the medium intensive training process during the period of 1.5 h at the ambient temperature 21-22 degrees C constituted on average 1.53% of the body weight and didn't depend on the kind of sports. Despite the advantages of the athletic drinks are evident, the share of their consumption among the athletes in Russia is negligibly small. The great majority of respondents, namely 72%, use common or mineral water to restore the liquid. Only 6% of those being tested consume specialized athletic drinks.

  7. Some views of elite athletes on cooperation with the media and the media's influence on sports and private lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zadražnik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today, sport represents an element of the quality of life as it is often an indicator of a country's civilisational, societal and economic development. The public is mostly interested in elite sport which has effects for both society as well the lives of individuals as the public is not only interested in sports achievements but also in athlete's private lives. The border between the public and private is difficult to establish. The interlinked work of elite athletes and the media often results in misunderstandings as the media intrudes on the private lives of athletes, which in turn impacts both the private and professional lives of athletes. OBJECTIVE: The study's main purpose was to identify the attitude of elite athletes to the media and the influence of the media on the private and professional lives of athletes. The study also evaluated the qualities of an ideal journalist in the eyes of athletes. METHODS: Differences between more and less experienced elite athletes were studied on a sample of 67 Slovenian athletes from team sports. The data were collected through a questionnaire. The findings were further interpreted in line with the opinions of ten leading athletes from individual sports, which were collected through a semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Differences between groups of more and less experienced athletes were detected in answers to the question, "When do athletes decide to cooperate with the media?" and "Have you already been offended by the media?". Elite athletes like to cooperate with the media and usually give information away freely. Similarly, journalists largely understand that athletes desire peace and quiet prior to a competition. Athletes perceive precision and verification of information as the most important qualities of journalists, while they consider some personal qualities and materialistic characteristics as less important. CONCLUSIONS: The study's results show that in the future athletes would

  8. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-22

    Aug 22, 2012 ... that is available for other metabolic processes in the body after the energy cost of ... availability, and 12.5% reported stress fractures during the past two years. .... fat high-carbohydrate diets, high-protein low-carbohydrate diets.

  9. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.

  10. Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

    2012-12-01

    Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes.

  11. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  12. Guaranteed Student Loans: Analysis of Insurance Premiums Charged by Guaranty Agencies. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The insurance premium rates that guaranty agencies charge student borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan program were analyzed by the U.S. General Accounting Office. The Higher Education Amendments of 1986 established a maximum rate (3% of the principal loan amount) that all agencies could charge student borrowers. Comparisons were made of…

  13. Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmela Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

  14. Physical Education for High School Students. A Book of Sports, Athletics, and Recreational Activities for Teen-Age Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, William H., Ed.

    This book about physical activity was written especially for high school students. It is divided into chapters on different physical events. Among the activities discussed are archery, badminton, baseball and softball, golf, riflery, swimming, tennis, touch football, volleyball, and wrestling. Each chapter contains discussions of the history of…

  15. Injury prevalence in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Maria dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.

  16. Athletics Reform and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Hendricks, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Since their inception, intercollegiate athletics have engendered controversy and stimulated debate. Supporters assert that "college sports are significant in defining the essence of the American college and university", suggesting that benefits associated with athletics include more increased fundraising, positive public perceptions of graduates,…

  17. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  18. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  19. Energy Drink Cocktails: A Dangerous Combination for Athletes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks (EDs) on college campuses and in communities has become a considerable public health concern. Among college students, intercollegiate athletes have been identified as being particularly at-risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resultant health and behavioral consequences. The main purpose of this…

  20. Content Validation of Athletic Therapy Clinical Presentations in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Mark R.; Yeo, Michelle; Westbrook, Khatija; Valdez, Dennis; Eubank, Breda; McAllister, Jenelle

    2016-01-01

    Context: Competency-based education requires strong planning and a vehicle to deliver and track students' progress across their undergraduate programs. Clinical presentations (CPs) are proposed as 1 method to deliver a competency-based curriculum in a Canadian undergraduate athletic therapy program. Objective: Validation of 253 CPs. Setting:…

  1. Japanese University Athletes' Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes' dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year students). A…

  2. College Athletics as a Vehicle for Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriard, Michael; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A college professor and former professional football player, a university athletics director, and a sports sociologist offer their perspectives on the role of college sports in providing disadvantaged students with access to higher education. Issues discussed include the history of race and professional sports, colleges' responsibilities to…

  3. Properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team - the sabre event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagiełło, Władysław; Marina, Jagiełło; Maciej, Kalina Roman; Jan, Barczyński Bartłomiej; Artur, Litwiniuk; Jarosław, Klimczak

    2017-12-01

    Fencing is a combat sport whose form of direct confrontation involves hitting the opponent with a weapon. The purpose of the study was to determine the properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team. The study involved 11 female athletes of the Polish national fencing team. Their age was 16-22 years (19±2.32), body weight 52-78 kg (59.7±7.4), body height 158-183 cm (167.46±6.10) and the training experience 7.64±3.47 years. The reference group consisted of 153 students of Warsaw University of Technology (Poland). Twenty basic somatic characteristics were measured. The following indices were calculated: slenderness, Rohrer's, BMI, Manouvrier's, and pelvic-shoulder indices. Density of the body, total body fat, active tissue, the overall profile of body composition and internal proportions of the body were determined. Analysis of internal proportions of factors of the athletes' body composition revealed significant differences in particular groups of features. The total size of the athletes' bodies is due to less-than-average magnitude of the length and stoutness characteristics and a high magnitude of adiposity (M = 0.63) in the Polish female national team of fencers (sabre) calculated from the normalized values for the control group. The proportions of features within the analysed factors revealed a significant advantage of the length of the upper extremity over the lower one and a distinct advantage of forearm musculature. The specific profile of body composition of female athletes practising sabre fencing is most likely due to long-term effects of training as well as the system of selection of persons with specific somatic prerequisites developed in the course of many years of training practice.

  4. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-12-01

    Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices.

  5. The Effect of Physical Activity agains the Telomere Length in the Leukocytes Cells of KONI Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are strands of non coding DNA at the ends of chromosomes that have the primary function to protect DNA from damage and maintain chromosomal stability. Physical exercise will increase the antioxidant activity can increase telomere proteins, lengthen telomeres and or protein networks associated with telomere so that the telomere remains long, or stopping telomere shortening. Telomere length was also associated with age. The purpose of the research was to determine telomere length of leukocyte cells in the KONI (Indonesian National Sports Committee athletes in Jakarta. The research method is descriptive, by measuring telomere length using quantitative PCR on leukocyte cells. Samples are KONI athletes from several sports, including men and women athletes, with ages between 15-20 years. Used a control group (not athletes is students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of YARSI. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05 between telomere length group of athletes with the control group in both sexes. Similarly, telomere length between athlete male with female athletes also showed no significant difference (p> 0.05. It was concluded that physical exercise in athletes KONI at the age of 15- 20 years had no effect on telomere length in leukocytes. The results of this study provide information about the telomere length in Indonesian athletes at an early age.

  6. Gender, ethnicity, self-esteem and disordered eating among college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig; Crosby, Ross; Engel, Scott; Mitchell, James; Powers, Pauline; Wittrock, David; Wonderlich, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    This study was undertaken to compare ethnic and gender differences regarding self-esteem and various disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among elite college athletes. A total of 1445 student athletes from 11 Division I schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. White female athletes reported significantly lower self-esteem than Black female, Black male and White male athletes. Black female athletes' self-esteem was equal to both Black and White male athletes. White female athletes reported significantly higher drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and more disturbed eating behaviors than Black female and both groups of male athletes. The current study demonstrates that White female athletes appear to be most at risk for having difficulty with eating disorders. Their reporting of significantly lower self-esteem indicates that this may be a risk factor that is more characteristic of this ethnic group. Questions are raised about what factors exist in the Black female culture that protect them from low self-esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.

  7. Association Between Concussion and Lower Extremity Injuries in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frances C; Burdette, G Trey; Joyner, A Barry; Llewellyn, Tracy A; Buckley, Thomas A

    Concussions have been associated with elevated musculoskeletal injury risk; however, the influence of unreported and unrecognized concussions has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between concussion and lower extremity musculoskeletal injury rates across a diverse array of sports among collegiate student-athletes at the conclusion of their athletic career. The hypothesis was that there will be a positive association between athletes who reported a history of concussions and higher rates of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Student-athletes (N = 335; 62.1% women; mean age, 21.2 ± 1.4 years) from 13 sports completed a reliable injury history questionnaire. Respondents indicated the total number of reported, unreported, and potentially unrecognized concussions as well as lower extremity injuries including ankle sprains, knee injuries, and muscle strains. Chi-square analyses were performed to identify the association between concussion and lower extremity injuries. There were significant associations between concussion and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.012), knee injury ( P = 0.002), and lower extremity muscle strain ( P = 0.031). There were also significant associations between reported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.003), unreported concussions and knee injury ( P = 0.002), and unrecognized concussions and lateral ankle sprain ( P = 0.001) and lower extremity muscle strains ( P = 0.006), with odds ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.9. There was a positive association between concussion history and lower extremity injuries (odds ratios, 1.6-2.9 elevated risk) among student-athletes at the conclusion of their intercollegiate athletic careers. Clinicians should be aware of these elevated risks when making return-to-participation decisions and should incorporate injury prevention protocols.

  8. Delayed Effects of Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximum Oxygen Consumption, Lactate Release and Pulmonary Function Tests in Athletes and non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Momeni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC improves exercise performance, and since this phenomenon has two phases, the aim of the current study was to investigate the delayed effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function in athletes and non-athletes. Materials and Methods: 25 male and female students were studied in two main athletes and non-athletes groups. RIPC was induced by using 3 cycles of alternative 5 minutes ischemia and 5 minutes reperfusion at arms of participants. Cardiopulmonary tests were measured before, after and 24 hours after inducing remote ischemic preconditioning. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max estimated by using queen steps test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that delayed RIPC in non-athletes group caused significant improvement in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV and noticeable improvement in some other parameters of pulmonary function tests. Moreover, it decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate and decreased lactate release in both groups especially athletes group but it had no significant effect on VO2max of both groups. Conclusion: Delayed RIPC improves cardiovascular function of athletes and pulmonary function of non-athletes subjects. Thus, it can be considered as a good replacement for doping to improve sports performance of subjects in sports tournaments.

  9. Incidence and causes of sudden death in U.S. college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Barry J; Haas, Tammy S; Murphy, Caleb J; Ahluwalia, Aneesha; Rutten-Ramos, Stephanie

    2014-04-29

    The goal of this study was to reliably define the incidence and causes of sudden death in college student-athletes. The frequency with which cardiovascular-related sudden death occurs in competitive athletes importantly influences considerations for pre-participation screening strategies. We assessed databases (including autopsy reports) from both the U.S. National Registry of Sudden Death in Athletes and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (2002 to 2011). Over the 10-year study period, 182 sudden deaths occurred (age 20 ± 1.7 years; 85% male; 64% white), 52 resulting from suicide (n = 31) or drug abuse (n = 21) and 64 probably or likely attributable to cardiovascular causes (6/year). Of these 64 athletes, 47 had a confirmed post-mortem diagnosis; the most common were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 21 and congenital coronary anomalies in 8. The 4,052,369 athlete participations (in 30 sports over 10 years) incurred mortality risks as follows: suicide and drugs combined, 1.3/100,000 athlete participation-years (5 deaths/year); and documented cardiovascular disease, 1.2/100,000 athlete participation-years (4 deaths/year). Notably, cardiovascular deaths were 5-fold more common in African-American athletes than in white athletes (3.8 vs. 0.7/100,000 athlete participation-years; p death due to cardiovascular disease is relatively low, with mortality rates similar to suicide and drug abuse, but less than expected in the general population, although highest in African-American athletes. A substantial minority of confirmed cardiovascular deaths would not likely have been reliably detected by pre-participation screening with 12-lead electrocardiograms. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of body composition by segmental bioelectrical impedance method in Japanese college athletes : focus on the different characteristic of sports

    OpenAIRE

    村松, 愛梨奈; 乙木, 幸道; 井川, 正治

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify a characteristic of body composition of limbs in Japanese athletes by the segmental bioelectric impedance analysis (S-BIA) method. The subjects were 131 college athletes (baseball, volleyball, handball, combined competition, wrestling, soft tennis, swimming; athletes group) and 107 healthy college students (control group). The items of measurement were body height, body weight, BMI, percent of body fat (%FAT), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We measured %F...

  11. A Qualitative Report of the Ways High School Chemistry Students Attempt to Represent a Chemical Reaction at the Atomic/Molecular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Anne L.; Wood, Nathan B.; Roehrig, Gillian H.; Nyachwaya, James

    2010-01-01

    We report the findings of a large-scale (n = 1,337) qualitative descriptive analysis of U.S. high schools students' particulate representations of a chemical reaction, specifically, the combustion of methane. Data were collected as part of an end of course exam. Student representations were coded into 17 distinct subcategories under one of five…

  12. Sleep for performance and recovery in athletes | Venter | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In their quest for excellence, athletes have to cope with tough training programmes, and perform well in competitions on a regular basis. Players from top clubs may have additional commitments such as inter-provincial league matches and tournaments, or representing their country in international competitions.

  13. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywanski, Jaroslaw; Mikulski, Tomasz; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral supplementation. Athletes should therefore routinely assess their

  14. Department of Education's Student Loan Programs: Are Tax Dollars at Risk? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing was held to consider whether the student loan programs of the Department of Education place tax dollars at risk. In his opening remarks, Representative John L. Mica (Florida) pointed out that for nearly 10 years, the U.S. General Accounting Office has labeled these programs as a high risk for fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement. In…

  15. THE EFFECT OF FUN ATHLETICS EXERCISES ON PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fun athletics exercises on the psychomotor development. The research group consisted of 9 boys and 27 girls with a total of 36 students between 11-14 ages in Kocaeli. In the study, the fun athletics exercises (featured somersault, obstacles to jump, slip under the barrier, slalom, training ladder, double jump, medicine ball handling applied for 90 minutes a day and 3 days a week over 8 weeks. The data was analyzed with Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test and significance level was determined as α=0.05. According to findings of this study significant differences were found between pre and post tests results. As a result this study showed that fun athletic exercises have a positive effect on 11-14 aged children’s psychomotor development.

  16. Approach to the Underperforming Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mary L; Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2016-03-01

    Children and adolescents who participate in intense sports training may face physical and psychologic stresses. The pediatric health care provider can play an important role in monitoring an athlete's preparation by obtaining a proper sports history, assessing sleep hygiene, discussing nutrition and hydration guidelines, and evaluating physiologic causes of fatigue. Educating parents and athletes on the potential risks of high-intensity training, inadequate rest and sleep, and a poor diet may improve the athlete's performance and prevent symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis must also be considered a cause of fatigue among adolescents. The signs and symptoms of overtraining and burnout are discussed in this article. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Understanding Athletic Pubalgia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin

    2016-10-04

    Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  18. Mortality in former Olympic athletes: retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, R; Zantvoord, F W A; van Bodegom, D; van der Ouderaa, F J G; Westendorp, R G J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the mortality risk in subsequent years (adjusted for year of birth, nationality, and sex) of former Olympic athletes from disciplines with different levels of exercise intensity. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Former Olympic athletes. Participants 9889 athletes (with a known age at death) who participated in the Olympic Games between 1896 and 1936, representing 43 types of disciplines with different levels of cardiovascular, static, and dynamic intensity exercise; high or low risk of bodily collision; and different levels of physical contact. Main outcome measure All cause mortality. Results Hazard ratios for mortality among athletes from disciplines with moderate cardiovascular intensity (1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.07) or high cardiovascular intensity (0.98, 0.92 to 1.04) were similar to those in athletes from disciplines with low cardiovascular intensity. The underlying static and dynamic components in exercise intensity showed similar non-significant results. Increased mortality was seen among athletes from disciplines with a high risk of bodily collision (hazard ratio 1.11, 1.06 to 1.15) and with high levels of physical contact (1.16, 1.11 to 1.22). In a multivariate analysis, the effect of high cardiovascular intensity remained similar (hazard ratio 1.05, 0.89 to 1.25); the increased mortality associated with high physical contact persisted (hazard ratio 1.13, 1.06 to 1.21), but that for bodily collision became non-significant (1.03, 0.98 to 1.09) as a consequence of its close relation with physical contact. Conclusions Among former Olympic athletes, engagement in disciplines with high intensity exercise did not bring a survival benefit compared with disciplines with low intensity exercise. Those who engaged in disciplines with high levels of physical contact had higher mortality than other Olympians later in life. PMID:23241269

  19. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  20. Linking the Leadership Identity Development Model to Collegiate Recreation and Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stacey L

    2015-01-01

    The Leadership Identity Development (LID) Model (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005) provides a stage leadership development model for college students that can be applied to collegiate recreation student staff, volunteers, participants, and varsity student-athletes. This chapter provides guidance to implement the model in these settings and to create environments that support development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stanojević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functional abilities six functional tests were used: resting heart rate, Cooper test, heart rate in the first minute after Cooper test, heart rate in the second minute after Cooper test, systolic arterial blood pressure, diastolic arterial blood pressure. For assessment of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines four tests were used: long jump, high jump, shot put and javelin. Data analysis was performed with canonical correlation and regression analysis. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between functional abilities with all of tests in jumping and throwing athletic disciplines.

  2. Prevalence of clinically elevated depressive symptoms in college athletes and differences by gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Hong, Eugene; Marks, Donald; Panchoo, Kelly; Gross, Michael

    2016-02-01

    There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and 5-7 million high school student athletes competing each year. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, the depression prevalence rate for young adults, which ranges from 10% to 85% across studies, is higher than that of other age groups. Given the relatively high prevalence of depression in individuals of collegiate age in the general population, the prevalence of depression among athletes in this age group warrants further study. This multiyear study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in college athletes, as well as demographic factors related to increased or decreased rates of depressive symptoms by gender and sport. To describe the prevalence of depression symptoms among NCAA division I student athletes at a single institution over 3 consecutive years. Participants (n=465) completed a battery of measures during their yearly spring sports medicine physical across 3 consecutive years. The battery included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and a demographic questionnaire, administered during the course of routine sports medicine physical examinations. Differences in depressive symptoms prevalence and relative risk ratios were calculated by gender and sport. The prevalence rate for a clinically relevant level of depressive symptoms, as measured on the CES-D (CES-D ≥16), was 23.7%. A moderate to severe level of depressive symptoms was reported by 6.3%. There was a significant gender difference in prevalence of depressive symptoms, χ(2) (1)=7.459, p=0.006, with female athletes exhibiting 1.844 times the risk of male athletes for endorsing clinically relevant symptoms. The CES-D identified clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms in nearly one-quarter of college student athletes in this large cross-sectional sample. Female college athletes reported significantly more depressive symptoms than males

  3. Predictors of disordered eating in a sample of elite Division I college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Scott G; Johnson, Craig; Powers, Pauline S; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Steve A; Wittrock, David A; Mitchell, James E

    2003-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between a number of areas of elite student-athletes' lives and disordered eating. We surveyed 1445 elite Division I athletes at 11 different institutions and in 11 different sports. Hierarchical regression was used to indicate specific areas of the participants' collegiate experience that may be associated with disordered eating attitudes and symptomatology. Results demonstrate that the variables entered into each model predicted between 40.5% and 46.4% of the variance for the restriction of food, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness. Categories of variables that generally predicted the most variance for each dependent measure were demographics, athletic involvement, and personality. Of the 11 sports included in the analysis, wrestling and gymnastics demonstrated elevated levels of drive for thinness, food restriction, and purging behavior compared to other athletes. Findings suggest that in elite athletes gender, ethnicity, sport, and self-esteem are associated with several behaviors and attitudes indicative of disordered eating.

  4. The Acute Management of Sport Concussion in Pediatric Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2015-10-01

    During the past two decades the focus on sport concussion has increased significantly. Young athletes represent the most vulnerable population to sustain a sport concussion yet receive the least amount of attention. Specifically, young athletes who sustain a sport concussion can go unrecognized and continue to participate in sport putting them at an increased risk for a more significant injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a clinical framework for the evaluation and management of sport concussion. In addition, this review provides considerations for health care professionals in regard to clinical measures and follow-up strategies during the acute phase following concussion in young concussed athletes following injury. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. An analysis of Finnish skiing school students' academic education and athletic success [Analýza akademického vzdělání a sportovních úspěchů studentů finských lyžařských škol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Romar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skiing boarding schools provide an opportunity to combine academic education and an athletic career. Many athletes select to go to a boarding school at an age of 16 because they have poor local training possibilities; however, this physical move away from home providesmany challenges. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze academic education and athletic success of skiing school students in Finland. METHODS: The participants were 49 students (15 girls and 34 boys with an average age of 17 years. They came from three skiing boarding schools, two cross-country and one alpine school. Sixty percent of the alpine skiers were members of the junior national team while only six percent of the cross-country skiers. All participants completed a survey about study success and athletic performance. RESULTS: The results showed that 80% of the students extended their high school studies from three to four years. About 50% of all students were satisfied with their academic success. Fifty-four percent of alpine skiers and 15% of cross-country skiers indicated that their best athletic success were in international competitions. Almost all students perceived that skiing school helped by combining sport and school. However, only 40% of the alpine skiers and 62% of the cross-country skiers were satisfied with their present athletic success. Seventy-three percent of the alpine skiers felt that sport participation affected negatively their success in school. Success in sport, good training possibilities, skilled coaches and caring friends were reason for enjoying life in skiing boarding schools. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the concept of skiing schools and suggest that there are many things to consider when combining education and an athletic career.[VÝCHODISKA: Lyžařské internátní školy nabízejí možnost spojit akademické vzdělání a sportovní kariéru. Mnozí sportovci odcházejí ve věku 16 let na internátní

  6. Team-Based Learning in a Pipeline Course in Medical Microbiology for Under-Represented Student Populations in Medicine Improves Learning of Microbiology Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, K C; Murphy, M M; Mitchell-Williams, J; Rogers-McQuade, H; Lopez, O J

    2016-12-01

    As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant ( p < 0.01) improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students' perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.

  7. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  8. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971

  9. Sex Discrimination in High School Sports. A Report and Recommendations from Public Hearings on Interscholastic Athletics for Girls in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Commission for Women, Harrisburg.

    The Pennsylvania Commission for Women held hearings on equal opportunity for girls in athletics in November 1978. Participants included coaches, parents, students, organization and state officials. Testimony was presented on inequities between girls' and boys' athletic programs, coaching and officiating salaries, and attitudes toward female and…

  10. The Mediatory Role of Exercise Self-Regulation in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Anger Management of Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazzadeh, Somayeh; Beliad, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the mediatory role of exercise self-regulation role in the relationship between personality traits and anger management among athletes. The statistical population of this study includes all athlete students of Shar-e Ghods College, among which 260 people were selected as sample using random sampling method. In addition, the…

  11. Practices and Procedures to Prevent the Transmission of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stephanie A.; Long, Marcus; Gaebelein, Claude J.; Martin, Madeline S.; Hogan, Patrick G.; Yetter, John

    2012-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are frequent in student athletes and are often caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA). We evaluated the awareness of CA-MRSA among high school coaches and athletic directors in Missouri (n = 4,408) and evaluated hygiene practices affecting SSTI…

  12. Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Byon, Kevin K.; Schoenstedt, Linda; Johns, Gary; Bussell, Leigh Ann; Choi, Hwansuk

    2012-01-01

    Various consumer values and perceived product attributes trigger consumptive behaviors of athletic team merchandise (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Likewise, using a principal component analysis technique on a student sample, a measurement scale was proposed that consisted of nine factors affecting the purchase of athletic team…

  13. Mentoring Through Research as a Catalyst for the Success of Under-represented Minority Students in the Geosciences at California State University Northridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Pedone, V.; Simila, G. W.; Yule, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels to research in the geosciences and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning, and geological research. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. The program was highly successful in its inaugural year. To date, undergraduates and graduate students in the program coauthored six abstracts at professional meetings and one conference paper. High-school students gained first hand experience of a college course and geologic research. Perhaps the most important impacts of the program are the close camaraderie that has developed and the increased ability of the Catalyst students to plan and execute research with greater confidence and self-esteem.

  14. High Baseline Postconcussion Symptom Scores and Concussion Outcomes in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Aimee; Sufrinko, Alicia; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Some healthy athletes report high levels of baseline concussion symptoms, which may be attributable to several factors (eg, illness, personality, somaticizing). However, the role of baseline symptoms in outcomes after sport-related concussion (SRC) has not been empirically examined. To determine if athletes with high symptom scores at baseline performed worse than athletes without baseline symptoms on neurocognitive testing after SRC. Cohort study. High school and collegiate athletic programs. A total of 670 high school and collegiate athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into groups with either no baseline symptoms (Postconcussion Symptom Scale [PCSS] score = 0, n = 247) or a high level of baseline symptoms (PCSS score > 18 [top 10% of sample], n = 68). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 2 to 7 days after SRC with the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test and PCSS. Outcome measures were Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time) and total symptom score on the PCSS. The groups were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni correction to assess interactions between group and time for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment. The no-symptoms group represented 38% of the original sample, whereas the high-symptoms group represented 11% of the sample. The high-symptoms group experienced a larger decline from preinjury to postinjury than the no-symptoms group in verbal (P = .03) and visual memory (P = .05). However, total concussion-symptom scores increased from preinjury to postinjury for the no-symptoms group (P = .001) but remained stable for the high-symptoms group. Reported baseline symptoms may help identify athletes at risk for worse outcomes after SRC. Clinicians should examine baseline symptom levels to better identify patients for earlier referral and treatment for their

  15. Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

  16. The Athletic Shoe in Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702

  17. The Athletic Shoe in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.

  18. Programs for attracting under-represented minority students to graduate school and research careers in computational science. Final report for period October 1, 1995 - September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, James C. Jr.; Mason, Thomas; Guerrieri, Bruno

    1997-10-01

    Programs have been established at Florida A & M University to attract minority students to research careers in mathematics and computational science. The primary goal of the program was to increase the number of such students studying computational science via an interactive multimedia learning environment One mechanism used for meeting this goal was the development of educational modules. This academic year program established within the mathematics department at Florida A&M University, introduced students to computational science projects using high-performance computers. Additional activities were conducted during the summer, these included workshops, meetings, and lectures. Through the exposure provided by this program to scientific ideas and research in computational science, it is likely that their successful applications of tools from this interdisciplinary field will be high.

  19. Team-Based Learning in a Pipeline Course in Medical Microbiology for Under-Represented Student Populations in Medicine Improves Learning of Microbiology Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn C. Behling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant (p < 0.01 improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students’ perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.

  20. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  1. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  2. Electrocardiographic patterns in African University strength and endurance athletes of Zulu descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J; Duvenage, E; Jordaan, J P

    2015-11-01

    There is concern over the effect of training on heart function of athletes as recorded by 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). Although ECG abnormalities with respect to ethnic origin of black athletes from the Caribbean, West Africa and East Africa have been reported, black athletes from southern Africa, specifically participating in different sports, have never been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to analyze the ECG patterns in South African students of Zulu descent, who represented our university in boxing (endurance modality) and body building (resistance modality) at a regional level. Fifteen subjects each were assigned to an endurance (E), resistance (R) or control (C) group, respectively. ECG patterns were recorded with a 12-lead ECG. Our subjects indicated no significant differences in ECG patterns in relation to whether they participate in strength or endurance related sport. However, 80% of the endurance group and 67% of the resistance displayed ECG criteria indicative of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), group E displays higher R5/S1-wave voltages (E=43.3 mm; R=36.8 mm; C=37.1 mm) as well distinctly abnormal ECG patterns (E=87%; R=73%; C=53%), raising clinical suspicion of structural heart disease. Our cohort presented with non-significant, marked ST-segment elevation (53% of both the E and R groups) and inverted T-waves in 27% of the E group. Similar to findings in other ethnic Africans, a large proportion of our Zulu study population displayed ECG criteria indicative of LVH on the evidence of a marked increase of R5/S1-wave voltage and ST/T-segment changes with no differences in relation to whether they participate in strength or endurance related sport.

  3. The Size and Scope of Collegiate Athletic Training Facilities and Staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Petersen, Jeffrey C

    2017-08-01

    Athletic training facilities have been described in terms of general design concepts and from operational perspectives. However, the size and scope of athletic training facilities, along with staffing at different levels of intercollegiate competition, have not been quantified.   To define the size and scope of athletic training facilities and staffing levels at various levels of intercollegiate competition. To determine if differences existed in facilities (eg, number of facilities, size of facilities) and staffing (eg, full time, part time) based on the level of intercollegiate competition.   Cross-sectional study.   Web-based survey.   Athletic trainers (ATs) who were knowledgeable about the size and scope of athletic training programs.   Athletic training facility size in square footage; the AT's overall facility satisfaction; athletic training facility component spaces, including satellite facilities, game-day facilities, offices, and storage areas; and staffing levels, including full-time ATs, part-time ATs, and undergraduate students.   The survey was completed by 478 ATs (response rate = 38.7%) from all levels of competition. Sample means for facilities were 3124.7 ± 4425 ft 2 (290.3 ± 411 m 2 ) for the central athletic training facility, 1013 ± 1521 ft 2 (94 ± 141 m 2 ) for satellite athletic training facilities, 1272 ± 1334 ft 2 (118 ± 124 m 2 ) for game-day athletic training facilities, 388 ± 575 ft 2 (36 ± 53 m 2 ) for athletic training offices, and 424 ± 884 ft 2 (39 ± 82 m 2 ) for storage space. Sample staffing means were 3.8 ± 2.5 full-time ATs, 1.6 ± 2.5 part-time ATs, 25 ± 17.6 athletic training students, and 6.8 ± 7.2 work-study students. Division I schools had greater resources in multiple categories (P facilities in recent years was common, and almost half of ATs reported that upgrades have been approved for the near future.   This study provides benchmark descriptive data on athletic training staffing and

  4. Chinese Student Protection Act of 1992. Report To Accompany S. 1216 of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, 102D Congress, 2d Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jack

    This congressional report describes and analyzes the federal Chinese Student Protection Act of 1992 (S. 1216). This act provides for the adjustment of status under the Immigration and Nationality Act of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China until conditions permit their return in safety to China. An opening section presents the text…

  5. Predicting Student Grade Point Average at a Community College from Scholastic Aptitude Tests and from Measures Representing Three Constructs in Vroom's Expectancy Theory Model of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, Douglas C.; Michael, William B.

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether an unweighted linear combination of community college students' scores on standardized achievement tests and a measure of motivational constructs derived from Vroom's expectance theory model of motivation was predictive of academic success (grade point average earned during one quarter of an academic…

  6. Proprietary Schools. Millions Spent To Train Students for Oversupplied Occupations. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the extent to which the financial aid provided under Title IV of the Higher Education Act to students enrolled in proprietary schools is being spent to train individuals for demand occupations. Job opening projections in 12 states were used to estimate job demand, the National Center for Education…

  7. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes’ Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale’s internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes’ identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects. PMID:28056046

  8. Validation of the computer code system ATHLET / ATHLET-CD. Final report; Validierung des Rechenprogrammsystems ATHLET / ATHLET-CD. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austregesilo, H.; Bals, C.; Erdmann, W.; Horche, W.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pointner, W.; Schoeffel, P.; Skorek, T.; Weber, S.; Wielenberg, A.

    2010-04-15

    In the frame of the reactor safety project RS1173, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, analyses of international integral and separate effects tests have been performed for the validation of the code system ATHLET/ATHLET-CD. The work mainly comprised post-test calculations of selected experiments and the contributions to the working groups accompanying the experimental programs. For the assessment of the thermal-hydraulic models in ATHLET 8 integral tests and 4 separate effect tests have been considered. Together with the corroboration of the existing models, the validation analyses were mainly dedicated to the assessment of the modelling of non-condensable gases and their influence on two-phase natural circulation and on the primary heat removal through steam generators, as well as of the simulation of multi-dimensional flow processes. The validation calculations with respect to the simulation of multi-dimensional one- and two-phase flows aimed to investigate the range of applicability and limitations of the method of parallel channels in connection with the separate momentum equations for water and steam current used in ATHLET as well as to assess the status of the coupled version ATHLET/FLUBOX-3D. The ATHLET-CD validation analyses included the post-test calculations of 9 bundle tests, and was mainly focussed on the assessment of the improved and new models for core degradation, including the models for oxidation, melt formation and relocation for BWR components, as well as of the modelling of fission products and aerosol transport within the primary circuit taking into account chemical reactions within the module SOPHAEROS. As an additional contribution to code validation, the GRS methodology of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was applied exemplarily to two validation calculations, one with ATHLET and one with ATHLET-CD. The results of these uncertainty analyses endorse the capability of the code system to reproduce

  9. The Impact of Sleep Duration on Performance Among Competitive Athletes: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Gregory W; Jones, Jason J; Hale, Lauren

    2018-06-14

    The athletic advantage of sleep, although commonly touted by coaches, trainers, and sports physicians, is still unclear and likely varies by sport, athletic performance metric, and length of sufficient or insufficient sleep. Although recent literature reviews have highlighted circadian and nutritional factors that influence different aspects of athletic performance, a systematic summary of the effects of sleep duration and sleep quality on performance among competitive athletes is lacking. Here we systematically review the relationship between sleep duration and sleep quality and objective athletic performance among competitive athletes across 19 studies representing 12 sports. Taken holistically, we find that the sports requiring speed, tactical strategy, and technical skill are most sensitive to sleep duration manipulations. Furthermore, longer-term sleep manipulations are more likely than acute sleep manipulations (whether deprivation or extension) to affect athletic performance. Thus, the importance of sleep for competitive athletes to achieve high performance is dependent on the demands of the sport as well as the length of sleep interventions. In light of the limited number of studies investigating sleep quality and performance, the potential relevance of subjective sleep quality remains an interesting question for future work.

  10. Visual Structure and Function in Collision Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Danielle; Morettin, Christina; Messner, Leonard V; Steinmetz, Robert J; Pang, Yi; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2017-09-06

    visual function and QOL, similar to patterns observed in multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Vision-based changes associated with head trauma exposure that have the potential to be detected in vivo represent a unique opportunity for further study to determine if these changes in collision sport athletes are predictive of future neurodegeneration.

  11. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  12. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingruber, I.E.; Wolf, C.; Gruber, H.; Czermak, B.V.; Mallouhi, A.; Jaschke, W.; Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Stress fractures may pose a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists since they are sometimes difficult to demonstrate on plain films and may simulate a tumour. They were first described in military personnel and professional athletes. Recently, there is an increasing incidence in the general population due to increasing sportive activities. Stress fractures occur most often in the lower extremities, especially in the tibia, the tarsal bone, the metatarsal bone, the femur and the fibula. In the upper extremities, they are commonly found in the humerus, the radius and the ulna. Some fractures of the lower extremities appear to be specific for particular sports, for example, fractures of the tibia affect mostly distance runners. Whereas stress fractures of the upper extremities are generally associated with upper limb-dominated sports. A correct diagnosis requires a careful clinical evaluation. The initial plain radiography may be normal. Further radiological evaluation could be performed by means of computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scanning. The latter two techniques are especially helpful for establishing a correct initial diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  13. Patellofemoral pain in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wolf; Rembitzki, Ingo; Liebau, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain in athletes, which affects patients with and without structural patellofemoral joint (PFJ) damage. Most younger patients do not have any structural changes to the PFJ, such as an increased Q angle and a cartilage damage. This clinical entity is known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Older patients usually present with signs of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). A key factor in PFPS development is dynamic valgus of the lower extremity, which leads to lateral patellar maltracking. Causes of dynamic valgus include weak hip muscles and rearfoot eversion with pes pronatus valgus. These factors can also be observed in patients with PFOA. The available evidence suggests that patients with PFP are best managed with a tailored, multimodal, nonoperative treatment program that includes short-term pain relief with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), passive correction of patellar maltracking with medially directed tape or braces, correction of the dynamic valgus with exercise programs that target the muscles of the lower extremity, hip, and trunk, and the use of foot orthoses in patients with additional foot abnormalities. PMID:28652829

  14. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  15. Eating and Nutrition Habits in Young Competitive Athletes: A Comparison between Soccer Players and Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the dietary habits in two groups of young athletes, practicing two different sports: soccer players and cycling. The dietary habits of 47 athletes were investigated by questionnaire. Body Mass Index, Fat Mass, Free Fat Mass, Total Body, Intracellular, Extracellular Water and Phase Angle were measured by bioimpedance. The t-Student test for unpaired data was used. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Body Mass Index was similar between the groups, wh...

  16. Athletic pubalgia and associated rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Abigail A; Zoland, Mark P; Tyler, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation and treatment of groin pain in athletes is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and multiple pathologies often coexist. Different pathologies may cause similar symptoms, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. Many athletes with groin pain have tried prolonged rest and various treatment regimens, and received differing opinions as to the cause of their pain. The rehabilitation specialist is often given a non-specific referral of "groin pain" or "sports hernia." The cause of pain could be as simple as the effects of an adductor strain, or as complex as athletic pubalgia or inguinal disruption. The term "sports hernia" is starting to be replaced with more specific terms that better describe the injury. Inguinal disruption is used to describe the syndromes related to the injury of the inguinal canal soft tissue environs ultimately causing the pain syndrome. The term athletic pubalgia is used to describe the disruption and/or separation of the more medial common aponeurosis from the pubis, usually with some degree of adductor tendon pathology. Both non-operative and post-operative treatment options share the goal of returning the athlete back to pain free activity. There is little research available to reference for rehabilitation guidelines and creation of a plan of care. Although each surgeon has their own specific set of post-operative guidelines, some common concepts are consistent among most surgeons. Effective rehabilitation of the high level athlete to pain free return to play requires addressing the differences in the biomechanics of the dysfunction when comparing athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption. Proper evaluation and diagnostic skills for identifying and specifying the difference between athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption allows for an excellent and efficient rehabilitative plan of care. Progression through the rehabilitative stages whether non-operative or post-operative allows for a focused rehabilitative program. As more

  17. The Organizational Climate in Collegiate Athletics: An Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2018-01-01

      An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate.   To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance.   Phenomenologic study.   Collegiate practice setting.   Thirty athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting took part in 1-on-1 phone interviews. The participants were 30.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 7.75) years old and had been certified for 7 (IQR = 5) years and at their current position for 4 (IQR = 3) years.   Participants completed a phone interview that followed a semistructured framework. All transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenologic approach. Researcher triangulation, expert review, and data saturation were used to establish credibility.   Athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting who had positive perceptions of their work-life balance described their organizational climate as family friendly. Our participants' supervisors allowed for autonomy related to work scheduling, which provided opportunities for work-life balance. These athletic trainers believed that they worked in a climate that was collegial, which was helpful for work-life balance. In addition, the importance of placing family first was part of the climate.   The perceptions of our participants revealed a climate of family friendliness, supervisor support, and collegiality among staff members, which facilitated the positive climate for work-life balance. The mindset embraced the importance of family and recognized that work did not always have to supersede personal priorities.

  18. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  19. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  20. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  1. Injured Athletes' Perceived Loss of Identity: Educational Implications for Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Barbara D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: As educators, athletic trainers should familiarize athletes with the concepts of self acceptance self-esteem and identity to assuage psychological trauma accompanying injury because the more a person identifies with being an athlete, the more difficult it is to deal with athletic injury. Objective: The objective of this article is to…

  2. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  3. Exploring Touch Communication Between Coaches and Athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    influential relational and emotional components (closeness, commitment, complementarity and .... of coaches and athletes, it is critical to understand how coaches and athletes .... relationship members in general are motivated to achieve and ...

  4. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  5. Helping Athletes Avoid Hazardous Weight Control Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    This article addresses dangerous dieting techniques used by athletes and provides coaches and teachers specific strategies to aid in preventing eating-related disorders among athletes. Symptoms of anorexia and of bulimia are described. (JL)

  6. Creating Healthy Environments For Youth Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has created a presentation and companion checklist to help coaches and athletic administrators better understand the environmental health risks associated with youth sports and the steps they can follow to protect young athletes.

  7. The pediatric athlete: younger athletes with sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Proctor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although much of the lay media attention surrounding sport-related concussion (SRC) focuses on professional athletes, SRC is a common injury in pediatric sports. The anatomy, biomechanics, and response to injury of the developing pediatric brain differ from those of the adult. Similarly, the neurocognitive abilities of the child are developing more rapidly than in an adult. The effects of concussive brain injury on the life of a child are different from those of an adult. This article focuses on the aspects of SRC that are specific to the younger athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antecedents of emotions in elite athletes: a cognitive motivational relational theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphill, Mark A; Jones, Marc V

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03), representing a range of sports (badminton, golf rugby union, athletics, archery, sailing, and snooker) explored the association between athletes' appraisals and emotions. Concurrent inductive and deductive content analyses suggested that primary and secondary appraisal components (goal relevance, goal congruence, ego-involvement, blame/credit, coping potential, future expectations) were associated with a range of emotions: anger anxiety, guilt, happiness, pride, relief sadness, and shame. A hierarchical content analysis provided some support for Lazarus' (1991) core relational themes. Limitations and applications of this study are discussed.

  9. Paraoxonase activity in athletic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Alpay; Zeyrek, Dost; Atas, Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2010-02-01

    Regular physical activity may play a protective role against cardiovascular disease in adults, and paraoxonase activity may serve to mediate this effect. This study compared paraoxonase activity and that of other antioxidative agents in adolescent athletes compared with inactive youth. Paraoxonase level was 177.32 +/- 100.10 (U/L) in children with regular physical activity and 98.11 +/- 40.92 (U/L) in the control group (P total antioxidative capacity, total oxidative status, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher in the athlete group compared with controls (P < 0.0001). Paraoxonase activity was found to be greater in adolescent athletes, suggesting that regular exercise might provide a cardio-protective effect by this means.

  10. Mortality and health-related habits in 900 Finnish former elite athletes and their brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2018-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015. The age-adjusted HRs were calculated by a paired Cox proportional hazards model. In 2001, surviving participants (n=199 athletes and n=199 age-matched brothers) reported their self-rated health (SRH), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits in the questionnaire. During the total follow-up period, 1296 deaths (72% of the cohort) occurred. The age-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in former athletes was 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, Ppower sports athletes, and 77.5, 73.7 and 72.2 years for their age-matched brothers, respectively. In 2001, compared with their brothers, former athletes smoked less (P<0.001), were more physically active (P<0.05) and rated their health more often as very good (P<0.05). Former elite athletes are more physically active, smoke less, have better self-rated health and live longer than their brothers. Genetic differences between athletes and brothers, aerobic training for endurance elite sports and a healthier lifestyle may all contribute to reduced mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. The Athlete's Perception of Coaches' Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekanska, Małgorzata; Blecharz, Jan; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka

    2013-12-18

    The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 ± 1.48 years of age; 8.35 ± 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches' Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coach's behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to "a post-training session interest in the athlete" as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated "leniency and favoring" less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed "excessive criticism" as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches' "authoritarianism and distance" less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001).

  12. Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2006-10-01

    This study assessed the knowledge, prevalence, and quantity of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Caffeine-related questionnaires were self-administered to 140 (105 male and 35 female, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y) athletes representing 16 countries. Fifty of these athletes further consented to immediate post-race blood samples for analysis of plasma caffeine and paraxanthine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventy-two percent of 70 athletes correctly identified caffeine as being an unrestricted substance in triathlon. The majority of athletes [125 (89%)] were planning on using a caffeinated substance immediately prior to or throughout the race. Cola drinks (78%), caffeinated gels (42%), coffee (usually pre-race) (37%), energy drinks (13%), and NoDoz tablets (9%) were the most popular caffeinated choices. Mean +/- standard deviation (and range) post race plasma caffeine and paraxanthine levels were 22.3 +/- 20 micromol/L (1.7 to 98.4) and 9.4 +/- 6 micromol/L (1.8 to 28.9), respectively. Seven athletes (14%) finished with plasma caffeine levels > or = 40 micromol/L. Plasma values from elite athletes did not differ from age group competitors. Despite the prevalence of its consumption and the training experience of this athletic group, over one quarter of athletes remained either confused or uninformed about caffeine's legality. Levels of plasma caffeine taken immediately post race indicated that athletes typically finish with quantities of caffeine that have been shown to improve endurance performance (i.e., approximately 20 micromol/L or a dose of > or = 3 mg/kg body weight).

  13. Sports pairs: insights on athletic talent; research reviews: twins with leukemia; parents and twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2007-06-01

    Twin research exploring genetic and environmental influences on athletic interests and talents is reviewed. Illustrative examples of twin athletes representing a variety of sports activities are presented. This is followed by an overview of twin studies offering critical insights into the onset and progress of leukemia. In the last section, timely events involving twins and parents of twins will be described--each case provides a new look at an old question.

  14. Transportation Practices in Community College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck

    2010-01-01

    Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…

  15. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: How Vulnerable Are Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses chronic fatigue syndrome as it affects elite athletes, noting that overtraining may mimic it. In some cases, athletes who have it perform exceedingly well in the face of debilitating fatigue. Among athletes and nonathletes, the cause and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)

  16. Intercollegiate Athletics Subsidies: A Regressive Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhart, Matthew; Vedder, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For most colleges and universities in the United States, intercollegiate athletics is a losing financial proposition. The vast majority ICA departments do not break even and require subsidization from the institution as a whole. When schools are forced to heavily subsidize athletics, ICA serves to impose an "athletics tax" on other dimensions of…

  17. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  18. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C.; Healy, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries

  19. A Study of Character among Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Jill D.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that sport builds character has been around for a long time. However, sports may not build the type of character once thought. Character of athletes was defined based on differing views held by sport scholars, coaches, athletes, and sport enthusiast. Sport scholars tend to view character of athletes from a moral perspective. Coaches,…

  20. 2009 Collegiate Athletic Department Sustainability Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report shows that while sustainability efforts appear to be growing within collegiate athletics, commitment to sustainability is lower among athletic departments than compared to their institutions as a whole and to professional sports teams. The survey was distributed to the 119 athletic departments at National Collegiate Athletic…

  1. COMPOSITION OF THE ATHLETES DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Salaj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with many of research papers published annually. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health. The aim of this article is to summarize knowledges about sports nutrition, especially intake of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary supplements and their influence on the performance and recovery of the athlete.doi:10.5219/126 

  2. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  3. Are NCAA Division I Athletes Prepared for End-of-Athletic-Career Transition? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lauren; Buttell, Frederick P

    2018-01-01

    This review focuses on research that specifically highlights the constructs, paradigms, and factors that impact the end-of-athletic-career transition. However, the majority of the research conducted around this topic is established outside of the United States and regarding professional athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is one of the most dominant athletic institutions in the world, and arguably transitions the most end-of-athletic-career athletes per year, and minimal research exists on this specific collegiate athletic population. The purpose of this review is to review the existent literature on this topic and highlight the leading research and components impacting athletes during the end-of-athletic-career transition in order to inform future research and practices with the college athletics population. This review utilizes a Client Oriented Practical Evidence Search question as an Evidence Based Practice approach to guide the literature search and literature review process while identifying the leading research contributing to end-of-athletic-career transition. Following rigorous search criteria, a total of 14 articles were included in the literature review. The selected articles identified central constructs impacting the athletic career transition process, including retirement planning, identity loss, coping skills, and support systems. Additional research is warranted in the United States, particularly with the NCAA collegiate athletes in order to better understand the end-of-athletic-career transition process, as well as instituting interventions to increase resilience in college senior NCAA athletes transitioning out of sport.

  4. The relationship between concussion and alcohol consumption among university athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradey Alcock

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated concussion as a potential risk factor for increased alcohol consumption in university athletes. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 41 university students (37% with a history of concussion completed self-report measures, while electrodermal activation (EDA was recorded for each participant to capture baseline physiological arousal. Results: As expected, concussion status significantly predicted alcohol consumption over and above athletic status, b = 0.34, p = 0.034, 95% CI [0.195, 4.832], such that those with a prior concussion history engaged in greater alcohol consumption. Importantly, concussion status also significantly predicted baseline physiological arousal, b = −0.39, p = 0.014, 95% CI [−0.979, −0.120], such that those with a history of concussion exhibited lower EDA. Conclusions: Elevated alcohol consumption among athletes is a pronounced associate of concussion in sports and may be a behavioral reflection of disruption to the orbitofrontal cortex – an area implicated in inhibition. Keywords: Concussion, Arousal, Risk taking, Alcohol consumption, Athletes

  5. Bone alterations by stress in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, H.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.) [de

  6. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  7. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  8. Birthplace effects on the development of female athletic talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Dany J; King, Jared; Côté, Jean; Abernethy, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an athlete's place of birth can influence the likelihood of playing professional sport. Information regarding the birthplace of all American female athletes in the Ladies Professional Golf Association and Women's United Soccer Association was gathered from official league websites. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if the birthplace of these professional athletes differed in any systematic way from official census population distributions. Odds-ratios were determined for cities within specific population ranges to ascertain if the likelihood of playing professional sport was influenced in any systematic way by city size. The analyses revealed that female professional soccer players born in cities of less than 1,000,000 were over-represented, as were female professional golfers born in cities of less than 250,000. Results are consistent with those of male professional athletes in suggesting that areas of lower population provide conditions more conducive to the development of expertise than do larger city environments.

  9. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  10. A Corporate Pitch for Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The challenge of funding new athletic programs with no additional tax revenue forced a Colorado Springs school district to supplement existing funding arrangements (participation fees, gate admissions, and team fundraising) with a new income source--a lucrative Coca-Cola contract. This article explains how to negotiate (and justify) favorable…

  11. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  12. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  13. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from running and side-to-side cutting, sliding or tackling ...

  14. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  15. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  16. Low back pain functional disability in athletes; conceptualization and initial development of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Elham; Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Noorian, Negin; Memari, Amir Hossein; Shariati, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent causes of disability not only in the general population but also in athletes. Despite a large number of self-reported back specific disability questionnaires, there is no specific, well documented, outcome measure for athletes suffering from back pain. This study aimed to identify the main descriptive themes representing functional disability in athletes due to LBP. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews to characterize the experiences of athletes with LBP. Twenty athletes with LBP were recruited and the main descriptive elements of their LBP related disability were extracted. Then a preliminary questionnaire using these themes was proposed. The main disability indicators were pain intensity; stretching exercises, strengthening exercises, sport specific skills, back range of motion (ROM), sitting, walking, sleep patterns, self-care, and recreational activities, fear of pain and avoidance behavior, and changes in sexual activity. The findings of this study suggest that apart from non-sports items, some sport related items should be included in the assessment of LBP disability levels in athletes. Our results have also been organized as a preliminary LBP disability questionnaire for athletes.

  17. Injuries and illnesses during the 2011 Paris European Athletics Indoor Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, P; Depiesse, F; Hertert, P; Branco, P; Alonso, J-M

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to record and analyse incidence and characteristics of injuries and illnesses incurred during the Indoor Athletics Championships. During the 2011 European Indoor Athletics Championships in Paris, incidence and characteristics of new injuries and illnesses were recorded prospectively by physicians and physiotherapists from national teams and local organizing committee in 631 registered athletes. Around 70% of athletes were covered by the medical teams (response rate: 84%). Thirty injuries, including eight time-loss injuries, were reported, representing an incidence of 47.5 injuries and 29.4 time-loss injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Injury and time-loss injury risk were highest in heptathlon and hurdles. Three-quarters of injuries affected the lower extremity. Thigh strain was the most common diagnosis (n = 7; 23%). Noncontact trauma (n = 9; 30%) was the predominant cause. A total of 18 illnesses were reported. Incidence of illnesses was 28.5 per 1000 registered athletes, with 17% resulting in time lost from sport. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common diagnosis (n = 8; 44%) followed by upper respiratory tract allergy (n = 3; 17%) and gastroenteritis (n = 3; 17%). Injury and illness incidence and severity were lower during the 2011 European Indoor Athletics Championships than during outdoor championships, probably due to the shorter duration, the fewer number of events, and shorter sprint distances. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Chronotype of Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D.; Halson, Shona L.; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were (i) to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii) to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon) participated in this study. The participants’ chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality. All questionnaires were administered during a typical training phase that was not in the lead up to competition and/or post competition. No differences between chronotype group for sleepiness, sleep satisfaction or sleep quality were found. There was a significantly higher proportion of triathletes that were morning and intermediate types compared to the control group χ2 (2) = 7.5, p = 0.02. A significant relationship between sport and chronotype group (χ2(4)=15.9, p = 0.04) was observed, with a higher frequency of morning types involved in sports that required morning training. There was a clear indication that athletes tended to select and pursue sports that suited their chronotype. This was evident by the amount of morning types involved in morning sports. Given that athletes are more likely to pursue and excel in sports which suit their chronotype, it is recommended that coaches consider the athlete’s chronotype during selection processes or if possible design and implement changes to training schedules to either suit the athletes’ chronotype or the timing of an upcoming competition. PMID:28031772

  19. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome in Japanese adolescent athletes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Takeshita, Atsuko; Shiina, Masami

    2016-10-18

    To investigate the relationship between the occurrence of stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese adolescent athletes. Cross-sectional study. Osaka, Japan. A school-based survey on menstruation and school life was conducted using a sample of 1818 Japanese female students who belonged to two public high schools in Japan. Among them, we recruited 394 athletes who had regular menstrual cycles (25-38 days) and completed a questionnaire about their premenstrual symptoms and their competitive career. Premenstrual symptoms and the occurrence of stress fracture. The prevalences of moderate-to-severe PMS and PMDD were 8.9% and 1.3%, respectively, which were the same as in collegiate athletes in a previous study. Premenstrual symptoms disturbed 'Work efficiency or productivity, home responsibilities', 'Relationships with coworkers or family' and 'Athletic performance in training or competition' more severely than menstrual pain (p=0.031, p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). 66 athletes (16.8%) reported having experienced a stress fracture. The severity of 'Overeating or food cravings', 'Physical symptoms' and 'Performance in training or competition' in athletes with previous stress fractures were much higher than in those without a history of stress fractures (p=0.015, p=0.008 and p=0.006, respectively). In terms of premenstrual symptoms, 'Physical symptoms' was associated with an increased risk of stress fractures in athletes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62). The results from this study indicated that premenstrual symptoms may affect athletic performance and has the risk of stress fractures in adolescent athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Prevalence and Impact of Hip Arthroscopic Surgery on Future Participation in Elite American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Sheehan, Joe; Nho, Shane J; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular injuries to the hip in elite athletes represent a source of significant pain and disability. Hip arthroscopic surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of disorders involving the hip joint. To examine the incidence of and abnormalities treated with hip arthroscopic surgery as well as the impact on future participation in American football athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of hip arthroscopic surgery. Athlete demographics, imaging findings, and physical examination results were gathered using the NFL Combine database. Information on prospective participation in the NFL with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and current status was gathered using publicly available databases and compared against all other athletes participating in the combine. Fourteen athletes (15 hips) had a history of arthroscopic hip surgery. Acetabular labral tears were treated in 93% (14 hips), with femoroacetabular impingement decompression performed in 33% (5 hips). Compared with athletes who had no history of hip arthroscopic surgery, those undergoing arthroscopic surgery did not possess a lower likelihood of being drafted (66% vs 71%, respectively; P = .78) or of being on an active roster (52% vs 43%, respectively; P = .44) after their first season in the NFL. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the number of regular-season games played (10.9 ± 4.8 with arthroscopic surgery vs 11.0 ± 5.1 without; P = .96) or started (7.0 ± 3.6 with arthroscopic surgery vs 7.1 ± 5.3 without; P = .98). American football athletes invited to the NFL Combine with a history of hip arthroscopic surgery were not at risk for diminished participation when compared with all other athletes during their first season in the NFL.

  2. Error analysis of supercritical water correlations using ATHLET system code under DHT conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, J., E-mail: jeffrey.samuel@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The thermal-hydraulic computer code ATHLET (Analysis of THermal-hydraulics of LEaks and Transients) is used for analysis of anticipated and abnormal plant transients, including safety analysis of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Russian Graphite-Moderated High Power Channel-type Reactors (RBMKs). The range of applicability of ATHLET has been extended to supercritical water by updating the fluid-and transport-properties packages, thus enabling the code to the used in analysis of SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs). Several well-known heat-transfer correlations for supercritical fluids were added to the ATHLET code and a numerical model was created to represent an experimental test section. In this work, the error in the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) calculation by the ATHLET model is studied along with the ability of the various correlations to predict different heat transfer regimes. (author)

  3. Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.): Collaborative Action Education in Building and Guiding the Future Under-represented Geosciences Workforce Through Tribal Foundations, Mentorship and Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.) was created as an Indian Self-Determination Organization to meet the every growing Tribal and under-represented minorities (URM) geosciences workforce needs. I.S.S. is one of only a few Indian Self-Determined Organizations in the U.S. with a distinct focused on buidling the Tribal and URM geosciences and natural resources workforces. In past three years, I.S.S has worked in partnership with U.S. colleges/universities, state/federal agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs), private and International organizations and most importantly U.S. Tribal Nations to ensure emerging high school students, undergraduates, graduate students and post doctorates have the opportunities for training in supportive and unique environments, navigational mentoring, and broad professional development to build and practice the skills required for blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions. I.S.S. has been highly successful in filling workforce opportunities within the broad range of geosciences positions. I.S.S. students are proficient in understanding and maneuvering the complex landscapes of interdisciplinary research, multidisciplinary multi-partner projects, traditional/western philosophies as well as being highly proficient in all areas of problem solving and communications. Research and on-site projects have heightened the educational experiences of all participants, in addition to addressing a perplexing geosciences challenge grounded in a Tribal environment. A number of the I.S.S. participants and students have found geosciences positions in Tribes, state/federal agencies, enterprize as well as International organizations. I.S.S. practices and has infused all research and projects with intergenerational teaching/learning, participation solution-focused initiatives, and holistic/multicultural mentoring. The presentation will highlight the vision, design, implementation, outcomes and future directions of I.S.S and participants.

  4. Injured athletes' perceptions about social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2011-11-01

    According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.

  5. A NEW METHOD HIGHLIGHTING PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS AND COGNITIVE ATTRIBUTES IN ATHLETE SELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sagdilek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Talents are extraordinary but not completely developed characteristics in a field. These attributes cover a relatively wide range in sports. Tests perused in selection of athletes are generally motoric sports tests and measure predominantly conditional attributes. It is known that in sports, performance is related to cognitive skills as well as physical features and motor skills. This study explored a new method that could be utilized in the selection and tracking the level of improvement of athletes, and evaluate their attention, perception and learning levels, on athlete and other female students. 9 female table tennis athletes that trained for 16 hours per week for the last 5 years and 9 female students that never played in any sports, aged between 10 and 14 years, were participated in our study. For the Selective Action Array, developed for this study, a table tennis robot was utilized. Robot was set up to send a total of 26 balls in 3 different colors (6 whites, 10 yellows, 10 pinks to different areas of the table, in random colors and at the rate of 90 balls per minute. The participants were asked to ignore the white balls, to touch the yellow balls and to grab the pink balls using their dominant hands. Pursuant to explaining the task to the participants, two consecutive trials were executed and recorded using a camera. Every action performed/not performed by the participants was transformed into points in the scoring system. First trial total points in the Selective Action Array were 104±17 for athletes and 102±19 for non-athletes, whereas on the second trial total points were 122±11 and 105±20, respectively. The higher scores obtained in the second trial were significant for the athletes; the difference in the scores for non-athletes was minor. Non-athletes scored 33% better for the white balls as compared to the table tennis athletes. For the yellow balls, athletes and non-athletes scored similar points on the first trial, whereas

  6. Surveillance of Physician-Diagnosed Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Consistent With Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) among Nebraska High School Athletes, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Bryan F.; Connolly, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Though historically confined to hospital settings, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has received increasing attention in the wider community, particularly among athletes. A 2007-2008 investigation in Nebraska concluded that MRSA skin infections were an emerging problem among the state's student athletes. Statewide surveillance…

  7. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  8. The experiences of female athletic trainers in the role of the head athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic trainer.

  9. Campus Environmental Impact--Fallout for Women Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Although participation in college athletics by women has increased, the number of women in athletic administrative positions has decreased. Factors which contribute to the paucity of women athletic administrators, implications for female athletes, and steps which may increase the number of women in collegiate athletic administration are discussed.…

  10. Can Personality Account for Differences in Drinking between College Athletes and Non-Athletes? Explaining the Role of Sensation Seeking, Risk-Taking, and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Scaglione, Nichole; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Collegiate athletes are an at-risk population for high risk drinking and related consequences when compared to the general college student population. However, little is known about how aspects of an individual's personality contribute to this relationship, making intervention efforts challenging. The current study examined sensation seeking,…

  11. Comparison of Body Image between Disabled Athletes, Disabled Non-Athletes and Non-Disable Non-Athletes Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.

  12. Gender differences and access to a sports dietitian influence dietary habits of collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Michael V; Jagim, Andrew R; Oliver, Jonathan M; Greenwood, Mike; Busteed, Deanna R; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists on the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) on athletes' dietary habits and nutrient periodization, which is the deliberate manipulation of macronutrient intake to match training goals. Further, the difference in dietary habits between men and women collegiate athletes has been understudied. A survey questionnaire examining dietary habits and practices was administered to athletes at two universities that employed a full time SD. Not all athletes used the SD as their primary source for nutritional guidance. The purposes were to examine the effect of a SD as a primary source of nutrition information, and the effect of gender on dietary habits in collegiate athletes. Three hundred eighty-three women ( n  = 240) and men ( n  = 143) student-athletes (mean ± SD: age = 19.7 ± 1.4 years) from 10 collegiate sports took a 15-min survey consisting of questions on dietary habits and practices. Topics queried included eating habits, breakfast habits, hydration habits, nutritional supplementation use, pre-workout nutrition, post-workout nutrition, nutrition during team trips, and nutrient timing. Data were sorted by the athlete's source of nutritional information (i.e., sport dietitian, other). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and 2-way Pearson X 2 analyses ( p  ≤ 0.10). When a SD was indicated as the primary nutrition information source, athletes appeared to have a greater understanding of nutrient periodization (47.12 % vs. 32.85 %), were more likely to have school-provided boxed meals while on team trips (21.29 % vs. 6.77 %), and also less likely to consume fast food while on team trips (9.90 % vs. 19.55 %). Men athletes consumed fast food or restaurant meals more frequently, had higher weekly and more frequent alcohol intake during the competitive season. Women athletes were more likely to prepare meals, eat breakfast 7 days a week, and have school-provided boxed meals. Positive effects on dietary

  13. Dietary antioxidants for the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Mustafa; Lappalainen, Jani; Sen, Chandan K

    2006-06-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress and tissue damage. Although a basal level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is required to drive redox signaling and numerous physiologic processes, excess ROS during exercise may have adverse implications on health and performance. Antioxidant nutrients may be helpful in that regard. Caution should be exercised against excess antioxidant supplements, however. This article presents a digest for sports practitioners. The following three recommendations are made: 1) it is important to determine the individual antioxidant need of each athlete performing a specific sport; 2) multinutrient preparations, as opposed to megadoses of any single form of nutrient, seem to be a more prudent path to choose; and 3) for outcomes of antioxidant supplementation, performance should not be the only criteria. Overall well being of the athlete, faster recovery, and minimization of injury time could all be affected by antioxidant therapy.

  14. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.

  15. Apophyseal damage in adolescent athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrer, S.; Huber, W.; Dirisamer, A.; Kainberger, F.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing demands on the adolescent athlete in high perfomance sports puts high biomechanical stress on the growing structures of the active and passive locomotor system. The ''growing factor'' itself increases stretching forces on tendon insertions, which are often overloaded when a physical demanding sport is performed additionally. The apophysis is an ossification nucleus near the tendon insertion, which appears before the growing age resumes and these apophysis finally fuses with the adjacent bone. The tensile forces from vigorous sports activity leads to a chronic or acute avulsion of the ossifying tendon insertion. The radiological appearance of this apophyseal damage with ossification and osteolytic processes is sometimes difficult with respect to differential diagnoses. Apophyseal impairment is associated with pain, tenderness to palpation and decreased muscle function. If it is not diagnosed and treated properly it can lead to end of career in many adolescent athletes. (orig.) [de

  16. Coach-athlete attachment and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship: implications for athlete's well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Jowett, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether athletes' attachment styles with the coach were linked to aspects of the coach-athlete relationship quality and, in turn, whether relationship quality was linked to athletes' well-being. One hundred and ninety-two athletes completed a questionnaire measuring their attachment styles and relationship quality with the coach as well as their feelings of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis found athletes' avoidant and secure attachment styles to be associated with aspects of coach-athlete relationship quality such as social support, relationship depth, and interpersonal conflict. Interpersonal conflict appeared to play a key role in athletes' PA and NA. From a practical perspective, an understanding of conflict management could provide a resource that allows athletes (and coaches) to enhance the quality of their sporting relationships. Specifically, an awareness of proactive strategies (e.g., steps to clarify expectations) and reactive strategies (e.g., cooperation during the discussion of disagreements) could potentially lead both coaches and athletes to "broaden" their viewpoints and in turn "build" connections that are capable of generating positive emotions including interest, excitement, happiness, and zeal.

  17. The Relationship between Environmental Quality of School Facilities and Student Performance. Energy Smart Schools: Opportunities To Save Money, Save Energy and Improve Student Performance. A Congressional Briefing to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackney, Jeffery A.

    Congressional testimony is presented concerning school buildings and their connection to student health, behavior, and learning, including a review of selected empirical studies conducted over the past 30 years showing an explicit relationship between physical characteristics of school buildings and educational outcomes. The factors responsible…

  18. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Krzywanski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OHD < 30 ng/ml and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  19. Spondylolysis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Jo; Green, Daniel W

    2011-02-01

    Spondylolysis is a common cause for back pain in the adolescent athlete. Increased awareness of the presentation of this subset of patients can aid in optimal outcomes. This paper aims to review the typical presentation of spondylolysis in the adolescent with specific focus on the adolescent athlete. We review current controversies in diagnosis and management and aim to provide a thorough review to aid the pediatrician in making clinical decisions for this subset of patients. The optimal algorithm for diagnostic imaging is controversial. Single positron emission computerized tomography can provide good sensitivity but poor specificity for spondylolysis. Computerized tomography can be useful as a follow-up exam to visualize the bony anatomy and osseous healing but has the concern of high radiation exposure. MRI may be a useful tool for diagnosis and follow-up examination, which may have significant advantages over traditional imaging techniques. Brace use is controversial and most likely functions as an adjunct for limiting motion to promote activity restrictions. Spondylolysis in the adolescent athlete is a common problem. MRI is a good study for diagnosis, although further studies need to be done in order to show its advantages over traditional diagnostic methods. Brace wear is encouraged as a method for promoting activity modification, although its efficacy in promoting healing and success in treating spondylolysis is controversial.

  20. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.

  1. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

  2. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  3. Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. In September-November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2-3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people.

  4. Peptide YY in Adolescent Athletes with Amenorrhea, Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-Athletic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melissa; Stark, Jenna; Nayak, Shriddha; Miller, Karen K.; Herzog, David B.; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2009-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in amenorrheic athletes (AA) compared with eumenorrheic athletes (EA). Decreased energy availability and altered levels of appetite regulating hormones (ghrelin and leptin) in AA contribute to hypogonadism, an important cause of low BMD. The role of other nutritionally regulated hormones such as peptide YY (PYY) and adiponectin in mediating gonadal status and bone metabolism remains to be determined. Objectives Our objective was to determine whether PYY and adiponectin are higher in AA compared with EA and contribute to hypogonadism and impaired bone metabolism in AA. Methods We determined PYY and adiponectin in 16 AA, 15 EA and 16 non-athletic controls 12–18 years old, and other nutritionally dependent hormones including ghrelin, leptin and IGF-1. We also measured testosterone, estradiol, PINP and NTX (markers of bone formation and resorption) and BMD. Results PYY was higher in AA than EA (111±52 vs. 61±29 ng/ml, p<0.05), whereas adiponectin did not differ between groups. Although activity scores did not differ, BMI was lower in AA than EA and a larger proportion (62.5% vs. 6.7%) reported disordered eating, indicating lower energy availability. PYY and adiponectin were independent predictors of testosterone in a regression model (p=0.01 and 0.04), but did not predict estradiol. PYY, but not adiponectin, was an independent and negative predictor of PINP (p=0.002) and lumbar bone mineral apparent density Z-scores (p=0.045) in this model. Conclusion High PYY levels (but not adiponectin) differentiate AA from EA, and may be an important factor contributing to low bone density in athletes. PMID:19344792

  5. SPORT AND MENTAL HEALTH LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouloud Kenioua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study of mental health level of university student, athletes and non-athletes. Material: The tested group consisted of 160 male and female undergraduates from Ouargla University, Algeria; 80 students-athletes from Institute of Physical Education and Sports and 80 students-non-athletes from Department of Psychology, English and Mathematics. In the study we used health mental scale, adapted by Diab (2006 to Arab version scale, formed from five dimensions (Competence and self-confidence, Capacity for social interaction, Emotional maturity, Freedom from neurotic symptoms, self rating and aspects of natural deficiencies. Results: the findings indicated that university students have high level of mental health. And the mean of the responses of students-athletes group by mental health scale reached (M = 32.40, with standard deviation (STD =5.83, while the mean of the responses of students-non athletes group by mental health scale has reached (M=27.47, with standard deviation (STD=7.88. T-value, required to know significance of differences between means of students-athletes and students-non athletes has reached (T=4.51, (DF=185, p -0.01. So there are significant statistical differences between student athletes and non-athletes in their responses by mental health scale in favor of the student athletes. Conclusion:sports are beneficial in respect to mental health among university students and emphasizing the importance of the mental health of university students through its integration in the various recreational and competitive activities. Future qualitative research, covering multi-variables’ tests on mental health and others psychological characteristics could be performed in sports area.

  6. A Qualitative Study of the Development of Self-Advocacy and Independence through Symbolic Interaction: A Focus on Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotewa, Brenda K.

    2013-01-01

    Students with physical disabilities attend college at significantly lower rates, and have a lower college graduation rates, than students without disabilities. Research addressing graduation rates of students with physical disabilities indicates that wheelchair basketball athletes graduate at significantly higher rates than students with physical…

  7. Cutaneous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in participants of athletic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2005-06-01

    Cutaneous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) has been identified in otherwise healthy individuals either with or without methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)-associated risk factors who participate in athletic activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features of CAMRSA skin infection that occurred in university student athletes, evaluate the potential mechanisms for the transmission of MRSA infection of the skin in participants of athletic activities, and review the measures for preventing the spread of cutaneous CAMRSA infection in athletes. A retrospective chart review of the student athletes from the University of Houston whose skin lesions were evaluated at the Health Center and grew MRSA was performed. The clinical characteristics and the postulated mechanisms of cutaneous MRSA infection in the athletes were compared with those previously published in reports of CAMRSA skin infection outbreaks in other sports participants. Cutaneous CAMRSA infection occurred in seven student athletes (four women and three men) who were either weight lifters (three students) or members of a varsity sports team: volleyball (two women), basketball (one woman), and football (one man). The MRSA skin infection presented as solitary or multiple, tender, erythematous, fluctuant abscesses with surrounding cellulitis. The lesions were most frequently located in the axillary region (three weight lifters), on the buttocks (two women), or on the thighs (two women). The drainage from all of the skin lesions grew MRSA, which was susceptible to clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin; five of the isolates were also susceptible to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. All of the bacterial strains were resistant to erythromycin, oxacillin, and penicillin. The cutaneous MRSA infections persisted or worsened in the six athletes who were empirically treated for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus at

  8. Organizational influences and quality-of-life issues during the professional socialization of certified athletic trainers working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A

    2006-01-01

    Health professionals are exposed to critical influences and pressures when socialized into their work environments. Little is known about the organizational socialization of certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the collegiate context. To discuss the organizational influences and quality-of-life issues as each relates to the professional socialization of ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. A qualitative design of in-depth interviews and follow-up electronic interviews was used to examine the organizational socialization of ATs. Participants associated with Division I athletic programs from 4 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts volunteered for the study. A total of 11 men and 5 women participated in the study, consisting of 14 ATs and 2 athletic directors. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively. A peer review, member checks, and data source triangulation were performed to establish trustworthiness. Two categories emerged that provide insight into the experiences that affected the professional socialization of the ATs: organizational influences and quality-of-life issues. The data indicate that the participants in this study were heavily influenced by the bureaucratic tendencies of the Division I athletic organizations in which they worked. The participants were extremely concerned about the diminished quality of life that may result from being an AT in this context. They were, however, able to maintain a commitment to delivering quality care to the student-athletes despite these influences. High work volume and low administrative support were commonly cited as problems, thus creating concern about diminished quality of life and the fear of burnout. The AT's role appears not only rewarding but also challenging. The reward is working closely with patients and developing an interpersonal bond; the challenge is dealing with a bureaucratic structure and balancing one's professional and

  9. Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among High School Athletes - United States, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Jones, Sherry Everett; King, Brian A; Jamal, Ahmed; Neff, Linda; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2015-09-04

    Athletes are not a typical at-risk group for smoking combustible tobacco products, because they are generally health conscious and desire to remain fit and optimize athletic performance (1). In contrast, smokeless tobacco use historically has been associated with certain sports, such as baseball (2). Athletes might be more likely to use certain tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco, if they perceive them to be harmless (3); however, smokeless tobacco use is not safe and is associated with increased risk for pancreatic, esophageal, and oral cancers (4). Tobacco use among youth athletes is of particular concern, because most adult tobacco users first try tobacco before age 18 years (5). To examine prevalence and trends in current (≥1 day during the past 30 days) use of combustible tobacco (cigarettes, cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip [moist snuff]) products among athlete and nonathlete high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2001–2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Current use of any tobacco (combustible or smokeless tobacco) significantly declined from 33.9% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2013; however, current smokeless tobacco use significantly increased from 10.0% to 11.1% among athletes, and did not change (5.9%) among nonathletes. Furthermore, in 2013, compared with nonathletes, athletes had significantly higher odds of being current smokeless tobacco users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.77, pcombustible tobacco users (AOR = 0.80, p<0.05). These findings suggest that opportunities exist for development of stronger tobacco control and prevention measures targeting youth athletes regarding the health risks associated with all forms of tobacco use.

  10. The Influence of Varsity Athletics on Midshipman Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, M

    2003-01-01

    .... Academic performance averages, military performance averages, conduct grade, and honor violation are analyzed with respect to Midshipmen participating in varsity athletics versus non-varsity athletics...

  11. Iron status and the acute post-exercise hepcidin response in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peeling

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between serum ferritin and hepcidin in athletes. Baseline serum ferritin levels of 54 athletes from the control trial of five investigations conducted in our laboratory were considered; athletes were grouped according to values 100 μg/L (SF>100. Data pooling resulted in each athlete completing one of five running sessions: (1 8 × 3 min at 85% vVO2peak; (2 5 × 4 min at 90% vVO2peak; (3 90 min continuous at 75% vVO2peak; (4 40 min continuous at 75% vVO2peak; (5 40 min continuous at 65% vVO2peak. Athletes from each running session were represented amongst all four groups; hence, the mean exercise duration and intensity were not different (p>0.05. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise, and were analysed for serum ferritin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and hepcidin-25. Baseline and post-exercise serum ferritin levels were different between groups (p0.05. Post-exercise IL-6 was significantly elevated compared to baseline within each group (p100; p<0.05. An athlete's iron stores may dictate the baseline hepcidin levels and the magnitude of post-exercise hepcidin response. Low iron stores suppressed post-exercise hepcidin, seemingly overriding any inflammatory-driven increases.

  12. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  13. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  14. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  15. Success of nonoperative management of adductor longus tendon ruptures in National Football League athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Theodore F; Bushnell, Brandon D; Godfrey, Jenna; Boublik, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Acute complete ruptures of the proximal adductor longus tendon are rare but challenging injuries to treat. The limited literature supports operative treatment, but data from management of chronic groin pain in athletes indicate that anatomical attachment of the tendon to the pubis may not be required for high-level function. Nonoperative management of complete adductor rupture can provide equal results to surgical repair in terms of return to play in the National Football League. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Using the National Football League Injury Surveillance System, adductor tendon ruptures documented by magnetic resonance imaging were identified in 19 National Football League players from 1992 to 2004. The team physician for each respective player completed a survey with information about history, physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings, treatment, and outcomes. Statistics were analyzed with a Student unpaired t test. Fourteen players were treated nonoperatively, and 5 players were treated with surgical repair using suture anchors. In both groups, all players eventually returned to play in the National Football League. Mean time for return to play was 6.1 +/- 3.1 weeks (range, 3-12 weeks) for the nonoperative group and 12.0 +/- 2.5 weeks (range, 10-16 weeks) for the operative group (P = .001). One player in the operative group suffered the complication of a draining wound and heterotopic ossification. Players represented a variety of positions, and 12 of 19 (63%) had experienced prior symptoms or events. Nonoperative treatment of proximal adductor tendon rupture results in a statistically significantly faster return to play than does operative treatment in athletes competing in the National Football League and avoids the risks associated with surgery while providing an equal likelihood of return to play at the professional level.

  16. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schaal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. METHODS: Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. RESULTS: A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being the most prevalent (6%, followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%. Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women; the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%. Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%, but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%. DISCUSSION: This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  17. Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders. PMID:21573222

  18. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-05-04

    Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  19. Training Load, Immune Status, and Clinical Outcomes in Young Athletes: A Controlled, Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Katharina; Körber, Nina; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolfarth, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Beside positive effects on athlete's health, competitive sport can be linked with an increased risk of illness and injury. Because of high relative increases in training, additional physical and psychological strains, and an earlier specialization and professionalization, adolescent athletes needs an increased attention. Training can alter the immune system by inducing a temporary immunosuppression, finally developing infection symptoms. Previous studies identified Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) as potential indicator for the immune status. In addition to the identification of triggering risk factors for recurrent infections, the aim was to determine the interaction between training load, stress sense, immunological parameters, and clinical symptoms. Methods: A controlled, prospective, longitudinal study on young athletes (n = 274, mean age: 13.8 ± 1.5 yrs) was conducted between 2010 and 2014. Also 285 controls (students, who did not perform competitive sports, mean age: 14.5 ± 1.9 yrs) were recruited. Athletes were examined 3 times each year to determine the effects of stress factors (training load: training hours per week [Th/w]) on selected outcome parameters (clinical [susceptibility to infection, WURSS-21: 21-item Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey], immunological, psychological end points). As part of each visit, EBV serostatus and EBV-specific IgG tiers were studied longitudinally as potential immune markers. Results: Athletes (A) trained 14.9 ± 5.6 h weekly. Controls (C) showed no lower stress levels compared to athletes (p = 0.387). Twelve percent of athletes reported recurrent infections (C: 8.5%, p = 0.153), the presence of an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was achieved in 30.7%. EBV seroprevalence of athletes was 60.3% (C: 56.6%, p = 0.339). Mean EBV-specific IgG titer of athletes was 166 ± 115 U/ml (C: 137 ± 112 U/ml, p = 0.030). With increasing Th/w, higher stress levels were observed (p athletes showed no increased

  20. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.