WorldWideScience

Sample records for students anonymously responded

  1. An Analysis of College Students' Anonymous Questions about Human Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; Waring, Kathryn A.

    1991-01-01

    Study analyzed the frequency and type of questions about sexuality submitted anonymously by college students in health education courses over five semesters. The most common categories were sexual arousal/response; general anatomy/physiology; contraception; dating/relationships; pregnancy/fertility; and sexually transmitted diseases. The appendix…

  2. College Students' Experiences with Anonymous Social Media: Implications for Campus Racial Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Amanda; Thomas, Jaymi; Smith, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to gather undergraduate students' perceptions of anonymous racist messages found on Yik Yak and to better understand the implications of anonymous platforms on campus racial climate. Given the limited research surrounding students' use of anonymous social media platforms, as well as the predominant…

  3. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  4. Sex Differences in Attitudes towards Online Privacy and Anonymity among Israeli Students with Different Technical Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Maor; Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Maayan; Bouhnik, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In this exploratory study, we proposed an experimental framework to investigate and model male/female differences in attitudes towards online privacy and anonymity among Israeli students. Our aim was to comparatively model men and women's online privacy attitudes, and to assess the online privacy gender gap. Method: Various factors…

  5. Responding with Care to Students Facing Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souers, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to trauma--which many experts view as include ongoing life stressors like poverty, parents divorcing, death of a family member, or drug abuse in the home--is prevalent among school-aged children. Teachers know that facing trauma impedes students' ability to focus and learn, but it can be challenging to keep responding caringly to a…

  6. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  7. Anonymity as an Instructional Scaffold in Peer Assessment: Its Effects on Peer Feedback Quality and Evolution in Students' Perceptions about Peer Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsaert, Tijs; Panadero, Ernesto; Schellens, Tammy

    2018-01-01

    Although previous research has indicated that providing anonymity is an effective way to create a safe peer assessment setting, continuously ensuring anonymity prevents students from experiencing genuine two-way interactive feedback dialogues. The present study investigated how installing a transitional approach from an anonymous to a…

  8. Involving Students in Violence Prevention: Anonymous Reporting and the Need to Promote and Protect Confidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Carolyn; Isaacs, Madelyn L.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers queried school counselors throughout the United States 2 months prior to and 2 months following the April 1999 Columbine (CO) High School shootings. The counselors were asked whether or not they would breach a student's confidentiality in 26 specific scenarios. The "before" and "after" groups were demographically similar but differed…

  9. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hajny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  10. An overview of anonymity and anonymous communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M.

    2008-01-01

    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important aspect in distributed systems. In anonymous communication, privacy is provided to communicating parties by hiding their identities from each other and/or from others. This paper discusses the problem of anonymous communication and clarifies the notion of

  11. nigerian students' self-confidence in responding to statements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    Altogether the test is made up of 40 items covering students' ability to recall definition ... confidence interval within which student have confidence in their choice of the .... is mentioned these equilibrium systems come to memory of the learner.

  12. Responding to and Supporting Students with Disabilities: Risk Management Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Anne; Shackelford, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Making the "right" risk management decisions involving students with significant psychological disabilities requires a clear and comprehensive understanding of the legal obligations and duties at issue. It also requires taking into consideration the best interests of these individual students. At the same time, decision makers must focus…

  13. How Should Medical Schools Respond to Students with Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Frederick; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Shaywitz, Sally E

    2016-10-01

    We examine the dilemmas faced by a medical student with dyslexia who wonders whether he should "out" himself to faculty to receive the accommodations entitled by federal law. We first discuss scientific evidence on dyslexia's prevalence, unexpected nature, and neurobiology. We then examine the experiences of medical students who have revealed their dyslexia to illustrate the point that, far too often, attending physicians who know little about dyslexia can misperceive the motives or behavior of students with dyslexia. Because ignorance and misperception of dyslexia can result in bias against students with dyslexia, we strongly recommend a mandatory course for faculty that provides a basic scientific and clinical overview of dyslexia to facilitate greater understanding of dyslexia and support for students with dyslexia. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Understanding Why Students Participate in Multiple Surveys: Who are the Hard-Core Responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at survey response across multiple surveys to understand who the hard-core survey responders and non-responders are. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use the number of surveys…

  15. Increasing Opportunities for Student Responding: Response Cards in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helf, Shawnna

    2015-01-01

    Response cards are designed to encourage active student engagement during instruction. In this article, the use of response cards is described, along with ways teachers can use the information to inform their work and considerations for implementation.

  16. Anonymous steps: gender and Gamblers Anonymous

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The biggest source of help for problem gamblers remains gamblers anonymous (GA) in terms of accessibility and availability. GA has traditionally been very much a male preserve. This paper reports on a literature review of Gamblers Anonymous together with data from observations of a contemporary open GA meeting over a one year period. Whilst some studies from North America suggest a changing culture and gender balance within GA programmes observations from the North of England, supported b...

  17. Ethical Values in the Classroom: How College Students Responded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbarger, Michele; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2005-01-01

    It is important to understand the ethical values of college students because they will be the leaders of the future. As part of an undergraduate honors project, a survey was developed that consisted of eight cases depicting ethical dilemmas in the classroom. Each case included a choice of four actions ranging from most ethical to least ethical.…

  18. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoshko, Dmitri; Kilin, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  19. An Investigation into How Students Respond to Being Victimized by Peer Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Bauman, Sheri A.; Dinner, Stephanie; Nixon, Charisse; Davis, Stan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how students respond to peer aggression. Results indicate that boys tend to use more retaliatory responses to peer aggression compared with girls, who are more likely to confide in their friends. The use of humor in response to being victimized also was found to be a promising way to respond to being victimized, especially…

  20. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  1. How Schools Responded to Student Mental Health Needs Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a study that examined how schools in the U.S. Gulf Coast region perceived the mental health needs of students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and how schools responded. According to the report, despite strong initial efforts to support the mental health needs of students displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, many…

  2. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  3. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Michael G; Syverson, Paul F; Goldschlag, David M

    1996-01-01

    ...), and file transfers (FTP) have been implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis...

  4. Anonymous women? Gamblers Anonymous and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    2016-01-01

    One of the rapidly changing elements in gambling environments is the increasing participation of women in many forms of gambling, and the growing proportions of problem gamblers who are female. It is known that women who develop gambling problems differ from men in a range of ways:for example they are more likely to have co-morbidities such as anxiety and depression, and to gamble as an 'escape' from such co-occuring problems. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) has a number of meetings across New Zeala...

  5. Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syverson, Paul F; Goldschlag, David M; Reed, Michael G

    1997-01-01

    .... Unmodified Internet applications can use these anonymous connections by means of proxies. The proxies may also make communication anonymous by removing identifying information from the data stream...

  6. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.

  7. A Comparison of Active Student Responding Modalities in a General Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayac, Ryan M.; Ratkos, Thom; Frieder, Jessica E.; Paulk, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Research on teaching has shown that incorporating active student responding (ASR) into classroom instruction facilitates learning and should be considered best practice. Nevertheless, few published studies have examined ASR using a within-participant design across a semester. Using a counterbalanced alternating treatment design, a direct…

  8. Confusion, Crisis, and Opportunity: Professional School Counselors' Role in Responding to Student Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Cynthia; Grothaus, Tim; Craigen, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    With the array of challenges facing today's youth, school counselors are in a unique position to recognize and respond to the diverse mental health needs of students. After a brief examination of the challenges and some promising responses, this article will consider the use of advocacy, collaboration, and professional development to aid school…

  9. Anonymization of Court Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Claus; Jongejan, Bart; Hansen, Dorte Haltrup

    We describe an anonymization tool that was commissioned by and specified together with Schultz, a publishing company specialized in Danish law related publications. Unavailability of training data and the need to guarantee compliance with pre-existing anonymization guidelines forced us to implement...... a tool using manually crafted rules. We used Bracmat, a programming language that is specialized in transforming tree data structures, to meet the requirement to pass the XML structure of the input document unscathed through the whole workflow. The tool attains a reassuringly good recall, makes almost...

  10. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... anonymous steganography, { A construction showing that anonymous steganography is possible (which uses recent results in circuits obfuscation), { A lower bound on the number of bits which are needed to bootstrap anonymous communication....

  11. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... defining anonymous steganography, - A construction showing that anonymous steganography is possible (which uses recent results in circuits obfuscation), - A lower bound on the number of bits which are needed to bootstrap anonymous communication....

  12. Understanding and responding the students in learning mathematics through the differentiated instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, T.; Darhim; Dahlan, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    This research discusses the differentiated instruction, a mathematic learning which is as expected by the students in connection with the differentiated instruction itself, its implementation, and the students’ responses. This research employs a survey method which involves 62 students as the research respondents. The mathematics learning types required by the students and their responses to the differentiated instruction are examined through questionnaire and interview. The mathematics learning types in orderly required by the students, from the highest frequency cover the easily understood instructions, slowly/not rushing teaching, fun, not complicated, interspersed with humour, various question practices, not too serious, and conducive class atmosphere for the instructions. Implementing the differentiated instruction is not easy. The teacher should be able to constantly assess the students, s/he should have good knowledge of relevant materials and instructions, and properly prepare the instructions, although it is time-consuming. The differentiated instruction is implemented on the instructions of numerical pattern materials. The strategies implemented are flexible grouping, tiered assignment, and compacting. The students positively respond the differentiated learning instruction that they become more motivated and involved in the instruction.

  13. Elementary school teachers' techniques of responding to student questions regarding sexuality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A; Kirchofer, Gregg; Telljohann, Susan K

    2003-01-01

    Fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school teachers' (n = 277) techniques of responding to students' human sexuality-related questions were assessed. Few teachers (34%) reported receiving formal training in sexuality education. The most commonly asked student questions dealt with STDs, puberty, homosexuality, pregnancy, and abortion. Teachers' willingness to answer sexually-related questions in front of the class varied (73% to 14%) by content of the question. There were no questions on the questionnaire in which more than one in five teachers would choose not to answer. The most common questions the teachers identified they would not respond to dealt with topics such as abortion, masturbation, homosexuality, and issues about the male genitals. Finally, none of the questions was perceived by more than one in eight of the teachers as questions they would not be allowed to answer.

  14. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  15. Fieldale-Collinsville Middle School: Banishing Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    It is no accident that the staff at Fieldale-Collinsville Middle School adopted a central tenet of "Breaking Ranks in the Middle"--to banish anonymity by creating a personalized learning environment for all of its students. The school was created six years ago when the four middle schools in Henry County, VA, were consolidated into two…

  16. "Business Ethics Everywhere": An Experiential Exercise to Develop Students' Ability to Identify and Respond to Ethical Issues in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…

  17. Socially Desirable Responding and College Students with Dyslexia: Implications for the Assessment of Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Liebel, Spencer W

    2018-02-01

    We investigated self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms among college students with dyslexia, with emphasis on the role of socially desirable responding (SDR) in understanding these reports. Analyses included examination of differences in self-reported depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and SDR. We also examined the relationships among SDR, depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and reading skills. Participants with dyslexia demonstrated significantly higher SDR than did participants without dyslexia, and higher SDR was significantly associated with lower self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. Moreover, higher SDR was significantly associated with lower reading skills. There was no group difference on anxiety-related symptoms, but participants with dyslexia had higher depressive symptoms than did participants without dyslexia when SDR was controlled. Implications for the assessment of anxiety and depression among college students with dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Der Einfluss von Anonymität in der Lehrevaluation durch Studierende [The Effects of Anonymity on Student Ratings of Teaching and Course Quality in a Bachelor Degree Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffner, Noemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Research Question: Are there any clear differences between the outcomes of anonymous and personalised student evaluations of teaching quality?Methods: During a two-year period students were randomly divided into two separate groups, “anonymous” and “personalised”, for end-of-module evaluations. The quality of the module was assessed using a standardised questionnaire. Additionally, students were given the option to add “further comments” if they wanted to highlight specifics.These optional comments were independently assessed by three people, using a five-dimensional rating instrument: positive/negative; differentiated/absolute; naming a person/general; containing an order/neutral; visually accentuated/blank.The database consisted of 615 evaluation forms, of which 306 were completed anonymously. In order to identify whether there were any differences between the anonymous and personalised data, a multivariate variance analysis was performed. Based on the scale, the answers to the questions and the quality of the comments were evaluated. Furthermore, an assessment was made to determine if there were any differences in the number of optional comments between the two groups. Results: No significant differences were identified in the informative quality of data between the anonymous and personalised student evaluations. However, students in the personalised group had a tendency to include more details in their written answers.Conclusion: Personalised evaluations do not generate more biased results in terms of social desirability, as long as the evaluation concept is characterised by a closed-circle process and is transparent. In other words, it is imperative that the outcomes of the evaluation are reported back to the students. Moreover, there has to be an opportunity for students to discuss any further suggestions and/or future desires in an open environment. In this way the students respect and understand that their feedback

  19. Comments on ``Anonymous Reviews'' An Editor's View of Anonymous Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John A.

    I have read with great interest the recent Forum commentaries in Eos by Myrl Beck, Charles Robinove, Robert Criss, and Anne Hofmeister regarding anonymous reviews. I heartily support their position that anonymous reviews should be avoided. I have not written an anonymous review in ages (and regret the few that I did), and have always appreciated and respected greatly anyone who signs a critical review of one of my own papers. However, I would like to add some perspective from the editorial standpoint. I have served as JGR associate editor for 3 years (never anonymously!), and as Eos editor for seismology and tectonophysics for 4. Over the years, I have rejected a fair number of papers, most of those based on anonymous reviews (fortunately, none of the above commentators was one of them). The vast majority of anonymous reviews I received were well considered. While I would wish that all reviews were signed, I don't think we can summarily dismiss the fear that many would have of enmity and reprisal over a critical review. Some of these fears are likely justified. On more than one occasion, have I witnessed overly aggressive responses on the part of authors to anonymous reviews that I considered to be entirely fair and constructive in their criticisms. I do think we need to do all we can to discourage anonymous reviews, but it will be difficult to completely remove that choice from the process.

  20. Are anonymous evaluations a better assessment of faculty teaching performance? A comparative analysis of open and anonymous evaluation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Nelia M; Cardozo, Lavoisier J; Mascarenhas, Oswald A J; Aranha, Anil N F; Shah, Chirag

    2005-01-01

    We compared teaching performance of medical school faculty using anonymous evaluations and open evaluations (in which the evaluator was not anonymous) and examined barriers to open evaluation. Residents and medical students evaluated faculty using an open evaluation instrument in which their identity was indicated in the evaluation. Following this, they completed anonymous evaluation on the same faculty members. Aggregate outcomes using the two evaluation systems were compared. Outcomes by group of evaluators (residents and students) were analyzed. Trainees were also asked to rate the barriers to the open evaluation process. A statistically significant difference between the open and anonymous evaluations was noted across all items, with faculty receiving lower scores on the anonymous evaluations. The mean score for all the items on the open evaluations was 4.45 +/- 0.65, compared to mean score of 4.07 +/- 0.80 on the anonymous evaluations. There was also a statistically significant difference between open and anonymous evaluations in five clinical teaching domains that were evaluated individually. Residents perceived that the three most common barriers to optimal evaluation were an apprehension of possible encounters with the same attending physician in the future, destruction of working relationships with the attending, and a feeling of frustration with the evaluation system. The evaluation of faculty teaching performance is complex. Most academic medical centers use the open evaluation format. This study supports the case for the use of the anonymous evaluation method as a more accurate reflection of teaching performance.

  1. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  2. Social Media and Higher Education: The Problem of Anonymous Electronic Threats to the Campus Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Cristin Lee; Platt, R. Eric; Malone Schaffer, Lenore; Foster, Holly

    2017-01-01

    This case is for use in graduate courses pertaining to student affairs and higher education administration. It presents challenges higher education professionals face concerning anonymous social media, and specifically how threats made through anonymous social media platforms such as Yik Yak affect the entire university community. The anonymity of…

  3. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  4. Suicidal behavior among members of Gamblers Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M L; Lester, D; Wexler, A

    1991-09-01

    A national sample of 500 members of Gamblers Anonymous was surveyed by mail in order to gather information on suicidal history. One hundred sixty two usable surveys were returned representing 32.4% of the original sample. Compulsive gamblers who had a history of suicidal preoccupation began gambling at an earlier age than nonsuicidal gamblers and were more likely to have stolen to support their gambling. They also tended to have addicted relatives and children more than nonsuicidal gamblers did. The data suggest that those gamblers who had been suicidal tend to be more serious gamblers than nonsuicidal respondents.

  5. Developing Specific Self-Efficacy and Resilience as First Responders among Students of Social Work and Stress and Trauma Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…

  6. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  7. The Efficacy of Non-Anonymous Measures of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, John H. F.; Myron, Rowan; Crawshaw, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Olweus checklist, along with most of the questionnaires commonly used in bullying research, is anonymous. The respondent is not required to put down his/her name. This has been accepted as the "best suited" method of assessing bullying. However, this assumption has not been adequately tested, and there is contrary evidence that this…

  8. Anonymity in Peer-assisted CDNs: Inference Attacks and Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yaoqi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The peer-assisted CDN is a new content distribution paradigm supported by CDNs (e.g., Akamai, which enables clients to cache and distribute web content on behalf of a website. Peer-assisted CDNs bring significant bandwidth savings to website operators and reduce network latency for users. In this work, we show that the current designs of peer-assisted CDNs expose clients to privacy-invasive attacks, enabling one client to infer the set of browsed resources of another client. To alleviate this, we propose an anonymous peer-assisted CDN (APAC, which employs content delivery while providing initiator anonymity (i.e., hiding who sends the resource request and responder anonymity (i.e., hiding who responds to the request for peers. APAC can be a web service, compatible with current browsers and requiring no client-side changes. Our anonymity analysis shows that our APAC design can preserve a higher level of anonymity than state-of-the-art peer-assisted CDNs. In addition, our evaluation demonstrates that APAC can achieve desired performance gains.

  9. Using anonymized reflection to teach ethics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Gaye

    2008-01-01

    Anonymized reflection was employed as an innovative way of teaching ethics in order to enhance students' ability in ethical decision making during a Care of the Dying Patient and Family' module. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the first two student cohorts who experienced anonymized reflection ( n = 24). The themes identified were the richness and relevance of scenarios, small-group work and a team approach to teaching. Students indicated that they preferred this style of teaching. This finding was verified by a postal questionnaire conducted four months later. The conclusions drawn from this study suggest that using anonymized reflection is an effective method for teaching ethics to nurses and indicates that learning about ethical issues in this way reduces uncertainties.

  10. An integrative literature review on preparing nursing students through simulation to recognize and respond to the deteriorating patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Duana; King, Lindy

    2013-11-01

    To synthesize studies that explored simulation as preparation of nursing students for recognition and response to the deteriorating patient. New graduate nurses are expected to have the skills to recognize and respond to rapidly deteriorating patient conditions. To this end, education programmes have turned increasingly to simulation to assist students to gain the necessary skills. Integrative review. CINAHL, Informit, ProQuest, Ovid MEDLINE, SAGE Journals and Web of Knowledge electronic databases, keywords and inclusion/exclusion criteria were searched. Eighteen studies published between 2004-2012 were found. Studies were appraised using recognized evaluation tools. Thematic analysis was undertaken and emergent themes were extracted with similar and divergent perspectives sought. Six themes were identified namely, 'transferability of simulation skills to clinical practice', 'exposure to broader range of experiences', 'confidence levels in relation to simulation training', 'competence/performance', 'clinical judgment' and 'student perceptions of preparedness for practice following simulation'. Simulation exposes students to a broader range of experiences whilst in a safe environment with transference of skills to clinical practice occurring. Confidence, clinical judgement, knowledge and competence, all vital in the care of a deteriorating patient, were enhanced. However, evidence of simulation used specifically to prepare nursing students to recognize and respond to the deteriorating patient appeared limited. This educational field appears rich for interprofessional collaboration and further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Responding to the Concerns of Student Cultural Groups: Redesigning Spaces for Cultural Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Anise Mazone; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the engagement of a student committee in redesigning an entire floor of a university union to accommodate student cultural centers and provide space in a fair and equitable manner. The reorganization focused on the process as well as the task of allocating space, with an emphasis on the opportunity to foster the development of…

  12. Peer Education in Student Leadership Programs: Responding to Co-Curricular Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Paige

    2011-01-01

    Leadership development is an outcome of colleges and universities today stressed both in and out of the classroom. Additionally, leadership is often included in institutional missions, with emphasis on students developing as responsible citizens or leaders. The use of peer educators is standard in many student leadership development programs. In…

  13. A Survey of Former Nursing (RN and LVN) Students. Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer, Culver-Betty

    In fall 2001 staff of the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former nursing (RN and LVN) students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former nursing students who earned…

  14. k-Times Anonymous Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Isamu; Furukawa, Jun; Sako, Kazue

    We propose an authentication scheme in which users can be authenticated anonymously so long as times that they are authenticated is within an allowable number. The proposed scheme has two features: 1) no one, not even an authority, can identify users who have been authenticated within the allowable number, 2) anyone can trace, without help from the authority, dishonest users who have been authenticated beyond the allowable number by using the records of these authentications. Our scheme can be applied to e-voting, e-cash, electronic coupons, and trial browsing of content. In these applications, our scheme, unlike the previous one, conceals users' participation from protocols and guarantees that they will remain anonymous to everyone.

  15. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting

    OpenAIRE

    MANOJ KUMAR; ANUJ RANI

    2013-01-01

    In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that ho...

  16. Informed Strangers: Witnessing and Responding to Unethical Care as Student Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Engel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students occupy a unique perspective in clinical settings because they are informed, through education, about how patient care ought to happen. Given the brevity of placements and their “visiting status” in clinical sites, students are less invested in the ethos of specific sites. Subsequently, their perspectives of quality care are informed by what should happen, which might differ from that of nurses and patients. The purpose of this study was to identify predominant themes in patient care, as experienced by students, and the influence that these observations have on the development of their ethical reasoning. Using a qualitative descriptive approach in which 27 nursing student papers and three follow-up in-depth interviews were analyzed, three main themes emerged: Good employee, poor nurse; damaged care; and negotiating the gap. The analysis of the ethical situations in these papers suggests that students sometimes observe care that lacks concern for the dignity, autonomy, and safety of patients. For these student nurses, this tension led to uncertainty about patient care and their eventual profession.

  17. The Effects of Perceived Anonymity on Altruistic Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Piazza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigating altruistic punishment have confounded the effects of two independent variables: information transmission (or breach of privacy and personal identification (or breach of anonymity. Here we report findings from a brief study in which participants were asked to respond to a social norm violation (i.e., an anonymous actor had behaved selfishly in an economic game by deciding whether to sacrifice their own endowment to punish this person. A third of the participants were told that their economic decisions would be made known to another player but could not be identified (privacy breach condition, whereas another third were informed that their decision as well as their names would be made known (anonymity breach condition. (The decisions of control participants were completely anonymous and private. Participants also justified their economic decisions and reported their emotional experiences. The results were participants punished most in the privacy and anonymity breach conditions and least in the control condition. These findings have implications for existing evolutionary accounts of altruistic punishment.

  18. From Exclusion to Inclusion: Ways of Responding in Schools to Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Weiner, Saira

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on "from exclusion to inclusion." With a specific focus on children with special educational needs (SEN), this review addresses the forms of classroom practice that…

  19. Reading for the Purpose of Responding to Literature: EFL Students' Perceptions of E-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Chia

    2016-01-01

    As electronic books continue to attract attention as a pedagogical tool in language classrooms, the impact that e-books are expected to have on higher education cannot be ignored. Despite the pervasiveness of e-book reading studies in higher education, most studies show that students' reactions to e-books are often negative. However, the effects…

  20. A Survey of Former Drafting & Engineering Design Technology Students. Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    In fall 2001 staff of the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former Drafting and Engineering Design Technology students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former drafting…

  1. Using Teacher Praise and Opportunities to Respond to Promote Appropriate Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore Partin, Tara C.; Robertson, Rachel E.; Maggin, Daniel M.; Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' successful provision of levels of support to prevent and reduce problem classroom behaviors requires skillful application of research-based classroom and behavior management strategies. Among others, 2 teacher-centered strategies have been shown to decrease students' inappropriate behaviors and increase their appropriate behaviors: the…

  2. Responding to the Needs of Students with Mental Health Difficulties in Higher Education: An Irish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This article presents findings from a recent national study supported by Association for Higher Education Access & Disability and the National Learning Network (2016) to investigate the experiences of students with mental health difficulties in higher education in Ireland. The data investigation was a combination of both survey and qualitative…

  3. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  4. CONFERENCING VIA E-MAIL: AN ALTERNATIVE WAY TO RESPOND TO STUDENT WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Zúñiga Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo reporta las conclusiones obtenidas en un proyecto de investigación cuyo objetivo fue determinar la eficacia de responder a los escritos de los estudiantes por medio de la conferencia vía correo electrónico. Dicho proyecto de investigación se realizó con nueve profesores de la facultad de ingeniería y un estudiante avanzado de ingeniería de una universidad pública de Costa Rica durante el segundo semestre del año 2008. Para reunir información para tal proyecto se utilizaron dos cuestionarios, formularios para conferencia, reflexiones del instructor y reflexiones de los estudiantes. Un número reducido de los estudiantes completó los instrumentos y participó en la interacción por medio de conferencias que se esperaba de ellos. Aún así, los estudiantes encuestados y el instructor consideraron que el método de la conferencia fue eficaz. No obstante, es necesario realizar más investigación con el fin de obtener resultados concluyentes sobre la efectividad de la conferencia vía correo electrónico para responder a los escritos de los estudiantes. Se ofrecen sugerencias para investigaciones futuras.

  5. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted

  6. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  7. Revocable Anonymous Access to the Internet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Joris; Diaz, Claudia; Goemans, Caroline; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos; Dumortier, Jos

    2003-01-01

    Users of telecommunications networks are concerned about privacy, and desire anonymous access, while some organizations are concerned about how this anonymous access might be abused. Proposes a solution for revocable anonymous access to the Internet. Presents some legal background and motivation for such a solution. Indicates some difficulties and…

  8. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  9. Use of WhatsApp in Higher Education: What's Up with Assessing Peers Anonymously?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Çetin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of WhatsApp application in anonymous peer assessment in higher education. The mobile phone application WhatsApp was used as both an anonymous and nonanonymous peer assessment tool in a classroom environment. The participants of the study were the students of two classes (sophomores and juniors), half…

  10. Pattern-Guided k-Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Niedermeier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a user-oriented approach to combinatorial data anonymization. A data matrix is called k-anonymous if every row appears at least k times—the goal of the NP-hard k-ANONYMITY problem then is to make a given matrix k-anonymous by suppressing (blanking out as few entries as possible. Building on previous work and coping with corresponding deficiencies, we describe an enhanced k-anonymization problem called PATTERN-GUIDED k-ANONYMITY, where the users specify in which combinations suppressions may occur. In this way, the user of the anonymized data can express the differing importance of various data features. We show that PATTERN-GUIDED k-ANONYMITY is NP-hard. We complement this by a fixed-parameter tractability result based on a “data-driven parameterization” and, based on this, develop an exact integer linear program (ILP-based solution method, as well as a simple, but very effective, greedy heuristic. Experiments on several real-world datasets show that our heuristic easily matches up to the established “Mondrian” algorithm for k-ANONYMITY in terms of the quality of the anonymization and outperforms it in terms of running time.

  11. The influence of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soowon Park

    Full Text Available Peer influence on students' maladaptive behaviors has been well documented; however, the influence on positive development is less acknowledged.The purpose of this study was to examine anonymous peer influence on college students' prosocial behavior, specifically behavior for the improvement of society (i.e., donating money or participating in social campaigns via an experimental approach. The effects of indirect peer influence (IP and direct peer influence (DP on college students' prosocial behavior were examined.A total of 125 college students participated in an online survey and laboratory experiment. Self-reported helping behavior, social concern goals, and empathy were measured by the online survey. In the laboratory experiments, reading of a prosocial paragraph (IP and confederates' prosocial behavior (DP were manipulated. Participation in a signature campaign and money donation for illness were observed. Furthermore, 19 participants among those who donated were asked about their reasons for participating in such prosocial behavior.Prosocial behavior of anonymous peers (confederates exerts a profound influence on college students' participation in a signature campaign and money donation, whereas the reading of a prosocial paragraph has no effect. Furthermore, no participants reported peer influence as a reason for engaging in prosocial behavior.This finding supports and extends recent research examining the positive impacts of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is not only a foundational and consistent aspect of personality, as previous studies report, but is also highly malleable and unstable in response to immediate situations.

  12. Practical anonymity hiding in plain sight online

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For those with legitimate reason to use the Internet anonymously--diplomats, military and other government agencies, journalists, political activists, IT professionals, law enforcement personnel, political refugees and others--anonymous networking provides an invaluable tool, and many good reasons that anonymity can serve a very important purpose. Anonymous use of the Internet is made difficult by the many websites that know everything about us, by the cookies and ad networks, IP-logging ISPs, even nosy officials may get involved. It is no longer possible to turn off browser cookies to be l

  13. Comparison of the Personality Profiles of Inmate Anonymous and Non-Anonymous Male Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolah Erfani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the personality profiles of inmate anonymous and non-anonymous male addicts. Method: The participants of study were anonymous and non-anonymous male addicts of the prisons of the Hamadan province in 1391. The population was 3130 addicts, including 627 anonymous and 2503 non-anonymous addicts. The 310 addicts were selected by stratified random sampling the sample size was determined by Cochran formula.The short-form NEO Five Factor personality questionnaire administered among selected sample. Data analyzed by descriptive statistic as frequency and percentage, also, inferential statistic as multivariate analysis of variance was run. Results: The results showed that personality profiles of anonymous and non-anonymous addicts were significantly different. That is, mean score of neuroticism in anonymous addicts was less than non anonymous. Also, mean score of extraversion was higher in anonymous addicts. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the anonymous male addicts are differ with non-anonymous male addicts in personality traits.

  14. Best Predictors of Student Needs and Expectations: Responding to the Voice of the Customer and Orchestrating Change in a Two-Year College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Robert A.

    To determine student needs, expectations, and levels of satisfaction with programs and services at Lima Technical College (LTC), in Ohio, a survey was distributed to 123 students, 7 faculty members, 13 staff members, and 9 senior administrators in fall 1994. The questionnaire asked respondents to choose 10 items from a list of needs and another 10…

  15. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  16. Safe2Tell® : an anonymous, 24/7 reporting system for preventing school violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan R T; Elliott, Delbert S

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that many school shootings could be prevented if authorities were informed that a student was planning or preparing to carry out an attack. A universal problem is that young people are highly reluctant to report on their peers. This code of silence represents a major barrier to prevention efforts. In response to the Columbine shooting, the state of Colorado established the Safe2Tell® anonymous, 24/7 reporting system for receiving and forwarding threats of violence, bullying, and other concerns. This article describes how the program has grown to the point that it now receives more than 100 calls per month. A series of case examples illustrates its success in responding to threatening situations, including twenty-eight potential school attacks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  17. Enhancing physicians' use of Alcoholics Anonymous: Internet-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Brealyn; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Nachbar, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous is not yet fully employed by the medical community as a means to enhance patient outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate visitors' use of an Internet course on Alcoholics Anonymous, and to compare how various disciplines learned about, gained access to and participated in the course. Demographic information was collected from 414 visitors to the course. 64% of the 414 respondents received their last educational degree within the last 10 years, and had an interest in the topic of addiction prior to their accessing the site. 294 (71%) of those who accessed the course completed it, and those who accessed it learned about it from various sources other than print advertisement in professional journals. Within the 230 physician respondents, 143 (62%) were psychiatrists, 82 (78%) of whom learned about the Internet course via professional journal. Given the need for further training among physicians in the use of Alcoholics Anonymous, the Internet can be utilized to make information available to a large number of people. Because it allows the user to access information outside the traditional means, the barriers to its use are minimal, and it has the potential to effectively convey useful clinical information.

  18. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serracino Inglott, P.

    2013-01-01

    Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as

  19. Self-tallying quantum anonymous voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Yu, Chaohua; Gao, Fei; Qi, Haoyu; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2016-08-01

    Anonymous voting is a voting method of hiding the link between a vote and a voter, the context of which ranges from governmental elections to decision making in small groups like councils and companies. In this paper, we propose a quantum anonymous voting protocol assisted by two kinds of entangled quantum states. Particularly, we provide a mechanism of opening and permuting the ordered votes of all the voters in an anonymous manner; any party who is interested in the voting results can acquire a permutation copy and then obtains the voting result through a simple calculation. Unlike all previous quantum works on anonymous voting, our quantum anonymous protocol possesses the properties of privacy, self-tallying, nonreusability, verifiability, and fairness at the same time. In addition, we demonstrate that the entanglement of the quantum states used in our protocol makes an attack from an outside eavesdropper and inside dishonest voters impossible. We also generalize our protocol to execute the task of anonymous multiparty computation, such as anonymous broadcast and anonymous ranking.

  20. Atheists, agnostics and Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonigan, J Scott; Miller, W R; Schermer, Carol

    2002-09-01

    In spite of the strong emphasis in AA on spiritual beliefs and practices, findings are mixed about the importance of such beliefs in predicting AA affiliation. This study of the Project MATCH outpatient (N = 952) and aftercare (N = 774) samples tested three hypotheses about the role of client God belief and subsequent AA attendance and benefit, taking into account that some individuals may, in fact, deny the existence of a God. Longitudinal analyses were conducted (N = 1,526) investigating client God beliefs, AA attendance, patterns of AA attendance and alcohol use. Assessments were conducted at intake and in 3-month intervals using the Form 90, Religious Behaviors and Background, and the Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory. 12-Step treatment was significantly more likely to promote pre-post shifts in client God beliefs, and atheist and agnostic clients attended AA significantly less often throughout follow-up relative to clients self-labeled as spiritual and religious. AA attendance, however, was significantly associated with increased abstinence and reductions in drinking intensity regardless of God belief. Finally, no differences in percent days abstinence and drinking intensity were found between atheist and agnostic versus spiritual and religious clients, but clients unsure about their God belief reported significantly higher drinking frequency relative to the other groups. God belief appears to be relatively unimportant in deriving AA-related benefit, but atheist and agnostic clients are less likely to initiate and sustain AA attendance relative to spiritual and religious clients. This apparent reticence to affiliate with AA ought to be clinically recognized when encouraging AA participation.

  1. The selective adaptation of the alcoholics anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, B R

    1991-09-01

    This paper is largely based on a year long observation study of Gamblers Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous meetings in northern California. The paper argues, contrary to popular assumption, that Gamblers Anonymous is significantly different from Alcoholics Anonymous. Differences, in members' consciousness for example, are discussed. The paper contends that although there is some12 step consciousness in G.A., the dominant consciousness ispage 17 consciousness. The significant differences are attributed to the selective adaptation of the Alcoholics Anonymous program. Several consequences of these differences, such as the central role of a language of the self in A.A. and not in G.A., are highlighted.

  2. Purpose-restricted Anonymous Mobile Communications Using Anonymous Signatures in Online Credential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Shin, SeongHan; Kobara, Kazukuni

    2010-01-01

    To avoid the risk of long-term storage of secrets on a portable device, an online credential system supports the roaming user in retrieving securely at various locations his private key and other material to generate anonymous signatures. The protocol proposed here allows a roaming mobile user...... to access anonymously services such as whistle blowing and net-counselling. Our approach: (1) allows a mobile user, remembering a short password, to anonymously and securely retrieve the credentials necessary for his anonymous communication without assuming a pre-established anonymous channel...

  3. CONFERENCING VIA E-MAIL: AN ALTERNATIVE WAY TO RESPOND TO STUDENT WRITING (LA CONFERENCIA VÍA E-MAIL: UNA MANERA ALTERNATIVA PARA RESPONDER A LOS ESCRITOS DE LOS ESTUDIANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zúñiga Vargas Juan Pablo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente artículo reporta las conclusiones obtenidas en un proyecto de investigación cuyo objetivo fue determinar la eficacia de responder a los escritos de los estudiantes por medio de la conferencia vía correo electrónico. Dicho proyecto de investigación se realizó con nueve profesores de la facultad de ingeniería y un estudiante avanzado de ingeniería de una universidad pública de Costa Rica durante el segundo semestre del año 2008. Para reunir información para tal proyecto se utilizaron dos cuestionarios, formularios para conferencia, reflexiones del instructor y reflexiones de los estudiantes. Un número reducido de los estudiantes completó los instrumentos y participó en la interacción por medio de conferencias que se esperaba de ellos. Aún así, los estudiantes encuestados y el instructor consideraron que el método de la conferencia fue eficaz. No obstante, es necesario realizar más investigación con el fin de obtener resultados concluyentes sobre la efectividad de la conferencia vía correo electrónico para responder a los escritos de los estudiantes. Se ofrecen sugerencias para investigaciones futuras.Abstract:This article reports the findings obtained in a research project that aimed at determining the efficiency of responding to student writing by means of conferencing via e-mail. Such research project was carried out with nine professors from the faculty of engineering and one advanced engineering student at a public university in Costa Rica during the second semester in the year 2008. To collect information for this project, two questionnaires, conferencing forms, instructors’ reflections, and student reflections were used. A reduced number of the students completed the instruments and took part in the conferencing exchanges expected of them, yet both the surveyed students and the instructor found conferencing efficient. Still, more research is needed in order obtain conclusive results about the

  4. Napping in College Students and Its Relationship with Nighttime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lichuan; Hutton Johnson, Stacy; Keane, Kathleen; Manasia, Michael; Gregas, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the habit of napping and its relationship with nighttime sleep in college students. Participants: Four hundred and forty undergraduate students who responded to an anonymous online survey in April 2010. Methods: Three questions were asked to determine the frequency, length, and timing of napping during the past month. Sleep…

  5. [Anonymous birth and neonaticide in Tyrol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, C; Pacher, M; Ambach, E; Brezinka, C

    2005-10-01

    In 2001 the Austrian government provided the legal means that formally enabled "anonymous birth": a woman can now give birth in any hospital in Austria without giving her name or insurance number, the baby is taken into care by social services and placed with adoptive parents. The cost of the hospital stay is covered from public funds. These measures were put into effect after some highly publicized cases of infant abandonment and neonaticide in Austria. In the mostly rural and small-town province of Tyrol province in western Austria (687,000 inhabitants, 7000 births per year) four cases of neonaticide were discovered in the years from 1996 to 2004. One child was abandoned inside a hospital. Since 2001 two women have made use of the "anonymous birth" option. Neither had had any pregnancy controls, both showed up at or near term with contractions. They delivered healthy infants that were then taken into care by local adoption services. Both women were extensively counselled by psychologists, social workers, medical and midwifery staff and both insisted on their original decision to remain anonymous. A few weeks later one of the women found herself at the centre of a criminal investigation for infanticide after anonymous letters were sent to family members insinuating she had done away with the child. Police stopped that investigation when hospital staff confirmed that the woman had had an "anonymous" delivery. Despite the option of legal "anonymous" birth free of charge in modern hospitals there are still cases of infant abandonment and neonaticide in Austria. It is proposed that the women who opt for anonymous birth may not be the women who would otherwise kill their babies. Instead, it appears that the women opted for anonymity to escape the probably well-intentioned but overbearing attention of their families and of social services. It is doubtful that the option of anonymous birth will lead to a complete disappearance of infanticide and infant abandonment in

  6. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  7. Anonymity in P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Lopez, Pilar; Muñoz-Gea, Juan Pedro; Malgosa-Sanahuja, Josemaria; Sanchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos

    In the last years, the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications to share and exchange knowledge among people around the world has experienced an exponential growth. Therefore, it is understandable that, like in any successful communication mechanism used by a lot of humans being, the anonymity can be a desirable characteristic in this scenario. Anonymity in P2P networks can be obtained by means of different methods, although the most significant ones are broadcast protocols, dining-cryptographer (DC) nets and multiple-hop paths. Each of these methods can be tunable in order to build a real anonymity P2P application. In addition, there is a mathematical tool called entropy that can be used in some scenarios to quantify anonymity in communication networks. In some cases, it can be calculated analytically but in others it is necessary to use simulation to obtain the network entropy.

  8. Anonymity and Electronics: Adapting Preparation for Radiology Resident Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Teresa; Reid, Janet R; O'Conner, Erin E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic radiology resident assessment has evolved from a traditional oral examination to computerized testing. Teaching faculty struggle to reconcile the differences between traditional teaching methods and residents' new preferences for computerized testing models generated by new examination styles. We aim to summarize the collective experiences of senior residents at three different teaching hospitals who participated in case review sessions using a computer-based, interactive, anonymous teaching tool, rather than the Socratic method. Feedback was collected from radiology residents following participation in a senior resident case review session using Nearpod, which allows residents to anonymously respond to the teaching material. Subjective resident feedback was uniformly enthusiastic. Ninety percent of residents favor a case-based board review incorporating multiple-choice questions, and 94% favor an anonymous response system. Nearpod allows for inclusion of multiple-choice questions while also providing direct feedback to the teaching faculty, helping to direct the instruction and clarify residents' gaps in knowledge before the Core Examination. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381......Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381...

  10. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch . Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user.

  11. Protecting genomic sequence anonymity with generalization lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, B A

    2005-01-01

    Current genomic privacy technologies assume the identity of genomic sequence data is protected if personal information, such as demographics, are obscured, removed, or encrypted. While demographic features can directly compromise an individual's identity, recent research demonstrates such protections are insufficient because sequence data itself is susceptible to re-identification. To counteract this problem, we introduce an algorithm for anonymizing a collection of person-specific DNA sequences. The technique is termed DNA lattice anonymization (DNALA), and is based upon the formal privacy protection schema of k -anonymity. Under this model, it is impossible to observe or learn features that distinguish one genetic sequence from k-1 other entries in a collection. To maximize information retained in protected sequences, we incorporate a concept generalization lattice to learn the distance between two residues in a single nucleotide region. The lattice provides the most similar generalized concept for two residues (e.g. adenine and guanine are both purines). The method is tested and evaluated with several publicly available human population datasets ranging in size from 30 to 400 sequences. Our findings imply the anonymization schema is feasible for the protection of sequences privacy. The DNALA method is the first computational disclosure control technique for general DNA sequences. Given the computational nature of the method, guarantees of anonymity can be formally proven. There is room for improvement and validation, though this research provides the groundwork from which future researchers can construct genomics anonymization schemas tailored to specific datasharing scenarios.

  12. The influence of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho

    2017-01-01

    Background Peer influence on students’ maladaptive behaviors has been well documented; however, the influence on positive development is less acknowledged. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine anonymous peer influence on college students’ prosocial behavior, specifically behavior for the improvement of society (i.e., donating money or participating in social campaigns) via an experimental approach. The effects of indirect peer influence (IP) and direct peer influence (DP) on college students’ prosocial behavior were examined. Methods A total of 125 college students participated in an online survey and laboratory experiment. Self-reported helping behavior, social concern goals, and empathy were measured by the online survey. In the laboratory experiments, reading of a prosocial paragraph (IP) and confederates’ prosocial behavior (DP) were manipulated. Participation in a signature campaign and money donation for illness were observed. Furthermore, 19 participants among those who donated were asked about their reasons for participating in such prosocial behavior. Results Prosocial behavior of anonymous peers (confederates) exerts a profound influence on college students’ participation in a signature campaign and money donation, whereas the reading of a prosocial paragraph has no effect. Furthermore, no participants reported peer influence as a reason for engaging in prosocial behavior. Conclusion This finding supports and extends recent research examining the positive impacts of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is not only a foundational and consistent aspect of personality, as previous studies report, but is also highly malleable and unstable in response to immediate situations. PMID:29016612

  13. Administrative Challenge or Ethical Dilemma? Responding Justly when a Student with a Disability Engages in a Violent or Disruptive Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Susan C.; Ritter, Suzanne T.; Wilson, Felicia R.

    2007-01-01

    This case study involves an 8-year-old American Indian student with a disability, who was videotaped assaulting another student as they exited the school bus. Although acts of school violence are common on campuses across the nation, this incident is particularly complex, given the disability status of the student committing this act. This case…

  14. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serracino-Inglott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterious as popularly portrayed. Under a definition of vigilantism that includes reprobative punishment rather than violence as a key element, Anonymous are vigilantes. Many of its Ops can be justified in view of the mismatch between formal norm enforcement practice and Internet natives’ experience of it. Anons are more like eco-warriors than terrorists. While their actions are contentious, their force is framed in a vision of common good that is not unreasonable. Engaging with online deviants is shown to be a productive way of identifying the weaknesses in concepts underpinning moral evaluation of Internet-enabled phenomena.

  15. Responding to personalised social norms feedback from a web-based alcohol reduction intervention for students: Analysis of think-aloud verbal protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, S; Bekker, H L; Bewick, B M

    2016-09-01

    Web-based interventions enable organisations to deliver personalised individually tailored brief feedback to individuals without the need of a third party. Web-based interventions are effective in reducing alcohol consumption among university students. There is a paucity of evidence to indicate those who access web-based personalised feedback interventions respond in a way consistent with hypothesised active ingredients. This research uses the think-aloud technique to explore how students respond to instant web-based personalised normative feedback. Between-subjects experimental design employing qualitative methods. Twenty-one UK university students generated think-aloud transcripts while completing a web-based intervention (Unitcheck). This was followed by a semi-structured interview. One coding frame was developed to classify all utterances. Narrative synthesis revealed five meta-themes: active thinking about alcohol use; comparisons with others; beliefs and knowledge about alcohol consumption; inter-relationship between personal codes and context; and engagement with Unitcheck. Students willingly engaged with the online assessment and personalised feedback. Students consciously engaged with the intervention and this engagement prompted students to actively consider their own behaviour, knowledge, perceptions, and to reflect on future behaviour. The ability of web-based personalised feedback interventions to effect change in individual's behaviours is likely related to their ability to encourage cognitive engagement and active processing of the information provided.

  16. Scalable and Anonymous Group Communication with MTor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Dong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents MTor, a low-latency anonymous group communication system. We construct MTor as an extension to Tor, allowing the construction of multi-source multicast trees on top of the existing Tor infrastructure. MTor does not depend on an external service to broker the group communication, and avoids central points of failure and trust. MTor’s substantial bandwidth savings and graceful scalability enable new classes of anonymous applications that are currently too bandwidth-intensive to be viable through traditional unicast Tor communication-e.g., group file transfer, collaborative editing, streaming video, and real-time audio conferencing.

  17. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  18. An outcome study of Gamblers Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R M; Brown, R I

    1988-02-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies of a total sample of 232 attenders at groups of Gamblers Anonymous suggest that total abstinence from gambling was maintained by 8% of all comers at one year from first attendance and by 7% at two years.

  19. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel; Kalnis, Panos; Tao, Yufei

    2011-01-01

    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  20. Botnet detection and prevention in anonymous networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnert, Katharina; Steinberger, Jessica; Baier, Harald

    Botnets are a major threat to the Internet landscape and have been responsible for large scale distributed attacks on online services. To make take down measures more difficult, Botnet operators started to incorporate anonymous networks into their software to protect their users and their Botnets.

  1. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  2. A Survey of Former Business Students (General Business, Management, Marketing, Real Estate). Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    In fall 2002 staff of the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former business students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former business students in the areas of…

  3. Anonymity In Survey Courses as Tool for More Diverse Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    It is not uncommon that students in introductory survey courses are reluctant to participate in verbal inquiry. In a survey submitted to students of CLIMATE 102, Extreme Weather, over the past four semesters about 45% of male students professed comfort in asking verbal questions in a large lecture hall but less than 25% of females and only 15% of students for whom English is not their first language. Hence, large lecture hall courses may be inadvertently dissuading the inclusion of many of the students we wish to encourage to participate in our discipline. To combat this a system was used in CLIMATE 102 wherein students could pose questions digitally and anonymously. These questions could be seen by all and answered by all. The instructor and/or teaching assistant can also participate and answer or offer corrections to others' answers. The use of this system had three important outcomes: The number of questions posed during class time rose dramatically from previous semesters when only verbal questions were entertained. The number of questions in CLIMATE 102 with this system generally exceeded 500 per semester where the number of students 200. The number of per-capita questions from female students exceeded the male students, thus differences in gender inquiry was eliminated. The number of per-capita questions from students whose first language was not English equaled the native English-speaking students. While it is the goal of higher education to encourage students to participate verbally in class discussions it is important to provide a "safe" environment in the first year(s) as many students are initially uncomfortable participating verbally in class. We hypothesize, but have not researched, that through this process students have the opportunity to see that their questions are as valid as others' in the class and will subsequently gain the confidence to participate verbally.

  4. Responding to Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  5. Research on Anonymization and De-anonymization in the Bitcoin System

    OpenAIRE

    ShenTu, QingChun; Yu, JianPing

    2015-01-01

    The Bitcoin system is an anonymous, decentralized crypto-currency. There are some deanonymizating techniques to cluster Bitcoin addresses and to map them to users' identifications in the two research directions of Analysis of Transaction Chain (ATC) and Analysis of Bitcoin Protocol and Network (ABPN). Nowadays, there are also some anonymization methods such as coin-mixing and transaction remote release (TRR) to cover the relationship between Bitcoin address and the user. This paper studies an...

  6. Development and psychometric testing of a Clinical Reasoning Evaluation Simulation Tool (CREST) for assessing nursing students' abilities to recognize and respond to clinical deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Sok Ying; Rashasegaran, Ahtherai; Wong, Lai Fun; Deneen, Christopher Charles; Cooper, Simon; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Goh, Hongli Sam; Ignacio, Jeanette

    2018-03-01

    The development of clinical reasoning skills in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration is essential in pre-registration nursing education. Simulation has been increasingly used by educators to develop this skill. To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Clinical Reasoning Evaluation Simulation Tool (CREST) for measuring clinical reasoning skills in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration in a simulated environment. A scale development with psychometric testing and mixed methods study. Nursing students and academic staff were recruited at a university. A three-phase prospective study was conducted. Phase 1 involved the development and content validation of the CREST; Phase 2 included the psychometric testing of the tool with 15 second-year and 15 third-year nursing students who undertook the simulation-based assessment; Phase 3 involved the usability testing of the tool with nine academic staff through a survey questionnaire and focus group discussion. A 10-item CREST was developed based on a model of clinical reasoning. A content validity of 0.93 was obtained from the validation of 15 international experts. The construct validity was supported as the third-year students demonstrated significantly higher (preasoning scores than the second-year students. The concurrent validity was also supported with significant positive correlations between global rating scores and almost all subscale scores, and the total scores. The predictive validity was supported with an existing tool. The internal consistency was high with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. A high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.88. The usability of the tool was rated positively by the nurse educators but the need to ease the scoring process was highlighted. A valid and reliable tool was developed to measure the effectiveness of simulation in developing clinical reasoning skills for recognising and responding to

  7. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Yahtzee: an anonymized group level matching procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason J; Bond, Robert M; Fariss, Christopher J; Settle, Jaime E; Kramer, Adam D I; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H

    2013-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  9. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  10. To Speak or Not to Speak: Developing Legal Standards for Anonymous Speech on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas A. Lipinski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores recent developments in the regulation of Internet speech, in specific, injurious or defamatory speech and the impact such speech has on the rights of anonymous speakers to remain anonymous as opposed to having their identity revealed to plaintiffs or other third parties. The paper proceeds in four sections.  First, a brief history of the legal attempts to regulate defamatory Internet speech in the United States is presented. As discussed below this regulation has altered the traditional legal paradigm of responsibility and as a result creates potential problems for the future of anonymous speech on the Internet.  As a result plaintiffs are no longer pursuing litigation against service providers but taking their dispute directly to the anonymous speaker. Second, several cases have arisen in the United States where plaintiffs have requested that the identity of an anonymous Internet speaker be revealed.  These cases are surveyed.  Third, the cases are analyzed in order to determine the factors that courts require to be present before the identity of an anonymous speaker will be revealed.  The release is typically accomplished by the enforcement of a discovery subpoena instigated by the party seeking the identity of the anonymous speaker. The factors courts have used are as follows: jurisdiction, good faith (both internal and external, necessity (basic and sometimes absolute, and at times proprietary interest. Finally, these factors are applied in three scenarios--e-commerce, education, and employment--to guide institutions when adopting policies that regulate when the identity of an anonymous speaker--a customer, a student or an employee--would be released as part of an internal initiative, but would nonetheless be consistent with developing legal standards.

  11. Do Students' College Major Choices Respond to Changes in Wages? CEDR Working Paper. WP #2014-­6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Goldhaber, Dan; Huntington-Klein, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We find statistically significant relationships between changes in wages by occupation and subsequent changes in college majors completed in associated fields. College majors (defined at a detailed level) are most strongly related to wages observed three years earlier, when students were college freshmen. The responses to wages vary depending on…

  12. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  13. Empowering students to respond to alcohol advertisements: results from a pilot study of an Australian media literacy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy programs in the United States have increased students' media literacy skills and lowered pre-drinking behaviour. In Australia, no such programs have yet been implemented or evaluated. This pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility and potential impact of an alcohol media literacy program for Australian upper-primary school children. Thirty-seven Year 5 and 6 students (aged 10-12) from one school in the Sydney region participated in 10 one-hour media lessons. Teacher interviews, student exit slips, teacher observations and a researcher reflective journal were analysed to examine the implementation process, while a pre- and post-questionnaire was analysed to measure outcome. Key factors in implementation were the importance of school context; attainment of English and PDHPE learning outcomes to differing extents; program's useability provided flexibility; perceived complexity and achievability of the lessons and program's engagement and relevance for the students. The program significantly increased media literacy skills and understanding of persuasive intent; decreased interest in alcohol branded merchandise; and lowered perception of drinking norms. An Australian alcohol media literacy program for upper-primary school children appears feasible, and has potential to lead to measurable outcomes. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Anonymous quantum communications using the quantum one-time pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qing-Le; Gao, Fei-; Liu, Bin; Song, Ting-Ting; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    We present the first quantum secure communication protocol for an anonymous receiver without the assistance of anonymous entanglement. In previous works, if a public sender wants to send quantum messages to a chosen receiver while protecting the identity of the receiver from others, all participants should cooperate first to construct the entanglement between the sender and the anonymous receiver. This is the most important process in anonymous quantum communications. With anonymous entanglement, the sender can communicate quantum messages to the anonymous receiver by applying teleportation protocols. In contrast, our protocol is novel and achieves communication of quantum messages directly from the public sender to the anonymous receiver based on the quantum one-time pad and current achievements. Notably, the anonymity of the receiver, as well as the privacy of the quantum messages, is perfectly protected with the exception of an exponentially small probability in our protocol. (paper)

  15. A framework for automatically checking anonymity with μ CRL

    OpenAIRE

    Chothia, T.; Orzan, S.M.; Pang, J.; Torabi Dashti, M.; Montanari, U.; Sannella, D.; Bruni, R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a powerful and flexible method for automatically checking anonymity in a possibilistic general-purpose process algebraic verification toolset. We propose new definitions of a choice anonymity degree and a player anonymity degree, to quantify the precision with which an intruder is able to single out the true originator of a given event or to associate the right event to a given protocol participant. We show how these measures of anonymity can be automatically calculated from a prot...

  16. Assessing Anonymous Communication on the Internet: Policy Deliberations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching; Frankel, Mark S.; Teich, Al

    1999-01-01

    Examines the social character of anonymous online communication and the ways that anonymous communication has played important roles for professionals such as journalists and the police. Explains some of the new technological supports for anonymous communication on the Internet. Discusses some of the nuances behind the controversies and policy…

  17. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymous Group Communication in Dissent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    instance, group discussion forums or instant messaging. Misbehaving users may abuse this anonymity to disrupt communication, however, and existing...Abstract Users often wish to communicate anonymously on the Internet using, for instance, group discussion forums or instant messaging. Misbehaving users may...personal reprisal (Stein 2003). Yet anonymity makes it difficult to trace or exclude misbehaving participants (Davenport 2002). Online proto- cols

  18. An Extensive Study on Data Anonymization Algorithms Based on K-Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Ms. M. S.; Sankara Nayaki, Mrs. K.; Sudheep Elayidom, M., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    For business and research oriented works engaging Data Analysis and Cloud services needing qualitative data, many organizations release huge microdata. It excludes an individual’s explicit identity marks like name, address and comprises of specific information like DOB, Pin-code, sex, marital status, which can be combined with other public data to recognize a person. This implication attack can be manipulated to acquire any sensitive information from social network platform, thereby putting the privacy of a person in grave danger. To prevent such attacks by modifying microdata, K-anonymization is used. With potentially increasing data, the effective method to anonymize it stands challenging. After series of trails and systematic comparison, in this paper, we propose three best algorithms along with its efficiency and effectiveness. Studies help researchers to identify the relationship between the values of k, degree of anonymization, choosing a quasi-identifier and focus on execution time.

  19. Towards Predicting Efficient and Anonymous Tor Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Armon; Imani, Mohsen; Ming, Jiang; Wright, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The Tor anonymity system provides online privacy for millions of users, but it is slower than typical web browsing. To improve Tor performance, we propose PredicTor, a path selection technique that uses a Random Forest classifier trained on recent measurements of Tor to predict the performance of a proposed path. If the path is predicted to be fast, then the client builds a circuit using those relays. We implemented PredicTor in the Tor source code and show through live Tor experiments and Sh...

  20. Medical student, nursing student, and non-health care respondents' implicit attitudes toward doctors and patients: Development and a pilot study of a new implicit attitudes test (IAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan; Mazouni, Abdelhamid

    2017-01-01

    Medical educators have been concerned that medical students may decline in empathy for patients during the course of their training, based on studies measuring clinical empathy using psychometrically strong self-report measures. Clinical empathy is a complex construct, incorporating attitudes toward patients but also other components, such as professional detachment. Triangulation of extant measures with instruments based on nonreactive methods could provide a better understanding of whether and how physician attitudes toward patients may be changing during training. We sought to develop and pilot-test such a nonreactive method. We develop variations of an implicit association test (IAT) designed to measure attitudes toward physicians and patients based on speed of reaction to images of actors and positive and negative words. In the IATs, the same actors are photographed as doctors, clinic outpatients, hospitalized inpatients, and as a "general public" control. We examine preliminary evidence for their validity by collecting pilot data from internet participants (not involved in the health professions), medical students, and nursing students. Internet participants (n = 314) and nursing students (n = 31) had more negative associations (IAT scores) with doctors than did medical students (n = 89); nursing students and female internet participants had more positive associations with hospitalized patients than did medical students and male internet participants. Medical students' associations with hospitalized patients varied by year of training. This IAT may provide insight into implicit attitudes among those who enter training for the health profession and changes in those attitudes that may be inculcated during that training.

  1. Browsing the Internet: good-bye anonymity!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you consider browsing the Internet to be your private business? When visiting random web-sites, how far do you assume you are anonymous? Would it matter to you that Google or Facebook can profile your browsing behaviour in order to better target you with advertisements? Did you notice that you already get targeted ads when you are logged on to Google or Facebook even if you are visiting completely different websites? If matters to you, note that browsing anonymously on the Internet is far from easy.   When you are connected to the Internet, you give away a variety of information: your PC’s IP address, some browser settings like language or screen size, and, probably, your login information. So how private is private? You might argue that your current IP address has been picked from a pool of addresses and therefore regularly changes, so it does not necessarily always pinpoint you. On the other hand, with the dawn of IPv6 there is no need any more for shared IP addresses as the...

  2. For the Lulz: Anonymous, Aesthetics and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on different but connected areas of power – relating to things such as economic globalisation, surveillance, censorship/freedom, ‘terrorism’ and/or specific military activity – visually represented through online media, and intentionally produced to inform a wide spectrum of individuals and interest groups about global and local social injustices. Or, more importantly, produced and distributed with the purpose of providing users with possibilities to engage, bodily and emotionally, in diverse ways: may it be through physical antiwar/anti-wall street protests or hacktivist tactics (e.g. DDoS attacks. We examine a sample of videos, photographs and propaganda posters produced, and digitally distributed (2008-2013, by the fragmented body of activists united globally under the generic name of Anonymous. Analytically, we will draw upon Mouffe’s thoughts on ‘antagonism’ and ‘passion,’ Foucault’s ideas on international citizenship and the (ethical ‘right to intervene’ (beyond governmentality, together with Sontag’s notion of institutional political inertia and the Deleuzian/Spinozian perspective on affect as a capacity for action. The goal is to analyse the ways in which Anonymous systematically inspire (not only the radical and social imaginary but also other direct forms of action that have potential societal effects.

  3. Yahtzee: an anonymized group level matching procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Jones

    Full Text Available Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  4. Anonymity versus privacy: selective information sharing in online cancer communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jeana; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-05-14

    Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients' prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F1,114=135.59, P=.001, η(2)=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Respondents' information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity information. The results suggest the need to focus on

  5. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  6. Digital anonymity on the internet : new rules for anonymous electronic transactions? an exploration of the private law implications of digital anonymity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.; Prins, C.

    2001-01-01

    This article sets out the most important conclusions of the first stage of a study into the dimensions of digital anonymity. It is intended to set out the problem, make people aware of the intricacies of the problem and thus stimulate the debate on useful legal structures for anonymity. The

  7. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    security properties have been proposed. We investigate constructions as well as limitations for preserving receiver anonymity when using public-key encryption (PKE). We use the constructive cryptography approach by Maurer and Renner and interpret cryptographic schemes as constructions of a certain ideal...... literature (IND-CCA, key-privacy, weak robustness). We also show that a desirable stronger variant, preventing the adversary from selective ”trial-deliveries” of messages, is unfortunately unachievable by any PKE scheme, no matter how strong. The constructive approach makes the guarantees achieved...... by applying a cryptographic scheme explicit in the constructed (ideal) resource; this specifies the exact requirements for the applicability of a cryptographic scheme in a given context. It also allows to decide which of the existing security properties of such a cryptographic scheme are adequate...

  8. Really not god: Secularization and pragmatism in Gamblers Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, B R

    1994-09-01

    The paper argues that despite maintaining the image of a twelve-step organization, the central theme of the history of Gamblers Anonymous (GA) in the United States is the increasing secularization of the program of the recovery. The paper documents the increasing secularization and pragmatism of Gamblers Anonymous, as reflected in key documents, despite the spiritual vision of its founding member. The author speculates on why Gamblers Anonymous took a secularized development path. Further research is called for.

  9. Utility-preserving anonymization for health data publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyukki; Kim, Soohyung; Kim, Jong Wook; Chung, Yon Dohn

    2017-07-11

    Publishing raw electronic health records (EHRs) may be considered as a breach of the privacy of individuals because they usually contain sensitive information. A common practice for the privacy-preserving data publishing is to anonymize the data before publishing, and thus satisfy privacy models such as k-anonymity. Among various anonymization techniques, generalization is the most commonly used in medical/health data processing. Generalization inevitably causes information loss, and thus, various methods have been proposed to reduce information loss. However, existing generalization-based data anonymization methods cannot avoid excessive information loss and preserve data utility. We propose a utility-preserving anonymization for privacy preserving data publishing (PPDP). To preserve data utility, the proposed method comprises three parts: (1) utility-preserving model, (2) counterfeit record insertion, (3) catalog of the counterfeit records. We also propose an anonymization algorithm using the proposed method. Our anonymization algorithm applies full-domain generalization algorithm. We evaluate our method in comparison with existence method on two aspects, information loss measured through various quality metrics and error rate of analysis result. With all different types of quality metrics, our proposed method show the lower information loss than the existing method. In the real-world EHRs analysis, analysis results show small portion of error between the anonymized data through the proposed method and original data. We propose a new utility-preserving anonymization method and an anonymization algorithm using the proposed method. Through experiments on various datasets, we show that the utility of EHRs anonymized by the proposed method is significantly better than those anonymized by previous approaches.

  10. Alcoholics anonymous, other 12-step movements and psychotherapy in the US population, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, R; Greenfield, T

    1993-04-01

    Based on the 1990 US National Alcohol Survey, this note provides the first available comprehensive findings on self-reported utilization of a variety of sources of personal support and counselling for alcohol and other problems. Respondents were queried about lifetime attendance and number of times they went to identified sources of help in the prior year. Twelve-step groups included Alcoholics Anonymous, Al-Anon, Adult Children of Alcoholics, and other non-alcohol-oriented groups like Gamblers Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Overeaters Anonymous; additional questions inquired about support or therapy groups and individual counselling for non-alcohol problems. Of the US adult population, 9% have been to an AA meeting at some time, 3.6% in the prior year, only about one-third of these for problems of their own. About half these percentages, mostly women, have attended Al-Anon. Of the same population, 13.3% indicate ever attending a 12-step meeting (including non-alcohol-oriented groups), 5.3% in the last year. During the prior year a further 2.1% used other support/therapy groups and 5.5% sought individual counselling/therapy for personal problems other than alcohol. In contrast to this high reported utilization, only 4.9% (ever) and 2.3% (12-months) reported going to anyone including AA for a problem (of their own) related to drinking.

  11. Anonymity and Openness in Donor Conception: the New Danish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2013-01-01

    model in donor conception which offers women/couples a choice of anonymity or openness in donation.This paper is based on my talk on June 20, 2013 at London School of Economics at the conference “New Families and Genetic Identities: Developments in law, policy and research” organised by the Morgan...... bank is based in Denmark and consequently anonymous sperm is also exported abroad, even into jurisdictions where anonymity is banned illegal. This commentary traces the raison d’être of anonymity in Danish law, accounts for the legal framework for the internet sale of sperm and examines the new Danish...

  12. What Does Anonymization Mean? DataSHIELD and the Need for Consensus on Anonymization Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    Anonymization is a recognized process by which identifiers can be removed from identifiable data to protect an individual's confidentiality and is used as a standard practice when sharing data in biomedical research. However, a plethora of terms, such as coding, pseudonymization, unlinked, and deidentified, have been and continue to be used, leading to confusion and uncertainty. This article shows that this is a historic problem and argues that such continuing uncertainty regarding the levels of protection given to data risks damaging initiatives designed to assist researchers conducting cross-national studies and sharing data internationally. DataSHIELD and the creation of a legal template are used as examples of initiatives that rely on anonymization, but where the inconsistency in terminology could hinder progress. More broadly, this article argues that there is a real possibility that there could be possible damage to the public's trust in research and the institutions that carry it out by relying on vague notions of the anonymization process. Research participants whose lack of clear understanding of the research process is compensated for by trusting those carrying out the research may have that trust damaged if the level of protection given to their data does not match their expectations. One step toward ensuring understanding between parties would be consistent use of clearly defined terminology used internationally, so that all those involved are clear on the level of identifiability of any particular set of data and, therefore, how that data can be accessed and shared.

  13. Undergraduate nursing students' performance in recognising and responding to sudden patient deterioration in high psychological fidelity simulated environments: an Australian multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogossian, Fiona; Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Beauchamp, Alison; Porter, Joanne; Kain, Victoria; Bucknall, Tracey; Phillips, Nicole M

    2014-05-01

    (p=.032 cardiac and p=.006 shock). Situation awareness scores of scenario team leaders were low overall, with an average total score of 41%. Final year undergraduate nursing students may have difficulty recognising and responding appropriately to patient deterioration. Improving pre-requisite knowledge, rehearsal of first response and team management strategies need to be a key component of undergraduate nursing students' education and ought to specifically address clinical performance, teamwork and situation awareness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Homophily in an Anonymous Online Community: Sociodemographic Versus Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Chung, Da Young

    2017-06-01

    In what traits do people interact with others who are similar to them in completely anonymous online communication? Can those traits contribute to greater exchange of opinion and information across the sociodemographic boundaries that often limit interaction between social strata? To answer this question concerning online homophily, we combined survey data on 7,287 users (aged 18 and above) of a Korean online dating advice platform with their behavioral data from June 2015 to August 2015 and explored whether advice exchange occurred between users with similar sociodemographic and personality traits. On this platform, two types of interactions occurred as follows: (1) responses to a randomly distributed problem submitted by an advice seeker and (2) the seeker's indication of approval of any of the responses given. The study found that (1) a receiver was more likely to respond to problems submitted by seekers of a comparable age and that (2) seekers were more likely to approve of a response if the seeker and receiver had similar educational backgrounds. By contrast, homophily based on personality traits was not observed even though some personality traits significantly affected the likelihood of both response and approval. Our findings suggest that online communication may breed sociodemographic homophily, whether based on age or education, more than expected or intended while not easily fostering alternative forms of homophily, such as personality homophily, which can potentially cut across borders dividing sociodemographic groups.

  15. Vote to link: Recovering from misbehaving anonymous users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lueks, W.; Everts, M.H.; Hoepman, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Service providers are often reluctant to support anonymous access, because this makes it hard to deal with misbehaving users. Anonymous blacklisting and reputation systems can help prevent misbehaving users from causing more damage. However, by the time the user is blocked or has lost reputation,

  16. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  17. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy.

  18. “We are Anonymous.” Anonymity in the Public Sphere – Challenges of Free and Open Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anonymity, the stealth mode of public communication, challenges different actors who deal with freedom of communication issues in their day to day life – be it professional journalists, information and communication scientists, technicians or political activists. This article aims to deliver theoretical background on the concept of anonymity on the macro-level, as well as to shed light on how different communicators deal with anonymity on the micro-level. Based on the example of the Anonymous movement, communicative actions are put in relation to media technological artifacts and their surrounding media environment with a focus on journalistic practice and public response to the phenomenon. The analysis concludes with the need for a preservation of options for anonymous public communication as a dimension of freedom of communication after carefully considering both the advantages and the potential risks connected to that mode of private-public communication.

  19. Preference for anonymity in sperm donation for artificial insemination: an experience from low-resource settings in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Eleje, George U; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Mba, Sunday G; Nnaji, Henry C; Enechukwu, Chukwunonso I; Nkwo, Peter O

    2018-01-01

    Objective Anonymous sperm donation is a common practice in Nigeria with its associated legal and ethical challenges. This study aimed to investigate infertile couples’ opinions about issues of sperm donor anonymity and to determine factors that might influence their preferences. Methods A cross-sectional, multicentered, questionnaire-based study was conducted among infertile couples attending infertility clinics in three tertiary hospitals in the south-eastern region of Nigeria over a period of 6 months. Results A total of 450 infertile couples were recruited consecutively from the three study centers. However, 450 females and 352 males (total=802) participated in the study. The level of awareness of artificial insemination using donor sperm for the management of male infertility among the respondents was 69.2%, while its acceptability rate was 62.7%. The majority of the respondents indicated their preference for secrecy and anonymity in sperm donation. Approximately 84% of the respondents indicated that the mode of conception should never be disclosed to the donor-conceived child, and ~92% of them indicated that the identity of the sperm donor should never be revealed to the donor-conceived child. Fear of adverse effect of such disclosure on the child and the possible of rejection of the father in order to seek for the donor were the major reasons for their preference for anonymity. Conclusion Although it has been argued that every child has a right to know their genetic parents, the reasons proffered by the respondents for their preference for anonymity cannot be totally ignored. Establishing a regulatory body and enacting laws that will address both the ethical and legal issues associated with gamete donation in the developing world will go a long way in promoting openness and honest communication with donor-conceived children. PMID:29670338

  20. Fictional Marriage Proposal of Anonymous Astrakhan Khan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The following text is reproduced from a handwritten copy of the letter made by the Italian humanist Gian Vincenzo Pinelli (1535–1601 and contained in one codex of Ambrosiana Library in Milan (R 104 sup., fol. 194r [see the description of the codex in: 3, no. 341. p. 125]. This codex (588 folios contains Italian and Latin texts of the 16th century of extremely diverse content, which does not allow to determe neither the name of the author of the reproduced letter, nor the date of its writing. Nevertheless, a reference to the name of “Luther” in the letter suggests that it must have been written in the 16th century and an indication of the main purpose of the letter – matchmaking to anonymous queen – makes it possible to put forward quite a bold (but, for now, unproven hypothesis that this letter might be addressed to approximates of the Polish Queen Bona Sforza and the widow of King Sigismund I the Old starting with the April 1, 1548. Following this hypothesis, the alleged author of the letter could be the ruler of Astrakhan Yamgurchi or the Crimean khan Sahib Giray. However, this assumption remains only a hypothesis, and the author of this article hopes that future researchers will be able to identify both the author of the letter and its recipients. Be that as it may, this letter is of undoubtedly fictitious character since it does not indicate the name of its author and the date of writing and obviously differs from official form of the Tatar rulers’ letters. Undoubtedly, this letter refers to the literary genre of fictional letters of the rulers, which became extremely popular in Europe since the second half of the 15th century. As an illustration of this genre, the author of this article presents a “letter” of the Turkish sultan to the Tatars and their “response” from the fictional collection of “Letters of the Great Turk” [1, fol. 18r] of Laudivius Hierosolymitanus, which was a relatively widespread in Europe in the

  1. Alcoholics Anonymous and nursing. Lessons in holism and spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E M

    2000-03-01

    Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) is a worldwide, million-member organization that has assisted countless alcoholics to achieve sobriety through a spiritual program of recovery from alcoholism. Based on spiritual principles known as the "Twelve Steps" and "Twelve Traditions," AA has provided a model for other recovery programs such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Gamblers Anonymous (GA), and Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous (SLAA). Recovery in AA appears to involve a process of self-transcendence. In recent years, nursing scholars have increasingly explored the concepts of self-transcendence and spirituality as they apply to nursing theory and practice. This article explores the roots and spiritual dimensions of 12-step recovery programs. It further explores the ways in which theoretical and clinical knowledge about the delivery of spiritual care interventions may be gained from an understanding of AA's spiritual approach to recovery.

  2. Property-Based Anonymous Attestation in Trusted Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Hu Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the remote attestation on Trusted Computer (TC computing mode TCCP, the trusted computer TC has an excessive burden, and anonymity and platform configuration information security of computing nodes cannot be guaranteed. To overcome these defects, based on the research on and analysis of current schemes, we propose an anonymous proof protocol based on property certificate. The platform configuration information is converted by the matrix algorithm into the property certificate, and the remote attestation is implemented by trusted ring signature scheme based on Strong RSA Assumption. By the trusted ring signature scheme based on property certificate, we achieve the anonymity of computing nodes and prevent the leakage of platform configuration information. By simulation, we obtain the computational efficiency of the scheme. We also expand the protocol and obtain the anonymous attestation based on ECC. By scenario comparison, we obtain the trusted ring signature scheme based on RSA, which has advantages with the growth of the ring numbers.

  3. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    registrations and ecommerce trans- Preprint - 2 Stuart G. Stubblebine, and Paul F. Syverson. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection...driver’s license and birth certi cate. When the registration process is complete, certi cates could be on a smart card that the customer is carrying. The...proof. At least initially, it might not be electronic, e.g., possession of a passport, of a driver’s license and birth certi cate, etc. Anonymous

  4. System for Anonymous Data Collection Based on Group Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Troják

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an anonymous data collection in the Internet of Things (IoT. the privacy and anonymity of the data source is important for many IoT applications, such as in agriculture, health, and automotive. the proposed data‑collection system provides anonymity for the data sources by applying a cooperation group scheme. the group scheme also provides a low power consumption. the system is built upon the Tor (The Onion Router anonymous network, which is a part of the Internet darknet. the proposed system was designed for the Android devices on the client side and for Java environment on the server side. We evaluated the anonymous data collection in a real‑use scenario that covers selected data acquisition (e.g. signal strength from smartphones triggered by their geographical location change. the results show that the proposed system provides the sufficient data source anonymity, an effective revocation, a low computational cost and a low overhead.

  5. Interim policy on establishment and operation of internet open, anonymous information servers and services

    OpenAIRE

    Acting Dean of Computer and Information Services

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. To establish interim NPS general policy regarding establishment and operation of Open, Anonymous Information Servers and Services, such as World Wide Web (http), Gopher, Anonymous FTP, etc...

  6. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  7. Bystander's willingness to report theft, physical assault, and sexual assault: the impact of gender, anonymity, and relationship with the offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksa, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    This research examines bystander willingness to report three different crimes to the police or campus authorities among a college student sample (n = 295). Twelve original vignettes varied anonymity when reporting, bystander's relationship with the offender (friend or stranger), and crime type. A factorial analysis of variance showed that main effects were found for crime type, bystander's gender, and bystander's relationship with the offender; anonymity was not significant. The physical assault was the most likely to be reported (4.47), followed by theft (3.26), and sexual assault (2.36). Women were more likely than men to report each crime type, and bystanders who were good friends of the offender were less likely to report than strangers. No two- or three-way interactions were significant, but a significant four-way interaction indicated that anonymity, relationship with the offender, and bystander's gender predicted willingness to report for the sexual assault scenario.

  8. Criminal offenses in gamblers anonymous and hospital treated pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, A P; McConaghy, N

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the nature and prevalence of gambling and non-gambling related offenses in samples of pathological gamblers seeking behavioural treatment from a hospital-based program and those attending Gamblers Anonymous. A semi-structured interview schedule obtaining demographic data and details of the nature, frequency, and consequent legal action of criminal offenses committed was administered to 152 consecutive hospital treated pathological gamblers, and 154 Gamblers Anonymous attendees who volunteered to participate in the study. Of the total sample, 59% admitted a gambling-related offense, and 23% to a conviction. There was no difference in the proportion of hospital treated and Gamblers Anonymous subjects who offended. The most common gambling-related offenses were larceny, embezzlement and misappropriation. Gamblers committed a median of ten offenses over an average ten year period of pathological gambling with a median value of $ A 300(1) per offense. The median value for each non-gambling-related offense was $ A 130. Except for the significantly older mean age of Gamblers Anonymous subjects, hospital treated gamblers did not differ from Gamblers Anonymous attenders on relevant demographic features or parameters of gambling behaviour. Findings were interpreted to suggest a possible causal link between pathological gambling and the commission of non-violent property offenses.

  9. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  10. Preference for anonymity in sperm donation for artificial insemination: an experience from low-resource settings in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezugwu EC

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1,2 George U Eleje,3,4 Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,1,2 Sunday G Mba,5 Henry C Nnaji,2 Chukwunonso I Enechukwu,4 Peter O Nkwo1,2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ittuku Ozalla Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria Objective: Anonymous sperm donation is a common practice in Nigeria with its associated legal and ethical challenges. This study aimed to investigate infertile couples’ opinions about issues of sperm donor anonymity and to determine factors that might influence their preferences.Methods: A cross-sectional, multicentered, questionnaire-based study was conducted among infertile couples attending infertility clinics in three tertiary hospitals in the south-eastern region of Nigeria over a period of 6 months.Results: A total of 450 infertile couples were recruited consecutively from the three study centers. However, 450 females and 352 males (total=802 participated in the study. The level of awareness of artificial insemination using donor sperm for the management of male infertility among the respondents was 69.2%, while its acceptability rate was 62.7%. The majority of the respondents indicated their preference for secrecy and anonymity in sperm donation. Approximately 84% of the respondents indicated that the mode of conception should never be disclosed to the donor-conceived child, and ~92% of them indicated that the identity of the sperm donor should never be revealed to the donor

  11. Anonymous Authorship Control for User-Generated Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Bong LEE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available User-Generated Content (UGC is opening up new large market in content services, and more and more people are visiting web sites to share and enjoy UGCs. These trends make many authors to move into online. Authors want to conserve their authorship and expect to publish their UGC anonymously in cases. To meet the requirements, we propose a new authorship control model based on watermarking and metadata. Authors can embed their authorship into their UGC with identities or with anonym. Even though an author publishes his UGC anonymously, he can prove his authorship without unveiling his identity via 5 methods utilizing the proposed authorship model. The proposed model and methods need no TTP and are robust even based on fragile underlying watermarking scheme.

  12. Enabling genomic-phenomic association discovery without sacrificing anonymity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond D Heatherly

    Full Text Available Health information technologies facilitate the collection of massive quantities of patient-level data. A growing body of research demonstrates that such information can support novel, large-scale biomedical investigations at a fraction of the cost of traditional prospective studies. While healthcare organizations are being encouraged to share these data in a de-identified form, there is hesitation over concerns that it will allow corresponding patients to be re-identified. Currently proposed technologies to anonymize clinical data may make unrealistic assumptions with respect to the capabilities of a recipient to ascertain a patients identity. We show that more pragmatic assumptions enable the design of anonymization algorithms that permit the dissemination of detailed clinical profiles with provable guarantees of protection. We demonstrate this strategy with a dataset of over one million medical records and show that 192 genotype-phenotype associations can be discovered with fidelity equivalent to non-anonymized clinical data.

  13. Secure and Efficient Anonymous Authentication Scheme in Global Mobility Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sub Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, Mun et al. pointed out that Wu et al.’s scheme failed to achieve user anonymity and perfect forward secrecy and disclosed the passwords of legitimate users. And they proposed a new enhancement for anonymous authentication scheme. However, their proposed scheme has vulnerabilities that are susceptible to replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. It also incurs a high overhead in the database. In this paper, we examine the vulnerabilities in the existing schemes and the computational overhead incurred in the database. We then propose a secure and efficient anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility network. Our proposed scheme is secure against various attacks, provides mutual authentication and session key establishment, and incurs less computational overhead in the database than Mun et al.'s scheme.

  14. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  15. Anonymizing patient genomic data for public sharing association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Seoane, Jose A; Lopez-Alonso, Victoria; Dorado, Julian; Martín-Sanchez, Fernando; Pazos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The development of personalized medicine is tightly linked with the correct exploitation of molecular data, especially those associated with the genome sequence along with these use of genomic data there is an increasing demand to share these data for research purposes. Transition of clinical data to research is based in the anonymization of these data so the patient cannot be identified, the use of genomic data poses a great challenge because its nature of identifying data. In this work we have analyzed current methods for genome anonymization and propose a one way encryption method that may enable the process of genomic data sharing accessing only to certain regions of genomes for research purposes.

  16. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  17. The Cross-Training of Future Journalists: Journalism Schools Respond to Industry Hiring Trends by Exposing Students to Both Print, Broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    As television and print news outlets increasingly form partnerships with each other to gain larger audiences, journalism educators are cross-training more students. At a growing number of journalism schools across the country students are not only learning a specific craft such as newspapering or TV broadcasting, but they're also getting…

  18. Sophisticated Epistemologies of Physics versus High-Stakes Tests: How Do Elite High School Students Respond to Competing Influences about How to Learn Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how elite Turkish high school physics students claim to approach learning physics when they are simultaneously (i) engaged in a curriculum that led to significant gains in their epistemological sophistication and (ii) subject to a high-stakes college entrance exam. Students reported taking surface (rote) approaches to…

  19. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Hinton

    Full Text Available The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674 of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  20. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Daniel P; Higson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674) of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  1. Conducting Anonymous, Incentivized, Online Surveys With Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents: Lessons Learned From a National Polyvictimization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Gartner, Rachel E; McGeough, Briana L

    2018-03-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents represent an understudied and hard-to-reach population who experience higher rates of mental and behavioral health problems in comparison to their cisgender, heterosexual peers. Online surveys and the proliferation of Internet-connected devices among adolescents offer an exciting opportunity for researchers to begin addressing research gaps and past methodological limitations with these hard-to-reach populations. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance to researchers who are designing and implementing anonymous, incentivized, online surveys by examining the following critical domains-(a) recruitment and engagement: means of leveraging social media and videos to recruit and engage a more nationally representative sample; (b) safety and protection: strategies for administering informed consent and protecting participant anonymity and well-being; and (c) data integrity: mechanisms to detect dishonest and repeat responders. To facilitate discussion of these aims, concrete examples are used from SpeakOut-a 3-year, national study funded by the National Institute of Justice that utilized an anonymous, incentivized, online survey with a large sample of sexual and gender minority adolescents ( N = 1,177) to identify the prevalence, incidence, and correlates of polyvictimization. The article concludes with lessons learned from this national study and recommendations for technological innovations and future research that will strengthen the utility of anonymous, incentivized, online surveys to study sexual and gender minority adolescents and other hard-to-reach populations.

  2. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    Full Text Available A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000 model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks.

  3. Pitfalls in training simulated patients to respond appropriately to questions from medical students in family history-taking activities: the current situation surrounding the training of simulated patients for learning activities at Nippon Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Ryoko; Inoue, Chikako; Yoshimura, Akinobu; Shimura, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to train simulated patients (SPs) to respond appropriately to questions about family history from medical students in simulated medical interviews. To this end, we carried out a survey of 91 SPs and 76 4th-year medical students to investigate their notions of what constitutes a family. All of the SPs and students surveyed deemed parents and children living together to be members of a family. In a situation where one spouse's parents live together with the basic family unit, 93% of the SPs considered them to be members of the family, whereas only 79% of the students did. Married children living apart from their parents were considered members of the family by 18% of the SPs and 39% of the students. These results indicate clear differences between the SPs and students in their notions of the family. To verify the level of understanding of the definitions of family and blood relatives in particular scenarios used in simulated medical interviews, we administered a written test to 14 SPs who were training to assist in the nationwide common achievement test in medicine, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The overall score of the SPs was 93.5%; the incorrect answers were "a sibling is not a blood relative" and "a spouse is a blood relative." We analyzed the performance of these 14 SPs in medical interviews carried out after training for the OSCE, in which they were asked questions that required them to reveal their understanding of blood relatives, cohabiting relatives, and the family. All of the SPs responded appropriately to the students' questions about family history. After the OSCE, we asked the SPs to assess themselves on how well they had given their family histories and to evaluate the usefulness of the SP training they had received. Their mean self-assessment score on providing a family history was 3.6 (scale: 1-4); on the usefulness of training, it was 3.4 (scale: 1-4). In conclusion, training SPs to respond appropriately to

  4. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  5. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…

  6. Does spousal participation in Gamblers Anonymous benefit compulsive gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E E; Nora, R M

    1992-12-01

    Extent of gambling-free periods was compared for 90 compulsive gamblers, 44 with spouses who participated in Gamblers Anonymous and 46 with spouses who did not. Although the results were in the direction of a beneficial effect of spousal participation, the relationship was statistically nonsignificant.

  7. Gamblers anonymous and cognitive-behavioral therapies for pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    Numerous types of treatments for pathological gambling have been described, but two of the most common are Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. This paper describes some outcome data associated with the two approaches. It also reviews evidence suggesting that a combined intervention may enhance therapy engagement and reduce relapse rates.

  8. Anonymous living liver donation: donor profiles and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, T W; Fox, A; Adcock, L; Wright, L; Abbey, S E; Levy, G; Grant, D R

    2010-09-01

    There are no published series of the assessment process, profiles and outcomes of anonymous, directed or nondirected live liver donation. The outcomes of 29 consecutive potential anonymous liver donors at our center were assessed. We used our standard live liver assessment process, augmented with the following additional acceptance criteria: a logical rationale for donation, a history of social altruism, strong social supports and a willingness to maintain confidentiality of patient information. Seventeen potential donors were rejected and 12 donors were ultimately accepted (six male, six female). All donors were strongly motivated by a desire and sense of responsibility to help others. Four donations were directed toward recipients who undertook media appeals. The donor operations included five left lateral segmentectomies and seven right hepatectomies. The overall donor morbidity was 40% with one patient having a transient Clavien level 3 complication (a pneumothorax). All donors are currently well. None expressed regret about their decision to donate, and all volunteered the opinion that donation had improved their lives. The standard live liver donor assessment process plus our additional requirements appears to provide a robust assessment process for the selection of anonymous live liver donors. Acceptance of anonymous donors enlarges the donor liver pool. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  10. Simplifying Itai-Rodeh leaderelection for anonymous rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Fokkink (Wan); J. Pang

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe present two probabilistic leader election algorithms for anonymous unidirectional rings with FIFO channels, based on an algorithm from Itai and Rodeh. In contrast to the Itai-Rodeh algorithm, our algorithms are finite-state. So they can be analyzed using explicit state space

  11. Simplifying Itai-Rodeh Leader Election for Anonymous Rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, W.J.; Pang, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present two probabilistic leader election algorithms for anonymous unidirectional rings with FIFO channels, based on an algorithm from Itai and Rodeh [A. Itai and M. Rodeh. Symmetry breaking in distributive networks. In Proc. FOCS'81, pp. 150-158. IEEE Computer Society, 1981]. In contrast to the

  12. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel; Zhao, Keliang; Papadias, Dimitris; Kalnis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, A.; Ganzevoort, R.R.; Spiering, M.

    2014-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria

  14. Forming Circle Formations of Anonymous Mobile Agents With Order Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chen; Xie, Guangming; Cao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    We propose distributed control laws for a group of anonymous mobile agents to form desired circle formations when the agents move in the one-dimensional space of a circle. The agents are modeled by kinematic points. They share the common knowledge of the orientation of the circle, but are oblivious

  15. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually

  16. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  17. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2010-05-01

    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Student and faculty perceptions of lecture recording in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynor, Lena M; Barrickman, Ashleigh Landis; Stamatakis, Mary K; Elliott, David P

    2013-10-14

    To describe students' and faculty members' perceptions of the impact of lecture recording in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Second- and third-year pharmacy students and faculty members completed an anonymous survey instrument regarding their perceptions of lecture recording with 2 classroom lecture capture software programs, Camtasia Studio and Wimba Classroom. Most students (82%) responded that Camtasia was very helpful and almost half (49%) responded that Wimba Classroom was helpful (pstudents reported being more likely to miss a class that was recorded; however, few students (10%) reported using recordings as a substitute for attending class. The most common concern of faculty members was decreased student attendance (27%). Pharmacy students consider lecture recordings beneficial, and they use the recordings primarily to review the lecture. While faculty members reported concerns with decreased attendance, few students reported using recordings as an alternative to class attendance.

  19. Sex, college major, and attribution of responsibility in empathic responding to persons with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Turner, Castellano

    2004-10-01

    This investigation studied the influence of sex, college major, and attributed responsibility on college students' empathic responding towards persons infected with HIV. We hypothesized that (1) women would score higher on empathy than men; (2) nursing and psychology majors would score higher on empathy than business and computer science majors; and (3) participants would score higher on empathy towards a target who contracted HIV through blood transfusion (presented as a Nonresponsible target) rather than through unprotected sex (presented as a Responsible target). Two hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students (110 male, 148 female) attending a large urban university in the northeast filled out an anonymous demographic questionnaire, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index of Davis (1983), and an Empathy Reaction Scale that was developed by the authors. Results indicated a higher mean Empathy Reaction score from nursing and psychology students as compared to business and computer science students. There was no difference in Empathy Reaction scores between men and women. A higher Empathy Reaction score was found among participants who had read a diary from the target portrayed as Nonresponsible, as opposed to those who read a diary from the target portrayed as Responsible.

  20. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  1. Privacy preserving data anonymization of spontaneous ADE reporting system dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Yang, Duen-Chuan; Wang, Jie-Teng

    2016-07-18

    To facilitate long-term safety surveillance of marketing drugs, many spontaneously reporting systems (SRSs) of ADR events have been established world-wide. Since the data collected by SRSs contain sensitive personal health information that should be protected to prevent the identification of individuals, it procures the issue of privacy preserving data publishing (PPDP), that is, how to sanitize (anonymize) raw data before publishing. Although much work has been done on PPDP, very few studies have focused on protecting privacy of SRS data and none of the anonymization methods is favorable for SRS datasets, due to which contain some characteristics such as rare events, multiple individual records, and multi-valued sensitive attributes. We propose a new privacy model called MS(k, θ (*) )-bounding for protecting published spontaneous ADE reporting data from privacy attacks. Our model has the flexibility of varying privacy thresholds, i.e., θ (*) , for different sensitive values and takes the characteristics of SRS data into consideration. We also propose an anonymization algorithm for sanitizing the raw data to meet the requirements specified through the proposed model. Our algorithm adopts a greedy-based clustering strategy to group the records into clusters, conforming to an innovative anonymization metric aiming to minimize the privacy risk as well as maintain the data utility for ADR detection. Empirical study was conducted using FAERS dataset from 2004Q1 to 2011Q4. We compared our model with four prevailing methods, including k-anonymity, (X, Y)-anonymity, Multi-sensitive l-diversity, and (α, k)-anonymity, evaluated via two measures, Danger Ratio (DR) and Information Loss (IL), and considered three different scenarios of threshold setting for θ (*) , including uniform setting, level-wise setting and frequency-based setting. We also conducted experiments to inspect the impact of anonymized data on the strengths of discovered ADR signals. With all three

  2. "Go Somewhere, Do Something". How Students Responded to the Opportunity to Complete an Unstructured, Five-Day, Wilderness Solo in the Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Liz

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the response of 28, second year undergraduate students to an innovative approach to a five-day solo. Periods of solitude are more likely to lead to positive outcomes when they are freely chosen than when they are programmed as part of a course. The extent to which a programmed solo can be "freely chosen" by the…

  3. Perceived Culpability in Critical Multicultural Education: Understanding and Responding to Race Informed Guilt and Shame to Further Learning Outcomes among White American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Fernando; Matthews, Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation we explored among a U.S. sample of White college students the effect of perceived race-informed culpability--conceptualized as the self-conscious emotions known as White guilt and shame--on two critical multicultural education outcomes: modern prejudicial attitudes and demonstrated anti-racist knowledge. Interaction effects…

  4. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Portela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks.

  5. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Javier; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Silva Trujillo, Alejandra Guadalupe; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks. PMID:27809275

  6. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rong-Hua; Xiao Yi; Shi Jin-Jing; Guo Ying; Lee, Moon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. (paper)

  7. Efficient Asymmetric Index Encapsulation Scheme for Anonymous Content Centric Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Content Centric Networking (CCN is an effective communication paradigm that well matches the features of wireless environments. To be considered a viable candidate in the emerging wireless networks, despite the clear benefits of location-independent security, CCN must at least have parity with existing solutions for confidential and anonymous communication. This paper designs a new cryptographic scheme, called Asymmetric Index Encapsulation (AIE, that enables the router to test whether an encapsulated header matches the token without learning anything else about both of them. We suggest using the AIE as the core protocol of anonymous Content Centric Networking. A construction of AIE which strikes a balance between efficiency and security is given. The scheme is proved to be secure based on the DBDH assumption in the random oracle with tight reduction, while the encapsulated header and the token in our system consist of only three elements.

  8. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-10-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  9. Gamblers Anonymous as a Recovery Pathway: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Andr?e; Ferentzy, Peter; Turner, Nigel E.; Skinner, Wayne; McIsaac, Kathryn E.; Ziegler, Carolyn P.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Given the preponderance of Gamblers Anonymous (GA), there has been relatively little effort to explore the existing evidence base on its effectiveness as a recovery approach for problem gambling. To remedy this gap in the literature we conducted a scoping review of the literature on mutual aid for individuals experiencing problem gambling published between 2002 and 2015. We searched 13 databases and reviewed reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. We reviewed records for eligi...

  10. Taxonomy for and Analysis of Anonymous Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    degradation, preservation and elimination in cyberspace to enhance the security of information assets. This includes discovery/obfuscation of...a means of communication and information dissemination, concerns about Internet privacy and security are escalating. In 1980’s, Chaum began work...variety of different systems including the T9000 Transputer AFIT/DCS/ENG/09-08 - 123 - [Bar95] and a secure ecommerce system [HaC02]. Anonymity

  11. Can anonymous posters on medical forums be reidentified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobicev, Victoria; Sokolova, Marina; El Emam, Khaled; Jafer, Yasser; Dewar, Brian; Jonker, Elizabeth; Matwin, Stan

    2013-10-03

    Participants in medical forums often reveal personal health information about themselves in their online postings. To feel comfortable revealing sensitive personal health information, some participants may hide their identity by posting anonymously. They can do this by using fake identities, nicknames, or pseudonyms that cannot readily be traced back to them. However, individual writing styles have unique features and it may be possible to determine the true identity of an anonymous user through author attribution analysis. Although there has been previous work on the authorship attribution problem, there has been a dearth of research on automated authorship attribution on medical forums. The focus of the paper is to demonstrate that character-based author attribution works better than word-based methods in medical forums. The goal was to build a system that accurately attributes authorship of messages posted on medical forums. The Authorship Attributor system uses text analysis techniques to crawl medical forums and automatically correlate messages written by the same authors. Authorship Attributor processes unstructured texts regardless of the document type, context, and content. The messages were labeled by nicknames of the forum participants. We evaluated the system's performance through its accuracy on 6000 messages gathered from 2 medical forums on an in vitro fertilization (IVF) support website. Given 2 lists of candidate authors (30 and 50 candidates, respectively), we obtained an F score accuracy in detecting authors of 75% to 80% on messages containing 100 to 150 words on average, and 97.9% on longer messages containing at least 300 words. Authorship can be successfully detected in short free-form messages posted on medical forums. This raises a concern about the meaningfulness of anonymous posting on such medical forums. Authorship attribution tools can be used to warn consumers wishing to post anonymously about the likelihood of their identity being

  12. Anonymity communication VPN and Tor: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, E.

    2018-03-01

    VPN and Tor is a technology based on anonymity communication. These two technologies have their advantage and disadvantage. The objective of this paper is to find the difference between VPN and Tor technologies by comparing their security of communication on the public network based on the CIA triad concept. The comparative study in this paper is based on the survey method. At last, the result of this paper is a recommendation on when to use a VPN and Tor to secure communication

  13. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  14. Informed Traders as Liquidity Providers: Anonymity, Liquidity and Price Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Rindi

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to introduce anonymity into financial markets apparently runs counter to the theory supporting transparency. This paper studies the impact of pre-trade transparency on liquidity in a market where risk-averse traders accommodate the liquidity demand of noise traders. When some risk-averse investors become informed, an adverse selection problem ensues for the others, making them reluctant to supply liquidity. Hence the disclosure of traders' identities improves liquidity by mitigat...

  15. The Sniper Attack: Anonymously Deanonymizing and Disabling the Tor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    attack is also similar to those that rely on misbehaving receivers and optimistic ACKs to bypass flow control protocol mechanisms [40]–[42]. In particular...thank the anonymous reviewers for their feedback and suggestions, Damon McCoy for discussions about misbehaving receivers and authenticated signals...ping-o-death. html. [40] S. Savage, N. Cardwell, D. Wetherall, and T. Anderson, “TCP Con- gestion Control with a Misbehaving Receiver,” ACM SIGCOMM CCR

  16. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  17. All or Nothing: The False Promise of Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Walker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In early 2016, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE proposed that responsible sharing of de-identified individual-level data be required for clinical trials published in their affiliated journals. There would be a delay in implementing this policy to allow for the necessary informed consents to work their way through ethical review. Meanwhile, some researchers and policy makers have conflated the notions of de-identification and anonymity. The former is a process that seeks to mitigate disclosure risk though careful application of rules and statistical analysis, while the latter is an absolute state. The consequence of confusing the process and the state is profound. Extensions to the ICMJE proposal based on the presumed anonymity of data include: sharing unconsented data; sharing data without managing access, as Open Data; and proposals to sell data. This essay aims to show that anonymity (the state cannot be guaranteed by de-identification (the process, and so these extensions to the ICMJE proposal should be rejected on governance grounds, if no other. This is not as negative a position as it might seem, as other disciplines have been aware of these limitations and concomitant responsibilities for many years. The essay concludes with an example from social science of managed access strategies that could be adopted by the medical field.

  18. Utility-preserving transaction data anonymization with low information loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukides, Grigorios; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2012-08-01

    Transaction data record various information about individuals, including their purchases and diagnoses, and are increasingly published to support large-scale and low-cost studies in domains such as marketing and medicine. However, the dissemination of transaction data may lead to privacy breaches, as it allows an attacker to link an individual's record to their identity. Approaches that anonymize data by eliminating certain values in an individual's record or by replacing them with more general values have been proposed recently, but they often produce data of limited usefulness. This is because these approaches adopt value transformation strategies that do not guarantee data utility in intended applications and objective measures that may lead to excessive data distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for anonymizing data in a way that satisfies data publishers' utility requirements and incurs low information loss. To achieve this, we introduce an accurate information loss measure and an effective anonymization algorithm that explores a large part of the problem space. An extensive experimental study, using click-stream and medical data, demonstrates that our approach permits many times more accurate query answering than the state-of-the-art methods, while it is comparable to them in terms of efficiency.

  19. k-Degree Anonymity Model for Social Network Data Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACWAN, K. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Publicly accessible platform for social networking has gained special attraction because of its easy data sharing. Data generated on such social network is analyzed for various activities like marketing, social psychology, etc. This requires preservation of sensitive attributes before it becomes easily accessible. Simply removing the personal identities of the users before publishing data is not enough to maintain the privacy of the individuals. The structure of the social network data itself reveals much information regarding its users and their connections. To resolve this problem, k-degree anonymous method is adopted. It emphasizes on the modification of the graph to provide at least k number of nodes that contain the same degree. However, this approach is not efficient on a huge amount of social data and the modification of the original data fails to maintain data usefulness. In addition to this, the current anonymization approaches focus on a degree sequence-based graph model which leads to major modification of the graph topological properties. In this paper, we have proposed an improved k-degree anonymity model that retain the social network structural properties and also to provide privacy to the individuals. Utility measurement approach for community based graph model is used to verify the performance of the proposed technique.

  20. What affects your MS? Responses to an anonymous, Internet-based epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rex D; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; van der Mei, Ingrid A F; Sheridan, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Evolving information technology has raised the possibility of new methods of data collection in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. An anonymous, self-report, Internet-based survey was developed, which asked people with MS their opinion on how various extrinsic factors affected their condition. From September 2001 to July 2002, a total of 2529 people completed the questionnaire. The demographic and clinical profiles of the anonymous respondents indicated that most were likely to have MS. Common factors reported as beneficial were cannabis, cold baths, meditation and dietary factors. Common adverse factors reported were high stress, exposure to high temperatures and viral infections. There was an increasing report of high temperatures as being adverse with increasing respondent age (test for trend, P < 0.001). The adverse report of high temperatures correlated significantly with the report of strong sunlight apparently making MS worse (r = 0.35, P < 0.0001). In Australia, high temperatures were more likely to be reported as adverse in warmer, lower latitude regions. The association between strong sunlight as adverse and age or region did not persist after adjustment for high temperatures. Thus, this apparent adverse factor appeared to relate to solar heat, not solar light. People with MS may risk vitamin D deficiency because of sun avoidance due to heat-related fatigue or intolerance. This is of clinical significance not only for bone health but because vitamin D may have beneficial immunomodulatory properties. The present study provides new information from people with MS on factors that may influence symptoms or clinical course. This information will now be used in the design of formal epidemiological cohort studies.

  1. Traveling the Silk Road: A Measurement of a Large Anonymous Online Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    Silk Road, an anonymous, international online marketplace that operates as a Tor hidden service and uses Bitcoin as its exchange currency. We gather...analysis of Silk Road, an anonymous, international on- line marketplace that operates as a Tor hidden service and uses Bitcoin as its exchange currency. We...anonymity, Silk Road needs to also preserve payment anonymity. To that effect, Silk Road only supports Bitcoin (BTC, [30]) as a trading currency

  2. From anonymity to "open doors": IRB responses to tensions with researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2012-07-03

    Tensions between IRBs and researchers in the US and elsewhere have increased, and may affect whether, how, and to what degree researchers comply with ethical guidelines. Yet whether, how, when, and why IRBs respond to these conflicts have received little systematic attention. I contacted 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55%) and an additional 12 members and administrators. IRBs often try to respond to tensions with researchers and improve relationships in several ways, but range widely in how, when, and to what degree (e.g., in formal and informal structure, content, and tone of interactions). IRBs varied from open and accessible to more distant and anonymous, and in the amount and type of "PR work" and outreach they do. Many boards seek to improve the quantity, quality, and helpfulness of communication with PIs, but differ in how. IRBs range in meetings from open to closed, and may have clinics and newsletters. Memos can vary in helpfulness and tone (e.g., using "charm"). IRBs range considerably, too, in the degrees to which they seek to educate PIs, showing them the underlying ethical principles. But these efforts take time and resources, and IRBs thus vary in degrees of responses to PI complaints. This study, the first to explore the mechanisms through which IRBs respond to tensions and interactions with PIs, suggests that these committees seek to respond to conflicts with PIs in varying ways - both formal and informal, involving both the form and content of communications. This study has important implications for future practice, research, and policy, suggesting needs for increased attention to not only what IRBs communicate to PIs, but how (i.e., the tone and the nature of interactions). IRBs can potentially improve relationships with PIs in several ways: using more "open doors" rather than anonymity, engaging in outreach (e.g., through clinics), enhancing

  3. From anonymity to “open doors”: IRB responses to tensions with researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitzman Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tensions between IRBs and researchers in the US and elsewhere have increased, and may affect whether, how, and to what degree researchers comply with ethical guidelines. Yet whether, how, when, and why IRBs respond to these conflicts have received little systematic attention. Findings I contacted 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding, and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55% and an additional 12 members and administrators. IRBs often try to respond to tensions with researchers and improve relationships in several ways, but range widely in how, when, and to what degree (e.g., in formal and informal structure, content, and tone of interactions. IRBs varied from open and accessible to more distant and anonymous, and in the amount and type of “PR work” and outreach they do. Many boards seek to improve the quantity, quality, and helpfulness of communication with PIs, but differ in how. IRBs range in meetings from open to closed, and may have clinics and newsletters. Memos can vary in helpfulness and tone (e.g., using “charm”. IRBs range considerably, too, in the degrees to which they seek to educate PIs, showing them the underlying ethical principles. But these efforts take time and resources, and IRBs thus vary in degrees of responses to PI complaints. Conclusions This study, the first to explore the mechanisms through which IRBs respond to tensions and interactions with PIs, suggests that these committees seek to respond to conflicts with PIs in varying ways – both formal and informal, involving both the form and content of communications. This study has important implications for future practice, research, and policy, suggesting needs for increased attention to not only what IRBs communicate to PIs, but how (i.e., the tone and the nature of interactions. IRBs can potentially improve relationships with PIs in several ways: using more “open doors” rather

  4. Academic disintegrity among medical students: a randomised response technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz Hejri, Sameh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Asghari, Fariba; Fotouhi, Akbar; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-02-01

    Medical students, as tomorrow's doctors, are responsible for their patients' health; cheating may affect their academic knowledge and clinical skills. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of and attitudes towards academic disintegrity among medical students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Anonymous questionnaires including questions about various types of academic disintegrity were distributed among medical students during the clerkship and internship phases of the curriculum. Randomised response technique (RRT) was used to maintain the responders' privacy. Because the study design guaranteed the confidentiality of respondents, the TUMS Institutional Review Board declared that formal ethical approval was not required. A total of 124 students were enrolled in this study, of whom 63 were in the clerkship phase and 61 were in the internship phase. Of these respondents, 29% (n = 36) were male. The most frequently reported type of academic disintegrity was found to be 'impersonating an absent student in a class' (93%) and the least frequent to be 'legitimising absences by using bribes' (5%). Only a small number of interns considered 'buying hospital shifts', 'selling hospital shifts', 'impersonating an absent student' and 'helping others to cheat in examinations' as representing academic disintegrity. Approximately one third of participants stated that the RRT increased their confidence in anonymity and 90% of students found the use of RRT not difficult. Academic integrity is widely disrespected in different ways among medical students. Effective policies and interventions are required to control these misbehaviours in future doctors in order to optimise medical practice. Almost all respondents found it not difficult to use the RRT; the technique proved to be an effective and easily applied method of eliciting truthful responses to sensitive questions and represents an alternative to conventional anonymising techniques.

  5. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  6. Responding to Children's Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…

  7. Responding to Misbehavior

    OpenAIRE

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on responding to misbehavior.

  8. De-anonymizing Genomic Databases Using Phenotypic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert Mathias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available People increasingly have their genomes sequenced and some of them share their genomic data online. They do so for various purposes, including to find relatives and to help advance genomic research. An individual’s genome carries very sensitive, private information such as its owner’s susceptibility to diseases, which could be used for discrimination. Therefore, genomic databases are often anonymized. However, an individual’s genotype is also linked to visible phenotypic traits, such as eye or hair color, which can be used to re-identify users in anonymized public genomic databases, thus raising severe privacy issues. For instance, an adversary can identify a target’s genome using known her phenotypic traits and subsequently infer her susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease. In this paper, we quantify, based on various phenotypic traits, the extent of this threat in several scenarios by implementing de-anonymization attacks on a genomic database of OpenSNP users sequenced by 23andMe. Our experimental results show that the proportion of correct matches reaches 23% with a supervised approach in a database of 50 participants. Our approach outperforms the baseline by a factor of four, in terms of the proportion of correct matches, in most scenarios. We also evaluate the adversary’s ability to predict individuals’ predisposition to Alzheimer’s disease, and we observe that the inference error can be halved compared to the baseline. We also analyze the effect of the number of known phenotypic traits on the success rate of the attack. As progress is made in genomic research, especially for genotype-phenotype associations, the threat presented in this paper will become more serious.

  9. Responding to the 2015 CMS Proposed Rule Changes for LTC Facilities: A Call to Redouble Efforts to Prepare Students and Practitioners for Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes; Connolly, Robert; Downes, Deirdre; Galambos, Colleen; Kusmaul, Nancy; Kane, Rosalie; Hector, Paige; Beaulieu, Elise

    2016-01-01

    In July of 2015, the Federal Register published for public comment proposed rule changes for nursing homes certified to receive Medicare and/or Medicaid. If the final rules are similar to the proposed rules, they will represent the largest change in federal rules governing nursing homes since the Nursing Home Reform Act which was part of OBRA 1987. The proposed changes have the potential to enhance the quality of care and quality of life of nursing home residents. Many of the proposed changes would directly affect the practice of social work and would likely expand the role for nursing home social workers. This article discusses the role that members of the National Nursing Home Social Work Network (NNHSW Network) played in developing and submitting a response to CMS. The article provides the context for the publication of the proposed rules, describes the process used by the NNHSW Network to develop and build support for comments on these rules, and also includes the actual comments submitted to CMS. Social work education programs and continuing education programs throughout the country will continue to have an important role to play in helping to prepare social work students and practitioners for a career in long-term care.

  10. Business Information Exchange System with Security, Privacy, and Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Muftic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Information Exchange is an Internet Secure Portal for secure management, distribution, sharing, and use of business e-mails, documents, and messages. It has three applications supporting three major types of information exchange systems: secure e-mail, secure instant messaging, and secure sharing of business documents. In addition to standard security services for e-mail letters, which are also applied to instant messages and documents, the system provides innovative features of privacy and full anonymity of users and their locations, actions, transactions, and exchanged resources. In this paper we describe design, implementation, and use of the system.

  11. "Un-Googling” publications: The ethics and problems of anonymization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Digital tools of research dissemination make scholarly publications accessible to the public at large through simple search engines. As a result, the users that we study, interview, and cite may be at risk of exposure to unwelcome types of scrutiny and scholars must grapple with challenges...... to the ethics of exposure of our research participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge...

  12. THINKING ABOUT REFERRALS TO ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS IN RELATIONAL WAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K. Bitten

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Alcoholics Anonymous (AA as a relational therapy, seen through the lens of the relational needs described by Richard Erskine. AA as a resource may be underemployed by therapists who do not realize its potential to heal the relational damage suffered and inflicted by their alcoholic clients. Common misconceptions about AA are addressed, and ways for therapists to facilitate successful referrals of clients to AA are described. The author posits that there is a synergistic benefit in combining integrative psychotherapy with the client’s involvement in AA.

  13. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rui-Rui; Yang Li

    2012-01-01

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented, based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state. We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness, soundness, privacy, eligibility, unreusability, fairness, and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest. This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels. In addition, any irregularity in this scheme is sensible. (general)

  14. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  15. A Remote User Authentication Scheme with Anonymity for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soobok Shin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of information technologies, mobile devices have been utilized in a variety of services such as e-commerce. When a remote server provides such e-commerce services to a user, it must verify the legitimacy of the user over an insecure communication channel. Therefore, remote user authentication has been widely deployed to verify the legitimacy of remote user login requests using mobile devices like smart cards. In this paper we propose a smart card-based authentication scheme that provides both user anonymity and mutual authentication between a remote server and a user. The proposed authentication scheme is a simple and efficient system applicable to the limited resource and low computing performance of the smart card. The proposed scheme provides not only resilience to potential attacks in the smart card-based authentication scheme, but also secure authentication functions. A smart card performs a simple one-way hash function, the operations of exclusive-or and concatenation in the authentication phase of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme also provides user anonymity using a dynamic identity and key agreement, and secure password change.

  16. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  17. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  18. Sexual Violence Among College Students Attending a Nonresidential Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas-Saunders, Monica

    2018-03-01

    Using the empirical powers of theories of intersectionality, the study investigates the association between students' demographics (such as gender identity, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status) and sexual violence victimization. An anonymous survey was employed to collect data from a cluster random sample of 966 students attending face-to-face courses at a midsize urban nonresidential campus. The empirical findings suggest that being older and female are the only statistically significant factors in the analysis. As the first attempt to focus on students attending nonresidential programs in the United States, the study presents implications for policy and program implementation to include issues pertinent to students' diversity to better respond to students' risk of victimization.

  19. Napping in college students and its relationship with nighttime sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lichuan; Hutton Johnson, Stacy; Keane, Kathleen; Manasia, Michael; Gregas, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. To examine the habit of napping and its relationship with nighttime sleep in college students. Four hundred and forty undergraduate students who responded to an anonymous online survey in April 2010. Three questions were asked to determine the frequency, length, and timing of napping during the past month. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The PSQI score significantly differed among self-reported nap-frequency (p=.047) and nap-length (p=.017) groups, with those who napped more than 3 times per week and those who napped more than 2 hours having the poorest sleep quality. Students who napped between 6 and 9 pm had shorter sleep on school nights compared with students in other nap-timing groups (p=.002). College students who are self-reported frequent, long, and late nappers may have a higher risk of poor nighttime sleep quality and more severe sleep deprivation.

  20. Protecting whistle-blowers: Anonymity on the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinnessy, P.

    1997-01-01

    Even though strict legislation exists in many countries, it appears that the next few years should be a golden opportunity for groups to successfully monitor and publish the activity of the nuclear states, and human right violations through use of the Internet. The reasons for this are: 1. The Internet is becoming widespread even in repressive regimes; 2. Software is available to either hide messages from others or hide the mailers account; 3. Information from sites in other countries can be easily obtained to be read inside repressive regimes from the Internet. In this regard It is suggested the Pugwash or a similar organization should set up either an anonymous account to receive information or maybe use a more heavily protected cyperpunk remailer. Such an ability would hopefully prompt more people to notify treaty violations

  1. Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis closely examines the privacy threats that may arise from medical data sharing, and surveys the state-of-the-art methods developed to safeguard data against these threats. To motivate the need for computational methods, the book first explores the main challenges facing the privacy-protection of medical data using the existing policies, practices and regulations. Then, it takes an in-depth look at the popular computational privacy-preserving methods that have been developed for demographic, clinical and genomic data sharing, and closely analyzes the privacy principles behind these methods, as well as the optimization and algorithmic strategies that they employ. Finally, through a series of in-depth case studies that highlight data from the US Census as well as the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the book outlines a new, innovative class of privacy-preserving methods designed to ensure the integrity of transferred medical data for su...

  2. dCache, towards Federated Identities & Anonymized Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, A.; Millar, AP; Mkrtchyan, T.; Fuhrmann, P.; Behrmann, G.; Sahakyan, M.; Adeyemi, O. S.; Starek, J.; Litvintsev, D.; Rossi, A.

    2017-10-01

    For over a decade, dCache has relied on the authentication and authorization infrastructure (AAI) offered by VOMS, Kerberos, Xrootd etc. Although the established infrastructure has worked well and provided sufficient security, the implementation of procedures and the underlying software is often seen as a burden, especially by smaller communities trying to adopt existing HEP software stacks [1]. Moreover, scientists are increasingly dependent on service portals for data access [2]. In this paper, we describe how federated identity management systems can facilitate the transition from traditional AAI infrastructure to novel solutions like OpenID Connect. We investigate the advantages offered by OpenID Connect in regards to ‘delegation of authentication’ and ‘credential delegation for offline access’. Additionally, we demonstrate how macaroons can provide a more fine-granular authorization mechanism that supports anonymized delegation.

  3. Cloud Based Data Protection in Anonymously Controlled SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Software Defined Network (SDN develops rapidly for its novel structure which separates the control plane and the data plane of network devices. Many researchers devoted themselves to the study of such a special network. However, some limitations restrict the development of SDN. On the one hand, the single controller in the conventional model bears all threats, and the corruption of it will result in network paralysis. On the other hand, the data will be increasing more in SDN switches in the data plane, while the storage space of these switches is limited. In order to solve the mentioned issues, we propose two corresponding protocols in this paper. Specifically, one is an anonymous protocol in the control plane, and the other is a verifiable outsourcing protocol in the data plane. The evaluation indicates that our protocol is correct, secure, and efficient.

  4. Robust anonymous authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Na

    2013-04-01

    Patient can obtain sorts of health-care delivery services via Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS). Authentication, security, patient's privacy protection and data confidentiality are important for patient or doctor accessing to Electronic Medical Records (EMR). In 2012, Chen et al. showed that Khan et al.'s dynamic ID-based authentication scheme has some weaknesses and proposed an improved scheme, and they claimed that their scheme is more suitable for TMIS. However, we show that Chen et al.'s scheme also has some weaknesses. In particular, Chen et al.'s scheme does not provide user's privacy protection and perfect forward secrecy, is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and impersonation attack once user's smart card is compromised. Further, we propose a secure anonymity authentication scheme to overcome their weaknesses even an adversary can know all information stored in smart card.

  5. Selfrando: Securing the Tor Browser against De-anonymization Exploits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tor is a well-known anonymous communication system used by millions of users, including journalists and civil rights activists all over the world. The Tor Browser gives non-technical users an easy way to access the Tor Network. However, many government organizations are actively trying to compromise Tor not only in regions with repressive regimes but also in the free world, as the recent FBI incidents clearly demonstrate. Exploiting software vulnerabilities in general, and browser vulnerabilities in particular, constitutes a clear and present threat to the Tor software. The Tor Browser shares a large part of its attack surface with the Firefox browser. Therefore, Firefox vulnerabilities (even patched ones are highly valuable to attackers trying to monitor users of the Tor Browser.

  6. The Pattern of Drug Abuse in Anonymous Adidcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Maryam Vahdat-Shariat-Panahi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Having the information about pattern of substance abuse in the community and its epidemiological features is one of the most important protocols for evaluation, follow–up and control of the use of these substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of substances abuse among narcotic anonymous (N. A. addicted patients. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, three hundred patients from narcotic abusers anonymous (N. A. association who were referred to a treatment center in Tehran were participated consecutively. The information about demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, type of drug and the patterns of substance abuse of all cases were collected by researcher made questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square test. Results: 80% of the patients were male. Almost 65. 2% of cases aged less than 40 years. More than two–third of cases had free jobs and 21. 2% of them were unemployed. Also, 32% of patients had college degrees. The most common types of abused substance were opium (88%, cigarette (76.7%, and alcohol (63% and 34% of them used substances intravenously. The use of alcohol (P=0.033, cannabis (P<0.001, cocaine (P=0.009 and ecstasy (P<0.001 was more prevalent significantly in the cases less than 40 years old than the elderly. Conclusion: It seems that the trend of substance abuse has been changed to younger population. The pattern of drug abuse in young adults is more toward psychosis drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy.

  7. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  8. Achieving sink node anonymity in tactical wireless sensor networks using a reactive routing protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    node anonymity, base station anonymity, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation ... Generation (LOADng) reactive-routing protocol to achieve anonymity. This modified protocol prevents an attacker from identifying the sink node without...within the constraints of WSN communication protocols, specifically IEEE 802.15.4. We use and modify the Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation

  9. "People Are Either Too Fake or Too Real": Opportunities and Challenges in Tie-Based Anonymity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiao; Andabili, Nazanin; Barkhuus, Louise

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several mobile applications allowed individuals to anonymously share information with friends and contacts, without any persistent identity marker. The functions of these “tie-based” anonymity services may be notably different than other social media services. We use semi-structu...... disclosure needs and social probing. Still, challenges for making such applications successful, for example the prevalence of negativity and bullying, are substantial.......In recent years, several mobile applications allowed individuals to anonymously share information with friends and contacts, without any persistent identity marker. The functions of these “tie-based” anonymity services may be notably different than other social media services. We use semi...

  10. Parents' perception of self-advocacy of children with myositis: an anonymous online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Adam M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with complex medical issues experience barriers to the transition of care from pediatric to adult providers. We sought to identify these barriers by elucidating the experiences of patients with idiopathic inflammatory muscle disorders. Methods We collected anonymous survey data using an online website. Patients and their families were solicited from the US and Canada through established clinics for children with idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases as well as with the aid of a nonprofit organization for the benefit of such individuals. The parents of 45 older children/young adults suffering from idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases were surveyed. As a basis of comparison, we similarly collected data from the parents of 207 younger children with inflammatory muscle diseases. The survey assessed transition of care issues confronting families of children and young adults with chronic juvenile myositis. Results Regardless of age of the patient, respondents were unlikely to have a designated health care provider assigned to aid in transition of care and were unlikely to be aware of a posted policy concerning transition of care at their pediatrician's office. Additionally, regardless of age, patients and their families were unlikely to have a written plan for moving to adult care. Conclusions We identified deficiencies in the health care experiences of families as pertain to knowledge, self-advocacy, policy, and vocational readiness. Moreover, as children with complex medical issues grow up, parents attribute less self-advocacy to their children's level of independence.

  11. Gamblers Anonymous as a Recovery Pathway: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Andrée; Ferentzy, Peter; Turner, Nigel E; Skinner, Wayne; McIsaac, Kathryn E; Ziegler, Carolyn P; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-12-01

    Given the preponderance of Gamblers Anonymous (GA), there has been relatively little effort to explore the existing evidence base on its effectiveness as a recovery approach for problem gambling. To remedy this gap in the literature we conducted a scoping review of the literature on mutual aid for individuals experiencing problem gambling published between 2002 and 2015. We searched 13 databases and reviewed reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. We reviewed records for eligibility and extracted relevant data from eligible articles. Three reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. We identified 17 studies in 25 publications that were eligible for inclusion. Most studies were conducted in the United States, were cross-sectional in design, and involved both male and female adult participants. Results indicate that the evidence for the effectiveness of GA either as a control condition or in conjunction with formal treatment or medication is inconsistent. An emphasis on patience, using the Serenity Prayer as a way to gain acceptance of financial matters and reality, and absolute assertion of identity as a "compulsive gambler" were identified as important aspects of GA's recovery culture. There is a need for large-scale randomized controlled trials to determine GA's effectiveness, as well as research exploring the mechanisms through which GA works, barriers to GA as a recovery approach, and the status of women in the fellowship.

  12. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  13. On the Anonymity Risk of Time-Varying User Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Puglisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Websites and applications use personalisation services to profile their users, collect their patterns and activities and eventually use this data to provide tailored suggestions. User preferences and social interactions are therefore aggregated and analysed. Every time a user publishes a new post or creates a link with another entity, either another user, or some online resource, new information is added to the user profile. Exposing private data does not only reveal information about single users’ preferences, increasing their privacy risk, but can expose more about their network that single actors intended. This mechanism is self-evident in social networks where users receive suggestions based on their friends’ activities. We propose an information-theoretic approach to measure the differential update of the anonymity risk of time-varying user profiles. This expresses how privacy is affected when new content is posted and how much third-party services get to know about the users when a new activity is shared. We use actual Facebook data to show how our model can be applied to a real-world scenario.

  14. RESPECTING THE CONFIDENTIALITY AND ANONYMITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN SOCIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria OPREA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, a philosophical discipline, formulates a set of principles that must be followed, in respect of good and truth, fundamental values of humanity. The world of scientific research, of all kinds, also obeys moral imperatives and principles and is called upon to answer to society not only in relation to the discoveries themselves but, above all, in relation to the possible destructive effects on man or his life environment. The researcher in the sphere of social sciences is more involved in the act of responsibility, the more the topic subject of the study is the individual, the social group, the social environment. He must rigorously follow the principles and requirements of fair, honest, objective studies that do not harm the dignity of the human being. In line with the ethical rigors of scientific research, the article aims to highlight some aspects of respecting the principle of confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research in the field of sociology, with reference to the study of vulnerable groups in Arad County.

  15. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2011-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses. PMID:22081224

  16. Analytic neutrality, anonymity, abstinence, and elective self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Merton A

    2004-01-01

    Recent contributions to the psychoanalytic literature propose new ways of understanding analytic neutrality, anonymity, abstinence, and self-disclosure. They advocate elective self-disclosure by the analyst as an antidote to the allegedly game-playing quality of transference and resistance analysis. The analytic relationship, they assert, becomes unreal when attempts are made to observe the principles of neutrality and abstinence. Both are seen as ill-conceived because of the irreducible subjectivity and unwarranted authority of the analyst. These relational and interactional views are criticized because (1) they ignore the fact that transference and resistance analysis have from Freud onward been accepted as minimal criteria qualifying a clinical process as psychoanalytic; (2) elective self-disclosure carries metapsychological implications dismissing not only Freud's theory of motivation but motivation as a basic feature of human personality; (3) they do not recognize interpersonal relations as mental events and so do not consider the ego's ability to create intrapsychic representations of object relations; (4) elective self-disclosures within the empathic parameters of the analytic situation are themselves unreal compared to the reality of the patient's experience with other objects. Abstinence and neutrality as ideals facilitate maintenance of an internal holding environment or container for the analyst's countertransference.

  17. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  18. A survey of anonymous peer-to-peer file-sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chothia, T.; Chatzikokolakis, K.; Enokido, T.; Yan, L.; Xiao, B.; Kim, D.; Dai, Y.S.; Yang, L.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of searchable, peer-to-peer file-sharing systems that offer the user some form of anonymity. We start this survey by giving a brief description of the most popular methods of providing anonymous communication. These include the Ants protocol, Onion routing, Multicasting,

  19. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Bodó

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs. Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of online political activism. Through the short summary of the ad-hoc vigilante group Anonymous, this article describes hacktivism 1.0 as electronic civil disobedience conducted by outsiders. Through the analysis of Wikileaks, the anonymous whistleblowing website, it describes how strong PETs enable the development of hacktivism 2.0, where the source of threat is shifted from outsiders to insiders. Insiders have access to documents with which power can be exposed, and who, by using PETs, can anonymously engage in political action. We also describe the emergence of a third generation of hacktivists who use PETs to disengage and create their own autonomous spaces rather than to engage with power through anonymous whistleblowing.

  20. A hidden service model based on HS-HS anonymous network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yitong; Zhao, Xing; Fei, Jinlong; Zhu, Yuefei

    2017-10-01

    The Hidden Service provided by Tor anonymous network can effectively protect the anonymity and security of the Hidden server, this article through the analysis of the data packet structure of Tor, three jump transmission mechanism and link establishment protocol and Hidden Service communication process, in view of the Hidden node number too much, link building Service for too long and too redundant link problem. An improved hidden service model HS-HS is proposed that incorporating multiple transmission link and reuse, and at the same time will be important transit point for reuse protection link anonymity, through the ExperimenTor simulation environment test, verify the improved model of HS-HS can be more effective in guarantee anonymity and security, improve the overall efficiency of data transmission, to meet the needs of today's anonymous service.

  1. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Social networks as mediators of the effect of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; Humphreys, Keith

    2002-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the relationship between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and reduced substance use is partially explained (or 'mediated') by changes in social networks. This is a naturalistic longitudinal study of the course of alcohol problems. Study sites were the 10 largest public and private alcohol treatment programs in a northern California county. Three hundred and seventy-seven men and 277 women were recruited upon seeking treatment at study sites. At baseline and 1-year follow-up, we assessed alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms, consumption, social support for abstinence, pro-drinking social influences and AA involvement. In the structural equation model, AA involvement was a significant predictor of lower alcohol consumption and fewer related problems. The size of this effect decreased by 36% when network size and support for drinking were included as mediators. In logistic regression models predicting abstinence at follow-up, AA remained highly significant after including social network variables but was again reduced in magnitude. Thirty-day abstinence was predicted by AA involvement (OR=2.9), not having pro-drinking influences in one's network (OR=0.7) and having support for reducing consumption from people met in AA (versus no support; OR=3.4). In contrast, having support from non-AA members was not a significant predictor of abstinence. For alcohol-related outcomes other than abstinence, significant relationships were found for both AA-based and non-AA-based support. The type of social support specifically given by AA members, such as 24-hour availability, role modeling and experientially based advice for staying sober, may help to explain AA's mechanism of action. Results highlight the value of focusing on outcomes reflective of AA's goals (such as abstinence) when studying how AA works.

  3. Volunteer feedback and perceptions after participation in a phase I, first-in-human Ebola vaccine trial: An anonymous survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne Dayer

    Full Text Available The continued participation of volunteers in clinical trials is crucial to advances in healthcare. Few data are available regarding the satisfaction and impressions of healthy volunteers after participation in phase I trials, many of which lead to unexpected adverse events. We report feedback from over 100 adult volunteers who took part in a first-in-human trial conducted in a high-income country testing an experimental Ebola vaccine causing significant reactogenicity, as well as unexpected arthritis in one fifth of participants. The anonymous, internet-based satisfaction survey was sent by email to all participants upon their completion of this one-year trial; it asked 24 questions concerning volunteers' motivations, impressions of the trial experience, and overall satisfaction. Answers were summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 115 trial participants, 103 (90% filled out the survey. Fifty-five respondents (53% were male. Thirty-five respondents (34% were healthcare workers, many of whom would deploy to Ebola-affected countries. All respondents cited scientific advancement as their chief motivation for participation, while 100/103 (97% and 61/103 (59% reported additional "humanitarian reasons" and potential protection from Ebolavirus, respectively. Although investigators had documented adverse events in 97% of trial participants, only 74 of 103 respondents (72% recalled experiencing an adverse event. All reported an overall positive experience, and 93/103 (90% a willingness to participate in future trials. Given the high level of satisfaction, no significant associations could be detected between trial experiences and satisfaction, even among respondents reporting adverse events lasting weeks or months. Despite considerable reactogenicity and unexpected vaccine-related arthritis, all survey respondents reported overall satisfaction. While this trial's context was unique, the positive feedback is likely due at least in part to the

  4. Securing the anonymity of content providers in the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Thomas; Rieke, Andreas

    1999-04-01

    Nowadays the World Wide Web (WWW) is an established service used by people all over the world. Most of them do not recognize the fact that they reveal plenty of information about themselves or their affiliation and computer equipment to the providers of web pages they connect to. As a result, a lot of services offer users to access web pages unrecognized or without risk of being backtracked, respectively. This kind of anonymity is called user or client anonymity. But on the other hand, an equivalent protection for content providers does not exist, although this feature is desirable for many situations in which the identity of a publisher or content provider shall be hidden. We call this property server anonymity. We will introduce the first system with the primary target to offer anonymity for providers of information in the WWW. Beside this property, it provides also client anonymity. Based on David Chaum's idea of mixes and in relation to the context of the WWW, we explain the term 'server anonymity' motivating the system JANUS which offers both client and server anonymity.

  5. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet.

  6. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  7. A New Heuristic Anonymization Technique for Privacy Preserved Datasets Publication on Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeen Yousra, S.; Mazleena, Salleh

    2018-05-01

    Recent advancement in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) demanded much of cloud services to sharing users’ private data. Data from various organizations are the vital information source for analysis and research. Generally, this sensitive or private data information involves medical, census, voter registration, social network, and customer services. Primary concern of cloud service providers in data publishing is to hide the sensitive information of individuals. One of the cloud services that fulfill the confidentiality concerns is Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM). The PPDM service in Cloud Computing (CC) enables data publishing with minimized distortion and absolute privacy. In this method, datasets are anonymized via generalization to accomplish the privacy requirements. However, the well-known privacy preserving data mining technique called K-anonymity suffers from several limitations. To surmount those shortcomings, I propose a new heuristic anonymization framework for preserving the privacy of sensitive datasets when publishing on cloud. The advantages of K-anonymity, L-diversity and (α, k)-anonymity methods for efficient information utilization and privacy protection are emphasized. Experimental results revealed the superiority and outperformance of the developed technique than K-anonymity, L-diversity, and (α, k)-anonymity measure.

  8. Serbs in the poetry of Theodore Prodromos and anonymous Manganeios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vlada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous rhetorical writings of the Comnenian period constitute a fruitful field of research, both with respect to historical data, i.e. hard historical facts hidden, though still recognizable, behind the peculiar and somewhat abstract mode of expression of the authors of the twelfth century, and with regard to the poetics of the literary works themselves, i.e. the internal elements characteristic not only for the genre chosen, but also for each particular author. A comparative, historical and literary approach to these works renders their sense clearer and their complex allusions more readily understood. This is a matter of some importance, since allusions constitute one of the basic elements of historical rhetoric, which reached its peak at the time of Emperor Manuel Komnenos (1143-1180, especially during the first half of his reign, i.e. till the end of the fifties of the twelfth century. The poetry of Theodore Prodromes and of the somewhat younger Anonymous ('Prodromos' Manganeios is an excellent example of this intertwining of historical and literary elements, i.e. of the presentation of historical data through rhetorical patterns. One has to concentrate on individual works attempting to determine, as far as possible, the date of composition, the circumstances of writing and the purpose of a particular poem, the occasion for which it was written and the character of the expected audience, in order to better understand both the poetry written by these two rhetoricians and the individual features of the authors, as well as their respective positions in the circle around Emperor Manuel Komnenos. The poems dealt with in the present paper stand out for calling the Serbs by their real name. This naming practice was invariably employed by both rhetoricians in cases when new achievements of the basileus were to be announced and proclaimed immediately after the event, on the occasions of first reports, first celebrations of the new victories and

  9. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  10. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  11. Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masika, Moses Muia; Omondi, Gregory Barnabas; Natembeya, Dennis Simiyu; Mugane, Ephraim Mwatha; Bosire, Kefa Ogonyo; Kibwage, Isaac Ongubo

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS(®). Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis. We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory. Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education.

  12. Death attitudes and emotional intelligence in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sabado, Joaquin; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationships between death attitudes and perceived emotional intelligence in a sample of nursing students, and to determine whether there are differences between different academic years with regard to both emotional intelligence and death attitudes. The participants were 243 nursing students. They all responded voluntarily and anonymously to a questionnaire that assessed the following constructs: fear of death, death anxiety, death depression, death obsession, and emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, and mood repair). Students' scores on fear of death of others subscale (p nursing degree program and increased significantly on emotional clarity (p death of others. The importance of including emotional skills training and death-education programs as part of professional nursing curricula are discussed.

  13. The Role of the Anonymous Voice in Post-Publication Peer Review Versus Traditional Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional peer review (TPR has several limitations and weaknesses. Post-publication peer review is one practical way to repair the ills of TPR and reinforce it. A literature that is marked by errors is unhealthy and should, if given the opportunity, be corrected or further improved. The anonymous voice is one source of critique and differs from the blind peer review in TPR in which the reviewer remains anonymous to the authors and/or vice versa, but the identity is known to the editor. If unregulated, the anonymous voice can pose a threat to established editorial norms in TPR, to one of the most important criteria of science publishing, i.e., transparency, and to worthwhile discussion. Yet, if the anonymous voice is not heard, then a vast and potentially valuable pool of untapped opinions may be lost, opinions that may provide valuable solutions to improving TPR.

  14. K-Anonymity Based Privacy Risk Budgeting System for Interactive Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chung Kum

    2017-04-01

    The k-anonymity based privacy risk budgeting system provides a mechanism where we can concretely reason about the tradeoff between the privacy risks due to information disclosed, accuracy gained, and biases reduced during interactive record linkage.

  15. Anonymous letters? DNA and fingerprints technologies combined to solve a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, A; Cormaci, P; Teatino, A; La Marca, A; Barbaro, A

    2004-12-02

    Two brothers, living in two different cities, received two different anonymous letters. We performed latent prints development and DNA research on the letters and also on a glass used by a cousin suspected to be the letters' sender.

  16. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.

    2014-01-01

    This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs). Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of

  17. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1 it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2 it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3 it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.’s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  18. Impact of Anonymity and Identity Deception on Social Media eWOM

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor , Payal ,; Gunta , Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Information Sharing on Social Media; International audience; Brand-related consumer to consumer communication, eWOM, is taking place in many forms across the social media space. Rules that governed credibility assessment of brand-related communication, WOM, in the Face to Face context may vary on social media, specifically because of anonymity that is afforded on different social media sites. The current study looks closely on the impact of anonymity in typical eWOM behaviour context ...

  19. An Enhancing Security Research of Tor Anonymous Communication to Against DDos Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Tao; Zhao Ming-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Tor (The Second Onion Router) is modified by the first generation onion router and known as the most prevalent anonymous communication system. According to the advantage of low latency, high confidentiality of transmission content, high security of communication channels and et al., Tor is widely used in anonymous Web browsing, instant message and so on. However, the vulnerability and blemish of Tor affect system security. An identity and Signcryption-based concurrent signature scheme was use...

  20. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  2. Cognitive Attributes of Adequate and Inadequate Responders to Reading Intervention in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    No studies have investigated the cognitive attributes of middle school students who are adequate and inadequate responders to Tier 2 reading intervention. We compared students in Grades 6 and 7 representing groups of adequate responders (n = 77) and inadequate responders who fell below criteria in (a) comprehension (n = 54); (b) fluency (n = 45);…

  3. Taking note of the perceived value and impact of medical student chart documentation on education and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Erica; Sainte, Michelle; Fallar, Robert

    2010-09-01

    To determine the extent of restrictions to medical student documentation in patients' records and the opinions of medical education leaders about such restrictions' impact on medical student education and patient care. Education deans (n = 126) of medical schools in the United States and Canada were surveyed to determine policies regarding placement of medical student notes in the patient record, the value of medical students' documentation in the medical record, and the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) for patient notes. The instrument was a 23-item anonymous Web survey. Seventy-nine deans responded. Over 90% believed student notes belong in medical records, but only 42% had a policy regarding this. Ninety-three percent indicated that without student notes, student education would be negatively affected. Fewer (56%) indicated that patient care would be negatively affected. Most thought limiting students' notes would negatively affect several other issues: feeling a part of the team (96%), preparation for internship (95%), and students' sense of involvement (94%). Half (52%) reported that fourth-year students could place notes in paper charts at "all" affiliated hospitals, and 6% reported that fourth-year students could do so at "no" hospitals. Although students' ability to enter notes in patients' records is believed to be important for student education, only about half of all hospitals allow all students' notes in the EMR. Policies regarding placement of student notes should be implemented to ensure students' competency in note writing and their value as members of the patient care team.

  4. Effectiveness of Anonymization Methods in Preserving Patients' Privacy: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Orooji, Azam; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    An ever growing for application of electronic health records (EHRs) has improved healthcare providers' communications, access to data for secondary use and promoted the quality of services. Patient's privacy has been changed to a great issue today since there are large loads of critical information in EHRs. Therefore, many privacy preservation techniques have been proposed and anonymization is a common one. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of anonymization in preserving patients' privacy. The articles published in the 2005-2016 were included. Pubmed, Cochrane, IEEE and ScienceDirect were searched with a variety of related keywords. Finally, 18 articles were included. In the present study, the relevant anonymization issues were investigated in four categories: secondary use of anonymized data, re-identification risk, anonymization effect on information extraction and inadequacy of current methods for different document types. The results revealed that though anonymization cannot reduce the risk of re-identification to zero, if implemented correctly, can manage to help preserve patient's privacy.

  5. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    but troubling proposition that high scores in impression management scales actually reflect honesty rather than dishonest responding. In line with findings indicating that respondents answer to personality questionnaires rather accurately in typical low demand situations, we herein suggest that high impression...... management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...

  6. Conscientious objection in medical students: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Sophie Lm

    2012-01-01

    To explore attitudes towards conscientious objections among medical students in the UK. Medical students at St George's University of London, Cardiff University, King's College London and Leeds University were emailed a link to an anonymous online questionnaire, hosted by an online survey company. The questionnaire contained nine questions. A total of 733 medical students responded. Nearly half of the students in this survey stated that they believed in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to any procedure. Demand for the right to conscientiously object is greater in Muslim medical students when compared with other groups of religious medical students. Abortion continues to be a contentious issue among medical students and this may contribute to the looming crisis in abortion services over the coming years. This project sheds some light on how future doctors view some of their ethical rights and obligations. Using empirical evidence, it reveals that conscientious objection is an issue in the UK medical student body today. These data could help anticipate problems that may arise when these medical students qualify and practise medicine in the community. Clearer guidance is needed for medical students about the issue of conscientious objection at medical school.

  7. Anonymous body or first patient? A status report and needs assessment regarding the personalization of donors in dissection courses in German, Austrian, and Swiss Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselblatt, Friederike; Messerer, David A C; Keis, Oliver; Böckers, Tobias M; Böckers, Anja

    2018-05-06

    Many Anglo-American universities have undertaken a paradigm shift in how the dissection of human material is approached, such that students are encouraged to learn about the lives of body donors, and to respectfully "personalize" them as human beings, rather than treating the specimens as anonymous cadavers. For the purposes of this study, this provision of limited personal information regarding the life of a body donor will be referred to as "personalization" of body donors. At this time, it is unknown whether this paradigm shift in the personalization of body donors can be translated into the German-speaking world. A shift from donor anonymity to donor personalization could strengthen students' perception of the donor as a "first patient," and thereby reinforce their ability to empathize with their future patients. Therefore, this study aimed to collect data about the current status of donation practices at German-speaking anatomy departments (n = 44) and to describe the opinions of anatomy departments, students (n = 366), and donors (n = 227) about possible donor personalization in medical education. Anatomy departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were invited to participate in an online questionnaire. One-tenth of registered donors at Ulm University were randomly selected and received a questionnaire (20 items, yes-no questions) by mail. Students at the University of Ulm were also surveyed at the end of the dissection course (31 items, six-point Likert-scale). The majority of students were interested in receiving additional information about their donors (78.1%). A majority of donors also supported the anonymous disclosure of information about their medical history (92.5%). However, this information is only available in about 28% of the departments surveyed and is communicated to the students only irregularly. Overall, 78% of anatomy departments were not in favor of undertaking donor personalization. The results appear to reflect

  8. Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Rösner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars often blame the occurrence of aggressive behavior in online discussions on the anonymity of the Internet; however, even on today’s less anonymous platforms, such as social networking sites, users write plenty of aggressive comments, which can elicit a whole wave of negative remarks. Drawing on the social identity and deindividuation effects (SIDE model, this research conducts a laboratory experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity × 2 (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm between-subjects design in order to disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, and their interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social group norm was aggressive. Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a tendency that users’ conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is stronger in an anonymous environment.

  9. LAS HABILIDADES SOCIALES EN UNIVERSITARIOS, ADOLESCENTES Y ALCOHÓLICOS EN RECUPERACIÓN DE UN GRUPO DE ALCOHÓLICOS ANÓNIMOS (AA/ SOCIAL ABILITIES IN ADOLESCENTS, UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND ALCOHOLICS IN RECOVERY IN A GROUP OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nava Quiroz***

    2010-03-01

    were distributed as follows: 58 adolescents (high school students, 55 members of AA and 44college students. Significant differences were found between some subscales and different reference groups. Most of thesedifferences were found in terms of cutting social cognitive skills. The group of alcoholics AA made the difference, showingthem a higher score on the subscales that indicate «fear» or «concern» in certain social situations. We discuss these findingsand their implications for treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  10. Characteristics of self-medication for pain relief among first-year health care students in Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brlić, Kristina Čuljak; Janev Holcer, Nataša; Sović, Slavica; Štimac, Danijela

    2014-12-01

    Taking over the responsibility for one's own health and active participation in eliminating the existing health problems is ever more widespread in the world. Self-medication in the form of using any kind of therapy without previous consultation with medical professionals has been ever more common among student populations in many countries. The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes about self-medication for pain relief and features of self-medication in first-year students of the University of Applied Health Studies in Zagreb. The study was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire, which was completed by 389 respondents. Taking painkillers in the past year was reported by 74.6% of respondents, significantly more by female students (80.8%); 62.6% of female students used painkillers once a month versus 45.7% of male students taking analgesics once a year. Ibuprofen was preferred by female students and acetylsalicylic acid by male students. Headache was the most common indication for taking painkillers (76.6%), followed by menstrual discomforts in female students (66.2%) and toothache (28.6%). Significant sex differences were recorded in the choice of drugs, indications for self-medication, and frequency of drug use. There were no differences between study courses. Appropriate student education and improved information transfer between professionals and students are the key elements to ensure judicious, quality and knowledge based use of drugs among students.

  11. Medical students' perceptions of bedside teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David; Cozar, Octavian; Lefroy, Janet

    2017-06-01

    Bedside teaching is recognised as a valuable tool in medical education by both students and faculty members. Bedside teaching is frequently delivered by consultants; however, junior doctors are increasingly engaging in this form of clinical teaching, and their value in this respect is becoming more widely recognised. The aim of this study was to supplement work completed by previous authors who have begun to explore students' satisfaction with bedside teaching, and their perceptions of the relationship with the clinical teachers. Specifically, we aimed to identify how students perceive bedside teaching delivered by junior doctors compared with consultants. We aimed to identify how students perceived bedside teaching delivered by junior doctors compared with consultants METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to all third-year medical students at Keele University via e-mail. Responses were submitted anonymously. Forty-six students responded (37.4%), 73.3 per cent of whom said that they felt more comfortable having bedside teaching delivered by junior doctors than by consultants. Consultants were perceived as more challenging by 60 per cent of respondents. Students appeared to value feedback on their performance, trust the validity of taught information, and to value the overall educational experience equally, regardless of the clinical grade of the teacher. Student preference does not equate to the value that they place on their bedside teaching. Junior doctors are perceived as being more in touch with students and the curriculum, whereas consultants are perceived as having higher expectations and as being both stricter and more knowledgeable. The clinical teacher's approachable manner and enthusiasm for teaching are more important than clinical grade, as is the ability to deliver well-structured constructive feedback. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Developing nursing and midwifery students' capacity for coping with bullying and aggression in clinical settings: Students' evaluation of a learning resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Rosemarie; Orr, Fiona; Fox, Deborah; Cummins, Allison; Foureur, Maralyn

    2018-03-01

    An innovative blended learning resource for undergraduate nursing and midwifery students was developed in a large urban Australian university, following a number of concerning reports by students on their experiences of bullying and aggression in clinical settings. The blended learning resource included interactive online learning modules, comprising film clips of realistic clinical scenarios, related readings, and reflective questions, followed by in-class role-play practice of effective responses to bullying and aggression. On completion of the blended learning resource 210 participants completed an anonymous survey (65.2% response rate). Qualitative data was collected and a thematic analysis of the participants' responses revealed the following themes: 'Engaging with the blended learning resource'; 'Responding to bullying' and 'Responding to aggression'. We assert that developing nursing and midwifery students' capacity to effectively respond to aggression and bullying, using a self-paced blended learning resource, provides a solution to managing some of the demands of the clinical setting. The blended learning resource, whereby nursing and midwifery students were introduced to realistic portrayals of bullying and aggression in clinical settings, developed their repertoire of effective responding and coping skills for use in their professional practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ling; Peng, Daiyuan; Peng, Tu; Liang, Hongbin; Liu, Zhicai

    2017-11-21

    Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation-the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  14. A Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Protocol with Perfect Forward Secrecy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their frequent use in unattended and hostile deployment environments, the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs has attracted much interest in the past two decades. However, it remains a challenge to design a lightweight authentication protocol for WSNs because the designers are confronted with a series of desirable security requirements, e.g., user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, resistance to de-synchronization attack. Recently, the authors presented two authentication schemes that attempt to provide user anonymity and to resist various known attacks. Unfortunately, in this work we shall show that user anonymity of the two schemes is achieved at the price of an impractical search operation—the gateway node may search for every possible value. Besides this defect, they are also prone to smart card loss attacks and have no provision for perfect forward secrecy. As our main contribution, a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme with perfect forward secrecy is designed, and what we believe the most interesting feature is that user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy, and resistance to de-synchronization attack can be achieved at the same time. As far as we know, it is extremely difficult to meet these security features simultaneously only using the lightweight operations, such as symmetric encryption/decryption and hash functions.

  15. BIX Certificates: Cryptographic Tokens for Anonymous Transactions Based on Certificates Public Ledger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Muftic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of Internet, Web, and mobile technologies, a new category of applications and transactions that requires anonymity is gaining increased interest and importance. Examples of such new applications are innovative payment systems, digital notaries, electronic voting, documents sharing, electronic auctions, medical applications, and many others. In addition to anonymity, these applications and transactions also require standard security services: identification, authentication, and authorization of users and protection of their transactions. Providing those services in combination with anonymity is an especially challenging issue, because all security services require explicit user identification and authentication. To solve this issue and enable applications with security and also anonymity we introduce a new type of cryptographically encapsulated objects called BIX certificates. “BIX” is an abbreviation for “Blockchain Information Exchange.” Their purpose is equivalent to X.509 certificates: to support security services for users and transactions, but also enhanced with anonymity. This paper describes the structure and attributes of BIX certificate objects and all related protocols for their creation, distribution, and use. The BIX Certification Infrastructure (BCI as a distributed public ledger is also briefly described.

  16. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  17. Cognitive Attributes of Adequate and Inadequate Responders to Reading Intervention in Middle School

    OpenAIRE

    Miciak, Jeremy; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy Elizabeth; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    No studies have investigated the cognitive attributes of middle school students who are adequate and inadequate responders to Tier 2 reading intervention. We compared students in Grades 6 and 7 representing groups of adequate responders (n = 77) and inadequate responders who fell below criteria in (a) comprehension (n = 54); (b) fluency (n = 45); and (c) decoding, fluency, and comprehension (DFC; n = 45). These students received measures of phonological awareness, listening comprehension, rap...

  18. Responding to Bullying: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra; Blais, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Children who are bullied are often told to "solve the problems themselves"; however, when bullying is repeated over time, it becomes increasingly difficult for victimized children to stop the torment because of their relative lack of power. We examine the ways in which children respond to bullying and their evaluations of the…

  19. An Anonymous Access Authentication Scheme Based on Proxy Ring Signature for CPS-WMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhan Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Access security and privacy have become a bottleneck for the popularization of future Cyber-Physical System (CPS networks. Furthermore, users’ need for privacy-preserved access during movement procedure is more urgent. To address the anonymous access authentication issue for CPS Wireless Mesh Network (CPS-WMN, a novel anonymous access authentication scheme based on proxy ring signature is proposed. A hierarchical authentication architecture is presented first. The scheme is then achieved from the aspect of intergroup and intragroup anonymous mutual authentication through proxy ring signature mechanism and certificateless signature mechanism, respectively. We present a formal security proof of the proposed protocol with SVO logic. The simulation and performance analysis demonstrate that the proposed scheme owns higher efficiency and adaptability than the typical one.

  20. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  1. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Umme

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004/23/EC. To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225 in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004/23/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  2. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH

    2011-04-20

    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  3. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Bushnag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP. The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD, Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network. Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  4. [Family medicine as a medical specialty and an academic discipline in the medical students' assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krztoń-Królewiecka, Anna; Jarczewska, Dorota Łucja; Windak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Family medicine has been recognized as the key element of a good health care system. Despite the significance of the family physician's role the number of medical students choosing to train in family medicine has been declining in recent years. The aim of this study was to describe opinions about family medicine and family medicine teaching among medical students. A cross sectional study with an anonymous questionnaire was carried out. The study population was all sixth-year students in Faculty Medicine of Jagiellonian University Medical College, who completed family medicine course in winter semester of academic year 2012/2013. 111 students filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 84.1%. Less than one third of respondents (30.6%) considered family medicine as a future career choice. Almost all students recognized responsibility of the family doctor for the health of community. 52% of respondents agreed that the family doctor is competent to provide most of the health care an individual may require. Experience from family medicine course was according to the students the most important factor influencing their opinions. Medical students appreciate the social role of family doctors. Family medicine teachers should not only pass on knowledge, but they also should encourage medical students to family medicine as a future career choice.

  5. [The "secret book" of Dr Friedrich Benjamin Osiander: anonymous births in the Göttingen Accouchierhaus, 1794-1819].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumbohm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The problem of anonymous or confidential deliveries, a subject of current controversy, has a long history. Some maternity hospitals offered the possibility for "clandestine" births as early as the 18th and 19th century. A recently emerged source about the maternity clinic of Göttingen University allows insight into the motives that led to keeping a birth secret and the consequences of such a clandestine birth for mother, father and child. The director of the institution, a professor of obstetrics, wrote case reports on the women, who paid a handsome sum for his help and the in-patient care they received. In return, these women could be admitted under a pseudonym, and thus falsify their child's birth certificate; moreover they were not used as teaching material for medical students and midwife apprentices, whereas "regular" patients had to give their names and, in return for being treated free of charge, be available for teaching purposes. The ten cases that have been painstakingly investigated reveal that the reasons that led the women and men to opt for an anonymous birth were manifold, that they used this offer in different ways and with different consequences. All of these pregnancies were illegitimate, of course. In one case the expectant mother was married. In several cases it would be the father who was married. Most of the women who gave birth secretly seem to have given the professor their actual details and he kept quiet about them--with the exception of one case where he revealed the contents of the case report many years later in an alimony suit. Only one of the men admitted paternity openly, but many revealed their identity implicitly by registering the pregnant woman or by accompanying her to the clinic. If the birth was to be kept secret the child needed to be handed over to foster parents. By paying a lump sum that covered the usual fourteen years of parenting, one mother was able to avoid any later contact with her son. In most cases contact seems

  6. An Enhancing Security Research of Tor Anonymous Communication to Against DDos Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tor (The Second Onion Router is modified by the first generation onion router and known as the most prevalent anonymous communication system. According to the advantage of low latency, high confidentiality of transmission content, high security of communication channels and et al., Tor is widely used in anonymous Web browsing, instant message and so on. However, the vulnerability and blemish of Tor affect system security. An identity and Signcryption-based concurrent signature scheme was used to prevent the behaviors of attackers from inserting controlled nodes and conspiring to make DDos attacks. The integrated security of Tor system was enhanced in our scheme. In addition we have proved the scheme.

  7. Darknet and bitcoin, the obscure and anonymous side of the internet in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoni, Marco; Guelfi, Maria Renza; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-11-14

    Illegal activities prosecutable by law in the real life can be committed on the internet alike. In the healthcare domain, we refer mainly to selling of illegal and counterfeit drugs, exchange of pedo-pornographic material and marketing of stolen medical records. These illegal activities are made easier by recent developments of the Internet that medical community must be aware of: darknet and bitcoin. The first allows anonymous surfing and the last anonymous financial transactions. After discussing which healthcare areas are affected by these technological developments of the Internet and the deriving consequences, then the Authors express their opinion on what actions can be taken to protect internet community.

  8. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  9. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  10. Facebook and the professional behaviours of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Jayne; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2010-06-01

    The rapid growth and accessibility of social networking websites has fundamentally changed the way people manage information about their personal and professional lives. In particular, it has been suggested that interaction in virtual communities erodes elements of responsibility, accountability and social trust that build traditionally meaningful communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how undergraduate medical students use the social network website Facebook, and to identify any unprofessional behaviour displayed online. A voluntary anonymous online survey was devised by the University of Liverpool, and emailed to students. Question topics included the use of Facebook, privacy settings, groups relating to the course and professional behaviours. Results were input to spss for analysis. The response rate was 31 per cent (n = 56). The majority of respondents did have a Facebook account and admitted there were photos they found embarrassing on the site. Over half of the respondents reported they had seen unprofessional behaviour by their colleagues on Facebook. Although students say that they are aware of the UK's General Medical Council (GMC) guidance, unprofessional behaviour is still demonstrated on the site. This research highlights the issue of social networking websites and professionalism amongst medical students. Further guidance from the GMC and medical schools should remind students that images and information placed on social networking sites is in the public domain, and could impact upon their professional reputation and identity. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  11. Development and Implementation of an Electronic Clinical Formative Assessment: Dental Faculty and Student Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Michele L; Adams, Brooke N; Meadows, Melinda L; Jackson, Richard

    2016-06-01

    A traditional summative grading structure, used at Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) for more than 30 years, was identified by faculty as outdated for assessing students' clinical performance. In an effort to change the status quo, a feedback-driven assessment was implemented in 2012 to provide a constructive assessment tool acceptable to both faculty and students. Building on the successful non-graded clinical evaluation employed at Baylor College of Dentistry, IUSD implemented a streamlined electronic formative feedback model (FFM) to assess students' daily clinical performance. An important addition to this evaluation tool was the inclusion of routine student self-assessment opportunities. The aim of this study was to determine faculty and student response to the new assessment instrument. Following training sessions, anonymous satisfaction surveys were examined for the three user groups: clinical faculty (60% response rate), third-year (D3) students (72% response rate), and fourth-year (D4) students (57% response rate). In the results, 70% of the responding faculty members preferred the FFM over the summative model; however, 61.8% of the D4 respondents preferred the summative model, reporting insufficient assessment time and low faculty participation. The two groups of students had different responses to the self-assessment component: 70.2% of the D4 respondents appreciated clinical self-assessment compared to 46% of the D3 respondents. Overall, while some components of the FFM assessment were well received, a phased approach to implementation may have facilitated a transition more acceptable to both faculty and students. Improvements are being made in an attempt to increase overall satisfaction.

  12. Medical Relabeling in Gamblers Anonymous: The Construction of an Ideal Member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David N.; Saunders, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Observed 2 Gamblers Anonymous (GA) groups in South Wales over a 12-month period. Determined 2 broad consequences arose from encountering fellow sufferers: acceptance of diagnosis and commitment to recovery and to will of GA, or rejection of the diagnosis with the knowledge that they are returning to the outside world with a reconstituted…

  13. Towards an anonymous access control and accountability scheme for cloud computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schäge, Sven; Schwenk, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of trust in cloud computing consists in preventing the cloud provider from misusing the user's data. In this work-in-progress paper, we propose the approach of data anonymization to solve this problem. As this directly leads to problems of cloud usage accounting, we also propose...

  14. A Novel Mobile Communications Authentication Scheme with Roaming Service and User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many novel, effective, and efficient applications and networking services are being developed for the Social Internet of Things. Recently, Li proposed a more secure and efficient authentication scheme with roaming service and user anonymity for mobile communications. The security analysis and discussion of the agreement phase is sufficiently safe; however, an attacker can intercept the identity of a mobile user’s home agent in the authentication phase. By using this information, the attacker can mount distributed denial-of-service attacks in the roaming phase through replay attacks targeting the network’s foreign agent and mobile user’s home agent by using their corresponding session keys. Li’s method also has some shortcomings regarding anonymity that we aim to address. To overcome these issues, this study proposes an elliptic curve–based wireless roaming anonymous login method for the authentication phase. The problems faced in the roaming phase are resolved, and this approach provides balanced session key computation between senders and receivers. Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (BAN-logic is used to verify the security of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme affords good security, efficiency, and integrity and maintains anonymity.

  15. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  16. Compatibility of Adlerian Theory and Practice with the Philosophy and Practices of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jane J.

    1999-01-01

    Tenets of Adlerian theory and practice are compatible with the philosophy and practices of Alcoholics Anonymous. Counselors can expect treatment approaches based on Adlerian counseling theory to be congruent with 12-step practices of individuals who are in recovery from alcohol dependence. (Author)

  17. Social influence in computer-mediated communication : The effects of anonymity on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first

  18. Anonymity and informed consent in artificial procreation: a report from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne Mette

    1997-01-01

    a problem concerning its application when dealing with people having a serious mental, social or even physical disability. Within the field of artificial procreation there are even more problems. Informed written consent is often demanded from anonymous donors of gametes in order to ensure their consent...

  19. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user’s biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen’s scheme.

  20. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  1. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  2. HOP: Achieving Efficient Anonymity in MANETs by Combining HIP, OLSR, and Pseudonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Javier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offering secure and anonymous communications in mobile ad hoc networking environments is essential to achieve confidence and privacy, thus promoting widespread adoption of this kind of networks. In addition, some minimum performance levels must be achieved for any solution to be practical and become widely adopted. In this paper, we propose and implement HOP, a novel solution based on cryptographic Host Identity Protocol (HIP that offers security and user-level anonymity in MANET environments while maintaining good performance levels. In particular, we introduce enhancements to the authentication process to achieve Host Identity Tag (HIT relationship anonymity, along with source/destination HIT anonymity when combined with multihoming. Afterward we detail how we integrate our improved version of HIP with the OLSR routing protocol to achieve efficient support for pseudonyms. We implemented our proposal in an experimental testbed, and the results obtained show that performance levels achieved are quite good, and that the integration with OLSR is achieved with a low overhead.

  3. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  4. Confidentiality, anonymity and amnesty for midwives in distress seeking online support - Ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezaro, Sally; Clyne, Wendy; Gerada, Clare

    2018-06-01

    Midwife health is intrinsically linked to the quality of safe patient care. To ensure safe patient care, there is a need to deliver emotional support to midwives. One option that midwives may turn to may be a confidential online intervention, instead of localised, face-to-face support. Following the Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards publication standards, this realist synthesis approach explores the ethical considerations in permitting confidentiality, anonymity and amnesty in online interventions to support midwives in work-related psychological distress. An iterative search methodology was used to select nine papers for review. To assimilate information, papers were examined for ideas relating to ethical dimensions of online interventions to support midwives in work-related psychological distress. This review takes a narrative approach. Online interventions can support the development of insight, help seeking and open discussion. Additionally, Internet support groups can become morally persuasive in nature. Anonymity and confidentiality are both effective and therapeutic features of online interventions when used in collaboration with effective online moderation. Yet, ethical dilemmas remain where users cannot be identified. Confidentiality and anonymity remain key components of successful online interventions. However, sanctioning the corollary component of amnesty may provoke moral discomfort for those seeking immediate accountability. For others, amnesty is seen as essential for open disclosure and help seeking. Ultimately, the needs of midwives must be balanced with the requirement to protect the public and the professional reputation of midwifery. In supporting midwives online, the principles of anonymity, confidentiality and amnesty may evoke some resistance on ethical grounds. However, without offering identity protection, it may not be possible to create effective online support services for midwives. The authors of this

  5. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  6. The acquisition of conditioned responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A

    2011-04-01

    This report analyzes the acquisition of conditioned responses in rats trained in a magazine approach paradigm. Following the suggestion by Gallistel, Fairhurst, and Balsam (2004), Weibull functions were fitted to the trial-by-trial response rates of individual rats. These showed that the emergence of responding was often delayed, after which the response rate would increase relatively gradually across trials. The fit of the Weibull function to the behavioral data of each rat was equaled by that of a cumulative exponential function incorporating a response threshold. Thus, the growth in conditioning strength on each trial can be modeled by the derivative of the exponential--a difference term of the form used in many models of associative learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972). Further analyses, comparing the acquisition of responding with a continuously reinforced stimulus (CRf) and a partially reinforced stimulus (PRf), provided further evidence in support of the difference term. In conclusion, the results are consistent with conventional models that describe learning as the growth of associative strength, incremented on each trial by an error-correction process.

  7. Attitudes to Organ Donation and Knowledge of Donation and Transplantation among University of Auckland Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Harbour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims • To explore organ donation and transplantation knowledge and attitudes among medical students at the University of Auckland. • To understand students' perception of the extent of training received prior to and during the medical program. Method A validated web-based questionnaire consisting of 42 questions in five categories was anonymously administered to all enrolled medical students at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, in September 2012. Results In all, 419 out of 989 (42% Year 2–6 students responded. A total of 99.3% of medical students supported organ donation, but knowledge was limited (mean score 7.54/15±2.26. A total of 38% of students reported having participated in organ donation learning. A total of 96% of students believed that organ donation information should be available in primary care settings. A total of 69% of students reported that if a patient asked a question about organ donation that they did not know the answer to, they also would not know where to source the correct information from. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although medical students support organ donation, they lack the knowledge required to facilitate informative discussions with patients. Enhanced organ donation education in medical programs may enable students to develop skills and knowledge allowing them to better discuss donation with patients.

  8. Findings From the INANE Survey on Student Papers Submitted to Nursing Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Maureen Shawn; Newland, Jamesetta A; Owens, Jacqueline K

    Nursing students are often encouraged or required to submit scholarly work for consideration for publication but most manuscripts or course assignment papers do not meet journal standards and consume valuable resources from editors and peer reviewers. The International Academy of Nursing Editors (INANE) is a group of nurse editors and publishers dedicated to promoting best practices in publishing in the nursing literature. In August 2014, editors at INANE's annual meeting voiced frustrations over multiple queries, poorly written student papers, and lack of proper behavior in following through. This article describes the findings of a survey distributed to INANE members to seek feedback about submissions by students. Fifty-three (53) members responded to an online anonymous survey developed by the INANE Student Papers Work Group. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics for Likert-type questions and content analysis of open-ended questions. Quantitative data revealed that most editors reported problems with student papers across all levels of graduate programs. Six themes emerged from the qualitative data: submissions fail to follow author guidelines; characteristics of student submissions; lack of professional behavior from students; lack of professional behavior from faculty; editor responses to student submissions; and faculty as mentors. These themes formed the basis for recommendations and strategies to improve student scholarly writing. Overall, editors endorsed supporting new scholars in the publication process but faculty engagement was integral to student success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Medical Student Perceptions of Global Surgery at an Academic Institution: Identifying Gaps in Global Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ambar; Xu, Tim; Murray, Matthew; Casey, Kathleen M

    2017-12-01

    Robust global health demands access to safe, affordable, timely surgical care for all. The long-term success of global surgery requires medical students to understand and engage with this emerging field. The authors characterized medical students' perceptions of surgical care relative to other fields within global health. An optional, anonymous survey was given to all Johns Hopkins medical students from February to March 2016 to assess perceptions of surgical care and its role in global health. Of 480 students, 365 (76%) completed the survey, with 150 (41%) reporting global health interests. One-third (34%) of responding students felt that surgical care is one of two fields with the greatest potential global health impact in the future, second to infectious disease (49%). A minority (28%) correctly identified that trauma results in more deaths worldwide than obstetric complications or HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. Relative to other examined fields, students perceived surgical care as the least preventive and cost-effective, and few students (3%) considered adequate surgical care the best indicator of a robust health care system. Students believed that practicing in a surgical field was least amenable to pursuing a global health career, citing several barriers. Medical students have several perceptions of global surgery that contradict current evidence and literature, which may have implications for their career choices. Opportunities to improve students' global health knowledge and awareness of global surgery career paths include updating curricula, fostering meaningful international academic opportunities, and creating centers of global surgery and global health consortia.

  10. Medical students' reactions to anatomic dissection and the phenomenon of cadaver naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Austin D; Greenwald, Emily E; Soricelli, Rhonda L; DePace, Dennis M

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body donation. The authors developed a 33-question electronic survey to which 1,156 medical students at 12 medical schools in the United States voluntarily responded (November 2011-March 2012). They also surveyed course directors from each institution regarding their curricula and their observations of students' coping mechanisms. The majority of students (574, 67.8%) named their cadaver. Students most commonly cited the cadaver's age as the reason they chose a particular name for the cadaver. A minority of the students who did not name the cadaver reported finding the practice of naming disrespectful. Almost all students indicated that they would have liked to know more about their donor, particularly his or her medical history. Finally, students who knew the birth name of the donor used it less frequently than predicted. The authors found that the practice of naming cadavers is extremely prevalent among medical students and that inventive naming serves as a beneficial coping mechanism. The authors suggest that developing a method of providing students with more information about their cadaver while protecting the anonymity of the donor and family would be useful. © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela Virgin Islands Zimbabwe INFORMATION ABOUT A.A. What Is ... Young People's Animation Video On the Beach A Group of People Just Like Me Full-Length Videos ...

  12. FACTORS AND ATTITUDES AFFECTING SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND SEX PRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENUGU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate factors and attitudes affecting sexual behaviour and sex practices of secondary school students, and to suggest changes necessary for preventing and/or reducing HIV transmission among them. 1009 multi-staged sampled secondary school students aged 10-20 years completed the anonymous interviews. 973(96.4% were Christians and 711(70.5% day students. Premarital sex was approved of by185(18.3% of the respondents while 596(59.1% claimed they would continue to abstain till they get married; 252(25.0% will abstain for some years while 136(13.5% will abstain for months. 181(17.9% believed that abstaining from sex is an abnormal behavior, that HIV/AIDS was a hoax. 573(56.8% agreed that HIV/AIDs is a disease from which they could protect themselves while 387(38.4% thought otherwise. Only 581(57.6% of the respondents would seek advice if they found they were HIV positive. 797(79% of the respondents were afraid of HIV infection while 520(351.5% said that someone in their family might become infected. Attitudinal factors showed statistically significant variation with gender, age, school and class of the respondents. A good number also practice homosexuality and lesbianism. Appropriate information about sexuality education and the negative consequences of early sexual exposure, STIs/HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy should be provided in public schools.

  13. Communication: Listening and Responding. Affective 4.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgers, Sherry B., Comp.; Ward, G. Robert, Comp.

    This module is designed to provide practice in listening effectively and in responding to messages sent by another. The module is divided into two sets of activities, the first is the formation of a triad enabling the student to investigate the following: do you listen, listening and the unrelated response, incomplete listening, listening for…

  14. Medical student sexuality: how sexual experience and sexuality training impact U.S. and Canadian medical students' comfort in dealing with patients' sexuality in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Ando, Kathryn A; Nelson, Christian J; Breyer, Benjamin N; Lue, Tom F; Smith, James F

    2010-08-01

    To determine factors associated with students' comfort in addressing patients' sexuality in the clinical context. The authors invited students enrolled in MD-degree-granting and osteopathic medical schools in the United States and Canada to participate in an anonymous Internet survey between February and July 2008. The survey assessed ethnodemographic factors and sexual history. Respondents also completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Male respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Female respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Index of Sex Life. The authors used descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression to analyze responses. The authors' analyses included 2,261 completed survey responses: 910 from men, 1,343 from women, and 8 from individuals who self-identified as "other" gendered. Over 53% of respondents (n = 1,206) stated that they felt they had not received sufficient training in medical school to address sexual concerns clinically. Despite this, 81% of students (n = 1,827) reported feeling comfortable dealing with their patients' sexuality issues. Students with limited sexual experience, students at risk for sexual problems, and students who felt that they had not been trained adequately were less likely to report being comfortable talking to patients about sexual health issues. Perception of inadequate sexuality training in medical school and personal issues pertaining to sex may be associated with students' difficulty in addressing patients' sexuality. Adequate training is preeminently associated with feeling comfortable addressing patients' sexuality and should be a priority for medical education.

  15. High School Students Struggle to Find School-Related Information on the Web. A Review of: Shenton, Andrew K. “The Information-Seeking Problems of English High Schoolers Responding to Academic Information Need.” Library Review 57.4 (2008: 276-88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the information-seeking behaviour of high school students looking to meet school-related information needs.Design – Online questionnaire.Setting – A comprehensive, publically funded high school in north-east England.Subjects – Seventy-seven high school students between the ages of 13 and 18 who responded to an online questionnaire that was distributed to the 900-1000 students enrolled at the institution.Methods – An invitation to participate in an online questionnaire was sent to all students at the high school in October, 2006, via email. The total number of invitations sent was not indicated, although it is noted that current enrolment at the school is approximately 900-1000 students across years 9 to 13. In the e-mail, students were provided with a link to a questionnaire posted on the school’s intranet. The questionnaire consisted of six multiple-choice and three open-ended questions. Qualitative data gathered through an open-ended question about problems encountered when seeking information for school was manually coded, and forms the focus of this article.Main Results – Seventy-seven online questionnaires were completed by students between 31 October and 27 November 2006, when analysis of the data began. Of the 77 respondents, only 35 provided data on problems encountered when seeking information for their assignments. Most of the respondents in this group were in years nine, ten and eleven (ages 13-16, with only two in year 12 (16-17 and four in year 13 (17-18. Over half (19/35 of respondents were female. Forty remaining respondents either stated that they experienced no problems in finding the information they needed for school or did not answer the relevant question on the questionnaire. Two participants indicated that they did not have the information they needed to complete their schoolwork because they did not look for it. Over 20 distinct information-seeking problems were identified through

  16. Sexual and reproductive health in Spanish University Students. A comparison between medical and law students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Delgado-Miguel, Carlos; Rey-Cañas, Adriana; Herráiz, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    To describe behaviors and knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health of Spanish university students and their association with the subject area studied (biomedical or not). A descriptive cross-sectional observational study conducted with 2074 students aged 18-24years from the University Complutense of Madrid in the Faculties of Medicine and Law. Simple random stratified sampling without replacement was performed. A self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was distributed. It was based on the Youth Risk Health Behavior Survey and assessed behavior and knowledge in three areas: sex, contraceptive methods (CM) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In total, 83.5% of respondents had had sexual intercourse, from a mean age of 16.8years and with a mean of 3.4 sexual partners. Compared with the law students (LS), fewer medical students (MS) were sexually active, they had a later age of sexual initiation and they had had fewer sexual partners (plaw students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical students' attitudes toward gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T

    2012-08-08

    Healthcare providers' attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.

  18. An Anonymous Mutual Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Wearable Sensors in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chen

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN have led to significant progress in medical and health care systems. However, such networks still suffer from major security and privacy threats, especially for the data collected in medical or health care applications. Lack of security and existence of anonymous communication in WBAN brings about the operation failure of these networks. Recently, Li et al. proposed a lightweight protocol for wearable sensors in wireless body area networks. In their paper, the authors claimed that the protocol may provide anonymous mutual authentication and resist against various types of attacks. This study shows that such a protocol is still vulnerable to three types of attacks, i.e., the offline identity guessing attack, the sensor node impersonation attack and the hub node spoofing attack. We then present a secure scheme that addresses these problems, and retains similar efficiency in wireless sensors nodes and mobile phones.

  19. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs.

  20. THE WIKILEAKS´S CASE AND ANONYMITY: EFFECTS ON THE INFORMATION FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.

  1. A Framework For Enhancing Privacy In Location Based Services Using K-Anonymity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mugi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a framework for enhancing privacy in Location Based Services using K-anonymity model. Users of location based services have to reveal their location information in order to use these services however this has threatened the user privacy. K-anonymity approach has been studied extensively in various forms. However it is only effective when the user location is fixed. When a user moves and continuously sends their location information the location service provider can approximate user trajectory which poses a threat to the trajectory privacy of the user. This framework will ensure that user privacy is enhanced for both snapshot and continuous queries. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed framework was evaluated the results indicate that the proposed framework has high success rate and good run time performance.

  2. Secondary Analysis of Audio Data. Technical Procedures for Virtual Anonymization and Pseudonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Pätzold

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative material presented as audio data requires a greater degree of protecting of anonymity than for example textual data. Apart from the verbal content, it carries paraverbal aspects including voice characteristics, thus making it easier to identify the speaker. This complicates secondary analysis or reanalysis conducted by researchers who were not involved in the data collection. Difficulties increase if the chances are high that the researcher and the interviewee come in contact for example through a meeting. This paper describes the technical procedures that are used to modify the sound of the audio source in a way that it reduces the possibility of recognition (i.e. similar to that of a carefully written transcript. A discussion of the technical possibilities of this procedure along with an exploration of the boundaries of anonymization is presented. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0501249

  3. Applying LU Decomposition of Matrices to Design Anonymity Bilateral Remote User Authentication Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply LU decomposition of matrices to present an anonymous bilateral authentication scheme. This paper aims at improving security and providing more excellent performances for remote user authentication scheme. The proposed scheme can provide bilateral authentication and session key agreement, can quickly check the validity of the input password, and can really protect the user anonymity. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the discrete logarithm problem (DLP, Diffie-Hellman problem (DHP, and the one-way hash function. It can resist various attacks such as insider attack, impersonation attack, server spoofing attack, and stolen smart card attack. Moreover, the presented scheme is computationally efficient for real-life implementation.

  4. Practical m-k-Anonymization for Collaborative Data Publishing without Trusted Third Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In collaborative data publishing (CDP, an m-adversary attack refers to a scenario where up to m malicious data providers collude to infer data records contributed by other providers. Existing solutions either rely on a trusted third party (TTP or introduce expensive computation and communication overheads. In this paper, we present a practical distributed k-anonymization scheme, m-k-anonymization, designed to defend against m-adversary attacks without relying on any TTPs. We then prove its security in the semihonest adversary model and demonstrate how an extension of the scheme can also be proven secure in a stronger adversary model. We also evaluate its efficiency using a commonly used dataset.

  5. Gamblers Anonymous in Israel: a participant observation study of a self-help group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, G

    1978-10-01

    This participant observation study of the first Gamblers Anonymous group in Israel is designed to show (1) the ways in which the group helps it members rehabilitate themselves, (2) the three stages through which they must go in order to ensure success, and (3) the reason why some participants fail to do so. The article concludes with a number of observations concerning the extent of gambling in Israel and the different ways that should be developed for dealing with the problem.

  6. Nursing lives in the blogosphere: A thematic analysis of anonymous online nursing narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Aimee; Andrews, Gavin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the work-life narratives of nurses through a thematic analysis of the nursing accounts they post in their publicly accessible, anonymous blogs. Many nurses participate on social media. Blogs have been advocated as a self-reflective tool in nursing practice, yet as far as the authors are aware, no previous studies have explored nurses' individual blogs for their potential to reveal nurses' perceptions of nursing work. The research design was qualitative description. Between May-August 2015, Internet search engines were used to discover lists of nursing blogs recommended by organizations representing nurses' interests. Recommended blogs were purposively sampled. Four anonymous blogs written by nurses from different nursing specialties met the sampling criteria. All 520 of their entries from 2014 were read and copied into NVivo 10, where an inductive coding process was followed. Three major themes arose in these nurses' online discussions of their work lives: they truly care about and value their nursing work, but they are feeling stressed and burnt out and they are using their anonymous blogs to share factors that frustrate them in their nursing work. Three main areas of frustration were revealed: teamwork problems, challenging patients and families, and management issues. Anonymous nursing blogs offer valuable, longitudinal insights into nurses' perceptions of their work lives. Nursing blogs should be further explored for ongoing insights into nurses' experiences of nursing work, as well as nurses' recommendations for addressing issues causing them to feel frustrated in their work environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mutual support and recovery in the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyytikäinen Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – In Russia the paradigm of alcoholism as a disease is still in contrast to the general perception of alcoholics as weak-willed. This article studies alcoholism and recovery in Russia through the case study of the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online group. It studies how people who are seeking help for their drinking problems in this online community come to incorporate a new self-understanding of being ill with alcoholism.

  8. ZebraLancer: Private and Anonymous Crowdsourcing System atop Open Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yuan; Tang, Qiang; Wang, Guiling

    2018-01-01

    We design and implement the first private and anonymous decentralized crowdsourcing system ZebraLancer. It realizes the fair exchange (i.e. security against malicious workers and dishonest requesters) without using any third-party arbiter. More importantly, it overcomes two fundamental challenges of decentralization, i.e. data leakage and identity breach. First, our outsource-then-prove methodology resolves the critical tension between blockchain transparency and data confidentiality without ...

  9. Facebook’s Ugly Sisters: Anonymity and Abuse on Formspring and Ask.fm

    OpenAIRE

    Binns, Amy

    2013-01-01

    New question and answer websites Ask.fm and Formspring have brought highly specific and personal abuse to a new level amongst young people by providing easy anonymity to users within a circle of offline friendship groups culled from Facebook. Relatively unknown due to their unattractiveness to adults, these sites are growing rapidly and have already been associated with at least eight suicides amongst teenagers. \\ud \\ud Media educators at school level encouraging self-awareness of social medi...

  10. Annotation and Anonymity: Playful Photo-Sharing by Visiting Groups of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, Duncan; Appiah-Kubi, Kwamena; Shipp, Victoria; Mortier, Richard Michael; Benford, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the playful photo taking behaviour of teenagers during group visits to two touristic public events (an airshow and a guided tour of a museum). These studies provide the feedback for the iterative development of a smartphone based anonymous image annotation and sharing application. The resulting implications for the design of such photo systems are examined, specifically the appropriateness of opportunistic upload for social media. Playfulness in photography has many im...

  11. Mirroring the videos of Anonymous:cloud activism, living networks, and political mimesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, Adam Richard

    2016-01-01

    Mirrors describe the multiplication of data across a network. In this article, I examine the politics of mirroring as practiced on videos by the hacktivist network Anonymous. Mirrors are designed to retain visibility on social media platforms and motivate viewers towards activism. They emerge from a particular social structure and propagate a specific symbolic system. Furthermore, mirrors are not exact replicas nor postmodern representations. Rather, mirroring maps a contestation over visibil...

  12. Local and global recoding methods for anonymizing set-valued data

    KAUST Repository

    Terrovitis, Manolis

    2010-06-10

    In this paper, we study the problem of protecting privacy in the publication of set-valued data. Consider a collection of supermarket transactions that contains detailed information about items bought together by individuals. Even after removing all personal characteristics of the buyer, which can serve as links to his identity, the publication of such data is still subject to privacy attacks from adversaries who have partial knowledge about the set. Unlike most previous works, we do not distinguish data as sensitive and non-sensitive, but we consider them both as potential quasi-identifiers and potential sensitive data, depending on the knowledge of the adversary. We define a new version of the k-anonymity guarantee, the k m-anonymity, to limit the effects of the data dimensionality, and we propose efficient algorithms to transform the database. Our anonymization model relies on generalization instead of suppression, which is the most common practice in related works on such data. We develop an algorithm that finds the optimal solution, however, at a high cost that makes it inapplicable for large, realistic problems. Then, we propose a greedy heuristic, which performs generalizations in an Apriori, level-wise fashion. The heuristic scales much better and in most of the cases finds a solution close to the optimal. Finally, we investigate the application of techniques that partition the database and perform anonymization locally, aiming at the reduction of the memory consumption and further scalability. A thorough experimental evaluation with real datasets shows that a vertical partitioning approach achieves excellent results in practice. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  13. [Examination of the Young maladaptive schemes in a group of Gamblers Anonymous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Zsuzsa; Körmendi, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Literature of gambling addiction has become widespread in last years. Many studies were written about the vulnerability factors helping the development of addiction, theoretical models, comorbid problems and therapy possibilities. Currently there is no integrated theoretical model that could explain sufficiently the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. The treatment issue is also unresolved. Cognitive psychology is a dynamically developing field of psychology and good results are achieved in gambling treatment with applying cognitive techniques. Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy is a recent theoretical and therapeutic direction within cognitive psychology which emphasizes the necessity of emotional changes beside rational ones in the interest of efficiency. The purpose of our research is to examine and analyse active maladaptive schemas among gamblers who are members of Gamblers Anonymous self-help group. 23 control persons and 23 gamblers associated with support group of Gamblers Anonymous took part in our research. The severity of gambling behaviour was measured by Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. For exploring maladaptive schemas we used the shorter 114-item version of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3). All the examined gamblers were considered as problem gamblers based on Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. In the control group there where no active schemas while in the group of gamblers several schemas (Emotional deprivation, Self-sacrifice, Recognition seeking, Emotional inhibition, Unrelenting standards, Self-punitiveness, Insufficient self-control) showed activity. Active schemas show similarity in their matter with main establishments of researches about gamblers and support the role of impulsivity, narcissistic traits, self-medicalization and emotional deprivation in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling.

  14. A Comparison of the Effects of K-Anonymity on Machine Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden Wimmer; Loreen Powell

    2014-01-01

    While research has been conducted in machine learning algorithms and in privacy preserving in data mining (PPDM), a gap in the literature exists which combines the aforementioned areas to determine how PPDM affects common machine learning algorithms. The aim of this research is to narrow this literature gap by investigating how a common PPDM algorithm, K-Anonymity, affects common machine learning and data mining algorithms, namely neural networks, logistic regression, decision trees, and Baye...

  15. An evaluation of medical student-led podcasts: what are the lessons learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Smriti; Catton, Rory; Khalil, Hisham

    2018-01-01

    Student-led podcasts were developed by 5th year Peninsula Medical School students as part of an educational grant. The students completed 35 video podcasts using PREZI software, and based on clinical indicative presentations of the Peninsula Medical School curriculum. Third, 4th and 5th year medical students were invited to complete the evaluation of the indicative presentation video podcasts they watched. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through anonymized questionnaires. A thematic analysis of qualitative data was carried out. Seven hundred and fifty students were invited to evaluate the podcasts of which 142 responded to the email. One hundred and forty-two students were assigned podcasts, of whom 122 completed the podcast questionnaire (85.9%), with 20 students dropping out for unknown reasons. The majority of the students found the podcasts to be clear, of an appropriate length, targeted at the right academic level and providing a good method of learning. However, there were mixed views in relation to the preference of podcasts over conventional learning methods. The thematic analysis identified positive comments and areas of improvement for the podcasts. Podcasts conducted in an interview style with an engaging voice and images are thought to help maintain student engagement from their perspective. Further evaluation/research is required to help establish the correct depth and breadth of information to be included in podcasts.

  16. Prevalence of hazardous alcohol use among pharmacy students at nine U.S. schools of pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.

  17. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-05-19

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  18. An Efficient Big Data Anonymization Algorithm Based on Chaos and Perturbation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Eyupoglu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of big data has attracted increasing interest in recent years. The emergence of big data leads to new difficulties in terms of protection models used for data privacy, which is of necessity for sharing and processing data. Protecting individuals’ sensitive information while maintaining the usability of the data set published is the most important challenge in privacy preserving. In this regard, data anonymization methods are utilized in order to protect data against identity disclosure and linking attacks. In this study, a novel data anonymization algorithm based on chaos and perturbation has been proposed for privacy and utility preserving in big data. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in terms of Kullback–Leibler divergence, probabilistic anonymity, classification accuracy, F-measure and execution time. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm is efficient and performs better in terms of Kullback–Leibler divergence, classification accuracy and F-measure compared to most of the existing algorithms using the same data set. Resulting from applying chaos to perturb data, such successful algorithm is promising to be used in privacy preserving data mining and data publishing.

  19. A Source Anonymity-Based Lightweight Secure AODV Protocol for Fog-Based MANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weidong; Zhang, Wuxiong; Xiao, Jinchao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2017-06-17

    Fog-based MANET (Mobile Ad hoc networks) is a novel paradigm of a mobile ad hoc network with the advantages of both mobility and fog computing. Meanwhile, as traditional routing protocol, ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol has been applied widely in fog-based MANET. Currently, how to improve the transmission performance and enhance security are the two major aspects in AODV's research field. However, the researches on joint energy efficiency and security seem to be seldom considered. In this paper, we propose a source anonymity-based lightweight secure AODV (SAL-SAODV) routing protocol to meet the above requirements. In SAL-SAODV protocol, source anonymous and secure transmitting schemes are proposed and applied. The scheme involves the following three parts: the source anonymity algorithm is employed to achieve the source node, without being tracked and located; the improved secure scheme based on the polynomial of CRC-4 is applied to substitute the RSA digital signature of SAODV and guarantee the data integrity, in addition to reducing the computation and energy consumption; the random delayed transmitting scheme (RDTM) is implemented to separate the check code and transmitted data, and achieve tamper-proof results. The simulation results show that the comprehensive performance of the proposed SAL-SAODV is a trade-off of the transmission performance, energy efficiency, and security, and better than AODV and SAODV.

  20. Potential harms, anonymization, and the right to withdraw consent to biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Stefan; Helgesson, Gert

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the potential harms involved in biobank research and how ethical review, informed consent, withdrawals, and anonymization of samples should be handled in the light of these harms. There is less risk involved in biobank research than in human subject research; it should therefore be treated differently. In our view, anonymization should not be an automatically permissible response to requests for withdrawal. Nor should a request for withdrawal necessarily stop research on identifiable samples. Apart from not being particularly appropriate for protecting the interests of individuals, anonymization of samples has a negative impact on research. We suggest that the current view on withdrawal from research, supported by the Declaration of Helsinki and subsequent ethical guidelines, be abandoned in the context of biobank research and be replaced by an approach inspired by the Nuremberg Code. This approach requires those wishing to withdraw their samples from research to present sufficient reason for doing so. Our interpretation of 'sufficient reason' includes all those involving genuine, deeply felt concerns that are not based on misconceptions. Still, this underlines the fact that we all share a responsibility for health research and that no one should take withdrawal from biobank research lightly.

  1. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  2. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF and embryo transfer (ET where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  3. (a,k)-Anonymous Scheme for Privacy-Preserving Data Collection in IoT-based Healthcare Services Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongtao; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Wenyin; Wang, Jie; Xing, Jinsheng

    2018-02-14

    The widely use of IoT technologies in healthcare services has pushed forward medical intelligence level of services. However, it also brings potential privacy threat to the data collection. In healthcare services system, health and medical data that contains privacy information are often transmitted among networks, and such privacy information should be protected. Therefore, there is a need for privacy-preserving data collection (PPDC) scheme to protect clients (patients) data. We adopt (a,k)-anonymity model as privacy pretection scheme for data collection, and propose a novel anonymity-based PPDC method for healthcare services in this paper. The threat model is analyzed in the client-server-to-user (CS2U) model. On client-side, we utilize (a,k)-anonymity notion to generate anonymous tuples which can resist possible attack, and adopt a bottom-up clustering method to create clusters that satisfy a base privacy level of (a 1 ,k 1 )-anonymity. On server-side, we reduce the communication cost through generalization technology, and compress (a 1 ,k 1 )-anonymous data through an UPGMA-based cluster combination method to make the data meet the deeper level of privacy (a 2 ,k 2 )-anonymity (a 1  ≥ a 2 , k 2  ≥ k 1 ). Theoretical analysis and experimental results prove that our scheme is effective in privacy-preserving and data quality.

  4. [The knowledge of students and teachers of selected groups about the OTC drugs containing codeine and pseudoephedrine--an alternative to "legal highs"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Marcinkiewicz, Marcin; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Currently the youth to intoxication increasingly used drugs generally available over the counter (OTC, Over-The-Counter drug) containing psychotropic substances. The knowledge on the subject among parents and teachers is inadequate. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of students and teachers about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and their consequences on the use and popularity of these drugs. The study was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 of 93 respondents. In conducting the study used research tool in the form of an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 21 questions for the students and teachers of 16 questions, the questions relate knowledge of the studied group persons on the OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and the effects of their use. Among the students participating in the study, the majority of respondents are aware that using drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine can be addicted to them. Higher knowledge on this subject have demonstrated high school students, but less teachers. Most of the respondents had knowledge about the health effects that result from an overdose of these drugs. Among the students most frequently reported sources of knowledge about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine were friends and the Internet. The general knowledge of high school students and teachers on the effects of OTC medications containing codeine or pseudoephedrine is not sufficient. There is a need to conduct preventive and educational action aimed at increasing knowledge among youth and adults on the health effects of these drugs.

  5. Factors associated with attendance in 12-step groups (Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous) among adults with alcohol problems living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, John; Samet, Jeffrey H; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Saitz, Richard

    2011-01-15

    Despite the value of 12-step meetings, few studies have examined factors associated with attendance among those living with HIV/AIDS, such as the impact of HIV disease severity and demographics. This study examines predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need on attendance at Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings among those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Secondary analysis of prospective data from the HIV-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study, a cohort of 400 adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Factors associated with AA/NA attendance were identified using the Anderson model for vulnerable populations. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with self-reported AA/NA attendance. At study entry, subjects were 75% male, 12% met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, 43% had drug dependence and 56% reported attending one or more AA/NA meetings (past 6 months). In the adjusted model, female gender negatively associated with attendance, as were social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs, while presence of HCV antibody, drug dependence diagnosis, and homelessness associated with higher odds of attendance. Non-substance abuse related barriers to AA/NA group attendance exist for those living with HIV/AIDS, including females and social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs. Positive associations of homelessness, HCV infection and current drug dependence were identified. These findings provide implications for policy makers and treatment professionals who wish to encourage attendance at 12-step meetings for those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or other substance use problems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CB decontamination for first responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.D.G.; Purdon, J.G.; Burczyk, A. [Defence Research and Development Canada Suffield, Ralston, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Universal Containment System (UCS) is designed to contain, mitigate and decontaminate chemical, biological and radiological warfare agents. The UCS consists of a lightweight, tent-like enclosure filled with a water-based surface decontaminating foam (SDF). The Canadian government funded a project to advance the understanding of the behaviour of the UCS. This paper described the success of the project as well as the technological advances in the UCS formulation and equipment. Vapour desorption experiments were conducted in which SDF was applied onto 12 surfaces found in a typical office environment. Both mustard and nerve agent were studied on the test surfaces. Both scrubbing and non-scrubbing decontamination methods were tested. SDF effectively decontaminated the non-porous substances, particularly when the scrubbing procedure was used. Results were more complicated for the non-porous samples. A dye added to the agent was useful for determining the fate of the agent. Liquid phase studies were conducted in which the reaction between SDF and various agents were studied in the liquid phase in order to estimate the rate of reaction, the stoichiometry and the reaction products formed. Both SDF and the commercial decontamination agent CASCAD were found to effectively kill 100 per cent of anthrax spores. The significance of this project to first responders was considerable. Changes to the formulation and equipment of UCS will increase its usefulness and safety. Users will also have a better knowledge of the amount of decontamination needed for complete effectiveness in specific situations. Recommendations have been made for use of the product on a range of indoor surfaces. Field trials have shown the blast mitigation and agent decontamination ability of the foam under explosive situations. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Drug use among complete responders, partial responders and non-responders in a longitudinal survey of nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Rasmussen, Lotte; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In observational studies, non-response can limit representativity and introduce bias. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in the number of used drugs among complete responders, partial responders, and non-responders in a whole birth cohort of Danish nonagenarians participati...

  8. Secure anonymous mutual authentication for star two-tier wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maged Hamada; Kumari, Saru; Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-10-01

    Mutual authentication is a very important service that must be established between sensor nodes in wireless body area network (WBAN) to ensure the originality and integrity of the patient's data sent by sensors distributed on different parts of the body. However, mutual authentication service is not enough. An adversary can benefit from monitoring the traffic and knowing which sensor is in transmission of patient's data. Observing the traffic (even without disclosing the context) and knowing its origin, it can reveal to the adversary information about the patient's medical conditions. Therefore, anonymity of the communicating sensors is an important service as well. Few works have been conducted in the area of mutual authentication among sensor nodes in WBAN. However, none of them has considered anonymity among body sensor nodes. Up to our knowledge, our protocol is the first attempt to consider this service in a two-tier WBAN. We propose a new secure protocol to realize anonymous mutual authentication and confidential transmission for star two-tier WBAN topology. The proposed protocol uses simple cryptographic primitives. We prove the security of the proposed protocol using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, and also through rigorous informal security analysis. In addition, to demonstrate the practicality of our protocol, we evaluate it using NS-2 simulator. BAN logic and informal security analysis prove that our proposed protocol achieves the necessary security requirements and goals of an authentication service. The simulation results show the impact on the various network parameters, such as end-to-end delay and throughput. The nodes in the network require to store few hundred bits. Nodes require to perform very few hash invocations, which are computationally very efficient. The communication cost of the proposed protocol is few hundred bits in one round of communication. Due to the low computation cost, the energy consumed by the nodes is

  9. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  10. 29 CFR 98.1000 - Respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Respondent. 98.1000 Section 98.1000 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a debarment or suspension action. ...

  11. Attitudes of medical students to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A B

    2002-05-01

    Unsafe abortion causes 13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Safe abortion can only be offered under conditions where legislation has been passed for legal termination of unwanted pregnancy. Where such legislation exists, accessibility of safe abortion depends on the attitudes of doctors and other healthcare workers to induced abortion. Medical students as future doctors may have attitudes to abortion that will affect the provision of safe abortion. Little is known about the attitudes of South African medical students to abortion. To assess sexual practices and attitudes of medical students to induced abortion and to determine some of the factors that may influence these attitudes. A cross-sectional analytic study involving the self-administration of an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to medical students at a small, but growing, medical school situated in rural South Africa. Demographic data, sexual practices and attitudes to induced abortion. Two hundred and forty seven out of 300 (82.3%) medical students responded. Their mean age was 21.81 +/- 3.36 (SD) years, and 78.8% were Christians, 17.1% Hindus and 2.6% Muslims. Although 95% of the respondents were single, 68.6% were already sexually experienced, and their mean age at coitarche was 17.24+/-3.14 (SD) years. Although overall 61.2% of the respondents felt abortion is murder either at conception or later, the majority (87.2%) would perform or refer a woman for abortion under certain circumstances. These circumstances, in descending order of frequency, include: threat to mother's life (74.1%), in case of rape (62.3%), the baby is severely malformed (59.5%), threat to mother's mental health (53.8%) and parental incompetence (21.0%). Only 12.5% of respondents would perform or refer for abortion on demand, 12.8% would neither perform nor refer for abortion under any circumstances. Religious affiliation and service attendance significantly influenced some of these attitudes and beliefs

  12. Dental Student Academic Integrity in U.S. Dental Schools: Current Status and Recommendations for Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.

  13. Your choice MATor(s) : large-scale quantitative anonymity assessment of Tor path selection algorithms against structural attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, Michael; Meiser, Sebastian; Slowik, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a rigorous methodology for quantifying the anonymity provided by Tor against a variety of structural attacks, i.e., adversaries that compromise Tor nodes and thereby perform eavesdropping attacks to deanonymize Tor users. First, we provide an algorithmic approach for computing the anonymity impact of such structural attacks against Tor. The algorithm is parametric in the considered path selection algorithm and is, hence, capable of reasoning about variants of Tor and...

  14. Are students prone to depression and suicidal thoughts? Assessment of the risk of depression in university students from rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojs, Ewa; Warchoł-Biedermann, Katarzyna; Głowacka, Maria Danuta; Strzelecki, Wojciech; Ziemska, Beata; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders in adolescents and young adults may have serious developmental and functional consequences, such as academic failure or persistent psychosocial problems. University students are affected by specific agents which may play a role in the onset of depression. The problem of student depression is particularly important in Poland because of a recent increase in student numbers, therefore, the aim of the presented study was to evaluate the prevalence of the risk of depression and suicidal thoughts among university students in Poznan, Poland, and to analyze the role of gender, current living arrangements, background (rural/small town or urban permanent place of residence), and reported financial status. 1,065 respondent students, mean age 21.1 years, 72% of whom were females, anonymously answered a questionnaire on the risk of depression (Kutcher's KADS) and a demographics survey. The obtained data were then analyzed statistically with the SPSS programme. 6.1 subjects were at risk of depression while 1.6 % of them had suicidal thoughts. Among analyzed determinants, perceived financial status and student's background (permanent place of residence) were found to have a statistically significant influence on the risk of depression. Students with rural/small town background and/or lower rather than good reported financial status are more likely to become depressed.

  15. School physics teacher class management, laboratory practice, student engagement, critical thinking, cooperative learning and use of simulations effects on student performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    The purpose of this study was to examine how simulations in physics class, class management, laboratory practice, student engagement, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and use of simulations predicted the percentage of students achieving a grade point average of B or higher and their academic performance as reported by teachers in secondary school physics classes. The target population consisted of secondary school physics teachers who were members of Science Technology, Engineeering and,Mathematics Teachers of New York City (STEMteachersNYC) and American Modeling Teachers Association (AMTA). They used simulations in their physics classes in the 2013 and 2014 school years. Subjects for this study were volunteers. A survey was constructed based on a literature review. Eighty-two physics teachers completed the survey about instructional practice in physics. All respondents were anonymous. Classroom management was the only predictor of the percent of students achieving a grade point average of B or higher in high school physics class. Cooperative learning, use of simulations, and student engagement were predictors of teacher's views of student academic performance in high school physics class. All other variables -- class management, laboratory practice, critical thinking, and teacher self-efficacy -- were not predictors of teacher's views of student academic performance in high school physics class. The implications of these findings were discussed and recommendations for physics teachers to improve student learning were presented.

  16. SAM: Secure Access of Media Independent Information Service with User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guangsong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seamless handover across different access technologies is very important in the future wireless networks. To optimize vertical handover in heterogeneous networks, IEEE 802.21 standard defines Media Independent Handover (MIH services. The MIH services can be a new target to attackers, which will be the main concern for equipment vendors and service providers. In this paper, we focus specifically on security of Media Independent Information Service (MIIS and present a new access authentication scheme with user anonymity for MIIS. The protocol can be used to establish a secure channel between the mobile node and the information server. Security and performance of the protocol are also analyzed in this paper.

  17. Proof-of-Work as Anonymous Micropayment: Rewarding a Tor Relay

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Alex; Pustogarov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new micropayments scheme which can be used to reward Tor relay operators. Tor clients do not pay Tor relays with electronic cash directly but submit proof of work shares which the relays can resubmit to a crypto-currency mining pool. Relays credit users who submit shares with tickets that can later be used to purchase improved service. Both shares and tickets when sent over Tor circuits are anonymous. The analysis of the crypto-currencies market prices shows that th...

  18. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Thorben Burghardt; Klemens Bohm; Achim Guttmann; Chris Clifton

    2011-01-01

    Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper stu...

  19. Applying Semigroup Property of Enhanced Chebyshev Polynomials to Anonymous Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply semigroup property of enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to present an anonymous authentication protocol. This paper aims at improving security and reducing computational and storage overhead. The proposed scheme not only has much lower computational complexity and cost in the initialization phase but also allows the users to choose their passwords freely. Moreover, it can provide revocation of lost or stolen smart card, which can resist man-in-the-middle attack and off-line dictionary attack together with various known attacks.

  20. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  1. An Improved Biometrics-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme with User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An’s scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An’s scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  2. Access, attitudes and training in information technologies and evidence-based medicine among medical students at University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parve, Swapnil; Ershadi, Ali; Karimov, Alexandr; Dougherty, Anne; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo E; Chidzonga, Midion M; Sadigh, Majid

    2016-09-01

    The Medical Education Partnership Initiative, has helped to mitigate the digital divide in Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the level of access, attitude, and training concerning meaningful use of electronic resources and EBM among medical students at an African medical school. The study involved medical students at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare. The needs assessment tool consisted of a 21-question, paper-based, voluntary and anonymous survey. A total of 61/67 (91%), responded to the survey. 60% of the medical students were 'third-year medical students'. Among medical students, 85% of responders had access to digital medical resources, but 54% still preferred printed medical textbooks. Although 25% of responders had received training in EBM, but only 7% found it adequate. 98% of the participants did not receive formal training in journal club presentation or analytical reading of medical literature, but 77 % of them showed interest in learning these skills. Lack of training in EBM, journal club presentation and analytical reading skills have limited the impact of upgraded technology in enhancing the level of knowledge. This impact can be boosted by developing a curriculum with skills necessary in using EBM.

  3. [Study on the school-related-factors of attempted suicide among rural middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiu-Ya; Tao, Fang-Biao; Hao, Jia-Hu; Xu, Shao-Jun; Su, Pu-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine possible relationship between attempted suicide and underachievement, bullying, low life satisfaction and low self-concept at school. An anonymous self-report survey assessing demographic characteristics and the major risk factors of teenage attempted suicide was completed by students from 16 middle schools in grades seven to twelve in 4 counties of Anhui province (age 10 to 21 years). An anonymous questionnaire was used to rate attempted suicide, bullying involvement and learning performance. Attempted suicide was defined as: experiencing specific suicide actions at least one time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale and Children' s Self-concept Scale were used to evaluate satisfaction and self-conscience on and at respectively. In total, 10 894 respondents substantially completed the survey. Multiple logistic-regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic variables, was used to analyze if underachievement, bullying, low school life satisfaction and low children' s self-conscience at school had been risk factors. 629 participants (5.8%) reported having made at least one attempted suicide within the last 12 months. Students being underachieved were significantly having more attempted suicide events than those excellent students (chi2 = 11.39, P = 0.023). Students being both bully-victims and practiced bully were significantly more than those being only practiced bully (28.7% vs. 15.8% , P bullying, lower school life satisfaction and low self conscience were risk factors for attempted suicide. Data from this study confirmed that school bullying and children' s self-conscience at school were significantly associated with attempted suicide among rural middle school students in Anhui province. It is of importance to improve the school' s environments to reduce the risk of attempted suicide among this group.

  4. Differences in change in coping styles between good responders, moderate responders and non-responders to pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilkova-Hartmann, Ana; Janssen, Daisy J A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise tolerance and health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data on the effects of PR on coping styles are limited. Aim of the present study was to compare changes in coping styles between patients who had a good, moderate and no improvement in either exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Coping styles of 439 COPD patients undergoing PR were assessed by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) at baseline and after PR. Patients' pulmonary function, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D) were recorded. Good, moderate and non-responders were defined on the basis of minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for SGRQ total score and/or 6MWD. Overall, 54.0% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for good responders, while 22.1% were moderate responders. Change in passive reaction pattern coping style differed significantly between good responders and non-responders following PR (p styles after PR occurred among the good responders, whereas the majority of moderate responders' and non-responders' coping styles were not significantly influenced by PR. Good responders decreased their passive reaction pattern coping style in contrast to non-responders after PR. In general, PR did not change the coping among moderate and non-responders. Further research is warranted to determine whether including interventions targeting coping styles may modify coping behaviour of COPD patients, as well as improvement in exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Secure and Anonymous Two-Factor Authentication Protocol in Multiserver Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the great development of network technology, the multiserver system gets widely used in providing various of services. And the two-factor authentication protocols in multiserver system attract more and more attention. Recently, there are two new schemes for multiserver environment which claimed to be secure against the known attacks. However, after a scrutinization of these two schemes, we found that (1 their description of the adversary’s abilities is inaccurate; (2 their schemes suffer from many attacks. Thus, firstly, we corrected their description on the adversary capacities to introduce a widely accepted adversary model and then summarized fourteen security requirements of multiserver based on the works of pioneer contributors. Secondly, we revealed that one of the two schemes fails to preserve forward secrecy and user anonymity and cannot resist stolen-verifier attack and off-line dictionary attack and so forth and also demonstrated that another scheme fails to preserve forward secrecy and user anonymity and is not secure to insider attack and off-line dictionary attack, and so forth. Finally, we designed an enhanced scheme to overcome these identified weaknesses, proved its security via BAN logic and heuristic analysis, and then compared it with other relevant schemes. The comparison results showed the superiority of our scheme.

  6. CRYPTOGRAPHIC SECURE CLOUD STORAGE MODEL WITH ANONYMOUS AUTHENTICATION AND AUTOMATIC FILE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmiya Murthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure cloud storage model that addresses security and storage issues for cloud computing environments. Security is achieved by anonymous authentication which ensures that cloud users remain anonymous while getting duly authenticated. For achieving this goal, we propose a digital signature based authentication scheme with a decentralized architecture for distributed key management with multiple Key Distribution Centers. Homomorphic encryption scheme using Paillier public key cryptosystem is used for encrypting the data that is stored in the cloud. We incorporate a query driven approach for validating the access policies defined by an individual user for his/her data i.e. the access is granted to a requester only if his credentials matches with the hidden access policy. Further, since data is vulnerable to losses or damages due to the vagaries of the network, we propose an automatic retrieval mechanism where lost data is recovered by data replication and file replacement with string matching algorithm. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposed model.

  7. Moves on the Street: Classifying Crime Hotspots Using Aggregated Anonymized Data on People Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month.

  8. RSEQtools: a modular framework to analyze RNA-Seq data using compact, anonymized data summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Lukas; Sboner, Andrea; Gianoulis, Tara A; Rozowsky, Joel; Agarwal, Ashish; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2011-01-15

    The advent of next-generation sequencing for functional genomics has given rise to quantities of sequence information that are often so large that they are difficult to handle. Moreover, sequence reads from a specific individual can contain sufficient information to potentially identify and genetically characterize that person, raising privacy concerns. In order to address these issues, we have developed the Mapped Read Format (MRF), a compact data summary format for both short and long read alignments that enables the anonymization of confidential sequence information, while allowing one to still carry out many functional genomics studies. We have developed a suite of tools (RSEQtools) that use this format for the analysis of RNA-Seq experiments. These tools consist of a set of modules that perform common tasks such as calculating gene expression values, generating signal tracks of mapped reads and segmenting that signal into actively transcribed regions. Moreover, the tools can readily be used to build customizable RNA-Seq workflows. In addition to the anonymization afforded by MRF, this format also facilitates the decoupling of the alignment of reads from downstream analyses. RSEQtools is implemented in C and the source code is available at http://rseqtools.gersteinlab.org/.

  9. A lightweight and secure two factor anonymous authentication protocol for Global Mobility Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Global Mobility Networks(GLOMONETs) in wireless communication permits the global roaming services that enable a user to leverage the mobile services in any foreign country. Technological growth in wireless communication is also accompanied by new security threats and challenges. A threat-proof authentication protocol in wireless communication may overcome the security flaws by allowing only legitimate users to access a particular service. Recently, Lee et al. found Mun et al. scheme vulnerable to different attacks and proposed an advanced secure scheme to overcome the security flaws. However, this article points out that Lee et al. scheme lacks user anonymity, inefficient user authentication, vulnerable to replay and DoS attacks and Lack of local password verification. Furthermore, this article presents a more robust anonymous authentication scheme to handle the threats and challenges found in Lee et al.’s protocol. The proposed protocol is formally verified with an automated tool(ProVerif). The proposed protocol has superior efficiency in comparison to the existing protocols. PMID:29702675

  10. A robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fengtong

    2013-12-01

    User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In a recent paper, Das et al. proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. This scheme uses three factors, e.g. biometrics, password, and smart card, to protect the security. It protects user privacy and is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das et al.'s scheme, and show that the scheme is in fact insecure against the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks. Then, we also propose a robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. Compared with the existing schemes, our protocol uses a different user authentication mechanism to resist replay attack. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security than previous protocols. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme through the BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic.

  11. Senior medical students' awareness of radiation risks from common diagnostic imaging examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Elena; Mayo, John; Nicolaou, Savvas; Kozoriz, Michael; Chang, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Senior medical students represent future physicians who commonly refer patients for diagnostic imaging studies that may involve ionizing radiation. The radiology curriculum at the University of British Columbia provides students with broad-based knowledge about common imaging examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' awareness of radiation exposures and risks. An anonymous multiple-choice cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students to assess knowledge of radiation from common diagnostic examinations and radiation-related risks following completion of the longitudinal radiology curriculum, carried out over the four years of medical training. Sixty-three of 192 eligible students participated (33% response rate). The majority felt that knowledge of radiation doses of common imaging examinations is somewhat or very important; however, only 12% (N = 8) routinely discuss radiation-related risks with patients. While all respondents recognized children as most sensitive to the effects of radiation, only 24% (N = 15) correctly identified gonads as the most radiation-sensitive tissue. Almost all respondents recognized ultrasound and MRI as radiation free modalities. Respondents who correctly identified the relative dose of common imaging examinations in chest x-ray equivalents varied from 3-77% (N = 2 - 49); the remaining responses were largely underestimates. Finally, 44% (N = 28) correctly identified the excess risk of a fatal cancer from an abdominal CT in an adult, while the remainder underestimated this risk. Medical students acknowledge the importance of radiation-related issues to patient care. While almost all students are familiar with radiation-free modalities, many are not familiar with, and commonly underestimate, the relative doses and risks of common imaging studies. This may expose patients to increasing imaging investigations and exposure to radiation hazards.

  12. Prevalence of stress in Casablanca medical students: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Loubir, Dalal; Serhier, Zeineb; Diouny, Samir; Battas, Omar; Agoub, Mohamed; Othmani, Mohammed Bennani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recently, an important literature data has reported that medical students experience stress more than students in other disciplines. In contrast, there is a significant shortage of the stress impact on the academic performance. The primary purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of stress among Casablanca Medical students and to investigate if there is an association between stress and academic skills. Methods A total of 275 participants studying at Casablanca Medical School were included. The study was conducted using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, which included four subscales on academic skills perception (Academic competence, Test competence, Time management and Strategic study habits) and a Test Anxiety scale to assess the degree of stress related to exams among medical students. Results The overall findings showed that 52.7% of respondents were stressed by examinations, and the highest stress prevalence was among the fifth-year medical students. Measures of comparative stress degrees between male and female students did not show any statistical significant differences (p=0.34). Correlation analysis revealed negative association between stress and academic competence (-0.394), test competence (-0.426), time management (-0.240), strategic study (-0.183) respectively (peducators and psychologists have to increase clinical awareness of stress among medical students, by establishing strategies for stress management. PMID:25767668

  13. Defense Technology Opportunities for First Responders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Rodney; Bedard, Louis; Derrah, Scott; Boucher, Robert

    2004-01-01

    For this study, the US and Canadian governments assessed the potential for technology transfer of five technologies, which were developed to meet military requirements, to civilian first responders...

  14. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-08-11

    Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5\\/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  15. Low uptake of influenza vaccine among university students: evaluating predictors beyond cost and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Chu, Samantha L; Sickler, Heather; Shaw, Jana; Nadeau, Jessica A; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2015-03-30

    Annual influenza vaccine coverage for young adults (including college students) remains low, despite a 2011 US recommendation for annual immunization of all people 6 months and older. College students are at high risk for influenza morbidity given close living and social spaces and extended travel during semester breaks when influenza circulation typically increases. We evaluated influenza vaccine uptake following an on-campus vaccine campaign at a large, public New York State university. Consecutive students visiting the University Health Center were recruited for a self-administered, anonymous, written survey. Students were asked about recent influenza vaccination, barriers to influenza vaccination, and willingness to get vaccinated to protect other vulnerable individuals they may encounter. Frequencies and proportions were evaluated. Of 653 students approached, 600 completed surveys (92% response proportion); respondents were primarily female (61%) and non-Hispanic white (59%). Influenza vaccine coverage was low (28%). Compared to coverage among non-Hispanic white students (30%), coverage was similar among Hispanic (30%) and other race/ethnicity students (28%) and lowest among non-Hispanic black students (17%). Among the unvaccinated, the most commonly selected vaccination barriers were "Too lazy to get the vaccine" (32%) and "Don't need the vaccine because I'm healthy" (29%); 6% of unvaccinated students cited cost as a barrier. After being informed that influenza vaccination of young, healthy people can protect other vulnerable individuals (e.g., infants, elderly), 71% of unvaccinated students indicated this would increase their willingness to get vaccinated. Influenza vaccine uptake among college students is very low. While making vaccine easily obtained may increase vaccine uptake, college students need to be motivated to get vaccinated. Typically healthy students may not perceive a need for influenza vaccine. Education about vaccinating healthy individuals

  16. Sexual orientation and sexual risk behaviors among male students of a university in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureerut, Rongruang; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Duangmala, Padoongyot

    2013-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexual orientation, identify predictors of being homosexual or bisexual (HB), and assess the association of sexual orientation with sexual risk behaviors among university male students in southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted on third year male university students between June 2008 and February 2009 using anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Among 1,101 eligible students, 1,013 (92%) responded The prevalence of heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality among respondents were 90.2%, 6.7%, and 3.1%, respectively giving a prevalence of HB of 9.8%. Significant factors predicting HB included having separated parents. Overall lifetime prevalence of men having sex with men (MSM) was 6.3% (2% in heterosexual males and 46.5% among HB males). HB males were more likely to have multiple sex partners and engage in group sex, and less likely to use condoms than were heterosexual males. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among these male students, especially HB, was high.

  17. Students come to medical schools prepared to cheat: a multi-campus investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolja Taradi, Sunčana; Taradi, Milan; Knežević, Tin; Đogaš, Zoran

    2010-11-01

    To investigate high school cheating experiences and attitudes towards academic misconduct of freshmen at all four medical schools in Croatia, as a post-communist country in transition, with intention of raising awareness of academic (dis)honesty. Students were given an anonymous questionnaire containing 22 questions on the atmosphere of integrity at their high school, self-reported educational dishonesty, their evaluation of cheating behaviour, and on their expectations about the atmosphere of integrity at their university. All schools of medicine of Croatian universities (Zagreb, Rijeka, Split and Osijek). Descriptive statistics and differences in students' self-reported educational dishonesty, perception of cheating behaviour, and perception of the high school integrity atmosphere. Of the 761 freshmen attending the four medical schools, 508 (67%) completed the questionnaire: 481 Croatian and 27 international students. Of the Croatian respondents, almost all (>99%) self-reported engaging in at least one behaviour of educational dishonesty, and 78% of respondents admitted to having frequently cheated in at least one form of assessed academic misconduct. Only three students admitted to having reported another student for cheating. For most of the questions, there was no significant difference in the responses among Croatian students. However, significant differences were found in most responses between Croatian students and their international counterparts, who were significantly less likely to engage in dishonest behaviours. No individual factor was found to correlate with the incidence of self-admitted dishonest behaviour. Frequent cheaters evaluated academic dishonesty significantly more leniently than those who did not cheat. Academic dishonesty of university students does not begin in higher education; students come to medical schools ready to cheat.

  18. METAL DELM - metal avrelianis contribution to the study of mining coins and anonymous quadrantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvoda Mirjana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of rescue archaeological investigations at the Viminacium necropolis of Vi{e Grobalja in 1984, one anonymous quadrans of the VIII Apollo group was discovered (cat. 1. It was discovered in trench 63 in the immediate vicinity of a grave with an inhumation (G 343 that, besides two pottery vessels, also yielded as grave offerings one as of Faustina the Elder, minted after her death, in AD 141. Other finds presented here are four specimens of Roman mining coins from the private collection of Petar Fajfri} from [abac (cat. 2-5. All specimens come from the well known site of Duge Njive in the area of the village of Banatsko Polje (Bogati} borough where, by all appearances, are the remains of a vicus or smaller settlement. Five specimens of mining coins from that site have already been published. Both mining coins and anonymous quadrantes represent, in general, rare types of numismatic finds. Nine anonymous quadrantes are known so far from the territory of Serbia (Table 1 and the provenance is known for three specimens from the region of Guberevac-Babe (Kosmaj, housed in the National Museum in Belgrade. All three belong to the Minerva group with an owl facing to the right represented on the reverse. For two more anonymous quadrantes the place of discovery is known: one specimen comes from Singidunum and belongs to the Mercury group and the other that was found at Viminacium and is the subject of this paper is of the Apollo group. There are four more specimens from unknown sites for which it is assumed that they come from the Upper Moesia territory. Two of them are from the Vajfert collection and two from the Kovačević collection in the National Museum in Belgrade, There has, however, been a somewhat greater number (38 of Roman mining coins discovered in Serbia (Table 1. We know the finding locations of 25 of them: from the Kosmaj area (Babe, Guberevac and Stojnik, the Ibar valley (from the vicinity of Trepča and So~anica, Ritopek

  19. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  20. Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of live…

  1. Resilience among first responders | Pietrantoni | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine hundred and sixty-one first responders filled out an on-line questionnaire, containing measure of sense of community, collective efficacy, self-efficacy and work-related mental health outcomes (compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction). Results. First responders reported high level of compassion ...

  2. Mobile-Only Web Survey Respondents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824658; Toepoel, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304576034; amin, alerk

    2016-01-01

    Web surveys are no longer completed on just a desktop or laptop computer. Respondents increasingly use mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones to complete web surveys. In this article, we study how respondents in the American Life Panel complete surveys using varying devices. We show that

  3. 7 CFR 3017.1000 - Respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respondent. 3017.1000 Section 3017.1000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.1000 Respondent...

  4. Anonymous sex and HIV risk practices among men using the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H

    2012-06-01

    To examine the popularity of anonymous sex practices among men using the Internet to find male partners for unprotected sex, and how anonymous sex relates to involvement in other HIV-related risk behaviours, and to investigate the factors associated with engaging in anonymous sex. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with men who used the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex. Random sampling from 16 websites was used to obtain a national sample. The data reported in this paper were based on quantitative interviews collected with a cross-sectional study design. Between January 2008 and May 2009, confidential telephone interviews lasting approximately 1-2 h were completed with 332 men. Participants were paid $35 for their participation. Most of the men (67.4%) liked anonymous sex, and slightly more than half (51.2%) had engaged in the behaviour during the month prior to interview. Involvement in anonymous sex was associated with greater involvement in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk practices, such as illegal drug use, number of sex partners, and amount of unprotected sex. Four factors were associated with having vs not having anonymous sex: (1) being HIV positive; (2) answering all of the HIV-related knowledge questions correctly; (3) deriving greater enjoyment from having sex in public places, such as parks, public toilets, or adult book shops; and (4) greater impulsivity. Seven factors were associated with greater vs lesser involvement in anonymous sex among those practising the behaviour: (1) being involved in a relationship with a long-term partner; (2) liking to have sex in public places; (3) using bareback-oriented websites to identify sex partners; (4) greater impulsivity; (5) low level of condom use self-efficacy; (6) greater knowledge about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; and either (7a) severe childhood maltreatment or (7b) Caucasian race. Men in this population often sought

  5. Responding to Observation: How Student Teachers´ Use of their Counselor´s Notes Support their Preparation Respondiendo a la observación: Cómo apoya la preparación de los estudiantes-maestros el uso de las notas del profesor consejero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Viáfara González

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Several practices for teacher preparation remain as essential today as they have been for decades. Among them, observation of lessons continues to be highly popular to support and evaluate student teachers´ learning processes. The following pages deal with an experience in which observation was given an alternative perspective in the preparation of future teachers. Sixteen student teachers who constantly responded to their counselor´s observation notes participated in the study. Exploring the participants´ feelings about their counselor´s notes and the nature of their responses to those records were the objectives of the study. At the end, a magnifying glass, a puzzle, a book and a map emerged as valuable metaphors to explain student teachers´ use of this preparation tool.Algunas prácticas para la preparación de profesores continúan siendo tan esenciales hoy en día como lo han sido por décadas. Entre éstas, la observación de clases goza de gran popularidad para apoyar y evaluar el proceso de futuros profesores. Las siguientes páginas relatan una experiencia en la cual la observación adquirió un perfil alternativo en la preparación de los futuros docentes. Dieciséis practicantes, quienes constantemente respondieron a las notas de observación, participaron en el estudio tendiente a explorar sus opiniones respecto a las notas del tutor y la naturaleza de sus respuestas a estos registros. Al final, una lupa, un rompecabezas, un libro y un mapa surgieron como metáforas significativas para explicar el uso que los practicantes hicieron de esta herramienta en su preparación.

  6. Anonymity versus privacy in the dictator game: revealing donor decisions to recipients does not substantially impact donor behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Winking

    Full Text Available Anonymity is often offered in economic experiments in order to eliminate observer effects and induce behavior that would be exhibited under private circumstances. However, anonymity differs from privacy in that interactants are only unaware of each others' identities, while having full knowledge of each others' actions. Such situations are rare outside the laboratory and anonymity might not meet the requirements of some participants to psychologically engage as if their actions were private. In order to explore the impact of a lack of privacy on prosocial behaviors, I expand on a study reported in Dana et al. (2006 in which recipients were left unaware of the Dictator Game and given donations as "bonuses" to their show-up fees for other tasks. In the current study, I explore whether differences between a private Dictator Game (sensu Dana et al. (2006 and a standard anonymous one are due to a desire by dictators to avoid shame or to pursue prestige. Participants of a Dictator Game were randomly assigned to one of four categories-one in which the recipient knew of (1 any donation by an anonymous donor (including zero donations, (2 nothing at all, (3 only zero donations, and (4 and only non-zero donations. The results suggest that a lack of privacy increases the shame that selfish-acting participants experience, but that removing such a cost has only minimal effects on actual behavior.

  7. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required

  8. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  9. Who am I? ~ Undergraduate Computer Science Student

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Jane

    2012-01-01

    As part of a school review process a survey of the students was designed to gain insight into who the students of the school were. The survey was a voluntary anonymous online survey. Students were able to skip questions and select more than one option in some questions. This was to reduce frustration with participation in the survey and ensure that the survey was completed. This conference details the average undergraduate Computer Science student of a large third level institute.

  10. Inseminação artificial e anonimato do doador Artificial insemination and donor anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Demasi Wanssa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Através desse trabalho, objetiva-se abordar o tema de doação de gametas e do anonimato envolvendo este ato na reprodução medicamente assistida. Analisando rapidamente o caráter técnico da doação e seleção dos gametas e a necessidade de uma legislação específica sobre o assunto nos diferentes países do mundo que adotaram esse método, diante da pluralidade social existente. Consideram-se os aspectos éticos e legais vigentes no Brasil ditados pela Resolução do Conselho Federal de Medicina n° 1.358/93 que determina as condutas dos médicos brasileiros e define, dentre outros aspectos, o da doação e do anonimato, envolvendo o aspecto autonomia. A necessidade de proteção dos sujeitos através do termo de consentimento informado ou de recusa informada, permitindo garantir a informação e esclarecimento necessário ao casal que decide submeter-se aos planos de reprodução medicamente assistida assim como ao doador que, por sua vez, também deve dar garantias escritas quanto à espontaneidade e à alienação dos direitos sobre os gametas à instituição que se torna a responsável por estes. Tudo isso, aliado à veracidade e confidencialidade, compõe os elementos fundamentais para a manutenção do anonimato entre o doador e o receptor. Anonimato este, ainda muito discutido pelos estudiosos de diversas áreas e países.This article aims to address the issue of the donation of gametes and the anonymity involved in this act of medically-assisted reproduction. It briefly discusses the technical aspects of the donation and selection of gametes and the need for specific legislation on the issue in various countries that have adopted this method, in view of the plurality of different social systems in the world today. The article addresses the legal and ethical issues that are currently being aired in Brazil, and the rulings contained in the Federal Medical Council Resolution 1,358/93, which rules on the conduct of physicians in

  11. Finding erotic oases: locating the sites of men's same-sex anonymous sexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Because anonymous sexual relations between two men are widely considered deviant many men seeking such activities look to erotic oases-natural environments appropriated for covert, often furtive sexual purposes. Previous research on erotic oases has focused on characteristics of involved men and processes of locating, negotiating with, and consummating sexual relations with others. This study draws on one major Web site listing of "cruising places" in the United States to identify common locations for erotic oases. Results show that the most common locations identified as erotic oases by users are public parks, adult bookstores, health clubs, and college campuses. Locations most likely to be listed as believed to be under law enforcement surveillance are outdoor, high traffic locations. Based on these results existing research has only begun to examine the most common locations for this highly stigmatized, deviant behavior and subculture.

  12. Maintaining confidentiality in prospective studies: anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Wasserman, Camilla; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Wasserman, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    Respecting and protecting the confidentiality of data and the privacy of individuals regarding the information that they have given as participants in a research project is a cornerstone of complying with accepted research standards. However, in longitudinal studies, establishing and maintaining privacy is often challenging because of the necessity of repeated contact with participants. A novel internet-based solution is introduced here, which maintains privacy while at the same time ensures linkage of data to individual participants in a repeated measures design. With the use of the anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure, two separate one-way communication systems are established through ad hoc email accounts and a secure study website. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  13. A Clustering K-Anonymity Privacy-Preserving Method for Wearable IoT Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wearable technology is one of the greatest applications of the Internet of Things. The popularity of wearable devices has led to a massive scale of personal (user-specific data. Generally, data holders (manufacturers of wearable devices are willing to share these data with others to get benefits. However, significant privacy concerns would arise when sharing the data with the third party in an improper manner. In this paper, we first propose a specific threat model about the data sharing process of wearable devices’ data. Then we propose a K-anonymity method based on clustering to preserve privacy of wearable IoT devices’ data and guarantee the usability of the collected data. Experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Finding God through the Spirituality of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sandoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 12 Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous has provided relief for individuals recovering from alcoholism for over 75 years. The key to the recovery process is a spiritual experience as the result of practicing the daily discipline of the 12 Steps, a process which evokes a psychic change sufficient to recover from this disease. Although a relatively new spiritual discipline, the 12 Step program is built upon a foundation of much older and more traditional paths to God including devotion, understanding, service and meditation. Recent research provides insights into the 12 Step program. Specifically, the path of recovery is highlighted by the reduction of resentment and the promotion of forgiveness which are key factors of recovery.

  15. Improvement of a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Wenhao; Wang, Shengbao; Han, Lidong; Hu, Bin; Wu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Patient's privacy-preserving, security and mutual authentication between patient and the medical server are the important mechanism in connected health care applications, such as telecare medical information systems and personally controlled health records systems. In 2013, Wen showed that Das et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme using biometrics, password and smart card to overcome these weaknesses. However, we show that Wen's scheme is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks, does not provide user's anonymity and perfect forward secrecy. Further, we propose an improved scheme to fix these weaknesses, and use the applied pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove the security and authentication.

  16. Quality of life changes in an alcoholics anonymous self-help group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INDRĖ DIRGĖLIENĖ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of alcohol addiction is one of the most pressing in contemporary society as it causes an effect in the context of poverty, violence and suicidal behaviour. After the restoration of Lithuania‘s Independence a new helping profession such as social worker appeared: they were expected to provide professional help to people in order to help them find inner motivation for positive socialization or re-socialization. The issue of alcohol addiction/dependence was first viewed systemically, with the understanding of the need for systemic help: social, psychological, spiritual and medical. Long-term rehabilitation centres have been created and self-help groups formed: those of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA, Al-anon (self – help groups for friends and families who have relatives suffering from alcohol and ACA (Adult Children of Alcoholics self-help group. The article analyzes the quality of life changes in an Alcoholics Anonymous self-help group. Qualitative survey data are presented in this article. Six life stories of people attending Alcoholics Anonymous (AA self-help groups are provided. The age of the participants ranges from 31 to 58. The main criterion to participate in the research is: people who have or have had problems because of alcohol usage and who are Alcoholics Anonymous self-help group (AA participants that have reached Step 12. This means they are ready to spread the message about recovering from this abuse to people who suffer from it. Deep analysis interview has been used to collect the data. Interview notional blocks are: 1 childhood experiences; 2 addiction to alcohol period and crisis; 3 changes of life quality when attending AA groups. The study data have been provided using content analysis through the deduction method. The theoretical basis is a systematic approach to a person in the course of his life‘ spiritual concepts and stages of recovery (May, 2004; Linn, Linn, 2003; Kubler-Ross, 2008 and the theory of integrated

  17. Improving an Anonymous and Provably Secure Authentication Protocol for a Mobile User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently many authentication protocols using an extended chaotic map were suggested for a mobile user. Many researchers demonstrated that authentication protocol needs to provide key agreement, mutual authentication, and user anonymity between mobile user and server and resilience to many possible attacks. In this paper, we cautiously analyzed chaotic-map-based authentication scheme and proved that it is still insecure to off-line identity guessing, user and server impersonation, and on-line identity guessing attacks. To address these vulnerabilities, we proposed an improved protocol based on an extended chaotic map and a fuzzy extractor. We proved the security of the proposed protocol using a random oracle and AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool. Furthermore, we present an informal security analysis to make sure that the improved protocol is invulnerable to possible attacks. The proposed protocol is also computationally efficient when compared to other previous protocols.

  18. Effects of Cultural Orientation on Attitude Toward Anonymity in E-Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yingqin; Liu, Na; Lim, John

    The important role of attitude in the acceptance and diffusion of technology has been widely acknowledged. Greater research efforts have been called for examining the relationships between cultural variables and attitude toward technology. In this regard, this study investigates the impact of cultural orientation (focusing on an individual's degree of collectivism) on attitude toward e-collaboration technology. A theoretical model is proposed and subsequently tested using a questionnaire survey involving 236 data points. Self-reliance, competitive success, and group work orientation are found as significant indicators reflecting an individual's degree of collectivism, which in turn influences willingness to participate, evaluation of collaborative effort, and preference for anonymity feature. Subsequently, the three variables are found to affect perceptions about decision quality, enjoyment, uncertainty, and pressure in e-collaboration.

  19. Airplane pilot mental health and suicidal thoughts: a cross-sectional descriptive study via anonymous web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alexander C; Donnelly-McLay, Deborah; Weisskopf, Marc G; McNeely, Eileen; Betancourt, Theresa S; Allen, Joseph G

    2016-12-15

    The Germanwings Flight 9525 crash has brought the sensitive subject of airline pilot mental health to the forefront in aviation. Globally, 350 million people suffer from depression-a common mental disorder. This study provides further information on this important topic regarding mental health especially among female airline pilots. This is the first study to describe airline pilot mental health-with a focus on depression and suicidal thoughts-outside of the information derived from aircraft accident investigations, regulated health examinations, or identifiable self-reports, which are records protected by civil aviation authorities and airline companies. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study via an anonymous web-based survey administered between April and December 2015. Pilots were recruited from unions, airline companies, and airports via convenience sampling. Data analysis included calculating absolute number and prevalence of health characteristics and depression scores. One thousand eight hundred thirty seven (52.7%) of the 3485 surveyed pilots completed the survey, with 1866 (53.5%) completing at least half of the survey. 233 (12.6%) of 1848 airline pilots responding to the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), and 193 (13.5%) of 1430 pilots who reported working as an airline pilot in the last seven days at time of survey, met depression threshold-PHQ-9 total score ≥ 10. Seventy-five participants (4.1%) reported having suicidal thoughts within the past two weeks. We found a significant trend in proportions of depression at higher levels of use of sleep-aid medication (trend test z = 6.74, p sexual harassment (z = 3.18, p = 0.001) or verbal harassment (z = 6.13, p < 0.001). Hundreds of pilots currently flying are managing depressive symptoms perhaps without the possibility of treatment due to the fear of negative career impacts. This study found 233 (12.6%) airline pilots meeting depression threshold and 75 (4.1%) pilots

  20. Domestic violence in a UK abortion clinic: anonymous cross-sectional prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Silvia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Bewley, Susan

    2015-04-01

    To measure the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) experienced by women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) in a UK abortion clinic. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all women aged over 16 years accessing a TOP clinic in inner London between 20 May 2012 and 2 July 2012. The main outcome measures were: distribution of questionnaires, response rate, lifetime prevalence of abuse, past-year prevalence of physical and sexual abuse, prevalence of physical abuse during current pregnancy, relationship of lifetime abuse to number of terminations, and receptivity to DV services. Questionnaires were distributed to 46% (383/828) of women accessing the clinic. Response rate was 50% (190/383). Lifetime prevalence of abuse was 16%. Past-year prevalence of physical abuse was 11% and sexual abuse was 4%. Prevalence of physical abuse during the current pregnancy was 4%. Prevalence of lifetime abuse was lower in women having a first termination (12%) versus one (20%) or two or more previous terminations (24%), although this was not statistically significant (p=0.192). The majority (75%) of participants expressing an opinion on the possibility of having a support service for DV in the abortion clinic setting were positive, unrelated to their personal experience, but some concerns were raised about implementation. In order to provide effective support for women, services require a needs assessment of their local population. Asking women presenting for abortion about DV, even anonymously, is challenging but feasible. Future work should be directed to women's unmet safety needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E

    2015-07-02

    Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also

  2. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  3. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  4. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  5. ATTITUDE AND KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ON PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FORENSIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored medical students’ knowledge and attitude on the medico - legal autopsy demonstrations which formed part of their training in Forensic Medicine. 300 students of 2010, 2011 and 2012 batch of college were obtained by asking them to answer a questionnaire on the subject. The students were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire which dealt with their views on the autopsy practice, the knowledge of the procedure, attitude and perception towards medico legal autopsy. In present study majority of the students were aware of the situations where medico legal postmortem examination is mandatory as per Indian law and taking out of viscera for chemical analysis and histo - pathological examination for the purpose of medico - legal autopsy. 96% of the students agreed that autopsy is necessary in medical education. 37.95% of the students were very uncomfortable on the first exposure to postmortem examination. This study showed that medical students appreciate the medico - legal autopsy demonstration as a learning experience.

  6. Social media, cyber-aggression and student mental health on a university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishna, Faye; Regehr, Cheryl; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Daciuk, Joanne; Fearing, Gwendolyn; Van Wert, Melissa

    2018-02-15

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer immense benefits for university students including enhancing engagement and connections with others and promoting self-directed and interactive learning. Perceived anonymity and the absence of social cues, however, may contribute to risk of interpersonal aggression. While extensive research examines bullying in child and adolescent educational settings, this study addresses a gap regarding post-secondary environments. An internet-based survey was provided to 5004 university students to examine the nature, extent and consequences of cyber-aggression. The survey received a response from 1350 students, a response rate of 28.5%. To enable further exploration, nine focus groups and eight individual interviews were conducted. This exploratory study found one quarter of respondents had a private video or photo shared without their permission and 28% were sent angry, vulgar, threatening or intimating messages. Perpetrators were most likely to be a friend (50%), another student (20%) or an intimate partner (18%). Focus group data revealed risks of ICTs and the need for resources and support to address students' wellbeing in the context of cyber-aggression. Cyber-aggression is experienced by a significant minority of university students, impacting their sense of wellbeing and mental health.

  7. Social media in health professional education: a student perspective on user levels and prospective applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Moss, Alan; Ilic, Dragan

    2014-12-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) have seen exponential growth in recent years. The high utilisation of SNS by tertiary students makes them an attractive tool for educational institutions. This study aims to identify health professional students' use and behaviours with SNS, including students' perspectives on potential applications within health professional curricula. Students enrolled in an undergraduate physiotherapy program were invited to take part in an anonymous, online questionnaire at the end of 2012. The survey consisted of 20 items, gathering demographic data, information on current use of SNS, and opinions regarding the application of SNS into education. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered. A total of 142 students, from all years of study, completed the online questionnaire. Only two participants were not current users of social media. Facebook and YouTube had been utilised for educational purposes by 97 and 60 % of participants respectively; 85 % believed that SNS could benefit their learning experience. Only five respondents were not interested in following peers, academic staff, clinicians or professional associations on Facebook. Four key themes emerged: peer collaboration, need for separation between personal and professional realms, complimentary learning and enhanced communication. Students wish to make educational connections via SNS, yet expressed a strong desire to maintain privacy, and a distinction between personal and professional lives. Educational utilisation of SNS may improve communication speed and accessibility. Any educator involvement should be viewed with caution.

  8. Attitude toward living kidney donation: differences between students from two Spanish universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Gómez-Laguna, J; Quereda, J J; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Mrowiec, A; Mendonça, L; López-Navas, A; Ríos, A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was to analyze the attitude of Spanish veterinary students toward LKRD because they may influence public opinion in the future, and to determine the factors that condition it. The study was carried out among fifth-year veterinary science students from 2 southern and southeastern Spanish universities. The students' attitude toward LKRD was assessed using a psychosocial, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Statistics used were χ(2) test and Student t test. Data from the southern Spain university included a response rate of 87%. The survey showed that 94% of respondents would donate a kidney to a relative who needed it. This attitude toward LKRD was more favorable in women (P attitude was not associated with any psychosocial variables. However, only 58% would accept a kidney from a relative. There are no differences between the 2 universities (P = .879). Although the attitude of veterinary students from southern and southeastern Spain toward LKRD was very favorable and there are no differences between them, only 58% of the students would accept an organ from a relative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the introduction of anonymous delivery associated with a reduction of high neonaticide rates in Austria? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, C M; Grylli, C; Amon, S; Fiala, C; Weizmann-Henelius, G; Pruitt, S L; Putkonen, H

    2013-03-01

    To assess rates of neonaticide after the implementation of a preventative 'anonymous delivery' law in mid-2001 in Austria. Women are allowed to access antenatal care and give birth in a hospital anonymously, without showing any ID and free of charge. Retrospective study. A complete census of police-reported neonaticides was obtained from the police statistics of Austria, Sweden and Finland. All neonaticides reported to the police, 1991-2009. Neonaticide rates before (1991-2001) and after (2002-2009) the introduction of anonymous delivery legislation per 100 000 births. The Mann-Whitney U-test for two independent samples was used to compare neonaticide rates in the period before the new law was introduced with the rates observed after the implementation of the new law for each country. On average the rate of police-reported neonaticides was 7.2 per 100 000 births (SD 3.5, median 7.1) in Austria prior to the new law being passed, and 3.1 per 100 000 births (SD 2.1, median 2.6) after the law was passed. A significant decrease in neonaticide was observed in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery (Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.017). Whereas the Finnish and Swedish rates were lower than the Austrian rates before and after the implementation of the Austrian law, they remained unchanged over the study period. Our data demonstrate a significant decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery. Even though underlying factors associated with neonaticide are complex, the findings could indicate an effect of anonymous delivery in the prevention of this crime. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  10. App Use in Psychiatric Education: A Medical Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cecilia; Kolli, Venkata

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study is to understand and appraise app use by medical students during their clerkships. Following Creighton University IRB approval, a voluntary and anonymous paper-based, 15-question survey was distributed to third-year medical students. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Of 112 medical students available, 76.7% (86) participated in the survey. All participants owned a smartphone or tablet with 84.9% using Apple iOS, followed by 12.8% using Android platform. Students reported using the fewest number of apps during surgery, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology clerkships. The largest number of apps were used during the internal medicine rotation (70.3%). The three most popular apps were Epocrates, UpToDate, and UWorld. The most common uses for these apps were as references during the clerkship, followed by improving knowledge, and test taking. Perceived major benefits included accessibility (96% of student respondents) and interactivity (39.5%). Common apps used during the psychiatry clerkship included UpToDate (71%), Epocrates (51%), and Medscape (43%). Despite less frequent app use during their psychiatry clerkship, 90% felt there was a utility for educational apps in psychiatric education. Consistent with the previous literature on medical students preferring educational apps, students suggest developers focus on question bank-type apps, followed by clinical support-focused and self-directed case-based learning apps for psychiatry clerkship learning. Educators should factor these modes of educational delivery into future educational app development. This survey shows a high degree of smartphone and tablet use among medical students, and they attest to mobile phone app utility in psychiatric education.

  11. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  12. Compliance with hygiene procedures among medical faculty students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs are transmitted by healthcare workers’ hands, which actively contributes to transferring pathogens from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. Hand hygiene is the easiest and cheapest method for preventing HCAIs. The article presents the compliance with hygiene procedures in a group of medical students of the Wroclaw Medical University. Material and Methods: The anonymous survey was conducted among 112 students. The survey included questions about the frequency of disinfection of hands and stethoscopes, changing clothes into clean ones, compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers, as well as subjective assessment of the availability of disinfectants in the hospital. Results: The results of the survey revealed that 35.7% of students did not disinfect their hands before each patient’s examination, 90% of them indicated limited access to disinfectants as the most important reason. The majority (93.8% of respondents were trained in hand hygiene. In 34.82% the availability of disinfectants in hospitals was assesed as good, 62.5% of respondents drew attention to the fact that the dispensers were often empty. Compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers: 66.9% posessed white coat with short sleeves, 52.68% wore wristwatch or jewelery on their hands, 50% of students laundered white coat less frequently than once a week, 9.82% did not disinfect their stethoscope at all, 15.18% did that before each patient’s examination. Conclusions: Students compliance with hand hygiene now and in their future work as doctors is the easiest method for preventing HCAIs. Providing easy access to disinfectants in the hospital environment and shaping hygiene habits during clinical activities play an essential role. Med Pr 2014;65(5:593–599

  13. Tattoos: Evaluation of knowledge about health complications and their prevention among students of Tricity universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowska, Patrycja; Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Kaczorowska, Róża; Słomka, Justyna; Nowicki, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Tattooing is a very popular form of body modification among young people. However, this kind of procedure entails the risk of various health complications. The objective of the study was to evaluate the students' knowledge about contraindications, complications, and health risks that skin tattooing may cause. Additionally, the purpose of the study was to assess how the profile of education (medical vs nonmedical) impacts on the knowledge of the respondents. We surveyed a group of 1199 people, of which 326 (27%) had tattoos. The base of the study is an anonymously filled, author's online survey consisting of 25 questions. Eighty six percent of the students from the Medical University of Gdańsk indicated the risk of HCV virus infection during tattooing, while only 34% of students from other Tricity universities were aware of this danger. Sixty seven percent of people with tattoos felt that having them does not affect any diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Most of respondents mentioned the tattoo artist (79%) and the Internet (73%) as a source of information before having a tattoo, while only 5% and 8% respondents asked a doctor or read medical literature about it. Fourty nine percent of respondents reported that before the procedure, tattooist failed to ask them about their health condition and medications. Knowledge of students about safety, contraindications, and complications associated with the performance of tattooing is insufficient. As a result, a need for a better education on the topic for both people who are getting tattoos and tattooists appears evident. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. (In)visible Ghosts in the Machine and the Powers that Bind: The Relational Securitization of Anonymous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam; Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2015-01-01

    prerogative to secrecy, and challenging its claim to unrestrained surveillance. At the same time, the state's bases are implicated and reproduced in the way this conflict is constructed. The conflict not only (re)produces and makes visible “the state” as a social entity, but also changes or at least...... designations give rise to the visibility of political entities and agency in the first place. Applying this framework, we can better understand the movement's path from a bunch of anonymous individuals to the collectivity “Anonymous,” posing a threat to certain bases of the state's ontological existence, its...

  15. Closing the feedback loop: engaging students in large first-year mathematics test revision sessions using pen-enabled screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Diane; Loch, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    How can active learning, peer learning and prompt feedback be achieved in large first-year mathematics classes? Further, what technologies may support these aims? In this article, we assert that test revision sessions in first-year mathematics held in a technology-enhanced lecture theatre can be highly interactive with students solving problems, learning from each other and receiving immediate feedback. This is facilitated by pen-enabled screens and synchronization software. We argue that the educational benefits achievable through the technology do outweigh the technological distractions, and that these benefits can be achieved by focused, targeted one-off sessions and not only by a semester-long, regular approach. Repeat mid-semester test revision sessions were offered on a non-compulsory basis using pen-enabled screens for all students. Students worked practice test questions and marked solutions to mathematical problems on the screens. Students' work was then displayed anonymously for their peers to see. Answers were discussed with the whole class. We discuss outcomes from two offerings of these sessions using student feedback and lecturer reflections and show the impact of participation on self-reported student confidence. Pedagogical approaches that the technology allowed for the first time in a large class are highlighted. Students responded uniformly positively.

  16. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS, PROPHYLACTIC BEHAVIOR, THERAPEUTIC BEHAVIOR AND STATE OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AMONG CHOSEN POPULATION OF NURSING/MIDWIFERY STUDENTS AND QUALIFIED NURSES/MIDWIFES FROM MEDICAL UNIVERSITY OF ¸ÓDè

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Grzelewska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available evalence, risk factors, therapeutic behavior, knowledge level, prophylactic and treatment methods regarding uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI. Materials and methods: Anonymous, closed, previously validated questionnaire, consisting of 12 questions on UTI in women was used in 267 adult nursing/midwifery students and nurses/midwifes from many different clinics/wards of the Medical University of Lodz. Results: 83% of respondents reported UTI at least once in a lifetime, 80% of them periodically, with cystitis being a main diagnosis. 40% of respondents reported periodical presence of UTI signs and symptoms without physician diagnosis confirmation. Main UTI causes were body cooling and cold water baths. 40% of respondents had symptoms suggesting UTI in the past but no diagnosis by physician. The risk of UTI symptoms disregarding or self-treatment prevalence decreased with time of professional practice, and in respondents with UTI symptoms connected with sexual activity, antibiotics treatment or sufficient level of knowledge of UTI. 64% UTI positive respondents had mothers with history of UTI. Conclusions: Cystitis is an important problem in Lodz Medical University students and nurses, however their knowledge level regarding risk factors, prophylactic and management of UTI are insufficient what may lead to underdiagnosis and undertreatment.

  17. Design and Implement of the Anonymous Communications in the Mobile IP Networks%移动IP中通信匿名技术的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凯; 郭伟; 吴诗其

    2002-01-01

    One of the key problems in the mobile communication is the anonymous communication. The mobile userwants to hide his real identifying information to the visiting domain and the public network which he does not trust,and prevent from being tracked and located. In this paper, we have discoursed the anonymous communications in themobile IP, and presented a novel strategy of the dynamic address allocation and the routing with anonymity. The sug-gested method enables any identifying information can be carried over the anonymous and secure connections, andprovide end-to-end security. The implements of the mobile host and the mobile subnet are also presented.

  18. Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice / Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa – comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole – were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such results are in line with those found in the literature, which indicate the opposition between egalitarianism (suprapersonal vs. protestant ethic (achievement values so as to explicate the prejudice and the motivations that would prevent such attitude.

  19. Knowledge and occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among health care workers and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denić, Ljiljana Marković; Ostrić, Irena; Pavlović, Andrija; Dimitra, Kalimanovska Ostrić

    2012-01-01

    Health workers and medical students are at occupational risk of blood-borne diseases during the accidents, that is, via percutaneous injury or entry of blood or body fluids through the mucosa or injured skin. to review and analyze the knowledge, attitudes and perception of risks of bloodborne diseases of the clinical course students and health workers as well as the frequency of accidents. Cross-sectional study was carried out among the students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, and health workers of the Clinical Center of Serbia. The subjects responded anonymously to questionnaire specially designed for the study. Both students and health workers were aware, in a high percentage, of the fact that the risk of hepatitis B spread was about 30%. Significantly more students gave affirmative reply that blood as biological material was a potential hazard of HIV infection spread (p = 0.001), and significantly more students knew that HIV would not be spread by sweat (p = 0.001). Hepatitis B vacci-nation was administered only to 24.1% of students and 71.4% of health workers. About 10% of students and 65.5% of health workers experienced some accident. There was no significant difference of accidents bet-ween nurses/technicians and physicians (p > 0.05), as well as of accidents and a total length of service (p > 0.05). The majority of accidents occurred during the use of needle/sharp object (in 27.3% of students and 33.1% of health workers). About 40% of students and slightly over a half of the workers reported the accidents to appropriate authorities. Additional education in this field is considered necessary by 73% of students. During the studies and via continuous medical education it is necessary to upgrade the level of knowledge on prevention of accidents, what would, at least partially, influence their reduction.

  20. The growing importance of mental health: are medical curricula responding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, M Z

    2002-12-01

    Mental health is becoming an important issue. Several local and international studies have proven that the incidence of mental illness is on the rise. Doctors have also been able to make more accurate diagnoses and treat mental disorders more reliably with the aid of recent research and newer drugs. As such it is necessary for the medical curricula to respond to this shift. Medical students must now be exposed to new psychiatric disorders and ways of managing them. The time spent in psychiatry and the mode of teaching must also be revised and modified to the current needs of patients.

  1. Identifying Careless Responding With the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Validity Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David K; Church, Abere Sawaqdeh; O'Connell, Debra; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2018-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) includes validity scales that assess Deviant Responding (DR), Virtuous Responding, and Inconsistent Responding. We examined the utility of these scales for identifying careless responding using data from two online studies that examined correlates of psychopathy in college students (Sample 1: N = 583; Sample 2: N = 454). Compared with those below the cut scores, those above the cut on the DR scale yielded consistently lower validity coefficients when PPI-R scores were correlated with corresponding scales from the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. The other three PPI-R validity scales yielded weaker and less consistent results. Participants who completed the studies in an inordinately brief amount of time scored significantly higher on the DR and Virtuous Responding scales than other participants. Based on the findings from the current studies, researchers collecting PPI-R data online should consider identifying and perhaps screening out respondents with elevated scores on the DR scale.

  2. Finance Students' Experiences of Lecture-Based Active Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Kerry; Munro, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Consistent with current higher education concerns with student engagement and the student experience, this study explored third-year undergraduate Finance students' experiences of lecture-based active learning tasks. Finance students from the 2012 and 2014 cohorts from a South African university were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire…

  3. Vulnerability- and Diversity-Aware Anonymization of Personally Identifiable Information for Improving User Privacy and Utility of Publishing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Abdul; Ullah, Farman; Lee, Sungchang

    2017-01-01

    Personally identifiable information (PII) affects individual privacy because PII combinations may yield unique identifications in published data. User PII such as age, race, gender, and zip code contain private information that may assist an adversary in determining the user to whom such information relates. Each item of user PII reveals identity differently, and some types of PII are highly identity vulnerable. More vulnerable types of PII enable unique identification more easily, and their presence in published data increases privacy risks. Existing privacy models treat all types of PII equally from an identity revelation point of view, and they mainly focus on hiding user PII in a crowd of other users. Ignoring the identity vulnerability of each type of PII during anonymization is not an effective method of protecting user privacy in a fine-grained manner. This paper proposes a new anonymization scheme that considers the identity vulnerability of PII to effectively protect user privacy. Data generalization is performed adaptively based on the identity vulnerability of PII as well as diversity to anonymize data. This adaptive generalization effectively enables anonymous data, which protects user identity and private information disclosures while maximizing the utility of data for performing analyses and building classification models. Additionally, the proposed scheme has low computational overheads. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the scheme and verify the aforementioned claims. PMID:28481298

  4. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  5. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users’ privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  6. Vulnerability- and Diversity-Aware Anonymization of Personally Identifiable Information for Improving User Privacy and Utility of Publishing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Personally identifiable information (PII affects individual privacy because PII combinations may yield unique identifications in published data. User PII such as age, race, gender, and zip code contain private information that may assist an adversary in determining the user to whom such information relates. Each item of user PII reveals identity differently, and some types of PII are highly identity vulnerable. More vulnerable types of PII enable unique identification more easily, and their presence in published data increases privacy risks. Existing privacy models treat all types of PII equally from an identity revelation point of view, and they mainly focus on hiding user PII in a crowd of other users. Ignoring the identity vulnerability of each type of PII during anonymization is not an effective method of protecting user privacy in a fine-grained manner. This paper proposes a new anonymization scheme that considers the identity vulnerability of PII to effectively protect user privacy. Data generalization is performed adaptively based on the identity vulnerability of PII as well as diversity to anonymize data. This adaptive generalization effectively enables anonymous data, which protects user identity and private information disclosures while maximizing the utility of data for performing analyses and building classification models. Additionally, the proposed scheme has low computational overheads. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the scheme and verify the aforementioned claims.

  7. Long-Term Influence of Duration and Frequency of Participation in Alcoholics Anonymous on Individuals With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the duration and frequency of a baseline episode of participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) among 473 individuals with alcohol use disorders on 1-year and 8-year outcomes and the effect of additional participation and delayed participation on outcomes. Compared with individuals who did not participate,…

  8. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  9. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  10. Mental health and suicidal behavior among graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Williams, Amanda G; Moffitt, Lauren; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the mental health and service utilization of graduate students at a large southeastern university and identify psychological factors associated with their student suicidal behavior. E-mail invitations to complete the Interactive Screening Program, an online anonymous mental health questionnaire, were sent to graduate students. The questionnaire included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as well as items assessing suicide behavior, anxiety, negative emotion, substance use, eating behavior, and service utilization. A total of 301 graduate students responded to the questionnaires between 14 July 2010 and 24 January 2012. With regards to suicide, 7.3 % of the sample reported thoughts of suicide, 2.3 % reported having plans for suicide, and 1.7 % had hurt themselves in the past 2 weeks; while 9.9 % had ever made a suicide attempt in their lifetime. Graduate students had PHQ-9 scores indicating mild depression, and more than half endorsed feeling nervous, irritable, stressed, anxious, lonely, or having fights/arguments. In terms of service utilization, 22.2 % of the sample was currently taking some type of medication, and 18.5 % currently in counseling/therapy are females and those with higher PHQ-9 scores more likely to be using services. Those endorsing suicidal behavior in the past 2 weeks had significantly higher depression scores than those without such behavior and were characterized by more anxiety, negative emotions (such as loneliness, anger, hopelessness, desperation, and being out of control), substance use, and eating problems. Graduate students experience significant amounts of stress and anxiety, and their suicidal behavior is strongly characterized by depression, hopelessness, desperation, lack of control, and eating problems. Future work with this population should focus on the development and evaluation of mental health and wellness interventions and on ways to promote help-seeking, especially among male

  11. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  12. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Malouff; Sarah J. Stein; Lodewicka N. Bothma; Kimberley Coulter; Ashley J. Emmerton

    2014-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1) to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2) to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3) not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, ...

  13. A semi-quantitative and thematic analysis of medical student attitudes towards M-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben L; Kennedy, Iain; Hassanzadeh, Hadi; Sharma, Suneal; Frith, Gareth; Darling, Jonathan C

    2015-10-01

    Smartphone and mobile application technology have in recent years furthered the development of novel learning and assessment resources. 'MBChB Mobile' is a pioneering mobile learning (M-Learning) programme at University of Leeds, United Kingdom and provides all senior medical students with iPhone handsets complete with academic applications, assessment software and a virtual reflective environment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of MBChB Mobile on student learning. Ethical approval was granted to invite fourth and fifth year medical students to participate in a semi-quantitative questionnaire: data were collected anonymously with informed consent and analysed where appropriate using chi-squared test of association. Qualitative data generated through focus group participation were subjected to both content and thematic analysis. A total of 278 of 519 (53.6%) invited participants responded. Overall, 72.6% of students agreed that MBChB Mobile enhanced their learning experience; however, this was significantly related to overall usage (P mobile technology proficiency (P mobile devices, and perceived patient acceptability. As one of the largest evaluative and only quantitative study of smartphone-assisted M-Learning in undergraduate medical education, MBChB Mobile suggests that smartphone and application technology enhances students' learning experience. Barriers to implementation may be addressed through the provision of tailored learning resources, along with user-defined support systems, and appropriate means of ensuring acceptability to patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effectiveness of narcotics anonymous training programs in personality characters in substance abuse patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namat Sotodeh Asl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance abuse is one of the most common disorders that exert a high impact on the life of patients and their families. There are many treatment methods for Addiction. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of narcotics anonymous (NA program on personality characters in substance abuse patients.Materials and Methods: This quasi experimental design was performed on 100 patients with substance abuse disorders that they had been randomly selected from those patients who were referred to psychiatric clinics and counseling centers in Esfehan in 2008. Then, the subjects were equally divided into two groups; experimental and control. All the patients carried out Eysenk test prior to any intervention and also a demographic questionnaire were filled out by all the subjects. Then, Eysenk test was performed on all the patients following the intervention. Changing in personality character in the experimental group (before and after the intervention was compared with those of the control group. Results: The findings showed that narcotic program has significant effects on personality characters of experimental group to substance abuse in post test, but these effects are not significant in control group.Conclusion: According to the findings of this work, we suggest the effectiveness of NA program in changing personality characters of the patients with substance abuse

  15. 20 Questions of Gamblers Anonymous: A Psychometric Study with Population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursua, María Prieto; Uribelarrea, Luis Llavona

    1998-01-01

    The authors present a psychometric study of the questionnaire proposed by the Gamblers Anonymous organization for the self-assessment of problem gambling. The study was carried out in Spain with two samples: one of 127 problem gamblers (mean age: 41.67; sex: 78.7% men; mean duration of the problem: 5 years) and the other of 142 social gamblers (mean age: 38.46; sex: 60% men). The questionnaire was self-applied, in the presence of one of the investigators in case any doubts arose. The results indicate that it is a good screening instrument, with high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94), good covergent validity (the correlation with the SOGS questionnaire is high (r = 0.94; p < 0.001)), good factorial validity (the questionnaire's structure is unidimensional and coherent (just one factor explains more than 50% of the variance)), and its discriminative power is high (diagnostic efficacy = 98.88%). The study offers a comparative analysis of this instrument with other measures of problem gambling, emphasizing its extraordinary performance.

  16. Patterns and correlates of Gamblers Anonymous attendance in pathological gamblers seeking professional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M

    2003-08-01

    Although Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a popular intervention for gamblers, many attendees later present for professional treatment. This study evaluated gambling and psychosocial problems in individuals seeking professional treatment for gambling and compared those with and without a history of GA attendance. At intake to treatment, 342 pathological gamblers completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Fifty-four percent attended GA previously. Compared to non-GA attendees, GA attendees were older, had higher incomes, and were less likely to be single. They had higher SOGS scores, more years of gambling problems, and larger debts. GA attendees also had more serious family conflicts and less serious drug problems. Individuals with a history of GA attendance were more likely to be abstinent from gambling 2 months after treatment initiation. Logistic regression revealed that the number of professional sessions and GA meetings attended during treatment was independently associated with short-term abstinence. These data suggest that individuals entering professional treatment for gambling with a history of GA attendance differ from those who do not, and these differences may impact treatment recommendations and outcomes.

  17. Psychosocial factors related to gambling abstinence and relapse in members of gamblers anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian P S; Gordon, Leon M

    2008-03-01

    Problem gamblers account for almost one-third of the industry's total revenue with the adverse effects of problem gambling including significant financial loss, legal and occupational difficulties, family problems, psychological distress and suicide. As such, it is important to understand the influential factors in gambling abstinence and relapse, which will assist in the development of relapse prevention methods in therapeutic treatment regimes. This paper reported the role of a set of seven predictors in distinguishing between abstinent and relapsed gamblers among 75 Gambling Anonymous (GA) members (55 males; 20 females; Mean age 45 years) in Southeast Queensland. The measures taken were meeting Attendance and Participation, Social Support, God Belief, Belief in a Higher Power, Working the 12-steps of Recovery, Gambling Urges and Erroneous Cognitions. Discriminant analysis revealed that the variables separating the two groups were significant, suggesting that GA members achieving abstinence could be distinguished from those who relapsed, with Attendance and Participation, and Social Support contributing the greatest influence on member's ability to abstain from gambling. The findings suggested that GA member's involvement in meetings, and support from family and friends had significant impact on their gambling abstinence. In contrast, increased gambling urges and erroneous cognitions increased the chance of relapse.

  18. Cardinality Estimation Algorithm in Large-Scale Anonymous Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2017-08-30

    Consider a large-scale anonymous wireless sensor network with unknown cardinality. In such graphs, each node has no information about the network topology and only possesses a unique identifier. This paper introduces a novel distributed algorithm for cardinality estimation and topology discovery, i.e., estimating the number of node and structure of the graph, by querying a small number of nodes and performing statistical inference methods. While the cardinality estimation allows the design of more efficient coding schemes for the network, the topology discovery provides a reliable way for routing packets. The proposed algorithm is shown to produce a cardinality estimate proportional to the best linear unbiased estimator for dense graphs and specific running times. Simulation results attest the theoretical results and reveal that, for a reasonable running time, querying a small group of nodes is sufficient to perform an estimation of 95% of the whole network. Applications of this work include estimating the number of Internet of Things (IoT) sensor devices, online social users, active protein cells, etc.

  19. Does Age Moderate the Effect of Spirituality/Religiousness in Accounting for Alcoholics Anonymous Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, K S; Tonigan, J S

    2017-01-01

    Gains in spiritual/religious (S/R) practices among Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members are associated with reductions in drinking. This study had the following aims: (a) examine spirituality/religiousness as a mediator of the relationship between AA attendance and reductions in drinking behavior to replicate past research findings and to (b) examine age-cohort as a moderator of the mediational analyses given that empirical evidence (e.g., generational differences in spirituality) suggests that age may influence the acquisition of gains in spirituality/religiousness during AA as well as the expression of these gains on drinking behavior. Measures were administered to 253 participants recruited from community-based AA and outpatient treatment programs at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12-months, and 210 (83%) participants provided complete data to test study aims. Gains in S/R practices mediated the relationship between AA attendance and increased abstinence, but not drinking intensity. Simple slopes analyses indicated a positive association between AA attendance and gains in S/R practices among younger AA affiliates but not older AA affiliates in the moderated-mediational analyses. However, age was not found to moderate the global mediational effect. The results from the current study inform efforts to increase positive change in AA affiliates' drinking behavior by highlighting specific aspects of S/R practices that should be targeted based on the age of an AA affiliate.

  20. Prospective parents' intentions regarding disclosure following the removal of donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    This short survey of UK infertility counsellors was designed to determine whether the removal of donor anonymity resulted in noticeable changes in prospective parents' stated intentions regarding disclosure of their origins to any children conceived through donor conception. Members of the British Infertility Counselling Association working in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) -- licensed centres, before and after the legal changes, were sent a short questionnaire that included space for free comments (take-up: 62%). Three-quarters reported changes. Of these, two-thirds said prospective parents were more likely to say they would disclose, while less than a tenth said prospective parents were less likely do so. Where no changes were noted, this was primarily because the majority of prospective parents had stated their intention to be open even prior to the legal changes. Possible influences on intentions included: the culture within the centre, moves towards openness within the wider society, and parents' lack of confidence regarding how to go about disclosure. Follow-up studies are needed to improve understanding of whether influences on decision making carry through to patterns of actual disclosure; whether involvement in counselling affects outcomes; and whether access to professional assistance at the time of planned disclosure is helpful.

  1. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Chen, Gongliang; Li, Jianhua; Li, Linsen; Alzahrani, Bander

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  2. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Mehmood

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  3. Assessment Role of Participation in Narcotic Anonymous in Opiate Dependents during Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Zare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activity level of Narcotics Anonymous group (NA is expanding in many countries, including Iran. Some research has confessed the benefits of 12-step NA approach compared with similar methods. In the present study, the role of regular participation of opioid addicts in the NA group was studied in terms of abstinence rate and compared with routine program of detoxification centers of the person Welfare Organization and Medical Sciences University. Materials and Methods: All addicts who attempted to quit in self-introducer clinical centers of Medical Sciences University and the Welfare Organization of Rafsanjan were suggested to participate and not to participate in NA, based on even and odd numbers, respectively. Among them, two equal 120-person (NA and control groups were selected, then evaluated every three months and followed up for 12 months. Their status was assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and morphine tests.Results: The purity rate of NA group with 8.49 months was significantly different with normal addicts in 5.19 months (p=0.001. The recurrence rate at 12 months was significantly lower in the NA group compared with the control group, calculated through independent t-test (p=0.001. Quitting history and addiction duration in the NA group was significantly higher than control group.Conclusion: The findings of the research support a better prognosis for participants of NA group. Further researches are recommended to provide useful clinical information for patients and professionals.

  4. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  5. 7-year trajectories of Alcoholics Anonymous attendance and associations with treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon

    2009-01-01

    Although many members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are introduced to AA during treatment, the relationship between treatment and AA attendance over time is unknown. This paper describes four latent classes of AA attendance among 586 dependent alcoholics interviewed by telephone 1, 3, 5 and 7 years after baseline, and models the relationship between treatment exposure and AA attendance in each class. There was a low AA group (averaging fewer than 5 meetings at most follow-ups), a medium AA group (about 50 meetings a year at each follow-up), a descending AA group (about 150 meetings year 1, then decreasing steeply), and a high AA group (about 200 meetings at 1 year, then decreasing gradually by year 7). Declines in meeting attendance were not always accompanied by decreases in abstinence. After accounting for the effect of time on AA attendance (i.e., the “ups-and-downs” that occur over time), treatment exposure was minimally related to AA attendance in all but the descending AA group, where it was negatively associated (p<.001). Considering AA patterns over time highlights a different role for treatment in AA attendance than what is gleaned from analyses at single timepoints. PMID:19632789

  6. LPPS: A Distributed Cache Pushing Based K-Anonymity Location Privacy Preserving Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid growth of location-based services (LBSs for mobile social network applications. To enable location-based services, mobile users are required to report their location information to the LBS servers and receive answers of location-based queries. Location privacy leak happens when such servers are compromised, which has been a primary concern for information security. To address this issue, we propose the Location Privacy Preservation Scheme (LPPS based on distributed cache pushing. Unlike existing solutions, LPPS deploys distributed cache proxies to cover users mostly visited locations and proactively push cache content to mobile users, which can reduce the risk of leaking users’ location information. The proposed LPPS includes three major process. First, we propose an algorithm to find the optimal deployment of proxies to cover popular locations. Second, we present cache strategies for location-based queries based on the Markov chain model and propose update and replacement strategies for cache content maintenance. Third, we introduce a privacy protection scheme which is proved to achieve k-anonymity guarantee for location-based services. Extensive experiments illustrate that the proposed LPPS achieves decent service coverage ratio and cache hit ratio with lower communication overhead compared to existing solutions.

  7. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data.

  8. Sperm donor recruitment within an NHS fertility service since the removal of anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mathew J; Pooley, Karen; Pierce, Angela; Hopkisson, James F

    2010-09-01

    The marked decline in the number of sperm donors recruited in the UK has been largely attributed to changes in regulations and in particular those related to the removal of anonymity. After a 5-year period of inactivity, the sperm donor bank in Nottingham was provided with limited resources to try and recruit donors who were willing to be identified on the HFEA register. Marketing was sporadic and at first low cost and the enquiry rate only increased significantly when the centre's website became operational and higher cost advertising was used. Over a 4-year period, a total of 151 enquiries gave rise to 14 useable donors at a cost of approximately £5,500 each. Donor sperm was generally of high quality having been density gradient prepared prior to cryopreservation and provided an overall ongoing pregnancy rate of 21.6% and 45.6% by IUI and IVF, respectively. The overall exercise demonstrated that identifiable donors were coming forward but in lower numbers compared to those observed before 2005. At current treatment prices, centres should be aware that recouping the costs of donor recruitment and processing may be difficult and that the cost of both donor sperm and donor insemination are likely to rise significantly.

  9. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shabrang, Moslem; Rezaei, Omid; Rezaei, Farzin

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy. This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons). Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI). Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test. We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness. People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  10. Identifying seasonal mobility profiles from anonymized and aggregated mobile phone data. Application in food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiria, Pedro J; Pastor-Escuredo, David; Úbeda-Medina, Luis; Hernandez-Medina, Miguel A; Barriales-Valbuena, Iker; Morales, Alfredo J; Jacques, Damien C; Nkwambi, Wilfred; Diop, M Bamba; Quinn, John; Hidalgo-Sanchís, Paula; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    We propose a framework for the systematic analysis of mobile phone data to identify relevant mobility profiles in a population. The proposed framework allows finding distinct human mobility profiles based on the digital trace of mobile phone users characterized by a Matrix of Individual Trajectories (IT-Matrix). This matrix gathers a consistent and regularized description of individual trajectories that enables multi-scale representations along time and space, which can be used to extract aggregated indicators such as a dynamic multi-scale population count. Unsupervised clustering of individual trajectories generates mobility profiles (clusters of similar individual trajectories) which characterize relevant group behaviors preserving optimal aggregation levels for detailed and privacy-secured mobility characterization. The application of the proposed framework is illustrated by analyzing fully anonymized data on human mobility from mobile phones in Senegal at the arrondissement level over a calendar year. The analysis of monthly mobility patterns at the livelihood zone resolution resulted in the discovery and characterization of seasonal mobility profiles related with economic activities, agricultural calendars and rainfalls. The use of these mobility profiles could support the timely identification of mobility changes in vulnerable populations in response to external shocks (such as natural disasters, civil conflicts or sudden increases of food prices) to monitor food security.

  11. Identifying seasonal mobility profiles from anonymized and aggregated mobile phone data. Application in food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Zufiria

    Full Text Available We propose a framework for the systematic analysis of mobile phone data to identify relevant mobility profiles in a population. The proposed framework allows finding distinct human mobility profiles based on the digital trace of mobile phone users characterized by a Matrix of Individual Trajectories (IT-Matrix. This matrix gathers a consistent and regularized description of individual trajectories that enables multi-scale representations along time and space, which can be used to extract aggregated indicators such as a dynamic multi-scale population count. Unsupervised clustering of individual trajectories generates mobility profiles (clusters of similar individual trajectories which characterize relevant group behaviors preserving optimal aggregation levels for detailed and privacy-secured mobility characterization. The application of the proposed framework is illustrated by analyzing fully anonymized data on human mobility from mobile phones in Senegal at the arrondissement level over a calendar year. The analysis of monthly mobility patterns at the livelihood zone resolution resulted in the discovery and characterization of seasonal mobility profiles related with economic activities, agricultural calendars and rainfalls. The use of these mobility profiles could support the timely identification of mobility changes in vulnerable populations in response to external shocks (such as natural disasters, civil conflicts or sudden increases of food prices to monitor food security.

  12. Distributed Performance Measurement and Usability Assessment of the Tor Anonymization Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available While the Internet increasingly permeates everyday life of individuals around the world, it becomes crucial to prevent unauthorized collection and abuse of personalized information. Internet anonymization software such as Tor is an important instrument to protect online privacy. However, due to the performance overhead caused by Tor, many Internet users refrain from using it. This causes a negative impact on the overall privacy provided by Tor, since it depends on the size of the user community and availability of shared resources. Detailed measurements about the performance of Tor are crucial for solving this issue. This paper presents comparative experiments on Tor latency and throughput for surfing to 500 popular websites from several locations around the world during the period of 28 days. Furthermore, we compare these measurements to critical latency thresholds gathered from web usability research, including our own user studies. Our results indicate that without massive future optimizations of Tor performance, it is unlikely that a larger part of Internet users would adopt it for everyday usage. This leads to fewer resources available to the Tor community than theoretically possible, and increases the exposure of privacy-concerned individuals. Furthermore, this could lead to an adoption barrier of similar privacy-enhancing technologies for a Future Internet.

  13. An initial fMRI study on neural correlates of prayer in members of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc; Josipovic, Zoran; Dermatis, Helen; Weber, Jochen; Millard, Mary Alice

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals with alcohol-use disorders who had experienced alcohol craving before joining Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) report little or no craving after becoming long-term members. Their use of AA prayers may contribute to this. Neural mechanisms underlying this process have not been delineated. To define experiential and neural correlates of diminished alcohol craving following AA prayers among members with long-term abstinence. Twenty AA members with long-term abstinence participated. Self-report measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging of differential neural response to alcohol-craving-inducing images were obtained in three conditions: after reading of AA prayers, after reading irrelevant news, and with passive viewing. Random-effects robust regressions were computed for the main effect (prayer > passive + news) and for estimating the correlations between the main effect and the self-report measures. Compared to the other two conditions, the prayer condition was characterized by: less self-reported craving; increased activation in left-anterior middle frontal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, bilateral precuneus, and bilateral posterior middle temporal gyrus. Craving following prayer was inversely correlated with activation in brain areas associated with self-referential processing and the default mode network, and with characteristics reflecting AA program involvement. AA members' prayer was associated with a relative reduction in self-reported craving and with concomitant engagement of neural mechanisms that reflect control of attention and emotion. These findings suggest neural processes underlying the apparent effectiveness of AA prayer.

  14. Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step recovery: a model based on social and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine recent findings associated with these disciplines that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying this change. Literature review and hypothesis development. Pertinent aspects of the neural impact of drugs of abuse are summarized. After this, research regarding specific brain sites, elucidated primarily by imaging techniques, is reviewed relative to the following: Mirroring and mentalizing are described in relation to experimentally modeled studies on empathy and mutuality, which may parallel the experiences of social interaction and influence on AA members. Integration and retrieval of memories acquired in a setting like AA are described, and are related to studies on storytelling, models of self-schema development, and value formation. A model for ascription to a Higher Power is presented. The phenomena associated with AA reflect greater complexity than the empirical studies on which this article is based, and certainly require further elucidation. Despite this substantial limitation in currently available findings, there is heuristic value in considering the relationship between the brain-based and clinical phenomena described here. There are opportunities for the study of neuroscientific correlates of Twelve-Step-based recovery, and these can potentially enhance our understanding of related clinical phenomena. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  16. Hazardous materials responder training in the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Betsinger, G.B. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States). Environmental Response Team; Merchant, S. [Environmental Tectonics Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was created to provide on-site professional expertise as well as health and safety guidance to Federal on-scene coordinators during accidental oil and chemical releases. ERT provides practical technical solutions to response activities based on theory as well as actual experience. Its creation in 1978 fulfilled the requirements of the U.S. National Contingency Plan. Members of the team have developed a 40-hour Hazardous Waste Responders training course and have themselves, attended a hands-on chemical and biological warfare personnel protective clothing course provided by the U.S. Army. The course demonstrated decontamination showers, moon suits, and entry procedures to a contaminated battlefield situation. ERT continues to emphasize the importance of hands-on training and exercises. Various training programs are underway where students can learn real-time monitoring techniques and respond to simulated hazardous waste incidents. They also learn how to assess environmental, public and occupational health and safety information on the Internet. The students also run air plume models and perform wet bench chemistry experiments. With the advent of more powerful computers, the current objective is to continue with these training activities using Instructor Controlled Interactive Computer Training (ICICT).

  17. The dynamics of clinical students speciality preference: A study of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O J Akinsola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undergraduate medical education is only an initial step in training the highly differentiated doctor. The medical specialties chosen by doctors for their career play an important part in workforce planning of healthcare services and as a predictive index in the composition of medical graduates and potential physicians. However, there is little theoretical understanding of how different medical specialties are perceived or how choices are made. Objective: The aim of this study is to shed more light on how medical students view specialisation as well as to discover the factors that strongly influence their choice of medical specialty. Methodology: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was used. Data management and analysis was done using SPSS software version 15.0. Results: The response rate was 93.7%. The respondents had a good overall knowledge about specialisation in Medicine as 175 (98.3% of the respondents knew about specialisation in Medicine as well as the different specialties in Medicine. Majority 126 (70.8% of the respondents would want to specialise and about two-thirds, 112 (62.9% indicated preferred specialties as Obstetrics & Gynecology 31 (17.5%, Pediatrics 30 (16.7%, Surgery 25 (14.3%, Internal medicine 17 (9.5% and Public Health 14 (7.9%. Conclusion: The study revealed the patterns of preference of medical students to medical specialty and factors that strongly influence their choice during clinical postings.

  18. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Raleigh, David R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California–San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These

  19. Scientific dishonesty—a nationwide survey of doctoral students in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities. Method Anonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%. 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed scientific dishonesty. One respondent had experienced pressure to fabricate and to falsify data, and one had experienced pressure to plagiarize data. On average 60% of the respondents were uncertain whether their department had a written policy concerning scientific conduct. About 11% of the respondents had experienced unethical pressure concerning the order of authors during the last 12 months. 10% did not find it inappropriate to report experimental data without having conducted the experiment and 38% did not find it inappropriate to try a variety of different methods of analysis to find a statistically significant result. 13% agreed that it is acceptable to selectively omit contradictory results to expedite publication and 10% found it acceptable to falsify or fabricate data to expedite publication, if they were confident of their findings. 79% agreed that they would be willing to report misconduct to a responsible official. Conclusion Although there is less scientific dishonesty reported in Norway than in other countries, dishonesty is not unknown to doctoral students. Some forms of scientific misconduct are considered to be acceptable by a significant minority. There was little awareness of relevant policies for scientific conduct, but a high level of willingness to report misconduct.

  20. A national radiation oncology medical student clerkship survey: didactic curricular components increase confidence in clinical competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S; Raleigh, David R; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R; Chmura, Steven J; Golden, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank-sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results support further development of structured didactic

  1. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results

  2. How Are Teachers Responding to Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Kasai, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of global education is to prepare students to be effective and responsible citizens in a global society. Toward this end, students need to practice real-life skills, gain knowledge of the world, and develop expertise in viewing events and issues from diverse global perspectives. How are social studies teachers preparing young…

  3. What is wrong with non-respondents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and dif...

  4. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  5. The Forgotten Disaster Victim: Reducing Responder Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Approved by: Anke Richter Thesis Advisor Michael Petrie EMS Bureau, County of Monterey Second Reader Erik Dahl Associate Chair for Instruction...RESPONDERS IN DISASTERS .............20 1. Oklahoma City Bombing .............................................................20 2. World Trade Center...Categories, 2008–2014..................................................................................................19 Figure 4. Oklahoma City Bombing

  6. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  7. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  8. Responding to Children's Fears: A Partnership Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Reesa

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study into children's fears and suggests that forging partnerships between parents, children, and teachers is one positive step toward addressing fear in young children. Defines partnerships and asserts that they can help in better recognizing fear displays in young children and in sharing ideas about best practice in responding to…

  9. Editorial: How to respond to reviewers' comments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soji, Zimkhitha

    Is the content and writing satisfactory enough to make it worth reviewing? Not adequately addressing concerns raised by the reviewers and/or editors does not help the peer-review and publishing processes. Poor judgement when responding to reviewers'/editors' comments often produces a undesirable outcome. Merely ...

  10. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  11. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  12. Medical Student Sexuality: How Sexual Experience and Sexuality Training Impact U.S. and Canadian Medical Students’ Comfort in Dealing with Patients’ Sexuality in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Christian J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lue, Tom F.; Smith, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine factors associated with students’ comfort in addressing patients’ sexuality in the clinical context. Method The authors invited students enrolled in MD-degree-granting and osteopathic medical schools in the United States and Canada to participate in an anonymous Internet survey between February and July 2008. The survey assessed ethnodemographic factors and sexual history. Respondents also completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Male respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Female respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Index of Sex Life. The authors used descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression to analyze responses. Results The authors’ analyses included 2,261 completed survey responses: 910 from men, 1,343 from women, and 8 from individuals who self-identified as “other” gendered. Over 53% of respondents (n = 1,206) stated that they felt they had not received sufficient training in medical school to address sexual concerns clinically. Despite this, 81% of students (n = 1,827) reported feeling comfortable dealing with their patients’ sexuality issues. Students with limited sexual experience, students at risk for sexual problems, and students who felt that they had not been trained adequately were less likely to report being comfortable talking to patients about sexual health issues. Conclusions Perception of inadequate sexuality training in medical school and personal issues pertaining to sex may be associated with students’ difficulty in addressing patients’ sexuality. Adequate training is preeminently associated with feeling comfortable addressing patients’ sexuality and should be a priority for medical education. PMID:20671459

  13. Anonymous authentication and location privacy preserving schemes for LTE-A networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Jabr Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation Advanced (LTE-A is the third generation partnership project for cellular network that allows subscribers to roam into networks (i.e., the Internet and wireless connections using spacial purpose base-stations, such as wireless access points and home node B. In such LTE-A based networks, neither base-stations, nor the Internet and wireless connections are trusted because base-stations are operated by un-trusted subscribers. Attackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to violate the privacy of the LTE-A subscribers. On the other hand, the tradeoff between privacy and authentication is another challenge in such networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two anonymous authentication schemes based on one-time pseudonymes and Schnorr Zero Knowledge Protocols. Instead of the international mobile subscriber identity, these schemes enable the user equipment, base-stations and mobility management entity to mutually authenticate each others and update the location of the user equipment without evolving the home subscriber server. The security analysis demonstrate that the proposed schemes thwart security and privacy attacks, such as malicious, international mobile subscriber identity catching, and tracking attacks. Additionally, our proposed schemes preserve the location privacy of user equipment since no entity except the mobility management entity and Gate-Way Mobile Location Center can link between the pseudonymes and the international mobile subscriber identity. Also attackers have no knowledge about international mobile subscriber identity. Hence, the proposed schemes achieve backward/forward secrecy. Furthermore, the performance evaluation shows that the proposed handover schemes impose a small overhead on the mobile nodes and it has smaller computation and communication overheads than those in other schemes.

  14. Frequency and risk factors for donor reactions in an anonymous blood donor survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mindy; Osmond, Lori; Yi, Qi-Long; Cameron-Choi, Keltie; O'Brien, Sheila F

    2013-09-01

    Adverse donor reactions can result in injury and decrease the likelihood of donor return. Reaction reports captured in the blood center's database provide an incomplete picture of reaction rates and risk factors. We performed an anonymous survey, mailed to 40,000 donors in 2008, including questions about symptoms, height, weight, sex, and donation status. Reaction rates were compared to those recorded in our database. Possible risk factors were assessed for various reactions. The response rate was 45.5%. A total of 32% of first-time and 14% of repeat donors reported having any adverse symptom, most frequently bruising (84.9 per 1000 donors) or feeling faint or weak (66.2 per 1000). Faint reactions were two to eight times higher than reported in our database, although direct comparison was difficult. Younger age, female sex, and first-time donation status were risk factors for systemic and arm symptoms. In females, low estimated blood volume (EBV) was a risk factor for systemic symptoms. Only 51% of donors who consulted an outside physician also called Canadian Blood Services. A total of 10% of first-time donors with reactions found adverse effects information inadequate. This study allowed us to collect more information about adverse reactions, including minor symptoms and delayed reactions. Based on our findings of the risk factors and frequency of adverse reactions, we are implementing more stringent EBV criteria for younger donors and providing more detailed information to donors about possible adverse effects and their management. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Anonymity Preserving Routing In Location Privacy Schemes In Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Regin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy measures need to be developed to prevent the opponent from determining the physical locations of source sensors and sinks. An opponent can easily intercept network traffic due to the use of a broadcast medium for routing packets and get detailed information such as packet transmission time and frequency to perform traffic analysis and infer the locations of monitored objects and data sinks. On the other hand, sensors usually have limited processing speed and energy supplies. It is very expensive to apply traditional anonymous communication techniques for hiding the communication between sensor nodes and sinks. The existing source-location privacy protects the location of monitored objects to increase the number of messages sent by the source before the object is located by the attacker. The flooding technique has the source node send each packet through numerous paths to a sink making it difficult for an opponent to trace the source. The locations of sinks can be protected from a local eavesdropper by hashing the ID field in the packet header. But opponent can track sinks by carrying out time correlation and rate monitoring attacks. Besides protection some source nodes are transferring relatively large amounts of data in existing system. As a result, these nodes run out of battery faster due to improper position of nodes and sinks. Thus in the proposed system the sinks should be located as optimally as possible to reduce traffic flow and energy consumption for sensor nodes. Hence Sink placement problem is resolved for minimizing the delay as well as maximizing the lifetime of a WSN. Thus proposed system is efficient in terms of overhead and functionality when compared to existing system.

  16. A robust anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several biometric-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed in the literature in order to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2012, An proposed an enhanced biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. It was claimed that the proposed scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. In this paper, we first analyze the security of An’s scheme and we show that this scheme has three serious security flaws in the design of the scheme: (i flaw in user’s biometric verification during the login phase, (ii flaw in user’s password verification during the login and authentication phases, and (iii flaw in user’s password change locally at any time by the user. Due to these security flaws, An’s scheme cannot support mutual authentication between the user and the server. Further, we show that An’s scheme cannot prevent insider attack. In order to remedy the security weaknesses found in An’s scheme, we propose a new robust and secure anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against all possible known attacks including the attacks found in An’s scheme. The simulation results of our scheme using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, our scheme is also comparable in terms of the communication and computational overheads with An’s scheme and other related existing schemes. As a result, our scheme is more appropriate for practical applications compared to other approaches.

  17. Harnessing Information Technology to Improve the Process of Students' Evaluations of Teaching: An Exploration of Students' Critical Success Factors of Online Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Dorit; McClean, Ron; Nevo, Saggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relative advantage offered by online Students' Evaluations of Teaching (SET) and describes a study conducted at a Canadian university to identify critical success factors of online evaluations from students' point of view. Factors identified as important by the students include anonymity, ease of use (of both SET survey…

  18. Source of information, knowledge, and sexual behaviour related to HIV/AIDS amongst university students in an inland territory of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela L. Sammarco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Italian university students were investigated for: sources of information about HIV, knowledge of HIV risk behaviours, as well as sexual behaviours and condom use. A self completed anonymous questionnaire was administered to 430 university students in Campobasso, Italy (mean age 23,1; males 35,8%. Although TV, radio and the printed press were the most common sources of HIV information (>60% of respondents, most respondents preferred to receive information from physicians or resource centres (50 and 51%. Most students (>97% were aware that specific sexual behaviours (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse and sharing of needles with illegal injecting drug users could transmit HIV. Most students (>50% did not regularly use condoms (despite understanding their protective effect, and continued to engage in behaviours considered risky. Males were significantly more likely than females to engage in vaginal sex (84 vs. 67% or anal sex (37 vs. 13% with both regular and casual partners. Although knowledge of HIV in itself is not enough to produce behaviour change, increases in students’ levels of knowledge may be useful.

  19. Socio-Cultural Impact of Energy Saving: Studying the Behaviour of Elementary School Students in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sideri Lefkeli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Education makes it possible for students to become familiar with the rational management of energy as well as learn to implement energy saving practices in their everyday life. The study of certain student characteristics helps in the direction of applying strategies of behavioural change. The aim of this research is to record the knowledge and attitudes of elementary school students in the Prefecture of Evros with regard to energy saving. The collection of research data was done through the use of a structured and anonymous questionnaire with closed questions. The method used for the collection of the research data was cluster sampling. This involved 17 elementary schools of the continental part of the prefecture. 612 questionnaires were completed by students of the 5th and 6th grade of these schools. The evaluation of the research data showed that 69.6% of the students think that the most appropriate house temperature is 20°C with 79.1% of the students keeping the thermostat switched off while the house is aired. With regard to the use of TV, stereo, play station and PC the research showed that 93.8% of the students switch off the above devices when these are not in use. In parallel, 86.6% of the respondents usually or always switch off the lights when coming out of a room and 46.2% of the students use energy saving bulbs. Also, 93% of the students recycle because they believe that doing so contributes to the protection of the environment while 41% always chooses to walk to school. With regard to the significance of reasons concerning energy saving 85.9% thinks that energy saving is important to very important for reducing environmental pollution.

  20. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Przybylski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908 provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  1. Medical students' preferences in radiology education a comparison between the Socratic and didactic methods utilizing powerpoint features in radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lily; King, Alexander; Soman, Salil; Lischuk, Andrew; Schneider, Benjamin; Walor, David; Bramwit, Mark; Amorosa, Judith K

    2011-02-01

    The Socratic method has long been a traditional teaching method in medicine and law. It is currently accepted as the standard of teaching in clinical wards, while the didactic teaching method is widely used during the first 2 years of medical school. There are arguments in support of both styles of teaching. After attending a radiology conference demonstrating different teaching methods, third-year and fourth-year medical students were invited to participate in an online anonymous survey. Of the 74 students who responded, 72% preferred to learn radiology in an active context. They preferred being given adequate time to find abnormalities on images, with feedback afterward from instructors, and they thought the best approach was a volunteer-based system of answering questions using the Socratic method in the small group. They desired to be asked questions in a way that was constructive and not belittling, to realize their knowledge deficits and to have daily pressure to come prepared. The respondents thought that pimping was an effective teaching tool, supporting previous studies. When teaching radiology, instructors should use the Socratic method to a greater extent. Combining Socratic teaching with gentle questioning by an instructor through the use of PowerPoint is a preferred method among medical students. This information is useful to improve medical education in the future, especially in radiology education. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Hernández-Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  3. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  4. More than addiction: Examining the role of anonymity, endless narrative, and socialization in prolonged gaming and instant messaging practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishonna Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1 anonymity, 2 endless narrative, and 3 socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based multiplayer environments. More specifically, they explore how the three factors (i.e., anonymity; endless narrative; socialization relate to the prolonged and extended use within these virtual communities and highlight the multifaceted uses of traditional chat services, social media, and the convergence of media existing within these chat communities.

  5. Anonymous or confidential HIV counseling and voluntary testing in federally funded testing sites--United States, 1995-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-25

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and voluntary testing (CT) programs have been an important part of national HIV prevention efforts since the first HIV antibody tests became available in 1985. In 1995, these programs accounted for approximately 15% of annual HIV antibody testing in the United States, excluding testing for blood donation. CT opportunities are offered to persons at risk for HIV infection at approximately 11,000 sites, including dedicated HIV CT sites, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, drug-treatment centers, hospitals, and prisons. In 39 states, testing can be obtained anonymously, where persons do not have to give their name to get tested. All states provide confidential testing (by name) and have confidentiality laws and regulations to protect this information. This report compares patterns of anonymous and confidential testing in all federally funded CT programs from 1995 through 1997 and documents the importance of both types of testing opportunities.

  6. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  7. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally.

  8. Amitriptyline Intoxication Responded to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldem Turan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The most severe effects in amitriptiline intoxications are related with central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Amitriptiline intoxication especially with high doses has severe cardiac effects and can result in cardiac arrest. Most favorable responses can be achieved with efficient and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We wanted to present a case ingested high dose of amitriptiline for attempt to suicide and responded to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  9. Nuclear Fallout Decision Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-11

    If terrorists detonated an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an urban area, thousands of people would die from the blast, and many more would become sick or die from exposure to fallout radiation. Proper sheltering and evacuation can protect people from fallout and save lives. This project provides guidance to first responders as to when to evacuate and what route to take to protect themselves against fallout radiation.

  10. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on how to operationalize these essential capabilities. By definition true uncertainty represents environmental conditions that are hard to foresee, which can catch the unprepared by surprise while presenting opportunities to the conscious organization. We demonstrate that organizations relying...

  11. Quality of courses evaluated by 'predictions' rather than opinions: Fewer respondents needed for similar results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Schmidt, Henk G

    2010-01-01

    A well-known problem with student surveys is a too low response rate. Experiences with predicting electoral outcomes, which required much smaller sample sizes, inspired us to adopt a similar approach to course evaluation. We expected that having respondents estimate the average opinions of their peers required fewer respondents for comparable outcomes than giving own opinions. Two course evaluation studies were performed among successive first-year medical students (N = 380 and 450, respectively). Study 1: Half the cohort gave opinions on nine questions, while the other half predicted the average outcomes. A prize was offered for the three best predictions (motivational remedy). Study 2: Half the cohort gave opinions, a quarter made predictions without a prize and a quarter made predictions with previous year's results as prior knowledge (cognitive remedy). The numbers of respondents required for stable outcomes were determined following an iterative process. Differences between numbers of respondents required and between average scores were analysed with ANOVA. In both studies, the prediction conditions required significantly fewer respondents (p < 0.001) for comparable outcomes. The informed prediction condition required the fewest respondents (N < 20). Problems with response rates can be reduced by asking respondents to predict evaluation outcomes rather than giving opinions.

  12. Homeless High School Students in America: Who Counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, John M.; Gloeckner, Gene W.

    2012-01-01

    After interviewing homeless high school students, the research team in a Colorado school district discovered that many students had not revealed their true living conditions (homelessness) to anyone in the school district. This research team developed an anonymous survey written around the homeless categories identified in the McKinney-Vento…

  13. Substance Abuse and Clinical Counseling Students' Characteristics and Career Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.; Sias, Shari M.

    2007-01-01

    Students from a master's program in Substance Abuse and Clinical Counseling (SACC) at a midsize southeastern university were surveyed to determine personal characteristics and career goals. Sixty-two of the 68 students currently enrolled in the program volunteered to anonymously complete the questionnaire. The typical profile of the SACC student…

  14. Investigating Secondary School Students' Unmediated Peer Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivitanidou, Olia E.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Hovardas, Tasos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary school students' unmediated peer assessment skills. Specifically, 36 seventh graders, without receiving any kind of support, were anonymously assigned to reciprocally assess their peers' science web-portfolios. Additionally, students' attitudes towards and intentions about the use of…

  15. Working with previously anonymous gamete donors and donor-conceived adults: recent practice experiences of running the DNA-based voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Gunter, Christine; Tidy, Christine; Atherton, Freda

    2013-03-01

    This article describes recent practice experiences with donor conceived adults, donors, non-donor-conceived adult children of donors using the voluntary DNA-based register, UK DonorLink. It highlights additional complexities faced when using DNA rather than paper records for searching, in particular from the risk of false positives, low chances of success and potential inclusion of biological parents' DNA. Professionals' experiences in supporting those being "linked" suggest challenges as well as rewards. Registration carries the potential to be therapeutic for donor-conceived adults and donors and to enhance their political awareness regardless of links being made. Registrants value both peer and professional support, providing the latter can respond flexibly and be delivered by staff experienced in intermediary work. Given that the majority of those affected by donor conception internationally come from anonymous donation systems, these findings are highly pertinent and argue the need for political and moral debate about such service provision.

  16. AN EFFECTIVE MULTI-CLUSTERING ANONYMIZATION APPROACH USING DISCRETE COMPONENT TASK FOR NON-BINARY HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATA SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Arun Shalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a process of grouping elements together, designed in such a way that the elements assigned to similar data points in a cluster are more comparable to each other than the remaining data points in a cluster. During clustering certain difficulties related when dealing with high dimensional data are ubiquitous and abundant. Works concentrated using anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces failed to address the problem related to dimensionality reduction during the inclusion of non-binary databases. In this work we study methods for dimensionality reduction for non-binary database. By analyzing the behavior of dimensionality reduction for non-binary database, results in performance improvement with the help of tag based feature. An effective multi-clustering anonymization approach called Discrete Component Task Specific Multi-Clustering (DCTSM is presented for dimensionality reduction on non-binary database. To start with we present the analysis of attribute in the non-binary database and cluster projection identifies the sparseness degree of dimensions. Additionally with the quantum distribution on multi-cluster dimension, the solution for relevancy of attribute and redundancy on non-binary data spaces is provided resulting in performance improvement on the basis of tag based feature. Multi-clustering tag based feature reduction extracts individual features and are correspondingly replaced by the equivalent feature clusters (i.e. tag clusters. During training, the DCTSM approach uses multi-clusters instead of individual tag features and then during decoding individual features is replaced by corresponding multi-clusters. To measure the effectiveness of the method, experiments are conducted on existing anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces and compared with the DCTSM approach using Statlog German Credit Data Set. Improved tag feature extraction and minimum error rate compared to conventional anonymization

  17. The Anonymization Protection Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Clustering for the Ego of Data in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshan Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the enthusiasm of the data provider in the process of data interaction and improve the adequacy of data interaction, we put forward the concept of the ego of data and then analyzed the characteristics of the ego of data in the Internet of Things (IOT in this paper. We implement two steps of data clustering for the Internet of things; the first step is the spatial location of adjacent fuzzy clustering, and the second step is the sampling time fuzzy clustering. Equivalent classes can be obtained through the two steps. In this way we can make the data with layout characteristics to be classified into different equivalent classes, so that the specific location information of the data can be obscured, the layout characteristics of tags are eliminated, and ultimately anonymization protection would be achieved. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly improve the efficiency of protection of the data in the interaction with others in the incompletely open manner, without reducing the quality of anonymization and enhancing the information loss. The anonymization data set generated by this method has better data availability, and this algorithm can effectively improve the security of data exchange.

  18. College Student Attitudes toward Pornography Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Sarah; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2007-01-01

    Data from 305 confidential anonymous 50-item questionnaires on pornography were completed by students at East Carolina University and analyzed to provide the basis for this study. Over 90 percent (92.4%) reported ever having looked at pornography with over forty percent (43.1%) reporting doing so between one and two times a week. Significant…

  19. Dental and Medical Students' Use and Perceptions of Learning Resources in a Human Physiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Monica; Schwartzstein, Richard; Friedland, Bernard; Park, Sang E

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the use and perceived utility of various learning resources available during the first-year Integrated Human Physiology course at the dental and medical schools at Harvard University. Dental and medical students of the Class of 2018 were surveyed anonymously online in 2015 regarding their use of 29 learning resources in this combined course. The learning resources had been grouped into four categories to discern frequency of use and perceived usefulness among the categories. The survey was distributed to 169 students, and 73 responded for a response rate of 43.2%. There was no significant difference among the learning resource categories in frequency of use; however, there was a statistically significant difference among categories in students' perceptions of usefulness. No correlation was found between frequency of use and perceived usefulness of each category. Students seemingly were not choosing the most useful resources for them. These results suggest that, in the current educational environment, where new technologies and self-directed learning are highly sought after, there remains a need for instructor-guided learning.

  20. Self-reported academic performance in relation to health behaviours among Bahria University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; Zafar, Amara; Mohib, Aleena; Hussain, Mehwish; Ali, Rabiya

    2018-02-01

    To find an association between self-reported academic performance with different socio-demographic factors, health behaviours and mental health amongst university students. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahria University, Karachi, from January 2012 to December 2013, and comprised university students of different disciplines. An anonymous, self-reported questionnaire was distributed among the subjects. Convenient sampling technique was used. Demographic information, including age, gender and field of study, were obtained. Depresion was evaluated via Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. SPSS 22 was used to analyse data. Of the 813 respondents, 334(41.1%) were males and 479(58.9%) females. The mean age was 19.9±1.8 years. Overall, 126(15.5%) subjects reported excellent, 242(29.8%) very good, 310(38.1%) good, 100(12.3%) satisfactory and 35(4.3%) not satisfactory academic performance. Residential status of students played a significant role on their academic performance (p=0.011). Breakfast eating behaviour depicted a significant association with the academic performance (p=0.04).The proportion of unsatisfactory academic performances among students having severe sleep disorder was the highest, followed by mild/moderate (p=0.01). The depression scale's item 'troubling in mind' was highly associated with academic performance (pacademic performance. .