Eckes, Suzanne E.
This article examines an education policy matter that involves homophobic speech in public schools. Using legal research methods, two federal circuit court opinions that have examined the tension surrounding anti-LGBTQ student expression are analyzed. This legal analysis provides non-lawyers some insight into the current realities of student…
Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef
Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…
Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.
Malone, Marc P.
When students enter the basic public speaking classroom,When students enter the basic public speaking classroom, they are asked to develop an introductory speech. This assignment typically focuses on a speech of self-introduction for which there are several pedagogical underpinnings: it provides an immediate and relatively stress-free speaking…
Yoder, Paul J.; Camarata, Stephen; Woynaroski, Tiffany
Purpose: This study examined whether a particular type of therapy (Broad Target Speech Recasts, BTSR) was superior to a contrast treatment in facilitating speech comprehensibility in conversations of students with Down syndrome who began treatment with initially high verbal imitation. Method: We randomly assigned 51 5- to 12-year-old students to…
Full Text Available Background: Since making communication with others is the most important function of speech, undoubtedly, any type of disorder in speech will affect the human communicability with others. The objective of the study was to investigate reasons behind the [high] prevalence rate of stammer, producing disorders and aglossia.Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 118 male and female students, who were studying in a primary school in Zahedan; they had referred to the Speech Therapy Centers of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in a period of seven months. The speech therapist examinations, diagnosis tools common in speech therapy, Spielberg Children Trait and also patients' cases were used to find the reasons behind the [high] prevalence rate of speech disorders. Results: Psychological causes had the highest rate of correlation with the speech disorders among the other factors affecting the speech disorders. After psychological causes, family history and age of the subjects are the other factors which may bring about the speech disorders (P<0.05. Bilingualism and birth order has a negative relationship with the speech disorders. Likewise, another result of this study shows that only psychological causes, social causes, hereditary causes and age of subjects can predict the speech disorders (P<0.05.Conclusion: The present study shows that the speech disorders have a strong and close relationship with the psychological causes at the first step and also history of family and age of individuals at the next steps.
Bell, Reginald L.; Liang-Bell, Lei Paula; Deselle, Bettye
Students were trained to perceive filled pauses (FP) as a bad speech habit. In a series of classroom sensitivity training activities, followed by students being rewarded to observe twenty minutes of live television from the public media, no differences between male and female Business Communication students was revealed. The practice of teaching…
Risen, D. Michael
The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…
Courses: Any introductory undergraduate public-speaking course, in particular in ESL/EFL contexts. Objectives: This single-class activity is intended to (1) build students' ability to communicate orally "off the cuff;" (2) foster students' understanding of the major organizational formats used in organizing speeches; and (3) increase…
Sheppard, Beth; Elliott, Nancy; Baese-Berk, Melissa
Intensive English Program (IEP) Instructors and content faculty both listen to international students at the university. For these two groups of instructors, this study compared perceptions of international student speech by collecting comprehensibility ratings and transcription samples for intelligibility scores. No significant differences were…
A special section of a public speaking class at the Universtiy of Tennessee was developed in the spring of 1977 for speech anxious students. The course was designed to incorporate the basic spirit of the regular classes and to provide special training in techniques for reducing nervousness about speaking and in methods for coping with the…
Robinson, Jenna Ashley
America's colleges and universities are supposed to be strongholds of classically liberal ideals, including the protection of individual rights and openness to debate and inquiry. Too often, this is not the case. Across the country, universities deny students and faculty their fundamental rights to freedom of speech and expression. The report…
McFadyen, R G
The present study investigated whether the use of 'powerless' speech was affected by role status, speaker's gender and gender of another participant. Fifty-two university lecturers and 156 students participated. Students were paired with a lecturer or student of the same or opposite sex. The findings placed a question mark over the link between powerless speech and individuals of low role status. Moreover, against hypothesis, speaker's gender and gender of partner did not affect the use of qualifiers or fillers, although they affected the use of tag questions and some types of hesitation. A qualitative analysis was also conducted which suggested that the powerless features were, in fact, multi-functional with respect to power. In addition, the importance of a variety of interactional techniques, such as credibility techniques, in the creation or negotiation of relational power was documented. As a whole, these findings highlight problems with the concept of 'powerless' speech, at least with respect to relational power.
Denny, Thomas D.
This study examines student internet speech that originates off-campus but results in discipline from school. The history of the issue of student speech is explored to set the foundation for the current issue. In the absence of a Supreme Court ruling on student off-campus internet speech, cases reaching the Federal level are explored in search of…
Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana
Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The speech disorders may produce irreparable damage to childs speech and language development in the psychosocial view. The voice, speech sound production and fluency disorders are speech disorders, that may result from delay or impairment in speech motor control mechanism, central neuron system disorders, improper language stimulation or voice abuse. Materials and Methods: This study examined the prevalence of speech disorders in 1393 Arakian students at 1 to 6th grades of primary school. After collecting continuous speech samples, picture description, passage reading and phonetic test, we recorded the pathological signs of stuttering, articulation disorder and voice disorders in a special sheet. Results: The prevalence of articulation, voice and stuttering disorders was 8%, 3.5% and%1 and the prevalence of speech disorders was 11.9%. The prevalence of speech disorders was decreasing with increasing of student’s grade. 12.2% of boy students and 11.7% of girl students of primary school in Arak had speech disorders. Conclusion: The prevalence of speech disorders of primary school students in Arak is similar to the prevalence of speech disorders in Kermanshah, but the prevalence of speech disorders in this research is smaller than many similar researches in Iran. It seems that racial and cultural diversity has some effect on increasing the prevalence of speech disorders in Arak city.
The U.S. Supreme Court's recent opinion in "Morse v. Frederick" (2007), perhaps better known as the "Bong Hits 4 Jesus" case, contains a widely reported concurrence by Justice Clarence Thomas. Challenging well-established precedent, Thomas argues that students should have no constitutional rights in school. In this essay David Blacker argues that,…
Ehrensal, Patricia A. L.
Student speech has and continues to be a contested issue in schools. The Supreme Court ruled in "Tinker" that students do not shed their rights at the schoolhouse gate; in the "Kuhlmeier" and "Fraser" decisions, however, the Court gave school officials greater latitude in regulating student speech, especially when it…
Paul-Brown, Diane; Goldberg, Lynette R
This article provides an overview of current American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) policies for the appropriate use and supervision of speech-language pathology assistants with an emphasis on the need to preserve the role of fully qualified speech-language pathologists in the service delivery system. Seven challenging issues surrounding the appropriate use of speech-language pathology assistants are considered. These include registering assistants and approving training programs; membership in ASHA; discrepancies between state requirements and ASHA policies; preparation for serving diverse multicultural, bilingual, and international populations; supervision considerations; funding and reimbursement for assistants; and perspectives on career-ladder/bachelor-level personnel. The formation of a National Leadership Council is proposed to develop a coordinated strategic plan for addressing these controversial and potentially divisive issues related to speech-language pathology assistants. This council would implement strategies for future development in the areas of professional education pertaining to assistant-level supervision, instruction of assistants, communication networks, policy development, research, and the dissemination/promotion of information regarding assistants.
The University of Tennessee (Knoxville) offers as a special section of the public speaking curriculum, a "speech anxiety" program, taught by faculty and graduate students from the speech and theatre and educational psychology departments and staff from the counseling services center. The students spend the first few weeks of the special…
Bailey, Sarah F.; Jenkins, Jade S.; Barber, Larissa K.
Classroom management involves managing students' requests for course policy changes. Instructors can adhere to the course policies or convey flexibility through making an exception for the student. The current study empirically examines students' emotional reactions (hostility, guilt, and surprise) and fairness perceptions to course policy…
Ren, Juanjuan; Gao, Xiaofang
Summary.-This study was designed to examine negative pragmatic transfer of the speech act of English compliments by Chinese who learn English as a foreign language and to estimate the correlation between the amount of negative pragmatic transfer and English proficiency of the Chinese learners. Frequencies of students' performance showed that both in the favored compliments and the response strategies, differences were evident between Chinese English learners and native English speakers. This indicated that Chinese learners had trouble with the "slang" or "idioms" of the target language and tended to transfer negatively their L1 pragmatic norms to their L2 communication. Moreover, the favored compliment response strategies used by two groups of Chinese learners--who had different levels of English proficiency--differed, and negative pragmatic transfer decreased as proficiency in English increased.
Guntupalli, Vijaya K.; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Dayalu, Vikram N.; Kalinowski, Joseph
Background: Fluent speakers and people who stutter manifest alterations in autonomic and emotional responses as they view stuttered relative to fluent speech samples. These reactions are indicative of an aroused autonomic state and are hypothesized to be triggered by the abrupt breakdown in fluency exemplified in stuttered speech. Furthermore,…
Uzuner Yurt, Serap; Aktas, Elif
In this study, the effects of the use of peer tutoring in Effective and Good Speech Course on students' success, perception of speech self-efficacy and speaking skills were examined. The study, designed as a mixed pattern in which quantitative and qualitative research approaches were combined, was carried out together with 57 students in 2014 to…
Hill, Anne E.; Davidson, Bronwyn J.; Theodoros, Deborah G.
Background: Reflective practice is reported to enhance clinical reasoning and therefore to maximize client outcomes. The inclusion of targeted reflective practice in academic programmes in speech-language therapy has not been consistent, although providing opportunities for speech-language therapy students to reflect during their clinical practice…
McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine
Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)
N. van Dijk; B. Spek; M Wieringa-de Waard; C. Lucas
BACKGROUND: The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness
Spek, B.; Wieringa-de Waard, M.; Lucas, C.; van Dijk, N.
The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness actually to use
Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Camarata, Stephen
Purpose: There is an ongoing need to develop assessments of spontaneous speech that focus on whether the child's utterances are comprehensible to listeners. This study sought to identify the attributes of a stable ratings-based measure of speech comprehensibility, which enabled examining the criterion-related validity of an orthography-based…
Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi
Full Text Available Communication disorder is a widespread disabling problems and associated with adverse, long term outcome that impact on individuals, families and academic achievement of children in the school years and affect vocational choices later in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of speech disorders specifically stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders in primary school students in Iran-Yazd. In a descriptive study, 7881 primary school students in Yazd evaluated in view from of speech disorders with use of direct and face to face assessment technique in 2005. The prevalence of total speech disorders was 14.8% among whom 13.8% had speech-sound disorder, 1.2% stuttering and 0.47% voice disorder. The prevalence of speech disorders was higher than in males (16.7% as compared to females (12.7%. Pattern of prevalence of the three speech disorders was significantly different according to gender, parental education and by number of family member. There was no significant difference across speech disorders and birth order, religion and paternal consanguinity. These prevalence figures are higher than more studies that using parent or teacher reports.
Adrian Cantemir Călin
Full Text Available During the last years the monetary policy initiatives of the main central banks have been profoundly influenced by quantitative easing (QE. Blessing, curse, effective instruments or a simple fad, these unconventional measures have occupied the center stage of academic and public attention. In this context, this paper focuses on a wide set of public speeches delivered by officials belonging to the most relevant central banks. These statements cover a large pallet of topics including areas such as QE, tapering, financial stability, unemployment or interest rates. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact that these speeches have on the volatility of exchange rates. For this purpose, the methodology relies on an econometric event study that incorporates three volatility models and intraday five-minute frequencies. The results indicate the fact that public statements have a clear, evident, significant and robust impact on the observed assets.
Vacca, Richard S.; Hudgins, H. C., Jr.
Summarizes the historical background of First Amendment law from "Tinker v. Des Moines" (1969) to "Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier" (1988). Examines the Supreme Court's most recent decisions on related matters as well as lower court decisions involving bias-motivated speech on campus. Offers specific suggestions for public school…
Hairston, Thomas W.
The purpose of this critical discourse analysis is to examine how the political speeches and statements of President Barack Obama knowingly or unknowingly continue practices and policies of White privilege within educational policy and practice by constructing education in a neoliberal frame. With presidents having the ability to communicate…
Sersen, William J.
The main objective of this research was to test an authentic-speech technique for improving the sound-recognition skills of EFL (English as a foreign language) students at Roi-Et Rajabhat University. The secondary objective was to determine the correlation, if any, between students' self-evaluation of sound-recognition progress and the actual…
The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the activity-based oral expression course on the speech self-efficacy of psychological counseling and guidance students. The study group included 80 freshmen students in the Psychological Counseling and Guidance Department in the Faculty of Education of a university located in western…
Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.
Purpose: The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with…
Nelson, Lori A.
Speech-language pathology literature is limited in describing the clinical practicum process from the student perspective. Much of the supervision literature in this field focuses on quantitative research and/or the point of view of the supervisor. Understanding the student experience serves to enhance the quality of clinical supervision. Of…
This study investigates how the dynamics of students' voice can be productively brought into teaching situations. I have researched the conditions required for constructive freedom of speech, within art education. I explored the potential for vocal peer assessment and for students' ownership of their educational experiences, for the…
Calderwood, Kimberly; Degenhardt, Jonathan
This ethnographic study describes the results of a collaborative journaling process that occurred between a student and his instructor of a second-year social work communications course. Many questions from the student's and the instructor's perspectives are raised regarding accommodating the student with a severe speech impairment in a course that specifically focuses on communication skills. Preliminary recommendations are made for social work students and professionals with communication limitations, and for social work educators.
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to describe frequency of speech disorders in primary school students.
Methods. In a cross-sectional study 300 first and second grade primary school students were examined for speech disorders.
Results. From 300 subjects, 280 were normal (without speech disorders, 15 had articulation disorders, 2 had voice disorders, 3 had resonance disorders and no one had fluency disorders.
Discussion. The findings of this study are supported by fomer study in other countries, except frequency of fluency disorders which may due to low sample size of present study.
Franca, Maria Claudia; Smith, Linda McCabe; Nichols, Jane Luanne; Balan, Dianna Santos
Academic education in speech-language pathology should prepare students to provide professional services that mirror current knowledge, skills, and scope of practice in a pluralistic society. This study seeks to examine the impact of speech-language pathology (SLP) students prior multicultural experiences and previous formal education on attitudes and beliefs toward language diversity. A survey to investigate SLP students attitudes toward language diversity was applied. After the research study and instructions to complete the consent form questionnaire was presented by a research assistant, an announcement was given by a graduate student who speaks English as a second language with an accent. The participants then completed a questionnaire containing questions related to attitudes about the presentation of the announcement in particular and toward language diversity in general. Responses suggested a relationship between self-reported cultural bias and ability to concentrate on speech with an accent, and the extent of interaction with individuals from a cultural and linguistic diverse (CLD) background. Additional outcomes revealed that cultural bias may be predicted by factors related to amount of CLD exposure. Results of this study indicated critical areas that need to be considered when developing curricula in speech-language pathology programs. The results will be useful in determining procedures applicable in larger investigations, and encourage future research on attitudes and beliefs toward aspects of cultural diversity.
Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Joshi, Gauri S.; Sheikh, Waseem; Schleppenbach, Dave
This project explored a newly developed computer-based voice input, speech output (VISO) calculator. Three high school students with visual impairments educated at a state school for the blind and visually impaired participated in the study. The time they took to complete assessments and the average number of attempts per problem were recorded…
Dagley, Amy L.; Weiler, Spencer C.
The purpose of this legal analysis was to determine if there was evidence suggesting that courts, when ruling on off-campus student speech cases that result in on-campus discipline, take into consideration the degree of discipline imposed by school officials. The analysis consisted of reviewing the 34 adjudicated and published cases that…
Sheepway, Lyndal; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue
Background: Speech-language pathology students gain experience and clinical competency through clinical education placements. However, currently little empirical information exists regarding how competency develops. Existing research about the effectiveness of placement types and models in developing competency is generally descriptive and based…
Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.
This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…
Mire, Stephen P.; Montgomery, Judy K.
The concept of early intervening services was introduced into public school systems with the implementation of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004. This article describes a program developed for students with speech sound disorders that incorporated concepts of early intervening services, response to…
As allied health professions change over time to keep up with and reflect a rapidly changing society, it is quite possible that the people attracted to the profession may also change. If this is the case, then knowing this could be critical for future workforce marketing, training and planning. The aim was to investigate whether the personality of students entering a speech-language pathology (SLP) program had changed over time and whether there were generational differences in personality. The study used the Big Five personality inventory to consider whether there were differences in the personality in speech-language pathology (SLP) students enrolled in the same regional university in Australia in 2005 and 2016. The results showed there were significant differences between the two groups on the Agreeableness and Extroversion scales. The students who were more Conscientious were also more Confident in their ability to perform as an SLP. Generational differences across the two cohorts were also considered. SLP is a dynamic profession that is reflected through an evolving scope of practice, increasing utilization of technology and specialization. As careers evolve it is logical that the people attracted to those careers may also shift; as demonstrated here via changes in the personality of SLP students. Understanding the personality of current SLP students and future Generation Z students may assist universities to identify specific skills and experiences students need to be successful in the workforce. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Felsher, L; Ross, E
The purpose of the present study was to survey and compare the knowledge and attitudes of final year occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech-language therapy students, concerning the role of the speech-language therapist as a member of the stroke rehabilitation team in the hospital setting. In order to achieve this aim, a questionnaire was administered to final year students in these three disciplines, and included questions on most areas of stroke rehabilitation with which the speech-language therapist might be involved, as well as the concepts of rehabilitation and teamwork in relation to stroke rehabilitation. Results suggested a fairly good understanding of the concepts of rehabilitation and teamwork. Students appeared to have a greater understanding of those disorders following a stroke, with which the speech-language therapist is commonly involved, such as Aphasia, Dysarthria, Verbal Apraxia and Dysphagia. However, students appeared to show less understanding of those disorders post-stroke, for which the speech-language therapist's role is less well defined, such as Agraphia, Alexia and Amnesia. In addition, a high percentage of role duplication/overlapping in several aspects of stroke rehabilitation, such as family and social support, was found. Several implications for facilitating communication, collaboration and understanding between paramedical professions, as well as for further research are also provided.
Saldert, Charlotta; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena
This study aims to explore the effects of an interactive workshop involving speech-language pathology students on medical students' knowledge about communication in relation to speech-language disorders. Fifty-nine medical students received a lecture about speech-language disorders. Twenty-six of them also participated in a workshop on communication with patients with speech-language disorders. All students completed a 12-item questionnaire exploring knowledge and attitudes towards communication before and after the lecture or the workshop. The results from the two groups' self-ratings of confidence in knowledge were compared with expert-ratings of their ability to choose suitable communicative strategies. Both the lecture and the workshop increased the students' confidence in knowledge about speech-language disorders and how to support communication. Only the workshop group also displayed a statistically significant increase in expert-rated ability and changed their attitude regarding responsibility for the communication in cases of speech-language disorders. There were no statistically significant correlations between the student's own confidence ratings and the experts' ratings of ability. Increased confidence in knowledge from learning is not always reflected in actual knowledge in how to communicate. However, an interactive workshop proved to increase medical students' expert-rated ability and attitudes related to communication in cases of speech-language disorders.
Elena Nicolaevna Klemenova
Full Text Available The article describes the experience in teaching the course “Social and Speech Communication”. As the result of training the students are to master the arsenal of means for effective communication, the base of which turns out to be linguistic communication and its bearer that is the language personality, get knowledge about complex processes of information exchange, discover the psychological peculiarities of verbal and non-verbal communication, learn how to communicate for solving professional and personal problems.The skill of fluent mastering all kinds of speech activity, the skill of correct and intellectual communication in various spheres and structures, the skill of speech event linguistic analysis including from the point of view of their esthetical value represent the unity of systemic and individual approach in the sphere of humanitarian training for future architects, designers and managers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-43
Morrison, Susan C; Lincoln, Michelle A; Reed, Vicki A
In the discipline of speech-language pathology little is known about the explicit and implicit team skills taught within university curricula. This study surveyed 281 speech-language pathology students to determine a baseline of their perceived ability to participate in interprofessional teams. The students were enrolled in programs in Australia and the USA and were surveyed about their perceptions of their attitudes, knowledge and skills in teamwork. MANCOVA analysis for main effects of age, university program and clinical experience showed that age was not significant, negating the perception that life experiences improve perceived team skills. Clinical experience was significant in that students with more clinical experience rated themselves more highly on their team abilities. Post Hoc analysis revealed that Australian students rated themselves higher than their US counterparts on their knowledge about working on teams, but lower on attitudes to teams; all students perceived that they had the skills to work on teams. These results provide insight about teamwork training components in current speech-language pathology curricula. Implications are discussed with reference to enhancing university training programs.
Elliot, L B; Stinson, M S; McKee, B G; Everhart, V S; Francis, P J
C-Print is a real-time speech-to-text transcription system used as a support service with deaf students in mainstreamed classes. Questionnaires were administered to 36 college students in 32 courses in which the C-Print system was used in addition to interpreting and note taking. Twenty-two of these students were also interviewed. Questionnaire items included student ratings of lecture comprehension. Student ratings indicated good comprehension with C-Print, and the mean rating was significantly higher than that for understanding of the interpreter. Students also rated the hard copy printout provided by C-Print as helpful, and they reported that they used these notes more frequently than the handwritten notes from a paid student note taker. Interview results were consistent with those for the questionnaire. Questionnaire and interview responses regarding use of C-Print as the only support service indicated that this arrangement would be acceptable to many students, but not to others. Communication characteristics were related to responses to the questionnaire. Students who were relatively proficient in reading and writing English, and in speech-reading, responded more favorably to C-Print.
Derman, Serdar; Bardakçi, Mehmet; Öztürk, Mustafa Serkan
Suprasegmental features are essential in conveying meaning; however, they are one of the neglected topics in teaching Turkish as a foreign/second language. This paper aims to examine read speech by Arabic students learning Turkish as a second language and describe their read speech in terms of stress and pause. Within this framework, 34 Syrian…
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the teaching strategies used in the classroom and concerns of teachers in the implementation of large class policy. This study also looked at the perception of teachers in their interaction with their students as well as the perception of students at their teacher’s interaction with them. The six speech communication lecturers and 716 undergraduate students in the 2nd semester of 2014-2015 were the participants of the study. Researchers asked teacher respondents to fill out several questionnaires to identify large class-teaching strategies, gauge teacher-student interaction in large classes and determine personal concerns. One-on-one interview with the teacher respondents was also done to validate the results obtained from surveys. Moreover, they also asked students to fill out the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI to determine their perception of teacher’s interaction in the classroom. The teachers revealed their various large class teaching strategies, the most common of which is the discussion type. Teachers’ perceived classroom interaction with their students were in agreement with that of their students giving higher scores in the types depicting positive interpersonal behavior like leadership and helpfulness and lower scores in the types depicting negative behavior such as dissatisfaction and admonition. Based from the one-on-one interviews, teacher respondents felt lesser interaction with students in the large lecture class compared to the previous small classroom set-up. Results from teachers’ stages of concern profile showed that they were unconcerned on the implementation of large class policy. Some expressed their strong opposition on the policy and had other educational changes in mind that competed for their attention at the time of the study. There were also issues on credit loading and collaboration with recitation teachers raised during interviews.
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the teaching strategies used in the classroom and concerns of teachers in the implementation of large class policy. This study also looked at the perception of teachers in their interaction with their students as well as the perception of students at their teacher’s interaction with them. The six speech communication lecturers and 716 undergraduate students in the 2nd semester of 2014-2015 were the participants of the study. Researchers asked teacher respondents to fill out several questionnaires to identify large class-teaching strategies, gauge teacher-student interaction in large classes and determine personal concerns. One-on-one interview with the teacher respondents was also done to validate the results obtained from surveys. Moreover, they also asked students to fill out the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI to determine their perception of teacher’s interaction in the classroom. The teachers revealed their various large class teaching strategies, the most common of which is the discussion type. Teachers’ perceived classroom interaction with their students were in agreement with that of their students giving higher scores in the types depicting positive interpersonal behavior like leadership and helpfulness and lower scores in the types depicting negative behavior such as dissatisfaction and admonition. Based from the one-on-one interviews, teacher respondents felt lesser interaction with students in the large lecture class compared to the previous small classroom set-up. Results from teachers’ stages of concern profile showed that they were unconcerned on the implementation of large class policy. Some expressed their strong opposition on the policy and had other educational changes in mind that competed for their attention at the time of the study. There were also issues on credit loading and collaboration with recitation teachers raised during interviews.
Papadimos Thomas J
Full Text Available Abstract In his six 1983 lectures published under the title, Fearless Speech (2001, Michel Foucault developed the theme of free speech and its relation to frankness, truth-telling, criticism, and duty. Derived from the ancient Greek word parrhesia, Foucault's analysis of free speech is relevant to the mentoring of medical students. This is especially true given the educational and social need to transform future physicians into able citizens who practice a fearless freedom of expression on behalf of their patients, the public, the medical profession, and themselves in the public and political arena. In this paper, we argue that Foucault's understanding of free speech, or parrhesia, should be read as an ethical response to the American Medical Association's recent educational effort, Initiative to Transform Medical Education (ITME: Recommendations for change in the system of medical education (2007. In this document, the American Medical Association identifies gaps in medical education, emphasizing the need to enhance health system safety and quality, to improve education in training institutions, and to address the inadequacy of physician preparedness in new content areas. These gaps, and their relationship to the ITME goal of promoting excellence in patient care by implementing reform in the US system of medical education, call for a serious consideration and use of Foucault's parrhesia in the way that medical students are trained and mentored.
Marshall, J; Goldbart, J; Phillips, J; Evans, R
Informal evidence suggests that many overseas speech and language therapists (SLTs) either do not return to their home country on qualification or do not work as SLTs in the public sector. Many factors may contribute to this situation. However, concern that it may result in part from a poor match between UK SLT education and the demands of the role in other countries, led the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) to fund a study of overseas SLT students' experiences of UK qualifying courses. The study involved questionnaires and interviews with current students and those qualifying since May 1994. The focus of this paper is the respondents' experiences of studying and working in the UK, their views of the advantages and disadvantages of working in their home countries and the UK and supportive strategies that UK universities and other agencies might adopt. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Chenneville, Tiffany; Jordan, Cary
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether having a graded attendance policy would have an effect on course attendance among college students, and (b) to examine beliefs about education and attendance policies among college students. Results support the utility of graded attendance policies for increasing class attendance…
Gary G. Huang
Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The purpose of this research is to study the standardization of speaking and reading rates in a group of normal speaker of female students, and to compare them. As the rate of speech is an important variable in the evaluation and treatment of stuttering, cluttering, dysarthria and apraxia. Materials and Method: One hundred of second grade students of primary school and an equal number of fifth grade students participated in this study. All subjects were native speakers of Farsi, who passed an informal, screening test of articulation and speech. None of the subjects had a history of speech, hearing, or neurological disorders. The subjects were asked to read from the 180 words portion of their Farsi book and tell story. Their speech was recorded by using a tape recorder. Then the data were analyzed for word and syllable rate. In transcribing the samples, single morpheme was counted as single word and compound words were counted as two words if they had two free morphemes. Non-word interjections were excluded from word and syllable counts while word interjections and repeated words were included in the count. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used for analyzing. Results: In the second grade students the reading rate is, on the average, 189.4 syllable per minute (SPM(94.9 word per minute(WPM, 3.1 syllable per second(SPS and the talking rate is 189.8 SPM (99.1 WPM, 3.1 SPS and in the fifth grade student the reading rate is 223.9 SPM (119.0 WPM, 3.7SPS and the talking rate is 210.26 SPM (109.5 WPM , 3.4 SPS. Conclusion: The result highlight that in the fifth grade students, reading rates are higher than talking rates while in the second grade they are not, because they do not have enough skills for whole word reading. A remarkable finding in this research is that, reading and talking rates in the fifth grade students are higher than the second grade students.
Pamplona, María del Carmen; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Sarre, Pilar; Morales, Santiago; Sterling, Mariana
Mentoring programs can boost Speech & Language (SL) pathologists' satisfaction about their clinical skills, increasing their professional competence. A quality induction program provides a bridge for an efficient and comfortable transition between theoretical knowledge and clinical practice in front of clients. This transition can be especially difficult when the SL pathologist confronts patients with cleft palate. To study whether a mentoring program can improve SL Pathology students' performance for treating patients with cleft palate. 18 SL Pathology students coursing the third year of a SL Pathology graduate program volunteered for participating in the study. The students were divided in two groups. All SL students from both groups were equally supervised. The students were followed for two semesters during their participation in the SL Pathology intervention for patients with cleft palate. The only difference between the students from each group was that one group (active group) was mentored by an experienced SLP who had previously received specific training to become a mentor. All SL students were assessed at the onset and at the end of the study. The assessment was performed through an analysis according to a previously validated scale (Learning Continuum of Speech & Language pathologists). A Wilcoxon test demonstrated a significant improvement (P<0.05) in the levels of The Learning Continuum of Speech & Language Pathologists at the end of the follow-up period in both groups of students. When the levels of performance at the end were compared between groups, a Mann Whitney test demonstrated a significant difference (P<0.05). The students included in the active group who were receiving additional mentoring besides the usual clinical supervision, showed a greater improvement as compared with the students from the control group. Learning how to conduct an adequate and effective intervention in cleft palate patients from an integral stand point is not easy for
This article juxtaposes "world culture" and "policy borrowing and lending" literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China's student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China's landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011,…
Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie
Background: The speech and language therapy profession is required to provide services to increasingly multilingual caseloads. Much international research has focused on the challenges of speech and language therapists' (SLTs) practice with multilingual children. Aims: To draw on the experience and knowledge of experts in the field to: (1)…
Speech-language pathologists provide infant feeding assessment and intervention; their training in breastfeeding management is highly variable. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate student attitudes toward breastfeeding and self-identified factors in attitude change. Before and after their course in pediatric dysphagia, two cohorts of graduate students in speech-language pathology ( N = 36) completed an assignment designed to capture qualitative and quantitative data on changes in their attitudes toward breastfeeding. Students rated their reactions to two hypothetical breastfeeding scenarios before and after the class, which included multiple sources of information on the importance of human milk and on breastfeeding management. Additionally, they completed a postclass reflection describing the nature of any changes in their attitudes toward breastfeeding and their ideas about the factors that were responsible for these changes. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to assess quantitative results; the qualitative data were evaluated via content analysis to identify themes. Significant positive changes in student attitudes were measured at the completion of the course. Students identified parents' stories as a particularly compelling component of their increased openness to breastfeeding. Attitudes toward breastfeeding may improve significantly over a relatively short period of time following a targeted intervention. Implications for lactation consultants and continuing education providers are discussed.
Koutsodimitropoulos, Ellen; Buultjens, Melissa; St Louis, Kenneth O; Monfries, Melissa
Stuttering is a disorder of fluency that extends beyond its physical nature and has social, emotional and vocational impacts. Research shows that individuals often exhibit negative attitudes towards people who stutter; however, there is limited research on the attitudes and beliefs of speech pathology students towards people who stutter in Australia. Existing research is predominantly quantitative; whereas this mixed-method study placed an emphasis on the qualitative component. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and beliefs of final year Australian speech pathology students towards people who stutter. This mixed-method study applied the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes - Stuttering (POSHA-S) and semi-structured interviews to gather data from final year speech pathology students from a major university in Australia. The overall qualitative findings identified that final year Australian speech pathology students exhibit positive attitudes towards people who stutter. The results also illustrated the role of education in influencing attitudes of students as well as increasing their confidence to work with people who stutter. This research revealed that Australian final year speech pathology students exhibit positive attitudes towards people who stutter. They displayed an understanding that people who stutter may have acquired traits such as shyness as a response to their personal situation and environment, rather than those traits being endemic to them. Results also suggested that education can play a role in creating confident student clinicians in their transition to practice, and positively influence their attitudes and beliefs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Interaction, if not wisely considered, may be very risky. The unwise utterances may lead to misunderstanding. When this happens, pragmatic failure is of great possibility occur. This writing is aimed at describing the some variations of speech seqeunces in doing request and the reasons of using each variation. The data are the request uttered by English Department students Andalas University to their friends, their lecturer and vice versa at the campus. Data are collected by observational method, interviewing and note-taking technique. To analyze the data, pragmatic and referential identity method is used. The result of analysis is naratively and descriptively presented. Having been related to the concept of speech act of request (Revita, 2008 and context (Yule, 1986, it is found that there are four variations of speech sequence when English Department students do request. They are (a (1 1 in 1; (b 2 in 1; (c 3 in 1; and (d multi acts in 1. The choice of these variations is basically based on several reasons, namely (i social; (iipsychological; (iii cultural ; and (iv religious aspect.
Wood, Sarah G.; Moxley, Jerad H.; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.
Text-to-speech and related read-aloud tools are being widely implemented in an attempt to assist students' reading comprehension skills. Read-aloud software, including text-to-speech, is used to translate written text into spoken text, enabling one to listen to written text while reading along. It is not clear how effective text-to-speech is at…
Attrill, Stacie; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue
Increasing the proportion of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students and providing intercultural learning opportunities for all students are two strategies identified to facilitate greater access to culturally responsive speech-language pathology services. To enact these strategies, more information is needed about student diversity. This study collected descriptive information about CALD speech-language pathology students in Australia. Cultural and linguistic background information was collected through surveying 854 domestic and international speech-language pathology students from three Australian universities. Students were categorised according to defined or perceived CALD status, international student status, speaking English as an Additional Language (EAL), or speaking a Language Other than English at Home (LOTEH). Overall, 32.1% of students were either defined or perceived CALD. A total of 14.9% spoke EAL and 25.7% identified speaking a LOTEH. CALD students were more likely to speak EAL or a LOTEH than non-CALD students, were prominently from Southern and South-Eastern Asian backgrounds and spoke related languages. Many students reported direct or indirect connections with their cultural heritage and/or contributed linguistic diversity. These students may represent broader acculturative experiences in communities. The sociocultural knowledge and experience of these students may provide intercultural learning opportunities for all students and promote culturally responsive practices.
Spek, B; Wieringa-de Waard, M; Lucas, C; van Dijk, N
The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness actually to use EBP principles in their future profession not only depends on EBP knowledge and skills, but also on self-efficacy and task value students perceive towards EBP. To investigate the relation between EBP knowledge and skills, and EBP self-efficacy and task value in different year groups of Dutch SLT students. Students from three year groups filled in a tool that measured EBP knowledge and skills: the Dutch Modified Fresno (DMF). EBP self-efficacy and task value were assessed by using a 20-item questionnaire. Both tools were validated for this population. Mean scores for the three year groups were calculated and tested for group differences using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post-hoc Games-Howell procedure. With a multiple linear regression technique it was assessed whether EBP self-efficacy and task value predict learning achievement scores on the DMF. Other possible predictors included in the model were: level of prior education, standard of English, having had mathematics in prior education and the SLT study year. A total of 149 students filled in both measurement tools. Mean scores on EBP knowledge and skills were significantly different for the three year groups, with students who were further along their studies scoring higher on the DMF. Mean scores on the EBP self-efficacy and task value questionnaire were the same for the three year groups: all students valued EBP positive but self-efficacy was low in all groups. Of the possible predictors, only the year in which students study and EBP self-efficacy were significant predictors for learning achievements in EBP. Despite a significant increase in EBP knowledge and skills over the years as assessed by
Full Text Available This study is part of a series of Classroom Action Research conducted with the aim of improving the English speech of students in one of the tertiary institutes in Indonesia. After some years of teaching English conversation, the writer noted that students made various types of errors in their speech, which can be classified generally into morphological, phonological, and lexical. While some of the errors are still generally acceptable, some others elicit laughter or inhibit comprehension altogether. Therefore, the writer is keen to analyze the more common errors made by the students, so as to be able to compile a teaching material that could be utilized to address those errors more effectively in future classes. This research used Error Analysis by Richards (1971 as the basis of classification. It was carried out in five classes with a total number of 80 students for a period of one semester (14 weeks. The results showed that most of the errors were phonological (errors in pronunciation, while others were morphological or grammatical in nature. This prompted the writer to design simple Phonics lessons for future classes.
Behavioural studies form an essential component of the Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) undergraduate degree. This study aimed to produce online teaching material in behavioural studies suitable for undergraduate SLT students, explore students' views on the online material, record their performance when taught through this innovative method and compare their performance to a group taught through the traditional lecture based method. Finally, it aimed to explore the relationship between engagement with the module and performance. SLT students completed an online health psychology/sociology module and their performance was compared to students who completed a traditional lecture based course. Student evaluations of the online course were also recorded as was their engagement with the online module. Results suggested that there was no significant difference between students taught through an online medium compared to those taught through "traditional lectures". An evaluation survey suggested that students appeared to enjoy the material although there was some reluctance to develop an independent learning style. Online learning has a great deal to offer SLT education. However, material has to be developed that can both engage and motivate learners, thereby enhancing student independent learning.
Nadasdi, Terry; Vickerman, Alison
Our study examines the extent to which French immersion students use lax /?/ in the same linguistic context as native speakers of Canadian French. Our results show that the lax variant is vanishingly rare in the speech of immersion students and is used by only a small minority of individuals. This is interpreted as a limitation of French immersion…
Purves, Barbara A; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria
In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that was implemented as part of a speech-language pathology graduate program. Qualitative research methods with thematic analysis of interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and participant observation were used to develop a description of the mentoring program, including the experiences and perspectives of the participants-both mentors (people with chronic aphasia) and students. Five themes, including getting better, aphasia advocacy, group as versus for therapy, we're a team, and focus on mentoring, emerged from the mentors' data. Five themes, including shifting the power dynamic, getting to know the person, seeing members as mentors, making classroom learning real, and connecting with a community, emerged from the students' data. There were significant overlaps and intersections between the 2 data sets. Findings revealed how an aphasia mentoring program that positions people with aphasia as experts can make a significant contribution to student education while supporting mentors' own goals, with implications for improved quality of life.
Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.
Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…
Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Evans, Ruth
Informal evidence suggests that many Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) students from outside of the UK and/or Republic of Ireland who come to the UK either do not return to their home country on qualification or do not practise as SLTs in the public sector. Many factors may contribute to this situation. Concern that it may result in part from a poor match between UK SLT education and the demands of the role in other countries led the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) to fund a study of international SLT students' experiences of UK qualifying courses. To discover and describe the experiences, views and expectations of current and past international students studying SLT in the UK and past international students' experiences, views and expectations of practising as SLTS, both inside and outside the UK. To consider the implications of the findings for (1) international students planning to work as SLTs; (2) UK SLT students planning to practise outside the UK; and (3) all those involved in SLT education: educational institutions; supervising SLTs; RCSLT. The study involved distributing 166 postal questionnaires (some directly to (ex)students and some to their Higher Education Institutes, or HEIs) and carrying out 23 interviews, with both current students and those qualifying since May 1994. Quantitative analysis was carried out using SPSS using descriptive statistics. Qualitative analysis used content and thematic analyses. Seventy-one questionnaires were received from current and past students, representing a minimum response rate of 43%. (It was not possible to verify exactly how many questionnaires were distributed by HEIs.) The results describe the diverse range of respondents' experiences of studying and working in the UK, their views of working in their home countries and the UK, and their suggestions about strategies that might be adopted to support them further. The results revealed that students come from a wide diversity of countries
Finch, Emma; Fleming, Jennifer; Brown, Kyla; Lethlean, Jennifer; Cameron, Ashley; McPhail, Steven M
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that can present a significant barrier to patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are viewed as experts in the field of communication. However, many SLP students do not receive practical training in techniques to communicate with people with aphasia (PWA) until they encounter PWA during clinical education placements. This study investigated the confidence and knowledge of SLP students in communicating with PWA prior to clinical placements using a customised questionnaire. Confidence in communicating with people with aphasia was assessed using a 100-point visual analogue scale. Linear, and logistic, regressions were used to examine the association between confidence and age, as well as confidence and course type (graduate-entry masters or undergraduate), respectively. Knowledge of strategies to assist communication with PWA was examined by asking respondents to list specific strategies that could assist communication with PWA. SLP students were not confident with the prospect of communicating with PWA; reporting a median 29-points (inter-quartile range 17-47) on the visual analogue confidence scale. Only, four (8.2%) of respondents rated their confidence greater than 55 (out of 100). Regression analyses indicated no relationship existed between confidence and students' age (p = 0.31, r-squared = 0.02), or confidence and course type (p = 0.22, pseudo r-squared = 0.03). Students displayed limited knowledge about communication strategies. Thematic analysis of strategies revealed four overarching themes; Physical, Verbal Communication, Visual Information and Environmental Changes. While most students identified potential use of resources (such as images and written information), fewer students identified strategies to alter their verbal communication (such as reduced speech rate). SLP students who had received aphasia related theoretical coursework, but not commenced clinical placements
Background Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that can present a significant barrier to patient involvement in healthcare decisions. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are viewed as experts in the field of communication. However, many SLP students do not receive practical training in techniques to communicate with people with aphasia (PWA) until they encounter PWA during clinical education placements. Methods This study investigated the confidence and knowledge of SLP students in communicating with PWA prior to clinical placements using a customised questionnaire. Confidence in communicating with people with aphasia was assessed using a 100-point visual analogue scale. Linear, and logistic, regressions were used to examine the association between confidence and age, as well as confidence and course type (graduate-entry masters or undergraduate), respectively. Knowledge of strategies to assist communication with PWA was examined by asking respondents to list specific strategies that could assist communication with PWA. Results SLP students were not confident with the prospect of communicating with PWA; reporting a median 29-points (inter-quartile range 17–47) on the visual analogue confidence scale. Only, four (8.2%) of respondents rated their confidence greater than 55 (out of 100). Regression analyses indicated no relationship existed between confidence and students‘ age (p = 0.31, r-squared = 0.02), or confidence and course type (p = 0.22, pseudo r-squared = 0.03). Students displayed limited knowledge about communication strategies. Thematic analysis of strategies revealed four overarching themes; Physical, Verbal Communication, Visual Information and Environmental Changes. While most students identified potential use of resources (such as images and written information), fewer students identified strategies to alter their verbal communication (such as reduced speech rate). Conclusions SLP students who had received aphasia related
Mazer, Joseph P.; Titsworth, Scott
Authors of basic public-speaking course textbooks frequently encourage students to select speech topics in which they have vested interest, care deeply about, and hold strong opinions and beliefs. This study explores students' level of ego-involvement with informative and persuasive speech topics, examines possible ego-involvement predictors of…
This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of using the high-tech speech-generating device with Proloquo2Go app to reduce echolalic utterances in a student with autism during conversational speech. After observing that the iPad device with several apps was used by the students and that it served as a communication device, language…
Snyder, Jason; Frank, Lisa A. C.
The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across five sections of a managerial communication course (N = 150) to test the role of course policies and student perceptions of the instructor in influencing student absenteeism and three indicators of student learning: grades, affective learning, and cognitive learning. The experimental group…
Full Text Available The aim of the study was twofold: to describe self-reported habits of ICT use in every-day life and to analyze feelings and behavior triggered by ICT and speech deprivation. The study was conducted on three randomly selected groups of students with different tasks: Without Speaking (W/S group (n=10 spent a day without talking to anyone; Without Technology (W/T group (n=13 spent a day without using any kind of ICT, while the third group was a control group (n=10 and had no restrictions. The participants’ task in all groups was to write a diary detailing their feelings, thoughts and behaviors related to their group’s conditions. Before the experiment, students reported their ICT related habits. Right after groups were assigned, they reported their task-related impressions. During the experiment, participants wrote diary records at three time-points. All participants used ICT on a daily basis, and most were online all the time. Dominant ICT activities were communication with friends and family, studying, followed by listening to music and watching films. Speech deprivation was a more difficult task compared to ICT deprivation, resulting in more drop-outs and more negative emotions. However, participants in W/S expected the task to be difficult, and some of them actually reported positive experiences, but for others it was a very difficult, lonesome and terrifying experience. About half of the students in W/T claimed that the task was more difficult than they had expected, and some of them realized that they are dysfunctional without technology, and probably addicted to it.
Couch, Stephanie; Zieba, Dominique; van der Merwe, Anita
Background As a professional voice user, it is imperative that a speech-language pathologist's (SLP) vocal effectiveness remain consistent throughout the day. Many factors may contribute to reduced vocal effectiveness, including prolonged voice use, vocally abusive behaviours, poor vocal hygiene and environmental factors. Objectives To determine the effect of service delivery on the perceptual and acoustic features of voice. Method A quasi-experimental., pre-test–post-test research design was used. Participants included third- and final-year speech-language pathology students at the University of Pretoria (South Africa). Voice parameters were evaluated in a pre-test measurement, after which the participants provided two consecutive hours of therapy. A post-test measurement was then completed. Data analysis consisted of an instrumental analysis in which the multidimensional voice programme (MDVP) and the voice range profile (VRP) were used to measure vocal parameters and then calculate the dysphonia severity index (DSI). The GRBASI scale was used to conduct a perceptual analysis of voice quality. Data were processed using descriptive statistics to determine change in each measured parameter after service delivery. Results A change of clinical significance was observed in the acoustic and perceptual parameters of voice. Conclusion Guidelines for SLPs in order to maintain optimal vocal effectiveness were suggested. PMID:26304213
Skebo, Crysten M.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison Avrich; Stein, Catherine M.
Purpose The relationship between phonological awareness, overall language, vocabulary, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills to decoding and reading comprehension was examined for students at 3 stages of literacy development (i.e., early elementary school, middle school, and high school). Students with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without language impairment (LI) were compared to students without histories of SSD or LI (typical language; TL). Method In a cross-sectional design, students ages 7;0 (years; months) to 17;9 completed tests that measured reading, language, and nonlinguistic cognitive skills. Results For the TL group, phonological awareness predicted decoding at early elementary school, and overall language predicted reading comprehension at early elementary school and both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and high school. For the SSD-only group, vocabulary predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at early elementary school, and overall language predicted both decoding and reading comprehension at middle school and decoding at high school. For the SSD and LI group, overall language predicted decoding at all 3 literacy stages and reading comprehension at early elementary school and middle school, and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension at high school. Conclusion Although similar skills contribute to reading across the age span, the relative importance of these skills changes with children’s literacy stages. PMID:23833280
Full Text Available In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland’s ratification of the United Nations Charter on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC in 1992. Initially emerging in policy from a rights-based and democratic citizenship perspective, the student council became the principal construct for student voice in Irish post-primary schools. While central to the policy discourse, the student council construct has become tokenistic and redundant in practice. School evaluation policy, both external and internal, became a further catalyst for student voice in Ireland. Both processes further challenge and contest the motivation for student voice and point to the concept as an instrument for school improvement and performativity that lacks any centrality for a person-centered, rights-based, dialogic and consultative student voice within an inclusive classroom and school culture.
Higgins, Eleanor L.; Raskind, Marshall H.
Thirty-seven college students with learning disabilities were given a reading comprehension task under the following conditions: (1) using an optical character recognition/speech synthesis system; (2) having the text read aloud by a human reader; or (3) reading silently without assistance. Findings indicated that the greater the disability, the…
Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Sanger, Dixie
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of principals concerning the role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving students with communication disorders who have been involved in violence. Method: A mixed methods design involving 678 questionnaires was mailed to elementary, middle, and high school principals in a…
Arneback, Emma; Quennerstedt, Ann
This article explores how racism is located in an educational policy chain and identifies how its interpretation changes throughout the chain. A basic assumption is that the policy formation process can be seen as a chain in which international, national and local policies are "links"--separate entities yet joined. With Sweden as the…
The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish
Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark
The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…
Miskovic, Maja; Curcic, Svjetlana
This paper investigates the policies and politics of including European Roma students in mainstream educational systems within the context of two European Union (EU) policies: the Decade of Roma Inclusion (2005-2015) and EU National Roma Integration Strategies (2013-2020). Drawing on the scholarship about inclusion and its practical achievements,…
McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The aims of this study were threefold: to report teachers' estimates of the prevalence of speech disorders (specifically, stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders); to consider correspondence between the prevalence of speech disorders and gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status; and to describe the level of support provided to…
McLellan, Carlton E.
This paper explores the policy implications of experiences of African international students (AIS) studying at post-apartheid South Africa universities. It argues that given the spirit and tone of continental, regional, and domestic policies to which South Africa has committed that at the very least there is an implicit expectation of…
Van Hal, Guido; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Stock, Christiane
BACKGROUND: Many studies indicate that a substantial part of the student population drinks excessively, yet most European universities do not have an alcohol policy. In the absence of an alcohol guideline at universities and the easy access to alcohol sold at the student cafeteria, for instance, ...
Warden, Michael L.
Since 1957 the Department of Defense has subjected all forms of speech of U.S. military personnel meant for publication to prepublication review based on security and policy criteria. The historical development of the Defense Department's prepublication review program and its specific implementation by the U.S. Air Force lead to questions of First…
Lindhe, Christina; Hartelius, Lena
The aim of the study was to describe the subjective ratings of the course 'Training of the student's own voice and speech', from a student-centred perspective. A questionnaire was completed after each of the six individual sessions. Six speech and language pathology (SLP) students rated how they perceived the practical exercises in terms of doing and understanding. The results showed that five of the six participants rated the exercises as significantly easier to understand than to do. The exercises were also rated as easier to do over time. Results are interpreted within in a theoretical framework of approaches to learning. The findings support the importance of both the physical and reflective aspects of the voice training process.
Ruble, Lisa; Birdwhistell, Jessie; Toland, Michael D; McGrew, John H
The significant increase in the numbers of students with autism combined with the need for better trained teachers (National Research Council, 2001) call for research on the effectiveness of alternative methods, such as consultation, that have the potential to improve service delivery. Data from 2 randomized controlled single-blind trials indicate that an autism-specific consultation planning framework known as the collaborative model for promoting competence and success (COMPASS) is effective in increasing child Individual Education Programs (IEP) outcomes (Ruble, Dal-rymple, & McGrew, 2010; Ruble, McGrew, & Toland, 2011). In this study, we describe the verbal interactions, defined as speech acts and speech act exchanges that take place during COMPASS consultation, and examine the associations between speech exchanges and child outcomes. We applied the Psychosocial Processes Coding Scheme (Leaper, 1991) to code speech acts. Speech act exchanges were overwhelmingly affiliative, failed to show statistically significant relationships with child IEP outcomes and teacher adherence, but did correlate positively with IEP quality.
Cohen, S A
With the support of the Republican leadership of the US House of Representatives, Representative Chris Smith of New Jersey continues to attempt to limit provision of US family planning (FP) funding to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) who agree to enforce absolute prohibitions on engaging in abortion-related activities. Despite the fact that the House is withholding funds to meet US obligations to the UN and to support the International Monetary Fund, US President Clinton refuses to give in to pressure to enforce what amounts to a "gag rule." The Secretary of State explains that Clinton has no intention of punishing organizations engaging in free-speech protected democratic activities in foreign countries. Smith has offered a self-styled "compromise" that would allow Clinton to waive disqualification for a foreign NGO offering abortion services with its own funds in compliance with the laws of its country. This waiver would penalize the international FP program by $44 million and would not apply to the broad prohibitions against abortion lobbying (including lobbying for changes in laws, sponsoring conferences and workshops on "alleged" defects in abortion laws, and drafting and distributing materials or public statements on "alleged defects"). Smith's emphasis on the "lobbying" ban has widened the issue from a debate on abortion to a debate on democracy and free speech. Opposition to Smith's proposal is, thus, rising in many quarters. Smith also endorses withholding US contributions to the UN Population Fund because the fund has resumed work in China.
Vinney, Lisa A; Howles, Les; Leverson, Glen; Connor, Nadine P
This study examined whether undergraduate college students' immediate recall and longer-term retention of introductory voice disorder concepts improved by using mini quiz games (MQGs; interactive knowledge tests in game format) compared with (a) traditional study alone, (b) MQGs and traditional study together, or (c) a no-study control condition. Ninety-three college students participated in proctored sessions in which they were given a pretest, viewed an online lecture on introductory voice disorder concepts, and then engaged in either no intervention or interventions including traditional study, MQG play, or both MQG play and traditional study, followed by an immediate recall posttest and longer-term retention follow-up test. Analyses suggested that the effects of all interventions (traditional study, MQG play, and the combination of the 2) were equivalent and resulted in significantly greater improvements from pretest to immediate recall posttest performance than the control condition. In contrast, MQGs and MQGs with traditional study, but not traditional study alone, showed better results for long-term retention than no study. Results provide preliminary support for the idea that there may be multiple effective learning modes, beyond traditional study, that enhance recall and retention of knowledge foundational to speech-language pathology clinical training and practice.
Full Text Available This article deals with the advantages of case-study and its potential in forming the motivation for studying the English language for students of non-linguistic specialities, psychology students in particular. Training future psychologists foreign language communication should involve cases, published in foreign periodicals, and numerous exercises and communicative tasks according to the requirements of the case-technology which is used during their learning process. The studies enable to single out the main criteria of cases selection for the successful formation of foreign speech with the students of psychological faculty.
Gosnell, Natalie M.
In 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and implemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such programs. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female graduate research assistants. (The policy in its entirety can be found at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/grad-students/policies-procedures/medical-and-family-leave-policy.) This is the first of two presentations describing our policy implementation using a "bottom-up" approach, beginning with the graduate students. I will present the perspective of the graduate students who led the effort and will discuss the steps we took to put our policy in place, from the conception of the plan to the full implementation. These steps included identifying faculty allies, becoming knowledgeable about university policies and resources, involving department staff, and anticipating procedural and bureaucratic hurdles in order to come up with creative solutions in advance. Although each individual institution and department's path to implementing a similar plan will be unique, we hope the methods used to implement our policy at UW - Madison may serve as an example.
Full Text Available the paper considers teaching features of English speech grammar aspects. The case studies include undergraduates of mathematical specialties. The content of students’ educational activity at the final stage of language teaching is pointed out. Besides the structure of grammar section, a special didactic training unit in which framework mastering grammar phenomena used in oral speech takes place is described.
Potter, Lee Ann
In this article, director of Educational Outreach at the Library of Congress Lee Ann Potter describes a classroom activity that focuses on an 1876 single-page circular published in Salem, Massachusetts about Alexander Melville Bell's Visible Speech. A. M. Bell's son, Alexander Graham Bell described "Visible Speech" as "a…
Greenwood, Nan; Wright, Jannet A.; Bithell, Christine
Background: Communication disorders affect both sexes and people from all ethnic groups, but members of minority ethnic groups and males in the UK are underrepresented in the speech and language therapy profession. Research in the area of recruitment is limited, but a possible explanation is poor awareness and understanding of speech and language…
Tekieli Koay, Mary Ellen; Lass, Norman J.; Parrill, Madaline; Naeser, Danielle; Babin, Kelly; Bayer, Olivia; Cook, Megan; Elmore, Madeline; Frye, Rachel; Kerwood, Samantha
An extensive Internet search was conducted to obtain pre-admission information and acceptance statistics from 260 graduate programmes in speech-language pathology accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in the United States. ASHA is the national professional, scientific and credentialing association for members and…
Kumagai, Arno K; Jackson, Brittani; Razack, Saleem
Learning the societal roles and responsibilities of the physician may involve difficult, contentious conversations about topics such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and class, as well as violence, inequities, sexual assault, and child abuse. If not done well, these discussions may be deeply traumatizing to learners for whom these subjects "cut close to the bone." Equally traumatizing is exposure to injustice and mistreatment, as well as to the sights, sounds, and smells of suffering and pain in the clinical years. This potential for iatrogenic educational trauma remains unaddressed, and medical educators must take responsibility for attending to it. Possible solutions include trigger warnings or statements given to students before an educational activity that may cause personal discomfort. The authors of this Perspective assert, however, both that this concept does not distinguish between psychological trauma and discomfort and that well-intentioned trigger warnings target the wrong goal-the avoidance of distress. Exposure to discomfort not only is unavoidable in the practice of medicine but may be crucial to personal and professional moral development. The authors argue that a more appropriate solution is to create safe spaces for dialogues about difficult topics and jarring experiences. This approach places even the notion of free speech under a critical lens-it is not an end in itself but a means to create a professional ethic dedicated to treating all individuals with excellence and justice. Ultimately, this approach aspires to create an inclusive curriculum sensitive to the realities of teaching and learning in increasingly diverse societies.
Neonila Vyacheslavovna Ivanova
Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the main provisions of the monitoring system of professional readiness of the future teachers of pre-school education.Methodology. Presented in the paper position monitoring system of professional readiness of students to develop communicative speech bilingual children in the profil «Preschool education» are analized based on the principles: compliance with the general content of the training and disciplinary purposes of vocational training; Unity of its substantive and procedural right; structural integrity of the contents; orientation of its content for the implementation of the system, the personal, the activity, polysubject (Dialogic, cultural approaches.Results. We studid and summarized some of the theoretical and practical aspects, given the scientific substantiation of organizational methods of monitoring of professional readiness of the future teachers to the communicative and language development of preschool children bilingual.Practical implications. Еducational system of higher education.
Abbas Ali Ahangar
Full Text Available Adapting Cross Cultural Speech Act Realization Project (CCSARP taxonomy proposed by Blum-Kulka et al. (1989, this study examines the effect of power and gender of the addressees on the type and number of apology strategies used by (50 Sarawani Baloch male university students (SBMUS.The results, supporting the universality of employing apology strategies, indicate the chosen strategies employed by SBMUS were mostly the same as those used by the participants in other languages mentioned in CCSARP. Nevertheless, SBMUS also employed some different strategies not predicted in that project, reflecting the influence of religious and cultural factors governing Baloch society of Sarawan. Furthermore, power and gender of the addressees mostly does not affect the type and number of apology strategies employed by SBMUS. As to the type and number of strategies, the most frequent strategies were ‘illocutionary force indicating devices’ and the combination of 3 strategies, respectively. It seems that culture, religion, context and the situations in which an apology occurs, have significant effect on the type and number of apology strategies employed by these participants.
Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M; Coniglio, Amy D; Finke, Erinn H; Boyle, Michael P
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primary targets for bullies and victimization. Research shows school personnel may be uneducated about bullying and ways to intervene. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in schools often work with children with ASD and may have victims of bullying on their caseloads. These victims may feel most comfortable turning to SLPs for help during one-to-one treatment sessions to discuss these types of experiences. A nationwide survey mailed to 1000 school-based SLPs, using a vignette design technique, determined perceptions about intervention for bullying and use of specific strategies. Results revealed a majority of the SLPs (89%) responses were in "likely" or "very likely" to intervene categories for all types of bullying (physical, verbal, relational and cyber), regardless of whether the episode was observed or not. A factor analysis was conducted on a 14 item strategy scale for dealing with bullying for children with ASD. Three factors emerged, labeled "Report/Consult", "Educate the Victim", and Reassure the Victim". SLPs providing no services to children with ASD on their caseloads demonstrated significantly lower mean scores for the likelihood of intervention and using select strategies. SLPs may play an important role in reducing and/or eliminating bullying episodes in children with ASD. Readers will be able to (a) explain four different types of bullying, (b) describe the important role of school personnel in reducing and eliminating bullying, (c) describe the perceptions and strategies selected by SLPs to deal with bullying episodes for students with ASD, and (d) outline the potential role of SLPs in assisting students with ASD who are victimized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aaron, Michael D.
The relationship between attendance policies and student grades in college courses was investigated. Specifically, a calculated grade point average was determined for all academic classes taught at Shelton State Community College between 2000 and 2008. These grade point averages were compared descriptively and statistically in an effort to…
Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth
This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…
Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha
Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…
Glaria, Rocio; Carmona, Lorena; Perez, Cristhian; Parra, Paula
To relate engagement and academic burnout with curriculum evaluation among speech therapy students. This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the end of the first academic semester for each level and at the end of a theoretical class in order to ensure the maximum participation rate at the University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile, and comprised students of a speech and language therapy programme.Curriculum evaluation scale, academic engagement and academic burnout questionnaires were used. STATA SE 11 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 200 participants, 157(78.50%) were women and 43(21.50%) men. The overall mean age was 20.81±2.15 years (range: 18-30 years). Emotional burnout was inversely correlated with the evaluation of teaching and evaluation methods, distribution of fields, teaching team and achievement of objectives (pburnout and higher levels of academic engagement.
The article discusses the process of written scientific speech training should include two components: teaching understanding and evaluating texts that make the scientific speech in all its substantive and problematic species and learning the rules of creating texts in the chosen specialty. The idea about functional languages develops in the theory vernaculars among which numerous languages of science take essentially important place; studying of these languages represents the theory and prac...
Lorena Bejarano Beltrán
Full Text Available The Pedagogic practice is the staging of knowledge for consideration and recognition of acquired understanding in the academic and personal level that took place in the Commercial Technical School Manuela Beltran, showing that students present lack of motivation to learn Biology , which is expressed in the limited relationship between reality, scientific concepts together with the technical language. The experiments and innovation are left aside. This is why there is a question in relation to the didactic speech and motivation of seventh and eighth grade students towards Biology. In this way the didactic speech of the teacher has been characterized to allow the identification of elements that facilitate the teaching in terms of motivation. In the same way the space for recognizing the factors that generate in the students pleasure for the subject given, in which the games, the participation and the experiments were aspects that they will like to have in their classes. The present investigation had and interpretative paradigm and a qualitative perspective, such instruments like the nonparticipant observation,six recordings of Biology classes making analyses of information units where categories emerged, as well as a questionnaire applied to 25 students.
Lugg, Elizabeth T.; Paterson, Frances R. A.
This paper is a presentation, in outline form, of the development of the "quasi-nonpublic forum," where cases involving student free speech push the envelope of what is acceptable under Constitutional law and what is appropriate/acceptable student behavior under constraints set by school regulations. Context is set by presenting court…
Spek, B.; Wieringa-de Waard, M.; Lucas, C.; van Dijk, N.
Worldwide speech-language therapy (SLT) students are educated in evidence-based practice (EBP). For students to use EBP in their future day-to-day clinical practice, they must value EBP as positive and must feel confident in using it. For curricula developers it is therefore important to know the
Giangreco, Michael F
When speech-language pathologists provide educationally related services for students with lowincidence disabilities who are placed in inclusive classrooms, they are asked to work with a variety of other adults. The ways in which these adults make decisions about individualizing a student's educational program, determine related services, and coordinate their activities have an impact on educational outcomes for students as well as on interprofessional interactions. This article summarizes a team process for making related services decisions called VISTA (Vermont Interdependent Services Team Approach) and a series of nine research studies pertaining to the use and impact of VISTA. It also addresses related topics, such as team size, consumer perspectives, and paraprofessional supports. Five major implications from these studies are offered concerning (a) developing a disposition of being an ongoing learner, (b) developing a shared framework among team members, (c) having a research-based process to build consensus, (d) clarifying roles, and (e) increasing involvement of families and general education teachers.
achieve these goals, but that it is possible if the State adopts these goals as a national policy and if the Turkish people adopt the same goals as their own.
Mario T Carreon
Full Text Available This paper discusses the Speech and Phoneme Recognition as an Educational Aid for the Deaf and Hearing Impaired (SPREAD application and the ongoing research on its deployment as a tool for motivating deaf and hearing impaired students to learn and appreciate speech. This application uses the Sphinx-4 voice recognition system to analyze the vocalization of the student and provide prompt feedback on their pronunciation. The packaging of the application as an interactive game aims to provide additional motivation for the deaf and hearing impaired student through visual motivation for them to learn and appreciate speech.
Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…
Shearer, William M.
Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…
Boster, Jamie B.; McCarthy, John W.
The Internet is a source of many resources for graduate speech-language pathology (SLP) students. It is important to understand the resources students are aware of, which they use, and why they are being chosen as sources of information for therapy activities. A national online survey of graduate SLP students was conducted to assess their…
Abdullah, Doria; Abd Aziz, Mohd Ismail; Mohd Ibrahim, Abdul Latiff
The movement of students across borders has had profound impact on higher education policy development. This article seeks to unpack international student mobility through a discourse approach, using five policy documents on international student mobility from well-established recruiters of international students. Eight headline findings are…
Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria
Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…
McKenzie, Robert M.
Language attitude studies have tended to assume that informants who listen to and evaluate speech stimuli are able to identify with consistent accuracy the varieties of English in question. However, misidentification could reduce the validity of any results obtained, particularly when it involves the evaluations of non-native English-speaking…
Silverglate, Harvey A.; French, David; Lukianoff, Greg
Since its first publication in 2005, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) has distributed more than 138,000 print and online copies of its "Guide to Free Speech on Campus." In that time, FIRE's commitment to advocating on behalf of the essential rights discussed in the pages that follow has remained unwavering;…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...
Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C
In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.
Fauzi Eka Putra
Full Text Available Interpreting the typical Medan speech code is something unique and distinctive which could create confusion for the outsider students because of the speech code similarities and differences in Medan. Therefore the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera needs to learn comprehend and aware in order to perform effective communication. The purpose of this research is to discover how the interpretation of speech code for the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan. This research uses qualitative method with the study of ethnography and acculturation communication. The subject of this research is the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan. Data were collected through interviews observation and documentation. The conclusion of this research shows that speech code interpretation by students from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan leads to an acculturation process of assimilation and integration.
Lancaster, Alexander L.
Based on Finn and Ledbetter's (2013; 2014) work regarding classroom technology policies, this experimental study examined the implementation of a permissive and a restrictive cellular phone policy and the effect of these policies on students' cognitive and affective learning in two sections of a public speaking course. College students (N = 31)…
Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.
Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…
Couch, Stephanie; Zieba, Dominique; van der Linde, Jeannie; van der Merwe, Anita
Background: As a professional voice user, it is imperative that a speech-language pathologist’s(SLP) vocal effectiveness remain consistent throughout the day. Many factors may contribute to reduced vocal effectiveness, including prolonged voice use, vocally abusive behaviours,poor vocal hygiene and environmental factors. Objectives: To determine the effect of service delivery on the perceptual and acoustic features of voice. Method: A quasi-experimental., pre-test–post-test research de...
Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…
Miller, Suzanne M; Ciocci, Sandra R
Undergraduate communication sciences and disorders students' attitudes toward speech-language pathology (SLP) clinical services to children and adults prior to and following community-based observations were examined. Participants (n=25) completed an online survey to elicit their opinions regarding their perceptions of their observation experiences. Findings revealed that after completion of community-based SLP clinical observations, 16 (64%) respondents reported a continued interest in a child-based clinical focus; 12 (48%) respondents continued to consider a clinical interest in adults, while 5 respondents (20%) changed career interests to an adult focus based on their observation experiences. Findings support the notion that observations of SLP appear to significantly influence students' career choices. Clinical observations typically occur at the junior/senior undergraduate levels; therefore, suggestions are offered for inclusion of gerontology education embedded throughout the undergraduate communication sciences and disorders curricula to foster and expand students' knowledge of aging, and to prepare our students to meet the healthcare challenges of elders in the 21st century.
Araux, Jose Luis
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the conduct implications of qualified immunity in allegations of deprivation of civil rights by public school administrators regarding the First Amendment-student speech. Methodology: Data were collected using the LexisNexis and JuriSearch online legal research systems, which…
McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle; Ferguson, Alison; McAllister, Lindy
Workplace-based learning is a critical component of professional preparation in speech pathology. A validated assessment of this learning is seen to be 'the gold standard', but it is difficult to develop because of design and validation issues. These issues include the role and nature of judgement in assessment, challenges in measuring quality, and the relationship between assessment and learning. Valid assessment of workplace-based performance needs to capture the development of competence over time and account for both occupation specific and generic competencies. This paper reviews important conceptual issues in the design of valid and reliable workplace-based assessments of competence including assessment content, process, impact on learning, measurement issues, and validation strategies. It then goes on to share what has been learned about quality assessment and validation of a workplace-based performance assessment using competency-based ratings. The outcomes of a four-year national development and validation of an assessment tool are described. A literature review of issues in conceptualizing, designing, and validating workplace-based assessments was conducted. Key factors to consider in the design of a new tool were identified and built into the cycle of design, trialling, and data analysis in the validation stages of the development process. This paper provides an accessible overview of factors to consider in the design and validation of workplace-based assessment tools. It presents strategies used in the development and national validation of a tool COMPASS, used in an every speech pathology programme in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore. The paper also describes Rasch analysis, a model-based statistical approach which is useful for establishing validity and reliability of assessment tools. Through careful attention to conceptual and design issues in the development and trialling of workplace-based assessments, it has been possible to develop the
Jerry D. Gibson
Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.
Titterington, Jill; Bates, Sally
Accuracy of phonetic transcription is a core skill for speech and language therapists (SLTs) worldwide (Howard & Heselwood, 2002). The current study investigates the value of weekly independent online phonetic transcription tasks to support development of this skill in year one SLT students. Using a mixed methods observational design, students enrolled in a year one phonetics module completed 10 weekly homework activities in phonetic transcription on a stand-alone tutorial site (WebFon (Bates, Matthews & Eagles, 2010)) and 5 weekly online quizzes (the 'Ulster Set' (Titterington, unpublished)). Student engagement with WebFon was measured in terms of the number of responses made to 'sparks' on the University's Virtual Learning Environment Discussion Board. Measures of phonetic transcription accuracy were obtained for the 'Ulster Set' and for a stand-alone piece of coursework at the end of the module. Qualitative feedback about experience with the online learning was gathered via questionnaire. A positive significant association was found between student engagement with WebFon and performance in the 'Ulster Set', and between performance in the 'Ulster Set' and final coursework. Students valued both online independent learning resources as each supported different learning needs. However, student compliance with WebFon was significantly lower than with the 'Ulster Set'. Motivators and inhibitors to engagement with the online resources were investigated identifying what best maximised engagement. These results indicate that while 'independent' online learning can support development of phonetic transcription skills, the activities must be carefully managed and constructively aligned to assessment providing the level of valance necessary to ensure effective engagement.
Full Text Available Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT are at risk for harassment due to their sexual orientation or gender identification with over 85% of LGBT students in the United States (US reporting such harassment. These statistics demonstrate one aspect of the significance of this issue, but the cost of human life in some instances has revealed another layer of importance related to a need for safety policies for LGBT students. Even though a need exists for such policies, the practice of heteronormativity found in US policymaking regarding bullying does not protect victims or curb the violence. This essay highlights several recent developments in anti-bullying policy in US schools that shows the existence of heteronormativity, which is not helping to pro-tect LGBT students. By understanding the discrimination encouraged by current policy, future policy can be better shaped to protect LGBT students.
Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.
Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…
This qualitative investigation explores the responses of 22 U.S. urban public high school students when confronted with their newly imposed school uniform policy. Specifically, the study assessed students' appraisals of the policy along with compliance and academic performance. Guided by ecological human development perspectives and grounded in…
Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd S.
Reports on a study that investigated the effect of a university's solicitation policy on students' acquisition and usage of credit cards. Attempts by universities to limit access to and use of credit cards appear to be ineffective. Suggests alternative policies be constructed around teaching students sound money management skills. (Author/JDM)
McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah
Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…
Saelzer, Christine; Lenski, Anna Eva
Truant student behavior can be due to various reasons. Some of these reasons are located in schools. So far, little is known about how student perception of school rules is related to truancy. This study aims to identify types of school attendance policies and how these policies are associated with individual truancy. Self-reports from the German…
To examine why citizens today do not understand the U.S. Constitution and its provisions, a survey was conducted among 153 high school social studies, journalism, and English teachers to examine, among other things, how they taught about constitutional rights and how they rated their students' knowledge of the subject compared to students'…
Maksl, Adam; Schraum, Brian
Support for student expression and First Amendment attitudes were measured among Missouri high school principals (n = 86). Findings demonstrated that the third-person effect was a significant predictor of these attitudes. The more principals perceived mass media to affect others over themselves, the less supportive they were for student free…
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina
About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....
Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia
This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…
Gottfried, Michael A., Ed.; Conchas, Gilberto Q., Ed.
Like medical practitioners, educators share the moral obligation to "first, do no harm." But as this provocative volume shows, education policies do not always live up to this ideal, especially policies intended to help our most vulnerable students. "When School Policies Backfire" draws our attention to education policies…
Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.
In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…
Brooke L. Bennett
More longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of college anti-smoking policies on student smoking behavior. Current data indicate that stricter, more comprehensive policies, and policies that incorporate prevention and cessation programming, produce better results in terms of reducing smoking behavior.
Consumer Guide Speech to Speech Relay Service Speech-to-Speech (STS) is one form of Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS). TRS is a service that allows persons with hearing and speech disabilities ...
Gower, Amy L; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W
Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying involvement and adjustment. School district anti-bullying policies (N = 208) were coded for their quality based on established criteria. District-level data were combined with student reports of bullying involvement, emotional distress, and school connectedness from a state surveillance survey of 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students (N = 93,437). Results indicated that policy quality was positively related to bullying victimization. Furthermore, students reporting frequent perpetration/victimization who also attended districts with high-quality policies reported more emotional distress and less school connectedness compared with students attending districts with low quality policies. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of these associations was small. Having a high-quality school district anti-bullying policy is not sufficient to reduce bullying and protect bullying-involved young people. Future studies examining policy implementation will inform best practices in bullying prevention. © 2017, American School Health Association.
L E Deryagina
Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation findings of the listening comprehension mechanisms in left and right - hemisphere dominant students, factors contributing to effective language mastering being analyzed.
Full Text Available Good reading has a very important role in the development of children with hearing impaired; also reading in explicit way is one of the crucial factors which affect the oral language development of children with hearing impaired. The best form and possibility of improvement, development of oral language, development of communicating, receipt of information, knowledge, and ideas over the world, is reading. When the auditory perception is damaged reading is poor. Hearing impairment causes a lot of problems in the development of personality of children with hearing impairment in these fields: poor development of vocabulary, poor quality of lexica, poor quality of sentences, and disorder in articulation. The purpose of this research is to verify the following: 1-Speed of reading of hearing impaired children, 2-The number of errors, 3-The kind of errors, 4-To understand the text in the context of the degree of hearing impairment, age (class, success in school and gender. This theoretical-experimental study was made with students from two schools; special school “Mother Teresa” in Prizren and Primary School “Elena Gjika” in Prishtina (class attached. The research included a total of 32 students (respondent 27 students (respondent from special schools “Mother Teresa” in Prizren and 5 elementary school students “Elena Gjika” Prishtina, all these students are with hearing impairment. From 32 students involved in the research, 23 were male and 9 female. The research was done by applying a text fables “The fox and the raven” watched and analyzed in terms of three dimensions. The research results have shown that students with hearing impairments have considerable problems in many aspects; in terms of speed of reading, students with hearing impairment have stagnated compared with their peers in the ratio 8/1. In terms of reading errors have stagnated considered being incomparable. In terms of understanding the text students with hearing
Ana Maria do Carmo Carvalho de Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a compreensão dos estudantes de 3º e 4º anos e dos profissionais de Fonoaudiologia em relação aos conceitos de fluência e disfluência, aos componentes e influenciadores da fluência e aos tipos de disfluências. MÉTODOS: foram aplicados 107 questionários a uma amostra de 57 profissionais e 50 estudantes. Foi realizada análise qualitativo-quantitativa das questões abertas e quantitativa das questões fechadas. RESULTADOS: a análise descritiva identificou mais de 20 fatores para as perguntas abertas (conceito de fluência e de disfluência e componentes da fluência, mas nenhum fator citado pela maioria dos sujeitos. O componente da fluência mais listado relaciona-se à taxa de elocução. Fatores psicológicos como ansiedade e introversão-extroversão estão entre os fatores mais citados como influenciadores do grau de fluência. Os tipos de disfluências mais categorizadas como gaguejadas foram bloqueios, prolongamentos iniciais e comportamentos de defesa. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre profissionais e estudantes quanto ao perfil de respostas. O aumento dos anos de atuação modificou algumas respostas. CONCLUSÃO: os participantes: 1 apresentaram conceito idealizado de fluência ("fala livre de rupturas", 2 consideraram disfluência como sinal de alteração e não como um fenômeno intrínseco da fala, 3 consideraram a taxa de elocução, e não as disfluências, como o componente que mais afeta o grau de fluência, 4 consideraram os fatores afetivos, principalmente a ansiedade, como os que mais influenciam o grau de fluência, atribuindo uma influência secundária a fatores lingüísticos, cognitivos e genéticos e 5 classificaram os tipos de disfluências de maneira alinhada com a literatura.PURPOSE: to check the understanding of current students (those who are in 3rd and 4th year and Speech-Language Pathology professionals about the concepts of fluency and dysfluency, the
... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Apraxia of Speech On this page: What is apraxia of speech? ... about apraxia of speech? What is apraxia of speech? Apraxia of speech (AOS)—also known as acquired ...
This CD is multimedia presentation of programme safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. This chapter consist of introductory commentary and 4 introductory speeches (video records): (1) Introductory speech of Vincent Pillar, Board chairman and director general of Slovak electric, Plc. (SE); (2) Introductory speech of Stefan Schmidt, director of SE - Bohunice Nuclear power plants; (3) Introductory speech of Jan Korec, Board chairman and director general of VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research Organisation, Trnava; Introductory speech of Dietrich Kuschel, Senior vice-president of FRAMATOME ANP Project and Engineering
Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey
Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…
Charles H. Carlin
Full Text Available In the present feasibility study, e-supervision was used to provide university liaison supervision to SLP graduate students enrolled in student teaching practica. Utilizing a mixed methodology approach, interview and survey data were compared in order to identify similarities and differences between face-to-face and e-supervision and guide future practice. Results showed e-supervised graduate students received adequate supervision, feedback, support, and communication. Further, e-supervision provided additional benefits to supervisors, children on the caseload, and universities. Despite the benefits, disadvantages emerged. Implications for future practice and limitations of the study were identified.
Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Schneider, Melissa A
To understand perceptions of faculty and students about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs. Classroom attendance is an issue of debate across academic disciplines. A mixed-methods study was conducted using qualitative data from a stratified random sample of 65 accredited baccalaureate nursing programs; 591 students and 91 faculty from 19 schools responded. Sixty-two percent of faculty thought students who missed class exhibited unprofessional behavior; 69 percent believed students who missed class were less successful in the clinical setting. Students (57 percent) and faculty (66 percent) believed there should be an attendance policy. Twenty-nine students reported needing a break in workload (16.8 percent) or did not find class time valuable (11.8 percent). Variability exists in student and faculty beliefs regarding attendance policies. Understanding these viewpoints and utilizing creative teaching approaches will facilitate learning and create an environment of teamwork and mutual respect.
Herrera, Juan Sebastian; Riggs, Eric M.
Advances in cognitive science and educational research indicate that a significant part of spatial cognition is facilitated by gesture (e.g. giving directions, or describing objects or landscape features). We aligned the analysis of gestures with conceptual metaphor theory to probe the use of mental image schemas as a source of concept representations for students' learning of sedimentary processes. A hermeneutical approach enabled us to access student meaning-making from students' verbal reports and gestures about four core geological ideas that involve sea-level change and sediment deposition. The study included 25 students from three US universities. Participants were enrolled in upper-level undergraduate courses on sedimentology and stratigraphy. We used semi-structured interviews for data collection. Our gesture coding focused on three types of gestures: deictic, iconic, and metaphoric. From analysis of video recorded interviews, we interpreted image schemas in gestures and verbal reports. Results suggested that students attempted to make more iconic and metaphoric gestures when dealing with abstract concepts, such as relative sea level, base level, and unconformities. Based on the analysis of gestures that recreated certain patterns including time, strata, and sea-level fluctuations, we reasoned that proper representational gestures may indicate completeness in conceptual understanding. We concluded that students rely on image schemas to develop ideas about complex sedimentary systems. Our research also supports the hypothesis that gestures provide an independent and non-linguistic indicator of image schemas that shape conceptual development, and also play a role in the construction and communication of complex spatial and temporal concepts in the geosciences.
Haddal, Chad C
Five years after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks by foreign nationals -- including several terrorists on student visas -- the security concerns over foreign student visas are being weighed...
Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina
To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.
Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that the range and linguistics expressions of external modifiers available in one language differ from those available in another language. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural differences and similarities with regards to the realization of request external modifications. To this end, 30 Iraqi and 30 Malay university students are selected as the participants of this study. Spencer-Oatey's (2008 rapport management theoretical framework is used to examine how face rapport is managed through the use of external modifications. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of eight situations. The questionnaires, adopted from Rose (1994, were distributed among Iraqi students and Malaysian Malay students studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. The corpus were then analyzed based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989 classification of external modifiers. The primary objective of this paper is to compare the effect of situational factors on the realization patterns of request modification between Iraqi and Malay university students .The findings are hoped to have implications for comparative cross-cultural and intercultural communication studies.
Maxey, Phyllis F.
One of a series of high school level units on business issues, this packet introduces students to a new type of business advertising, "issue ads." This non-product advertising allows a corporation or business organization to express its viewpoint directly to the public. Because this is a complex issue, the unit is recommended for…
Osmond, Erica R.
This study addressed pedagogical practices in the public speaking classroom in an attempt to help control communication apprehension (CA) levels and improve retention rates among college students in the basic public speaking course. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of Berger and Calabrese's uncertainty reduction theory and Weiner's attribution…
Powers, Elia M.; Haller, Beth
This study examines representation of disabilities by conducting a qualitative content analysis of how 41 journalism/mass communication textbooks frame the ideal standards of verbal communication for media professionals. Textbooks are integral to students' understanding of professional norms and may influence career decisions. Results show that…
Goldbart, J.; Marshall, J.; Evans, I. R.
The qualification leading to professional practice in speech and language therapy (SLT, also known as speech and language pathology) is not evenly available across the world. Geographic mobility and the availability of information are greater than at any other time in our history. Thus, initial SLT qualification courses in many countries are…
Mazer, Joseph P.
Discussions surrounding ideology and free speech on college and university campuses continually occur in the popular press. In this forum, Herbeck (see EJ1171161) chronicles several heated clashes over free speech that have recently erupted on campuses across the country, fueling news stories reported through traditional and social media. Issues…
Parkinson, Michael G.; Dobkins, David H.
Using a computerized content analysis, the authors demonstrate changes in speech behaviors of prison inmates. They conclude that two to four hours of public speaking training can have only limited effect on students who live in a culture in which "prison speech" is the expected and rewarded form of behavior. (PD)
Martinson, David L.
An exercise requiring students in an introductory mass communications course to comment on issues in a freedom of speech case revealed that students may be more supportive of freedom of speech than is sometimes thought. (RL)
KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS
THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…
Mathieu, Robert D.
In 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and implemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such programs. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female graduate research assistants. Building on the graduate student perspective of Gosnell (2012), I will discuss the process of this successful development of a departmental family and medical leave policy for graduate students from the perspective of a faculty member and chair. In particular I will discuss implications of university policies, the importance of faculty and staff support, the role of private funds, and issues of effort certification.
Fenske, Robert H.; And Others
The full range of topics relevant to student financial aid are covered in this book by a variety of experts in financial aid administration and scholarship. The volume details how to organize, implement and assess a financial aid program--including how to determine student need, deal with student bankruptcy and aid termination, and improve…
Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2016
It has come to the Department of Education's (ED's) attention that many transgender students (i.e., students whose gender identity is different from the sex they were assigned at birth) report feeling unsafe and experiencing verbal and physical harassment or assault in school, and that these students may perform worse academically when they are…
Roberts, James A.
This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)
Adam, Lee; Anderson, Vivienne; Spronken-Smith, Rachel
Plagiarism is a concept that is difficult to define. Although most higher education institutions have policies aimed at minimising and addressing student plagiarism, little research has examined the ways in which plagiarism is discursively constructed in university policy documents, or the connections and disconnections between institutional and…
This article describes higher education student selection and admission policies and practices in newly industrialized countries in the Asian region, with particular attention to access, selection, the admissions process, equity, and relationship with the labor market. Policies in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Singapore,…
Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.
Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…
Domazlicky, Bruce; France, Judith
Fiscal and monetary policies taught in macroeconomic principles courses are concepts that might require both lecture and simulation methods. The simulation models, which apply the principles gleened from comparative statistics to a dynamic world, may give students an appreciation for the problems facing policy makers. This paper is a report of a…
Septian Dwi Sondiana
Full Text Available The objectives of the research are to find out the types of grammatical errors in English students’ speech; to find out the percentage of grammatical errors in English students’ speech; to find out the factors influencing English students’ grammatical errors in their speech. Based on the data, the students have problem in producing verb group, errors in subject-verb agreement, errors in the use of articles, errors in the use of prepositions, errors in noun pluralization, errors in the use of pronouns, and errors in the use of conjunctions. It shows that Anisa made eleven sentences in 2 minutes 28 seconds. She made eight errors. Dewi made seven sentences in 1 minutes 57 seconds. She made five errors. Fatika made sixteen sentences in 4 minutes 14 seconds. She made eight errors. Fitri made sixteen sentences in 4 minutes 23 seconds. She made seven errors. Ibnu made ten sentences in 2 minutes 18 seconds. He made eight errors. Linda made fiveteen sentences in 3 minutes 7 seconds. She made eight errors. Musli made fourteen sentences in 2 minutes 39 seconds. She made six errors. Nyoman made twelve sentences in 3 minutes 43 seconds. He made nine errors. Pera made ten sentences in 2 minutes 23 seconds. She made seven errors. Sri made fourteen sentences in 6 minutes 34 seconds. She made eleven errors. And about the percentages of errors, here is the data; Anisa: 72,73% of errors; Dewi: 71,4% of errors; Fatika: 50% of errors; Fitri: 43,75% of errors; Ibnu: 80% of errors; Linda: 53,3% of errors; Musli: 42,8% of errors; Nyoman: 75% of errors; Pera: 70% of errors; Sri: 78,57% of errors. Based on interview, it shows it can be concluded the factors influence of English students’ grammatical errors in their speech when their speak using grammar rule. The internal factors are; The first, the students are still difficult to make feeling, for example; confident, feel scary, when they are speaking in public. The second, the students are not mastered in
Maul, Christine A
Speech and language therapists (SLTs) working in schools worldwide strive to deliver evidence-based services to diverse populations of students. Many suggestions have been made in the international professional literature regarding culturally competent delivery of speech and language services, but there has been limited qualitative investigation of practices school SLTs find to be most useful when modifying their approaches to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. To examine perceptions of nine school SLTs regarding modifications of usual practices when interacting with CLD students and their families; to compare reported practices with those suggested in professional literature; to draw clinical implications regarding the results; and to suggest future research to build a more extensive evidence base for culturally competent service delivery. For this qualitative research study, nine school SLTs in a diverse region of the USA were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview designed to answer the question: What dominant themes, if any, can be found in SLTs' descriptions of how they modify their approaches, if at all, when interacting with CLD students and their family members? Analysis of data revealed the following themes: (1) language-a barrier and a bridge, (2) communicating through interpreters, (3) respect for cultural differences, and (4) positive experiences interacting with CLD family members. Participants reported making many modifications to their usual approaches that have been recommended as best practices in the international literature. However, some practices the SLTs reported to be effective were not emphasized or were not addressed at all in the literature. Practical implications of results are drawn and future research is suggested. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD
Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the
Kemp, Suzanne E
Students with and without disabilities are dropping out of school at an alarming rate. However, the precise extent of the problem remains elusive because individual schools, school districts, and state departments of education often use different definitional criteria and calculation methods. In addition, specific reasons why students drop out continues to be speculative and minimal research exists validating current dropout prevention programs for students with and without disabilities. This study examined methods secondary school principals used to calculate dropout rates, reasons they believed students dropped out of school, and what prevention programs were being used for students with and without disabilities. Results indicated that school districts used calculation methods that minimized dropout rates, students with and without disabilities dropped out for similar reasons, and few empirically validated prevention programs were being implemented. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.
Cultivating university students' entrepreneurial skills has become a worldwide common interest. Taking Zhejiang Province, China as a case, this paper firstly analyses the push and the pull forces of cultivating innovative and entrepreneurial talents. Then the contents of Zhejiang's entrepreneurship policy for university students are systematically…
Nguyen, Lan Chi; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Renshaw, Peter
Although the teaching of English as a foreign language in primary schools has emerged as one of the major language-in-education policy decisions, students' perspectives on primary English have received very little research attention. Drawing on data from a larger study, this paper depicts primary school students' lived experiences in the English…
Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia
Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main…
Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip; Caudery, Tim
To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...... in explaining individual variation in students’ language goals and gains....
Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina
This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…
Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Splinter, Ted A. W.; Themmen, Axel P. N.
CONTEXT Medical students often fail to finish medical school within the designated time. An academic dismissal (AD) policy aims to enforce satisfactory progress and to enable early identification and timely support or referral of struggling students. In this study, we assessed whether the
Leibrandt, Sarah Ohle
This dissertation investigates how low-resource high schools support (or not) high achieving, low-income students depending on how they enact college readiness agendas. My study was motivated by the lack of empirical research in two areas--how college readiness policies are being actualized for high achieving, low-income students and how these…
Alcohol prohibition and legal or administrative sanctions have been implemented in attempts to curb alcohol drinking and drinking-while-driving in the general population as well as among college students. This dissertation study examines the impact of college alcohol prohibition and policy enforcement on students' alcohol drinking and…
Sawyer, Holly N.
Illicit drug usage at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) is a topic of limited research. The research questions that guided this study were (a) What is the relationship between college policy on illicit drugs and students' frequency of drug usage after controlling for college location (urban or rural) and students' age,…
Cowan, Gloria; Khatchadourian, Desiree
Women are more intolerant of hate speech than men. This study examined relationality measures as mediators of gender differences in the perception of the harm of hate speech and the importance of freedom of speech. Participants were 107 male and 123 female college students. Questionnaires assessed the perceived harm of hate speech, the importance…
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
, as well as the policies that have been implemented in pursuit of improving student retention. The review identifies two pervasive ways in which the drop-out problem has been framed in both policy and research. The first locates the drop-out problem with individual students, while the second locates...... finds that the rate of student drop-out has been a cause for ongoing concern among policy makers for more than a century, and that the framing of the problem has shifted considerably over time. The problem has variously been placed with the individual apprentice, the basic structure of vocational......Education policy generally places a premium on raising the level of education attained by the young generation ultimately heading towards the labour market. While the rate of enrolment in post-compulsory education has risen in most countries, so too has the rate of drop-out, in particular from...
Rinfret, Sara R.; Pautz, Michelle C.
In an effort to help students better understand the complexity of making environmental policy and the role of policy actors in this process, we developed a mock congressional hearing simulation. In this congressional hearing, students in two environmental policy courses take on the roles of members of Congress and various interest groups to…
Olsen, Linda S.
This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…
Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.
Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…
Byrne, Aine; Pettigrew, Catharine M
One of the major barriers to effective team working among healthcare professionals is a lack of knowledge of each other's roles. The importance of understanding Irish healthcare students' attitudes towards team working and each other's roles led to the development of this study. The aims were to investigate allied health professional students' perceptions and experiences of the stroke rehabilitation team and the role of the Speech and Language Therapist (SLT). A survey first developed by Felsher and Ross (1994) and further developed by Insalaco et al. (2007) was adapted to the Irish healthcare setting. The survey was administered to final-year Occupational Therapy (n = 23), Speech and Language Therapy (21) students and Physiotherapy (20) students (64 in total) (a 98.5% response rate). Results indicate that students had a good understanding of teamwork in the healthcare setting and the possible benefits and challenges it presents. Students had a strong appreciation for interprofessional collaboration, with the majority (79%) choosing shared leadership as their preferred option for the stroke rehabilitation team. Further to this, the team approaches that students felt were most appropriate for the stroke rehabilitation setting were the more collaborative approaches of interdisciplinary (43.5%) and transdisciplinary (37.1%). The students had clear perceptions of the SLT's role in aphasia, dysphagia, dysarthria, apraxia and auditory agnosia, but were less knowledgeable of the SLT's role in the acquired disorders of alexia and agraphia (p < 0.05). More than half of all students perceived that the SLT is involved in the treatment of hemispatial neglect (55.5%), depression (71.5%) and visual agnosia (59.4%). The results provide valuable information for further developments in interprofessional education at an undergraduate level. Further opportunities should be provided to students to collaborate with each other, particularly in their final year of training as, by then
Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...
Collison, Michele N-K
As costs rise and companies discontinue coverage of college students under parents' policies, students are choosing to forego insurance rather than pay for it themselves, so suggest speakers at the American College Health Association's annual meeting. Colleges offering group-insurance policies to students are also having problems renewing them.…
Using country panel data of student achievement from PISA, 2003-2012 combined with national-level teacher salary data from the OECD; this study investigates if relatively short term -5-years - changes in the level and structure of statutory teacher salaries affect student performance in the European countries. Our results show that there are marked differences between subjects and by the experience of teachers. Higher statutory teacher salaries and larger growth of teacher salaries at the fir...
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa
We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded amount and source of foods and beverages they consumed. Analysis of variance and covariance and nonparametric tests were used to compare intake after the policy change with intake during the 2 previous years. After implementation of the nutrition policy, student lunch consumption of vegetables, milk, and several nutrients increased (protein, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and sodium), and consumption of less desirable items (sweetened beverages, snack chips) decreased, as did percentage of energy from fat. Most of the desired nutrients and foods (vegetables and milk) were obtained from the National School Lunch Program meal. Fewer sweetened beverages, candy, chips, and dessert foods were purchased and consumed, but more of these items were brought from home and purchased from the snack bar. Overall, state school nutrition policies can improve the healthfulness of foods consumed by students at lunch.
Jozkowski, Kristen N.
Over the last few years, there have been some egregious examples of rape culture on college campuses that call into question the effectiveness of current sexual-assault policies. This article contains brief recaps of four recent events that took place at prominent American universities, drawn from a laundry list of contemporary examples. They…
Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna
Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…
Cole McGrew, Martha; Wayne, Sharon; Solan, Brian; Snyder, Tiffany; Ferguson, Cheryl; Kalishman, Summers
Learners in medical education are often inadequately prepared to address the underlying social determinants of health and disease. The objective of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a Health Policy and Advocacy curriculum incorporated into our family medicine clerkship. We developed a Health Policy and Advocacy course for medical students within our family medicine clerkship. We evaluated the curriculum using a survey of our own design administered to students before and after their clerkship year. We created a mean score for each subscale that measured (1) physician's role, (2) knowledge, and (3) confidence in ability and calculated differences between the pre-survey and the post-survey scores for four medical school classes. We also conducted a focus group to get student input on the new curriculum. Mean scores on the pre- and post-surveys were highest for the subscale regarding attitudes about a physician's role in health policy and advocacy and did not change over time. Scores for self-reported knowledge and confidence in abilities increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the clerkship year. Students were generally positive about the curriculum but had some concerns about finding time for advocacy in their future practices. Training in health care policy and advocacy can be successfully implemented into a medical school curriculum with positive outcomes in students' self-reported knowledge and confidence in their abilities. Work remains on providing advocacy role models for students.
Marshall, Julie; Stojanovik, Vesna; Ralph, Sue
Approximately 7% of young school-aged children have specific language impairments. Many such children are now being educated in mainstream settings. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date and valid research that considers UK (student) teachers' attitudes towards such children. This study aimed to investigate trainee teachers' attitudes towards teaching children with speech and language impairments, to investigate the reported effects of those attitudes on participants' acceptance of teaching such children, and to consider any implications for speech and language therapy (SLT) services and inclusive education. Nineteen trainee teachers (PGCE students) from a university in the North West of England took part in semistructured group interviews. The data were transcribed and analysed qualitatively, and recurrent themes identified. A range of attitudes was expressed, and six major themes were identified from the data. Participants discussed concerns about the resources and knowledge they considered necessary to support fully children with specific language impairments. There was some differentiation of attitudes related to the types of disability that a child may have and the subject being taught. Much of the discussion was about disabilities in general rather than specific to speech and language impairments. Many of the participants reflected on their own previous experiences to inform their opinions. Although many of the participants expressed positive attitudes, some had concerns about workload and at least one was openly hostile to the idea of teaching children with disabilities within mainstream settings. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to previous research, the quantitative data obtained in this project, SLT services and the increases in the inclusion of children with specific language impairments into mainstream educational settings.
Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff
We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…
Elma S. Pagaduan-Apostol
This study explored the influence of assertiveness and self - esteem on the final grade in English III, Speech and Oral Communication, among the Bachelor of Secondary Education juniors at the Nueva Vizcaya State University, Bambang campus , Philippines. The d escriptive method was employed. A ssertiveness and self - esteem tests were answered by the respondents and their grades in English III were taken from...
Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Baskent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne
Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and
Shaw, John; Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie
Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession.
Trottier, Nadine; Kamp, Lorraine; Mirenda, Pat
Supporting social interactions between students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their typically developing peers presents many challenges. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a peer-mediated intervention designed to teach two students with ASD to use speech-generating devices (SGDs) to engage in interactions with peers in a social context at school. Six peer confederates (three from each student with ASD's general education classroom) were taught to support SGD use during game activities. A multiple baseline design was used to examine the relationship between peer-mediated instruction and an increase in total communicative acts (CAs) by the two students with ASD. Results provide evidence that the confederates acquired the skills needed to support SGD use by students with ASD. The results also suggest that the intervention was effective at increasing total appropriate CAs by students with ASD. In addition, social validity ratings by all of the confederates were positive. Results are discussed regarding educational implications, limitations, and future research.
Van Hal, Guido; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Stock, Christiane; Vriesacker, Bart; Orosova, Olga; Kalina, Ondrej; Salonna, Ferdinand; Lukacs, Andrea; Ladekjaer Larsen, Eva; Ladner, Joël; Jacobs, Liezille
Many studies indicate that a substantial part of the student population drinks excessively, yet most European universities do not have an alcohol policy. In the absence of an alcohol guideline at universities and the easy access to alcohol sold at the student cafeteria, for instance, this has the potential to place students at risk of overconsumption, which has adverse health consequences. Therefore, our study objectives were to explore and compare university students' experiences and attitudes toward alcohol policy on their campus using a qualitative approach. 29 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among students from universities in five European countries: Belgium (4 FGDs), Denmark (6 FGDs), France (5 FGDs), Hungary (6 FGDs), and the Slovak Republic (8 FGDs), with a total number of 189 participants. Across the five European countries, students recognized that alcohol was a big problem on their campuses yet they knew very little, if any, about the rules concerning alcohol on their campus. Students will not support an on campus alcohol restriction and a policy should therefore focus on prevention initiatives.
Scammell, Janet; Tait, Desiree; White, Sara; Tait, Michael
This study uses a lifeworld perspective to explore beginning students' values about nursing. Internationally, increasing care demand, a focus on targets and evidence of dehumanized care cultures have resulted in scrutiny of practitioner values. In England, selection policy dictates that prospective nursing students demonstrate person-centred values and care work experience. However, there is limited recent evidence exploring values at programme commencement or the effect of care experience on values. Mixed method study. A total of 161 undergraduate nursing students were recruited in 2013 from one English university. Thematic content analysis and frequency distribution to reveal descriptive statistics were used. Statistical analysis indicated that most of the values identified in student responses were not significantly affected by paid care experience. Five themes were identified: How I want care to be; Making a difference; The value of learning; Perceived characteristics of a nurse; and Respecting our humanity. Students readily drew on their experience of living to identify person-centred values about nursing.
Kaiser, Matthew M.; Seitz, Keshia M.; Walters, Elizabeth A.
Ritha Smith, assistant superintendent, and Seth Hanson, principal, are faced with a difficult decision. Taylor Harper is a transgender student who identifies as male and is openly attracted to females. Taylor's parents, Lane and Morgan Harper, are lesbians; they are fully supportive of their child's identification and are well versed in their…
Research shows that chronic absenteeism can affect academic performance in later grades and is a key early warning sign that a student is more likely to drop out of high school. Several states enacted legislation to address this issue, and many states are currently discussing the utility of chronic absenteeism as an indicator of school quality or…
Professors of international relations are increasingly realizing that simulations can be a fun and effective way of teaching the complexities of the field to their students. One popular simulation that has emerged in recent years--the "Statecraft" simulation--is now used by more than 190 colleges and universities worldwide. Despite…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa; Ralston, Katherine
This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food environment. After that school year was completed, chips and dessert foods were removed from the snack bars of all schools by the Food Service Director. Students recorded the amount and source of food and beverage items consumed. Point-of-service purchase machines provided a day-by-day electronic data file with food and beverage purchases from the snack bars during the 2-year period. Independent t-tests and time series analyses were used to document the impact of the policy change on consumption and sales data between the two years. In general, student consumption of sweetened beverages declined and milk, calcium, vitamin A, saturated fat and sodium increased after the policy change. Snack chips consumption from the snack bar declined in year 2; however, consumption of snack chips and candy from vending increased and the number of vending machines in study schools doubled during the study period. Ice cream sales increased significantly in year 2. Policy changes on foods sold in schools can result in changes in student consumption from the targeted environments. However, if all environments do not make similar changes, compensation may occur.
This century has seen continued exponential growth in the use of digital technologies. In Australia, the proportion of students having access to a computer at home rose from about 91 per cent in 2000 to over 99 per cent in 2013, and access to the internet grew from 67 per cent in 2000 to 98 per cent in 2013. According to the 2013 report on the…
Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.
Anne Birgitta Nilsen
Full Text Available The manifesto of the Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik is based on the “Eurabia” conspiracy theory. This theory is a key starting point for hate speech amongst many right-wing extremists in Europe, but also has ramifications beyond these environments. In brief, proponents of the Eurabia theory claim that Muslims are occupying Europe and destroying Western culture, with the assistance of the EU and European governments. By contrast, members of Al-Qaeda and other extreme Islamists promote the conspiracy theory “the Crusade” in their hate speech directed against the West. Proponents of the latter theory argue that the West is leading a crusade to eradicate Islam and Muslims, a crusade that is similarly facilitated by their governments. This article presents analyses of texts written by right-wing extremists and Muslim extremists in an effort to shed light on how hate speech promulgates conspiracy theories in order to spread hatred and intolerance.The aim of the article is to contribute to a more thorough understanding of hate speech’s nature by applying rhetorical analysis. Rhetorical analysis is chosen because it offers a means of understanding the persuasive power of speech. It is thus a suitable tool to describe how hate speech works to convince and persuade. The concepts from rhetorical theory used in this article are ethos, logos and pathos. The concept of ethos is used to pinpoint factors that contributed to Osama bin Laden's impact, namely factors that lent credibility to his promotion of the conspiracy theory of the Crusade. In particular, Bin Laden projected common sense, good morals and good will towards his audience. He seemed to have coherent and relevant arguments; he appeared to possess moral credibility; and his use of language demonstrated that he wanted the best for his audience.The concept of pathos is used to define hate speech, since hate speech targets its audience's emotions. In hate speech it is the
Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J
Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.
Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong
We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red
Cusick, Linda; Roberts, Ron; Paton, Susan
This paper concerns higher and further education institutions' policies as they relate to the interactions of their staff and students with the sex industry. In Scotland and England, consenting adults may legally buy and sell sex and commercial sexual entertainment, such as erotic dance and phone sex, provided that they do not do so in a public…
Ander, Roseanna; Guryan, Jonathan; Ludwig, Jens
Improving the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged children is a policy priority in the United States, and yet relatively little progress has been made in recent decades. Education reforms that aim to help economically disadvantaged students often focus on improving the quality with which grade-level material is taught, or the…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data--structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…
In the 1999-2000 school year, only about 12 percent of U.S. public schools required their students to wear uniforms. Since then, the number of schools requiring uniforms has risen. Uniform policies are now in place at about a fifth of all public schools in the United States--but do school uniforms really level the playing field? New research has…
This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of educational outcomes and the impact of those outcomes on other socioeconomic phenomena. It investigates the relationship between education and economic growth and development in emerging countries. The paper addresses school policies that are most cost-effective in producing students with…
Phillippo, Kate L.; Griffin, Briellen
This study extends research on school choice policy, and on the geography of educational opportunity, by exploring how students understand their school choices and select from them within social-geographical space. Using a conceptual framework that draws from situated social cognition and recent research on neighborhood effects, this study…
Thapa, Chura Bahadur; Adamson, Bob
Educational issues in relation to ethnicity and language education policies have been underexplored in Asian contexts. In particular, issues related to ethnic and linguistic minority students have not received much attention in the post-colonial context of Hong Kong. This paper highlights challenges and tensions faced by Nepali ethnic minority…
Lyons, Michael; Quinn, Andrea; Sumsion, Jennifer
This paper reports the attitudes of parents, staff and teacher education students towards the employment of men in the children's services "industry". The attitudinal survey questions were grouped around four distinct issues: gender roles, labour market behaviour, workplace behaviour and policy. Surprisingly, all three stakeholder groups…
Wahleithner, Juliet Michelsen
Background: Numerous reports have highlighted problems with writing instruction in American schools, yet few examine the interplay of teachers' preparation to teach writing, the instructional policies they must navigate, and the writing development of the students in their classrooms. Purpose: This study examines high school English teachers'…
Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.
Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…
Williams, Elizabeth A.; And Others
Comparison of undergraduate student survey results of 1983, 1986, and 1989 at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst) indicate that reports of faculty/staff sexual harassment of female undergraduates have declined over the past six years. Analysis suggests that the sexual harassment policy and grievance procedure established in 1982 have been…
Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.
For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…
Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.
Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…
Wellen, Richard; Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa
This paper examines the pattern of decision-making, lobbying, and influence that led to the landmark series of federal student assistance policies introduced by Jean Chretien's Liberal government in the late 1990s. The package of new initiatives--dubbed the Canada Opportunities Strategy--not only partially reversed an earlier period of fiscal…
Smith, Erica; Patton, Wendy
This paper uses data from interviews with representatives of national and state organisations that have a policy interest in student-working in Australia. The interviewees included representatives from employer bodies and trade unions as well as government organisations. The data are used to discuss these stakeholders' perceptions of the main…
Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele
About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.
Ladekjær Larsen, Eva; Smorawski, Gitte Andsager; Kragbak, Katrine Lund; Stock, Christiane
High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies. The aim of this study is to explore students' perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses. The interviews discussed topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make major restrictions. Instead, regulations were socially controlled by students themselves and related to what was considered to be appropriate behavior. However students were open minded towards smaller limitations of alcohol availability. These included banning the sale of alcohol in vending machines and limiting consumption during the introduction week primarily due to avoiding social exclusion of students who do not drink. Some international students perceived the level of consumption as too high and distinguished between situations where they perceived drinking as unusual. The study showed that alcohol is a central part of students' lives. When developing and implementing alcohol policies on campus, seeking student input in the process and addressing alcohol policies in the larger community will likely improve the success of the policies.
Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.
Wang, Wei; Du, Wuying; Liu, Ping; Liu, Jianhui; Wang, Yehan
Since the one-child policy was implemented in China in 1979, many investigators have studied the psychological consequences to children without siblings. Although the results are not conclusive, there is evidence that children who have siblings, rather than only children, have increased anxiety and depression. Whether the differences between students with and without siblings would continue when they reached university age is an interesting question. We used the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire to assess personality traits and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory to measure depressed mood in 134 university students with and 126 university students without siblings. Most students without siblings (93.7%) were reared in urban areas, while 90.3% of students with siblings came from rural areas. Parental professions were higher in social status and annual family incomes were higher in students without siblings. Increased neuroticism-anxiety, aggression-hostility, and depressed mood were found in students with siblings. Gender and annual family income were not significantly related to personality in the two groups, and birth-order position was not related to personality in the students with siblings. In contrast, the depression score was positively correlated with neuroticism-anxiety and aggression-hostility, but negatively correlated with parental occupation and annual family income. The greater competition to receive high education, reduced benefits from society, and lower level of social respect might nurture these personality traits in students with siblings. These findings might, in some limited aspects, indicate that the one-child policy affects personality traits and depressed mood in students with siblings.
Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M
Recent protests on dozens of campuses have led to the cancellation of controversial talks, and violence has accompanied several of these protests. Psychological science provides an important lens through which to view, understand, and potentially reduce these conflicts. In this article, we frame opposing sides' arguments within a long-standing corpus of psychological research on selective perception, confirmation bias, myside bias, illusion of understanding, blind-spot bias, groupthink/in-group bias, motivated skepticism, and naive realism. These concepts inform dueling claims: (a) the protestors' violence was justified by a higher moral responsibility to prevent marginalized groups from being victimized by hate speech, versus (b) the students' right to hear speakers was infringed upon. Psychological science cannot, however, be the sole arbiter of these campus debates; legal and philosophical considerations are also relevant. Thus, we augment psychological science with insights from these literatures to shed light on complexities associated with positions supporting free speech and those protesting hate speech. We conclude with a set of principles, most supported by empirical research, to inform university policies and help ensure vigorous freedom of expression within the context of an inclusive, diverse community.
...-Speech Services for Individuals with Hearing and Speech Disabilities, Report and Order (Order), document...] Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities...
Charbonneau, David; Women in Astronomy, AAS Committee on Status of
The AAS Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy conducted a national survey to determine current policies regarding parental leave and childcare for graduate student parents. We sent a letter to the Chair of each U.S. department of astronomy and/or astrophysics that offers the PhD degree. The letter inquired both about leave following the birth or adoption of a child (including questions about eligibility, whether the leave was paid or unpaid, and whether benefits including health care and housing were retained during leave), as well as childcare (including questions about eligibility, access, and financial assistance). The letter sought to determine the official departmental policies, but also inquired about any unofficial policies. We also inquired as to mechanisms to cover costs associated with both parental leave and childcare, and the means by which graduate students were informed about the policies. The response rate was 100%. We will present the results at this special session, and then lead a discussion of the changing landscape of parental leave for graduate students in our field.
Daniella de Almeida Santos
Full Text Available Our paper intends to discuss how the teacher's speech can interfere in the construction of arguments on the part of the students, when they are involved with the task of solving an experimental problem in sciences classes. Thus, we wanted to understand how teacher and students relate to each other in a discursive movement for the senses structuring of the obtained experimental data. With that concern, our focus is in the processes of the speeches authorship, both students' and teachers', in the episodes in which the actors of the teaching and learning process organize their speeches, mediated by the experimental activity.
Full Text Available Studies in pragmatics have been limited to a handful of illocutionary acts such as requests, apologies or compliments, and opinions remain underrepresented in the existing literature. In this paper I present the results of a study of opinions in Irish English, conducted in an intercultural environment of Irish-Polish interactions. Departing from a traditional approach of speech act realisation studies, I applied the theory of cultural scripts to analyse opinions. In contrasting the Irish and Polish formulas for expressing opinions, as well as sociopragmatic attitudes towards this speech act, a difference in the cultural scripts for opinions in each culture was observable. Apart from already documented Polish frankness in opinions, the study discovered also a rational approach to presenting good arguments to support one’s assertions among the participants. In relation to the Irish script for opinions, the findings are in line with previous classifications of opinions in Australian English, showing a certain level of variational uniformity amongst the English-speaking cultures in this regard.
Breitenbach, Edward C.
School safety is a very important issue for school staff, parents, and students. When school safety is lacking, students suffer in emotional, academic, and social areas. One recent intervention middle schools are examining is the student uniform policy. In some cases, school uniforms have been shown to have a profound effect on school safety,…
Sneyers, Eline; De Witte, Kristof
This paper examines the effect of the introduction of an academic dismissal (AD) policy (i.e. an intervention, which can lead to compulsory student withdrawal) on student dropout, student graduation rates and satisfaction with the study program. Using a difference-in-differences type of estimator, we compare programs that introduced an AD policy…
Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Andsager Smorawski, Gitte; Lund Krabak, Katrine
. The aim of this study is to explore students’ perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. Methods We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses. The interviews discussed...... topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Results Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make...... major restrictions. Instead, regulations were socially controlled by students themselves and related to what was considered to be appropriate behavior. However students were open minded towards smaller limitations of alcohol availability. These included banning the sale of alcohol in vending machines...
Rus, Vasile; Moldovan, Cristian; Niraula, Nobal; Graesser, Arthur C.
In this paper we address the important task of automated discovery of speech act categories in dialogue-based, multi-party educational games. Speech acts are important in dialogue-based educational systems because they help infer the student speaker's intentions (the task of speech act classification) which in turn is crucial to providing adequate…
Marquez, Daniela; Pell, Dylan; Forster-Cox, Sue; Garcia, Evelyn; Ornelas, Sophia; Bandstra, Brenna; Mata, Holly
Emerging professionals and new Certified Health Education Specialists often lack academic training in and actual experience in National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Area of Responsibility VII: Communicate, Promote, and Advocate for Health, Health Education/Promotion, and the Profession. For undergraduate and graduate students who have an opportunity to complete an internship or practicum experience, gaining experience in Competencies 7.2: Engage in advocacy for health and health education/promotion and 7.3: Influence policy and/or systems change to promote health and health education can have a profound impact on their career development and their ability to advocate for policies that promote health and health equity. Compelling evidence suggests that interventions that address social determinants of health such as poverty and education and those that change the context through improved policy or healthier environments have the greatest impact on public health, making it vital for emerging public health professionals to gain experience in policy advocacy and systems change. In this commentary, students and faculty from two large universities in the U.S.-Mexico border region reflect on the value of policy advocacy in academic internship/fieldwork experiences. Based on their experiences, they highly recommend that students seek out internship opportunities where they can participate in policy advocacy, and they encourage university faculty and practicum preceptors to provide more opportunities for policy advocacy in both classroom and fieldwork settings.
Lafleur, Mariah; Strongin, Seth; Cole, Brian L; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Banthia, Rajni; Craypo, Lisa; Sivasubramanian, Ramya; Samuels, Sarah; García, Robert
California law has standards for physical education (PE) instruction in K-12 public schools; audits found that the Los Angeles Unified School District did not enforce the standards. In 2009, the district adopted a PE policy to comply with these standards. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the PE policy in district schools. PE class observations were conducted using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years in an income-stratified random sample of 34 elementary, middle, and high schools to assess changes in PE class size, class duration, and time students spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. PE class duration increased in high-income elementary schools. Mean class size decreased in low-income middle schools. There was limited implementation of the PE policy 2 years after passage. Opportunities exist to continue monitoring and improving PE quantity and quality.
Rodriguez, Alberto J.
This case study draws attention to Pedro's story, a Grade 6 Latino teacher who, along with other grade 4-6 teachers, participated in a three-year professional development research project. By using data analyzed from multiple ethnographic interviews with teachers and students, and by drawing from the quantitative analyzes of concept map unit tests, we illustrate how Pedro's significant professional growth and his students' learning were truncated by top-down school district policies. These policies were implemented because of the punitive nature of the No Child Left Behind Act. Simply put, this case study exposes the impact of opp(reg)ressive policies on learning, that is, policies simultaneously oppressive and regressive. The critical perspective of the project, and its emphasis on assisting teachers to make their pedagogy and curriculum more culturally and socially relevant, was informed by sociotransformative constructivism (sTc). This is a theoretical framework that affords equal importance to cross-cultural education (learning about and acting on socially/culturally relevant issues) and social constructivism (learning to critically produce and consume knowledge). We hope that this case study will provide additional insights into the slow progress we continue to make in science teacher professional development and in closing the achievement gap.
... disorder; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering ... evaluation tools that can help identify and diagnose speech disorders: Denver Articulation Screening Examination Goldman-Fristoe Test of ...
Nussbaum, Debra B.; Waddy-Smith, Bettie
The article suggests three strategies for the audiologist and speech/communication specialist to use in assisting the preschool teacher to implement student's individualized education program: (1) demonstration teaming, (2) dual teaming; and (3) rotation teaming. (CL)
Fromm, Megan E.
Legal scholars rarely focus on student First Amendment rights, and general public understanding of the extent of these rights is vague at best. While media scholars have focused much attention on newspaper coverage of more mainstream issues, no notable attention has been given to examining the way news media cover student First Amendment rights.…
Lei, Mia; Acharya, Neha; Kwok Man Lee, Edith; Catherine Holcomb, Emma; Kapoor, Veronica
ABSTRACT The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class." PMID:28351883
The VDE system developed had the capability of recognizing up to 248 separate words in syntactic structures. 4 The two systems described are isolated...AND SPEAKER RECOGNITION by M.J.Hunt 5 ASSESSMENT OF SPEECH SYSTEMS ’ ..- * . by R.K.Moore 6 A SURVEY OF CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND RESEARCH’ by J.S.Bridle...TECHNOLOGY IN NAVY TRAINING SYSTEMS by R.Breaux, M.Blind and R.Lynchard 10 9 I-I GENERAL REVIEW OF MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING DR. BRUNO
Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.
Teaching Speech Acts
Full Text Available In this paper I argue that pragmatic ability must become part of what we teach in the classroom if we are to realize the goals of communicative competence for our students. I review the research on pragmatics, especially those articles that point to the effectiveness of teaching pragmatics in an explicit manner, and those that posit methods for teaching. I also note two areas of scholarship that address classroom needs—the use of authentic data and appropriate assessment tools. The essay concludes with a summary of my own experience teaching speech acts in an advanced-level Portuguese class.
Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
The belief that schools can play a powerful role in preventing tobacco use among adolescents has led to the implementation of various tobacco-related polices and practices. This study examines the association between school policies regarding monitoring student behavior, severity of action taken for infraction of policies, and tobacco use by…
Davis, John B.
To determine the policies followed by certain institutions in admitting or readmitting students who had attended regionally accredited colleges or universities but who had been out of school for 5 or more years, a questionnaire was sent to 40 regional institutions. Responses were analyzed on the basis of 3 types of admission policies: readmission…
Spradlin, Terry; Cierniak, Katherine; Shi, Dingjing; Chen, Minge
This Education Policy Brief summarizes the research and data analysis completed by the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy (CEEP) on Indiana's student attendance and absenteeism data. The study was initiated by The Indiana Partnerships Center and conducted by CEEP with funding from USA Funds and State Farm. Additional partners in the study…
Snyder, Eric M.
The intercollegiate athletic subculture knows very little about how social media policies are perceived by students-athletes. Athletic department administrators, conference commissioners, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) who are in charge of creating new policies lack any meaningful data to help understand or negotiate new…
Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2011
Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a rigorous survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and accompanying report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their legal and moral obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech,…
Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2009
Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a wide, detailed survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and resulting report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech, freedom of…
Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2010
Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a rigorous survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and resulting report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their legal and moral obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech,…
Harris Sion K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.
Hashimoto, K.; Yamagishi, J.; Byrne, W.; King, S.; Tokuda, K.
This paper provides an analysis of the impacts of machine translation and speech synthesis on speech-to-speech translation systems. The speech-to-speech translation system consists of three components: speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. Many techniques for integration of speech recognition and machine translation have been proposed. However, speech synthesis has not yet been considered. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on machine translation and speech synthesis, ...
Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides
... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Duffield, Barbara
While most of the press around the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) has focused on how it signals an end to No Child Left Behind, the implications of ESSA for students experiencing homelessness have been largely overlooked. Garnering organizational insights from Kingdon's (Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, Pearson, Glenviiew, 2011)…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.
Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…
Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Addison, William E.; Clay, Samuel L.
The technology policies included on instructors' syllabi vary greatly and, in some cases, may unfavorably influence students' perceptions of the instructor. To examine this hypothesis, we randomly assigned college students enrolled in psychology courses at two different institutions (N = 163) to groups in which they viewed different syllabi for a…
This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...
Weninger, Csilla; Kho, Ee Moi
This article provides a historical overview of civic educational policy and political discourse in Singapore from 1959 to 2011, focusing on changes in the role attributed to students in the education process. A review of educational programmes and analysis of political speeches reveals that an earlier transmissionist approach that focused on value…
Х Э Исмаилова
Full Text Available The article considers some pedagogical and information technological aspects of the preparation and use of the Russian as a foreign language teacher copyrighted electronic manuals. The purpose of the development is to support the process of formation and development of the foreign students’ basic skills in Russian speech in the form of extracurricular activities with elements of BYOD technologies. As well as to form the basic elements of the intercultural communication in a multi-ethnic environment, tolerance and other components of communicative competence. The manual contains text, dedicated to the national holiday Navruz and a series of exercises. It is designed as the word-online document and hosted on the MS-OneDrive cloud disk. The scheme presented allows foreign students to use their own mobile devices to access the materials via the Internet. The information product was used for the preparation of the study group to attend extracurricular activities. In addition, an electronic document that is hosted on the teacher’s cloud drive can be linked in the e-textbooks and on the teacher’s web sites, for example the MOODLE type systems.
Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges
Objective In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students? compliance and attitudes following the ban. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A private university in Lebanon. Participants 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in t...
RUBLE, LISA; BIRDWHISTELL, JESSIE; TOLAND, MICHAEL D.; MCGREW, JOHN H.
The significant increase in the numbers of students with autism combined with the need for better trained teachers (National Research Council, 2001) call for research on the effectiveness of alternative methods, such as consultation, that have the potential to improve service delivery. Data from 2 randomized controlled single-blind trials indicate that an autism-specific consultation planning framework known as the collaborative model for promoting competence and success (COMPASS) is effectiv...
Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges
In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students' compliance and attitudes following the ban. Cross-sectional study. A private university in Lebanon. 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in the spring semester of the 2008/2009 academic year was selected. Students completed a self-administered paper and pencil survey during class time. The main outcomes were compliance with and attitudes towards the ban. Other secondary outcomes were the perception of barriers to implementation of the ban and attitudes towards tobacco control in general. 535 students participated in the study. Smokers were generally compliant with the ban (72.7%) and for some (20%) it led to a decrease in their smoking. Students' attitude towards the ban and the enforcement of a non-smoking policy in public places across Lebanon varied according to their smoking status whereby non-smokers possessed a more favourable attitude and strongly supported such policies compared with smokers; overall, the largest proportions of students were satisfied to a large extent with the ban and considered it justified (58.6% and 57.2%, respectively). While much smaller percentages reported that the ban would help in reducing smoking to a large extent (16.7%) or it would help smokers quit (7.4%). Perceived barriers to implementation of the non-smoking policy in AUB included the lack of compliance with and strict enforcement of the policy as well as the small number and crowdedness of the smoking areas. An education campaign, smoking cessation services and strict enforcement of the policy might be necessary to boost its effect in further reducing students' cigarette use.
The personal coat-of-arms speech provides students with specific directions in constructing a speech of introduction and has been used with success at Illinois State University, Daley College (Chicago), St. Xavier University (Chicago), and Ohio State University. The personal coat-of-arms speech gives students concrete experience on which to draw…
Full Text Available Background: Medical students' thesis is equal to six units, which is mandatory for graduation. The purpose of preparing thesis is to familiarize students with research process, methodology, and scientific report writing skill. Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine the relation between executing of thesis policies and medical students' theses quality in type I medical faculties of Iran Methods: To perform this study first, we randomly chose 36 (Total sample=396 medical students' theses in each 11 medical faculties, which completed in 1998-99 academic year. The original theses were evaluated by using a questionnaire. Second, for evaluation of operationalization of thesis policies we use four criteria including, the presence of performance regulations, the proposals approving process, final approving course and presence of a defence session to evaluate thesis in the same medical faculty. Results: In medical faculties that thesis policies were completed, the score of theses was high. In contrast medical faculties with weak policies had low students’ theses scores. Conclusion: Thesis policies are considered as one of the ways to improve the quality of thesis. it is advise at the same time as we should be plan to provide the effective factors for improvement quality of thesis consider strongly the regulations related thesis should be considerate. Keywords: MEDICAL STUDENTS, THESES, REGULATION, and SCORES
Deutsch, Diana; Henthorn, Trevor; Marvin, Elizabeth; Xu, HongShuai
Absolute pitch is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe; this rarity has so far been unexplained. This paper reports a substantial difference in the prevalence of absolute pitch in two normal populations, in a large-scale study employing an on-site test, without self-selection from within the target populations. Music conservatory students in the U.S. and China were tested. The Chinese subjects spoke the tone language Mandarin, in which pitch is involved in conveying the meaning of words. The American subjects were nontone language speakers. The earlier the age of onset of musical training, the greater the prevalence of absolute pitch; however, its prevalence was far greater among the Chinese than the U.S. students for each level of age of onset of musical training. The findings suggest that the potential for acquiring absolute pitch may be universal, and may be realized by enabling infants to associate pitches with verbal labels during the critical period for acquisition of features of their native language.
Courses: Public speaking; communication courses requiring speeches. Objective: Students will learn how to apply humor principles to speeches through a slideshow method supportive of this goal, and to become more discerning about the possibilities and pitfalls of humorous communication.
Richard F. Catalano
Full Text Available This paper measures tobacco polices in statewide representative samples of secondary and mixed schools in Victoria, Australia and Washington, US (N = 3,466 students from 285 schools and tests their association with student smoking. Results from confounder-adjusted random effects (multi-level regression models revealed that the odds of student perception of peer smoking on school grounds are decreased in schools that have strict enforcement of policy (odds ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; p = 0.009. There was no clear evidence in this study that a comprehensive smoking ban, harsh penalties, remedial penalties, harm minimization policy or abstinence policy impact on any of the smoking outcomes.
Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.
A study identified and evaluated the approach of small colleges in dealing with hate speech and/or verbal harassment incidents. A questionnaire was sent to the Dean of Students at 200 randomly-selected small (500-2000 students), private, liberal arts colleges and universities. Responses were received from 132 institutions, for a response rate of…
Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria
Objective: We examined students’ self-reported step data and discussed the feasibility of using these data in a local school policy process. Methods: For 5 days during school hours, 281 stu- dents from grades 5–7 participating in a health education program, measured their steps using a pedometer......: Student-collected data showed similar patterns as reported in the literature, and therefore, a feasible perspective could be to use students’ self-reported step data in a local school policy process....
... to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, ... or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism ...
Bernstein, Michael J; Reifschneider, Kiera; Bennett, Ira; Wetmore, Jameson M
Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. "Science Outside the Lab" is a program designed to help early-career scientists and engineers understand the complexities of science and engineering policy. Assessment of the program entailed a pre-, post-, and 1 year follow up survey to gauge student perspectives on relationships between science and society, as well as a pre-post concept map exercise to elicit student conceptualizations of science policy. Students leave Science Outside the Lab with greater humility about the role of scientific expertise in science and engineering policy; greater skepticism toward linear notions of scientific advances benefiting society; a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the actors involved in shaping science policy; and a continued appreciation of the contributions of science and engineering to society. The study presents an efficacious program that helps scientists and engineers make inroads into macroethical debates, reframe the ways in which they think about values of science and engineering in society, and more thoughtfully engage with critical mediators of science and society relationships: policy makers and policy processes.
Snow, Pamela C
This paper is concerned with the fundamental and intrinsic links between early receptive and expressive oral language competence on the one hand and the transition to literacy in the early school years and achievement of academic (and life) success on the other. Consequently, it also concerns the professional knowledge base of two key disciplines whose work is central to children's early language and literacy success: teachers and speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Oral language competence underpins the transition to literacy, which in turn underpins academic achievement. Academic achievement is significant in its own right, conferring opportunities for further education and training post-secondary school, contributing to psychological health and mitigating some of the mental health risks and adversities that can be associated with adolescence and early adulthood. The central thesis is that the linguistic basis of the transition to literacy makes early reading success core business for SLPs. Further, SLPs need a firm grasp of the political and ideological factors that have exerted historical and continuing influence on reading instruction in western nations such as Australia, the US and the UK. This will facilitate the establishment of meaningful working relationships with teaching colleagues, to achieve optimal education outcomes for all children.
Phifer, Gregg, Ed.
The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…
Harris, Gregory A.
Colleges and universities work hard to create environments that encourage student learning, and they develop grading policies, in part, to motivate their students to perform well. Grades provide two kinds of information about a student's abilities and learned knowledge: "internal" information that informs the students themselves about the…
Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention. Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords: Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper
Schalling, Ellika; Hartelius, Lena
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias clinically characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria and a range of other concomitant neurological symptoms. Only a few studies include detailed characterization of speech symptoms in SCA. Speech symptoms in SCA resemble ataxic dysarthria but symptoms related to phonation may be more prominent. One study to date has shown an association between differences in speech and voice symptoms related to genotype. More studies of speech and voice phenotypes are motivated, to possibly aid in clinical diagnosis. In addition, instrumental speech analysis has been demonstrated to be a reliable measure that may be used to monitor disease progression or therapy outcomes in possible future pharmacological treatments. Intervention by speech and language pathologists should go beyond assessment. Clinical guidelines for management of speech, communication and swallowing need to be developed for individuals with progressive cerebellar ataxia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Young, Kathleen D.; Snelling, Anastasia; Maroto, Maya; Young, Katherine A.
Purpose/Objectives: In 2010, a large urban school district implemented a district-wide school wellness policy that addressed childhood obesity by requiring schools to increase health and physical education contact hours for students and to improve the nutritional standards of school meals. Schools were required to serve a different fruit and…
Shpaizman, Ilana; Kogut, Tehila
In this age of wide migration waves all over the world, when schools' populations become more diverse, educators often make policies regarding groups of immigrant students (from the same origin) with unique needs. Perceptions of homogeneity of the group, as well as perceptions of similarity between the decision maker and the group members are…
Sá, Creso M.; Sabzalieva, Emma
As the number of globally mobile students has expanded, governments are assumed to be consistently and intentionally competing for talent, in what has been called a "great brain race". While the notion of competition has become dominant, there is little evidence on long-term policy dynamics in this field, not only across jurisdictions…
Haapakoski, Jani; Pashby, Karen
This paper examines the main rationales for and possible implications of the policy of increasing international student numbers in higher education (HE). Drawing on critical discourse analysis, we map key themes emerging from two sets of data--university strategy documents and interviews with staff--collected at eight universities in four national…
Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.
The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…
Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, New York, NY.
This document presents guidance for stopping discrimination, harassment, and violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in schools. Section 1, "Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund on the Legal Considerations for Creating and Changing Statewide Laws and Policies," discusses the various types of statewide…
"Ultra Low Bit-Rate Speech Coding" focuses on the specialized topic of speech coding at very low bit-rates of 1 Kbits/sec and less, particularly at the lower ends of this range, down to 100 bps. The authors set forth the fundamental results and trends that form the basis for such ultra low bit-rates to be viable and provide a comprehensive overview of various techniques and systems in literature to date, with particular attention to their work in the paradigm of unit-selection based segment quantization. The book is for research students, academic faculty and researchers, and industry practitioners in the areas of speech processing and speech coding.
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron
This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…
Hobin, Erin; Erickson, Tannis; Comte, Melisa; Zuo, Fei; Pasha, Saamir; Murnaghan, Donna; Manske, Steve; Casey, Catherine; Griffith, Jane; McGavock, Jonathan
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a province-wide physical education (PE) policy on secondary school students' moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Policy: In fall 2008, Manitoba expanded a policy requiring a PE credit for students in grades 11 and 12 for the first time in Canada. The PE curriculum requires grades 11 and 12 students to complete a minimum of 55 h (50% of course hours) of MVPA (e.g., ≥30 min/day of MVPA on ≥5 days a week) during a 5-month semester to achieve the course credit. A natural experimental study was designed using two sub-studies: 1) quasi-experimental controlled pre-post analysis of self-reported MVPA data obtained from census data in intervention and comparison [Prince Edward Island (PEI)] provinces in 2008 (n = 33,619 in Manitoba and n = 2258 in PEI) and 2012 (n = 41,169 in Manitoba and n = 4942 in PEI); and, 2) annual objectively measured MVPA in cohorts of secondary students in intervention (n = 447) and comparison (Alberta; n = 224) provinces over 4 years (2008 to 2012). In Study 1, two logistic regressions were conducted to model the odds that students accumulated: i) ≥30 min/day of MVPA, and ii) met Canada's national recommendation of ≥60 min/day of MVPA, in Manitoba versus PEI after adjusting for grade, sex, and BMI. In Study 2, a mixed effects model was used to assess students' minutes of MVPA per day per semester in Manitoba and Alberta, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, school location and school SES. In Study 1, no significant differences were observed in students achieving ≥30 (OR:1.13, 95% CI:0.92, 1.39) or ≥60 min/day of MVPA (OR:0.92, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.07) from baseline to follow-up between Manitoba and PEI. In Study 2, no significant policy effect on students' MVPA trajectories from baseline to last follow-up were observed between Manitoba and Alberta overall (-1.52, 95% CI:-3.47, 0.42), or by covariates. The Manitoba policy mandating PE in grades 11 and 12 had no
Gopi, E S
Digital Speech Processing Using Matlab deals with digital speech pattern recognition, speech production model, speech feature extraction, and speech compression. The book is written in a manner that is suitable for beginners pursuing basic research in digital speech processing. Matlab illustrations are provided for most topics to enable better understanding of concepts. This book also deals with the basic pattern recognition techniques (illustrated with speech signals using Matlab) such as PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, HMM, GMM, BPN, and KSOM.
In this paper, we describe recent work at Idiap Research Institute in the domain of multilingual speech processing and provide some insights into emerging ... and industry for technologies to help break down domestic and international language barriers, these also being barriers to the expansion of policy and commerce.
Van Hoover, Cheri
Core competencies for midwifery practice include an understanding of systems of health care delivery and advocacy for legislation and policy initiatives that promote quality in health care. Today's rapidly changing health care environment, due in part to the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, mandates that midwives possess greater literacy in health policy and comfort with political action than ever before. Frequently disinterested in politics and intimidated by the policymaking process, student midwives lack the foundational knowledge and practical skills needed to meet this professional obligation. The Midwifery Institute of Philadelphia University graduate program educates both student nurse-midwives and student midwives in health policy using an innovative, project-based service-learning approach featuring real-world collaborative experiences. This novel teaching style is ideally suited for instruction at a distance because of the diversity of experience brought to the virtual classroom by students in widely disparate geopolitical locations. As students accomplish measurable objectives within their individually developed projects and reflect with classmates about their experiences, they feel empowered to effect change and report lower perceived barriers to future political engagement. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Ziegler, Scott A.
This case was developed for a class on administration and supervision. It describes the classroom speech of a teacher who uses questionable terms when referring to female students in his class. The case explores the distorted boundary between inappropriate speech and sexual harassment as a principal is called on to deal with a teacher's use of the…
Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib
The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…
This article provides some strategies to alleviate the current tensions between personal responsibility and freedom of speech rights in the public school classroom. The article advocates the necessity of making sure students understand the points and implications of the first amendment by providing a mock trial unit concerning free speech rights.…
Subramaniam, Bs; Hande, S; Komattil, R
The attendance mandate for the medical course in Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India was increased from 75% to 90% based on the assumption that the mandatory increase will improve the students' performance. To find out whether there is any correlation between class attendance and academic performance. This was an institution based retrospective analytical study. Students who have completed Phase I (first two and a half years) of the MBBS course were included in the study. Student marks and attendance, from the database were obtained from three random batches, each, from two clusters A and B respectively. Those who had a mandatory attendance requirement of 75% belonged to A (n = 243), and those who had a mandatory attendance percentage of 90% belonged to B (n = 360). Statistical analyses performed included, Pearson 2 tailed correlation to correlate class attendance with student performance; Cluster analysis to classify group average in a similarity matrix; t-test to determine significance of difference in percentage of students who attained 100% when the college changed mandatory attendance from 75% to 90%; Mann-Whitney test to find out if there was a better performance in university exam when attendance policy changed. There was a significant correlation between attendance and the students who passed in the University exam. The number of students in the pass category was maximum (>90%) compared to students in distinction and failed categories. Percentage of students with 100% attendance rose from 4% (n = 10) to 11% (n = 40) when the mandatory attendance was increased from 75% to 90%. Attendance policy correlated with better academic performance. Reducing absenteeism, probably contributed to the improved academic performance of the students. But the link between attendance and best and worst performances could not be predicted because of small numbers in every batch.
Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Pennington, Robert C.; Welch, Karla C.; Graham, James H.; Scott, Renee E.
In the current study, we examined the effects of an instructional package comprised of an autonomous pedagogical agent, automatic speech recognition, and constant time delay during the instruction of reading sight words aloud to young adults with autism spectrum disorder. We used a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design to…
Jones, Elizabeth A.; And Others
This study used an iterative Delphi survey process of about 600 faculty, employers, and policymakers to identify writing, speech and listening, and critical thinking skills that college graduates should achieve to become effective employees and citizens (National Education Goal 6). Participants reached a consensus about the importance in critical…
Rao, K Sreenivasa
Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis covers the specific aspects of prosody, mainly focusing on how to predict the prosodic information from linguistic text, and then how to exploit the predicted prosodic knowledge for various speech applications. Author K. Sreenivasa Rao discusses proposed methods along with state-of-the-art techniques for the acquisition and incorporation of prosodic knowledge for developing speech systems. Positional, contextual and phonological features are proposed for representing the linguistic and production constraints of the sound units present in the text. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in the area of speech processing.
Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.
Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet we...
Cole, Roberta; And Others
The 16-unit language and speech improvement handbook for kindergarten and first grade students contains an introductory section which includes a discussion of the child's developmental speech and language characteristics, a sound development chart, a speech and hearing language screening test, the Henja articulation test, and a general outline of…
NOEL M. CAPULONG
Full Text Available – The qualities of student-leaders in the 21st century cannot be underrated. The ability to influence individuals in the context of boundless territories and worldwide integration is of paramount importance to education. Research has revealed that the crux of student leadership in this century is on achieving the right pace and qualities in the changing landscape of borderless society. Choosing the qualities of leaders helps the administrators and students come up with a collaborative policy formulation in the attainment of institutional mission and goals. The research utilized the mixed methods using the qualitative key informant interview, focus group discussions, and researcher’s experience to choose the qualities of student leaders among the students of City College of Calamba. The perceptions of student council leaders from the different schools of Calamba were also surveyed. The student voting preference was matched with the results of Student Council election. The results obtained were recorded and compared to the results of the interview from the experts in the field of educational leadership.
Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa
Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.
English, Lorna McLeod; Hsia, Jason; Malarcher, Ann
We examined the change over time in tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure and the concurrent changes in cigarette smoking behavior among students age 13 to 15years in two African countries with different anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies. In South Africa, anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies became more comprehensive over time and were more strictly enforced, whereas the partial anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies adopted in Botswana were weakly enforced. We analyzed two rounds of Global Youth Tobacco Survey data from South Africa (1999, n=2342; 2011, n=3713) and in Botswana (2001, n=1073; 2008, n=1605). We assessed several indicators of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure along with prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smoking susceptibility for each data round. Logistic regression was used to examine changes over time in tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure and smoking behavior in both countries. Between 1999 and 2011, South African students' exposure to tobacco advertising and sponsorship decreased significantly by 16% (p value, promotion was lower and did not decrease significantly. Botswanan students' tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure did not change significantly between 2001 and 2008. South African students' prevalence of cigarette smoking decreased over time (OR, 0.68) as did susceptibility to smoking (OR, 0.75), but declines did not remain significant after adjusting for parents' and friends' smoking. In Botswana, students' prevalence of cigarette smoking increased significantly over time (OR, 1.84), as did susceptibility to smoking (OR, 2.71). Enforcement of strong anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies is a vital component of effective tobacco control programs in Africa. Such regulations, if effectively implemented, can reduce tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship
Full Text Available This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview with senior high school students. The demographic data were analysed descriptively while the interview data were transcribed and analysed line by line to generate and develop codes and themes. An analysis of the interview data revealed that five major themes were related to students’ English language speaking anxiety, including (1 low speaking skill due to lack of vocabulary and grammar, (2 fear of negative responses from others, (3 low self-esteem to speak in English, (4 fear of being evaluated by teachers, and (5 cultural influences to speak English due to a more teacher-centred style. Suggestions and policy implications are also discussed.
An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...
It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the
Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.
Gale, Trevor; Tranter, Deborah
This article provides a synoptic account of historically changing conceptions and practices of social justice in Australian higher education policy. It maps the changes in this policy arena, beginning with the period following the Second World War and concluding with an analysis of the most recent policy proposals of the Bradley Review.…
This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985
Martin Ofelia POPESCU
Full Text Available The article presents a concise speech correction intervention program in of dyslalia in conjunction with capacity development of intra, interpersonal and social integration of children with speech disorders. The program main objectives represent: the potential increasing of individual social integration by correcting speech disorders in conjunction with intra- and interpersonal capacity, the potential growth of children and community groups for social integration by optimizing the socio-relational context of children with speech disorder. In the program were included 60 children / students with dyslalia speech disorders (monomorphic and polymorphic dyslalia, from 11 educational institutions - 6 kindergartens and 5 schools / secondary schools, joined with inter-school logopedic centre (CLI from Targu Jiu city and areas of Gorj district. The program was implemented under the assumption that therapeutic-formative intervention to correct speech disorders and facilitate the social integration will lead, in combination with correct pronunciation disorders, to social integration optimization of children with speech disorders. The results conirm the hypothesis and gives facts about the intervention program eficiency.
Tang, K. Wendy; Kamoua, Ridha; Sutan, Victor; Farooq, Omer; Eng, Gilbert; Chu, Wei Chern; Hou, Guofeng
Speech recognition is an alternative to traditional methods of interacting with a computer, such as textual input through a keyboard. An effective system can replace or reduce the reliability on standard keyboard and mouse input. This can especially assist dyslexic students who have problems with character or word use and manipulation in a textual…
Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Sasagawa, Satoko; Nomura, Shinobu
This study investigates the effect of speech estimation on social anxiety to further understanding of this characteristic of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). In the first study, we developed the Speech Estimation Scale (SES) to assess negative estimation before giving a speech which has been reported to be the most fearful social situation in SAD. Undergraduate students (n = 306) completed a set of questionnaires, which consisted of the Short Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (SFNE), the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and the SES. Exploratory factor analysis showed an adequate one-factor structure with eight items. Further analysis indicated that the SES had good reliability and validity. In the second study, undergraduate students (n = 315) completed the SFNE, SIAS, SPS, SES, and the Self-reported Depression Scale (SDS). The results of path analysis showed that fear of negative evaluation from others (FNE) predicted social anxiety, and speech estimation mediated the relationship between FNE and social anxiety. These results suggest that speech estimation might maintain SAD symptoms, and could be used as a specific target for cognitive intervention in SAD.
Full Text Available Heightened concerns and dialogue about access to justice have infused the law school setting in Saskatchewan and, to varying degrees, across the country. If there ever were a time to approach social justice reform differently – to upset traditional parameters around decision making and step around older hierarchies for input and design – it would be now. This article describes the Dean’s Forum on Dispute Resolution and Access to Justice (colloquially known as the Dean’s Forum as a platform for genuine student engagement in the development of public policy in this important area. We offer our combined reflections, gathered inside our “teaching team,” about the unique pedagogical features of our experiment and its challenges. As we continue to grow with the project, we offer this Saskatchewan story as one example of institutional collaboration in a quickly evolving educational and social policy landscape. L’accès à la justice est une préoccupation croissante et un thème de plus en plus récurrent dans les facultés de droit de la Saskatchewan et, à différents degrés, de l’ensemble du pays. Le temps est venu, semble-t-il, d’aborder la réforme de la justice sociale différemment, de bouleverser les paramètres traditionnels gravitant autour de la prise de décisions et de contourner les hiérarchies plus anciennes en ce qui concerne les données et les concepts. Cet article porte sur le forum du doyen concernant le règlement des conflits et l’accès à la justice (familièrement appelé le Dean’s Forum (forum du doyen comme plateforme pour la participation des étudiants à l’élaboration des politiques publiques dans cet important domaine. Nous présentons l’ensemble des réflexions de notre équipe d’enseignants au sujet des éléments pédagogiques uniques de notre expérience et des difficultés connexes. Nous continuons à grandir avec notre projet, mais nous souhaitions décrire dès maintenant cette
Faizel Amri, Umar; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Noor
In the department of engineering, students are required to fulfil at least 80 percent of class attendance. Conventional method requires student to sign his/her initial on the attendance sheet. However, this method is prone to cheating by having another student signing for their fellow classmate that is absent. We develop our hypothesis according to a verse in the Holy Qur’an (95:4), “We have created men in the best of mould”. Based on the verse, we believe each psychological characteristic of human being is unique and thus, their speech characteristic should be unique. In this paper we present the development of speech biometric-based attendance system. The system requires user’s voice to be installed in the system as trained data and it is saved in the system for registration of the user. The following voice of the user will be the test data in order to verify with the trained data stored in the system. The system uses PSD (Power Spectral Density) and Transition Parameter as the method for feature extraction of the voices. Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances are used in order to verified the user’s voice. For this research, ten subjects of five females and five males were chosen to be tested for the performance of the system. The system performance in term of recognition rate is found to be 60% correct identification of individuals.
Meijers, A.W.M.; Tsohatzidis, S.L.
From its early development in the 1960s, speech act theory always had an individualistic orientation. It focused exclusively on speech acts performed by individual agents. Paradigmatic examples are ‘I promise that p’, ‘I order that p’, and ‘I declare that p’. There is a single speaker and a single
Kane, Peter E., Ed.
The 11 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics covered are (1) the United States Supreme Court and communication theory; (2) truth, knowledge, and a democratic respect for diversity; (3) denial of freedom of speech in Jock Yablonski's campaign for the presidency of the United Mine…
Kane, Peter E., Ed.
This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds…
Niemeier, Brandi S; Chapp, Christopher B; Henley, Whitney B
Tobacco-control policy proposals are usually met with opposition on college campuses. Research to understand students' viewpoints about health-related policy proposals and messaging strategies, however, does not exist. This study investigated students' perceptions about a smoke-free policy proposal to help understand their positions of support and opposition and to inform the development of effective messaging strategies. In January 2012, 1,266 undergraduate students from a midwestern university completed an online questionnaire about smoke-free campus policies. Responses were coded and analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software and chi-square, independent-samples t tests, and binary logistic models. Most students who supported a smoke-free policy considered environmental or aesthetic conditions, whereas most opponents used personal freedom frames of thought. Supporters viewed smoking policies in personal terms, and opponents suggested means-ends policy reasoning. Taken together, points of reference and emotions about proposed policies provided insight about participants' perspectives to help inform effective policy advocacy efforts.
Tomas A. Lipinski
Full Text Available This paper explores recent developments in the regulation of Internet speech, in specific, injurious or defamatory speech and the impact such speech has on the rights of anonymous speakers to remain anonymous as opposed to having their identity revealed to plaintiffs or other third parties. The paper proceeds in four sections. First, a brief history of the legal attempts to regulate defamatory Internet speech in the United States is presented. As discussed below this regulation has altered the traditional legal paradigm of responsibility and as a result creates potential problems for the future of anonymous speech on the Internet. As a result plaintiffs are no longer pursuing litigation against service providers but taking their dispute directly to the anonymous speaker. Second, several cases have arisen in the United States where plaintiffs have requested that the identity of an anonymous Internet speaker be revealed. These cases are surveyed. Third, the cases are analyzed in order to determine the factors that courts require to be present before the identity of an anonymous speaker will be revealed. The release is typically accomplished by the enforcement of a discovery subpoena instigated by the party seeking the identity of the anonymous speaker. The factors courts have used are as follows: jurisdiction, good faith (both internal and external, necessity (basic and sometimes absolute, and at times proprietary interest. Finally, these factors are applied in three scenarios--e-commerce, education, and employment--to guide institutions when adopting policies that regulate when the identity of an anonymous speaker--a customer, a student or an employee--would be released as part of an internal initiative, but would nonetheless be consistent with developing legal standards.
Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne
Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level
Novelli-Olmstead, Tina; Ling, Daniel
Seven hearing impaired children (five to seven years old) assigned to the Speakers group made highly significant gains in speech production and auditory discrimination of speech, while Listeners made only slight speech production gains and no gains in auditory discrimination. Combined speech and auditory training was more effective than auditory…
Stark, Brielle C; Geva, Sharon; Warburton, Elizabeth A
Relatively preserved inner speech alongside poor overt speech has been documented in some persons with aphasia (PWA), but the relationship of overt speech with inner speech is still largely unclear, as few studies have directly investigated these factors. The present study investigates the relationship of relatively preserved inner speech in aphasia with selected measures of language and cognition. Thirty-eight persons with chronic aphasia (27 men, 11 women; average age 64.53 ± 13.29 years, time since stroke 8-111 months) were classified as having relatively preserved inner and overt speech (n = 21), relatively preserved inner speech with poor overt speech (n = 8), or not classified due to insufficient measurements of inner and/or overt speech (n = 9). Inner speech scores (by group) were correlated with selected measures of language and cognition from the Comprehensive Aphasia Test (Swinburn, Porter, & Al, 2004). The group with poor overt speech showed a significant relationship of inner speech with overt naming (r = .95, p speech and language and cognition factors were not significant for the group with relatively good overt speech. As in previous research, we show that relatively preserved inner speech is found alongside otherwise severe production deficits in PWA. PWA with poor overt speech may rely more on preserved inner speech for overt picture naming (perhaps due to shared resources with verbal working memory) and for written picture description (perhaps due to reliance on inner speech due to perceived task difficulty). Assessments of inner speech may be useful as a standard component of aphasia screening, and therapy focused on improving and using inner speech may prove clinically worthwhile. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5303542.
A consequence of the dramatic rise in international student mobility is the trend for international students to remain in the country in which they study after graduation. Countries such as Australia, the UK and Canada stand to benefit from international student migration, as they are able to fill skill shortages with locally trained foreign…
Harley, Trevor A.
Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…
Muhling, Stefanie; Mady, Callie
This article describes a document analysis of policy and resource documents pertaining to inclusion of students with special education needs (SSEN) in Canadian French as a Second Language (FSL) programs. By recognizing gaps and acknowledging advancements, we aim to inform current implementation and future development of inclusive policy. Document…
Lewis, Todd F.; Thombs, Dennis L.
The aim of this study was to conduct a multivariate assessment of college student drinking motivations at a campus with conventional alcohol control policies and enforcement practices, including the establishment and dissemination of alcohol policies and the use of warnings to arouse fear of sanctions. Two explanatory models were compared:…
Recovering and critically examining the pioneering scholarship and history of George I. Sanchez provides an interpretation toward a legacy of a Chicana/o student and policy advocacy framework for Chicana/o scholars to consider. The author of this work applies a critical policy theoretical analysis by Frank Fischer to develop a Chicana/o student…
Binderup, Lars Grassme
, as opposed to a legal norm, that curbs exercises of the right to free speech that offend the feelings or beliefs of members from other cultural groups. The paper rejects the suggestion that acceptance of such a norm is in line with liberal egalitarian thinking. Following a review of the classical liberal...... egalitarian reasons for free speech - reasons from overall welfare, from autonomy and from respect for the equality of citizens - it is argued that these reasons outweigh the proposed reasons for curbing culturally offensive speech. Currently controversial cases such as that of the Danish Cartoon Controversy...
Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Leila; Hesampour, Maryam; Hasan Zadeh, Jafar
Recognizing the determinants of behavior plays a major role in identification and application of effective strategies for encouraging individuals to follow the intended pattern of behavior. The present study aimed to analyze the university students' behaviors regarding the amenability to dress code, using the theory of reasoned action (TRA). In this cross sectional study, 472 students were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by specialists. Besides, its reliability was confirmed by conducting a pilot study revealing Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.93 for attitude, 0.83 for subjective norms, 0.94 for behavioral intention and 0.77 for behavior. The data were entered into the SPSS statistical software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney, correlation and regression analysis). Based on the students' self-reports, conformity of clothes to the university's dress code was below the expected level in 28.87% of the female students and 28.55% of the male ones. The mean scores of attitude, subjective norms, and behavioral intention to comply with dress code policy were 28.78±10.08, 28.51±8.25 and 11.12±3.84, respectively. The students of different colleges were different from each other concerning TRA constructs. Yet, subjective norms played a more critical role in explaining the variance of dress code behavior among the students. Theory of reasoned action explained the students' dress code behaviors relatively well. The study results suggest paying attention to appropriate approaches in educational, cultural activities, including promotion of student-teacher communication.
Lam, Choi Ling Coriolanus
One of the major acoustical concerns in classrooms is the establishment of effective verbal communication between teachers and students. Non-optimal acoustical conditions, resulting in reduced verbal communication, can cause two main problems. First, they can lead to reduce learning efficiency. Second, they can also cause fatigue, stress, vocal strain and health problems, such as headaches and sore throats, among teachers who are forced to compensate for poor acoustical conditions by raising their voices. Besides, inadequate acoustical conditions can induce the usage of public address system. Improper usage of such amplifiers or loudspeakers can lead to impairment of students' hearing systems. The social costs of poor classroom acoustics will be large to impair the learning of children. This invisible problem has far reaching implications for learning, but is easily solved. Many researches have been carried out that they have accurately and concisely summarized the research findings on classrooms acoustics. Though, there is still a number of challenging questions remaining unanswered. Most objective indices for speech intelligibility are essentially based on studies of western languages. Even several studies of tonal languages as Mandarin have been conducted, there is much less on Cantonese. In this research, measurements have been done in unoccupied rooms to investigate the acoustical parameters and characteristics of the classrooms. The speech intelligibility tests, which based on English, Mandarin and Cantonese, and the survey were carried out on students aged from 5 years old to 22 years old. It aims to investigate the differences in intelligibility between English, Mandarin and Cantonese of the classrooms in Hong Kong. The significance on speech transmission index (STI) related to Phonetically Balanced (PB) word scores will further be developed. Together with developed empirical relationship between the speech intelligibility in classrooms with the variations
Seabourg, Deborah; And Others
At the beginning of the 1973-74 academic year alcohol usage was officially permitted for the first time in residence halls at the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. To determine residents' perceptions of the effects of the change in drinking policy, interviews were conducted with 49 current dormitory residents, who had also lived…
This curriculum guide is intended to encourage students to learn how everyone benefits when young people, other citizens, and the media exercise the constitutional rights of free speech and free press. Background information on free speech issues is provided, along with classroom activities, discussion questions, and student worksheets. There are…
Foxx, R. M.; And Others
Three mentally handicapped students (aged 13, 36, and 40) with maladaptive speech received training to answer questions with verbal labels. The results of their cues-pause-point training showed that the students replaced their maladaptive speech with correct labels (answers) to questions in the training setting and three generalization settings.…
Lane, Robert Wheeler
The extent to which public school students deserve First Amendment rights and the values and interests regarding public schooling that should limit student free speech are explored. Eight chapters are entitled: "Pursuing Excellence and Order"; "The Emergence of Children's Rights"; "Free Speech and Public Education";…
Horodyskyj, L.; Lennon, T.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.
Climate change is a problem that involves science, economics, and politics. Particularly in the United States, political resistance to addressing climate change has been exacerbated by a concerted misinformation campaign against the basic science, a negative response to how the proposed solutions to climate change intersect with values. Scientists often propose more climate science education as a solution to the problem, but preliminary studies indicate that more science education does not necessarily reduce polarization on the topic (Kahan et al. 2012). Is there a way that we can better engage non-science students in topics related to climate change that improve their comprehension of the problem and its implications, overcoming polarization? In an existing political science course, "Do You Want to Build a Nation?", we are testing a new digital world-building model based on resource development and consequent environmental and societal impacts. Students spend half the class building their nations based on their assigned ideology (i.e., socialist, absolute monarchy, libertarian) and the second half of the class negotiating with other nations to resolve global issues while remaining true to their ideologies. The course instructor, co-author Lennon, and ASU's Center for Education Through eXploration have collaborated to design a digital world model based on resources linked to an adaptive decision-making environment that translates student policies into modifications to the digital world. The model tracks students' exploration and justification of their nation's policy choices. In the Fall 2017 offering of the course, we will investigate how this digital world model and scenarios built around it affect student learning outcomes. Specifically, we anticipate improved understanding of the policy trade-offs related to energy development, better understanding of the ways that different ideologies approach solutions to climate change, and that both will result in more
Niebuhr, Oliver; Brem, Alexander; Novák-Tót, Eszter
to business speeches. Consistent with the public opinion, our findings are indicative of Steve Jobs being a more charismatic speaker than Mark Zuckerberg. Beyond previous studies, our data suggest that rhythm and emphatic accentuation are also involved in conveying charisma. Furthermore, the differences...... between Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg and the investor- and customer-related sections of their speeches support the modern understanding of charisma as a gradual, multiparametric, and context-sensitive concept....
Vích, Robert; Vondra, Martin
Vol. 4775, - (2007), s. 129-137 ISSN 0302-9743. [COST Action 2102 International Workshop. Vietri sul Mare, 29.03.2007-31.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET301710509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : speech * speech processing * cepstral analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2005
Stamm, Mark E.; Frick, William C.; Mackey, Hollie J.
This study explored the moral complexity of student drug and alcohol policies that are often disciplinary, punitive, and exclusionary in nature. The Ethic of the Profession and its Model for Students' Best Interests (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016; Stefkovich, 2013), a professional ethical construct for educational leadership and for school…
With an attempt to realize the effectiveness of a university's policy on motorcycle emission, this study compared its students' participation behavior, associated knowledge, and attitudes toward relevant environmental issues with those of three other universities without similar measures. The results of a survey on a total of 504 students revealed…
Conclusions: The students supported indoor smoke-free policies for universities. However, support for extending smoke-free regulations to outdoor areas of university campuses was limited. It is necessary to educate students about tobacco control and emphasise their importance as role models before extending outdoor smoke-free legislation at university campuses.
EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.
This parent/student guide describes recent changes in admissions policies at the University of California (UC). Traditionally, UC admitted the top 12.5% of high school graduating seniors, but beginning in 2001, the top 4% of students in the graduating class of every high school are eligible if they have completed 11 specific "a-f"…
Fenske, Robert H.; Porter, John D.
The role of institutional research in policy analysis regarding the operation of a computer model for delivery of financial aid to disadvantaged students is considered. A student financial aid model at Arizona State University is designed to develop a profile of late appliers for aid funds and also those who file inaccurate or incomplete…
Ezhov, Sergey G.; Komarova, Nataliya M.; Khairullina, Elmira R.; Rapatskaia, Liudmila, A.; Miftakhov, Radik R.; Khusainova, Liana R.
The research urgency is caused by the increase of social responsibility of universities for improvement of the quality of higher education and development of students' socio-professional values. In terms of the conflicting realities of modern society the youth policy at the University is the most important tool to form students' commitment to…
Love-Quick, Sharon J.
One of the most pressing concerns that universities and colleges face today is the drug and alcohol abuse of students. In order to address this, there is a need to strengthen university policies in order to mitigate the increasing rate and cases of drug and alcohol abuse among students. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the…
Locke, J L; Kutz, K J
Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.
Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten
The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM; ) was proposed in order to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII). The sEPSM applies the signal-tonoise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv), which was demonstrated...... to successfully predict speech intelligibility in conditions with nonlinearly processed noisy speech, such as processing with spectral subtraction. Moreover, a multiresolution version (mr-sEPSM) was demonstrated to account for speech intelligibility in various conditions with stationary and fluctuating...
Holt, Janet K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.
The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) sought to identify those institutions helping students overcome barriers to college completion and achieve a livable wage. This analysis of Illinois 4-year postsecondary institutions highlights those institutions which fostered degree completion and job success with less debt for underrepresented…
Holt, Janet K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.
The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) sought to identify those institutions helping students overcome barriers to college completion and achieve a livable wage. This analysis of Illinois 4-year postsecondary institutions highlights those institutions which fostered degree completion and job success with less debt for underrepresented…
The Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) movement argues that broad-based education that promotes creativity recognizes student learning diversity, increases student engagement and can potentially enhance Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) learning by embracing cross-cutting translational skills…
Stahl, William M.; Karger, Joanne
The rapid adoption of digital content and delivery systems, each with its own capacity to track, store, and analyze student usage, interactions, and academic outcomes at both a highly detailed and granular level, has emerged as an area of widespread opportunity, but also of concern. The comingling of various student data sets (demographics, usage,…
Granruth, Laura Brierton; Kindle, Peter A.; Burford, Michael L.; Delavega, Elena; Johnson, David H.; Peterson, Susan; Caplan, Mary A.
Understanding student political attitudes--feelings about government and perceptions of its role--has long been of interest to social scientists. One factor that may influence political attitudes is belief in a just world, a complex psychological construct well established in the literature. Our study explores changes in social work students'…
Isom, Dena K.
This report describes a problem-based learning project focused on the information available to superintendents related to improving student attendance. This information has the potential to assist school districts in improving the attendance of each student as is required by attendance standards such as those of the fifth version of the Missouri…
A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…
Haugen, Heidi Østbø
This article explores how Sino-African relations are affected by the growing number of Africans who pursue higher education in China. China actively recruits African university students in order to increase soft power and generate income from the export of education services. Semi-structured interviews with African university students suggest that…
There is a strong focus on the importance of student engagement in higher education, with increasing attention on how students can participate in their university's decision-making processes. Yet, although the concept appears to be almost universally accepted, it is rarely problematised. This has led some commentators to conclude that student…
Guo, Yan; Guo, Shibao
The internationalization of higher education in Canada is happening at a rapid pace. One manifestation of internationalization is the increasing enrolment of international students in Canadian institutions. There is little research on international undergraduate students' experiences from their own perspectives as they adapt to a new educational…
Doyle, Stephanie; Loveridge, Judith; Faamanatu-Eteuati, Niusila
This article focuses on a significant group of postgraduate international students overlooked by institutions and policymakers, namely those with accompanying partners and children. The economic importance of international students to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America is highlighted. It is argued…
García, Hugo A.; Villarreal, María de Lourdes
International student mobility in higher education has gained currency as an important topic in today's global, political, and economic environment. United States postsecondary institutions are working to expand their international student population to increase revenue and diversity. The current higher education and economic context has produced…
In the context of increasing linguistic and cultural diversity in Australian schools, it is important to consider the value of students' multilingual resources for learning. This paper reports on an ethnographic case study conducted in an Australian metropolitan secondary school where the student body represented more than 40 cultures and…
Russell, Carol; Malfroy, Janne; Gosper, Maree; McKenzie, Jo
As learning technologies are now integral to most higher education student learning experiences, universities need to make strategic choices about what technologies to adopt and how to best support and develop the use of these technologies, particularly in a climate of limited resources. Information from students is therefore a valuable…
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung
This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…
Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.
Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…
Shambaugh, Larisa S.; Chambers, Jay G.
As education budgets continue to tighten, increased attention is focused on how school districts can best distribute existing funds to schools and how schools can best use these funds. Student-based funding (SBF)--sometimes referred to as a weighted student formula--is one approach that school districts have taken during the past decade. SBF…
National Council of Teachers of English, 2014
"The Students' Right to Read," published in 1961, revised in 1981, and reaffirmed by the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Executive Committee in 2012, responds to censorship or attempts to restrict or deny students access to materials deemed objectionable by some individual or group. Despite this position statement and the…
Nie, Yingjiu; Galvin, John J; Morikawa, Michael; André, Victoria; Wheeler, Harley; Fu, Qian-Jie
This study examined music and speech perception in normal-hearing children with some or no musical training. Thirty children (mean age = 11.3 years), 15 with and 15 without formal music training participated in the study. Music perception was measured using a melodic contour identification (MCI) task; stimuli were a piano sample or sung speech with a fixed timbre (same word for each note) or a mixed timbre (different words for each note). Speech perception was measured in quiet and in steady noise using a matrix-styled sentence recognition task; stimuli were naturally intonated speech or sung speech with a fixed pitch (same note for each word) or a mixed pitch (different notes for each word). Significant musician advantages were observed for MCI and speech in noise but not for speech in quiet. MCI performance was significantly poorer with the mixed timbre stimuli. Speech performance in noise was significantly poorer with the fixed or mixed pitch stimuli than with spoken speech. Across all subjects, age at testing and MCI performance were significantly correlated with speech performance in noise. MCI and speech performance in quiet was significantly poorer for children than for adults from a related study using the same stimuli and tasks; speech performance in noise was significantly poorer for young than for older children. Long-term music training appeared to benefit melodic pitch perception and speech understanding in noise in these pediatric listeners.
Lewis, James R
Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application
Estágio curricular Supervisionado: percepções do aluno-terapêuta em Fonoaudiologia no âmbito hospitalar Curricular supervised traineeship: perceptions of student-therapist in Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences in a hospital
Moisés Andrade dos Santos de Queiroz
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: construir uma descrição da percepção dos estagiários do curso de fonoaudiologia em leito hospitalar. MÉTODO: pesquisa realizada durante a disciplina de Estágio Supervisionado II em Fonoaudiologia do último semestre do Curso de Graduação em Fonoaudiologia da Universidade de Fortaleza no período de fevereiro a junho de 2010. Optou-se por uma abordagem qualitativa registrando-se, por parte dos estagiários-pesquisadores, suas impressões pessoais, por meio da construção de diários e notas de campo, no atendimento a pacientes neurogênicos à beira do leito. RESULTADOS: as categorias encontradas dividiram-se em: ansiedade e frustração; insegurança e incapacidade; angústia, tristeza e medo; empoderamento profissional; empatia e lembranças e; sentimentos negativos. Os sentimentos ressaltaram o medo de intervir com o paciente. Porém, a rotina faz o estagiário mais seguro quanto aos seus procedimentos e, com o tempo, é possível controlar os sentimentos em relação às medidas a serem tomadas junto ao paciente. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que as percepções referidas pelos estagiários estão diretamente relacionadas ao impacto emocional inicial. A falta da vivência interfere na atuação, fazendo o aluno buscar o apoio do docente. É pela experiência que o estagiário adquire conhecimento técnico-prático, proporcionando uma reflexão crítica que o leva à autoconfiança. A importância de levar o aluno ao pensamento crítico-reflexivo torna-o um profissional consciente de seu papel na sociedade, possibilitando a um atendimento mais humanizado e diferenciado implicando em uma melhora na qualidade de atendimento do paciente debilitado.PURPOSE: to build a description of perception of students-therapists of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences in hospital bedside. METHOD: the research was carried out during the discipline of supervised traineeship II in Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences the semester of the
Rollinson, Joseph; Brunskill, Emma
At their core, Intelligent Tutoring Systems consist of a student model and a policy. The student model captures the state of the student and the policy uses the student model to individualize instruction. Policies require different properties from the student model. For example, a mastery threshold policy requires the student model to have a way…
Full Text Available Conventional acoustic modeling involves estimating many parameters to effectively model feature distributions. The sparseness of speech and text data, however, degrades the reliability of the estimation process and makes speech recognition a...
Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.
Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were
Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh S; McCarthy, William J; Resnicow, Ken; Pimple, Sharmila A; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Mishra, Gauravi A; Gupta, Prakash C
We measured how student tobacco use and psychological risk factors (intention to use and perceived ease of access to tobacco products) were associated with tobacco vendor compliance with India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act provisions regulating the point-of-sale (POS) environment. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of high school students (n=1373) and tobacco vendors (n=436) in school-adjacent communities (n=26) in Mumbai, India. We used in-class self-administered questionnaires of high school students, face-to-face interviews with tobacco vendors and compliance checks of tobacco POS environments. Logistic regression models with adjustments for clustering were used to measure associations between student tobacco use, psychological risk factors and tobacco POS compliance. Compliance with POS laws was low overall and was associated with lower risk of student current tobacco use (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.91) and current smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.77), when controlling for student-level and community-level tobacco use risk factors. Compliance was not associated with student intention to use tobacco (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.18) and perceived ease of access to tobacco (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00). Improving vendor compliance with tobacco POS laws may reduce student tobacco use. Future studies should test strategies to improve compliance with tobacco POS laws, particularly in low-income and middle-income country settings like urban India. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
The purpose of this study is to examine speech intelligibility of children with primary speech and sound disorders aged 3 to 6 years in everyday life. The research problem is based on the degree to which parents or guardians, immediate family members (sister, brother, grandparents), extended family members (aunt, uncle, cousin), child's friends, other acquaintances, child's teachers and strangers understand the speech of children with speech sound disorders. We examined whether the level ...
Jimerson, Shane R; Haddock, Aaron D
Teacher quality has a vital influence on student success or failure. Thus, further research regarding teacher effectiveness, teacher evaluation, teacher well-being, and teacher contributions is essential to inform school psychologists and allied educational professionals who collaborate and consult with teachers to facilitate student success. In this special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly, a series of 6 articles further elucidate teachers' powerful contributions to student outcomes along with concrete, research-based ways for school psychologists to support and collaborate with teachers. The studies included in the special section describe how teacher support facilitates students' positive academic and social-emotional outcomes and how students' attitudes toward learning moderate the association between the classroom environment and students' academic achievement. Studies also report on the development and validation of self-report measures focused on both teacher subjective well-being and teachers' use of evidence-based practices. Finally, the articles included in the special topic section offer insights and ideas for refining teacher evaluation practices, understanding the factors contributing to program implementation fidelity, and improving prevention, early identification, and intervention efforts aimed at fostering school completion and positive youth development. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Chan, T. C.; Curran, Theresa; Deskin, Caroline
This study compared the professional expectations of graduate students in speech and language pathology (SLP) with the employment realities offered by the profession. A total of 89 graduate students enrolled in the SLP program at Valdosta State University (VSU) in Georgia during 1995-97 completed a seven-item questionnaire on employment prospects.…
Moussalli, Souheila; Cardoso, Walcir
The results of our previous research on the pedagogical use of Speaking Robots (SRs) revealed positive effects on motivating students to practice their oral skills in a stress-free environment. However, our findings indicated that the SR was sometimes unable to understand students' foreign accented speech. In this paper, we report the results of a…
Baule, Steven M.; Kriha, Darcy L.
In the potential shadow of a "Bong Hits for Jesus" banner, complicated student speech and discipline issues arise almost daily on the Internet. Whether it is a mock MySpace page set up to make fun of a teacher or a direct threat to an assistant principal, it is often unclear exactly where school ground discipline ends and student free speech…
This paper addresses racism and white privilege in America. Racism is generally discriminatory policy and behavior aimed at oppressing non whites whereas white privilege is the advantage gained by whites that is not due to ability or merit. It is argued that white privilege is largely invisible and that this allows the current unacceptable status…
Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia
This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…
Beebe, Ralph K.
Focusing on the controversy which surrounded Thomas Jefferson and the Embargo of 1807, this social studies unit examines the numerous factors which affect presidential policy-making and leadership. The unit presents newspaper accounts of the boarding of the American frigate "Chesapeake" by the English in 1807 and enumerates the factors…
Group of Eight (NJ1), 2011
This briefing examines government and private funding across educational sectors. Key findings include: (1) Differences in funding for public and private education across the sectors: (a) do not reflect policy coherence; and (b) entrench inequities; (2) All sectors receive funding from both public and private sources, though the shares vary.…
American Federation of Teachers, 2004
The Latino population is the fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. This group is rapidly changing the face of public schools and presenting a unique set of challenges to public education. This policy brief provides the data and context to support the American Federation of Teacher's call for increased attention to the condition of…
Huijbregts, M.A.H.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
In this paper we present a speech/non-speech classification method that allows high quality classification without the need to know in advance what kinds of audible non-speech events are present in an audio recording and that does not require a single parameter to be tuned on in-domain data. Because
Attitudes of students and employees towards the implementation of a totally smoke free university campus policy at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional baseline study on smoking behavior following the implementation of policy.
Almutairi, Khalid M
Tobacco smoking is the preventable health issue worldwide. The harmful consequences of tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke are well documented. The aim of this study is to compares the prevalence of smoking among students, faculty and staff and examines their interest to quit. Study also determines the difference on perceptions of smoking and non-smoking students, faculty and staff with regard to implementation of a smoke-free policy. A cross-sectional survey was administered to one of the largest universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the academic year of 2013. A Likert scale was used on questionnaires towards attitude to smoking and smoking free policy. The Chi squared test was used to determine the difference of support on completely smoke free campus for smokers and non-smokers. Smoking rates were highest among staff members (36.8 %) followed by students (11.2 %) and faculty (6.4 %). About half of the smokers (53.7 %) within the university attempted to quit smoking. Students (OR 3.10, 95 % CI 1.00-9.60) and faculty (OR 4.06, 95 % CI 1.16-14.18) were more likely to make quit smoking than staff members. Majority of the respondents (89.6 %) were supportive of a smoking--free policy and indicated that should be strictly enforced especially into public places. Results also showed that smokers were more likely to support a smoke-free policy if there are no fines or penalties. These baseline findings will provide information among administrators in formulating and carrying out a total smoke free policy. Although the majority of people within the King Saud University demonstrate a high support for a smoke-free policy, administrators should consider difference between smokers and non-smokers attitudes when implementing such a policy.
section includes four carefully selected chapters. They deal with facets of speech production, speech acoustics, and/or speech perception or recognition, place them in an integrated phonetic-phonological perspective, and relate them in more or less explicit ways to aspects of speech technology. Therefore......, we hope that this volume can help speech scientists with traditional training in phonetics and phonology to keep up with the latest developments in speech technology. In the opposite direction, speech researchers starting from a technological perspective will hopefully get inspired by reading about...... the questions, phenomena, and communicative functions that are currently addressed in phonetics and phonology. Either way, the future of speech research lies in international, interdisciplinary collaborations, and our volume is meant to reflect and facilitate such collaborations...
Dania, Michelle G; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Bandele, Emmanuel O
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among medical students, and to determine their level of knowledge regarding risk associated with cigarette smoking and their attitude and behavior towards tobacco control strategies and policies. A stratified random sampling approach was used to select participants. A modified version of the the Global Health Professional Students Survey questionnaire was self-administered. Descriptive statistics were applied and comparisons were done using chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the significant determinants of smoking. A P smoking and current smoking was 9.6 and 1.2%, respectively. Age > 21, having a smoking father, and use of alcohol were significantly associated with ever smoking. Knowledge of smoking as a risk for emphysema was 72.8%, coronary artery disease 82.8%, stroke 68.8%, and low birth weight 76.4%. There were 103 (41.2%) students aware of antidepressant usage in smoking cessation. One hundred and ninety-five (78%) offered smoking cessation advice if a smoker had no smoking-related disease and did not seek their opinion about smoking, 68.8% affirmed to having adequate knowledge on smoking cessation, and 56.8% had received formal training on smoking cessation techniques. The ban on cigarette smoking in enclosed public places was supported by 92.4%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among medical students in Lagos is relatively low. Gaps exist in the level of knowledge of the students regarding risks of cigarette smoking, tobacco cessation strategies, and in their attitude and behavior towards offering tobacco cessation advice. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.
Medhurst, Martin J.
Examines speech delivered by President Eisenhower to General Assembly of the United Nations in December 1953. Demonstrates how a complex rhetorical situation resulted in the crafting and exploitation of a public policy address. Speech bolstered international image of the United States as peacemaker, warned the Soviets against a preemptive nuclear…
Stephen Gichuhi Kimotho
Full Text Available Ethnicity in Kenya permeates all spheres of life. However, it is in politics that ethnicity is most visible. Election time in Kenya often leads to ethnic competition and hatred, often expressed through various media. Ethnic hate speech characterized the 2007 general elections in party rallies and through text messages, emails, posters and leaflets. This resulted in widespread skirmishes that left over 1200 people dead, and many displaced (KNHRC, 2008. In 2013, however, the new battle zone was the war of words on social media platform. More than any other time in Kenyan history, Kenyans poured vitriolic ethnic hate speech through digital media like Facebook, tweeter and blogs. Although scholars have studied the role and effects of the mainstream media like television and radio in proliferating the ethnic hate speech in Kenya (Michael Chege, 2008; Goldstein & Rotich, 2008a; Ismail & Deane, 2008; Jacqueline Klopp & Prisca Kamungi, 2007, little has been done in regard to social media. This paper investigated the nature of digitized hate speech by: describing the forms of ethnic hate speech on social media in Kenya; the effects of ethnic hate speech on Kenyan’s perception of ethnic entities; ethnic conflict and ethics of citizen journalism. This study adopted a descriptive interpretive design, and utilized Austin’s Speech Act Theory, which explains use of language to achieve desired purposes and direct behaviour (Tarhom & Miracle, 2013. Content published between January and April 2013 from six purposefully identified blogs was analysed. Questionnaires were used to collect data from university students as they form a good sample of Kenyan population, are most active on social media and are drawn from all parts of the country. Qualitative data were analysed using NVIVO 10 software, while responses from the questionnaire were analysed using IBM SPSS version 21. The findings indicated that Facebook and Twitter were the main platforms used to
Proper speech functioning in human being, depends on the precise coordination and timing balances in a series of complex neuro nuscular movements and actions. Starting from the prime organ of energy source of expelled air from respirato y system; deliver such air to trigger vocal cords; swift changes of this phonatory episode to a comprehensible sound in RESONACE and final coordination of all head and neck structures to elicit final speech in ...
The paper contains a transcript of a speech by the chairman of the UKAEA, to mark the publication of the 1985/6 annual report. The topics discussed in the speech include: the Chernobyl accident and its effect on public attitudes to nuclear power, management and disposal of radioactive waste, the operation of UKAEA as a trading fund, and the UKAEA development programmes. The development programmes include work on the following: fast reactor technology, thermal reactors, reactor safety, health and safety aspects of water cooled reactors, the Joint European Torus, and under-lying research. (U.K.)
Gong, Min; Liang, Zhu-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Shadel, William G; Zhou, Lei; Xiao, Jiaying
China issued a nationwide "Tobacco-Free Campus" Policy (TFCP) in January 2014, but it is unclear how well it was implemented across China's 2138 college campuses. We conducted an Internet survey of Beijing college students to evaluate the implementation of the TFCP in Beijing. An Internet survey of 711 students from 37 colleges in Beijing was conducted in May 2015. Respondents reported on secondhand smoking (SHS) exposure on campus, knowledge on and actions taken against SHS, and tobacco marketing exposure on campus. Almost 90% of respondents were exposed to SHS on campus at least once in the past month. Approximately 37% of nonsmokers and 61% of smokers reported seeing a teacher smoking, and the majority of both smokers and nonsmokers reported seeing a classmate smoking in campus buildings. The likelihood and location of SHS exposure depend on the participant's demographics and own smoking behavior. Nonsmokers were more likely to be aware of the health risk of SHS than smokers. Although most participants were aware of the harms, only 13% and 9% tried to stop their last SHS exposure indoors and outdoors, respectively. Forty-seven students from 14 colleges noticed tobacco marketing activities on campus. The TFCP on Chinese college campuses was only partially enforced, particularly with regard to SHS. On January 29, 2014, the Chinese Ministry of Education issued the TFCP. A major barrier to effective tobacco control in China is the difficulty in implementing policies issued by the central government. At this point, it is unclear whether the TFCP was successfully implemented on China's college campuses. Major tobacco use monitoring efforts do not include college students. The present research describes the current tobacco control environment on Beijing's college campuses 15 months after the TFCP took effect. To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the English literature on tobacco environment and exposure (rather than a prevalence survey) of college students in
Vanubia Sampaio Santos
Full Text Available This work presents the outline of a study that is underway, seeking evidence and question the reality of Indian students in schools not as the situations of indigenous affirmation and omission identity (ethnic belonging in urban public schools in Rondônia. The obtained data show everyday situations that characterize violence and prejudice against students indígenas.Essas and other situations that reveals the interethnic tension remains dormant and can manifest in many different situations. At school, occurs in intercultural interaction. To discuss these and other issues raised in the survey, support for authors who discuss indigenous education, management, public policy, anti-colonialist project, empowerment, autonomy and leadership indigenous perspective of the indigenous movement with Grupioni (2001, Lopes da Silva (2000; D'Angelis (2012; Bergamaschi (2012, Both (2009; Mendonça (2009; Castoriadis (1988; Secchi (2008; Tadeu da Silva (1999 and Paulo Freire (1982 with their outstanding contribution to the dialogue on indigenous education. Keywords: Indian student. Urban school. Prejudice. Omission identity.
Yeh, James S; Austad, Kirsten E; Franklin, Jessica M; Chimonas, Susan; Campbell, Eric G; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S
Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors. Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale). Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63). Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04) and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95) than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly versus
James S Yeh
Full Text Available Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors.Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale. Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63. Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04 and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95 than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly
Herbelin, Bruno; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars
Speech is both beautiful and informative. In this work, a conceptual study of the speech, through investigation of the tower of Babel, the archetypal phonemes, and a study of the reasons of uses of language is undertaken in order to create an artistic work investigating the nature of speech. The ....... The artwork is presented at the Re:New festival in May 2008....
Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.
Bertolotti, Janine Cecelia
In an attempt to improve student achievement in science in Florida, the Florida Department of Education implemented end-of-course (EOC) assessments in biology during the 2011-2012 academic school year. Although this first administration would only account for 30% of the student's overall final course grade in biology, subsequent administrations would be accompanied by increasing stakes for students, teachers, and schools. Therefore, this study sought to address gaps in empirical evidence as well as discuss how educational policy will potentially impact on teacher evaluation and professional development, student retention and graduation rates, and school accountability indicators. This study explored four variables- reading proficiency, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender- to determine their influence and relationship on biology achievement on the Biology I EOC assessment at a Title 1 school. To do so, the results of the Biology I EOC assessment administered during the Spring 2012 school year was obtained from a small, rural Title 1 high school in North Florida. Additional data regarding each student's qualification for free and reduced-price lunch, FCAT Reading developmental scale scores, FCAT Reading level, grade level, gender, and ethnicity were also collected for the causal-comparative exploratory study. Of the 178 students represented, 48% qualified for free and reduced-price lunch, 54% were female, and 55% scored at FCAT Reading level 3 or higher. Additionally, 59% were White and 37% Black. A combination of descriptive statistics and other statistical procedures such as independent samples one-tailed t-test, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multipleregression, and a Pearson r correlation was utilized in the analysis, with a significance level set at 0.05. Results indicate that of all four variables, FCAT Reading proficiency was the sole variable, after adjusting for other variables; that had a significant impact on biology achievement. Students with higher
Kao, Audiey C; Braddock, Clarence; Clay, Maria; Elliott, Donna; Epstein, Scott K; Filstead, William; Hotze, Tim; May, Win; Reenan, Jennifer
To determine the effect of educational interventions on medical students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry marketing practices and whether restrictive medical school policies governing medicine-industry interactions are associated with student support for banning such interactions. Prospective cohort study involving the graduating classes of 2009 (intervention, n=474) and 2010 (control, n=459) at four U.S. medical schools. Intervention students experienced a former pharmaceutical representative's presentation, faculty debate, and a Web-based course. Both groups completed baseline and follow-up attitude surveys about pharmaceutical marketing. A total of 482 students (51.6%) completed both surveys. In regression analyses, intervention students were more likely than control students to think that physicians are strongly or moderately influenced by pharmaceutical marketing (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.46-3.59) and believed they would be more likely to prescribe a company's drug if they accepted that company's gifts and food (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.12-2.52). Intervention students were more likely to support banning interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and students (OR, 4.82; 95% CI, 3.02-7.68) and with physicians (OR, 6.88; 95% CI, 4.04-11.70). Students from schools with more restrictive policies were more likely to support banning interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and students (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.26-3.16) and with physicians (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 2.05-5.79). Education about pharmaceutical marketing practices and more restrictive policies governing medicine-industry interactions seem to increase medical students' skepticism about the appropriateness of such marketing practices and disapproval of pharmaceutical representatives in the learning environment.
Lidström, Helene; Hemmingsson, Helena
Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to enhance participation in educational activities for students with physical disabilities. Even though incorporating ICTs into teaching and learning in education has become an important issue, it is unclear what evidence research has provided. The aim of this study was to investigate types of ICT items and how ICT is being used by students with physical disabilities, and describe the benefits of ICT use in school activities. A systematic literature search, covering the period 2000-May 2012, was performed in the databases AMED, CINAHL, Eric, OTseeker, Psych Info, PubMed, and Scopus. Data analysis entailed extracting, editing, grouping, and abstracting findings. A total of 32 articles were included, 16 of which were intervention studies. More than half of the studies concerned students with motor impairments. Type of ICT used differed among impairment groups, and ICT seemed to be especially beneficial for writing, spelling, and communication. Even though the review found heterogeneity across the studies students seemed to benefit from ICT use regardless of the type. For future research it is important to highlight intervention studies, especially for students with visual, hearing, and communication impairments.
Thomas, Beth A.
In 1968 the Bilingual Education Act marked the first comprehensive federal intervention in the schooling of language minoritized students by creating financial incentives for bilingual education in an effort to address social and educational inequities created by poverty and linguistic isolation in schools. Since that time federal education…
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher
In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid sche...
Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus
The paper highlights the violations of students' human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School's Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods.…
Although only 20 percent of teacher education students nationwide who completed their training and were certified during the 2009 spring semester were employed as teachers during the 2009 fall semester (U.S. Department of Education ED Review statistics, Nov. 20, 2009), 100 percent of Western Kentucky University (WKU) teacher education spring 2009…
Miller, Peter M.
Rates of student homelessness have increased dramatically throughout the United States in recent years, yet there has been a dearth of scholarly analysis devoted to key organizations' engagement of the issue. Given that the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act has taken on a central, but underexamined role in shaping this engagement,…
Nguyen, David H. K.
The purpose of this Equity Brief is to provide some guidance for educators with regard to the challenges around supporting undocumented students in the midst of uncertain times and continued concerns surrounding Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA). Many youth in the DACA Program have made the United States their home and have lived in…
Sendelbaugh, Joseph; Bullis, Michael
The national survey to determine what state level transition provisions exist between special education and rehabilitation services for hearing-impaired students found that half of the vocational rehabilitation and one-fourth of the special education agencies have a formal state-level transition plan in place. (DB)
Bagley, Carl; Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys
Provides empirically based insights into preferences, perceptions, and responses of parents of students with special education needs to the 1990s restructured school system in England. Uses analyses of quantitative/qualitative data generated by a large-scale research study on school choice. Reveals depth and range of problems encountered by these…
Kolb, Kenneth H.; Longest, Kyle C.; Singer, Alexa J.
Writing intensive first-year seminars are well situated within the curriculum to teach about issues like cheating and plagiarism. Although most research on academic integrity focuses on how--and how much--students cheat, we take a different approach. We assess whether participation in writing intensive first-year seminars produces measurable…
The entrenching of competitive values within the public-market field of secondary education has led to the formation of academically focused institutions whose budgets and reputations are based on gaining large numbers of students who have the best chance of attaining highly in public examinations. Although parents have become savvier about their…
Introduction: Everyday millions of students in the United States receive special education services. Special education is an institution shaped by societal norms. Inherent in these norms are implicit assumptions regarding disability and the nature of special education services. The two dominant implicit assumptions evident in the American…
Woodley, Carolyn; Silvestri, Michel
Students' imprudent use of social media might threaten their employability and undermine their emerging professional identities. Most professions acknowledge that any benefits of social media must be balanced against its potential to negatively affect workers' professional lives and the public trust. Professional bodies have developed social media…
謝紫菱 Tzu-Ling Hsieh
Full Text Available 由於大學生使用網路發表言論的比例日益增加，而大學基於教育目的需要對學生言論有所規範，但可能因此產生大學自治權與學生言論自由權衝突的情形。本文綜合分析美國法界對於校園言論自由的保護與判斷標準，以及臺灣憲法與大法官釋字對於言論自由的保障，結果發現，雖然臺灣法界對於校園言論保障上並無相關判例，但對於言論自由維護的精神與美國仍有一致性，也就是臺灣的法律規範中，亦含有美國校園言論保障所提出的「雙階理論」（Two Level Theory）、廷克測試（Tinker test）與公共論壇（public forum）的精神，且學校對於大學生的言論理應給予相對於國、高中生言論較大的容忍。惟若要將這些要點運用到網路言論上，會遭遇網路言論的跨界性，而增加了校園管轄權判斷的複雜度。本文建議，各大學應重新檢視學校對於學生網路言論的規範，並且要建立 處理網路不當言論的原則與標準程序，兼顧大學自治權與學生言論權的平衡。 With the increase of cyberspeech among university students, university administrators face challenges to regulate student speech, which may cause the conflict with values of student speech right and university autonomy. This study analyzes standards for freedom of campus speech in legal cases of the United States, and related legal interpretation in Taiwan’s constitution and grand justices. This study found that there are no legal cases about university student cyberspeech in Taiwan, but both Taiwan and United States have similar spirit of free speech protection such as the rules of the two level theory and Tinker test. In addition, understand that their students have the right to enjoy more speech freedom than K-12 student speech. However, student cyberspeech is still a confused area of law, because student’s cyberspeech on the Internet is
The welcoming speech underlines the fact that any validation process starting with calculation methods and ending with studies on the long-term behaviour of a repository system can only be effected through laboratory, field and natural-analogue studies. The use of natural analogues (NA) is to secure the biosphere and to verify whether this safety really exists. (HP) [de
Ekström, Seth-Reino; Borg, Erik
The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC) testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN)]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA). The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (Ptempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (Pmusic offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.
Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.
Kane, Peter E., Ed.
The seven articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics covered are: the United States Supreme Court, motion picture censorship, and the color line; judicial decision making; the established scientific community's suppression of the ideas of Immanuel Velikovsky; the problems of avant-garde jazz,…
Kiernan, Matthew D; Proud, Carole; Jackson, Sue
In line with many countries worldwide, the Department of Health mandate to Health Education England seeks to promote the diversity of applicants by widening participation in nurse education. A number of studies have explored the experience of non-traditional students undertaking nursing courses. This study aimed to explore and understand the experiences of student nurses undertaking their nurse education whilst caring for dependant family. The study used an applied qualitative research approached based on methods developed for applied social policy research. The study was undertaken in an institution of higher education in the North East of England. The study population consisted of a convenience sample of 14 respondents, 13 female and 1 male. Ten respondents lived with partners and 3 had disabled dependants within the family. The age range of dependent children ranged from 3months to 19years. Data was collected through focus groups and telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview schedule. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Three superordinate themes were identified, Altruism and Commitment, Maturity and Family and Social Mobility, that best encapsulate the characteristics that enable this group to function well and complete their nurse education. Analysis identified a highly motivated group of students who's individual accounts showed that their lives, whilst in nurse education, were a constant series of compromises and 'juggling' between the demands of the course and the demands of their families. This group of students do not need an adapted course, but instead wish for a realistic nursing course where expectations are managed in an honest way. Basic common sense and good management of nursing courses will help ensure that this motivated group of people achieve their goals with minimum hardship or difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Nobel Peace Prize has long been considered the premier peace prize in the world. According to Geir Lundestad, Secretary of the Nobel Committee, of the 300 some peace prizes awarded worldwide, “none is in any way as well known and as highly respected as the Nobel Peace Prize” (Lundestad, 2001. Nobel peace speech is a unique and significant international site of public discourse committed to articulating the universal grammar of peace. Spanning over 100 years of sociopolitical history on the world stage, Nobel Peace Laureates richly represent an important cross-section of domestic and international issues increasingly germane to many publics. Communication scholars’ interest in this rhetorical genre has increased in the past decade. Yet, the norm has been to analyze a single speech artifact from a prestigious or controversial winner rather than examine the collection of speeches for generic commonalities of import. In this essay, we analyze the discourse of Nobel peace speech inductively and argue that the organizing principle of the Nobel peace speech genre is the repetitive form of normative liberal principles and values that function as rhetorical topoi. These topoi include freedom and justice and appeal to the inviolable, inborn right of human beings to exercise certain political and civil liberties and the expectation of equality of protection from totalitarian and tyrannical abuses. The significance of this essay to contemporary communication theory is to expand our theoretical understanding of rhetoric’s role in the maintenance and development of an international and cross-cultural vocabulary for the grammar of peace.
Hughes, Alison; Condon, Louise
Aim To explore the experiences of student and novice health visitors in implementing health visiting policy reform pre- and post-qualification. In England, public health nursing has been subject to major policy reform. The Health Visitor Implementation Plan (2011) set out a plan to recruit increasing numbers of nurses and midwives to the profession to deliver an expanded and refocussed health visiting service. Exploring this policy change from the viewpoint of those new to health visiting offers a unique perspective into how a specific policy vision is translated into nursing practice. A descriptive qualitative study in which participants were enrolled on a one-year post-graduate health visiting course at a University in South West of England. Qualitative data were collected pre- and post-qualification. A total of 16 interviews and a focus group were conducted with nine participants between September 2012 and March 2013. Findings Descriptive data were interpreted using Lipsky's theoretical framework of street-level bureaucracy. Three themes emerged which relate to this 'bottom-up' perspective on policy implementation; readiness to operationalise policy, challenges in delivering the service vision; and using discretion in delivering the vision. Community public health nurses operate as street-level bureaucrats in negotiating the demands of policy and practice, and by this means, attempt to reconcile professional values with institutional constraints. Barriers to policy implementation at a local level mediate the effects of policy reform, ultimately impacting upon outcomes for children and families.
Sato, Hiroshi; Bradley, John
Detailed acoustical measurements were made in 34 active elementary school classrooms with typical rectangular room shape in schools near Ottawa, Canada. There was an average of 21 students in classrooms. The measurements were made to obtain accurate indications of the acoustical quality of conditions for speech communication during actual teaching activities. Mean speech and noise levels were determined from the distribution of recorded sound levels and the average speech-to-noise ratio was 11 dBA. Measured mid-frequency reverberation times (RT) during the same occupied conditions varied from 0.3 to 0.6 s, and were a little less than for the unoccupied rooms. RT values were not related to noise levels. Octave band speech and noise levels, useful-to-detrimental ratios, and Speech Transmission Index values were also determined. Key results included: (1) The average vocal effort of teachers corresponded to louder than Pearsons Raised voice level; (2) teachers increase their voice level to overcome ambient noise; (3) effective speech levels can be enhanced by up to 5 dB by early reflection energy; and (4) student activity is seen to be the dominant noise source, increasing average noise levels by up to 10 dBA during teaching activities. [Work supported by CLLRnet.
Byrne, Aine; Pettigrew, Catharine M.
Background: One of the major barriers to effective team working among healthcare professionals is a lack of knowledge of each other's roles. The importance of understanding Irish healthcare students' attitudes towards team working and each other's roles led to the development of this study. Aims: The aims were to investigate allied health…
This book serves as a basic reference for those interested in the application of metaheuristics to speech enhancement. The major goal of the book is to explain the basic concepts of optimization methods and their use in heuristic optimization in speech enhancement to scientists, practicing engineers, and academic researchers in speech processing. The authors discuss why it has been a challenging problem for researchers to develop new enhancement algorithms that aid in the quality and intelligibility of degraded speech. They present powerful optimization methods to speech enhancement that can help to solve the noise reduction problems. Readers will be able to understand the fundamentals of speech processing as well as the optimization techniques, how the speech enhancement algorithms are implemented by utilizing optimization methods, and will be given the tools to develop new algorithms. The authors also provide a comprehensive literature survey regarding the topic.
The aim of the book is to give an accessible introduction of mathematical models and signal processing methods in speech and hearing sciences for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students with basic knowledge of linear algebra, differential equations, numerical analysis, and probability. Speech and hearing sciences are fundamental to numerous technological advances of the digital world in the past decade, from music compression in MP3 to digital hearing aids, from network based voice enabled services to speech interaction with mobile phones. Mathematics and computation are intimately related to these leaps and bounds. On the other hand, speech and hearing are strongly interdisciplinary areas where dissimilar scientific and engineering publications and approaches often coexist and make it difficult for newcomers to enter.
Martínez, Cristina; Méndez, Carlos; Sánchez, María; Martínez-Sánchez, José María
To assess attitudes towards the extension of outdoor smoke-free areas on university campuses. Cross-sectional study (n=384) conducted using a questionnaire administered to medical and nursing students in Barcelona in 2014. Information was obtained pertaining to support for indoor and outdoor smoking bans on university campuses, and the importance of acting as role models. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine agreement. Most of the students agreed on the importance of health professionals and students as role models (74.9% and 64.1%, respectively) although there were statistically significant differences by smoking status and age. 90% of students reported exposure to smoke on campus. Students expressed strong support for indoor smoke-free policies (97.9%). However, only 39.3% of participants supported regulation of outdoor smoking for university campuses. Non-smokers (OR=12.315; 95% CI: 5.377-28.204) and students ≥22 years old (OR=3.001; 95% CI: 1.439-6.257) were the strongest supporters. The students supported indoor smoke-free policies for universities. However, support for extending smoke-free regulations to outdoor areas of university campuses was limited. It is necessary to educate students about tobacco control and emphasise their importance as role models before extending outdoor smoke-free legislation at university campuses. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Patterson, Lyman Ray
Contending that potential conflict between copyright and free speech inevitable if present provisions of the copyright bill providing copyright for television are enacted, the author suggests an alternative approach based on analysis of English and American background, copyright and the law of unfair competition, and policies of the copyright…
This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...
van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.
Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…
Stauter, Donna W.; Myers, Sarah R.; Classen, Audra I.
Children with severe speech and physical impairment who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) present unique challenges in literacy development. Traditional reading instruction has not met these students' needs. Occupational therapy and speech therapy provide supports to mediate limitations to literacy instruction. A systematic…
Dick, Robert C.; Robinson, Brenda M.
Reports speech communication courses were taught in Malaysia as part of a cooperative educational program between Indiana University and the Malaysian government. Examines unique elements of the culture of the Malaysian students that affect their speech communication; suggests issues to be addressed in the "Malaysianized" program to…
Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi Falih; Al-Shammary, Mohanad A. Amert
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The…
Overby, Megan S.
Background: Academic programmes in speech-language pathology are increasingly providing telehealth/telepractice clinical education to students. Despite this growth, there is little information describing effective ways to teach it. Aims: The current exploratory study analyzed the perceptions of speech-language pathology/therapy (SLP/SLT) faculty,…
Whitfield, Frank Albert
The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.
Herbeck, Dale A.
Heated battles over free speech have erupted on college campuses across the United States in recent months. Some of the most prominent incidents involve efforts by students to prevent public appearances by speakers espousing controversial viewpoints. Efforts to silence offensive speakers on college campuses are not new; in these endeavors, one can…
Gallardo, L.F.; Möller, S.; Beerends, J.
The performance of automatic speech recognition based on coded-decoded speech heavily depends on the quality of the transmitted signals, determined by channel impairments. This paper examines relationships between speech recognition performance and measurements of speech quality and intelligibility
Weigert, Susan C.
The decade following the publication of the No Child Left Behind Act 2001 was an innovative period with respect to inclusive assessment practices for students with disabilities (SWDs). As the United States educational policies under the Obama Administration's Race to the Top initiative re-conceive the inclusion of SWDs in state assessment-based…
National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.
This instructional unit for use in 11th and 12th grade social studies and science courses contains six classroom lessons dealing with United States energy policy. The overall objective is to help students understand how circumstances, present and proposed legislation, political action, and the Constitution itself become linked in the development…
Dijkstra, Anne Bert; Geijsel, Femke; Ledoux, Guuske; van der Veen, Ineke; ten Dam, Geert
This study examines the effects of general educational quality of schools, school citizenship policy, and ethnic homogeneity of the student body on the acquisition of citizenship competences in the final year of primary education. The theoretical framework is based on developmental, psychological, and sociological studies into effects of social…
Hurwitz, Michael; Mbekeani, Preeya P.; Nipson, Margaret M.; Page, Lindsay C.
Subtle policy adjustments can induce relatively large "ripple effects." We evaluate a College Board initiative that increased the number of free SAT score reports available to low-income students and changed the time horizon for using these score reports. Using a difference-in-differences analytic strategy, we estimate that targeted…
Hahnel, Carrie; Barondess, Heather; Ramanathan, Arun
California's students, particularly its poorest students, need great teachers. Unfortunately, California's seniority-based teacher layoff system puts adult privileges over student needs. Newer teachers are laid off first, regardless of how well they do their jobs. This system is especially damaging to schools serving the highest numbers of…
Juel Henrichsen, Peter
on the supply side. The present article reports on a new public action strategy which has taken shape in the course of 2013-14. While Denmark is a small language area, our public sector is well organised and has considerable purchasing power. Across this past year, Danish local authorities have organised around......Most of the Danish municipalities are ready to begin to adopt automatic speech recognition, but at the same time remain nervous following a long series of bad business cases in the recent past. Complaints are voiced over costly licences and low service levels, typical effects of a de facto monopoly...... the speech technology challenge, they have formulated a number of joint questions and new requirements to be met by suppliers and have deliberately worked towards formulating tendering material which will allow fair competition. Public researchers have contributed to this work, including the author...
Moroz, B. S.; Bazarov, V. G.; Sachenko, S. V.
A method of impedance reflexometry was used to examine 101 students with hearing impairment in order to clarify the interrelation between speech discrimination and the state of the middle ear muscles. Ability to discriminate speech signals depends to some extent on the functional state of intraaural muscles. Speech discrimination was greatly impaired in the absence of stapedial muscle acoustic reflex, in the presence of low thresholds of stimulation and in very small values of reflex amplitude increase. Discrimination was not impeded in positive AR, high values of relative thresholds and normal increase of reflex amplitude in response to speech signals with augmenting intensity.
Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.
The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Speech-Language Therapy ... most kids with speech and/or language disorders. Speech Disorders, Language Disorders, and Feeding Disorders A speech ...
Beatty, Michael J.
Examines the choice-making processes of students engaged in the selection of speech introduction strategies. Finds that the frequency of students making decision-making errors was a positive function of public speaking apprehension. (MS)
Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A
The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg
Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.
This book explores the experiences of young people as they move through the Irish secondary educational system. Drawing on a rich study which combines survey data with in-depth interviews with students, it addresses the key facets of schooling which influence young people’s experiences. With chapters organised thematically, including ability grouping, school climate and the impact of high stakes examinations, the central dimensions of school structure and process is explored. Placing young people’s voices centre stage, it explores how they respond to the school context and make decisions that will profoundly affect their future. This book contrasts different types of school settings and examines how gender and social class play out at the school level. .
Full Text Available The article discusses the basic steps and approaches to market research of the region’s open economic system during the practice on the geography of foreign economic ties. Students pass pre-diploma practice on geography of foreign economic activity in customs bodies, the Ministry of Economic Development, in the Chamber of Commerce, Union of entrepreneurs, industrialists and agrarians of Transnistria. The analysis of potential markets for products aimed at a comprehensive study of the processes developing in commodity treatment, factors determining the economic relations between producers and consumers of goods that form the supply and demand. A variety of methods have been used for market research: “cabinet” of research, direct market research, the method of trial sales, development and maintenance of personal contacts with the representatives of contractor companies, widely used reference and printed periodicals.
Cho, Sumi; Lee, Eunjoo
Smartphone use in healthcare settings may distract healthcare providers and disrupt patient care. Moreover, it may lead to adverse events, thereby threatening patient safety. This study assessed nursing students' smartphone use as a source of distraction in clinical practice and identified their opinions about policies restricting smartphone use during patient care. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with convenience sampling. Third-year nursing students (n=312) from two nursing schools in the Republic of Korea completed the survey in 2012. A self-report questionnaire-based on addiction theories for problem behaviors and literature on the distraction caused by cellular phone use-was used to assess smartphone use, experiences of distraction caused by smartphone use, and opinions about restriction policies on smartphone use during clinical practice. Nearly half (46.2%) of the nursing students used smartphones at least sometimes during clinical practice and about a quarter of the respondents (24.7%) were at least sometimes distracted by smartphones during clinical practice. The majority of the respondents (83.7%) had witnessed nurses using smartphones at least sometimes during their work. A few respondents (15.7%) agreed or strongly agreed with the policy for restricting smartphone use in hospitals. Students who used smartphones more often tended to disagree with restriction policies for smartphone use in hospitals. Awareness about the risks of smartphone use, especially regarding patient safety, is necessary for nursing students in school and hospital settings. Educators and faculty of nursing schools need to develop policies that encourage intelligent and safe use of smartphones during clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian
Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.
Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Abayomi, O; Babalola, O R; Olakulehin, O A; Ighoroje, M
Drink driving contributes significantly to road traffic injuries. Little is known about the relationship between drink driving and other high-risk behaviors in non-Western countries. The study aimed to assess the relationship between drink driving and other risky behaviors including making phone calls, sending text messages, nonuse of protective gear, and driving against traffic. A cross-sectional survey of risky behavior among undergraduates was conducted. A stratified random sampling method was used to identify young undergraduates who had driven a motorized vehicle in the past year. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and other tools developed by researchers were used to identify the risky behaviors. Of 431 respondents, 10.7% had engaged in drink driving in the past 12 months. The most common risky behavior was making phone calls (63.7%), followed by nonuse of helmets (54.7%), driving against traffic (49.2%), nonuse of seat belts (46.8%), and sending text messages (26.1%). Alcohol use was significantly associated with making phone calls (U = 1.148; P < .0001), sending text messages (U = 1.598; P = .021), nonuse of helmets (U = 1.147; P < .0001), driving against traffic (U = 1.234; P < .0001), and nonuse of seat belts (U = 3.233; P = .001). Drink driving was associated with all risky behaviors except nonuse of seat belts (U = 1.842; P = .065). Alcohol use and drink driving were associated with multiple risky driving behaviors. This provides useful insight for policy development and presents additional challenges for traffic injury prevention.
Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge
in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within......The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...
Poisel, Mark Allen, Ed.; Joseph, Sonya, Ed.
"Transfer Students in Higher Education" presents what individuals know about transfer students, addresses assumptions and myths about the transfer experience, and explores the changing demographics of this student group. Adopting a student-centered approach, the monograph offers strategies to begin (and continue) the work of serving students and…
; speech-to-speech translation; language identiﬁcation. ... interest owing to two strong driving forces. Firstly, technical advances in speech recognition and synthesis are posing new challenges and opportunities to researchers.
Sebkhi, Nordine; Desai, Dhyey; Islam, Mohammad; Lu, Jun; Wilson, Kimberly; Ghovanloo, Maysam
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are trained to correct articulation of people diagnosed with motor speech disorders by analyzing articulators' motion and assessing speech outcome while patients speak. To assist SLPs in this task, we are presenting the multimodal speech capture system (MSCS) that records and displays kinematics of key speech articulators, the tongue and lips, along with voice, using unobtrusive methods. Collected speech modalities, tongue motion, lips gestures, and voice are visualized not only in real-time to provide patients with instant feedback but also offline to allow SLPs to perform post-analysis of articulators' motion, particularly the tongue, with its prominent but hardly visible role in articulation. We describe the MSCS hardware and software components, and demonstrate its basic visualization capabilities by a healthy individual repeating the words "Hello World." A proof-of-concept prototype has been successfully developed for this purpose, and will be used in future clinical studies to evaluate its potential impact on accelerating speech rehabilitation by enabling patients to speak naturally. Pattern matching algorithms to be applied to the collected data can provide patients with quantitative and objective feedback on their speech performance, unlike current methods that are mostly subjective, and may vary from one SLP to another.
Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jonkers, Roel; Jalvingh, Fedor; Bastiaanse, Yvonne
Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients Roelant Adriaan Ossewaarde1,2, Roel Jonkers1, Fedor Jalvingh1,3, Roelien Bastiaanse1 1CLCG, University of Groningen (NL); 2HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht (NL); 33St. Marienhospital - Vechta, Geriatric Clinic Vechta
Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas
Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.
Rosenblum, Lawrence D.
Speech perception is inherently multimodal. Visual speech (lip-reading) information is used by all perceivers and readily integrates with auditory speech. Imaging research suggests that the brain treats auditory and visual speech similarly. These findings have led some researchers to consider that speech perception works by extracting amodal information that takes the same form across modalities. From this perspective, speech integration is a property of the input information itself. Amodal s...
Courses: This semester-long assignment series was developed for an online introductory public speaking class, but it has also been used successfully in a hybrid (combination of online/face-to-face meetings) format. Objectives: Students will practice delivering speeches in an online format by applying key concepts from course materials to personal…
Hargrove, Patricia M.; Pittelko, Stephen; Fillingane, Evan; Rustman, Emily; Lund, Bonnie
The purpose of this research was to compare selected speech and paralinguistic skills of speakers with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing peers and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing preexisting databases to students to facilitate graduate research. In a series of three studies, conversational samples of 12 adolescents with…
Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy
The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…
... digital filtering for noise cancellation which interfaces to speech recognition software. It uses auditory features in speech recognition training, and provides applications to multilingual spoken language translation...
Mansfield, Jennifer L; Savaiano, Dennis A
Federal regulation mandates that the US National School Lunch Program nutrition standards align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. As students consume a substantial proportion of their nutrition during school lunch, increasing access to healthy foods is proposed to improve student dietary outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess whether policy changes impacted food-consumption behaviors of students during periods when (1) school wellness policies were implemented (2006-2007); (2) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was passed (2010-2012); and (3) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was implemented (2012-present). PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched for primary research studies. Policy evaluations and interventions implemented from 2006 to 2016 were included. A total of 31 studies evaluating plate waste, dietary intake, food selection, and/or purchasing patterns were identified and reviewed. Fourteen of 19 intervention and longitudinal observation studies reported improved food-consumption behaviors (increased selection, intake, and sales of healthy foods, and decreased plate waste). Only 2 of 12 one-time observation studies reported food-consumption behaviors meeting target nutrition standards. The majority of studies indicated that increasing access to healthy foods during school lunch improved students' dietary intakes. Challenges related to study design, adaptation period, quality of foods, and policy implementation likely affect a school lunch program's ability to impact students' food-consumption behaviors. Ongoing evaluation of these programs is warranted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan
a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...
Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) ﬁltering. Next, the frequency ...
Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.
Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…
This PhD thesis in human-computer interfaces (informatics) studies the case of the anaesthesia record used during medical operations and the possibility to supplement it with speech recognition facilities. Problems and limitations have been identified with the traditional paper-based anaesthesia...... and inaccuracies in the anaesthesia record. Supplementing the electronic anaesthesia record interface with speech input facilities is proposed as one possible solution to a part of the problem. The testing of the various hypotheses has involved the development of a prototype of an electronic anaesthesia record...... interface with speech input facilities in Danish. The evaluation of the new interface was carried out in a full-scale anaesthesia simulator. This has been complemented by laboratory experiments on several aspects of speech recognition for this type of use, e.g. the effects of noise on speech recognition...
Full Text Available One of the major problems concerning the evolution of human language is to understand how sounds became associated to meaningful gestures. It has been proposed that the circuit controlling gestures and speech evolved from a circuit involved in the control of arm and mouth movements related to ingestion. This circuit contributed to the evolution of spoken language, moving from a system of communication based on arm gestures. The discovery of the mirror neurons has provided strong support for the gestural theory of speech origin because they offer a natural substrate for the embodiment of language and create a direct link between sender and receiver of a message. Behavioural studies indicate that manual gestures are linked to mouth movements used for syllable emission. Grasping with the hand selectively affected movement of inner or outer parts of the mouth according to syllable pronunciation and hand postures, in addition to hand actions, influenced the control of mouth grasp and vocalization. Gestures and words are also related to each other. It was found that when producing communicative gestures (emblems the intention to interact directly with a conspecific was transferred from gestures to words, inducing modification in voice parameters. Transfer effects of the meaning of representational gestures were found on both vocalizations and meaningful words. It has been concluded that the results of our studies suggest the existence of a system relating gesture to vocalization which was precursor of a more general system reciprocally relating gesture to word.
Full Text Available . To investigate this question from a policy perspective, nine policies from the open and distance learning (ODL) university in South Africa were analysed for providing institutional mobile-centric support. Policy document analysis was used to evaluate five...
Haug, Katrina N.; Klein, Perry D.
Previous research has shown that speech-to-text (STT) software can support students in producing a given piece of writing. This is the 1st study to investigate the use of STT to teach a writing strategy. We pretested 45 Grade 5 students on argument writing and trained them to use STT. Students participated in 4 lessons on an argument writing…
Nešić Blagoje V.
Full Text Available On the territory of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija (Kosovo municipalities Mitrovica, Zvecan, Leposavic and Zubin Potok a study is conducted in primary schools in order to determine the presence of speech-language disorders in children of early school age. Data were collected from the teachers of the third and fourth grades of primary schools in these municipalities (n = 36, which include a total number of 641 student. The results show that the number of children with speech and language disorders represented in the different municipalities of the research vary (the largest is in Leposavic, the smallest is in Zvecan, then 3/4 the total number of children with speech and language disorders are boys. It is also found that the speech-language disorders usually appear from the very beginning of schooling and that the examined teachers recognize 12 types of speech-language disorders in their students. Teachers recognize dyslexia as the most common speech-language disorder, while dysphasia and distortion are the least common, in the opinion of the teachers. The results show that children are generally accepted by their peers, but only during schooling; then, there is a difference in school success between children with speech and language disorders and children without any speech-language disorders. It also found that the teachers' work is generally not affected by the children with speech and language disorders, and that there is generally an intensive cooperation between teachers and parents of children with speech and language disorders. The research and the results on prevalence of speech-language disorders in children in northern Kosovo and Metohija can be considered as an important guidelines in future work.
This paper focuses on children with a migration background and conceptualises their migration experience as adversity. The paper adapts the resilience framework to understand how immigrant children can overcome adversity. The paper discusses policy models that can be derived from adopting a resilience approach to the measurement of immigrant…
Lynch, Mamie; Engle, Jennifer; Cruz, Jose L.
A lack of situational awareness has been blamed for many of the most counterproductive decisions American policymakers have made on the battlefield, in response to natural and man-made disasters, and in the design and implementation of domestic policies. There are two key elements such disparate events as the escalation of the Vietnam war, the…
Buckner, Julia D.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Terlecki, Meredith A.; Ecker, Anthony H.
Students referred to treatment after violating campus drug policies represent a high-risk\\ud group. Identification of factors related to these students’ cannabis use could inform prevention\\ud and treatment efforts. Distress tolerance (DT) is negatively related to substance-related\\ud behaviors and may be related to high-risk cannabis use vulnerability factors that can impact\\ud treatment outcome. Thus, the current study tested whether DT was related to cannabis use\\ud frequency, cannabis-rel...
Gamble, Abigail; Chatfield, Sheryl L; Cormack, Michael L; Hallam, Jeffrey S
In recent decades, the alignment of health and education has been at the forefront of school reform. Whereas the establishment of national in-school physical activity (ISPA) recommendations and state-level mandates demonstrates success, there has been less achievement in areas that address health disparities. The purpose of this investigation was to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing state-mandated ISPA policies in the Mississippi Delta. Focus groups or interviews were conducted with district administrators, school principals, teachers, and students. A total of 2 semistructured moderator guides were developed to focus on (1) student ISPA practices and preferences and (2) facilitators and barriers to implementing ISPA policies and practices. A total of 6 themes were developed. In that, 2 themes addressed participant-described barriers (primary challenges and interferences and excuses). Three themes highlighted participant-described facilitators (compromises, things that work, and being active at school). Finally, 1 theme encompassed the participant-described need to address educating the whole child. There is a critical need for meaningful and relevant solutions to circumvent challenges to implementing ISPA policies and practices in the Mississippi Delta. The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model offers a broad means of visualizing rural, low-income, racially concentrated schools to circumvent challenges and foster ISPA policies and practices. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Davidow, Jason H; Grossman, Heather L; Edge, Robin L
Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated. Participants read four 300-syllable passages during a control condition, and three voluntary stuttering conditions that involved attempting to produce purposeful, tension-free repetitions of initial sounds or syllables of a word for two or more repetitions (i.e., bouncing). The three voluntary stuttering conditions included bouncing on 5%, 10%, and 15% of syllables read. Friedman tests and follow-up Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were conducted for the statistical analyses. Stuttering frequency, articulation rate, and speech naturalness were significantly different between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Speech effort did not differ between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Stuttering frequency was significantly lower during the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition, and speech effort was significantly lower during two of the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition. Due to changes in articulation rate across the voluntary stuttering conditions, it is difficult to conclude, as has been suggested previously, that voluntary stuttering is the reason for stuttering reductions found when using voluntary stuttering techniques. Additionally, future investigations should examine different types of voluntary stuttering over an extended period of time to determine their impact on stuttering frequency, speech rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort.
Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Herve
To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. baez) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified…
Naidu, D.H.R.; Srinivasan, S.
Several speech enhancement approaches utilize trained models of clean speech data, such as codebooks, Gaussian mixtures, and hidden Markov models. These models are typically trained on neutral clean speech data, without any emotion. However, in practical scenarios, emotional speech is a common
Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc
Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…
Shannon, Robert V
Music and speech share many acoustic cues but not all are equally important. For example, harmonic pitch is essential for music but not for speech. When birds communicate is their song more like speech or music? A new study contrasting pitch and spectral patterns shows that birds perceive their song more like humans perceive speech. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.
The Freedom of Speech Newsletter is the communication medium for the Freedom of Speech Interest Group of the Western Speech Communication Association. The newsletter contains such features as a statement of concern by the National Ad Hoc Committee Against Censorship; Reticence and Free Speech, an article by James F. Vickrey discussing the subtle…
Silber, Ronnie F.
Two studies examined the modifications that adult speakers make in speech to disadvantaged listeners. Previous research that has focused on speech to the deaf individuals and to young children has shown that adults clarify speech when addressing these two populations. Acoustic measurements suggest that the signal undergoes similar changes for both populations. Perceptual tests corroborate these results for the deaf population, but are nonsystematic in developmental studies. The differences in the findings for these populations and the nonsystematic results in the developmental literature may be due to methodological factors. The present experiments addressed these methodological questions. Studies of speech to hearing impaired listeners have used read, nonsense, sentences, for which speakers received explicit clarification instructions and feedback, while in the child literature, excerpts of real-time conversations were used. Therefore, linguistic samples were not precisely matched. In this study, experiments used various linguistic materials. Experiment 1 used a children's story; experiment 2, nonsense sentences. Four mothers read both types of material in four ways: (1) in "normal" adult speech, (2) in "babytalk," (3) under the clarification instructions used in the "hearing impaired studies" (instructed clear speech) and (4) in (spontaneous) clear speech without instruction. No extra practice or feedback was given. Sentences were presented to 40 normal hearing college students with and without simultaneous masking noise. Results were separately tabulated for content and function words, and analyzed using standard statistical tests. The major finding in the study was individual variation in speaker intelligibility. "Real world" speakers vary in their baseline intelligibility. The four speakers also showed unique patterns of intelligibility as a function of each independent variable. Results were as follows. Nonsense sentences were less intelligible than story