Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.
This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…
Baydik, Berrin; Bakkaloglu, Hatice
The purpose of the present study is to compare the sociometric status of low socioeconomic status elementary school students with and without special needs and investigate the effects of different variables (gender, age, physical appearance, social skills, behavior problems, and academic competence) on students' sociometric status. Elementary…
Irajzad, Fatemeh; Shahriari, Hesamoddin
Supportive teacher-student relationships play a significant role in the trajectory of students' academic life. Teachers may use various strategies to improve this relationship, one of which is teacher stroke (teacher encouragement). The stroking behavior of teachers might be influenced by several factors, including the socioeconomic status (SES)…
Martinez-Perez, Frances A.
Educational inequalities that exist due to socioeconomic status impact the academic achievement of students and contribute to the achievement gap. This study attempted to examine how the predictors of grade level and socioeconomic status impact the passing of state standardized reading and mathematics exams. The 2012-2013 State of Texas Academic…
This paper uses ordinary least squares, logit and probit regressions, along with chi-square analysis applied to nationwide data from the New Zealand ratemyteacher website to establish if there is any correlation between student ratings of their teachers and the socioeconomic status of the school the students attend. The results show that students…
The author examined the simultaneous influence of Japanese middle school student and school socioeconomic status (SES) on student math achievement with two-level multilevel analysis models by utilizing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Japan data sets. The theoretical framework used in this study was…
Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke
This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…
Ritter, Zachary S.
International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…
Bermudez, Gonzalo M. A.; Díaz, Sandra; De Longhi, Ana L.
People's diminished awareness of plants, affected by anthropogenic environmental deterioration, has challenged science education to overcome the obstacles impeding a better understanding of their meaning and value. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the socioeconomic status of high-school students, as indicated by their…
Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…
Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine
Socioeconomic status is a major predictor of educational achievement. This systematic review and meta-analysis seeks to identify effective academic interventions for elementary and middle school students with low socioeconomic status. Included studies have used a treatment-control group design......, were performed in OECD and EU countries, and measured achievement by standardized tests in mathematics or reading. The analysis included 101 studies performed during 2000-2014, 76 percent of which were randomized controlled trials. The effect sizes (ES) of many interventions indicate...
Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes
This study explored the probable interaction between Iranian language students' beliefs about language learning and their socio-economic status. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were grouped in terms of their socio-economic status. They answered a…
Williams, Robert L; Romney, Crystal; Kano, Miria; Wright, Randy; Skipper, Betty; Getrich, Christina M; Sussman, Andrew L; Zyzanski, Stephen J
Research suggests stereotyping by clinicians as one contributor to racial and gender-based health disparities. It is necessary to understand the origins of such biases before interventions can be developed to eliminate them. As a first step toward this understanding, we tested for the presence of bias in senior medical students. The purpose of the study was to determine whether bias based on race, gender, or socioeconomic status influenced clinical decision-making among medical students. We surveyed seniors at 84 medical schools, who were required to choose between two clinically equivalent management options for a set of cardiac patient vignettes. We examined variations in student recommendations based on patient race, gender, and socioeconomic status. The study included senior medical students. We investigated the percentage of students selecting cardiac procedural options for vignette patients, analyzed by patient race, gender, and socioeconomic status. Among 4,603 returned surveys, we found no evidence in the overall sample supporting racial or gender bias in student clinical decision-making. Students were slightly more likely to recommend cardiac procedural options for black (43.9 %) vs. white (42 %, p = .03) patients; there was no difference by patient gender. Patient socioeconomic status was the strongest predictor of student recommendations, with patients described as having the highest socioeconomic status most likely to receive procedural care recommendations (50.3 % vs. 43.2 % for those in the lowest socioeconomic status group, p socioeconomic status, geographic variations, and the influence of interactions between patient race and gender on student recommendations.
Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine; Klint Jørgensen, Anne-Marie
Socioeconomic status is a major predictor of educational achievement. This systematic review and meta-analysis seeks to identify effective academic interventions for elementary and middle school students with low socioeconomic status. Included studies have used a treatment-control group design, were performed in OECD and EU countries, and measured…
Glance, Dorea E.
This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…
Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat
This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…
Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose
This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…
Bermudez, Gonzalo M. A.; Díaz, Sandra; De Longhi, Ana L.
People's diminished awareness of plants, affected by anthropogenic environmental deterioration, has challenged science education to overcome the obstacles impeding a better understanding of their meaning and value. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the socioeconomic status of high-school students, as indicated by their attendance at private or state schools, on their knowledge of native plants. In total, 321 students aged 15-18 were asked to write down 10 plants native to Córdoba, Argentina, in a freelist questionnaire. Students listed a mean of 6.8 species of a total of 165 different categories of plant names. The majority of the species named were exotic to Córdoba (63%) or Argentina (50.6%, of which 33.8% were adventitious), indicating an 'adventitious-to-native' effect by which all spontaneously reproducing plants were presumed to be native species. However, the 20 most frequently named plants were mainly native, with 'Algarrobo' (Prosopis spp.) and 'Espinillo' (Vachellia caven) being the most mentioned. Students' socioeconomic status had a significant effect on the number of species named, with the students of state schools (where the less well-off sectors of the society attend) mentioning more species and, among these, more native ones than the students from private schools. Furthermore, we defined size, colour and scent as being conspicuous traits of plant flowers that are relevant for human perception, and found that the most frequently named adventitious species, unlike the native ones, were those exhibiting big brightly-coloured flowers which ranged from being inodorous to having medium intensity scents.
Full Text Available Introduction: Eating habits are formed in childhood and adolescence.. Economic issues including social and demographic factors influence the choice and quality of products consumed. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-economic status (SES on eating habits of students in lower secondary schools. Material and methods: At the turn of 2011 and 2012, an epidemiological cross-sectional study on 1,099 students in lower secondary schools from Bytom was conducted. The questionnaire was based on the form used in Health Behaviour in School – aged Children study (HBSC. The socio-economic status of students was determined according to the Family Affluence Scale (FAS and the mother’s level of education. The statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.0 software. The significance level was set at p40.05. Results: 1,099 students in lower secondary school took part in the study (55.6% females and 44.4% males. 59% of students skip vegetables in their daily diet, (58.5% fruits and (49.4%. milk but 59.7% have breakfast every day. Nevertheless the high percentage of children eating sweets every day or several times a day (37.2% is worrying. Those children whose mothers declared secondary education and high level of FAS have proper eating habits. Children eating sweets at least once a day come mostly from families with low level of FAS. Conclusions: Bad eating habits are mostly among children whose mothers are of primary or vocational education and a low level of FAS.
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.
Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…
Chadwell, Briael Marie
This quantitative study examines the perceptions of career and technical education (CTE) among high school students based on their socioeconomic status and gender, and the interaction between the two. The study used a convenience sample of 207 students from four coastal South Carolina high schools. The data was collected using the Image of…
This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...
Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel
The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…
Wu, Ching-Ling; Bao, Wei
This study analyzes the effects of individual characteristics, socioeconomic status, and political engagement among Chinese university students with respect to their attainment of student leadership roles. The study investigated 10,930 students from elite Chinese universities. The results showed that female and only-child students were more likely…
Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola
Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…
The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…
Barr, Ashley Brooke
In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Tussing, Lisa; Braunschweig, Carol; Caballero, Benjamin; Flay, Brian
To assess overweight and related risk factors among urban low socio-economic status (SES) African-American adolescents in an attempt to study the underlying causes of ethnicity and gender disparities in overweight. Cross-sectional data collected on anthropometric measures, diet, physical activity and family characteristics from 498 students in grades 5-7 in four Chicago public schools were analysed to study the risk factors for overweight using stepwise regression analysis. Only 37.2% of the students lived with two parents. Nearly 90% had a television (TV) in their bedroom, and had cable TV and a video game system at home. Overall. 21.8% (17.7% boys versus 25.1% girls) were overweight (body mass index (BMI) >/= 95th percentile); and 39.8% had a BMI >/= 85th percentile. Compared with national recommendations, they had inadequate physical activity and less than desirable eating patterns. Only 66.1% reported having at least 20 min vigorous exercise or 30 min of light exercise in >/= 5 days over the past 7 days; 62.1% spent >3 h days- 1 watching TV/playing video games/computer, while 33.1% spent >/= 5 h days- 1. Their vegetable and fruit consumption was low, and they consumed too many fried foods and soft drinks: 55.1% consumed fried food twice or more daily and 19.5% four times or more daily; 70.3% consumed soft drinks twice or more daily and 22.0% four times or more daily on average. Gender, physical activity and pocket money were significant predictors of overweight (P students' behaviours, school and family environments may increase overweight risk among this population. There is a great need for health promotion programmes with a focus on healthy weight and lifestyle, and targeting urban low-SES minority communities.
A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…
Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.
This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…
Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong
The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience.
Scragg, Robert; Laugesen, Murray; Robinson, Elizabeth
To investigate whether pocket money amount and socio-economic status are risk factors for smoking in 14 and 15 year old children. This was a national cross-sectional survey of 4th form students who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in November 2000. Socio-economic status was determined from the Ministry of Education school socio-economic deciles. Questionnaires from 14793 girls and 14577 boys were analysed. Socioeconomic status (SES) was inversely associated with smoking prevalence in girls only (ppocket money than those in high SES decile schools (ppocket money >$30, $21-30, or $11-20, the adjusted relative risks for smoking > or = monthly were 1.73 (95% CI 1.61, 1.85), 1.48 (1.35, 1.62), and 1.15 (1.03, 1.28) in girls, and 1.57 (1.46, 1.70), 1.32 (1.19, 1.46), and 1.11 (1.00, 1.23) in boys, respectively. The proportion of smokers purchasing cigarettes increased with amount of pocket money received in the last 30 days (ppocket money amount in adolescents. This finding has important public health significance, but further research is required to determine if the association is causal.
Counts, Cory J; Grubin, Fiona C; John-Henderson, Neha A
Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood associates with poor sleep quality in adulthood. Separately, childhood family environments shape health into adulthood. Here, we investigated whether these early life factors independently or interactively inform global sleep quality in college students. Cross-sectional. College students at a state university (N = 391). As a measure of childhood SES, we asked participants to consider their families' socioeconomic standing relative to the rest of the society during their childhood. We used the Risky Family questionnaire to measure adversity and the presence of warmth and affection in the family environment during childhood, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of current global sleep quality. We used linear regressions adjusting for age and sex to examine relationships between childhood SES, risk in childhood family environments, and global sleep quality. Lower childhood SES and greater risk in childhood family environments independently predicted poor sleep quality. Importantly, in low-risk family environments, there was no significant difference in sleep quality as a function of childhood SES. However, students who were from low childhood SES backgrounds who also reported high levels of risk in their early family environments had the worst sleep quality. Findings highlight the importance of considering socioeconomic and family environments in childhood as informants of sleep quality across the lifespan. Compromised sleep quality in college students could affect academic performance and health over time. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Karnes, Frances A; Cobb, Yolanda
The screening and identification of gifted students has historically been conducted using verbal measures of intelligence. However, the underrepresentation in gifted programs of culturally diverse children, who may have limited English proficiency or cultural values different from those measured in traditional intelligence tests, has prompted researchers to consider other measures. Nonverbal measures of intelligence have been utilized to increase the number of gifted children from diverse backgrounds. Researchers in the current study sought to increase the number of culturally diverse gifted students at a rural public school enrolling predominantly African-American students from low socioeconomic homes. 169 students in Grades 2 through 6 were assessed using three nonverbal measures of intelligence: the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test, the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test, and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices. The scores on these nonverbal measures indicated that the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices identified more students than the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test. A discussion of the results and implications for research are presented.
Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain
America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...
van Zyl, André
The low level of student success in South Africa is an intractable problem, with levels of success differing between the various groups that make up South African society. One of the major constraints influencing student success involves the socio-economic status (SES) of newly entering students. In the South African context, with its very high…
Full Text Available Introduction: Digital gap may exist in national scale, among organizations and other groups of society, since it is an indicative of inequality in information technology ground and communication. This study aims to investigate the attitude towards digital gap among students, and its relationship with educational progress and socio-economic status (SES of university students at Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross sectional analytic study. students were randomly selected according to multistage cluster method. The tools for collecting data were Davis (1989 questionnaire on attitude towards internet, and a researcher made questionnaire. The formal validity of the questionnaires is confirmed by a panel of experts, Cronbach's alpha's coefficient was also calculated. Pearson coefficient were calculated andindependent T- test was used for analyzing the data. Result: The analysis of data indicates that there is a meaningful relationship between the attitude towards digital gap and educational progress, and also SES of the students. Furthermore, there was adifferences between the attitudes of males (48.7 and felames (46.5 toward digital gap (p=0.01. Conclusion:There is an attitude towards digital gap in university students. Interventions are needed to close the digital gaps in studnets.
Morales, Erik E.
Utilizing resilience theory and original research conducted on fifty academically resilient low socioeconomic status students of color, this article presents specific objectives and values institutions of higher learning can adopt and emphasize to increase the retention and graduation of their most statistically at-risk students. Major findings…
Weers, Anthony J.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…
Votaw, Nikki L.
Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact
Goni, Umar; Bello, S.
This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…
Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele
The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…
Kinsey, J D
This paper explores the relationship between food expenditures and consumption patterns and families' socioeconomic status in the United States. Three themes follow through the paper. One is that as income rises over time and across socioeconomic groups, a smaller percent of that income is spent of food. Simultaneously, a larger percent of the food dollar buys services and food preparation moves farther away from the home. Second, characteristics of people like age and ethnicity contribute to diversity in food consumption but labor force participation by women has led the trend in away-from-home-food preparation. New scientific information and technology have changed attitudes about nutrition and food safety and their linkages to health. Finally, the continuous introduction of affordable new foods into the diet and culture of families in all socioeconomic groups has been a quiet evolution. Trying to differentiate socioeconomic groups in the United States by their food and nutritional status is almost a nonstory except for fascinating intragroup diversities that change rapidly in the postmodern society.
Schultheis, Luke D.
Low socioeconomic urban students do not attend universities at a rate proportional to other populations. This perpetuates a cycle of recurrence and diminished potential benefits associated with degree attainment. The commonly ascribed Theory of Student Choice (Hossler, Braxton & Coopersmith, 1989) does not apply to this population. The purpose…
Tinajero, Carolina; Martínez-López, Zeltia; Rodríguez, Mª Soledad; Guisande, Mª Adelina; Páramo, Mª Fernanda
Perceived social support has been shown to be one of the most important protective factors for emerging adult students during their transition to university. However, the relationships between perceived social support and dimensions of gender and family background, which have been shown to affect adjustment to college life, remain unexplored. The…
Alseraty, Wafaa Hassan
Parents' socioeconomic status is mainly impact their children health outcomes, cognitive, social and emotional development. It also had a great impact on children health-related knowledge, health-related attitudes, health-related communication, health-related behavior, and self-efficiency level. Enhancing health literacy domains are the keystone…
Chao, Chi-Yuan; Shih, Chi-Chen; Wang, Chi-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Ching
Obesity is related to social disparity. The objective of the study was to evaluate different indicators of parental SES with the association of central obesity in young adult Taiwanese students. This study was cross-sectionally designed and a total of 4552 subjects were recruited. Each subject completed a self-administrated questionnaire and received anthropometric and laboratory measurements. The indicators of SES in study subjects included parental education, occupation, household incomes, childhood and current index of social position (ISP), measured according to the modified Hollingshead's ISP. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women. The prevalence of central obesity was 10.7% in this study. When compared to subjects with normal waist circumferences, subjects with central obesity were older, had a higher BMI, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, a higher proportion of male gender, family history of diabetes and hypertension, alcohol consumption habit, and a higher proportion of low current household income, current parental blue collar occupational level, and lower current and childhood parental ISP level. Multivariate analysis showed the current parental household income and ISP were significantly higher indicators of risk of central obesity after adjustment for possible confounding factors. The odds ratios were 1.26 and 1.30, respectively. Our results showed that low household income and current ISP were independently associated with the risk of central obesity. Therefore, young adults with low SES should be an important target group for prevention and management of central obesity in school health promotion programs. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Participating in regular physical activity has positive effects on the health and behavior of adolescents. Physical activity is multifaceted and has both interrelated psychological, biological and environmental effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the level of physical activity of female students and its relationship with their socioeconomic status. Methods: 630 junior high school students in Mazandaran were selected based on randomized multistage cluster sampling in the year 2017. The tools used for collecting data were pedometers, and demographic and Ghodratnama socioeconomic status questionnaires. Data analysis was done using SPSS23 software with descriptive and inferential statistics (the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the one-way analysis of variance [ANOVA], and the Pearson correlation coefficient at a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: The results showed that the level of physical activity of students decreased as grade level increased. An ANOVA showed a significant difference between the level of physical activity of students in 7-9 grades, but Tukey’s post hoc test showed a significant difference between the level of physical activity of 7th grade students with 8th and 9th, while the difference between the students of grades 8 and 9 was not significant statistically. Out of all students, 30.72% of students were active and 69.28% inactive. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was no significant relationship between socioeconomic status and level of physical activity. Conclusion: A vast majority of adolescent girls do not do the amount of physical activity recommended for good health, which is a worrying issue. It is suggested that relevant authorities mobilize basic strategies for changing the lifestyles of adolescent girls, including the development of a comprehensive program of physical activity by specialists.
Cunningham, William G.; Sanzo, Tiffany D.
A strong relationship is shown between students' state assessment test pass rates and students' socioeconomic status (SES). State sanctions based on assessment scores can affect graduation, student diplomas, school accreditation, school funding, teacher rewards and promotion, paperwork requirements, regulations, work expectations, improvement…
Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette
To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....
The study investigated socio-economic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students. The subject were sixty five students with an age range of 10 – 19 years drawn from Senior secondary school (SSS) 1 – III in four secondary schools in Oyo State. The subjects were selected from those ...
Karnam, Rekha Rao; Kumar, Naganandini Samapth; Eshwar, Shruthi; Deolia, Shravani
Levels of oral health and economic status are unequally distributed throughout the population. Inequality has multiple causes and that the effect of Socio Economic Status (SES) and demographic factors, on oral health is mediated through several factors. Association between cognitive ability and oral health had been demonstrated in older age groups but adolescents and younger adults have received relatively little attention in this field. To establish the role of cognitive ability as a determinant of SES and oral health status among adolescent college students of Benagluru, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Six government and six private first grade colleges were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Cognitive ability was assessed using digit symbol substitution test and digit span test. Dental caries and periodontal status were recorded by extent of bleeding, presence of calculus, periodontal pockets, loss of attachments using Community Periodontal Index, decayed, missing and filled teeth surfaces using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth and Surfaces Index. SES status was assessed using Kuppuswamy scale. Chi-square test was used to check the association of cognitive ability with oral health indicators and SES status. Regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of cognitive ability on oral health indicators after adjusting for SES and effect of SES status on oral health indicators after adjusting for indicators of cognitive ability. Significant association and negative correlation between cognitive ability and indicators for oral health was seen in the regression models. Cognitive ability attributed for nearly 30% changes in the indicators for oral health after adjusting for SES and SES attributed for nearly 25% variance in indicators for oral health after adjusting for cognitive ability. There is a potential role of cognitive ability in SES and oral health.
Suchday, Sonia; Chhabra, Rosy; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Almeida, Maureen
The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health changes as a society develops. In developed countries, high SES is associated with better health, but in developing countries, high SES is associated with poorer health. However, measuring SES is difficult in countries like India, where the traditional class and caste system are interwoven and complex. The current study explored the relationship between subjective and objective indices of SES and between SES and the metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians residing in Mumbai, India. Participants were a subset of young adults (N = 112, median age 19 years, 24% male) who were part of larger study assessing psychosocial correlates of the metabolic syndrome. SES was assessed through objective (father's education) and subjective (SES ladder) indices. Data indicated that high subjective SES was correlated with fasting blood sugar (r = .28, P < .003), and father's education was correlated with high cholesterol (r = .32, P < .005). Subjective and objective indices of SES were also correlated with each other (r = .24, P < .04). These data reiterate that the link between SES and health is obvious from an early age, regardless of the measures used to assess SES. Given the complexity of assessing SES in developing countries, objective subjective indices should be used in assessing SES.
Sonneville, K R; Lipson, S K
Eating disorders (EDs) present a significant threat to the health of adolescents and young adults, yet remain under-diagnosed and under-treated at a population-level. EDs have historically been thought to afflict "skinny, white, affluent girls" (the SWAG stereotype). As such, higher-weight individuals, racial/ethnic minorities, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and males may not recognize their need for treatment, may not be properly screened for EDs, and/or may not be referred to treatment. Using large-scale survey data from the healthy bodies study, we examined variations in prevalence of perceived need for ED treatment, ED diagnosis, past-year ED treatment, and treatment barriers according to weight status, race, socioeconomic background, and sex among undergraduate and graduate students with symptoms of an ED (N = 1,747). Among students with symptoms of an ED, 30.7% perceived a need for treatment, 10.5% had received a diagnosis, and 13.6% had received treatment in the past year. Individual characteristics were highly associated with perceived need, diagnosis, and past-year treatment. Females were more likely than males to perceive a need for treatment (OR = 1.97), to be diagnosed (OR = 4.66), and to be treated (OR = 1.64) for their ED symptoms. Socioeconomic background was associated with perceived need for treatment and past-year treatment, with students from affluent backgrounds having higher odds of perceiving need (OR = 1.52) and of receiving treatment (OR = 1.89) compared with their non-affluent peers. At a population-level, the unmet need for ED treatment disproportionately affects certain groups. Stereotypes about who develops EDs could contribute to disparities in ED treatment and outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W
Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental socioeconomic status (SES), childhood intelligence, and student characteristics and behaviors (inattentiveness, school entitlement, responsible student, sense of inferiority, impatience, pessimism, rule breaking and defiance of parental authority, and teacher-rated studiousness) on 2 important real-life outcomes (i.e., occupational success and income). The longitudinal sample consisted of N = 745 persons who participated in 1968 (M = 11.9 years, SD = 0.6; 49.9% female) and 2008 (M = 51.8 years, SD = 0.6; 53.3% female). Regression analyses and path analyses were conducted to evaluate the direct and indirect effects (via education) of the predictors on career success. The results revealed direct and indirect influences of student characteristics (responsible student, rule breaking and defiance of parental authority, and teacher-rated studiousness) across the life span on career success after adjusting for differences in parental SES and IQ at age 12. rd (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy
Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318
Baxendale, Sallie; Heaney, Dominic
Poorer surgical outcomes in patients with low socioeconomic status have previously been reported, but the mechanisms underlying this pattern are unknown. Lower socioeconomic status may be a proxy marker for the limited economic opportunities associated with compromised cognitive function. The aim of this study was to examine the preoperative neuropsychological characteristics of patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and their relationship to socioeconomic status. Two hundred ninety-two patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral HS completed tests of memory and intellectual function prior to surgery. One hundred thirty-one had right HS (RHS), and 161 had left HS (LHS). The socioeconomic status of each participant was determined via the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) associated with their postcode. The IMD was not associated with age at the time of assessment, age at onset of epilepsy, or duration of active epilepsy. The RHS and LHS groups did not differ on the IMD. The IMD was negatively correlated with all neuropsychological test scores in the LHS group. In the RHS group, the IMD was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological measures. There were no significant correlations in the RHS group. Regression analyses suggested that IMD score explained 3% of variance in the measures of intellect, but 8% of the variance in verbal learning in the LHS group. The IMD explained 1% or less of the variance in neuropsychological scores in the RHS group. Controlling for overall level of intellectual function, the IMD score explained a small but significant proportion of the variance in verbal learning in the LHS group and visual learning for the RHS group. Our findings suggest that patients living in an area with a high IMD enter surgery with greater focal deficits associated with their epilepsy and more widespread cognitive deficits if they have LHS. Further work is needed to establish the direction of the
Ferrer, R; Palmer, R
Objectives: To analyse the variability in health status within as well as between socioeconomic groups. What is the range of individual variability in the health effects of socioeconomic status? Is the adverse effect of lower socioeconomic status uniform across the entire distribution of health status?
Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Lundberg, Kristjen B; McKee, Stephanie
Socioeconomic status is hypothesized to be one factor informing political attitudes and actions. Presumably, this relationship is rooted in economic self-interest, with individuals preferring policies that would benefit them financially. In addition, these economic policy preferences are assumed to translate into political action. However, the relationships between socioeconomic status and political attitudes and behavior, as well as the psychological mechanisms associated with those relationships, are not straightforward. Here, we briefly review the current state of knowledge on the relationships between socioeconomic status and political attitudes and behavior. Overall, the research suggests that while socioeconomic status informs political attitudes toward economic policies, these attitudes may not correlate with complementary political behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva
The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates
Key Words: socio-economic status of parents, family financial management education, learning in college, financial literacy Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengkaji pengaruh langsung maupun tak langsung status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, dan pembelajaran di perguruan tinggi terhadap literasi finansial. Data dikumpulkan dengan melalui tes dan angket. Teknik analisis data dengan analisis jalur dan analisis regresi dengan uji selisih mutlak. Hasil penelitian adalah terdapat pengaruh langsung maupun tak langsung status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, dan pembelajaran di perguruan tinggi terhadap literasi finansial. Kata kunci: status sosial ekonomi orang tua, pendidikan pengelolaan keuangan keluarga, pembelajar-an di perguruan tinggi, literasi finansial
Thacker, Kelly L.
The characteristics and needs of college students across the United States are ever-changing. As Millennial generation students, born between 1982 and 2003 (Howe & Strauss, 2000), attend college, unique characteristics are present. Commonalities within the Millennial generation have been identified; however, socioeconomic status can impact a…
Dahmes, Victoria M.
This paper examines the observable play behaviors of elementary school students to determine how children interact within and among cultural groups. Observations were conducted during the recess period at an urban elementary school attended by 623 boys and girls age 6 through 12. Recess periods and play areas were segregated by grade and sex. Data…
Kaskaya, Alper; Calp, Sükran; Kuru, Oguzhan
Decision making is one of the most important life skills. While making correct, timely, accurate and appropriate decisions lead to positive changes in one's life, making incorrect decisions may have a negative impact. It is an important issue to examine what the 4th grade students in primary school have about the decision-making ability to be…
Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Ayieko, Rachel
This study investigated the relationship between socio-economic status, school-level variables and mathematics achievement of sixth graders in Kenya and Zimbabwe. The study is based on secondary data collected by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ III). SACMEQ employed cluster-sampling procedures…
Full Text Available Decision making is one of the most important life skills. While making correct, timely, accurate and appropriate decisions lead to positive changes in one’s life, making incorrect decisions may have a negative impact. It is an important issue to examine what the 4th grade students in primary school have about the decision-making ability to be achieved in adolescence and what qualities 4th grade primary students should have for this skill. Evaluation of 4th grade elementary school students for developmental characteristics and qualifications they need to have to be able to gain appropriate decision making ability by puberty emerges as an important issue. Even though age 9-10 is not a period when important or life changing decisions are made, it is still considered the period that individuals start to make real decisions in their life. In this age period, we believe that attempts can be made to help children use their decision making ability more effectively by identifying factors affecting this behavior. In this regard, the aim of this study is to determine factors that have impact on children’s decision making process. This study is designed as a case study and conducted according to qualitative research approach. The study was conducted with 34 elementary school students and 3 teachers. Student interview forms developed by researchers were used to collect the data. In accordance with the data obtained, interviews were conducted with the teachers. The content analysis is included during data analysis process. In our study, we have shown that TV-media, family- close family/friends, neighborhood, the teaching process and some developmental characteristics are found to have affected children’s decision making.
Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia
Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset contains comprehensive treaty information for multilateral environmental agreements,...
Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed by subjective perception as against objective criteria: methodological considerations. The Mamprobi (Ghana) Cardiovascular Helath Programme 1975-1980.
Cox, David W.
The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…
Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on the nutritional status and hemoglobin of SCA patients. ... Date of Acceptance: 15-Mar-2011 ..... This study was designed to determine the relationship .... mobiles and devices.
Kincaid, Aleksis P.; Sullivan, Amanda L.
This study investigated how student and school-level socioeconomic status (SES) measures predict students' odds of being identified for special education, particularly high-incidence disabilities. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort, hierarchical models were used to determine the relations of student and school SES to…
Omland, Lars Haukali; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter
It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....
van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.
The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort
Crichton, Dusten D.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and to tell the stories of low socioeconomic status (SES) men in college who persisted beyond the halfway point of college at a Midwestern metropolitan university. Prior research suggested men from low socioeconomic status backgrounds matriculated and persisted in college at the lowest…
H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:
The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European
Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W
Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.
Wesolosky, Jason D; Rudnisky, Christopher J
To determine the relationship between cataract severity and socioeconomic status (SES). Retrospective, observational case series. A total of 1350 eyes underwent phacoemulsification cataract extraction by a single surgeon using an Alcon Infiniti system. Cataract severity was measured using phaco time in seconds. SES was measured using area-level aggregate census data: median income, education, proportion of common-law couples, and employment rate. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity was obtained and converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution values. For patients undergoing bilateral surgery, the generalized estimating equation was used to account for the correlation between eyes. Univariate analyses were performed using simple regression, and multivariate analyses were performed to account for variables with significant relationships (p < 0.05) on univariate testing. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of including patient age in the controlled analyses. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that cataracts were more severe when the median income was lower (p = 0.001) and the proportion of common-law couples living in a patient's community (p = 0.012) and the unemployment rate (p = 0.002) were higher. These associations persisted even when controlling for patient age. Patients of lower SES have more severe cataracts. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure
) socio-economic status are significantly stronger than the moderate (4.56) in deciding to purchase the HPV vaccination. Socio-economic factor has a slightly negative impact (B= -0.08), and attitude (0.68), subjective norms (0.16), and behavior ...
Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R.
Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that…
The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...
Engr E. Egbochukwu
The result revealed that university undergraduates socio-economic status significantly ..... had university education marry university graduates or those with more education than they have. ... Dissertation Abstract. International, 59(9-A0, 3526.
Effect of Socio-Economic Status of Parents on Educational Attainment of Female ... of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories. ... homes the opportunity to acquire basic primary education to university level.
Relationship between Parental Socio-economic Status and Casual Blood Pressure in ... data suggest that essential or primary hypertension occurs in the young. ... METHODS: One thousand and eight adolescents attending two secondary ...
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The valid psychological constructs were adoption behaviour, leadership abilities, cosmopoliteness, education level, and attitude to innovation. There was a significant ... Key words: Socio-economic Status, Adoption, Leadership, Cosmopolitness, Education, Attitude, Innovation.
Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...
Marioni, Riccardo E; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Liewald, Dave; Kerr, Shona M; Campbell, Archie; Luciano, Michelle; Smith, Blair H; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J; Hastie, Nicholas D; Wright, Alan F; Porteous, David J; Visscher, Peter M; Deary, Ian J
Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the 'Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses' (GCTA) procedures. 21% of the variation in education, 18% of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29% of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs ~ 5%). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation ~ 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status.
Long, Kathleen A.; And Others
Examined differences in Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores between persons of differing educational levels and family income in the MMPI-2 normative sample to determine if MMPI-2 scores are differentially accurate in predicting relevant extra-test characteristics of persons of differing socioeconomic levels. MMPI-2…
Luo, Liqun; Ding, Rui; Gao, Xiali; Sun, Jingjing; Zhao, Wei
According to the logic of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, in a human population, if socioeconomic status is transmitted across generations to some extent, and if sons of high-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than daughters, while daughters of low-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than sons, then we should expect that offspring sex ratio is positively associated with socioeconomic status. This study examines whether the assumptions and prediction of this hypothesis apply to a rural population in northern China. Results show that (1) current family socioeconomic status is positively related to family head's father's socioeconomic status in around 1950, (2) low-status family heads have more grandchildren through their daughters than their sons, whereas high- or middle-status family heads have more grandchildren through sons, and (3) as family heads' status increases, they tend to produce a higher offspring sex ratio. Therefore, the assumptions and prediction of the hypothesis are met in the study population. These results are discussed in reference to past studies on sex ratio manipulation among humans.
Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women beneficiaries of UNICEF-assisted nutrition enhancement programme in Abia State, Nigeria. ... educated, and as a way of sustaining the women's nutritional status for reproduction and food security at the household level and development in its entirety at large.
May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.
Érico Pereira Gomes Felden
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population.
Full Text Available Rural population ageing and decline is a serious problem throughout Europe resulting in a deterioration of the socioeconomic situation in rural areas. This leads to land abandonment, and consequently the loss of valuable cultural landscapes. Protected areas are no exception and inhabitants also face restrictions arising from the protection status. The aim of this study is to identify the existence, extent and nature of the socioeconomic impacts derived from the protection status on the local population. Population and socioeconomic indicators were compared with the results of in-depth interviews with local stakeholders within 2 Estonian national parks and contextualised with recent social change. It was concluded that protected areas have a considerable socioeconomic impact and in order to preserve cultural landscapes, achieve conservation objectives and contribute to balanced regional development, measures must be taken.
Smart, Reginald G.; And Others
Examines relationships between drug use problems and socioeconomic status of neighborhoods where students in grades 11 and 13 reside. Found largest number of alcohol and drug problems in areas with lowest socioeconomic characteristics, characterized by low-cost substandard housing, social and racial problems, and delinquency. Includes 13…
Marshall, Iain James; Wang, Yanzhong; Crichton, Siobhan Laura; McKevitt, Christopher John; Rudd, Anthony; Wolfe, Charles David Alexander
The latest evidence on socioeconomic status and stroke shows that stroke not only disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, but also socioeconomically deprived populations within high-income countries. These disparities are reflected not only in risk of stroke but also in short-term and long-term outcomes after stroke. Increased average levels of conventional risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, obesity, and sedentary lif...
Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather
Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…
Nieto, Sandra; Ramos, Raúl
This article analyzes the factors that explain the gap in educational outcomes between the top and bottom quartile of students in different countries, according to their socioeconomic status. To do so, it uses PISA microdata for 10 middle-income and 2 high-income countries, and applies the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Its results show that…
Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia
Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…
This study investigated the impact of socio-economic status of parents and family location on truant behaviour of secondary school students in the North-West Senatorial District of Benue State. The survey design was used to carry out the study using a sample of 400 respondents selected from different schools within the ...
Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki
The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…
Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael
BACKGROUND: There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a database of scrotal...... on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile......). RESULTS: Black men had increased prevalence of TML (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72-2.75) compared with white men. Among the 1105 TML cases, 423 (38.3%) were white, 273 (24.7%) black, 152 (13.8%) had other ethnicities, and 257 (23.2%) had no ethnicity recorded. In the control...
Moncada, Salvador; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Navarro, Albert
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to describe psychosocial work environment inequalities among wage earners in Spain and Denmark. METHODS: Data came from the Spanish COPSOQ (ISTAS 21) and the Danish COPSOQ II surveys both performed in 2004-05 and based on national representative samples...... of employees with a 60% response rate. Study population was 3,359 Danish and 6,685 Spanish women and men. Only identical items from both surveys were included to construct 18 psychosocial scales. Socioeconomic status was categorized according to the European Socioeconomic Classification System. Analysis...... included ordinal logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis after categorizing all scales. RESULTS: A relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial work environment in both Denmark and Spain was observed, with wider social inequalities in Spain for many scales, describing...
Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were ...
Boles, David B.
Socioeconomic status (SES), a variable combining income, education, and occupation, is correlated with a variety of social health outcomes including school dropout rates, early parenthood, delinquency, and mental illness. Several studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s largely failed to report a relationship between SES and hemispheric asymmetry…
Background: Childhood obesity is a complex condition resulting from an interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and socio-economic status. The prevalence has been increasing all over the world, probably due to economic transition and rapid urbanization as well as globalisation. This relationship should ...
Background: Asthma is a chronic disease which places considerable economic, social and public health burdens on the society. Education, occupation and income are the most widely used indicators of socioeconomic status (SES). Studies have shown increased asthma hospital admissions for those who are materially ...
Gundala, Rupasree; Chava, Vijay K.
Background: The health model which forms the basis is knowledge, attitude, temporary, and permanent behaviors. Currently, more emphasis has been directed towards the combined influence of lifestyle, education, levels and socioeconomic factors, instead of regular risk factors in dealing with chronic illnesses. The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore. A total of 1350 subjects were examined and 948 patients were randomly selected from out patient department. Information about their lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status were recorded using a questionnaire and correlated with the periodontal status. Results: The statistical analysis showed significant decrease in periodontitis when income and education levels increased. Also the prevalence of periodontitis associated with a healthy lifestyle is significantly lower when compared to an unhealthy lifestyle. Conclusions: There is a strong association of lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status with periodontal health. PMID:22114373
Background: Dental caries is a lifetime disease and its sequelae have been found to constitute health problems of immense proportion in children. Environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and dietary pattern can have a great impact on cariesresistance or caries-development in a child.
The study investigated the prevalence of malaria and socioeconomic status of subjects in part of Port Harcourt metropolis. Following ethical clearance which was obtained from the University of Port Harcourt and the parents of the subjects who gave their written consents, blood samples were collected and analysed ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between vocational interest, counselling, socio-economic status and age on re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. One research hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. The design was correlational. Five research instruments were used: they are the Modified ...
Black, Esther; Peppe, Sue; Gibbon, Fiona
The British Picture Vocabulary Scale, second edition (BPVS-II), a measure of receptive vocabulary, is widely used by speech and language therapists and researchers into speech and language disorders, as an indicator of language delay, but it has frequently been suggested that receptive vocabulary may be more associated with socio-economic status.…
Idorn, L W; Wulf, H C
Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), also in Northern Europe despite equal access to health care. SES per se is not responsible for this association which must be ascribed to important risk factors for CMM such as intermittent UVR exposure, and screening...
Hawley, Lisa D.; Leibert, Todd W.; Lane, Joel A.
In this study, we examined the relationship between various indices of socioeconomic status (SES) and counseling outcomes among clients at a university counseling center. We also explored links between SES and three factors that are generally regarded as facilitative of client change in counseling: motivation, treatment expectancy and social…
Xu, Zhiye; Yu, Dan; Yin, Xueyao; Zheng, Fenping; Li, Hong
The incidence of diabetes is increasing globally. We investigated the relationship between diabetes prevalence and patient socioeconomic status across multiple countries. We searched PubMed to identify population-based surveys reporting diabetes prevalence between 1990 and May 2016. Search results were filtered, and Human Development Index (HDI) values from the United Nations Development Programme were used to assess socioeconomic status for a given nation. Our analysis included 45 national surveys from 32 countries. Diabetes prevalence was positively correlated with national HDI (r = 0.421 P = 0.041) in developing countries, and negatively correlated with HDI (r = -0.442 P = 0.045) in developed countries. Diabetes prevalence trends were the same in women and men, although men were associated with increased diabetes risk in developed countries (r = 0.459 P = 0.048). Thus, diabetes prevalence rises with increasing HDI in developing countries, and this is reversed in developed countries. Ours is the first study to investigate the relationship between diabetes and socioeconomic status at global level using HDI values. These results will aid in evaluating global diabetes prevalence and risk with respect to patient socioeconomic status, and will be useful in the development of policies that help reduce disease incidence.
Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen
exacerbations (hazards ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.37) and higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.28-2.99). We conclude that even in an economically well-developed country with a health care system (which is largely free of charge), low socioeconomic status, assessed as the length...
Data was collected using a semi-structured researcher administered questionnaire. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes were addressed using questions on balanced diet, healthy eating, healthy body weight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and diabetes and hypertension causes. Socio-economic status was addressed by ...
This study aimed to describe the barriers to accessibility and the coping strategies employed to overcome these barriers among users of free ART services overall and by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were collected from 240 people receiving ART at one urban and one peri-urban health facility in Enugu State, ...
There is a long tradition of observational studies from developed societies linking overweight and obesity to low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between SES and obesity and determine whether variations in the body mass index (BMI) of adult Nigerians is influenced by their ...
7. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ... 90% of domestic responsibilities and are national resource managers and environmental ..... Education exposes one to better ways of managing resources and doing ... human nutrition basics, as well as rules for healthy eating. ... Second Edition.
Ridge, Katherine E.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Ilgaz, Hande; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn A.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick
Children from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families often fall behind their middle-class peers in early language development. But interventions designed to support their language skills are often costly and labor-intensive. This study implements an inexpensive and subtle language intervention aimed at sparking parent-child interaction in a place…
agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...
This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.
The relationship of socio-economic status (SES) indicators and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence was examined in 5620 subjects aged 20 ... The SES indicators had Iitlle or no independent effect on CHD prevalence in multivariate logistic analyses after, inclusion of the standard RFs.
Jahangard, Leila; Haghighi, Mohammad; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adult Iranian students and to examine gender, birth order, socioeconomic status (SES), and history of ADHD as potential predictors of adult ADHD. A total of 387 young adult students (mean age: 19.6 years; 66.3% females) completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-V1.1 symptom checklist to assess current symptoms of ADHD and the Wender Utah Rating Scale to assess symptoms of ADHD in childhood and adolescence. Experts' ratings were based on Wender-Reimherr Interview. Self-rated and expert-rated prevalence rates were 16.5% and 13.4%, respectively. Past symptoms of ADHD were correlated with current symptoms. Childhood ADHD, current hyperactivity, and disorganization predicted current ADHD. Among a sample of Iranian students, the prevalence rates of ADHD were higher than estimated rates worldwide. Data also show child ADHD to be associated with adult ADHD; gender, age, birth order, and SES did not seem to influence current symptomatology.
Hui, A.; Vinod, S.K.; Jalaludin, B.; Yuile, P.; Delaney, G.P.; Barton, M.
This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival
Guthrie, Lori C; Butler, Stephen C; Ward, Michael M
Time perspective is a measure of the degree to which one's thinking is motivated by considerations of the future, present, or past. Time perspective has been proposed as a potential mediator of socioeconomic disparities in health because it has been associated with health behaviors and is presumed to vary with socioeconomic status. In this cross-sectional community-based survey of respondents recruited from hair salons and barber shops in a suburb of Washington DC, we examined the association between time perspective and both education level and occupation. We asked participants (N=525) to complete a questionnaire that included three subscales (future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic) of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Participants with more formal education and those with professional occupations had higher scores on the future time perspective subscale, and lower scores on the present-fatalistic subscale, than participants with less formal education or a non-professional occupation. Present-fatalistic scores were also higher among participants whose parents had less formal education. Present-hedonistic scores were not associated with either education level or professional occupation. Time perspective scores were not independently associated with the likelihood of obesity, smoking, or exercise. In this community sample, future time perspective was associated with current socioeconomic status, and past-fatalistic time perspective was associated with both current and childhood socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females. Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place of residence, ownership of a personal transportation device, duration and frequency of pre-transplant dialysis, family history of CRF (Chronic renal failure, and etiology of renal disease were obtained. There were 50 (50% patients aged between 16 and 35 years, 55 had a family history of CRF, 60 had been on dialysis for more than a year, 61 were married, 47 did not have any children, 41 had more than 3 children, and 65 were unemployed due to physical and emotional impairment as a result of their disease. The majority (73% did not have a high school diploma, 15% were illiterate, 85% were below the poverty line, 52% were from rural areas, and 98% were covered by insurance. We conclude that patients with CKD in our study had acquired this condition possibly due to negligence and lack of basic health care in the lower socioeconomic class. In addition, KT is an available therapeutic modality to lower socio-economic level in Iran.
Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit
This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…
Iizuka, Christina A.; Barrett, Paula M.; Gillies, Robyn; Cook, Clayton R.; Marinovic, Welber
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the FRIENDS for Life program on students' and teachers' emotional outcomes in a school serving a high-poverty population. The focus of the intervention was to train/coach teachers with strategies to develop social and emotional skills for students. A single group, pre/post-test design was used…
Hennequin, M; Tubert, S; Devillers, A; Müller, M; Michaïlesco, P; Peli, J F; Pouëzat, J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the socio-economic status of French undergraduate dental students. A 46-item questionnaire was completed by the dental students of six universities between 1992 and 1995. Subjects related to family background, housing, schooling, income, expenditure and participation in student life were investigated. A total of 1192 out of 1207 questionnaires were returned. Both genders had equal access to dental training. The average overall cost of the four last years of the dental course was 30,302 French francs and varied greatly between faculties, as did the number of hours spent at the faculty for lectures, tutorials and practicals, and clinical work. Overall, the majority of students came from a well off social background, and had a relatively high quality of life while a small minority received no support from their families. Thirty-four per cent of students had never worked. One third of students smoked and one third regularly consumed medication of some sort. A third did not participate in any sport. Only 25% students bought dental text books and 42% of the students reported using the library regularly. This study offers an accurate description of the socio-economic status of French dental students that could be used as a reference for comparable studies in other European countries.
Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla
To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....
Räisänen, Sari; Randell, Kaisa; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre
Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?......Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?...
Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo
To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously defined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions.
Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M
Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the associat...
Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Weronika Wuenstel, Justyna; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence. The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.
KOWALKOWSKA, Joanna; WADOLOWSKA, Lidia; WERONIKA WUENSTEL, Justyna; SŁOWIŃSKA, Małgorzata Anna; NIEDŹWIEDZKA, Ewa
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. Results The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls. PMID:25909059
INFLUENCE OF PARENTS' SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND VOCATIONAL LEARNING MOTIVATION TO LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT IN THE LESSON OF CHASSIS AND POWER TRANSDUCTOR FOR XII GRADE STUDENTS OF LIGHT VIHICLE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF SMK PIRI 1 YOGYAKARTA IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014
Indra Tri Setyawan
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find the influence of parents’ socio-economic status and vocational learning motivation to learning achievement in the lesson of chassis and power transductor for XII grade students of SMK PIRI 1 Yogyakarta in the academic year 2013/2014. This research includes ex-post facto research conducted on the population 129 students with the sample 98 students. Data collection techniques in this research uses questionnaire instrument techniques for variable of parents’ socio-economic status and vocational learning motivation whereas documentation instrument techniques uses for variable of learning achievement the lesson of chassis and power transductor. Questionnaire was tested on 25 respondents. Data analysis techniques uses partial correlation analysis and regression analysis were preceded by prerequisite test that are normality test, linearity and multikolonieritas. The results of the data analysis is (1 parents’ socio-economic status (X1 influential positive and significant on learning achievement in the lesson of chassis and power transductor, (2 vocational learning motivation (X2 influential positive and significant on learning achievement in the lesson of chassis and power transductor, (3 parents’ socio-economic status (X1 and vocational learning motivation (X2 are jointly have positive and significant effect on learning achievement in the lesson of chassis and power transductor. Positive means that the higher the value of X1 and X2, the higher the value of Y, and vice versa. Thus, the socio-economic status of parents and the motivation to study vocational subjects affecting learning achievement the lesson of chassis and power transductor XII grade students of SMK PIRI 1 Yogyakarta in the academic year 2013/2014.
Bernardo, Allan B I
Academic achievement of students differs by socioeconomic group. Parents' socialization of academic achievement in their children was explored in self-reports of 241 students from two socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the Philippines, using a scale developed by Bempechat, et al. Students in the upper SES group had higher achievement than their peers in the middle SES group, but had lower scores on most dimensions of parental socialization of academic achievement. Regression analyses indicate that reported parental attempts to encourage more effort to achieve was associated with lower achievement in students with upper SES.
Pedersen, Malene R; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren R; Osther, Palle J; Vedsted, Peter; Sellars, Maria E; Sidhu, Paul S; Møller, Henrik
There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. From a database of scrotal ultrasound examinations in a single institution, all men who underwent routine ultrasound examinations for a variety of symptoms from 1998 to 2015 were included. Skilled observers performed all examinations, and presence of any form of intra-testicular calcification, including TML, was recorded on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile). Black men had increased prevalence of TML (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72-2.75) compared with white men. Among the 1105 TML cases, 423 (38.3%) were white, 273 (24.7%) black, 152 (13.8%) had other ethnicities, and 257 (23.2%) had no ethnicity recorded. In the control group of 1105 men without TML, 560 (50.7%) were white, 171 (15.5%) black, 111 (10.0%) had other specified ethnicities, and 263 (23.8%) had no ethnicity recorded. Men from the most deprived socioeconomic groups had higher prevalence of TML than men in the most affluent groups, with a trend in OR from the least deprived to the most deprived group. Pathogenesis and clinical relevance of TML is unknown but our results point towards possible ethnic and socioeconomic variation in the underlying causes of TML.
Zhao, Ningning; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Verhaeghe, JeanPierre
The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between family socioeconomic status and mathematics performance on the base of a multi-level analysis involving a large sample of Chinese primary school students. A weak relationship is found between socioeconomic status and performance in the Chinese context. The relationship does…
Lunceford, Christina J.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stretavski, Elizabeth L.
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of early preparation for postsecondary education and explore the effectiveness of Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP). This comparative case study included 836 students from two cohorts (GEAR UP and Non GEAR UP). We compared high school attendance,…
Gagné, Thierry; Ghenadenik, Adrian E
The Scandinavian Journal of Public Health recently reiterated the importance of addressing social justice and health inequalities in its new editorial policy announcement. One of the related challenges highlighted in that issue was the limited use of sociological theories able to inform the complexity linking the resources and mechanisms captured by the concept of socioeconomic status. This debate article argues that part of the problem lies in the often unchallenged reliance on a generic conceptualization and operationalization of socioeconomic status. These practices hinder researchers' capacity to examine in finer detail how resources and circumstances promote the unequal distribution of health through distinct yet intertwined pathways. As a potential way forward, this commentary explores how research practices can be challenged through concrete publication policies and guidelines. To this end, we propose a set of recommendations as a tool to strengthen the study of socioeconomic status and, ultimately, the quality of health inequality research. Authors, reviewers, and editors can become champions of change toward the implementation of sociological theory by holding higher standards regarding the conceptualization, operationalization, analysis, and interpretation of results in health inequality research.
We examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) could be used to identify which schools or children are at greatest risk of bullying, which can adversely affect children’s health and life. We conducted a review of published literature on school bullying and SES. We identified 28 studies that reported an association between roles in school bullying (victim, bully, and bully-victim) and measures of SES. Random effects models showed SES was weakly related to bullying roles. Adjusting for publication bias, victims (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 1.58) and bully-victims (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.74) were more likely to come from low socioeconomic households. Bullies (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99) and victims (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.94, 0.97) were slightly less likely to come from high socioeconomic backgrounds. SES provides little guidance for targeted intervention, and all schools and children, not just those with more socioeconomic deprivation, should be targeted to reduce the adverse effects of bullying. PMID:24825231
Won Kim Cook
Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
Asthma is associated with poorer behavioral and psychological outcomes in children, yet little is known about whether and how the social stratification process affects the impacts of asthma on children's outcomes. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study considered the role of socioeconomic status in shaping the developmental consequences of children's asthma. Results showed that asthma was negatively associated with attention and social competence and positively associated with externalizing problem behaviors for children with low-educated mothers and children who lived in poor households. However, the adverse consequences of asthma disappeared for children with high-educated mothers and children who did not experience poverty. Additionally, the socioeconomic disparities were not fully explained by healthcare resources, family process, and exposure to environment risks and the disparities were found for both mild and severe cases. These findings suggest that, to fully understand the developmental consequences of illness in children, it is important to place socioeconomic status at the center of investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Milcent, Carine; Zbiri, Saad
Cesarean deliveries are widely used in many high- and middle-income countries. This overuse both increases costs and lowers quality of care and is thus a major concern in the healthcare industry. The study first examines the impact of prenatal care utilization on cesarean delivery rates. It then determines whether socioeconomic status affects the use of prenatal care and thereby influences the cesarean delivery decision. Using exclusive French delivery data over the 2008-2014 period, with multilevel logit models, and controlling for relevant patient and hospital characteristics, we show that women who do not participate in prenatal education have an increased probability of a cesarean delivery compared to those who do. The study further indicates that attendance at prenatal education varies according to socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic women are more likely to have cesarean deliveries and less likely to participate in prenatal education. This result emphasizes the importance of focusing on pregnancy health education, particularly for low-income women, as a potential way to limit unnecessary cesarean deliveries. Future studies would ideally investigate the effect of interventions promoting such as care participation on cesarean delivery rates.
Bapat, Radhika; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
In this article physical activity, screen time, and academic work are studied as mediators between socio-economic status and sleep duration among school children in India. Participants were 268 school children aged 10?15 from Pune, India. They were sampled from private schools and impoverished public schools. We found that the highest socio-economic status children reported almost an hour and a half less sleep than their lowest socio-economic status counterparts. The lower socio-economic stat...
Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G
A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic status (SES) to children's brain structure. Few studies, however, have specifically investigated relations of SES to white matter structure. Further, although several studies have demonstrated that family SES is related to development of brain areas that support executive functions (EF), less is known about the role that white matter structure plays in the relation of SES to EF. One possibility is that white matter differences may partially explain SES disparities in EF (i.e., a mediating relationship). Alternatively, SES may differentially shape brain-behavior relations such that the relation of white matter structure to EF may differ as a function of SES (i.e., a moderating relationship). In a diverse sample of 1082 children and adolescents aged 3-21 years, we examined socioeconomic disparities in white matter macrostructure and microstructure. We further investigated relations between family SES, children's white matter volume and integrity in tracts supporting EF, and performance on EF tasks. Socioeconomic status was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume in multiple white matter tracts. Additionally, family income moderated the relation between white matter structure and cognitive flexibility. Specifically, across multiple tracts of interest, lower FA or lower volume was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility among children from lower income families. In contrast, children from higher income families showed preserved cognitive flexibility in the face of low white matter FA or volume. SES factors did not mediate or moderate links between white matter and either working memory or inhibitory control. This work adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that the socioeconomic contexts in which children develop not only shape cognitive functioning and its underlying neurobiology, but may also shape the relations between brain and behavior.
Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Wanhyung; Rhie, Jeongbae; Won, Jong-Uk
We aimed to investigate the health inequity of victims of occupational accidents through the association between socioeconomic status and unmet healthcare need. Data from the first and second Panel Study of Workers' Compensation Insurance were used, which included 1,803 participants. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for the unmet healthcare needs of participants with a lower socioeconomic status and other socioeconomic statuses were investigated using multivariate regression analysis. Among all participants, 103 had unmet healthcare needs, whereas 1,700 did not. After adjusting for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, chronic disease, recuperation duration, accident type, disability, and economic participation, the odds ratio of unmet healthcare needs in participants with a lower socioeconomic status was 2.04 (95% confidence interval 1.32-3.15) compared to participants with other socioeconomic statuses. The victims of occupational accidents who have a lower socioeconomic status are more likely to have unmet healthcare needs in comparison to those with other socioeconomic statuses.
Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.
Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482
Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.
Poterico, Julio A; Stanojevic, Sanja; Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime
Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country's development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008), we investigated this relationship in women aged 15-49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multistage nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.3-14.8); 8.4% (95% CI: 7.5-9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95% CI: 15.2-17.2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru.
Poterico, J.A.; Stanojevic, S.; Ruiz, P.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Miranda, J. J.
Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country’s development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008) we investigated this relationship in women aged 15 to 49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multi-staged nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95%CI: 13.3–14.8); 8.4% (95%CI: 7.5–9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95%CI: 15.2–17-2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru. PMID:21959344
Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R
Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that language, memory, social-emotional processing, and cognitive control exhibit relatively large differences across SES. Here we investigated whether volumetric differences could be observed across SES in several neural regions that support these skills. In a sample of 60 socioeconomically diverse children, highly significant SES differences in regional brain volume were observed in the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, SES × age interactions were observed in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting increasing SES differences with age in these regions. These results were not explained by differences in gender, race or IQ. Likely mechanisms include differences in the home linguistic environment and exposure to stress, which may serve as targets for intervention at a time of high neural plasticity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma
The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender ( P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale ( r = -0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.
Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127
Gibbs, B G; Forste, R
Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Adam, M.; Rebholz, C. E.; Egger, M.; Zwahlen, M.; Kuehni, C. E.
The objectives of this systematic review are to summarise the current literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of childhood leukaemia, to highlight methodological problems and formulate recommendations for future research. Starting from the systematic review of Poole et al. (Socioeconomic status and childhood leukaemia: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2006;35(2):370-384.), an electronic literature search was performed covering August 2002-April 2008. It showed that (1) the results are heterogeneous, with no clear evidence to support a relation between SES and childhood leukaemia; (2) a number of factors, most importantly selection bias, might explain inconsistencies between studies; (3) there is some support for an association between SES at birth (rather than later in childhood) and childhood leukaemia and (4) if there are any associations, these are weak, limited to the most extreme SES groups (the 10-20% most or least deprived). This makes it unlikely that they would act as strong confounders in research addressing associations between other exposures and childhood leukaemia. Future research should minimise case and control selection bias, distinguish between different SES measures and leukaemia subtypes and consider timing of exposures and cancer outcomes. (authors)
Pereira Carlos AB
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.
Groeneveld, Iris F.; Solomons, Noel W.; Doak, Colleen M.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status
Andi Ummul Khair
Full Text Available This research is about the correlation of Parenting and Socioeconomic Status (SES towards English Learning Readiness (ELR of children. This study was aimed to find out the correlation of parenting quality and socioeconomic status towards English learning readiness of children. This research applied quantitative research, the case conducts in correlational research which describes an existing condition. The population of this research was students from all elementary school in Kecamatan Tamalate Makassar where English is tought at second grade. The representation of the population in this research is the 2nd year students of six elementary schools in Kecamatan Tamalate academic year of 2012/2013 who have collected the two questionnaires which is distributed to them and filled out by their parents. Total number of the sample is 105 students chosen from the questionnaires which is collected and has filled properly by parents. The data were obtained by using two kinds of instruments, those are questionnaires of parenting and socioeconomic status which have tested the validity in a number of students and data of the ELR of children got from student’s English achievement in school. Those data were analyzed by using path analysis of Amos 20.0. The researcher concludes that (1 the correlation of parenting with ELR indicates the higher quality of parenting they have the higher children gain ELR, on the contrary the less quality of parenting they have the less children gain ELR, (2 SES has almost none indication to have correlation with ELR, (3 The higher SES the better parenting do and the lower SES the worst parenting do.
Koricich, Andrew; Chen, Xi; Hughes, Rodney P.
This study seeks to update past studies of rural youth by examining college attendance and choice decisions for students who graduated from rural high schools, while also conducting an examination of how the effects of socioeconomic status manifest differently by locale. Logistic regression is used to study the postsecondary attendance and…
Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Jung, Nak-Yong; An, Seong Dae; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Jung Hoon
Retrospective study. The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the detection rate of lumbar disc herniation and socioeconomic status. Income is one important determinant of public health. Yet, there are no reports about the relationship between socioeconomic status and the detective rate of disc herniation. In this study, 443 cases were checked for lumbar computed tomography for lumbar disc herniation, and they reviewed questionnaires about their socioeconomic status, the presence of back pain or radiating pain and the presence of a medical certificate (to check the medical or surgical treatment for the pain) during the Korean conscription. Without the consideration for the presence of a medical certificate, there was no difference in spinal physical grade according to socioeconomic status (p=0.290). But, with the consideration of the presence of a medical certificate, the significant statistical differences were observed according to socioeconomic status in 249 cases in the presence of a medical certificate (p=0.028). There was a lower detection rate in low economic status individuals than those in the high economic class. The common reason for not submitting a medical certificate is that it is neither necessary for the people of lower socioeconomic status nor is it financially affordable. The prevalence of lumbar disc herniation is not different according to socioeconomic status, but the detective rate was affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status is an important factor for detecting lumbar disc herniation.
Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Cho, Junhan; Yoon, Yoewon; Bello, Mariel S; Khoddam, Rubin; Leventhal, Adam M
Although lower socioeconomic status has been linked to increased youth substance use, much less research has determined potential mechanisms explaining the association. The current longitudinal study tested whether alternative (i.e., pleasure gained from activities without any concurrent use of substances) and complementary (i.e., pleasure gained from activities in tandem with substance use) reinforcement mediate the link between lower socioeconomic status and youth substance use. Further, we tested whether alternative and complementary reinforcement and youth substance use gradually unfold over time and then intersect with one another in a cascading manner. Potential sex differences are also examined. Data were drawn from a longitudinal survey of substance use and mental health among high school students in Los Angeles. Data collection involved four semiannual assessment waves beginning in fall 2013 (N = 3395; M baseline age = 14.1; 47% Hispanic, 16.2% Asian, 16.1% multiethnic, 15.7% White, and 5% Black; 53.4% female). The results from a negative binomial path model suggested that lower parental socioeconomic status (i.e., lower parental education) was significantly related to an increased number of substances used by youth. The final path model revealed that the inverse association was statistically mediated by adolescents' diminished engagement in pleasurable substance-free activities (i.e., alternative reinforcers) and elevated engagement in pleasurable activities paired with substance use (i.e., complementary reinforcers). The direct effect of lower parental education on adolescent substance use was not statistically significant after accounting for the hypothesized mediating mechanisms. No sex differences were detected. Increasing access to and engagement in pleasant activities of high quality that do not need a reinforcement enhancer, such as substances, may be useful in interrupting the link between lower parental socioeconomic status and youth
Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine
Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income education. Important differences were noted between the socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029
Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Jhund, Pardeep S; McMurray, John J V; Capewell, Simon
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of incident coronary disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Understanding the impact of SES on heart failure (HF) development and subsequent outcomes may help to develop effective and equitable prevention, detection, and treatment strategies A systematic literature review of electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library, restricted to human subjects, was carried out. The principal outcomes were incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, mortality, and treatment of HF. Socioeconomic measures included education, occupation, employment relations, social class, income, housing characteristics, and composite and area level indicators. Additional studies were identified from bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews. Twenty-eight studies were identified. Lower SES was associated with increased incidence of HF, either in the community or presenting to hospital. The adjusted risk of developing HF was increased by ∼30-50% in most reports. Readmission rates following hospitalization were likewise greater in more deprived patients. Although fewer studies examined mortality, lower SES was associated with poorer survival. Evidence defining the equity of medical treatment of patients with HF was scarce and conflicting. Socioeconomic deprivation is a powerful independent predictor of HF development and adverse outcomes. However, the precise mechanisms accounting for this risk remain elusive. Heart failure represents the endpoint of numerous different pathophysiological processes and 'chains of events', each modifiable throughout the disease trajectories. The interaction between SES and HF is accordingly complex. Disentangling the many and varied life course processes is challenging. A better understanding of these issues may help attenuate the health inequalities so clearly evident among patients with HF.
Socioeconomic status is often determined like the academic background of parents, and it can be determined like the place of living, village or town, city, as well. Socioeconomic status is an important factor in many aspects of living as in academic achievement as well. Problem in this research paper was to examine whether there are differences between children from different socio-economic status (level of education of parents) and between children from villages and towns, on Readiness f...
Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years.Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors.The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell us
Full Text Available Community and hospital based studies require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of the health, nutritional status, mortality, and morbidity of an individual. SES also influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and actual utilization of available health facilities. (1 There are many different scales to measure the SES of a family: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. (2,3,4,5,6,7,8 However, social transition and fast growing economy have reduced these scales effectiveness in measuring the SES over the years. Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale is an important tool to measure socioeconomic status of families in urban areas. It was first proposed by Kuppuswamy in the in the year 1976. (6 (Table-1 This scale takes into account education, occupation of the head of the family and total income of the family per month from all the sources to categorise families into 5 groups; namely upper, upper middle, lower middle, upper lower and lower socioeconomic status. It is used by students and researchers in India for hospital and community based research. Mishra D and Singh HP (9 in their article on revision of Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic status scale have pointed that an income scale usually has relevance only for the period under study. They further clarified that due to the steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of the rupee, the income criteria in the scale lose their relevance. There is an unprecedented demand from researchers for the updated version of this because changes in inflation rate change the monetary values of the monthly income range scores. Attempts to revise the original scale to bring the income subscale up to date are done by various authors. The year wise reference indices are shown in Table -2. It tell
Bates, Timothy C; Lewis, Gary J; Weiss, Alexander
Studies of intelligence in children reveal significantly higher heritability among groups with high socioeconomic status (SES) than among groups with low SES. These interaction effects, however, have not been examined in adults, when between-families environmental effects are reduced. Using 1,702 adult twins (aged 24-84) for whom intelligence assessment data were available, we tested for interactions between childhood SES and genetic effects, between-families environmental effects, and unique environmental effects. Higher SES was associated with higher mean intelligence scores. Moreover, the magnitude of genetic influences on intelligence was proportional to SES. By contrast, environmental influences were constant. These results suggest that rather than setting lower and upper bounds on intelligence, genes multiply environmental inputs that support intellectual growth. This mechanism implies that increasing SES may raise average intelligence but also magnifies individual differences in intelligence.
This article attempts to establish that socioeconomic status (SES) plays an important role in the lives of adolescents and is reflected in adolescent literature. The emphasis on SES in four adolescent novels: The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, and The Pigman by Paul Zindel suggests that both the authors and their young readers are aware of its influence in today's society. Three areas which are greatly affected by SES are examined: adolescents' self-esteem, how it affects characterization and subsequently the degree to which adolescents identify with a literary character, and how it functions as a learning device, enabling authors to infuse their own moral values into the minds of their audiences.
Figlio, David N; Freese, Jeremy; Karbownik, Krzysztof; Roth, Jeffrey
Accurate understanding of environmental moderation of genetic influences is vital to advancing the science of cognitive development as well as for designing interventions. One widely reported idea is increasing genetic influence on cognition for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) families, including recent proposals that the pattern is a particularly US phenomenon. We used matched birth and school records from Florida siblings and twins born in 1994-2002 to provide the largest, most population-diverse consideration of this hypothesis to date. We found no evidence of SES moderation of genetic influence on test scores, suggesting that articulating gene-environment interactions for cognition is more complex and elusive than previously supposed.
Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel
Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.
White, Susan C.
Since September, we have been examining the relationship between high school physics enrollments by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We have seen that the number of seniors and the number of physics teachers is roughly evenly divided into each type of school: those where students are typically better off economically than their peers at other schools in the area, those where students' economic status is typical for the area, and those where students are worse off. We have seen that even though the number of seniors and the number of physics teachers is roughly equal, the number of students taking physics is not. As we see in the figure, the enrollments in various types of physics classes are not equivalent either. While the total number of students taking Physics First or conceptual physics is about the same, the number of students in advanced classes—honors, AP, or second-year physics—is heavily skewed toward the better off schools. It is hard to know the direction of any cause and effect, but it is clear the students attending better off schools are more likely to take physics and are more likely to take more advanced physics classes in high school.
Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar
Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our
Vettore, Mario Vianna; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke
This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males), the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to socioeconomic status. Planning health promotion interventions for adolescents should take their individual characteristics and family and social context into account.
Barut, Mert Ulas; Agacayak, Elif; Bozkurt, Murat; Aksu, Tarık; Gul, Talip
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential association between socioeconomic status and ovarian reserve, anti-Mullerian hormone level, antral follicle count, and follicle stimulating hormone level in women of reproductive age. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 101 married women between 20-35 years of age who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Research System In Vitro Fertilization (HRS IVF) Center between October 2014 and November 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The participants were divided into three socioeconomic groups using Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale. Thirty-one participants were assigned to the low socioeconomic status group, 37 to the middle socioeconomic status group, and 33 to the high socioeconomic status group. On days 3-6 of the menstrual cycle, 10 mL of blood was collected from the participants for follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone measurements. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed for both ovaries for the purpose of counting antral follicles measuring 2-10 mm in diameter. RESULTS Both ovarian reserve parameters, namely anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count, exhibited a significant association with socioeconomic status (p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). The association between follicle stimulating hormone level and socioeconomic status was also significant (p=0.000). CONCLUSIONS A low socioeconomic status aggravated by sources of stress such as undernutrition and financial hardships affects ovarian reserve, which should be remembered in approaching infertile patients.
Zhang, Qian; Wang, Yufu; Hu, Hanqing; Huang, Rui; Xie, Lei; Liu, Enrui; Chen, Ying-Gang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan
Socioeconomic status (SES) has an impact on the survival of various cancers, but it has not been fully understood in colorectal cancer (CRC). The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was adopted to detect the role of SES in the survival outcomes of CRC. A total of 184,322 eligible patients were included and SES status was analyzed. The multivariable analysis showed that Non-Hispanic Black (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24), being widowed (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07), any Medicaid (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.33-1.39) and the lowest education level group patients had relative poorer prognosis. Besides, sex, tumor location, age, differentiation level and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage also had significant effects on overall survival of CRC. The individuals were further divided into five groups according to the number of survival-adverse factors. All of the four groups containing adverse factors showed impaired survival outcomes compared with the group containing no adverse factor.
Bernheim, Susannah M; Parzynski, Craig S; Horwitz, Leora; Lin, Zhenqiu; Araas, Michael J; Ross, Joseph S; Drye, Elizabeth E; Suter, Lisa G; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Krumholz, Harlan M
There is an active public debate about whether patients' socioeconomic status should be included in the readmission measures used to determine penalties in Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). Using the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services methodology, we compared risk-standardized readmission rates for hospitals caring for high and low proportions of patients of low socioeconomic status (as defined by their Medicaid status or neighborhood income). We then calculated risk-standardized readmission rates after additionally adjusting for patients' socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that hospitals caring for large proportions of patients of low socioeconomic status have readmission rates similar to those of other hospitals. Moreover, readmission rates calculated with and without adjustment for patients' socioeconomic status are highly correlated. Readmission rates of hospitals caring for patients of low socioeconomic status changed by approximately 0.1 percent with adjustment for patients' socioeconomic status, and only 3-4 percent fewer such hospitals reached the threshold for payment penalty in Medicare's HRRP. Overall, adjustment for socioeconomic status does not change hospital results in meaningful ways. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Martinez, Sydney A; Beebe, Laura A; Thompson, David M; Wagener, Theodore L; Terrell, Deirdra R; Campbell, Janis E
The inverse association between socioeconomic status and smoking is well established, yet the mechanisms that drive this relationship are unclear. We developed and tested four theoretical models of the pathways that link socioeconomic status to current smoking prevalence using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey, we selected four indicator variables (poverty ratio, personal earnings, educational attainment, and employment status) that we hypothesize underlie a latent variable, socioeconomic status. We measured direct, indirect, and total effects of socioeconomic status on smoking on four pathways through four latent variables representing social cohesion, financial strain, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. Results of the model indicated that the probability of being a smoker decreased by 26% of a standard deviation for every one standard deviation increase in socioeconomic status. The direct effects of socioeconomic status on smoking accounted for the majority of the total effects, but the overall model also included significant indirect effects. Of the four mediators, sleep disturbance and psychological distress had the largest total effects on current smoking. We explored the use of structural equation modeling in epidemiology to quantify effects of socioeconomic status on smoking through four social and psychological factors to identify potential targets for interventions. A better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking is critical as we continue to reduce the burden of tobacco and eliminate health disparities related to smoking.
Fernández, E; Alonso, R M; Quer, A; Borrell, C; Benach, J; Alonso, J; Gómez, G
Self-perceived class results from directly questioning subjects about his or her social class. The aim of this investigation was to analyse self-perceived class in relation to other indicator variables of socioeconomic level. Data from the 1994 Catalan Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population of Catalonia was used. We conducted a discriminant analysis to compute the degree of right classification when different socioeconomic variables potentially related to self-perceived class were considered. All subjects who directly answered the questionnaire were included (N = 12,245). With the aim of obtaining the discriminant functions in a group of subjects and to validate it in another one, the subjects were divided into two random samples, containing approximately 75% and 25% of subjects (analysis sample, n = 9,248; and validation sample, n = 2,997). The final function for men and women included level of education, social class (based in occupation) and equivalent income. This function correctly classified 40.9% of the subjects in the analysis sample and 39.2% in the validation sample. Two other functions were selected for men and women separately. In men, the function included level of education, professional category, and family income (39.2% of classification in analysis sample and 37.2% in validation sample). In women, the function (level of education, working status, and equivalent income) correctly classified 40.3% of women in analysis sample whereas the percentage was 38.9% in validation sample. The percentages of right classification were higher for the highest and lowest classes. These results show the utility of a simple variable to self-position within the social scale. Self-perceived class is related to education, income, and working determinants.
Smith, Dillon Montgomery
The Bell Curve by Charles Murray and Richard Herrnstein is one of the most controversial academic works of the last few decades. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (1979), we performed a number of regressions of poverty status in 1989 on parental socioeconomic status, IQ, race, sex, and age. We replicate their results which show that IQ is a more important predictor of poverty status than parental socioeconomic status (SES). We extend their analysis to other groupings ...
Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter ( 10 months) intervals. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Wolff, S.P.; Stern, G.
Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author)
Steptoe, A.; Kunz-Ebrecht, S.R.; Owen, N.; Feldman, P.J.; Willemsen, G.; Kirschbaum, C.; Marmot, M.
Objectives: The influence of low socioeconomic status on cardiovascular disease may be mediated in part by sustained activation of stress-related autonomic and neuroendocrine processes. We hypothesized that low socio-economic status would be associated with heightened ambulatory blood pressure and
The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…
Cedeño, Luis F.; Martínez-Arias, Rosario; Bueno, José A.
Studies suggest that socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of academic achievement. This theoretical paper proposes that despite the fact that low-socioeconomic status represents a risk factor that seems to undermine attentional skills and thus academic achievement, emerging evidence suggests the potential of new approaches, interventions and…
van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.
Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige
There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…
Dik, V K; Aarts, M J; Van Grevenstein, W M U; Koopman, M; Van Oijen, M G H; Lemmens, V E; Siersema, P D
High socioeconomic status is associated with better survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study investigated whether socioeconomic status is associated with differences in surgical treatment and mortality in patients with CRC. Patients diagnosed with stage I-III CRC between 2005 and 2010 in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry area in the Netherlands were included. Socioeconomic status was determined at a neighbourhood level by combining the mean household income and the mean value of the housing. Some 4422 patients with colonic cancer and 2314 with rectal cancer were included. Patients with colonic cancer and high socioeconomic status were operated on with laparotomy (70·7 versus 77·6 per cent; P = 0·017), had laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (15·7 versus 29·5 per cent; P = 0·008) and developed anastomotic leakage or abscess (9·6 versus 12·6 per cent; P = 0·049) less frequently than patients with low socioeconomic status. These differences remained significant after adjustment for patient and tumour characteristics. In rectal cancer, patients with high socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo resection (96·3 versus 93·7 per cent; P = 0·083), but this was not significant in multivariable analysis (odds ratio (OR) 1·44, 95 per cent confidence interval 0·84 to 2·46). The difference in 30-day postoperative mortality in patients with colonic cancer and high and low socioeconomic status (3·6 versus 6·8 per cent; P socioeconomic status have more favourable surgical treatment characteristics than patients with low socioeconomic status. The lower 30-day postoperative mortality found in patients with colonic cancer and high socioeconomic status is largely explained by patient and surgical factors. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Seo, Won Hee; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Eun, So-Hee; Kim, Gunha; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Byung Min
Sufficient sleep is an important factor in physical and mental health. Sleep duration can be affected by socio-economic status (SES). This study aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and SES in Korean adolescents. This study was conducted with 1608 adolescents aged 12-18 years, based on data from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Sleep duration was self-reported in hours and three SES indicators were used: household income, basic livelihood security programmes and type of health insurance. Confounding factors in this study were age, mental health and physical activity. Participants' average age was 15.6 ± 0.05 years and average sleep duration was 7.04 ± 0.05 h. There was a strong association between sleep duration and household income (P sleep duration was significantly associated with age, body mass index (P sleep and long sleep (>9 h/night). We found similar results in both genders, that is, that the highest income group had shorter sleep duration than the lowest income group. This study shows that the SES, particularly household income, is an important factor in short sleep duration in Korean adolescents. Our findings suggest that, in future investigations of the adolescent's sleep problem, attention should be paid to household income. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Dinsa, G D; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M
We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Wesolosky, Jason D; Rudnisky, Christopher J
To determine the relationship between cataract severity and socioeconomic status (SES). Retrospective, observational case series. A total of 1350 eyes underwent phacoemulsification cataract extraction by a single surgeon using an Alcon Infiniti system. Cataract severity was measured using phaco time in seconds. SES was measured using area-level aggregate census data: median income, education, proportion of common-law couples, and employment rate. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity was obtained and converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution values. For patients undergoing bilateral surgery, the generalized estimating equation was used to account for the correlation between eyes. Univariate analyses were performed using simple regression, and multivariate analyses were performed to account for variables with significant relationships (p < 0.05) on univariate testing. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of including patient age in the controlled analyses. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that cataracts were more severe when the median income was lower (p = 0.001) and the proportion of common-law couples living in a patient's community (p = 0.012) and the unemployment rate (p = 0.002) were higher. These associations persisted even when controlling for patient age. Patients of lower SES have more severe cataracts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K; Biswas, S; Nayak, K; Chatterjee, M K; Chakraborty, D; Mukherjee, S
Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here.
Full Text Available In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning, but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society. Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals, instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.
Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio
In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.
Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for
Starkey, Leighann; Revenson, Tracey A
Many studies link childhood socioeconomic status (SES) to body mass index (BMI), but few account for the impact of socioeconomic mobility throughout the lifespan. This study aims to investigate the impact of socioeconomic mobility on changes in BMI in childhood. Analyses tested whether  socioeconomic status influences BMI,  changes in socioeconomic status impact changes in BMI, and  timing of socioeconomic status mobility impacts BMI. Secondary data spanning birth to age 9 were analyzed. SES and BMI were investigated with gender, birth weight, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal nativity as covariates. Autoregressive structural equation modeling and latent growth modeling were used. Socioeconomic status in the first year of life predicted body mass index. Child covariates were consistently associated with body mass index. Rate of change in socioeconomic status did not predict change in body mass index. The findings suggest that early socioeconomic status may most influence body mass in later childhood.
Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R
The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Gregory E; Engen, Phillip A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali
In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with a
Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin
Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.
Orsini, Mattea; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Bessaoud, Faiza
Health inequalities have increased over the last 30 years. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between low individual socioeconomic status and poor breast cancer prognosis. Our hypothesis was: low socioeconomic status patients have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer than high socioeconomic status ones due to delayed diagnosis. We conducted a matched case-control study on 619 women with breast cancer, living in the Hérault, a French administrative area. Both Cases and Controls were recruited among invasive cases diagnosed in 2011 and 2012 and treated in Hérault care centers. Cases were defined as patients with advanced stages. Controls were composed of early stage patients. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using a validated individual score adapted to the French population and health care system. We observed that low socioeconomic status patients have a 2-fold risk of having late stage breast cancer regardless of cancer characteristics and detection mode (screening vs. clinical signs). One reason explaining those results could be that low socioeconomic status patients have less regular follow-up which can lead to later and poorer diagnosis. Follow-up is improved for women with a better awareness of breast cancer. Health policy makers could reduce health inequalities by reducing the delay in breast cancer diagnosis for low socioeconomic status women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Ball, Stephen J.; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R.
Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999–2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20) to 2004–2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40) indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors. PMID:23799513
Murray, Terra C; Rodgers, Wendy M; Fraser, Shawn N
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between control beliefs, socioeconomic status and exercise intentions and behavior. Specifically, we examined whether distal and proximal control beliefs mediated the association between socioeconomic status and exercise intentions and behavior. A one time, cross sectional mail out survey (N = 350) was conducted in a large urban Canadian city. Distal (i.e., personal constraints) and proximal (i.e., scheduling self-efficacy) control beliefs mediated the association between socioeconomic status and exercise, explaining approximately 30% of the variance. Proximal control beliefs (i.e., scheduling self-efficacy) partially mediated the association between socioeconomic status and intentions, with the models explaining approximately 50% of the variance. Compared to individuals with lower socioeconomic status, individuals with higher socioeconomic status reported more exercise and stronger intentions to exercise. This was at least partly because higher socioeconomic status respondents reported fewer barriers in their lives, and were more confident to cope with the scheduling demands of exercise.
Abubakar, Amina; Van de Vijver, Fons; Van Baar, Anneloes; Mbonani, Leonard; Kalu, Raphael; Newton, Charles; Holding, Penny
Sub-optimal physical growth has been suggested as a key pathway between the effect of environmental risk and developmental outcome. To determine if anthropometric status mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychomotor development of young children in resource-limited settings. A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 204 (105 girls) children from two resource-limited communities in the Coast Province, Kenya. The mean age of these children was 29 months (SD = 3.43; range: 24-35 months). Psychomotor functioning was assessed using a locally developed and validated measure, the Kilifi Developmental Inventory. A significant association was found between anthropometric status (as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age, mid-upper arm circumference, and head circumference) and psychomotor functioning and also between socioeconomic status and anthropometric status; no direct effects were found between socioeconomic status and developmental outcome. The models showed that weight, height and to a lesser extent mid-upper arm circumference mediate the relation between socioeconomic status and developmental outcome, while head circumference did not show the same effect. Among children under 3 years living in poverty, anthropometric status shows a clear association with psychomotor development while socioeconomic status may only have an indirect association.
Cooper, Gregory S; Kou, Tzuyung Doug; Dor, Avi; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D
Out-of-pocket expenditures are thought to be an important barrier to the receipt of cancer preventive services, especially for those of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated out-of-pocket expenditures for recommended services, including mammography and colonoscopy. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the uptake of mammography and colonoscopy among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries before and after ACA implementation. Using Medicare claims data, this study identified women who were 70 years old or older and had not undergone mammography in the previous 2 years and men and women who were 70 years old or older, were at increased risk for colorectal cancer, and had not undergone colonoscopy in the past 5 years. The receipt of procedures in the 2-year period before the ACA's implementation (2009-2010) and after its implementation (2011 to September 2012) was also identified. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to determine the independent association and county-level quartile of median income and education with the receipt of testing. For mammography, a lower SES quartile was associated with less uptake, but the post-ACA disparities were smaller than those in the pre-ACA period. In addition, mammography rates increased from the pre-ACA period to the post-ACA period in all SES quartiles. For colonoscopy, in both the pre- and post-ACA periods, there was an association between uptake and educational level and, to some extent, income. However, there were no appreciable changes in colonoscopy and SES after implementation of the ACA. The removal of out-of-pocket expenditures may overcome a barrier to the receipt of recommended preventive services, but for colonoscopy, other procedural factors may remain as deterrents. Cancer 2017;123:1585-1589. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies in the UK and Denmark found no significant association between low socioeconomic status (SES and weight faltering. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies from other developed countries. We examined the association between parental SES and weight faltering in infants up to 1.5 years of age, and investigated whether the inequalities changed between 2001 and 2010 in Japan.Methods: We used data from two Japanese population-based birth cohorts started in 2001 (n = 34,594 and 2010 (n = 21,189. Parental SES was assessed as household income and parental education when the infant was 6 months old. Weight faltering was defined as the slowest weight gaining in 5% of all children in each cohort. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with adjustment for covariates. The relative index of inequality was used to assess relative impact of parental SES on weight faltering.Results: Infants in the lowest quartile of household income were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.52 and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.56 times more likely to experience weight faltering than those in the highest income quartile both in the 2001 and 2010 cohorts, respectively. The relative index of inequality for household income was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.36, 1.96 in 2001 and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.31 in 2010.Conclusions: Infants from lower income families have a greater risk of weight faltering in Japan. Additionally, the income-related inequalities in weight faltering did not change between the two cohorts. Social policies to address maldistribution of weight faltering due to household income are needed.
Knoble, Naomi B.; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Hossain, Md Jobayer
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a complex construct of multiple indicators, known to impact cancer outcomes, but has not been adequately examined among pediatric AML patients. This study aimed to identify the patterns of co-occurrence of multiple community-level SES indicators and to explore associations between various patterns of these indicators and pediatric AML mortality risk. A nationally representative US sample of 3,651 pediatric AML patients, aged 0–19 years at diagnosis was drawn from 17 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database registries created between 1973 and 2012. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, stratified univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. Four SES factors accounting for 87% of the variance in SES indicators were identified: F1) economic/educational disadvantage, less immigration; F2) immigration-related features (foreign-born, language-isolation, crowding), less mobility F3) housing instability; and, F4) absence of moving. F1 and F3 showed elevated risk of mortality, adjusted hazards ratios (aHR) (95% CI): 1.07(1.02–1.12) and 1.05(1.00–1.10), respectively. Seven SES-defined cluster groups were identified. Cluster 1: (low economic/educational disadvantage, few immigration-related features, and residential-stability) showed the minimum risk of mortality. Compared to Cluster 1, Cluster 3: (high economic/educational disadvantage, high-mobility) and Cluster 6: (moderately-high economic/educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features) exhibited substantially greater risk of mortality, aHR(95% CI) = 1.19(1.0–1.4) and 1.23 (1.1–1.5), respectively. Factors of correlated SES-indicators and their pattern-based groups demonstrated differential risks in the pediatric AML mortality indicating the need of special public-health attention in areas with economic-educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features. PMID:27543948
Burch, Lisa S; Smith, Colette J; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Margaret A; Lampe, Fiona C
It has been shown that socioeconomic factors are associated with the prognosis of several chronic diseases; however, there is no recent systematic review of their effect on HIV treatment outcomes. We aimed to review the evidence regarding the existence of an association of socioeconomic status with virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We systematically searched the current literature using the database PubMed. We identified and summarized original research studies in high-income countries that assessed the association between socioeconomic factors (education, employment, income/financial status, housing, health insurance, and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic factors) and virological response, immunological response, and ART nonadherence among people with HIV-prescribed ART. A total of 48 studies met the inclusion criteria (26 from the United States, six Canadian, 13 European, and one Australian), of which 14, six, and 35 analysed virological, immunological, and ART nonadherence outcomes, respectively. Ten (71%), four (67%), and 23 (66%) of these studies found a significant association between lower socioeconomic status and poorer response, and none found a significant association with improved response. Several studies showed that adjustment for nonadherence attenuated the association between socioeconomic status and ART response. Our review provides strong support that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer response to ART. However, most studies have been conducted in settings such as the United States without universal free healthcare access. Further study in settings with free access to ART could help assess the impact of socioeconomic status on ART outcomes and the mechanisms by which it operates.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life.
O'Hara, Jeffrey K; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey
To examine the association between vending machine availability in schools and body mass index (BMI) among subgroups of children based on gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status classifications. First-difference multivariate regressions were estimated using longitudinal fifth- and eighth-grade data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. The specifications were disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status classifications. Vending machine availability had a positive association (P < .10) with BMI among Hispanic male children and low-income Hispanic children. Living in an urban location (P < .05) and hours watching television (P < .05) were also positively associated with BMI for these subgroups. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program enrollment was negatively associated with BMI for low-income Hispanic students (P < .05). These findings were not statistically significant when using Bonferroni adjusted critical values. The results suggest that the school food environment could reinforce health disparities that exist for Hispanic male children and low-income Hispanic children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Geelan, David; Louden, William; Wildy, Helen
A variety of factors are associated with students' achievement in secondary school physics, including cohort size--the total number of students studying Physics in the school--and socioeconomic status. Earlier studies also showed boys achieving better in Physics, while more recent research has shown better results for girls. Statistical analysis…
Rubin, Mark; Denson, Nida; Kilpatrick, Sue; Matthews, Kelly E.; Stehlik, Tom; Zyngier, David
This review provides a critical appraisal of the measurement of students' social class and socioeconomic status (SES) in the context of widening higher education participation. Most assessments of social class and SES in higher education have focused on objective measurements based on the income, occupation, and education of students'…
Bachman, Jerald G.; Patrick, Jeremy Staff; O’Malley, M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter
High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. This study examines those questions using nationally representative data from two decades (1991–2010) of annual Monitoring th...
Aarø, Leif Edvard; Flisher, Alan J; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans; Namisi, Francis S; Wubs, Annegreet
Adolescents' reports of parents' education are sometimes used as indicators of socioeconomic status in surveys of health behaviour. The quality of such measurements is questionable. We hypothesized that consistent reporting of parents' education across measurement occasions in prospective panel studies indicates a higher quality of data than single or inconsistent reports. A multi-site, prospective panel study (three measurement occasions) was carried out among adolescents in Cape Town and Mankweng (South Africa), and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Analyses were based on data from students participating at baseline and with a valid code for school number (n = 15,684). For Cape Town and Dar es Salaam students, the associations between parents' education and an alternative indicator of socioeconomic status (both measured at baseline) increased with increasing consistency of reports about parents' education across measurement occasions. For Cape Town, the associations of father's education with a range of behavioural and social cognition variables were significantly stronger among ;;consistent'' than among other students. The pattern was the same for mother's education, but with fewer significant interaction effects. Requiring consistency of reports across data-collection occasions may, under the right combination of circumstances, make a difference. Insignificant and "close to zero'' associations may turn out to be at least moderately strong and statistically significant. When applying indicators of socioeconomic status, such as parents' highest level of completed education, it is most advantageous to use data from prospective panel studies, and to check for consistency of answers across measurement occasions.
Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng
China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.
Schmidt, Börge; Dragano, Nico; Scherag, André; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne
The relevance of disease-related genetic variants for the explanation of social inequalities in complex diseases is unclear and empirical analyses are largely missing. The aim of our study was to examine whether genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus are associated with socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort. We genotyped 11 selected diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in 4655 participants (age 45-75 years) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes status was self-reported or defined by blood glucose levels. Education, income and paternal occupation were assessed as indicators of socioeconomic status. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of socioeconomic status and diabetes by estimating sex-specific and age-adjusted prevalence ratios and their corresponding 95%-confidence intervals. To explore the relationship between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms and socioeconomic status sex- and age-adjusted odds ratios were computed. We adjusted the alpha-level for multiple testing of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms using Bonferroni's method (α(BF) ~ 0.005). In addition, we explored the association of a genetic risk score with socioeconomic status. Social inequalities in diabetes were observed for all indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there were no significant associations between individual diabetes-related risk alleles and socioeconomic status with odds ratios ranging from 0.87 to 1.23. Similarly, the genetic risk score analysis revealed no evidence for an association. Our data provide no evidence for an association between 11 diabetes-related risk alleles and different indicators of socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort, suggesting that the explored genetic variants do not contribute to health inequalities in diabetes.
Ferreira, Wasney de Almeida; Camelo, Lidyane; Viana, Maria Carmen; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
Very little is known about the association between objective indicators of socioeconomic position in childhood and adolescence and low subjective social status in adult life, after adjusting for adult socioeconomic position. We used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian states. Subjective social status was measured using the The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, which represents social hierarchy in the form of a 10-rung ladder with the top rung representing the highest subjective social status. Participants who chose the bottom four rungs in the ladder were assigned to the low subjective social status category. The following socioeconomic position indicators were investigated: childhood (maternal education), adolescence (occupational social class of the household head; participant's occupational social class of first job; nature of occupation of household head; participant's nature of occupation of first job), and adulthood (participant's occupational social class, nature of occupation and education). The associations between low subjective social status and socioeconomic position were determined using multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic position indicators from other stages of life. After adjustments, low socioeconomic position in childhood, adolescence and adulthood remained significantly associated with low subjective social status in adulthood with dose-response gradients. The magnitude of these associations was stronger for intra-individual than for intergenerational socioeconomic positions. Results suggest that subjective social status in adulthood is the result of a complex developmental process of acquiring socioeconomic self-perception, which is intrinsic to subjective social status and includes current and past, individual and family household experiences.
Iseyemi, Abigail; Zhao, Qiuhong; McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F
To evaluate the association of low socioeconomic status as an independent risk factor for unintended pregnancy. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Contraceptive CHOICE project. Between 2007 and 2011, 9,256 participants were recruited and followed for up to 3 years. The primary outcome of interest was unintended pregnancy; the primary exposure variable was low socioeconomic status, defined as self-report of either receiving public assistance or having difficulty paying for basic necessities. Four contraceptive groups were evaluated: 1) long-acting reversible contraceptive method (hormonal or copper intrauterine device or subdermal implant); 2) depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection; 3) oral contraceptive pills, a transdermal patch, or a vaginal ring; or 4) other or no method. Confounders were adjusted for in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the effect of socioeconomic status on risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants with low socioeconomic status experienced 515 unintended pregnancies during 14,001 women-years of follow-up (3.68/100 women-years; 95% CI 3.37-4.01) compared with 200 unintended pregnancies during 10,296 women-years (1.94/100 women-years; 95% CI 1.68-2.23) among participants without low socioeconomic status. Women with low socioeconomic status were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2). After adjusting for age, education level, insurance status, and history of unintended pregnancy, low socioeconomic status was associated with an increased risk of unintended pregnancy (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Despite the removal of cost barriers, low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher incidence of unintended pregnancy.
Megwalu, Uchechukwu C
Objective To evaluate the impact of county-level socioeconomic status on survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer in the United States. Study Design Retrospective cohort study via a large population-based cancer database. Methods Data were extracted from the SEER 18 database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) of the National Cancer Institute. The study cohort included 18,791 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012. Results Patients residing in counties with a low socioeconomic status index had worse overall survival (56.5% vs 63.0%, P socioeconomic status index. On multivariable analysis, residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.29; P status, year of diagnosis, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage group, presence of distant metastasis, presence of unresectable tumor, histologic grade, surgical resection of primary site, treatment with neck dissection, and radiation therapy. Conclusion Residing in a county with a low socioeconomic status index is associated with worse survival. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism by which socioeconomic status affects survival in oropharyngeal cancer.
Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North; McIntyre, Joe; Gomez, Celia J.
Early studies examining seasonal variation in academic achievement inequality generally concluded that socioeconomic test score gaps grew more over the summer than the school year, suggesting schools served as "equalizers." In this study, we analyze seasonal trends in socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic test score gaps using…
Stronks, K.; van de Mheen, H.; van den Bos, J.; Mackenbach, J. P.
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are smaller among women than among men. In this paper, it is hypothesized that this is due to a gender difference in employment status. We used data from the baseline of a Dutch longitudinal study. The socioeconomic indicators were educational level of the
Hanifi, Syed M A; Mahmood, Shehrin S; Bhuiya, Abbas
Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES). The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4). The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Analysing cause of death (CoD) revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were the leading causes of deaths (37%), followed by communicable diseases (CDs) (22%), perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%), and injury and accidents (6%); the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0-14 years), which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04). For adult and the elderly (15 years and older), NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%), followed by CDs (23%). For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005), and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001). Epidemiologic transition is taking place
Syed M. A. Hanifi
Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0
Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimu...... of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN...... presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis...
Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim
Malaria's relationship with socioeconomic status at the macroeconomic level has been established. This is the first study to explore this relationship at the microeconomic (household) level and estimate the direction of association. Malaria prevalence was measured by parasitemia, and household socioeconomic status was measured using an asset based index. Results from an instrumental variable probit model suggest that socioeconomic status is negatively associated with malaria parasitemia. Other variables that are significantly associated with parasitemia include age of the individual, use of a mosquito net on the night before interview, the number of people living in the household, whether the household was residing at their farm home at the time of interview, household wall construction, and the region of residence. Matching estimators indicate that malaria parasitemia is associated with reduced household socioeconomic status.
The purpose or this study was to examine socioeconomic status (SES) of recruits in the Army and Marine Corps and to analyze the relationship between a recruit's SES background and his or her performance in the military over time...
Effect of some Socio-economic Factors on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant ... Conclusion: The need for nutrition education, women empowerment, health support and ... in reducing prevalence of malnutrition among these vulnerable groups.
Kort, D; van Rein, N; van der Meer, F J M; Vermaas, H W; Wiersma, N; Cannegieter, S C; Lijfering, W M
Essentials Literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce. We assessed neighborhood SES with VTE risk in a population of over 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. These findings are helpful to inform policy and resource allocation in health systems. Background The association between socioeconomic status and arterial cardiovascular disease is well established. However, despite its high burden of disability-adjusted life years, little research has been carried out to determine whether socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism. Objective To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism in a population-based study from the Netherlands. Methods We identified all patients aged 15 years and older with a first event of venous thromboembolism from inhabitants who lived in the urban districts of The Hague, Leiden and Utrecht in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was based on the status score, which combines educational level, income and unemployment on a four-digit postal code level. Incidence rate ratios of venous thromboembolism were calculated for different levels of neighborhood socioeconomic status, with adjustments for age and sex. Results A total of 7373 patients with a first venous thromboembolism (median age 61 years; 50% deep vein thrombosis) were identified among more than 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. In the two highest status score groups (i.e. the 95-99th and > 99th percentile), the adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.93), respectively, compared with the reference status score group (i.e. 30-70th percentile). Conclusions High neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with a lower risk of first venous thromboembolism. © 2017
Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels; Thorsgaard, Niels
The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high mortality from coronary heart disease is well-known. However, the role of SES in relation to the clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains poorly understood.......The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high mortality from coronary heart disease is well-known. However, the role of SES in relation to the clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains poorly understood....
Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Navarro, Albert; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Boing, Antonio Fernando
OBJECTIVE To test whether there is an association between socioeconomic status in childhood and measures of body mass index, waist circumference and the presence of overall and abdominal obesity in adult life. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study, including a sample of adults (22-63 years old) living in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The socioeconomic status in childhood was analyzed through the education level of the participant's parents. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured by previously trained interviewers. Linear and logistic regressions with adjustment for confounding factors and stratification of data according to gender were used. RESULTS Of the 1,222 adults evaluated, 20.4% (95%CI 18.1-22.8) presented overall obesity and 24.8% (95%CI 22.4-27.4), abdominal obesity. The body mass index and waist circumference averages among women were, respectively, 1.2 kg/m2 (95%CI -2.3- -0.04) and 2.8 cm (95%CI -5.3- -0.2) lower among those with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Among men, waist circumference was 3.9 cm (95%CI 1.0-6.8) higher in individuals with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Regarding obesity, women of higher socioeconomic status in childhood had lower odds of abdominal obesity (OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.90), and no such association was observed among men. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status in childhood influences body mass index, waist circumference and obesity in adults, with a difference in the direction of association according to gender. The higher socioeconomic status among men and the lower socioeconomic status among women were associated with higher adiposity indicators.
Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Shormeij, Zeinab
Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p valuesocioeconomic status and number of pregnancies, and duration of breast feeding were significant (p value> 0.001). In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007). Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively). The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.
Alter, David A; Austin, Peter C; Naylor, C David; Tu, Jack V
Critics of "scorecard medicine" often highlight the incompleteness of risk-adjustment methods used when accounting for baseline patient differences. Although socioeconomic status is a highly important determinant of adverse outcome for patients admitted to the hospital with acute myocardial infarction, it has not been used in most risk-adjustment models for cardiovascular report cards. To determine the incremental impact of socioeconomic status adjustments on age, sex, and illness severity for hospital-specific 30-day mortality rates after acute myocardial infarction. The authors compared the absolute and relative hospital-specific 30-day acute myocardial infarction mortality rates in 169 hospitals throughout Ontario between April 1, 1994 and March 31, 1997. Patient socioeconomic status was characterized by median neighborhood income using postal codes and 1996 Canadian census data. They examined two risk-adjustment models: the first adjusted for age, sex, and illness severity (standard), whereas the second adjusted for age, sex, illness severity, and median neighborhood income level (socioeconomic status). There was an extremely strong correlation between 'standard' and 'socioeconomic status' risk-adjusted mortality rates (r = 0.99). Absolute differences in 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates between the socioeconomic status and standard risk-adjustment models were small (median, 0.1%; 25th-75th percentile, 0.1-0.2). The agreement in the quintile rankings of hospitals between the socioeconomic status and standard risk-adjustment models was high (weighted kappa = 0.93). Despite its importance as a determinant of patient outcomes, the effect of socioeconomic status on hospital-specific mortality rates over and above standard risk-adjustment methods for acute myocardial infarction hospital profiling in Ontario was negligible.
Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn
, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale...... at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends....../2002-2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002-2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006-2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption. Socioeconomic inequalities in fruit and vegetable consumption were observed in all countries, with no cross...
Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen
It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.
Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...
Studies assume that socioeconomic status determines individuals' states of health, but how does health determine socioeconomic status? And how does this association vary depending on contextual differences? To answer this question, our study uses an additive Bayesian Networks model to explain the interrelationships between health and socioeconomic determinants using complex and messy data. This model has been used to find the most probable structure in a network to describe the interdependence of these factors in five European welfare state regimes. The advantage of this study is that it offers a specific picture to describe the complex interrelationship between socioeconomic determinants and health, producing a network that is controlled by socio-demographic factors such as gender and age. The present work provides a general framework to describe and understand the complex association between socioeconomic determinants and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harris, Jeffrey R; Huang, Yi; Hannon, Peggy A; Williams, Barbara
To help workplace health promotion practitioners reach low-socioeconomic status workers at high risk for chronic diseases. We describe low-socioeconomic status workers' diseases, health status, demographics, risk behaviors, and workplaces, using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and Bureau of Labor Statistics. Workers with household annual incomes less than $35,000, or a high school education or less, report more chronic diseases and lower health status. They tend to be younger, nonwhite, and have much higher levels of smoking and missed cholesterol screening. They are concentrated in the smallest and largest workplaces and in three low-wage industries that employ one-quarter of the population. To decrease chronic diseases among low-socioeconomic status workers, we need to focus workplace health promotion programs on workers in low-wage industries and small workplaces.
Background. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a challenge to populations and health systems worldwide. It is projected that by 2020 about a third of all deaths globally will be caused by CVDs, and that they will become the single leading cause of death by 2030. Empirical evidence suggests that there is socioeconomic ...
Daraei, Mina; Mohajery, Artmiz
The stratification system in India has resulted in the socioeconomic inequality in society and defines women domestic workers as one of the lowest segments of society. This qualitative and quantitative study aims at describing the problems of female domestic workers, the relationship of their employers with them, and exploring the impact of…
Milla Tobarra, Marta; García Hermoso, Antonio; Lahoz García, Noelia; Notario Pacheco, Blanca; Lucas de la Cruz, Lidia; Pozuelo Carrascosa, Diana P; García Meseguer, María José; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente A
beverage consumption constitutes a source of children's daily energy intake. Some authors have suggested that consumption of caloric beverages is higher in children with a low socioeconomic position because families limit their spending on healthy food in order to save money. the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and Spanish children's beverage consumption. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sub-sample of 182 children (74 girls) aged 9-11 from the province of Cuenca (Spain). Beverage consumption was assessed using the YANA-C assessment tool, validated for HELENA study. Data for parental socioeconomic status were gathered by using self-reported occupation and education questions answered by parents and classified according to the scale proposed by the Spanish Society of Epidemiology. beverage intake was higher in children belonging to a middle-status family than in those of upper socioeconomic status (p = 0.037). The energy from beverages was similar in most water intake categories, except for water from beverages (p = 0.046). Regarding other beverages categories, middle-status children had higher consumption levels. In contrast, lower status children drank more fruit juices and skimmed milk. All of these do not show statistically significant differences. our study did not find significant associations between beverages consumption and socioeconomic status in children. In fact, intake for most beverage categories was higher in middle-status children than in both other socioeconomic groups. Future research is needed in order to identify this complex relation between socioeconomic inequality and beverage intake behavior.
Nazzal, Carolina; Alonso, Faustino; Cerecera, Francisco; Ojeda, José Miguel
A low socioeconomic status is associated with higher overall mortality rates. To assess the effect of socioeconomic inequalities on survival of patients hospitalized with a first myocardial infarction. Analysis of hospital discharge and mortality databases of the Ministry of Health. Patients aged over 15 years discharged between 2002 and 2011 with a first myocardial infarction (code I-21, ICD-10) were identified. Their survival was verified with the mortality registry. Survival from 0 to 28 and from 29 to 365 days was analyzed. Socioeconomic status was determined using the type of health insurance, stratified as public insurance (low and medium status) and private insurance (high status). Prais-Winsten trend (P-W) and Cox survival analyses were done. We analyzed 59,557 patients (69% males). Sixty three percent were of low socioeconomic status, 19% medium and 18% high. Between 2002 and 2011 the increase in survival was higher among patients of low socioeconomic status, mainly in women (P-W coefficients 0.58:0.31-0.86 in men and 1.12:0.84-1.41 in women for 0-28 days survival and 0.24:0.09-0.39 in men and 0.48:0.37-0.60 in women for 29-365 days survival, respectively). However, age and year of hospitalization adjusted analysis showed a higher mortality risk among patients of low socioeconomic status at 0-28 days (HR 1.67:1.53-1.83 for men and 1.49:1.34-1.66 for women) and at 29-365 days (HR 2.30:1.75-2.71 for men and 1.90:1.56-1.85 for women). Survival after a myocardial infarction improved in the last decade especially in patients of low socioeconomic status. However, subjects of this stratum continue to have a higher mortality.
Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Singh, Sweta
The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship.
Roberts, Andrea L; Johnson, Norman J; Chen, Jarvis T; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Weisskopf, Marc G
To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States-representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979-2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%). Race/ethnicity was by self-report in 4 categories. Hazard ratios (HRs) for ALS mortality were calculated for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status separately and in mutually adjusted models. Minority vs white race/ethnicity predicted lower ALS mortality in models adjusted for socioeconomic status, type of health insurance, and birthplace (non-Hispanic black, HR 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.78; Hispanic, HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88; other races, non-Hispanic, HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.86). Higher educational attainment compared with socioeconomic status, birthplace, or type of health insurance. Higher rate of ALS among whites likely reflects actual higher risk of ALS rather than ascertainment bias or effects of socioeconomic status on ALS risk. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Castillo, Lucía; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Everardo, Paola; De Avila, Francisco; Hünemeier, Tábita; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovani; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rosique, Javier; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; González-José, Rolando
The expression of facial asymmetries has been recurrently related with poverty and/or disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Departing from the developmental instability theory, previous approaches attempted to test the statistical relationship between the stress experienced by individuals grown in poor conditions and an increase in facial and corporal asymmetry. Here we aim to further evaluate such hypothesis on a large sample of admixed Latin Americans individuals by exploring if low socioeconomic status individuals tend to exhibit greater facial fluctuating asymmetry values. To do so, we implement Procrustes analysis of variance and Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) to estimate potential associations between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and socioeconomic status. We report significant relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and age, sex, and genetic ancestry, while socioeconomic status failed to exhibit any strong statistical relationship with facial asymmetry. These results are persistent after the effect of heterozygosity (a proxy for genetic ancestry) is controlled in the model. Our results indicate that, at least on the studied sample, there is no relationship between socioeconomic stress (as intended as low socioeconomic status) and facial asymmetries.
Full Text Available IntroductionAs with most emerging nations, Brazil lacks up-to-date data on the prevalence of obesity and overweight among its children. Of particular concern is the lack of data on children in early adolescence, considered by many to be the crucial stage for weight-related healthcare.ObjectiveTo assess regional, socioeconomic, and gender differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Brazilian early adolescents.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted on a racially diverse sample of students aged 10–13 years, from schools in three geographic regions (north, northeast, south (N = 1,738. Data on gender, age, race, socioeconomic status (SES, weight, and height were obtained. Weight class was calculated from age- and gender-adjusted body mass index, based on children’s weight and height. Bivariate and multivariable analyses, with post hoc tests, were conducted to estimate differences between groups and were corrected for multiple comparisons. Procedures were approved by institutional review boards at study sites.ResultsAnalyses revealed a higher prevalence of obesity and/or overweight among: (1 children of higher SES; (2 children in southern Brazil; (3 males; and (4 Black females.ConclusionThe most salient predictor of weight risk among Brazilian early adolescents is higher SES. This finding is consistent with previous findings of an inverse social gradient, in weight risk, among emerging-nation population groups.
Rodríguez, Fernando; Palma, Ximen; Romo, Angela; Escobar, Daniela; Aragú, Bárbara; Espinoza, Luis; McMillan, Norman; Gálvez, Jorge
University students are vulnerable to poor nutrition; they don't eat snacks between meals, don't eat breakfast or fast for long hours, prefer fast food and don't exercise. University students is considered the key young adult population group for health promotion and prevention for future generations, so it's crucial identify the current nutritional status and frequency of physical activity. To determine the factors involved in the choice of food and frequency of physical activity in university students. 799 volunteers were evaluated from four universities of the fifth region of Chile. Instrument was applied to determine the level of physical activity and eating habits, KIDMED test to determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet and Adimark instrument to determinate the socioeconomic status of the subjects. Finally, anthropometric evaluation to determinate BMI, fat mass and muscle mass. Physical inactivity is higher in women than in men and that the main reason for not exercising is lack of time and laziness. In both sexes don't read nutrition labels and have a low and average adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The low knowledge of nutrition is the cause of the poor food quality of subjects and there isn't greater motivation to perform physical activity.Socioeconomic status isn't related to eating habits and physical activity. It's necessary to integrate programs regular and permanent healthy lifestyle in all universities. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Bell, Diana; Hanby, Duncan; Li, Guojun; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Williams, Michelle D; Sturgis, Erich M
Patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have distinct risk factor profiles reflected in the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of their tumor, and these profiles may also be influenced by factors related to socioeconomic status (SES). The goal of this study was to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of a large cohort of patients with OPC according to HPV status, smoking status, and sexual behavior. Patients with OPC prospectively provided information about their smoking and alcohol use, socioeconomic characteristics, and sexual behaviors. HPV status was determined by a composite of immunohistochemistry for p16 expression, HPV in situ hybridization, and PCR assay in 356 patients. Standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to compare socioeconomic characteristics between patient subgroups. Patients with HPV-positive OPC had higher levels of education, income, and overall SES. Among patients with HPV-positive OPC, never/light smokers had more than 5 times the odds of having at least a bachelor's degree and being in the highest level of SES compared with smokers. Patients with HPV-positive OPC and those with higher levels of education and SES had higher numbers of lifetime any and oral sex partners, although not all of these differences were significant. Socioeconomic differences among subgroups of OPC patients have implications for OPC prevention efforts, including tobacco cessation, behavior modification, and vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gentry, Elisabeth; Poirier, Katie; Wilkinson, Tiana; Nhean, Siphannay; Nyborn, Justin; Siegel, Michael
We investigated the frequency of alcohol ads at all 113 subway and streetcar stations in Boston and the patterns of community exposure stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and age. We assessed the extent of alcohol advertising at each station in May 2009. We measured gross impressions and gross rating points (GRPs) for the entire Greater Boston population and for Boston public school student commuters. We compared the frequency of alcohol advertising between neighborhoods with differing demographics. For the Greater Boston population, alcohol advertising at subway stations generated 109 GRPs on a typical day. For Boston public school students in grades 5 to 12, alcohol advertising at stations generated 134 GRPs. Advertising at stations in low-poverty neighborhoods generated 14.1 GRPs and at stations in high-poverty areas, 63.6 GRPs. Alcohol ads reach the equivalent of every adult in the Greater Boston region and the equivalent of every 5th- to 12th-grade public school student each day. More alcohol ads were displayed in stations in neighborhoods with high poverty rates than in stations in neighborhoods with low poverty rates.
González, Silvia; Lozano, Óscar; Ramírez, Andrea; Grijalba, Carlos
Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identify disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Future interventions to increase physical activity levels in Colombia must consider inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status. Of special concern is the low prevalence of meeting physical activity
Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J
This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976....... Association between socioeconomic factors and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at study entry was analysed by linear regression. The relation between socioeconomic factors and risk of admission to hospital for COPD from study entry until 1993 was assessed...... by register linkage. Education and income were independently associated with FEV1 and FVC. The age- and height-adjusted difference in FEV1 (mean+/-SEM) between the highest and lowest level of education and income was 259+/-31 mL in females and 400+/-39 mL in males. After additional adjustment for quantity...
Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.
de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.
Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…
Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo
of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....
Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy
Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.
The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked.
Dorosty, Ahmadreza; Arero, Godana; Chamar, Maryam; Tavakoli, Sogand
Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It imposes significant costs on health care systems. Socioeconomic status is also the root cause of healthy challenges among the elderly. Therefore, investigating the association between sarcopenia and socioeconomic status is very important to improve healthy ageing of the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with socioeconomic status among the elderly in Tehran. Cross-sectional and case-control studies were conducted from August 2014-July 2015 among 310 men and 334 women elderly (60 and over years old) in Tehran health centers. Randomization, restriction and matching were setting during study design to minimize selection bias. Then study participants were recruited via phone call. Participants' phone numbers were already recorded in a telephone book electronically. When there were two elderly people in the same house, only one person was invited randomly. Association between sarcopenia and socio-economic status was analyzed by SPSS version 22. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly was 16.5%. Prevalenceamong the low-income elderly was relatively higher than (20.5%) that among those with middle income status (18.2%) while in the higher income, the proportion of sarcopenia was very low (12.8%). The findings indicated that 339(52.6%) were in low-income status, 304(47.1%) were in middle-income status and 1(.2%) in high-income class. There was a significant association between socioeconomic status and sarcopenia (P-value sarcopenia was 0.97 times more likely higher in low socioeconomic class than those who were in middle and high income classes.
Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.
Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Hurnik, Elzbieta; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna
To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults. 466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily. The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018). The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.
Kim, Jinseob; Sung, Joohon
This study aimed to evaluate whether the birth rate is associated with socioeconomic status in the women of the Republic of Korea, where the birth rate is rapidly decreasing. This study included 732 females from the Healthy Twin Study, a family-twin cohort. The participants were classified into 3 socioeconomic groups according to their average income, education, and occupation. The association between socioeconomic status and number of children was assessed using gamma regression analysis with a generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for the age group, smoking/alcohol status, and family relationships. The group with the highest education level had significantly fewer children compared with the group with the lowest education level (p=0.004). However, no significant associations were found according to household income level. The non-manual labor group had significantly fewer children compared with those working as homemakers (p=0.008). This study aimed to explain the causal relationship between socioeconomic status and number of children. Associations between some socioeconomic status and number of children were found in Korea.
Little, C.C.; Adcock, L.D.; Hohmann, G.L.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been ''authorized as a defense activity of the Department of Energy...for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States...'' (PL 96-164). As reported in previous conferences, WIPP continues ahead of schedule and below budget with full facility construction well underway. To date, based on recent review, the socioeconomic impacts have been negligible and steps have been taken to ensure that they remain that way throughout operations
Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over...... use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality....
Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun
Skipping breakfast can be potentially harmful because breakfast consumption is considered one of the important health-related behaviors that benefit physical and mental health. As the rate of depression has increased recently, we investigated the association between the frequency of eating breakfast and depression in adults. We obtained the data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey; a total of 207,710 survey participants aged 20 years or over were studied. Participants were categorized into three groups by the frequency of breakfast consumption as follows: "seldom," "sometimes," and "always." We performed a multiple logistic regression to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and depressive mood. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying socioeconomic variables controlling for variables known to be associated with depressive symptoms. Participants who had breakfast seldom or sometimes had higher depressive symptoms than those who always ate breakfast ("seldom": OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.52; "sometimes": OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.40). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was more marked in those who were 80 years or older, those who had low household income, or those with elementary school education level or less. The result of this study suggests that lack of breakfast consumption is associated with depression among adults with different socioeconomic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira
Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the
Kalaycioglu, Dilara Bakan
The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among the such variables as socioeconomic status, math self-efficacy, anxiety, and mathematics achievement using structural equation modeling. A sample group of 8,806 students from England, Greece, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the USA participated in the PISA 2012. To show how much…
Benner, Aprile D; Boyle, Alaina E; Sadler, Sydney
Parental educational involvement in primary and secondary school is strongly linked to students' academic success; however; less is known about the long-term effects of parental involvement. In this study, we investigated the associations between four aspects of parents' educational involvement (i.e., home- and school-based involvement, educational expectations, academic advice) and young people's proximal (i.e., grades) and distal academic outcomes (i.e., educational attainment). Attention was also placed on whether these relations varied as a function of family socioeconomic status or adolescents' prior achievement. The data were drawn from 15,240 10th grade students (50 % females; 57 % White, 13 % African American, 15 % Latino, 9 % Asian American, and 6 % other race/ethnicity) participating in the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. We observed significant links between both school-based involvement and parental educational expectations and adolescents' cumulative high school grades and educational attainment. Moderation analyses revealed that school-based involvement seemed to be particularly beneficial for more disadvantaged youth (i.e., those from low-SES families, those with poorer prior achievement), whereas parents' academic socialization seemed to better promote the academic success of more advantaged youth (i.e., those from high-SES families, those with higher prior achievement). These findings suggest that academic interventions and supports could be carefully targeted to better support the educational success of all young people.
Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene
To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.
Denisse L. Manrique Millones
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation. Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.
The study aims to estimate the relationship between the individual/local socioeconomic status and the health of internal elderly migrants in China. A multilevel logistic model was used to estimate this association. The estimations were undertaken for 11,111 migrants aged over 60 years, using nationally representative data: the 2015 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey (MDMS), which was carried out in China. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were reported. Both the household income per capita and the area-level average wage were positively associated with migrants' self-reported health; however, public service supply was not significantly related to their health. In addition, given the household income, migrants living in communities with a higher average wage were more likely to report poor health. Migrants' health benefited from individual socioeconomic status, but not from the local socioeconomic status, which the migrants cannot enjoy. This study highlights the importance of multilevel and non-discriminatory policies between migrants and local residents.
Kim, Jaelim; Choi, Nari; Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Namkug; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Heon-Jeong
There have been several studies supporting a possible relationship between high suicide rate and high altitude. However socioeconomic status may confound this association because low socioeconomic status, which is known to be related to a high suicide rate, is also associated with living at high altitude. This study aims to explore whether the relationship between high altitude and high suicide rate remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status in South Korea. We collected demographic data...
Faleiro, Jéssica Costa; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Griep, Rosane Härter; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Chor, Dóra; Chagas, Maria da Conceição Almeida
Our objective was to investigate the association between lifetime socioeconomic status and intra-generational social mobility and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking among 13,216 men and women participating in the baseline of the ELSA-Brazil study (2008-2010). Socioeconomic status in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood was measured by maternal schooling, socio-occupational class of the first occupation, and socio-occupational class of the current occupation, respectively. Social disadvantages in adulthood were consistently associated with higher prevalence of the three behaviors analyzed in men and women. However, socioeconomic status in youth and childhood was less consistently associated with the behaviors. For example, while low maternal schooling reduced the odds of past smoking (women) and current smoking (men and women), it was associated with higher odds of leisure-time physical inactivity in women. Meanwhile, low socioeconomic status in youth increased the odds of past smoking (men and women) and current smoking (women). Analysis of social trajectories lent additional support to the relevance of disadvantages in adulthood for risk behaviors, since only individuals that rose to the high socio-occupational class did not show higher odds of these behaviors when compared to participants that had always belonged to the high socio-occupational class. Our findings indicate that socioeconomic disadvantages in adulthood appear to be more relevant for risk behaviors than disadvantages in childhood and adolescence.
Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Irigoyen-Camacho, A Esther; Sánchez-García, Sergio
To determine the association between oral health and socioeconomic position in institutionalized older women in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was performed in two groups: high socioeconomic position (HSEP), living in a private retirement home, and low socioeconomic position (LSEP), living in a public assistance center. Oral health was determined by edentulism, oral hygiene, healthy teeth, experience of dental caries, missing and filled teeth, gingival bleeding, dental calculus, and periodontal disease. A latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify oral health status in dentate. Included were 170 women (HSEP 54.1% and LSEP 45.8%), average age 77.3 (SD = 9.3) years. Oral health status was formed: Edentulous 32.4% HSEP and 67.6% LSEP; Class 1 Unfavorable 0% HSEP and 100% LSEP; Class2 Slightly favorable 41.2% HSEP and58.8% LSEP; and Class3 Favorable 84.6% HSEP and 15.4% LSEP. There was a statistically significant association between socioeconomic position (p < .001) and oral health status. The oral health of women studied was not optimal. Higher socioeconomic position was associated with better oral health status.
McDoom, M Maya; Palta, Priya; Vart, Priya; Juraschek, Stephen P; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Diez Roux, Ana V; Coresh, Josef
To investigate the association between individual and area-level socioeconomic status and hypertension risk among individuals later in life. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of socioeconomic status with incident hypertension using race-specific neighborhood socioeconomic status, median household income, and education among 3372 participants (mean age, 61 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study at Visit 4 (1996-1998). Incident hypertension was defined as self-reported diagnosis or reported use of antihypertensive medications. Over a median follow-up time of 9.4 years, there were 1874 new cases of hypertension (62.1 per 1000 person-years). Overall, being in high as compared with low socioeconomic status categories was associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension in late life, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.87 (0.77-0.98) for high neighborhood socioeconomic status tertile, 0.79 (0.69-0.90) for high individual income, and 0.75 (0.63-0.89) for college education after adjustment for traditional risk factors. These findings were consistent and robust whenever accounting for competing risks of all-cause mortality. No significant interactions by race and age (dichotomized at age 65) were observed. Among participants free of hypertension in midlife, high neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status are associated with a decreased risk of incident hypertension. Our findings support population-level interventions, such as blood pressure screening at senior centers and faith-based organizations, that are tailored to shift the distribution of blood pressure and reduce hypertension health inequalities among older adults.
Shamshirgaran, Seyed Morteza; Jorm, Louisa; Bambrick, Hilary; Hennessy, Annemarie
There is strong evidence based on previous studies that ethnicity and socioeconomic status are important determinants of diversity in the occurrence of diabetes. However, the independent roles of socioeconomic status, country of birth and lifestyle factors in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes have not been clearly identified. This study investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status, country of birth and type 2 diabetes in a large diverse sample of residents of New South Wales, Australia, and aged 45 years and over. The analysis used self-reported baseline questionnaire data from 266,848 participants in the 45 and Up Study. Educational attainment, work status and income were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Logistic regression models were built to investigate associations between socioeconomic status, country of birth and type 2 diabetes. The adjusted odds of type 2 diabetes were significantly higher for people born in many overseas countries, compared to Australian-born participants. Compared with participants who had a university degree or higher qualification, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for diabetes was higher in all other educational categories. Diabetes was more prevalent in people who were retired, unemployed or engaged in other types of work, compared with people who were in paid work. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in people with lower incomes. Compared with people who earned more than $50,000, the adjusted OR for diabetes was 2.05 (95% CI 1.95-2.14) for people who had an income less than $20,000 per annum. The relationships between socioeconomic factors and country of birth and diabetes were attenuated slightly when all were included in the model. Addition of smoking, obesity and physical activity to the model had marked impacts on adjusted ORs for some countries of birth, but relationships between diabetes and all measures of socioeconomic status and country of birth remained strong and significant. Country of birth and
Storm, L; Schnegelsberg, A; Mackenhauer, J
BACKGROUND: A recent study showed higher risk of bacteremia among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES). We hypothesized that patients with a low SES have a higher risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission with sepsis compared to patients with higher SES. METHODS: This was a case......, yearly income, cohabitation status, and occupation. The odds ratio (OR) of being admitted with sepsis to the ICU was calculated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the remaining socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The adjusted odds of being admitted...
Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Covas, Maria I; Arós, Fernando; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Sorlí, José V; Muñoz, Miguel A
Although it is known that social factors may introduce inequalities in cardiovascular health, data on the role of socioeconomic differences in the prescription of preventive treatment are scarce. We aimed to assess the relationship between the socioeconomic status of an elderly population at high cardiovascular risk and inequalities in receiving primary cardiovascular treatment, within the context of a universal health care system. Cross-sectional study of 7447 individuals with high cardiovascular risk (57.5% women, mean age 67 years) who participated in the PREDIMED study, a clinical trial of nutritional interventions for cardiovascular prevention. Educational attainment was used as the indicator of socioeconomic status to evaluate differences in pharmacological treatment received for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Participants with the lowest socioeconomic status were more frequently women, older, overweight, sedentary, and less adherent to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. They were, however, less likely to smoke and drink alcohol. This socioeconomic subgroup had a higher proportion of coexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Multivariate analysis of the whole population found no differences between participants with middle and low levels of education in the drug treatment prescribed for 3 major cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]): hypertension (0.75 [0.56-1.00] vs 0.85 [0.65-1.10]); diabetic participants (0.86 [0.61-1.22] vs 0.90 [0.67-1.22]); and dyslipidemia (0.93 [0.75-1.15] vs 0.99 [0.82-1.19], respectively). In our analysis, socioeconomic differences did not affect the treatment prescribed for primary cardiovascular prevention in elderly patients in Spain. Free, universal health care based on a primary care model can be effective in reducing health inequalities related to socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Vukojević, Mladenka; Zovko, Ana; Talić, Ivana; Tanović, Merima; Rešić, Biserka; Vrdoljak, Ivana; Splavski, Bruno
Parental socioeconomic status is a multidimensional concept of special importance for the growth, development, health outcomes and education of children. Its definition generally refers to the amount of parents' income, their employment status and level of education. Hence, lack of economic resources and poverty of parents affect all aspects of the child's life, health outcomes and education, as well as his/her social inclusion. Accordingly, the consequences of a reduced parental socioeconomic status leave long-term effects on their children. Therefore, in order to create interventional programs for children of parents with low income and lower socioeconomic status, as well as with lower level of education, it is important to address the direct aspects of poverty. This review contributes to the evidence indicating that the parental socioeconomic status is highly influential in determining the child's physical and mental health and future outcomes including his/her academic achievements and education, as well as the parameters of his/her physical abilities, cognitive function and fundamental neurobiology affecting brain development.
Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J; Wheeler, Philip H; Hathcock, Matthew A; Wi, Chung-Il; Olson, Janet E; Cerhan, James R; Takahashi, Paul Y
Accidental falls are a major public health concern among people of all ages. Little is known about whether an individual-level housing-based socioeconomic status measure is associated with the risk of accidental falls. Among 12,286 Mayo Clinic Biobank participants residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, subjects who experienced accidental falls between the biobank enrollment and September 2014 were identified using ICD-9 codes evaluated at emergency departments. HOUSES (HOUsing-based Index of SocioEconomic Status), a socioeconomic status measure based on individual housing features, was also calculated. Cox regression models were utilized to assess the association of the HOUSES (in quartiles) with accidental fall risk. Seven hundred eleven (5.8%) participants had at least one emergency room visit due to an accidental fall during the study period. Subjects with higher HOUSES were less likely to experience falls in a dose-response manner (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.76 for comparing the highest to the lowest quartile). In addition, the HOUSES was positively associated with better health behaviors, social support, and functional status. The HOUSES is inversely associated with accidental fall risk requiring emergency care in a dose-response manner. The HOUSES may capture falls-related risk factors through housing features and socioeconomic status-related psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Derakhshan, Adeeb; Miller, Jacob; Lubelski, Daniel; Nowacki, Amy S; Wells, Brian J; Milinovich, Alex; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E; Steinmetz, Michael P
Few studies have examined the general correlation between socioeconomic status and imaging. This study is the first to analyze this relationship in the spine patient population. To assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the frequency with which imaging studies of the lumbar spine are ordered and completed. Patients that were diagnosed with lumbar radiculopathy and/or myelopathy and had at least 1 subsequent lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or X-ray ordered were retrospectively identified. Demographic information and the number of ordered and completed imaging studies were among the data collected. Patient insurance status and income level (estimated based on zip code) served as representations of socioeconomic status. A total of 24,105 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. Regression analyses demonstrated that uninsured patients were significantly less likely to have an MRI, CT, or X-ray study ordered (P socioeconomic characteristics such as insurance status and income level highlight a critical gap in access to health care. Physicians should work to mitigate the influence of such factors when deciding whether to order imaging studies, especially in light of the ongoing shift in health policy in the United States.
This study aimed to quantify the extent to which socioeconomic-related inequality in self-reported oral health status among Thais is present after the country implemented the Universal Coverage policy and to decompose the determinants and their associations with inequality in self-reported oral health status in particular with the worse condition. The study employed a concentration index to measure socioeconomic-related inequality in self-reported oral health status, and the decomposition method to identify the determinants and their associations with inequality in oral health-related measures. Data from 32,748 Thai adults aged 15-75 years from the nationally representative Health &Welfare Survey and Socio-Economic Survey 2006 were used in analyses. Reports of worse oral health status of the lower socioeconomic-status group were more common than their higher socioeconomic-status counterparts. The concentration index (equaling -0.208) corroborates the finding of pro-poor inequality in self-reported worse oral health. Decomposition analysis demonstrated certain demographic-, socioeconomic-, and geographic characteristics are particularly associated with poor-rich differences in self-reported oral health status among Thai adults. This study demonstrated socioeconomic-related inequality in oral health is discernable along the entire spectrum of socioeconomic status. Inequality in perceived oral health status among Thais is present even while the country has virtually achieved universality of health coverage. The study also indicates population subgroups, particularly the poor, should receive consideration for improving oral health status as revealed by underlying determinants.
Engels, Thomas; Baglione, Quentin; Audibert, Martine; Viallefont, Anne; Mourji, Fouzi; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha
Background Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. Methods Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. Findings Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural) and richest (mainly urban) households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89). Conclusion We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population, which leads in
Seto, Jason; Davis, James; Taira, Deborah Ann
Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are known to be associated with health disparities. This study used data (2010-2014) from the American Community Survey. Respondents over age 30 from Hawaii were included (n = 44,921). Outcome variables were self-reported disability in vision, hearing, ambulatory function, self-care, independent living, or cognitive function. Four measures of socioeconomic status were personal income, average income for the area, income inequality for area, and education. This study used multivariable logistic regression to predict disability by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, controlling for age and gender. All four measures of socioeconomic status were significant predictors of at least one type of disability after adjustment for age, gender, and other measures of socioeconomic status. Higher education was significantly related to having every type of disability. Similarly, people with high personal income were less likely to have each type of disability than those with middle income, and those with low income were more likely to have all disabilities except hearing. Income inequality was significantly associated with half the disabilities. Low area income was significantly associated with increased vision-related disability, while high income was associated with less likelihood of hearing-related disability. Native Hawaiians were significantly more likely to report having a disability than Filipinos and Chinese for all six types of disability, Japanese for four, and whites for two, after adjustment. These results suggest that in order to reduce health disparities for Native Hawaiians, as well as other ethnic groups, a range of socioeconomic factors need to be addressed.
Ward, Frank L; O'Kelly, Patrick; Donohue, Fionnuala; ÓhAiseadha, Coilin; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan; deFreitas, Declan G; Johnson, Howard; Conlon, Peter J; O'Seaghdha, Conall M
Whether socioeconomic status confers worse outcomes after kidney transplantation is unknown. Its influence on allograft and patient survival following kidney transplantation in Ireland was examined. A retrospective, observational cohort study of adult deceased-donor first kidney transplant recipients from 1990 to 2009 was performed. Those with a valid Irish postal address were assigned a socioeconomic status score based on the Pobal Hasse-Pratschke deprivation index and compared in quartiles. Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to investigate any significant association of socioeconomic status with patient and allograft outcomes. A total of 1944 eligible kidney transplant recipients were identified. The median follow-up time was 8.2 years (interquartile range 4.4-13.3 years). Socioeconomic status was not associated with uncensored or death-censored allograft survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.00, P = 0.33 and HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.99-1.00, P = 0.37, respectively). Patient survival was not associated with socioeconomic status quartile (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.93-1.08, P = 0.88). There was no significant difference among quartiles for uncensored or death-censored allograft survival at 5 and 10 years. There was no socioeconomic disparity in allograft or patient outcomes following kidney transplantation, which may be partly attributable to the Irish healthcare model. This may give further impetus to calls in other jurisdictions for universal healthcare and medication coverage for kidney transplant recipients. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Enroth, Linda; Raitanen, Jani; Hervonen, Antti; Nosraty, Lily; Jylhä, Marja
socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are well-known in middle-aged and younger old adults, but the situation of the oldest old is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities for all-cause, cardiovascular and dementia mortality among the people aged 90 or older. the data source was a mailed survey in the Vitality 90+ study (n = 1,276) in 2010. The whole cohort of people 90 years or over irrespective of health status or dwelling place in a geographical area was invited to participate. The participation rate was 79%. Socioeconomic status was measured by occupation and education, and health status by functioning and comorbidity. All-cause and cause-specific mortality was followed for 3 years. The Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), was applied. the all-cause and dementia mortality differed by occupational class. Upper non-manuals had lower all-cause mortality than lower non-manuals (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32), skilled manual workers (HR: 1.56 95% CI: 1.09-2.25), unskilled manual workers (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.20-2.94), housewives (HR: 1.77 95% CI: 1.15-2.71) and those with unknown occupation (HR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.41-3.85). Inequalities in all-cause mortality were largely explained by the differences in functioning. The situation was similar according to education, but inequalities were not statistically significant. Socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular mortality were not significant. socioeconomic inequalities persist in mortality for 90+-year-olds, but their magnitude varies depending on the cause of death and the indicator of socioeconomic status. Mainly, mortality differences are explained by differences in functional status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. METHODS: Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. FINDINGS: Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural and richest (mainly urban households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89. CONCLUSION: We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population
Carroll, Rasheda; David, Jason
Where are you going for spring break? How many colleges did you apply to? Why are you not going on the international service-learning trip? These are the sort of questions students and colleagues ask each other in advisories, classrooms, and hallways. No doubt they are born out of intentions to connect. They are not meant to embarrass or be…
Darin-Mattsson, Alexander; Fors, Stefan; Kåreholt, Ingemar
Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age. We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress. All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%. Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic
Ferreira, Regicely Aline Brandão; Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino
To determine the influence of reproductive history on the prevalence of obesity in Brazilian women and the possible modifying effect of socioeconomic variables on the association between parity and excess weight. A retrospective analysis of complex sample data collected as part of the 2006 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and Health, which included a group representative of women of childbearing age in Brazil was conducted. The study included 11 961 women aged 20 to 49 years. The association between the study factor (parity) and the outcome of interest (obesity) was tested using logistic regression analysis. The adjusted effect of parity on obesity was assessed in a multiple regression model containing control variables: age, family purchasing power, as defined by the Brazilian Association of Research Enterprises (ABEP), schooling, and health care. Significance level was set at below 0.05. The prevalence of obesity in the study population was 18.6%. The effect of parity on obesity was significant (P for trend parity and age. Family purchase power had a significant odds ratio for obesity only in the unadjusted analysis. In the adjusted model, this variable did not explain obesity. The present findings suggest that parity has an influence on obesity in Brazilian women of childbearing age, with higher prevalence in women vs. without children.
Jerant, Anthony; Henderson, Mark C; Griffin, Erin; Talamantes, Efrain; Fancher, Tonya; Sousa, Francis; Franks, Peter
Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs) are increasingly used in medical school admissions. We previously reported that while under-represented minority (URM) status was not associated with MMI scores, self-designated disadvantaged applicants had lower MMI scores, possibly affecting their matriculation prospects. No studies have examined how URM status or socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are associated with academic performance following admission through an MMI. We examined the adjusted associations of MMI scores, SED, and URM status with U.S. Medical Licensing Examination Steps 1 and 2 performance and third-year clerkship Honors, measures affecting residency matching. While URM status was not associated with the measures, students with greater SED had lower Step 1 scores and fewer Honors. Students with higher MMI scores had more Step 1 failures, but more Honors. The findings identify areas to address in medical school admissions, student support, and evaluation processes, which is important given the need for a more representative physician workforce.
Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo
Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
González-Betancor, Sara M; López-Puig, Alexis J
Grade retention is still common practice in some countries though longstanding experience tells us that it is a highly criticised practice for its unclear benefits, its important costs for the educational systems and its relation with school dropout. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyse which variables increase the probability of being retained in primary education differentiating between being retained in second or in fourth grade, and paying special attention to the role of the socioeconomic status of the families. By knowing which analysed variables are related to grade retention, and how, we may offer some suggestions to reduce it. We use a national dataset with more observations for Spain than any other international ones, called 'Evaluación General de Diagnóstico', conducted in Spain in 2009 with the participation of 28708 students of fourth grade of primary education from 874 schools, considered to be representative for every Spanish autonomous region. This assessment focused on four competences and includes information about the learning context collected through questionnaires for students, families, school management and teachers. Estimating different multilevel random-intercept logistic regressions we obtain the following three main findings: 1) the existence of a 'quarter of birth' effect, that nearly doubles the probability of grade retention in second grade of primary -compared to the probability of grade retention in fourth grade-, for the youngest students of their same age cohort (OR = 1.93 vs. OR = 1.53, both peducation level influences more than the fathers' one -especially in second grade (OR = 0.20 vs. OR = 0.45, both p0.05)-.
Blume, Heidi K; Loch, Christian M; Li, Christopher I
To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. Population-based case-control study. Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability. Control cases (n = 5330) were singleton full-term newborns selected from the same database. Main Exposures Socioeconomic status was defined by median income of the census tract of the mother's residence, number of years of maternal educational achievement, or maternal insurance status. Odds ratios estimating the risk of encephalopathy associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic status were calculated in 3 separate analyses using multivariate adjusted logistic regression. Newborns of mothers living in neighborhoods in which residents have a low median income were at increased risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns in neighborhoods in which residents have a median income more than 3 times the poverty level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). There was also a trend for increasing risk of encephalopathy associated with decreasing neighborhood income (PNewborns of mothers with less than 12 years of educational achievement had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers with more than 16 years of educational achievement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3). Newborns of mothers receiving public insurance also had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers who have commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7). Disadvantaged socioeconomic status was independently
Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk
We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities.
Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8% and obesity (9.3% most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women. Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.
Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C
The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.
Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Hatzis, George; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Androulakis, Emmanuel; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Tousoulis, Dimitris
It is well known that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western societies. A number of risk factors such as family history, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity are responsible for a significant proportion of the overall cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, recent data suggest there is a gradient in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease across the spectrum of socioeconomic status, as this is defined by educational level, occupation or income. Additionally, dietary mediators seem to play significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, mediating some of the discrepancies in atherosclerosis among different socioeconomic layers. Therefore, in the present article, we aim to review the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and the role of different dietary mediators. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sheffer, Christine E; Bickel, Warren K; Franck, Christopher T; Panissidi, Luana; Pittman, Jami C; Stayna, Helen; Evans, Shenell
Evidence-based treatments for tobacco dependence are significantly less effective for smokers of lower socioeconomic status which contributes to socioeconomic disparities in smoking prevalence rates and health. We aimed to reduce the socioeconomic gradient in treatment outcomes by systematically adapting evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral treatment for tobacco dependence for diverse lower socioeconomic smokers. Participants were randomized to adapted or standard treatment, received six 1-h group treatment sessions, and were followed for six months. We examined the effectiveness of the adapted treatment to improve treatment outcomes for lower socioeconomic groups. Participants (n=227) were ethnically, racially, and socioeconomically diverse. The adapted treatment significantly reduced the days to relapse for the two lowest socioeconomic groups: SES1: M=76.6 (SD 72.9) vs. 38.3 (SD 60.1) days to relapse (RR=0.63 95% CI, 0.45, 0.88, p=0.0013); SES2: M=88.2 (SD 67.3) vs. 40.1 (SD 62.6 days to relapse (RR=0.57 95% CI, 0.18, 0.70, p=0.0024). Interactions between socioeconomic status and condition were significant for initial abstinence (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.09, 1.46, p=0.002), approached significance for 3-month abstinence (OR=0.90, 95% CI 0.80, 1.01, psocioeconomic smokers and reduce inequities in days to relapse. Novel methods of providing targeted extended support are needed to improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kakuszi, Brigitta; Bácskai, Erika; Gerevich, József; Czobor, Pál
Smoking occurs frequently during pregnancy, thereby putting mother and child at health risks. Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for smoking. To investigate the relationship between smoking and low income in teenage and adult pregnancy, which is an important measure of poor socioeconomic status. The authors used subject-level data from the US NSDUH database, which contains information on pregnancies and smoking. Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher, whereas adult pregnancy with lower prevalence of smoking, compared to the age-matched female population. The association between income and smoking is age-dependent. Among adults there is an inverse relationship (high income -- low-risk of smoking), while in teenage pregnancy smoking increases with income. To investigate in teenage and adult pregnancy the relationship between smoking and low income, which is an important measure of poor socio-economic status. Higher socioeconomic status may be associated with risky behaviour, thereby increasing both the risk of smoking and early pregnancy.
Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory
The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…
Daly, Richard F.
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…
Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.
This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F
Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on
Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P
OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...... Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP...
Hemmerechts, K.; Agirdag, O.; Kavadias, D.
In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an
Conclusions: The findings showed that the studied population had access to heavy metal-contaminated food, which combined with the women’s cultural eating patterns, socioeconomic status, and metabolic characteristics led to a greater vulnerability to the effects of heavy metals exposure.
Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Telman, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.
Objective: To study differences in dietary intake between adults with different socioeconomic status (SES) and trends over time. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data of three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 1987/88; DNFCS-2 1992; DNFCS-3 1997/98), obtained from a panel by a
Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.
McGrath, Marianne P.; Brown, Bethany C.
Developmental theories of prosocial reasoning and behavior posit a transition from concrete (e.g., give a toy to receive one) to abstract (e.g., spend time to make someone happy) forms and have been supported with research on middle-socioeconomic status (SES), White samples. The methodology that researchers have used to date has restricted the…
von Stumm, Sophie
The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…
Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means
Survey of socio-economic status of fish farmers in Phalga Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out to evaluate the trend, structures, operations, management of fish farms and the level of acceptability of new technologies. The Local Government Area was divided into eight zones, and each zone was ...
DeFlorio, Lydia; Beliakoff, Amber
Research Findings: Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) enter kindergarten with less developed mathematical knowledge compared to children from middle SES families. This discrepancy is present at age 3 years and likely stems from differences in the home learning environment. This study reports SES-related differences both in…
The prevalence of (pre)hypertension and its relationship with added-on salt and socio-economic status (SES) is under-reported in sub-Saharan Africa, and thus was studied in 315 adolescents (57.8% girls) living in Umuahia, Nigeria. Standard procedures were used for all measurements. (Pre)hypertension were defined ...
HIV and AIDS remains one of the most serious problems facing youths in many sub-Saharan African countries. Among young people in South Africa, gender is linked with a number of HIV-risk behaviours and outcomes. The literature suggests that factors such as socioeconomic status, intimate partner violence, and several ...
Mostert, S.; Gunawan, S.; Wolters, E.; van de Ven, P.M.; Sitaresmi, M.N.; van Dongen, J.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Mantik, M.F.J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.
Background: The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic
Revicki, Dennis A.
The relationship among socio-economic status, sibling variables, social-psychological home environment, parent involvement in intervention programs, and child self-concept and achievement were empirically investigated to determine the importance and kind of parent participation most closely related to childrens' cognitive and affective…
Atkins, Trent; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
This longitudinal study of the community adjustment of 531 youth exiting Oregon's juvenile justice system focused on youth categorized as being in either low or high socioeconomic status (SES) groups. The team gathered data before participants exited the corrections system and afterwards by telephone interviews. The study found no statistical…
Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Abstract. Study on population status, socio-economic importance and threats of gum- and resin-producing plant species was made in Borena, South Wollo, (Ethiopia). ... A total of 14 gum- and resin-bearing plant species representing seven families were recorded. Five of them ...
Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, Wim
This six-wave multi-informant longitudinal study on Dutch adolescents (N = 824; age 12–18) examined the interplay of socioeconomic status with parental monitoring in predicting minor delinquency. Fixed-effects negative binomial regression analyses revealed that this interplay is different within
Zielinski, Andrzej; Borgquist, Lars; Halling, Anders
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how distance to hospital and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the use of secondary health care (SHC) when taking comorbidity into account. Design and setting. A register-based study in Östergötland County. Subjects. The adult population...
Collett, DeShana Ann
Health disparities in minorities and those of low socioeconomic status persist despite efforts to eliminate potential causes. Differences in the delivery of services can result in different healthcare outcomes and therefore, a health disparity. Some of this difference in care may attribute to discrimination resulting from clinical biases and…
Droomers, M.; Westert, G.P.
Background: There is a strong association between comorbidity and volume and variety of health care utilisation. Aim: The study objective is to examine the relation between socioeconomic status and multiple health care utilisation and comorbidity. Methods: Analysis of continuous Netherlands Health
Troyer, Melissa; Borovsky, Arielle
In infancy, maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with real-time language processing skills, but whether or not (and if so, how) this relationship carries into adulthood is unknown. We explored the effects of maternal SES in college-aged adults on eye-tracked, spoken sentence comprehension tasks using the visual world paradigm. When…
A much larger proportion of English 14-year-olds expect to apply to university than ultimately make an application by age 21, but the proportion expecting to apply falls from age 14 onwards. In order to assess the role of socioeconomic status in explaining changes in expectations, this paper applies duration modelling techniques to the…
Kern, Ben D.; Graber, Kim C.; Shen, Sa; Hillman, Charles H.; McLoughlin, Gabriella
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is the most accurate predictor of academic performance in US schools. Third-grade reading is highly predictive of high school graduation. Chronic physical activity (PA) is shown to improve cognition and academic performance. We hypothesized that school-based PA opportunities (recess and physical education)…
Cheung, Peggy PY
Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and children's physical activity (PA) behaviour during after-school hours. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants included 663 schoolchildren (aged between 10 and 13 years) and their parents from nine primary schools in Hong Kong.…
Çalik Var, Esra; Kiliç, Sükran; Kumandas, Hatice
Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and…
Blums, Angela; Belsky, Jay; Grimm, Kevin; Chen, Zhe
The present study examined whether and how socioeconomic status (SES) predicts school achievement in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) using structural equation modeling and data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Child Care and Youth Development. The present inquiry addresses gaps in…
Iruka, Iheoma U.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.
Research Findings: Grounded in the investment model and informed by the integrative theory of the study of minority children, this study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, a nationally representative sample of young children, to investigate whether the association between socioeconomic status (family income and…
Rivers, Thomas E., Jr.
This study included a comparison of the graduation rates among high schools in South Carolina closely analyzing school size and socioeconomic status. The purpose for the study was to answer two questions: What patterns and relationships exist between school size and graduation rates at high schools in South Carolina? What patterns and…
Lee, Elizabeth M.
This article examines class as a potential source of stigma faculty members from low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) backgrounds. Based on 47 interviews with demographically diverse respondents at a wide range of institutions, the article examines respondents' narratives of direct and indirect stigmatization around class as well as respondents'…
Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Using two waves of longitudinal data, we utilized the family stress model of economic hardship to test whether family socioeconomic status is related to adolescent adjustment (substance use and academic achievement) through parental knowledge and adolescent self-regulation (behavioral self-control and delay discounting). Participants included 220…
Lee, Bora; Landberg, Monique; Lee, Ki-Hak
This study examined how the endorsement of work values changed over time and investigated the role of socioeconomic status in the development of work values. A 5-year longitudinal sample of Korean adolescents was used. Three work values were measured: Extrinsic reward, working conditions, and personal development. Findings indicate that Korean…
Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo
Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…
Conclusion: Neoplasm, diseases of the circulatory system, congenital malformations, and poor socioeconomic status were significantly associated with a higher rate of CT utilization. The distribution of disease patterns varied with gender, age groups, salary levels, and health care region's household income levels. Further study is needed to better understand the nature of the findings.
S. López León (Sandra); W.C. Choy (Wing Chi); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S. Claes (Stephan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile)
textabstractObjective: To investigate the extent to which shared genetic factors can explain the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and to examine if neuroticism or intelligence are involved in these pathways. Methods: In total 2,383 participants (1,028 men
Chen, Ruoling; Hu, Zhi; Wei, Li; Wilson, Kenneth
People from lower socioeconomic groups have a higher risk of mortality. The impact of low socioeconomic status on survival among older adults with dementia and depression remains unclear. To investigate the association between socioeconomic status and mortality in people with dementia and late-life depression in China. Using Geriatric Mental Status - Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMS-AGECAT) we interviewed 2978 people aged ⩾60 years in Anhui, China. We characterised baseline socioeconomic status and risk factors and diagnosed 223 people with dementia and 128 with depression. All-cause mortality was followed up over 5.6 years. Individuals with dementia living in rural areas had a three times greater risk of mortality (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.96, 95% CI 1.45-6.04) than those in urban areas, and for those with depression the HR was 4.15 (95% CI 1.59-10.83). There were similar mortality rates when comparing people with dementia with low v. high levels of education, occupation and income, but individuals with depression with low v. high levels had non-significant increases in mortality of 11%, 50% and 55% respectively Older adults with dementia and depression living in rural China had a significantly higher risk of mortality than urban counterparts. Interventions should be implemented in rural areas to tackle survival inequality in dementia and depression. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Meeus, W.H.J.
This six-wave multi-informant longitudinal study on Dutch adolescents (N = 824; age 12 18) examined the interplay of socioeconomic status with parental monitoring in predicting minor delinquency. Fixed-effects negative binomial regression analyses revealed that this interplay is different within
Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Arneson, Justin J.; Cooper, Sara R.; Waters, Shonna D.
Critics of educational admissions tests assert that tests measure nothing more than socioeconomic status (SES) and that their apparent validity in predicting academic performance is an artifact of SES. The authors examined multiple large data sets containing data on admissions and related tests, SES, and grades showing that (a) SES is related to…
Schilling, Deanna E.
The overjustification hypothesis predicts decreased intrinsic motivation when persons are paid to perform an interesting task. The factors of reward experience, socioeconomic status (SES), and sex are examined while testing conflicting predictions of the hypothesis and reinforcement theory. Children from grade 1 at two public elementary schools…
This study investigated socio-economic status and birth-order as correlates of women spiritual help-seeking behavior. Five hundred women help-seekers were sampled from 10 spiritual houses within Ibadan metropolis. Their age ranged between 17-70 years. Fifty percent (50 %,) i.e. 250 of the total sample were singles; ...
This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.
Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod
The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…
A universe of 106 socio-economic status indicators was collated. The t-test and point-biserial correlation were used in the item analysis of quantitatively measured and dichotomous items respectively. Forty items were found valid across all the ethnic groups in the state. The 40 items were standardized into a socio-economic ...
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie
Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…
Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith
Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on 2 prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We…
Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.
Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study
VAR, Esra ÇALIK; Kılıç, Şükran; Kumandaş, Hatice
Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parenting style affects the capacity of children to interact with others, psychological wellbeing, and life skills; therefore, ...
Veselska, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.
Objectives: Physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle in adolescence. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with socio-economic status and self-esteem; the latter association may mediate the former, but evidence on this is lacking. The aim of this study
Babar, N.F.; Khan, M.A.
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
Babar, Nabeela Fazal; Muzaffar, Rizwana; Khan, Muhammad Athar; Imdad, Seema
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children.
Mughal, A.R.; Sidiq, M.; Hyder, S.N.; Qureshi, A.U.
Objective: To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from first March to 31 August 2010. Methodology: All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Results: Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 +- 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposable was PKR 78378.2 +- 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 +- 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 +- 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 +- 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)
Mughal, Abdul Razzaq; Sadiq, Masood; Hyder, Syed Najam; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; A Shah, S Salman; Khan, Mohammad Asim; Nasir, Jamal Abdul
To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Observational study. The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from 1st March to 31st August 2010. All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 + 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposables was PKR 78378.2 ± 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 ± 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 ± 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 ± 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families.
Schlosser, Elizabeth Auretta Cox
This study accessed the relationship between race, socioeconomic status, age and the race implicit bias held by middle and high school science teachers in Mobile and Baldwin County Public School Systems. Seventy-nine participants were administered the race Implicit Association Test (race IAT), created by Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R., (2003) and a demographic survey. Quantitative analysis using analysis of variances, ANOVA and t-tests were used in this study. An ANOVA was performed comparing the race IAT scores of African American science teachers and their Caucasian counterparts. A statically significant difference was found (F = .4.56, p = .01). An ANOVA was also performed using the race IAT scores comparing the age of the participants; the analysis yielded no statistical difference based on age. A t-test was performed comparing the race IAT scores of African American teachers who taught at either Title I or non-Title I schools; no statistical difference was found between groups (t = -17.985, p .001). This research examines the implications of the achievement gap among African American and Caucasian students in science.
Cheon, Bobby K; Hong, Ying-Yi
Among social animals, subordinate status or low social rank is associated with increased caloric intake and weight gain. This may reflect an adaptive behavioral pattern that promotes acquisition of caloric resources to compensate for low social resources that may otherwise serve as a buffer against environmental demands. Similarly, diet-related health risks like obesity and diabetes are disproportionately more prevalent among people of low socioeconomic resources. Whereas this relationship may be associated with reduced financial and material resources to support healthier lifestyles, it remains unclear whether the subjective experience of low socioeconomic status may alone be sufficient to stimulate consumption of greater calories. Here we show that the mere feeling of lower socioeconomic status relative to others stimulates appetite and food intake. Across four studies, we found that participants who were experimentally induced to feel low (vs. high or neutral) socioeconomic status subsequently exhibited greater automatic preferences for high-calorie foods (e.g., pizza, hamburgers), as well as intake of greater calories from snack and meal contexts. Moreover, these results were observed even in the absence of differences in access to financial resources. Our results demonstrate that among humans, the experience of low social class may contribute to preferences and behaviors that risk excess energy intake. These findings suggest that psychological and physiological systems regulating appetite may also be sensitive to subjective feelings of deprivation for critical nonfood resources (e.g., social standing). Importantly, efforts to mitigate the socioeconomic gradient in obesity may also need to address the psychological experience of low social status.
Koch, Kristoffer; Nørgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl
To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality.......To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality....
Berglund, A.; Johannsen, T. H.; Stochholm, K.
STUDY QUESTION What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inf...
Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon
This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…
McInerney, Maria; Csizmadi, Ilona; Friedenreich, Christine M; Uribe, Francisco Alaniz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; McLaren, Lindsay; Potestio, Melissa; Sandalack, Beverly; McCormack, Gavin R
The neighbourhood environment may play an important role in diet quality. Most previous research has examined the associations between neighbourhood food environment and diet quality, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and diet quality separately. This study investigated the independent and joint effects of neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socioeconomic status in relation to diet quality in Canadian adults. We undertook a cross-sectional study with n = 446 adults in Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Individual-level data on diet and socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were captured from two self-report internet-based questionnaires, the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II) and the Past Year Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Neighbourhood environment data were derived from dissemination area level Canadian Census data, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) databases. Neighbourhood was defined as a 400 m network-based 'walkshed' around each participant's household. Using GIS we objectively-assessed the density, diversity, and presence of specific food destination types within the participant's walkshed. A seven variable socioeconomic deprivation index was derived from Canadian Census variables and estimated for each walkshed. The Canadian adapted Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI), used to assess diet quality was estimated from food intakes reported on C-DHQ II. Multivariable linear regression was used to test for associations between walkshed food environment variables, walkshed socioeconomic status, and diet quality (C-HEI), adjusting for individual level socio-demographic and health-related covariates. Interaction effects between walkshed socioeconomic status and walkshed food environment variables on diet quality (C-HEI) were also tested. After adjustment for covariates, food destination density was positively associated with the C-HEI (β 0.06, 95 % CI 0.01-0.12, p = 0.04) though the magnitude of the
Full Text Available Abstract Background The neighbourhood environment may play an important role in diet quality. Most previous research has examined the associations between neighbourhood food environment and diet quality, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and diet quality separately. This study investigated the independent and joint effects of neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socioeconomic status in relation to diet quality in Canadian adults. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study with n = 446 adults in Calgary, Alberta (Canada. Individual-level data on diet and socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were captured from two self-report internet-based questionnaires, the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II and the Past Year Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ. Neighbourhood environment data were derived from dissemination area level Canadian Census data, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS databases. Neighbourhood was defined as a 400 m network-based ‘walkshed’ around each participant’s household. Using GIS we objectively-assessed the density, diversity, and presence of specific food destination types within the participant’s walkshed. A seven variable socioeconomic deprivation index was derived from Canadian Census variables and estimated for each walkshed. The Canadian adapted Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI, used to assess diet quality was estimated from food intakes reported on C-DHQ II. Multivariable linear regression was used to test for associations between walkshed food environment variables, walkshed socioeconomic status, and diet quality (C-HEI, adjusting for individual level socio-demographic and health-related covariates. Interaction effects between walkshed socioeconomic status and walkshed food environment variables on diet quality (C-HEI were also tested. Results After adjustment for covariates, food destination density was positively associated with the C-HEI (β 0.06, 95 % CI 0
Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri; Vaughan, Phillip W; Garcia, Michael
Building upon literature suggesting low Internet use among racial/ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, this study examined how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the Internet use for health information, addressing both independent and interactive effects. Using data from 17,704 older adults in the California Health Interview Survey, logistic regression models were estimated with race/ethnicity (Whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asians), SES index, and the interaction between race/ethnicity and SES index. Overall, approximately 40% of participants were Internet-users for health information. Direct effects of race/ethnicity and SES-and their interactions-were all found to be significant. Minority status combined with the lowest levels of SES substantially reduced the odds of using Internet for health information. Findings suggest the combination of racial/ethnic minority status and low SES as a source of digital divide, and provide implications for Internet technology training for the target population.
Because of the lack of consistency in the associations of the socioeconomic status (SES) of prostate cancer (PC) patients from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds with PC health outcomes, I created the Socioeconomic Status Instrument (SESI) from the Demographic and Health Access components of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2004 Questionnaires and the socioeconomic indices of the subjects' residential counties to better assess the SES of PC patients. The SESI was tested on 220 consecutive subjects with pathologically confirmed PC at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston, TX. A team that included an epidemiologist, a validation statistician/health services research scientist, and PC survivors assessed the content validity of the SESI. The construct validity of the SESI was assessed with factor analysis by extracting and analyzing 5 principal components based on the subjects' individual responses on the assessment: county socioeconomic characteristics, individual socioeconomic characteristics, financial distress, increased domestic burden with limited earnings, and affluence. The internal consistency reliability of the SESI was assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Based on the reviews of the SESI, all of the initial 10 items were retained. The correlations between individual responses on the SESI were similar to the results of previous studies. The 5 principal components that I assessed accounted for 71.5% of the variance. Factor loadings ranged from 0.66 to 0.98 and communalities ranged from 0.55 to 0.94. County socioeconomic characteristics accounted for 22.6% of the variance, whereas individual socioeconomic characteristics accounted for 14.6% of the variance. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.78. The SESI is valid and reliable. Accurate measurements of the SES of PC patients would provide better guidance for future research and care deliveries.
Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01. and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00, the development of mathematical (P=0.00 and linguistic skills (P=0.00 and entertain children (P=0.04. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04 or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.
Full Text Available Socioeconomic status is often determined like the academic background of parents, and it can be determined like the place of living, village or town, city, as well. Socioeconomic status is an important factor in many aspects of living as in academic achievement as well. Problem in this research paper was to examine whether there are differences between children from different socio-economic status (level of education of parents and between children from villages and towns, on Readiness for school tests. The sample was constituted 296 kids, half from villages, and half from towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tests that were used are: Differences test, Similarities test, Numerical test, Trace test, Knowledge Test, Questionnaire for measuring socio-emotional maturity, and Goodenough's Draw-a-Man Test. Results show that there are statistically significant differences between children from different socio-economic background. Children whose parents are low educated have lower results on Readiness for school test, comparing with children whose parents have finished high school or university level. There were differences between village and town children only on Goodenough's Draw-a-Man Test and on Similarity test, while on other instruments place of living was not important factor for achievement on Readiness for School Test.
Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.
Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Khasti, Behjat Yazd; Zadeh, Marzie Rezaei; Modaber, Fatemeh
Quality of life (QOL) is one of the health indexes for which many efforts have been made to define and measure during the last four decades of the 20(th) century in many countries. This paper is aimed at studying the QOL in relation to socioeconomic status of the general population of Isfahan in 1390. We applied a descriptive-analytical and sectional method. In this research, 385 women and men over 15 years of age from 14 regions of Isfahan's municipality were studied using multi-stage quota sampling. We examined QOL using the SF-36 standard questionnaire, along with two domains of mental and physical health and eight subscales within the validity domain of 65-90%. Social (81%) and economical (70%) status was also measured by the questionnaire instrument in both objective and subjective domains after confirming the validity and reliability of the instruments. The given data were analyzed by SPSS 17 software and using descriptive and statistical tests. The indicators of QOL showed that a score deviation of the SF-36 questionnaire in physical health (SD = 2.31) and mental health (SD = 3.22) domains was obtained from the population. Of the eight subscales, bodily pains and limitations on functioning as physical and mental had an inverse relationship with socioeconomic status. However, physical health, mental health, social activities, public health, and vitality had a significant positive relationship, including different strengths and weaknesses, with socioeconomic status. Also, sexuality and housing status had no relationship with QOL. There is a direct and significant relationship between quality of life and socioeconomic status variables in Isfahan.
Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo
Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey...... adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns...
Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun
Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)
Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Gogia, Shweta; Agarwal, Alok; Agarwal, Rajiv; Mathur, Ajay Swaroop
After total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer, the major determinants of QOL is the patient's voice related quality of life (V-RQOL). The primary aim of this study was to assess the V-RQOL and impact of socioeconomic status over it in Indian population by using two validated scales [voice handicap index (VHI) and V-RQOL questionnaires]. Total 104 patients underwent total laryngectomy but 71 were eligible for study. Patients filled the VHI and V-RQOL questionnaires after completion of 1 year of usage of the TEP voice. The socioeconomic status of the patients was calculated according to various domains related to their life and were divided into lower and higher status. A total of 76.1% patients had VHI score between 0 to 30 (minimal voice handicap), 19.7% had score between 31 to 60 (moderate voice handicap) and only 4.2% patients had VHI score more than 61 (serious voice handicap). On V-RQOL scores, 16.9% patients had score between 10 to 15 (excellent), 40.8% patients, between 16 to 20 (very good), 22.5% patients, between 21 and 25 (good voice), 15.5% patients, between 26 and 30 (fair) and only 4.2% patients scored more than 30 with poor quality of voice. Patients with lower socioeconomic group had better V-RQOL than with high socioeconomic group. VHI and V-RQOL scores in our series were superior to other studies due to major population with lower socioeconomic status and better social support which exists in our society.
Bachman, Jerald G; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M; Freedman-Doan, Peter
High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. This study examines those questions using nationally representative data from two decades (1991-2010) of annual Monitoring the Future surveys involving about 600,000 students in 10th and 12th grades. White students are consistently more likely than minority students to hold paid employment during the school year. Among White and Asian American students, paid work intensity is negatively related to parental education and grade point averages (GPA) and is positively related to substance use. Also among Whites and Asian Americans, students with the most highly educated parents show the strongest negative relations between work intensity and GPA, whereas the links are weaker for those with less educated parents (i.e., lower SES levels). All of these relations are less evident for Hispanic students and still less evident for African American students. It thus appears that any costs possibly attributable to long hours of student work are most severe for those who are most advantaged--White or Asian American students with highly educated parents. Working long hours is linked with fewer disadvantages among Hispanic students and especially among African American students. Youth employment dropped in 2008-2010, but the relations described above have shown little change over two decades.
Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Whitley, Elise; Lewsey, Jim; Gray, Linsay; Leyland, Alastair H
Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors. The Scottish Health Surveys are record-linked cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult population of Scotland. We obtained baseline demographics and data for alcohol consumption (units per week and binge drinking) from Scottish Health Surveys done in 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. We matched these data to records for deaths, admissions, and prescriptions. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable admission or death. The relation between alcohol-attributable harm and socioeconomic status was investigated for four measures (education level, social class, household income, and area-based deprivation) using Cox proportional hazards models. The potential for alcohol consumption and other risk factors (including smoking and body-mass index [BMI]) mediating social patterning was explored in separate regression models. Reverse causation was tested by comparing change in area deprivation over time. 50 236 participants (21 777 men and 28 459 women) were included in the analytical sample, with 429 986 person-years of follow-up. Low socioeconomic status was associated consistently with strikingly raised alcohol-attributable harms, including after adjustment for weekly consumption, binge drinking, BMI, and smoking. Evidence was noted of effect modification; for example, relative to light drinkers living in
Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M
To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. UK Biobank. 119,669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6 × 10(-3)) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6 × 10(-15)) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6 × 10(-7)), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4 × 10(-8)). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m(2)) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1 × 10(-5)) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. These data support evidence that height and BMI play an important partial role in determining several aspects of a person
Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N
Objective To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Design Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Setting UK Biobank. Participants 119 669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Main outcome measures Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. Results In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6×10−3) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6×10−15) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6×10−7), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4×10−8). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m2) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1×10−5) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. Conclusions These data support evidence that height and BMI play an
Samuel, Laura J; Roth, David L; Schwartz, Brian S; Thorpe, Roland J; Glass, Thomas A
Slow afternoon cortisol decline may be a marker of aging. We hypothesize that lower socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline. Six salivary cortisol samples, collected within a 24-hr period from 566 cohort participants aged 56-78 years, were examined in random-effects models. SES measures included socioeconomic vulnerability (household income and assets Accounting for African American race/ethnicity, socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with a 3% faster decline, and education was not associated with cortisol. African Americans had 26% lower average waking cortisol and 1% slower decline than others. African American race/ethnicity, but not lower SES, was associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline in middle-aged and older adults. This pattern is likely a marker of earlier biological aging in vulnerable groups. Race/ethnicity may compete with SES as a measure of cumulative vulnerability.
Lallo, Carlo; Raitano, Michele
Life expectancy considerably increased in most developed countries during the twentieth century. However, the increase in longevity is neither uniform nor random across individuals belonging to various socioeconomic groups. From an economic policy perspective, the difference in mortality by socioeconomic conditions challenges the fairness of the social security systems. We focus on the case of Italy and aim at measuring differences in longevity at older ages by individuals belonging to different socioeconomic groups, also in order to assess the effective fairness of the Italian public pension system, which is based on a notional defined contribution (NDC) benefit computation formula, whose rules do not take into account individual heterogeneity in expected longevity. We use a longitudinal dataset that matches survey data on individual features recorded in the Italian module of the EU-SILC, with information on the whole working life and until death collected in the administrative archives managed by the Italian National Social Security Institute. In more detail, we follow until 2009 a sample of 11,281 individuals aged at least 60 in 2005. We use survival analysis and measure the influence of a number of events experienced in the labor market and individual characteristics on mortality. Furthermore, through Kaplan-Meier simulations of hypothetical social groups, adjusted by a Brass relational model, we estimate and compare differences in life expectancy of individuals belonging to different socioeconomic groups. Our findings confirm that socioeconomic status strongly predicts life expectancy even in old age. All estimated models show that the prevalent type of working activity before retirement is significantly associated with the risk of death, even when controlling for dozens of variables as proxies of individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The risk of death for self-employed individuals is 26% lower than that of employees, and life expectancy at
Gomes de Matos, Elena; Kraus, Ludwig; Hannemann, Tessa-Virginia; Soellner, Renate; Piontek, Daniela
This study estimates cross-country variation in socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use and identifies country-level characteristics associated with these disparities. The association between socioeconomic status (family wealth and parental education) and alcohol use (lifetime use and episodic heavy drinking) of 15- to 16-year-olds from 32 European countries was investigated. Country-level characteristics were national income, income inequality and per capita alcohol consumption. Multilevel modelling was applied. Across countries, lifetime use was lower in wealthy than in less wealthy families (odds ratio [OR] (girls) = 0.95, OR (boys) = 0.94). The risk of episodic heavy drinking, in contrast, was higher for children from wealthier families (OR (girls) = 1.04, OR (boys) = 1.08) and lower when parents were highly educated (ORs = 0.95-0.98). Socioeconomic disparities varied substantially between countries. National wealth and income inequality were associated with cross-country variation of disparities in lifetime use in few comparisons, such that among girls, the (negative) effect of family wealth was greatest in countries with unequally distributed income (OR = 0.86). Among boys, the (negative) effect of family wealth was greatest in low-income countries (OR = 1.00), and the (positive) effect of mothers' education was greatest in countries with high income inequality (OR = 1.11). Socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use vary across European countries. Broad country-level indicators can explain this variation only to a limited extent, but results point towards slightly greater socioeconomic disparities in drinking in countries of low national income and countries with a high income inequality. [Gomes de Matos E, Kraus L, Hannemann T-V, Soellner R, Piontek D. Cross-cultural variation in the association between family's socioeconomic status and adolescent alcohol use. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and
Sim, A Y; Lim, E X; Leow, M K; Cheon, B K
Recent evidence suggests that lower perceived socioeconomic status is linked to increased appetite and intake of greater calories. Yet, whether insecurity of socioeconomic resources directly influences regulatory systems of appetite and energy intake is not known. Considering psychological states, mindsets and beliefs have shown to meaningfully affect physiological responses to food, the present study tested the hypothesis that low subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) will have a direct influence on physiological responses, such as appetite-related hormones (ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide and insulin). Forty-eight healthy males were randomly (crossover, counterbalanced) assigned, to two experimental conditions where participants were either experimentally induced to feel low SSS or not (control; CON). Feelings of low SSS resulted in an increase in active ghrelin (an orexigenic hormone) following the SSS manipulation compared with baseline, while no change in active ghrelin was observed in CON. Furthermore, participants reported lower fullness and satiety following low SSS compared with CON. Our findings demonstrate that SSS may influence hunger regulation and appetite, and suggest that physiological systems regulating energy balance (i.e. caloric resources) may also be sensitive to perceived deprivation or imbalances in critical non-food resources (socioeconomic resources). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bosma, H; Traag, T; Berger-van Sijl, M; van Eijk, J; Otten, F
To determine whether socio-economic differences in hospital admissions of adolescents and young adults are related to differences in intelligence. . Retrospective cohort study. The data were derived from a group of 10,231 young adults and adolescents who were followed for a total of 47,212 person years with regard to their hospital admissions. Intelligence was measured in the first year of secondary school by 2 non-verbal intelligence tests for fluid intelligence. Data from hospital admissions were matched to a large-scale educational and occupational cohort. Data were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Intelligence was not found to be related to hospital admissions. However, a low occupational and educational level of the young adults or their parents, was strongly related to heightened risk for hospital admissions. In particular, the low socio-economic status of a respondent was associated with heightened risk for hospital admissions due to accidents (relative risk: 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.91-6.39). The small extent to which the socio-economic differences in hospital admissions seem to be based upon fluid intelligence, at least in adolescents and young adults, as well as the heightened risks of hospital admissions in lower socio-economic status groups and the associated high costs for health care legitimise further study of the determinants of these differences.
Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo
This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.
Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R
This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p socioeconomic status.
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro
BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We...... open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per......; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international...
Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph D; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim
To determine the economic burden of malaria in a rural Tanzanian setting and identify any differences by socioeconomic status and season. Interviews of 557 households in south eastern Tanzania between May and December 2004, on consumption and malaria-related costs. Malaria-related expenses were significantly higher in the dry, non-malarious season than in the rainy season. Households sought treatment more frequently and from more expensive service providers in the dry season, when they have more money. Malaria expenses did not vary significantly across socioeconomic status quintiles, but poorer households spent a higher proportion of their consumption in both seasons. Poorer households bear a greater economic burden from malaria relative to their consumption than better-off households. Households are particularly vulnerable to malaria in the rainy season, when malaria prevalence is highest but liquidity is lower. Alternative strategies to assist households to cope with seasonal liquidity issues, including insurance, should be investigated.
Milch, Karen; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon
Earthquakes are a major cause of displacement, particularly in developing countries. Models of injury and displacement can be applied to assist governments and aid organisations in effectively targeting preparedness and relief efforts. A stratified cluster survey was conducted in January 2008 to evaluate risk factors for injury and displacement following the 15 August 2007 earthquake in southern Peru. In statistical modelling, seismic intensity, distance to rupture, living conditions, and educational attainment collectively explained 54.9 per cent of the variability in displacement rates across clusters. Living conditions was a particularly significant predictor of injury and displacement, indicating a strong relationship between risk and socioeconomic status. Contrary to expectations, urban, periurban, and rural clusters did not exhibit significantly different injury and displacement rates. Proxies of socioeconomic status, particularly the living conditions index score, proved relevant in explaining displacement, likely due to unmeasured aspects of housing construction practices and building materials. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
Kolk, Martin; Schnettler, Sebastian
This study examines if there exists a positive association between socioeconomic status and the proportion of male births in humans, as proposed by Trivers and Willard in 1973, using individual-level data drawn from the complete population of Sweden. We examine more than 3,000,000 births between 1960 and 2007 using administrative register data with comprehensive information on various dimensions of socioeconomic status. We use six different operationalizations of socioeconomic status, including earnings, post-transfer income (including government allowances), wealth, parental wealth, educational level, and occupational class. We apply regression models that compare both changes in status for the same woman over time and differences in status across different women. We also measure socioeconomic status both at the year of child birth and the year of conception. Our results show the absence of any relationship between socioeconomic status and sex ratios, using a large number of different operationalizations of status. We conclude that no substantive relationship between socioeconomic status and sex ratios exists for the population and period of our study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: The relationship between socio-economic status and health among elderly people has been well studied, but less is known about how spousal or offspring’s education affects mortality, especially in non-Western countries. We investigated these associations using a large sample of Chinese elderly. Methods: The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS from the years 2005 to 2011 (n = 15 355, aged 65–105 years at baseline; 5046 died in 2008, and 2224 died in 2011. Educational attainment, occupational status, and household income per capita were used as indicators of socio-economic status. Spousal and offspring’s education were added into the final models. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study mortality risk by gender. Results: Adjusted for age, highly educated males and females had, on average, 29% and 37% lower mortality risk, respectively, than those with a lower education. Particularly among men, this effect was observed among those whose children had intermediate education only. A higher household income was also associated with lower mortality risk among the elderly. Male elderly living with a well-educated spouse (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.99 had a lower mortality risk than those living with a low-educated spouse. Conclusions: Both the socio-economic status of the individual and the educational level of a co-resident spouse or child are associated with mortality risk in elderly people. The socio-economic position of family members plays an important role in producing health inequality among elderly people.
Elder, Todd E.; Goddeeris, John H.; Haider, Steven J.
We assess the extent to which differences in socio-economic status are associated with racial and ethnic gaps in a fundamental measure of population health: the rate at which infants die. Using micro-level Vital Statistics data from 2000 to 2004, we examine mortality gaps of infants born to white, black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Asian, and Native American mothers. We find that between-group mortality gaps are strongly and consistently (except for Mexican infants) associated with maternal marita...
Kothari, Catherine L; Liepman, Michael R; Shama Tareen, R; Florian, Phyllis; Charoth, Remitha M; Haas, Suzanne S; McKean, Joseph W; Moe, Angela; Wiley, James; Curtis, Amy
Objective This study examined whether socioeconomic status moderated the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum depression among a community-based sample of women. Defining the role of poverty in the risk of postpartum depression for IPV victims enables prioritization of health promotion efforts to maximize the effectiveness of existing maternal-infant resources. Methods This cross-sectional telephone-survey study interviewed 301 postpartum women 2 months after delivery, screening them for IPV and depression [using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)]. Socioeconomic status was defined by insurance (Medicaid-paid-delivery or not). This analysis controlled for the following covariates, collected through interview and medical-record review: demographics, obstetric history, prenatal health and additional psychosocial risk factors. After adjusting for significant covariates, multiple linear regression was conducted to test whether socioeconomic status confounded or moderated IPV's relationship with EPDS-score. Results Ten percent of participants screened positive for postpartum depression, 21.3 % screened positive for current or previous adult emotional or physical abuse by a partner, and 32.2 % met poverty criteria. IPV and poverty were positively associated with each other (χ(2) (1) = 11.76, p < .001) and with EPDS score (IPV: beta 3.2 (CI 2.0, 4.5) p < .001, poverty: beta 1.3 (CI 0.2, 2.4) p = .017). In the multiple linear regression, IPV remained significantly associated, but poverty did not (IPV: adjusted beta 3.1 (CI 1.8, 4.3) p < .001, poverty: adjusted beta 0.8 (CI -0.3, 1.9) p = .141), and no statistically significant interaction between IPV and poverty was found. Conclusions Study findings illustrated that IPV was strongly associated with postpartum depression, outweighing the influence of socioeconomic status upon depression for postpartum women.
Doocy, Shannon; Burnham, Gilbert
Measures of socio-economic status (SES) were compared with a measure of physical well-being, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), in the food insecure regions of Ethiopia. Income, housing conditions and education had the greatest correlation to MUAC, and significant differences in these measures were observed between malnourished and adequately nourished individuals. Findings indicate that in rural Ethiopia, income, education and housing quality may be better indicators of SES than wealth and measures encompassing home and landownership.
Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark
Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced...... their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted....
De Agostini, Paola
This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study and the...
Maria Rita Testa
Full Text Available Background: Unlike actual fertility, fertility intentions are often found to be positively correlated with education. The literature explaining this paradox is scarce. Objective: We aim to fill the gap in the existing scientific literature by searching for the main factors that influence highly educated women to plan a larger family size. Methods: Using the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for four countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Italy, and Norway, we analyse the relationship between mother's socio-economic status and daughter's fertility intentions, controlling for daughter's socio-economic status and sibship size. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models are employed to estimate the predictors of women's additionally intended number of children. Results: We find that the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through sibship size among childless daughters: Daughters with more siblings intend to have more children. After the transition to parenthood, the effect of family of origin is exerted mainly through the mother's level of education: Daughters with highly educated mothers intend to have more children. Conclusions: The empirical results suggest that the positive link between births intentions and level of education might not merely be an artefact generated by the design of cross-sectional surveys but the outcome of a better socio-economic status that allows forming positive reproductive plans. Contribution: The positive role of mother's socio-economic status on daughter's fertility decision-making offers a valuable interpretation of the positive link between education and fertility intentions which goes beyond the alternative explanations referring to self-selection, partner effect, or time squeeze, and needs to be confirmed by further research.
Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung
This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) t...
Full Text Available There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES, poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context. Prenatal depression is an important public health concern with negative sequela for the mother and her children. We use data on assets, education, food insecurity, debt, and depression symptoms from a sample of 1154 pregnant women residing in rural Pakistan. Women who screened positive for depression participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial of a perinatal depression intervention; all women were interviewed October 2015-February 2016, prior to the start of the intervention. Cluster-specific sampling weights were used to approximate a random sample of pregnant women in the area. Findings indicate that fewer assets, experiencing food insecurity, and having household debt are independently associated with worse depression symptoms. The association with assets is linear with no evidence of a threshold effect, supporting the idea of a gradient in the association between levels of SES and depression symptoms. A gradient was also initially observed with woman’s educational attainment, but this association was attenuated once other SES variables were included in the model. Together, the asset, food insecurity, and debt indicators explain 14% of the variance in depression symptoms, more than has been reported in high income country studies. These findings support the use of multiple SES indicators to better elucidate the complex
V. Chandrashekhar Murthy
Full Text Available The study was conducted following exploratory research design to ascertain the profile characteristics of livestock farmers. Findings indicated that majority of the farmers had low to medium profile. Hence efforts should be undertaken by the Government, Veterinary Universities and other extension agencies in providing information on livestock farming practices so that they could bring about change in their living and improve the socio-economic status of livestock farmers. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 215-218
Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John
In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007–2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indic...
Lioret, S.; Touvier, M.; Lafay, L.; Volatier, J. L.; Maire, Bernard
Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-...
Gouveia, N.; Fletcher, T.
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between outdoor air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN—Time series study METHODS—All causes, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality were analysed and the role of age and socioeconomic status in modifying associations between mortality and air pollution were investigated. Models used Poisson regression and included terms for temporal patterns, meteorology, and autocorrelation. MAIN RESULTS—All causes all ages mortality showed much sm...
Roser eGranero; Roser eGranero; Leonie eLouwaars; Lourdes eEzpeleta; Lourdes eEzpeleta
Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed...
Ohm, Joel; Skoglund, Per H; Discacciati, Andrea; Sundström, Johan; Hambraeus, Kristina; Jernberg, Tomas; Svensson, Per
Background Risk assessment post-myocardial infarction needs improvement, and risk factors derived from general populations apply differently in secondary prevention. The prediction of subsequent cardiovascular events post-myocardial infarction by socioeconomic status has previously been poorly studied. Design Swedish nationwide cohort study. Methods A total of 29,226 men and women (27%), 40-76 years of age, registered at the standardised one year revisit after a first myocardial infarction in the secondary prevention quality registry of SWEDEHEART 2006-2014. Personal-level data on socioeconomic status measured by disposable income and educational level, marital status, and the primary endpoint, first recurrent event of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, defined as non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease death or fatal or non-fatal stroke were obtained from linked national registries. Results During the mean 4.1-year follow-up, 2284 (7.8%) first recurrent manifestations of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease occurred. Both socioeconomic status indicators and marital status were associated with the primary endpoint in multivariable Cox regression models. In a comprehensively adjusted model, including secondary preventive treatment, the hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest quintile of disposable income was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.62-0.83). The association between disposable income and first recurrent manifestation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was stronger in men as was the risk associated with being unmarried (tests for interaction P < 0.05). Conclusions Among one year survivors of a first myocardial infarction, first recurrent manifestation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was predicted by disposable income, level of education and marital status. The association between disposable income and first recurrent manifestation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was independent of secondary preventive
One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Designing evidence-based interventions to address socioeconomic disparities in health and health behaviours requires a better understanding of the specific explanatory mechanisms. We aimed to investigate a comprehensive range of potential theoretical mediators of physical activity (PA and screen time in different socioeconomic status (SES groups: a high SES group of high school students, and a low SES group of vocational school students. The COM-B system, including the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF, was used as a heuristic framework to synthesise different theoretical determinants in this exploratory study. Methods Finnish vocational and high school students (N = 659 aged 16–19, responded to a survey assessing psychological, social and environmental determinants of activity (PA and screen time. These determinants are mappable into the COM-B domains: capability, opportunity and motivation. The outcome measures were validated self-report measures for PA and screen time. The statistical analyses included a bootstrapping-based mediation procedure. Results Regarding PA, there were SES differences in all of the COM-B domains. For example, vocational school students reported using less self-monitoring of PA, weaker injunctive norms to engage in regular PA, and fewer intentions than high school students. Mediation analyses identified potential mediators of the SES-PA relationship in all of three domains: The most important candidates included self-monitoring (CI95 for b: 0.19–0.47, identity (0.04–0.25 and material resources available (0.01–0.16. However, SES was not related to most determinants of screentime, where there were mainly gender differences. Most determinants were similarly related with both behaviours in both SES groups, indicating no major moderation effect of SES on these relationships. Conclusions This study revealed that already in the first years of educational differentiation, levels of key PA
Hankonen, Nelli; Heino, Matti T J; Kujala, Emilia; Hynynen, Sini-Tuuli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Borodulin, Katja; Haukkala, Ari
Designing evidence-based interventions to address socioeconomic disparities in health and health behaviours requires a better understanding of the specific explanatory mechanisms. We aimed to investigate a comprehensive range of potential theoretical mediators of physical activity (PA) and screen time in different socioeconomic status (SES) groups: a high SES group of high school students, and a low SES group of vocational school students. The COM-B system, including the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), was used as a heuristic framework to synthesise different theoretical determinants in this exploratory study. Finnish vocational and high school students (N = 659) aged 16-19, responded to a survey assessing psychological, social and environmental determinants of activity (PA and screen time). These determinants are mappable into the COM-B domains: capability, opportunity and motivation. The outcome measures were validated self-report measures for PA and screen time. The statistical analyses included a bootstrapping-based mediation procedure. Regarding PA, there were SES differences in all of the COM-B domains. For example, vocational school students reported using less self-monitoring of PA, weaker injunctive norms to engage in regular PA, and fewer intentions than high school students. Mediation analyses identified potential mediators of the SES-PA relationship in all of three domains: The most important candidates included self-monitoring (CI95 for b: 0.19-0.47), identity (0.04-0.25) and material resources available (0.01-0.16). However, SES was not related to most determinants of screentime, where there were mainly gender differences. Most determinants were similarly related with both behaviours in both SES groups, indicating no major moderation effect of SES on these relationships. This study revealed that already in the first years of educational differentiation, levels of key PA determinants differ, contributing to socioeconomic differences in PA. The
Bower, Hannah; Andersson, Therese M-L; Crowther, Michael J; Dickman, Paul W; Lambe, Mats; Lambert, Paul C
Expected or reference mortality rates are commonly used in the calculation of measures such as relative survival in population-based cancer survival studies and standardized mortality ratios. These expected rates are usually presented according to age, sex, and calendar year. In certain situations, stratification of expected rates by other factors is required to avoid potential bias if interest lies in quantifying measures according to such factors as, for example, socioeconomic status. If data are not available on a population level, information from a control population could be used to adjust expected rates. We have presented two approaches for adjusting expected mortality rates using information from a control population: a Poisson generalized linear model and a flexible parametric survival model. We used a control group from BCBaSe-a register-based, matched breast cancer cohort in Sweden with diagnoses between 1992 and 2012-to illustrate the two methods using socioeconomic status as a risk factor of interest. Results showed that Poisson and flexible parametric survival approaches estimate similar adjusted mortality rates according to socioeconomic status. Additional uncertainty involved in the methods to estimate stratified, expected mortality rates described in this study can be accounted for using a parametric bootstrap, but this might make little difference if using a large control population.
Morley, David; Till, Kevin; Ogilvie, Paul; Turner, Graham
As the development of movement skills are so crucial to a child's involvement in lifelong physical activity and sport, the purpose of this study was to assess the motor proficiency of children aged 4-7 years (range=4.3-7.2 years), whilst considering gender and socioeconomic status. 369 children (176 females, 193 males, aged=5.96 ± 0.57 years) were assessed for fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral co-ordination, balance, speed and agility, upper-limb co-ordination and strength. The average standard score for all participants was 44.4 ± 8.9, classifying the participants towards the lower end of the average score. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified significant effects for gender (pdifferences evident between gender and socioeconomic status. Teachers and sport coaches working with primary aged children should concentrate on the development of movement skills, whilst considering differences between genders and socioeconomic status. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dany, Lionel; Roussel, Philippe; Laguette, Vanessa; Lagouanelle-Simeoni, Marie-Claude; Apostolidis, Themis
Time perspective (TP) is a fundamental dimension of the psychological construction of time. It refers to a subjective experience and can be defined as the relationship that individuals and groups have with the present, past, and future. Studies have shown that it is interesting to take into account TP in the field of health, especially for the study of the psychological distress (PD) of individuals faced with aversive situations. We conducted a research, which aimed to explore the relationship between TP and PD in patients with chronic pain. A total of 264 first-time patients (72.3% women; mean age = 49 years) at CHU Timone (Marseille) pain center answered a questionnaire included TP, socioeconomic status, pain beliefs (PB), pain characteristics, and sociodemographic characteristics. Using hierarchical regression analyses adjusted to the characteristics of pain, sociodemographic characteristics, and PB, we can observe significant relationships between different components of TP, socioeconomic status, and PD. These results emphasize the importance of TP as psychosocial variable in the analysis of PD in patients with chronic pain. These results also lead us to point out the role of the socioeconomic status that predicts levels of PD.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which shared genetic factors can explain the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and to examine if neuroticism or intelligence are involved in these pathways. METHODS: In total 2,383 participants (1,028 men and 1,355 women of the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. Socioeconomic status was assessed as the highest level of education obtained. The role of shared genetic factors was quantified by estimating genetic correlations (rhoG between symptoms of depression and education level, with and without adjustment for premorbid intelligence and neuroticism scores. RESULTS: Higher level of education was associated with lower depression scores (partial correlation coefficient -0.09 for CES-D and -0.17 for HADS-D. Significant genetic correlations were found between education and both CES-D (rhoG = -0.65 and HADS-D (rhoG = -0.50. The genetic correlations remained statistically significant after adjusting for premorbid intelligence and neuroticism scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that shared genetic factors play a role in the co-occurrence of lower socioeconomic status and symptoms of depression, which suggest that genetic factors play a role in health inequalities. Further research is needed to investigate the validity, causality and generalizability of our results.
Engelaer, Frouke M; Koopman, Jacob J E; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K; Westendorp, Rudi G J
Many African countries experience a protracted epidemiologic transition, different from the classical transition in western societies. The factors driving this protracted transition are largely unknown. In northeast Ghana, we studied an ongoing epidemiologic transition and investigated the effects of socioeconomic status and drinking water source on the transition. During a 9-year period, we followed a cohort of almost 30 000 individuals and collected information on mortality and fertility rates. In addition, using the standards set out by the WHO, we obtained the causes of death by verbal autopsy. Individuals were stratified according to their socioeconomic status and the households' use of an improved or unimproved drinking water source. Mortality rates decreased by -5.0% annually (pwater source. Factors other than socioeconomic status and drinking water source are responsible for the observed declines in mortality and fertility observed during the protracted epidemiologic transition. Identifying the specific determinants of the ongoing transition is of importance, as they could be targeted in order to further improve public health in rural African countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R
Few studies examined socioeconomic contributors to racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes between African-American and Caucasian adolescent mothers. This cross-sectional study examined the intersections of maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status in explaining these disparities in low birth weight outcomes across a statewide sample of adolescent mothers. Using data from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2010-2011, birth cases for 16,472 adolescents were geocoded by street address and linked to census-tract information from the 2010 United States Census. Multilevel models with interaction terms were used to identify significant associations between maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income) and low birth weight outcomes across census tracts. Significant racial differences were identified in which African-American adolescents had greater odds of low birth weight outcomes than Caucasian adolescents (OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.64, 2.15). Although racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes remained significant in context of maternal age and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the greatest disparities were found between African-American and Caucasian adolescents that lived in areas of higher socioeconomic status (psocioeconomic status. Further investigations using intersectional frameworks are needed for examining the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status and birth outcome disparities among infants born to adolescent mothers.
Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman
This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…
Nafakhi, Hussein; Almosawi, Abdulameer; Alnafakh, Hasan; Mousa, Widad
Little data currently exist supporting the correlation of socioeconomic status (SES) to markers of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. The main aim was to investigate the relationship of SES measured by economic status and educational level with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and pericardial fat volume (PFV) assessed by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). A total of 220 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease, who underwent 64-slice MDCT angiography for assessment of coronary atherosclerosis, were recruited between January 2014 and March 2015. Of these, 186 patients were enrolled in this cross sectional study. Low economic status patients showed higher PFV values; median (inter-quartile range [IQR] was 94 [50-140] cm3, p = 0.00001 and r = 0.37, compared to patients with high economic status, and this association persisted even after multiple logistic regression to conventional cardiac risk factors (p = 0.004, CI 7.3-30.4), while patients with low economic status reported a higher calcium score (but statistically non significant) (p = 0.12) compared to high economic status patients. Pa-tients with no formal education showed higher PFV (median [IQR] was 93 [48-140] cm3, p = 0.01) compared to patients with bachelor's degree (median [IQR] was 56 [28-92] cm3), but this association was attenuated after further adjustment for conventional cardiac risk factors (p = 0.1, CI -9.52-10.88), while CAC showed no significant correlation with educational level (p = 0.2, r = 0.117). Socioeconomic status, particularly economic status measure, reported a significant inverse relationship with PFV independent of conventional cardiac risk factors.
Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Lee, Kheng Hock; Low, Lian Leng
It is well-established that low socioeconomic status (SES) influences one's health status, morbidity and mortality. Housing type has been used as an indicator of SES and social determinant of health in some studies. In Singapore, home ownership is among the highest in the world. Citizens who have no other housing options are offered heavily subsidised rental housings. Residents staying in such rental housings are characterised by low socioeconomic status. Our aim is to review studies on the association between staying in public rental housing in Singapore and health status. A PubMed and Scopus search was conducted in January 2017 to identify suitable articles published from 1 January 2000 to 31 January 2017. Only studies that were done on Singapore public rental housing communities were included for review. A total of 14 articles including 4 prospective studies, 8 cross-sectional studies and 2 retrospective cohort studies were obtained for the review. Topics addressed by these studies included: (1) Health status; (2) Health seeking behaviour; (3) Healthcare utilisation. Staying in public rental housing was found to be associated with poorer health status and outcomes. They had lower participation in health screening, preferred alternative medicine practitioners to western-trained doctors for primary care, and had increased hospital utilisation. Several studies performed qualitative interviews to explore the causes of disparity and concern about cost was one of the common cited reason. Staying in public rental housing appears to be a risk marker of poorer health and this may have important public health implications. Understanding the causes of disparity will require more qualitative studies which in turn will guide interventions and the evaluation of their effectiveness in improving health outcome of this sub-population of patients.
Schrock, Joshua M; Adler, Nancy E; Epel, Elissa S; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H
African American men in the USA experience poorer aging-related health outcomes compared to their White counterparts, partially due to socioeconomic disparities along racial lines. Greater exposure to socioeconomic strains among African American men may adversely impact health and aging at the cellular level, as indexed by shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This study examined associations between socioeconomic factors and LTL among African American men in midlife, a life course stage when heterogeneity in both health and socioeconomic status are particularly pronounced. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined associations between multiple measures of SES and tertiles of LTL in a sample of 92 African American men between 30 to 50 years of age. Reports of greater financial strain were associated with higher odds of short versus medium LTL (odds ratio (OR)=2.21, p = 0.03). Higher income was associated with lower odds of short versus medium telomeres (OR=0.97, p = 0.04). Exploratory analyses revealed a significant interaction between educational attainment and employment status (χ 2 = 4.07, p = 0.04), with greater education associated with lower odds of short versus long telomeres only among those not employed (OR=0.10, p = 0.040). Cellular aging associated with multiple dimensions of socioeconomic adversity may contribute to poor aging-related health outcomes among African American men. Subjective appraisal of financial difficulty may impact LTL independently of objective dimensions of SES. Self-appraised success in fulfilling traditionally masculine gender roles, including being an economic provider, may be a particularly salient aspect of identity for African American men and have implications for cellular aging in this population.
Ayubi, Erfan; Sani, Mohadeseh; Safiri, Saeid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Nazarzadeh, Milad
The effect of socioeconomic status on adolescent smoking behaviors is unclear, and sparse studies are available about the potential association. The present study aimed to measure and explain socioeconomic inequality in smoking behavior among a sample of Iranian adolescents. In a cross-sectional survey, a multistage sample of adolescents ( n = 1,064) was recruited from high school students in Zanjan city, northwest of Iran. Principal component analysis was used to measure economic status of adolescents. Concentration index was used to measure socioeconomic inequality in smoking behavior, and then it was decomposed to reveal inequality contributors. Concentration index and its 95% confidence interval for never, experimental, and regular smoking behaviors were 0.004 [-0.03, 0.04], 0.05 [0.02, 0.11], and -0.10 [-0.04, -0.19], respectively. The contribution of economic status to measured inequality in experimental and regular smoking was 80.0% and 68.8%, respectively. Household economic status could be targeted as one of the relevant factors in the unequal distribution of smoking behavior among adolescents.
Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi; Gaurav Sharma; Avneet Oberoi
Background: It is widely accepted that there are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. A socioeconomic gradient is found in a range of clinical and self-reported oral health outcomes. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the differences in oral hygiene practices among patients from different socioeconomic status (SES) visiting the Outpatient Department of the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to Oct...
Sánchez Alvarez, M C; Gómez Ramos, M J; Cano Sánchez, A; Pacheco Guevara, R; Nicolás Hernández, M; García Alberola, A
To know HIV-AIDS patient's nutritional status in different infection's condition and their relation with the socioeconomic situation and, in that case, the nutritional condition improvement through the dietetic advice appropriated for each patient. Prospective study of 79 patients with HIV-AIDS diagnostic in any illness's condition and recopilation of anthropometrics and biochemical variables. At the beginning of the study we got data about socioeconomic situation of patient with a scale of 1 to 5 points each variable and an score top of 35. In the survivors we checked, after dietetic advice, the variables at 6 and 12 months by sanitary personal (physician and nurse) who weren't implicated in direct assistance. The study was analyzed by Student "T" for matched data and the simple correlation test. We have objectivated a lost of initial weight over their habitual's with a progressive impairment in different stage of evolution that weren't modified by dietetic advice. We didn't observed significant variations in the biochemical variables included in advances states and in parameters which are usually affected in malnutrition. In the analysis of relation between nutritional condition and socioeconomic factors, it was estimated a lesser score, that was statistically significative, in patients who had a work, family situation and an affective upset positive. The results obtained induce to think that the nutritional advices appropriated for each patient are not related, in our series, with progressive deterioration of anthropometrics variables, neither biochemical parameters fluctuations at 6, 12 months of follow-up. The patient's socioeconomic situation is not influenced by nutritional condition except for the work, affectivity and family environment.
Goodman, Elizabeth; Huang, Bin; Schafer-Kalkhoff, Tara; Adler, Nancy E.
Purpose The cognitive, social, and biological transitions of adolescence suggest that subjective perceptions of social position based on the socioeconomic hierarchy may undergo important changes during this period, yet how such perceptions develop is poorly understood and no studies assess if changes in such perceptions influence adolescents’ health. This study describes adolescents’ subjective perceptions of familial socioeconomic status (SSS), how SSS changes over time, and how age, race, and objective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators influence SSS. In addition, the study determines if SSS independently influences adolescents’ self-rated health, an important predictor of morbidity and health service utilization. Methods 1179 non-Hispanic black and white baseline 7–12th graders from a Midwestern public school district completed a validated, teen-specific measure of SSS annually for 4 consecutive years. A parent provided information on SES. Markov modeling assessed transitions in SSS over time. Results SSS declined with age (p=.001) and stabilized among older teens. In addition to age, SES and race, but not gender, were significant correlates of SSS, but the relationships between these factors were complex. In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, black teens from families with low parent education had higher SSS than white teens from similarly educated families, while white teens from highly educated families had higher SSS than black teens from highly educated families. Lower SSS and changes in SSS predicted poor self rated health even when adjusting for race and objective SES measures. Conclusion Subjective evaluations of socioeconomic status predict adolescents’ global health ratings even when adjusting for the sociodemographic factors which shape them. PMID:17950168
Meko, Lucia N M; Slabber-Stretch, Marthinette; Walsh, Corinna M; Kruger, Salome H; Nel, Mariette
The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention programmes to be planned. To determine the nutritional status of 13-15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors. Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006). This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415) completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children's weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease. Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0%) were wasted than girls (10%) and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively). Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4%) and medium (30.4%) socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1%). A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status.
Rumberger, Russell W.
One of the most important indicators of educational performance is the high school dropout rate. Reducing dropout rates and improving high school graduation rates are important goals for both educators and policymakers. Yet there is a great deal of controversy about how best to measure dropout and graduation rates. This issue of EL Facts provides estimates of dropout rates for language minority students, racial and ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups.
Tan, Cheng Yong
The present study addresses the issue of how different forms of cultural capital may influence children's mathematics achievement in economies with different socioeconomic gradients. Data from 73,178 parent-child dyads from 10 economies with different socioeconomic gradients who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment…
Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My
Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening....
Jansen, P.W.; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, J; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning
Background: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods
P.W. Jansen (Pauline); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); J. van der Ende (Jan); R. Veenstra (René); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractBackground: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school
Full Text Available Prior research suggests that socioeconomic standing during the early years of life, particularly in utero, is associated with child health. However, it is unclear whether socioeconomic benefits are only maximized at very young ages. Moreover, given the link between socioeconomic status (SES and race, research is inconclusive whether any SES benefits during those younger ages would uniformly benefit all racial and ethnic groups. Using 1986–2014 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79, this study examines the impact of socioeconomic timing on child weight outcomes by race. Specifically, this research investigates whether specific points exist where socioeconomic investment would have higher returns on child health. Findings suggest that both the timing and the type of socioeconomic exposure is important to understanding child weight status. SES, particularly mother’s employment and father’s education, is important in determining child health, and each measure is linked to weight gain differently for White, Black, and Hispanic children at specific ages. Policies such as granting more educational access for men and work-family balance for women are discussed.
Prior research suggests that socioeconomic standing during the early years of life, particularly in utero, is associated with child health. However, it is unclear whether socioeconomic benefits are only maximized at very young ages. Moreover, given the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and race, research is inconclusive whether any SES benefits during those younger ages would uniformly benefit all racial and ethnic groups. Using 1986-2014 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79), this study examines the impact of socioeconomic timing on child weight outcomes by race. Specifically, this research investigates whether specific points exist where socioeconomic investment would have higher returns on child health. Findings suggest that both the timing and the type of socioeconomic exposure is important to understanding child weight status. SES, particularly mother's employment and father's education, is important in determining child health, and each measure is linked to weight gain differently for White, Black, and Hispanic children at specific ages. Policies such as granting more educational access for men and work-family balance for women are discussed.
Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael
There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (γ01 = −0.147, p = 0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (α01 = 0.156, p = 0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high SES
Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael
There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (γ(01) = -0.147, p = 0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (α(01) = 0.156, p = 0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high
Khalaila, R N Rabia
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.
Full Text Available Grassland habitats were studied on twenty farms on the area of the Radlje ob Dravi administration unit, in the transect from Kozjak to Pohorje at different altitudes. The aim of the study was to investigate how environmental and socio-economic parameters influence the diversity of plant species and, consequently, the conservation of grassland on acid soils, which are rare in Slovenia and are therefore more protected. The socioeconomic structure of farms was studied on the basis of an inquiry carried out on farms. Part-time farms prevail; the average age of farmers is 56.5 years, and 30% of farmers has no education or just elementary school. The relationship among the environmental, socio-economic parameters and floristic structures of grasslands was studied using canonic-correspondence analysis. The impact of 16 parameters was analysed, of which six were determined not to be statistically significant. The occurrence of chosen plant species was analysed in relation to environmental and socioeconomic parameters. The efficiency of agro-environmental subsidies in relation to plant species diversity was evaluated. It was determined that the education and age of farmers influence the intensity of farming and consequently have an impact on the diversity of plants species and the conservation status of grasslands.
Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho
Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status.
Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael
This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lamidi, Esther O
According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.
Esther O Lamidi
Full Text Available According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country.I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria.Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910, I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models.The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use.Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.
Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M
It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential.
Mendoza-Pinto, C; Méndez-Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; Galindo Herrera, J; Pérez-Contreras, I; Macías-Díaz, S; Taboada-Cole, A; García-Carrasco, M
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine relationships between socioeconomic status and organ damage in Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed. Socioeconomic status was evaluated using the Graffar method and monthly household income. Lupus activity and organ damage were measured using the SLE disease activity scale, validated for the Mexican population (Mex-SLEDAI), and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) scale. The 143 Mexican female SLE patients included (mean age 40.1 ± 8.9 years, mean disease duration 8.9 ± 6.3 years) had a mean monthly household income of $ 407.2 ± 326.5. According to the Graffar index, 18.9%, 52.5%, and 28.7% had high/medium-high, medium, and medium-low/low socioeconomic status, respectively. Organ damage was observed in 61 patients (42.7%). Patients with organ damage had lower monthly household incomes ($241.4 ± 152.4 vs. $354.8 ± 288.3) and were more frequently unemployed (57.3% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.01) than those without. Low monthly income was not associated with lupus activity or self-reported health status. In the adjusted multivariate analysis, low monthly income ( < $300) was associated with organ damage. In conclusion, low income may be associated with organ damage in Mexican SLE patients. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mock, Steven E.; Arai, Susan M.
Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typ...
Chen, Weiwei; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Hill, Holly A; Yankey, David
This study examined whether additional information on parents' employment and household characteristics would help explain the differences in children's up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status using the 2008 National Immunization Survey and its associated Socioeconomic Status Module. After controlling for basic sociodemographic factors in multivariable analyses, parent's work schedules and ease of taking time off from work were not associated with UTD vaccination status among 19- to 35-month-old children. We also conducted a stratified analysis to test the heterogeneous effects of the factors among children at 3 age-restricted maternal education levels and found the benefit of paid sick leave had a significant association only among families where the mother had a college degree. Families who had moved since the child's birth, especially if the mother had high school or lower education, were less likely to have children UTD on the vaccine series.
Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain; Gauvreau, Danielle; Hanson, Heidi A.; Maloney, Thomas N.; Mazzoni, Stanislao; Molitoris, Joseph; Pozzi, Lucia; Smith, Ken R.; Vézina, Hélène
We have good knowledge of the timing of the historical fertility transitions in different regions, but we know much less regarding specific features and causes. In this study, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North America to study the relationship between socioeconomic status and fertility during the transition. Using the same analytical model and identical class scheme, we examined the development of socioeconomic differences in marital fertility and related it to common theories on fertility behaviour. Our results do not provide support for the hypothesis of universally high fertility among the upper classes in pre-transitional society but support the idea that they acted as forerunners in the transition by reducing their fertility before other groups. Farmers and unskilled workers were latest to start to limit their fertility. Apart from this regularity, the patterns of class differences in fertility varied significantly among populations. PMID:27884093
Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A
To describe the distribution of food insecurity (FI) in Mexico, from the perspective of food access and consumption, and its relationship with diverse socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012), National Income - Expense in Households Survey 2008 (ENIGH 2008), and from the National Council for Poverty Evaluation (Coneval) was gathered for this study. Food insecurity (FI) measurement was conducted by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and its relation with socioeconomic, dietetic, and nutritional variables. In Mexico one out of three households suffers food insecurity in moderate or severe degree. FI not only increases the malnutrition risk in children but also contributes to the great incidence of diabetes, overweight and obesity in adults, principally in women. To improve structural agents and factors that impact in FI in Mexico is imperative, due to the consequences that it has in the country's development.
Hein, Alexander; Rauh, Claudia; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Dammer, Ulf; Voigt, Franziska; Fasching, Peter A; Faschingbauer, Florian; Burger, Pascal; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Goecke, Tamme W
Depression during and after pregnancy can have a negative impact on women's quality of life and on the development of the newborn child. Interventions have been shown to have a positive influence on both mothers and children. Predictive factors for depressive symptoms might possibly be able to identify groups that are at high risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of socioeconomic factors in predicting depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy. Depressiveness was measured using the German version of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at three time-points, in a prospective cohort study (n = 1,100). Visit 1 (Q1) was at study entry in the third trimester of the pregnancy, visit 2 (Q2) was shortly after birth, and visit 3 (Q3) was 6-8 months after birth. Depression scores were associated with socioeconomic factors and time in linear mixed models. Parity status, education status, monthly income, residential property status, and partnership status, as well as interactions between them, were found to be predictive factors for EPDS scores. The strongest factor influencing depressive symptoms was partnership status. Women who did not have an intact partnership had EPDS scores that were on average four points higher than in women with a partner at all three study visits (P define subgroups that have different depression scores during and after pregnancy. Partnership status appears to be one of the most important influencing factors and could be useful for identifying women who should be offered an intervention to prevent possible negative effects on the mother or child.
Erica L. Kryst
Full Text Available Disparities in educational outcomes exist between students in rural areas as compared to students in urban settings. While there is some evidence that these rural disparities are present in eastern Europe, little is known about young peoples’ lives in the rural areas of this region. This paper presents an analysis of science achievement by location (rural v. urban using all available waves of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS. We examined the eighth grade data from five countries: Lithuania, Romania, the Russian Federation, Hungary, and Slovenia. Findings demonstrated that students attending rural schools had significantly lower science scores and that the rural disadvantage grew between 1995 and 2011 in some countries, but became non-significant in others. Overall, family socioeconomic status played an important role in determining the educational outcomes of rural students. The implications of these findings are explored in relation to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO 2015 Education for All goals.
Tang, Wen; Grace, Blair; McDonald, Stephen P.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Boudville, Neil C.; Brown, Fiona G.; Clayton, Philip A.; Johnson, David W.
♦ Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Associations between area SES and peritonitis risk and outcomes were examined in all non-indigenous patients who received PD in Australia between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2010 (peritonitis outcomes). SES was assessed by deciles of postcode-based Australian Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), including Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD), Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), Index of Economic Resources (IER) and Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). ♦ Results: 7,417 patients were included in the present study. Mixed-effects Poisson regression demonstrated that incident rate ratios for peritonitis were generally lower in the higher SEIFA-based deciles compared with the reference (decile 1), although the reductions were only statistically significant in some deciles (IRSAD deciles 2 and 4 – 9; IRSD deciles 4 – 6; IER deciles 4 and 6; IEO deciles 3 and 6). Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that lower probabilities of hospitalization were predicted by relatively higher SES, and lower probabilities of peritonitis-associated death were predicted by less SES disadvantage status and greater access to economic resources. No association was observed between SES and the risks of peritonitis cure, catheter removal and permanent hemodialysis (HD) transfer. ♦ Conclusions: In Australia, where there is universal free healthcare, higher SES was associated with lower risks of peritonitis-associated hospitalization and death, and a lower risk of peritonitis in some categories. PMID:24497587
Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt
The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.
Allen, L N; Townsend, Nick; Williams, Julianne; Mikkelsen, Bente; Roberts, Nia; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin
Harmful use of alcohol is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. The role of alcohol as a driver of the unfolding non-communicable disease crisis has led to high-profile calls for better epidemiological data. Despite causing a disproportionate amount of harm in low-income groups, there is a critical dearth of evidence on the intra-national socioeconomic patterning of alcohol use in low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMICs). This review aims to fill the gap, providing evidence on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol use in these low-income settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature search for primary research published between January 1, 1990 and June 30, 2015 using 13 electronic databases, including Embase and Medline. We also hand-searched references and reviewed 'gray literature' - studies that have not been published in peer-reviewed journals. We included studies from LLMICs presenting data on multiple measures of socioeconomic status and alcohol use. No age or language restrictions were applied. Due to high heterogeneity, we used a narrative approach for data synthesis. After reviewing 4242 records and 247 full-text articles, 23 studies met our inclusion criteria, reporting data on 861,295 individuals aged >10 years from 10 countries. Alcohol use was found to be more prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups in the majority of Southeast Asian studies. The association was mixed for African studies, although these tended to have smaller sample sizes and weaker methods. Studies that measured multiple domains of SES found good agreement between different indicators. Definitions of alcohol use and abuse varied widely between studies, as did socioeconomic groupings. The lack of consistency between studies and the abject lack of data from the majority of LLMICs present a major barrier to policymakers tasked with reducing alcohol-related harm in these settings. Adherence to standardized definitions, the publication of WHO
Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.
Navjot Kaur Grewal
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A large number of children are afflicted by thalassemia in India which may significantly impact their quality of life (QOL; hence, we hypothesized that there exists a strong relationship between socioeconomic status and QOL. We thus designed this study to assess QOL in adolescents diagnosed with β thalassemia major and its association with socioeconomic status. Further, we also compared the QOL and socioeconomic status between thalassemic and nonthalassemic adolescents. Materials and Methods: We recruited 35 adolescents diagnosed with β thalassemia major and 35 nonthalassemics in the age group of 10-18 years who matched in age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Selected cases and their parents were administered using PedsQL 4.0 India/Hindi questionnaire to assess QOL and modified Kuppuswamy scale to assess socioeconomic status. Results: Almost half of the thalassemic adolescents, i.e., 51.4% had poor QOL, whereas 48.6% of adolescents in control group had high QOL. There was no statistically significant association between QOL and socioeconomic status in both groups. It was observed that the difference between QOL and socioeconomic class though not significant but was more pronounced in study group (P = 0.114 than control group (P = 0.594. The receiver operating characteristic curve for QOL parameters indicated that social domain was the major contributor to poor QOL in thalassemics. Conclusion: Our study showed that thalassemic adolescents had significantly poor QOL, social domain being the major contributor as compared to nonthalassemics. We propose that provision of subsidized organized care can negate the impact of poor socioeconomic status on QOL of thalassemics.
Subramaniam, P; Singh, D
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of BMI-for-age with dental caries and socioeconomic status. A random sample of 2033 school going children aged 6-15 years were selected from ten different schools located in the south of Bangalore city. Height and weight of each child was recorded to obtain BMI-for-age. The socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed based on educational status, profession and annual income of parents. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO criteria. A diet recording sheet was given to each child to record his/her dietary intake of the four basic food groups and snacks for 5 consecutive days including one weekend day. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The results showed that a higher number of children who were overweight and at a risk of overweight were seen in the upper SES and both showed a higher mean dietary intake of all the four food groups and snacks. The mean deft score was significantly higher in underweight children. A significantly higher mean DMFT score was observed in children at risk of overweight and overweight children. Children from the upper classes consumed more food, including snacks and were either at a risk of overweight or overweight. They had more caries in their permanent dentition. Underweight children were seen in the lower class. Although their intake of snacks was less, they had higher caries in their primary dentition.
McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G
We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status.
Previous studies have demonstrated that justifying the social, economic, and political systems is associated with psychological well-being, which has been termed as the palliative function of ideology. However, little research has been conducted on gender stereotypes among children, comparing by socioeconomic status. This study aimed to fill this gap in the system justification literature. We present data from the Chilean version of the International Survey of Children Well-Being (ISCWeB), which was conducted in 2012. We found that the palliative function of gender stereotypes is present among this sample, being qualified by a socioeconomic status by hostile gender stereotype interaction. In other words, the effect on the psychological well-being was observed in low-status, but not in high-status students. These results extend the previous knowledge about the palliative function of the ideology, suggesting why the low-status members of a society actively engage in system justification. PMID:29046657
Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that justifying the social, economic, and political systems is associated with psychological well-being, which has been termed as the palliative function of ideology. However, little research has been conducted on gender stereotypes among children, comparing by socioeconomic status. This study aimed to fill this gap in the system justification literature. We present data from the Chilean version of the International Survey of Children Well-Being (ISCWeB, which was conducted in 2012. We found that the palliative function of gender stereotypes is present among this sample, being qualified by a socioeconomic status by hostile gender stereotype interaction. In other words, the effect on the psychological well-being was observed in low-status, but not in high-status students. These results extend the previous knowledge about the palliative function of the ideology, suggesting why the low-status members of a society actively engage in system justification.
Full Text Available Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status.Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d.Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, p<0.019. High Mediterranean diet adherence (KIDMED score 8-12 was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0-3. Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear p<0.001; nonlinear p = 0.010.Higher monetary daily diet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality.
Dirtya Sunyi Paradewari
Full Text Available This study explored the language attitude in terms of gender and socio-economic status (SES in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The aim of this study was to find out the relationships among five components of languages attitudes in terms of gender and socio-economic status (SES. There were 256 participants from four universities in Yogyakarta. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire about the language used and general language attitudes through the Google Form. The results showed that there are five components of language attitudes; 1 Indonesian learners showed positive language attitudes toward English (3.58; 2 positive language attitudes toward Indonesian (3.66; 3 positive language attitudes toward English and negative language attitudes toward Indonesian (3.52; 4 positive language attitudes toward Indonesian and negative language attitudes toward English (3.58; 5 positive language attitudes toward English and Indonesian (3.91. These five components of language attitudes were then correlated with gender; 1 gender was positively related to English language attitude where female learners had higher positive language attitudes than males did toward English (.097; 2 there was no relation between gender and Indonesian language attitude (-.071. In addition, SES was also related to five (5 components of language attitudes in which the learners who came from upper class had higher positive language attitudes towards English (.155 than learners who came from lower class. On the other hand, the correlation between SES and Indonesian language showed the learners from middle class had higher positive language attitudes (.031 than the learners from upper class and lower class. Keywords: language attitudes, gender, socio-economic status
Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis
Background Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d) and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d). Results Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, pdiet adherence (KIDMED score 8–12) was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d) more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0–3). Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear pdiet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality. PMID:27622518
Mostert, Saskia; Sitaresmi, Mei N; Gundy, Chad M; Sutaryo; Veerman, Anjo J P
A major reason for poor survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in developing countries is treatment refusal or abandonment. This can be associated with parental socioeconomic status and attitudes of health care providers. Our study examined the influence of 2 socioeconomic status determinants, parental income and education, on treatment in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 164 patients who received a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia between 1997 and 2002 were abstracted retrospectively. Data on treatment results and parental financial and educational background were collected. Open interviews were conducted with parents and health care providers. Of all patients, 35% refused or abandoned treatment, 23% experienced treatment-related death, 22% had progressive or relapsed leukemia, and 20% had an overall event-free survival. Treatment results differed significantly between patients with different socioeconomic status; 47% of poor and 2% of prosperous patients refused or abandoned treatment. Although poor and prosperous patients used the same protocol, the provided treatment differed. Poor patients received less individualized attention from oncologists and less structured parental education. Strong social hierarchical structures hindered communication with doctors, resulting in a lack of parental understanding of the necessity to continue treatment. Most poor patients could not afford treatment. Access to donated chemotherapy also was inadequate. Treatment refusal or abandonment frequently resulted. There was no follow-up system to detect and contact dropouts. Health care providers were not fully aware that their own attitude and communication skills were important for ensuring compliance of patients and parents. Children's survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in developing countries could improve if problems that are associated with parental financial and educational background and medical teams' attitudes to treatment and
Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R
This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 ...
Wales, Joshua; Kurahashi, Allison M; Husain, Amna
Home is a preferred place of death for many people; however, access to a home death may not be equitable. The impact of socioeconomic status on one's ability to die at home has been documented, yet there remains little literature exploring mechanisms that contribute to this disparity. By exploring the experiences and insights of physicians who provide end-of-life care in the home, this study aims to identify the factors perceived to influence patients' likelihood of home death and describe the mechanisms by which they interact with socioeconomic status. In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted interviews with 9 physicians who provide home-based care at a specialized palliative care centre. Participants were asked about their experiences caring for patients at the end of life, focusing on factors believed to impact likelihood of home death with an emphasis on socioeconomic status, and opportunities for intervention. We relied on participants' perceptions of SES, rather than objective measures. We used an inductive content analysis to identify and describe factors that physicians perceive to influence a patient's likelihood of dying at home. Factors identified by physicians were organized into three categories: patient characteristics, physical environment and support network. Patient preference for home death was seen as a necessary factor. If this was established, participants suggested that having a strong support network to supplement professional care was critical to achieving home death. Finally, safe and sustainable housing were also felt to improve likelihood of home death. Higher SES was perceived to increase the likelihood of a desired home death by affording access to more resources within each of the categories. This included better health and health care understanding, a higher capacity for advocacy, a more stable home environment, and more caregiver support. SES was not perceived to be an isolated factor impacting likelihood of home death
Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Seung Mi; Bae, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lim, Nam Gu; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo
Low socioeconomic status can increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but it remains unclear whether this negative association is attributed to inadequate prenatal care. Korea has been adopting a universal healthcare system. All Korean citizens must be enrolled National Health Insurance (NHI) or be recipient of Medical Aid (MA). In addition, Korean government launched a financial support system for antenatal care for all pregnant women in 2008. Therefore, in theory, there is no financial barrier to receive prenatal cares regardless of someone's social class. However, it is still unclear whether adverse pregnancy outcomes observed in low-income women are attributable to low SES or to economic barriers specific to the utilization of medical services. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic status affects pregnancy outcomes after the introduction of this support system, which allows all pregnant women to receive adequate prenatal care regardless of socioeconomic status. Using the National Health Insurance database in Korea, we selected women who gave birth between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010. As a proxy indicator reflecting socioeconomic status, we classified subjects as MA recipient ("low" SES) or a NHI beneficiary ("middle/high" SES). In the MA group, 29.4% women received inadequate prenatal care, compared to 11.4% in the NHI group. Mothers in the MA group were more likely to have an abortion (30.1%), rather than deliver a baby, than those in the NHI group (20.7%, P < 0.001). Mothers in the MA group were also more likely to undergo a Caesarean delivery (45.8%; NHI group: 39.6%, P < 0.001), and have preeclampsia (1.5%; NHI group: 0.6%, P < 0.001), obstetric hemorrhage (4.7%; NHI group: 3.9%, P = 0.017), and a preterm delivery (2.1%; NHI group: 1.4%, P < 0.001) than those in the NHI group. Women in the MA group tended to show higher rates of abortion, Caesarean delivery, preeclampsia, preterm delivery
Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods may have differential access to food retailers, potentially explaining the varying area-level obesity rates. The food retail environment around 188 schools across Canada was examined, including full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, donut/coffee shops, convenience stores, and grocery stores. School addresses were linked to census data to obtain area-level SES measures. Access to food retailers was generally not associated with the neighbourhood SES in the immediate proximity. Within the broader neighbourhood, lower SES neighbourhoods had access to fewer food retailers of all types. This effect was diminished after taking population density into account.
This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status. Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/19/2011.
Nandi, A K; Hossain, K J; Islam, A S
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing alarmingly with time among the young-adults in Bangladesh. The objective of the study was to investigate Sexual lifestyle, Risk Factors and Socioeconomic Status of the STD Patients. A total of 205 STD patients were selected following convenient method of sampling consistent with defined selection criteria from outpatient department of Skin and Venereal Disease of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh. Period of data collection was from July 2014 to June 2015. The research instrument was an interviewer questionnaire and laboratory investigation reports. Results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 27±5.9 years of which 104(50.7%) unmarried and 95(46.3%) married. Level of education, 168(82.0%) of the STD patients were literate. Occupation of the STD patients, 201(98.0%) had specific occupation of which 74(36.1%) were businessmen, 48(23.4%) student, 24(11.7%) technical jobs, 20(9.8%) day labourer, 15(7.3%) household workers, 14(6.8%) service holders and 6(2.9%) were transport workers. Their average monthly income was Tk. 7892±6763. Majority of the STD patients 115((56.1%) expressed that they enjoyed extra-marital sex or illegal sex out of curiosity, 32(15.6%) habitual, 24(11.7%) to test sexual performance, 18(8.8%) inadequate response of the legal sex partners, 8(3.9%) hyper-sexuality and 8(3.9%) family disharmony. Most of the patients 200(97.6%) were heterosexual of which 165(80.5%) visited 1-10 sex partners, 18(8.8%) 11-20 sex partners and 22(10.7%) visited 21-100 sex partners in lifetime. In category of sex partners, 60(29.3%) were hotel-based sex partners, 111(54.1%) brothel-based, 20(9.8%) friends sex partners, 10(4.9%) street sex sellers and 4(2.0%) were residential sex partners respectively. Of them, 132(64.4%) did not use condom during sex, 65(31.7%) use it occasionally and only 8(3.9%) use condom regularly. Most of them 170((82.8%) had been suffering from gonococcal urethritis, 19
Full Text Available Background:Childhood and adolescence injuries are still frequently occuring in developing countries. This study aims to assess the association of socio-economic status (SES with injuriesin Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This multicentricsurvey was part of a national surveillance program, which was conducted in 2011-2012 amongst 14,880 students aged6-18 years. Participants were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Socio- economic status (SES of participants was categorized to “low”, “middle” ,and “high” by using principle component analysis method by considering parental job and education as well as family assets. Prevalence, types and places of injuries were based on the questionnaire of the World Health Organization- Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS.Multivariate modelwas used for comparison of variables between SES groups. Results: Overall, 13486 out of 14880 invited students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this study.Their mean (SD age was12.47 (3.36 years.Boys and urban residents constituted the majority of participants (50.8% and 75.6%, respectively. Compared with low SES group, oddsof sport injury was higher in students with middle (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 0.92-2.26 and highSES (OR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.27-3.01. Compared to participants withlow SES,odds of home injuries was significantly lower in high SES group (OR=0.78; 95%CI: 0.64-0.95. Conclusion: This study revealedconsiderable differences in injuries of children and adolescents according to their SES, with higher prevalence of home injuries in low SES families and higher prevalence of sport injuries in middle and high SES levels. When implementing injury prevention programs, such differences should be taken into account.
Bharati, S; Pal, M; Shome, S; Roy, P; Dhara, P; Bharati, P
Obesity is fast becoming an epidemic among the urban children and it has its adverse effect on the status of health even during adulthood. In this paper an attempt is made to assess the percentage of obesity among 6-10 year children and assess the effect of different socio-economic variables and TV watching on childhood obesity. We restricted our study to primary school-going children who attended classes I-IV. The sample consisted of 5216 children from 20 different Bengali medium and English medium schools in Kolkata. Categorical logistic regression of obesity on the socio-economic factors namely type of medium school, religion, parent's education, duration of television watching etc., has been carried out. The categorical logistic regression shows the significant effect of some of the socio-economic or demographic variables including the duration of television watching on obesity. We have seen a positive association between obesity and TV watching and also between obesity and consumption of fast food. This calls for making the parents aware and taking action as early as possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Wu, Jie; Dalal, Koustuv
To identify the relationship between socioeconomic status, health system development and the incidence, prevalence and mortality of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific. Incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of tuberculosis and 20 variables of socioeconomic, health system and biological-behavioral issues were included in the study involving all 46 countries of the Asian Development Bank region (2007 data). Both univariate and multivariate linear regressions were used. The worst three tuberculosis affected countries were Cambodia, India and Indonesia, while the least affected was Australia. Tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and mortality rate were higher in countries with lower human development index, corruption perception index, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and countries with more people under minimum food supplements. Among the health system variables, total health expenditure per capita, governmental health expenditure per capita, hospital beds, and access to improved water and sanitation were strongly associated with tuberculosis. Socioeconomic determinants and health system development have significant effect on the control of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific region. The study has some policy implications by means of lowering the corruption and improving the sanitation.
Saeed, Bashiru Ii; Xicang, Zhao; Yawson, Alfred Edwin; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas N N
This study attempts to examine the impact of socioeconomic and medical conditions in health and healthcare utilization among older adults in Ghana. Five separate models with varying input variables were estimated for each response variable. Data (Wave 1 data) were drawn from the World Health Organization Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted during 2007-2008 and included a total of 4770 respondents aged 50+ and 803 aged 18-49 in Ghana. Ordered logits was estimated for self-rated health, and binary logits for functional limitation and healthcare utilization. Our results show that the study provides enough grounds for further research on the interplay between socioeconomic and medical conditions on one hand and the health of the aged on the other. Controlling for socioeconomic status substantially contributes significantly to utilization. Also, aged women experience worse health than men, as shown by functioning assessment, self-rated health, chronic conditions and functional limitations. Women have higher rates of healthcare utilization, as shown by significantly higher rates of hospitalization and outpatient encounters. Expansion of the national health insurance scheme to cover the entire older population--for those in both formal and informal employments--is likely to garner increased access and improved health states for the older population.
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.
Odéen, Magnus; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres; Leineweber, Constanze; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger
Coping has traditionally been measured with inventories containing many items meant to identify specific coping strategies. An alternative is to develop a shorter inventory that focusses on coping expectancies which may determine the extent to which an individual attempts to cope actively. This paper explores the usefulness and validity of a simplified seven-item questionnaire (Theoretically Originated Measure of the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, TOMCATS) for response outcome expectancies defined either as positive ("coping"), negative ("hopelessness"), or none ("helplessness"). The definitions are based on the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS; Ursin and Eriksen, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(5):567–92, 2004). The questionnaire was tested in two different samples. First, the questionnaire was compared with a traditional test of coping and then tested for validity in relation to socioeconomic differences in self-reported health. The first study was a comparison of the brief TOMCATS with a short version of the Utrecht Coping List (UCL; Eriksen et al., Scand J Psychol, 38(3):175–82, 1997). Both questionnaires were tested in a population of 1,704 Norwegian municipality workers. The second study was a cross-sectional analysis of TOMCATS, subjective and objective socioeconomic status, and health in a representative sample of the Swedish working population in 2003–2005 (N = 11,441). In the first study, the coping item in the TOMCATS questionnaire showed an expected significant positive correlation with the UCL factors of instrumental mastery-oriented coping and negative correlations with passive and depressive scores. There were also the expected correlations for the helplessness and hopelessness scores, but there was no clear distinction between helplessness and hopelessness in the way they correlated with the UCL. In the second study, the coping item in TOMCATS and the three-item helplessness scores showed clear and monotonous gradients over
Lohndorf, Regina T; Vermeer, Harriet J; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A; Mesman, Judi
Preschoolers' vocabulary acquisition sets the stage for later reading ability and school achievement. This study examined the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of the home environment of seventy-seven Chilean majority and Mapuche minority families from low and lower-middle-class backgrounds in explaining individual differences in vocabulary acquisition of their three-and-a-half-year-old children. Additionally, we investigated whether the relation between SES and receptive and expressive vocabulary was mediated by the quality of the home environment as the Family Investment Model suggests. The quality of the home environment significantly predicted receptive and expressive vocabulary above and beyond ethnicity, SES, parental caregiver status, and quantity of daycare. Furthermore, the quality of the home environment mediated the relation between SES and expressive and receptive vocabulary acquisition.
Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.
To provide knowledge about health status, socio-economic status and use of public health care in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, in order to improve their care during the perioperative period. Method: An epidemiological methodology was applied. The material consisted of data from...... the Registry of Health and Social Conditions and the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database on women diagnosed in 2007; this material underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Results: Data from 666 women were suitable for analysis. The majority were older, with moderate to severe systemic illness...... and a tendency to be overweight. Many had a low educational level, were retired, and lived alone with few financial resources. The quality of the surgical treatment had improved in terms of centralisation and staging procedures. Conclusions: As a group the women proved to be in a vulnerable position in terms...
Klanšček, Helena Jeriček; Ziberna, Janina; Korošec, Aleš; Zurc, Joca; Albreht, Tit
Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents' mental health status in Slovenia in the future.
Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Importance Many children in the US and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972–73 birth cohort from New Zealand, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, followed to age 38 years (December, 2012). Exposure Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood-lead levels measured at 11 years. High blood-lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range 40–160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006, (NZSEI-06; range 10=lowest-90=highest). Results Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean blood-lead level at 11 years was 10.99μg/dL (SD=4.63). Among blood-tested participants included at 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (SD=14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (SD=17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5μg/dL higher level of blood-lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95%CI:−2.48, −0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95%CI: −3.14, −1.01) in Perceptual Reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95%CI: −2.38, −0.14) in Working Memory. Lead
Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. A prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (until December 2012). Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood lead levels measured at age 11 years. High blood lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at age 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range, 40-160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at age 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006 (NZSEI-06; range, 10 [lowest]-90 [highest]). Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at age 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at age 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean (SD) blood lead level at age 11 years was 10.99 (4.63) µg/dL. Among blood-tested participants included at age 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95% CI, -2.48 to -0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95% CI, -3.14 to -1.01) in perceptual reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95% CI, -2.38 to -0.14) in working memory. Associations of childhood blood lead level with deficits in
Froment, Marie-Anne; Gomez, Scarlett L; Roux, Audrey; DeRouen, Mindy C; Kidd, Elizabeth A
This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cervical cancer by nativity [United States (US) versus non-US], neighborhood socioeconomic status and ethnic enclave among Hispanics and Asians in California. Using data from the California Cancer Registry, information on all primary invasive cervical cancer (Cca) patients diagnosed in California from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2004 was obtained. We analyzed the influence of enclave, socioeconomic status and nativity on Cca incidence. Among the 22,189 Cca cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2004, 50% were non-Hispanic white, 39% Hispanic and 11% Asian women, and 63% US-born. Seventy percent of the Cca cases were squamous cell carcinoma, 19% adenocarcinoma and 11% other histologies. Higher incidence of Cca was observed in high enclave (76%) and low socioeconomic status (70%) neighborhoods. By ethnic group, US-born women showed lower rates of squamous cell carcinoma compared to foreign-born women. Hispanics living in low socioeconomic and high enclave had 12.7 times higher rate of Cca than those living in high socioeconomic, low enclave neighborhoods. For Asian women incidence rates were 6 times higher in the low socioeconomic, high enclave neighborhoods compared to those living in high socioeconomic, low enclave neighborhoods. More targeted outreach to increase Pap smear screening and human papilloma virus vaccination for women living in high enclave neighborhoods can help decrease the incidence of Cca in these groups of women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how Thai women of low socioeconomic status handle their type 2 diabetes. Methods: A qualitative interpretative method was used to study 19 women with type 2 diabetes in a suburban community in Thailand. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and were analysed using inductive and constructive processes. Results: Participants’ lives underwent many changes between their initial diagnoses and later stages when they became adept at handling diabetes. Two themes emerged, which involved (1 the transition to handling diabetes and (2 the influences of the social environment. The first theme encompassed confronting the disease, reaching a turning point in the process of adaptation and developing expertise in handling diabetes. The second theme involved threats of loss of status and empowerment by families. These findings showed that becoming adept at handling diabetes required significant changes in women’s behaviours and required taking advantage of influences from the social environment. Conclusion: The process of developing expertise in handling diabetes was influenced by both inner and outer factors that required adjustment to learn to live with diabetes. Furthermore, the reductions found in women’s social statuses when they become patients in the healthcare system might pose a barrier to women of low socioeconomic status becoming adept at handling diabetes. However, the experiences of empowerment received from the women’s families acted as a powerful strategy to strengthen their handling of the disease. To develop accessible and sensitive health care for this population, it is important to pay attention to these findings.
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better
Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda
In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045
Full Text Available In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p=0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378 and microcredit membership (p=0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386. Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p<0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460 were more likely to be anemic.
Erhunmwunsee, Loretta; Gulack, Brian C; Rushing, Christel; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Berry, Mark F; Hartwig, Matthew G
Black patients with esophageal cancer have worse survival than white patients. This study examines this racial disparity in conjunction with socioeconomic status (SES) and explores whether race-based outcome differences exist using a national database. The associations between race and SES with overall survival of patients treated with esophagectomy for stages I to III esophageal cancer between 2003 and 2011 in the National Cancer Data Base were investigated using the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazards analyses. Median income by zip code and proportion of the zip code residents without a high school diploma were grouped into income and education quartiles, respectively and used as surrogates for SES. The association between race and overall survival stratified by SES is explored. Of 11,599 esophagectomy patients who met study criteria, 3,503 (30.2%) were in the highest income quartile, 2,847 (24.5%) were in the highest education quartile, and 610 patients (5%) were black. Before adjustment for SES, black patients had worse overall survival than white patients (median survival 23.0 versus 34.7 months, log rank p race was not. Prior studies have suggested that survival of esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy is associated with race. Our study suggests that race is not significantly related to overall survival when adjusted for other prognostic variables. Socioeconomic status, however, remains significantly related to overall survival in our model. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh
To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.
Full Text Available Aim: In Korea, obesity is more prevalent among men and lower socioeconomic groups. To explain this obesity disparity, we compared weight perception and weight control behavior across gender and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods: We analyzed data from 16,260 participants aged 20 years or older in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. SES indicators included education and income levels. Weight under-perception was defined when participants considered themselves lighter than their measured BMI status. Either no active or inappropriate weight control (i.e., trying to gain weight in obese individuals was considered to be unhealthy patterns. Multivariate prevalence ratios were calculated using log-binomial regressions. Results: Men had a higher prevalence of weight under-perception (24.5 vs. 11.9% and unhealthy patterns of weight control behavior (57 vs. 40% than women. Low education level was associated with weight under-perception (ptrend = 0.022 in men, ptrend trend trend = 0.047 in men, ptrend Conclusion: Weight perception and weight control behavior significantly varied by gender and SES. Public actions should be directed toward improving perception and behavior of high-risk populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance, showering-bathing practices, and socioeconomic status (education, income was collected through personal interviews. Results The most highly educated subjects consumed less tap water (57% and more bottled water (33% than illiterate subjects (69% and 17% respectively, p-value = 0.003. These differences became wider in recent time periods. The time spent bathing or showering was positively correlated with attained educational level (p Conclusions The most highly educated subjects were less exposed to chlorination by-products through ingestion but more exposed through dermal contact and inhalation in pools and showers/baths. Health risk perceptions and economic capacity may affect patterns of water consumption that can result in differences in exposure to water contaminants.
Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan
The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.
Elliot, Ari J; Chapman, Benjamin P
Our objective was to investigate interactions of psychological resources and socioeconomic status (SES)-as well as potential gender differences and the explanatory role of childhood and adult stress exposures, health behaviors, and negative and positive affect-in predicting markers of systemic inflammation. We utilized a sample of adults from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study who provided biomarker data (N = 1,152). SES was operationalized as a composite of education, income, and occupational prestige, and the psychological resources construct was operationalized as a latent factor measured with optimism, perceived control, and self-esteem. Linear regression models examined these 2 factors and their interaction in predicting interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured on average 2 years later, as well as 3-way interactions involving gender and the impact of covariate adjustment. Psychological resources interacted with SES in men (for IL-6: p low SES was moderately attenuated upon adjustment for negative affect. Socioeconomic status might modulate the linkage between psychological resources and systemic inflammation in men. At lower levels of SES, resources may be related to lower inflammation in part through lower negative affect. Associations with higher inflammation at higher SES add to growing evidence suggesting that adaptive psychological characteristics may be associated with markers of poorer physiological function under certain conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Cleal, B.; Hannerz, Harald; Poulsen, K.
Aims: To contribute to the research on diabetes and social inequality by presenting national data on incident diabetes mellitus, stratified according to socio-economic status. Methods: National registers were combined, linking socio-economic status with incident diabetes over a 10-year period (2001...... had been as low as those in the reference group. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate 95% CIs for excess fraction estimates Results: A total of 1 005 572 men and 951 039 women were included in the analysis. The follow-up yielded 43 439 cases in 9 533 199 person-years at risk among men and 29...... 266 cases in 9 163 405 person-years at risk among women. Using 'professionals' as a reference group, higher levels of relative risk were observed among every other socio-occupational group. The excess fraction was, 0.342 (95% CI 0.329-0.354) among men and 0.359 (95% CI 0.349-0.369) among women...
Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert
The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered.
Richman, Aliza D
Disadvantaged social statuses, such as being female, poor, or a minority, are associated with increased psychosocial stress and elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of chronic inflammation and indicator of cardiovascular health. Individuals' experience of embodying psychosocial stress revolves around the multiplicative effects of concurrent gender, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic identities. This study expands on prior research by examining chronic inflammation at the intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age group to understand which demographic subgroups in society are most vulnerable to the cumulative effects of social disadvantage. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, the findings reveal inflammation disparities between non-poor whites and the following demographic subgroups, net of sociodemographic and biological factors: young poor Hispanic women, young poor white men, young poor and non-poor Hispanic men, middle-aged poor and non-poor black women, middle-aged poor and non-poor black men, and middle-aged poor Hispanic men. Disparities in inflammation on account of social disadvantage are most evident among those aged 45-64 years and diminish for those 65 and older in both men and women.
José Wesley dos Santos Alves
Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers customers of a social restaurant in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 156 individuals, 71 (45.5% men and 85 (54.5% women, aged between 19 and 59 years. The variables analyzed were: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, history of chronic diseases, alcoholism, smoking and physical activity, family income, education and food intake of a subsample. Theadequacy of consumption was assessed by observing the recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and nutritional requirements of the Workers’ Food Program.Results: We observed high prevalence of overweight 49 (31.4% and obesity 18 (11.5%, high rate of physical inactivity 109 (69.9%. Alcohol is often consumed weekly by 27(17.4%. 111 (71.2% of individuals studied until high school; and 104 (66.7% belonged to socioeconomic class C. 136 (87,2% showed no personal history of chronic diseases, or practice of smoking. Dietary intake adequacy revealed adequacy for macronutrients, fiber, saturated fats and micronutrients, with excessive sodium intake. Conclusion: Nutritional status was characterized as high prevalence of overweight and obesity, associated with a high abdominal adiposity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and socioeconomicprofile predominantly C1 and C2. Although the present study shows an adequate intake of micronutrients and macronutrients, there are excessive caloric intake, based on profile of physical inactivity and overweight.
Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda; Feng, Zhanchun
In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036-1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037-1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981-2.460) were more likely to be anemic.
Full Text Available Without third-party insurance, access to marketed drugs is limited to those who can afford to pay. We examined this phenomenon in the context of anticoagulation for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF.To determine whether, among older Ontarians receiving anticoagulation for NVAF, patients of higher socioeconomic status (SES were more likely to switch from warfarin to dabigatran prior to its addition to the provincial formulary.Population-based retrospective cohort study of Ontarians aged 66 years and older, between 2008 and 2012.Socioeconomic status, as approximated by median neighborhood income.We identified two groups of older adults with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: those who appeared to switch from warfarin to dabigatran after its market approval but prior to its inclusion on the provincial formulary ("switchers", and those with ongoing warfarin use during the same interval ("non-switchers".We studied 34,797 patients, including 3183 "switchers" and 31,614 "non-switchers". We found that higher SES was associated with switching to dabigatran prior to its coverage on the provincial formulary (p<0.0001. In multivariable analysis, subjects in the highest quintile were 50% more likely to switch to dabigatran than those in the lowest income quintile (11.3% vs. 7.3%; adjusted odds ratio 1.50; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.68. Following dabigatran's addition to the formulary, the income gradient disappeared.We documented socioeconomic inequality in access to dabigatran among patients receiving warfarin for NVAF. This disparity was eliminated following the drug's addition to the provincial formulary, highlighting the importance of timely reimbursement decisions.
Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H
One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Demirtaş, Ö; Demirtaş, G; Hurşitoğlu, B S; Terzi, H; Şekerci, Z; Ök, N
We aimed to determine whether grand multiparity is a risk factor for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of lower socioeconomic status. We conducted a single center study between February 2012 and February 2013 on 50-60 year old postmenopausal women of lower socioeconomic status without a history of medical disease. Women with a body mass index (BMI) between 20 and 25 were included in the study. The grand multiparous group (group A) consisted of 38 women with 10 or more deliveries. Women with a history of three or fewer deliveries composed the control group (group B). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur neck and lumbar spine (L1-L4). The mean ages of groups A and B were found to be 54.3 ± 2.5 and 53.1 ± 2.7 years, respectively. Average parity in groups A and B was 11.1 ± 1.7 and 2.4 ± 0.7, respectively. Time since the onset of menopause was 3.6 ± 2.7 years in group A and 6.0 ± 2.9 in group B. The prevalence of osteoporosis was similar in both groups (71.1%-81.4%, p = 0.273). We found that grand multiparity was an ineffective indicator of either femoral or lumbar osteoporosis (p = 0.87 and p = 0.26), but osteoporosis five years after the onset of menopause was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.02). The duration of menopause is an independent risk factor of osteoporosis. However, the number of pregnancies is neither a determinant nor a protective factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women coming from a low socioeconomic background.
Stone, Michelle R; Faulkner, Guy E; Mitra, Raktim; Buliung, Ron
A child's opportunity for physical activity and the safety of engaging in activity are influenced by built environment (BE) elements. This study examined the relationship of neighbourhood type and socio-economic status (SES) with activity using a sampling frame that purposely located schools in varying neighbourhoods to ensure that there was variability in BE characteristics and SES. Participants (1,027 Grade 5 & 6 students, Toronto, ON) were drawn from 16 schools that varied by neighbourhood type (pre-1946 "old/urban BE" with grid-based street layout versus post-1946 "new/inner-suburban BE" with looping street layout) and socio-economic status (low and high SES). Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry for seven days. Only children living within 1.6 km of school were included in the analyses (n=713; boys=339, girls=374). Generalized linear mixed models examined sex-specific differences in physical activity across four geographic stratifications: old BE, low-SES (OL); old BE, high-SES (OH); new BE, low-SES (NL); and new BE, high-SES (NH). Children who attended schools in more affluent neighbourhoods (urban and inner-suburban) had more positive physical activity profiles. Across school days, boys were more active in inner-suburban neighbourhoods whereas urban and inner-suburban girls' activity levels were similar. On the weekend, the influence of the neighbourhood environment was stronger, especially for girls and also for boys with respect to total activity and the accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. These findings focus attention on the need to consider the broader social and temporal contexts of specific geographic locations when planning and implementing built environment interventions to increase physical activity among children.
Winter, Julia; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Ladda, Annett; Pieper, Klaus
Children in a German region took part in regular toothbrushing with fluoride gel during their time in primary school after having received a preventive program in kindergarten. The study aimed at determining the dental health of the students as a function of prevention in kindergarten and at school while taking into account their socioeconomic status and other confounders. The subjects were in six groups: groups 1 and 2, intensive prevention in kindergarten with and without fluoride gel at school; groups 3 and 4, basic prevention in kindergarten with and without fluoride gel at school; groups 5 and 6, no organized prevention in kindergarten with and without fluoride gel at school. Two dental examinations were performed for assessing caries experience and calculating caries increment from second grade (7-year-olds) to fourth grade (9-year-olds). A standardized questionnaire was used to record independent variables. To compare caries scores and preventive measures of various subgroups, non-parametric tests and a binary logistic regression analysis were performed. A significant difference was found in the mean decayed, missing, and filled tooth/teeth (DMFT) depending on socioeconomic status (no prevention in kindergarten, fluoride gel at school in children with low SES: DMFT = 0.47 vs. DMFT = 0.18 in children with high SES; p = 0.023). Class-specific differences were no longer visible among children who had taken part in an intensive preventive program combining daily supervised toothbrushing in kindergarten and application of fluoride gel in school. Early prevention, focusing on professionally supported training of toothbrushing in kindergarten and at school, has a positive effect on dental health and is able to reduce class-specific differences in caries distribution. Early training of toothbrushing and fissure sealing of first permanent molars are the most important factors for the dental health of primary school children.
Otero, Manuel Souto
The article focuses on the financial issues and family background of Erasmus students. It examines the costs of Erasmus study periods in the academic year 2004/05 and the socio-economic background of Erasmus students that year, based on over 15000 survey responses. Results are compared with those of a similar survey undertaken in 1998 to track…
Gokhale, Niraj; Nuvvula, Sivakumar
In the contemporary scenario of both parents employed, there seems to be limited focus on the dietary habits and dental health of their children. Hence, we attempted to correlate the socioeconomic and working status of the parents to the incidence of their children's dental caries. One thousand school children aged between 3 and 12 years were enrolled in the study. Socioeconomic and working status of their parents was obtained by a pretested questionnaire following which these children were examined for their dental caries status. The data collected were statistically analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculation of odds ratio. A significant correlation was observed between working status of the parents and dental caries status of their children. Though, the socioeconomic status and dental caries had a weak correlation, the odds ratio was high, indicating that the children of lower socioeconomic status or family with both parents employed were at a higher risk for dental caries. Efforts are needed to implement programs at the school level to enhance the oral and dental health among children, as parental responsibilities toward this maybe inadequate due to economic or time constraints.
Attanasio, Laura B; Hardeman, Rachel R; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Kjerulff, Kristen H
Researchers documenting persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status disparities in chances of cesarean delivery have speculated that women's birth attitudes and preferences may partially explain these differences, but no studies have directly tested this hypothesis. We examined whether women's prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery differed by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, and whether attitudes were differently related to delivery mode depending on race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Data were from the First Baby Study, a cohort of 3006 women who gave birth to a first baby in Pennsylvania between 2009 and 2011. We used regression models to examine (1) predictors of prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery, and (2) the association between prenatal attitudes and actual delivery mode. To assess moderation, we estimated models adding interaction terms. Prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery were not associated with race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Positive attitudes toward vaginal delivery were associated with lower odds of cesarean delivery (AOR=0.60, P socioeconomic status women may be more able to realize their preferences in childbirth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Our objective was to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status and subjective social class on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) vs. overall quality of life (QOL). We performed a longitudinal analysis using data regarding 8250 individuals drawn from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). We analyzed differences between HRQOL and QOL in individuals of various socioeconomic strata (high, middle, or low household income and education levels) and subjective social classes (high, middle, or low) at baseline (2009). Individuals with low household incomes and of low subjective social class had the highest probability of reporting discrepant HRQOL and QOL scores (B: 4.796; P socioeconomic status. In conclusion, both household income/subjective social class and education/subjective social class were found to have an impact on the degree of divergence between QOL and HRQOL. Therefore, in designing interventions, socioeconomic inequalities should be taken into account through the use of multi-dimensional measurement tools.
Full Text Available Olarinde Jeffrey Ogunmola,1 Yusuf Olatunji Oladosu,2 Michael Adeyemi Olamoyegun31Cardiac Care Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, 3Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Ladoke-Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: There is a scarcity of data in rural health centers in Nigeria regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and HIV infection. We investigated this relationship using indicators of SES.Methods: An analytical case-control study was conducted in the HIV clinic of a rural tertiary health center. Data collection included demographic variables, educational attainment, employment status, monthly income, marital status, and religion. HIV was diagnosed by conventional methods. Data were analyzed with the SPSS version 16 software.Results: A total of 115 (48.5% HIV-negative subjects with a mean age of 35.49±7.63 years (range: 15–54 years, and 122 (51.5% HIV-positive subjects with a mean age of 36.35±8.31 years (range: 15–53 years were involved in the study. Participants consisted of 47 (40.9% men and 68 (59.1% women who were HIV negative. Those who were HIV positive consisted of 35 (28.7% men and 87 (71.3% women. Attainment of secondary school levels of education, and all categories of monthly income showed statistically significant relationships with HIV infection (P=0.018 and P<0.05, respectively after analysis using a logistic regression model. Employment status did not show any significant relationship with HIV infection.Conclusion: Our findings suggested that some indicators of SES are differently related to HIV infection. Prevalent HIV infections are now concentrated among those with low incomes. Urgent measures to improve HIV prevention among low income earners are