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Sample records for student responses revealed

  1. Student Rights and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today's Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Article summarizes National Education Association pamphlet. As citizens, students should have full protection of Bill of Rights, due process, protection from illegal search or seizure. As clients of institution, should have substantial influence on how institutions affect their lives. Proper disciplinary procedures for minor and major infractions…

  2. Student-Led Conferences: Students Taking Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauss, Sherri A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the many challenges that face middle grade students, parents, and teachers is the student's lack of ownership of their academic achievements. Student-led conferences are a unique way to engage the student and the parent in the academic progress. Parents and teachers discuss the student's attitude toward the work, the student's work ethic in…

  3. "Responsibility in Mobility": International Students and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi; Vu, Thao Thi Phuong

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the educational experience and social connectedness for international students is the responsibility of different involved parties among whom international students themselves and host institutions play a key role. However, the question of how the condition of cross-border mobility has shaped and re-shaped international students'…

  4. Measuring student responsibility in Physical Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire (CSRQ) and Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) were developed to meausre student responsibility within the field of physical education. In the present study, the factor structure of the CSRQ and PSRQ was examined. Unlike previous structure ...

  5. Citizenship Engagement: Responses from High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Leisa A.

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, the main mission of social studies education is to prepare students for citizenship. With this in mind, the following study examined 191 high school students’ views on how they demonstrated citizenship. Traditionally with this age group, personally responsible citizenship has been a common form of self-reported citizenship engagement. However, in this study, the students seemed to conceptualize citizenship differently. With the Akwesasne Mohawk students, the European Ame...

  6. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  7. Students' Responses to Teacher Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Thomas C.

    1972-01-01

    In an investigation of the effects of praise, negative comment and no comment on expository compositions of eleventh grade students, author hypothesized that praise might increase motivation more than criticism or no comment. He suggests an experiment to test this phypothesis. (NL)

  8. Sticks, Stones, and Stigma: Student Bystander Behavior in Response to Hearing the Word "Retard"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Avery B.; Jacobs, Holly E.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the prevalence of the r-word in schools and students' bystander behavior in response to hearing the word. In total, 2,297 students from 12 high schools across the country participated in this study. Results revealed the r-word was used frequently among high school students, most often toward individuals without…

  9. Ninth Grade Student Responses to Authentic Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Michael Steven

    This mixed methods case study documents an effort to implement authentic science and engineering instruction in one teacher's ninth grade science classrooms in a science-focused public school. The research framework and methodology is a derivative of work developed and reported by Newmann and others (Newmann & Associates, 1996). Based on a working definition of authenticity, data were collected for eight months on the authenticity in the experienced teacher's pedagogy and in student performance. Authenticity was defined as the degree to which a classroom lesson, an assessment task, or an example of student performance demonstrates construction of knowledge through use of the meaning-making processes of science and engineering, and has some value to students beyond demonstrating success in school (Wehlage et al., 1996). Instruments adapted for this study produced a rich description of the authenticity of the teacher's instruction and student performance. The pedagogical practices of the classroom teacher were measured as moderately authentic on average. However, the authenticity model revealed the teacher's strategy of interspersing relatively low authenticity instructional units focused on building science knowledge with much higher authenticity tasks requiring students to apply these concepts and skills. The authenticity of the construction of knowledge and science meaning-making processes components of authentic pedagogy were found to be greater, than the authenticity of affordances for students to find value in classroom activities beyond demonstrating success in school. Instruction frequently included one aspect of value beyond school, connections to the world outside the classroom, but students were infrequently afforded the opportunity to present their classwork to audiences beyond the teacher. When the science instruction in the case was measured to afford a greater level of authentic intellectual work, a higher level of authentic student performance on

  10. Social anxiety experiences and responses of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behiye Akacan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the responses of university students in social anxiety situations in order to create a psychological counselling program with a structured group based on Cognitive Behavioural and Existential Approaches. These responses involve the behaviour and thoughts of the university students in situations where they experience or anticipate social anxiety. The semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers was used in the study during the face-to-face interviews with fifty-one 4th year students from the Guidance and Psychological Counselling (GPC and Pre-School Teaching (PST departments. The scope of the interview form includes the situations where 1 students experience social anxiety in the school setting and their thoughts and behaviours regarding these situations, 2 the situations where they anticipate social anxiety in their future profession, and 3 the situations where they experience social anxiety in their daily lives. Our aim was to collect data from these areas. The data collected were analysed through content analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the thoughts regarding the social anxiety situations of the final year students studying in Guidance and Psychological Counselling and Pre-School Teaching departments are generally negative and their behaviour usually presents as desertion or avoidance.

  11. Field trip method as an effort to reveal student environmental literacy on biodiversity issue and context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, M.; Saefudin; Amprasto

    2018-05-01

    Field trip method through investigation of local biodiversity cases can give educational experiences for students. This learning activity was efforts to reveal students environmental literacy on biodiversity. The aim of study were (1) to describe the activities of students get information about the biodiversity issue and its context through field trip, (2) to describe the students findings during field trip, and (3) to reveal students environmental literacy based on pre test and post test. The research method used weak-experiment and involved 34 participants at senior high school students in Bandung-Indonesia. The research instruments for collecting data were environmental literacy test, observation sheets and questionnaire sheets for students. The analysis of data was quantitative descriptive. The results show that more than 79% of the students gave positive view for each field trip activity, i.e students activity during work (97%-100%); students activity during gather information (79%- 100%); students activity during exchange information with friend (82%-100%); and students interested to Biodiversity after field trip activity (85%-100%). Students gain knowledge about the diversity of animal vertebrate and its characteristics, the status and condition of animals, and the source of animal with the cases of animal diversity. The students environmental literacy tends to be moderate level based on test. Meanwhile, the average of the attitudes and action greater than the components of knowledge and cognitive skills.

  12. The Development and Validation of the Student Response System Benefit Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, J. F.; Denker, K. J.; Summers, M. E.; Parker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research into the benefits student response systems (SRS) that have been brought into the classroom revealed that SRS can contribute positively to student experiences. However, while the benefits of SRS have been conceptualized and operationalized into a widely cited scale, the validity of this scale had not been tested. Furthermore,…

  13. Determining the Response Behaviors of Middle School Students for Open-Ended Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Tuğçe ŞİMŞEK

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When the literature for measurement and evaluation in education is reviewed, research related to student achievement are mainly outcome-oriented rather than process-oriented. Researchers pay attention to the responses that a student constructs or chooses, and ignore the cognitive processes that forces students to construct or choose that specific response. Recognizing the cognitive processes a student uses in responding to a question affects the item construction process and psychometric audit on items. Response behavior is a result of a cognitive process used to respond to a question and is accepted as an indicator of student cognitive competence. This study aims to determine the students’ response behaviors for open-ended questions. The study group consisted of 70 students from the 5th grade studying during the 2015-2016 education year spring term in the Cankaya and Mamak districts of Ankara province, Turkey. An authentic achievement test which consisted of eight open-ended questions is used as the data collection tool. Students are asked to write in detail how they construct their response in their mind in the blank space set aside after each question. Data is analyzed via grouping students’ response behaviors and expert opinions. Research findings revealed that students perform 14 different response behaviors for open-ended questions. These behaviors are themed as responses constructed directly from the text, responses constructed by interpreting the text, and responses constructed by linking real life and the text.

  14. Visualising the invisible: a network approach to reveal the informal social side of student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J; Rienties, B; de Grave, W; Bos, G; Schuwirth, L; Scherpbier, A

    2012-12-01

    World-wide, universities in health sciences have transformed their curriculum to include collaborative learning and facilitate the students' learning process. Interaction has been acknowledged to be the synergistic element in this learning context. However, students spend the majority of their time outside their classroom and interaction does not stop outside the classroom. Therefore we studied how informal social interaction influences student learning. Moreover, to explore what really matters in the students learning process, a model was tested how the generally known important constructs-prior performance, motivation and social integration-relate to informal social interaction and student learning. 301 undergraduate medical students participated in this cross-sectional quantitative study. Informal social interaction was assessed using self-reported surveys following the network approach. Students' individual motivation, social integration and prior performance were assessed by the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Adaption Questionnaire and students' GPA respectively. A factual knowledge test represented student' learning. All social networks were positively associated with student learning significantly: friendships (β = 0.11), providing information to other students (β = 0.16), receiving information from other students (β = 0.25). Structural equation modelling revealed a model in which social networks increased student learning (r = 0.43), followed by prior performance (r = 0.31). In contrast to prior literature, students' academic motivation and social integration were not associated with students' learning. Students' informal social interaction is strongly associated with students' learning. These findings underline the need to change our focus from the formal context (classroom) to the informal context to optimize student learning and deliver modern medics.

  15. Education of Social Responsibility among Sports Schools Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas K.; Juodsnukis, Dalius R.

    2017-01-01

    Research aim was to analyze peculiarities of education of social responsibility among football sports school students. We hypothesized that after the educational program sport school students will have more developed social responsibility. The total sample comprised 52 male students. Experimental group consisted of 26 and the control group of 26…

  16. What boxing-related stimuli reveal about response behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Giovanni; Russo, Gabriele; Tessari, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    When two athletes meet inside the ropes of the boxing ring to fight, their cognitive systems have to respond as quickly as possible to a manifold of stimuli to assure victory. In the present work, we studied the pre-attentive mechanisms, which form the basis of an athlete's ability in reacting to an opponent's punches. Expert boxers, beginner boxers and people with no experience of boxing performed a Simon-like task where they judged the colour of the boxing gloves worn by athletes in attack postures by pressing two lateralised keys. Although participants were not instructed to pay attention to the direction of the punches, beginner boxers' responses resembled a defence-related pattern, expert boxers' resembled counterattacks, whereas non-athletes' responses were not influenced by the unrelated task information. Results are discussed in the light of an expertise-related action simulation account.

  17. Bmp indicator mice reveal dynamic regulation of transcriptional response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Javier

    Full Text Available Cellular responses to Bmp ligands are regulated at multiple levels, both extracellularly and intracellularly. Therefore, the presence of these growth factors is not an accurate indicator of Bmp signaling activity. While a common approach to detect Bmp signaling activity is to determine the presence of phosphorylated forms of Smad1, 5 and 8 by immunostaining, this approach is time consuming and not quantitative. In order to provide a simpler readout system to examine the presence of Bmp signaling in developing animals, we developed BRE-gal mouse embryonic stem cells and a transgenic mouse line that specifically respond to Bmp ligand stimulation. Our reporter identifies specific transcriptional responses that are mediated by Smad1 and Smad4 with the Schnurri transcription factor complex binding to a conserved Bmp-Responsive Element (BRE, originally identified among Drosophila, Xenopus and human Bmp targets. Our BRE-gal mES cells specifically respond to Bmp ligands at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml; and BRE-gal reporter mice, derived from the BRE-gal mES cells, show dynamic activity in many cellular sites, including extraembryonic structures and mammary glands, thereby making this a useful scientific tool.

  18. Student Responses Toward Student Worksheets Based on Discovery Learning for Students with Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerizon, Y.; Putra, A. A.; Subhan, M.

    2018-04-01

    Students have a low mathematical ability because they are used to learning to hear the teacher's explanation. For that students are given activities to sharpen his ability in math. One way to do that is to create discovery learning based work sheet. The development of this worksheet took into account specific student learning styles including in schools that have classified students based on multiple intelligences. The dominant learning styles in the classroom were intrapersonal and interpersonal. The purpose of this study was to discover students’ responses to the mathematics work sheets of the junior high school with a discovery learning approach suitable for students with Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligence. This tool was developed using a development model adapted from the Plomp model. The development process of this tools consists of 3 phases: front-end analysis/preliminary research, development/prototype phase and assessment phase. From the results of the research, it is found that students have good response to the resulting work sheet. The worksheet was understood well by students and its helps student in understanding the concept learned.

  19. Transcriptional profiling in response to terminal drought stress reveals differential responses along the wheat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Francesco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water stress during grain filling has a marked effect on grain yield, leading to a reduced endosperm cell number and thus sink capacity to accumulate dry matter. The bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS, a Chinese Spring terminal deletion line (CS_5AL-10 and the durum wheat cultivar Creso were subjected to transcriptional profiling after exposure to mild and severe drought stress at the grain filling stage to find evidences of differential stress responses associated to different wheat genome regions. Results The transcriptome analysis of Creso, CS and its deletion line revealed 8,552 non redundant probe sets with different expression levels, mainly due to the comparisons between the two species. The drought treatments modified the expression of 3,056 probe sets. Besides a set of genes showing a similar drought response in Creso and CS, cluster analysis revealed several drought response features that can be associated to the different genomic structure of Creso, CS and CS_5AL-10. Some drought-related genes were expressed at lower level (or not expressed in Creso (which lacks the D genome or in the CS_5AL-10 deletion line compared to CS. The chromosome location of a set of these genes was confirmed by PCR-based mapping on the D genome (or the 5AL-10 region. Many clusters were characterized by different level of expression in Creso, CS and CS_AL-10, suggesting that the different genome organization of the three genotypes may affect plant adaptation to stress. Clusters with similar expression trend were grouped and functional classified to mine the biological mean of their activation or repression. Genes involved in ABA, proline, glycine-betaine and sorbitol pathways were found up-regulated by drought stress. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of a set of transposons and retrotransposons was detected in CS_5AL-10. Conclusion Bread and durum wheat genotypes were characterized by a different physiological reaction to water

  20. The Effect of Accounting Question Response Formats on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonick, Christine; Schneider, Jennifer; Boylan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of different response formats on student performance on introductory accounting exam questions. The study analyzes 1104 accounting students' responses to quantitative questions presented in two formats: multiple-choice and fill-in. Findings indicate that response format impacts student…

  1. Exploring the Musical Taste of Expert Listeners: Musicology Students reveal Tendency towards Omnivorous Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eElvers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n=1003 completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: The first cluster (51% musicology students / 27% controls showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency towards »sophisticated« musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students / 46% controls exhibited an interest in »conventional« music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students / 27% controls showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge towards musical omnivorousness.

  2. Increasing Opportunities for Student Responding: Response Cards in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helf, Shawnna

    2015-01-01

    Response cards are designed to encourage active student engagement during instruction. In this article, the use of response cards is described, along with ways teachers can use the information to inform their work and considerations for implementation.

  3. Using Analytics to Nudge Student Responsibility for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, John

    2017-01-01

    To scale student success, institutions may want to consider treating students more as partners, not just as customers or intervention recipients. One way to do so is sharing behavioral and academic feedback data that helps nudge students into taking responsibility for learning. The following chapter is drawn from the author's dissertation work…

  4. Response to Intervention with Older Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the literacy needs of secondary school students involves efforts to raise the achievement levels of all students and to address specifically the needs of struggling readers. One approach to this problem is to consider the application of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model with older students. We describe an approach to enhanced…

  5. Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery by Using Total Physical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrurrozi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe how Total Physical Response improves students' vocabulary learning outcomes at the third-grade elementary school Guntur 03 South Jakarta, Indonesia. This research was conducted in the first semester of the academic year 2015-2016 with the number of students as many as 40 students. The method used in this research is a…

  6. Effects of Different Student Response Modes on Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Lee Sze; Chen, Chwen Jen

    2017-01-01

    Student response systems (SRSs) are wireless answering devices that enable students to provide simple real-time feedback to instructors. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different SRS interaction modes on elementary school students' science learning. Three interaction modes which include SRS Individual, SRS Collaborative, and Classroom…

  7. Responsibility for Racism in the Everyday Talk of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the attributions of responsibility for racism in the everyday talk of secondary school students. It draws on focus groups with a cross section of students from different ethnic backgrounds in three, very different, secondary schools. In these focus groups, students deploy six different, sometimes contradictory, racialised…

  8. Social Anxiety Experiences and Responses of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacan, Behiye; Secim, Gurcan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the responses of university students in social anxiety situations in order to create a psychological counselling program with a structured group based on Cognitive Behavioural and Existential Approaches. These responses involve the behaviour and thoughts of the university students in situations where they…

  9. Support for a nuclear future: student response to the CRBRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremseth, M.D.; Clelland, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of a multiple regression analysis of questionnaire data from two random samples of University of Tennessee seniors. Data were collected from 94 students with science/engineering majors (the ''Tech'' sample), and 91 students with non-science/engineering majors (the ''Mass'' sample--which represents the majority of the students). The purpose of the analysis was to isolate factors which independently explain student response to the CRBRP and to breeder reactors in general

  10. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Brecke, PhD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  11. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Brecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  12. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed.

  13. A Simple Exercise Reveals the Way Students Think about Scientific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebush, Laura; Sulikowski, Michelle; North, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Scientific modeling is an integral part of contemporary science, yet many students have little understanding of how models are developed, validated, and used to predict and explain phenomena. A simple modeling exercise led to significant gains in understanding key attributes of scientific modeling while revealing some stubborn misconceptions.…

  14. Student-peer mentoring on a drug information response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Jennifer Lin; Backo, Jennifer; Schmidt, Brittany M; Pruchnicki, Maria C

    2014-03-12

    To implement a student peer-mentoring program with a drug information response assignment in an introductory pharmacy practice course. Second-year student pharmacists (P2 mentors) enrolled in an independent study course were randomly assigned first-year student pharmacists (P1 mentees) to mentor on a drug information assignment. The P2 mentors provided feedback to P1 mentees' assignment drafts. The P1 mentees had the opportunity to revise the draft prior to turning in the completed assignment to course faculty members for grading. Both P1 mentees and P2 mentors agreed the mentorship improved their ability to prepare a drug information response (76% and 100%, respectively). A majority of the student pharmacists would choose to be involved in the program again. The student peer-mentoring program was successful in improving student pharmacists' perceptions of ability to compose a drug information response.

  15. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haring, C.M.; Cools, B.M.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Postma, C.T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. METHODS: A

  16. Implementation of School Choice Policy: Interpretation and Response by Parents of Students with Special Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys

    2001-01-01

    Provides empirically based insights into preferences, perceptions, and responses of parents of students with special education needs to the 1990s restructured school system in England. Uses analyses of quantitative/qualitative data generated by a large-scale research study on school choice. Reveals depth and range of problems encountered by these…

  17. Assessment of microbiology students' progress with an audience response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today's classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student's understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  18. A Comparison of Reading Response Methods to Increase Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl J. Davis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is common in college courses to test students on the required readings for that course. With a rise in online education it is often the case that students are required to provide evidence of reading the material. However, there is little empirical research stating the best written means to assess that students read the materials. This study experimentally compared the effect of assigned reading summaries or study questions on student test performance. The results revealed that study questions produced higher quiz scores and higher preparation for the quiz, based on student feedback. Limitations of the study included a small sample size and extraneous activities that may have affected general knowledge on a topic. Results suggest that study questions focusing students on critical information in the required readings improve student learning.

  19. Using Student Writing and Lexical Analysis to Reveal Student Thinking about the Role of Stop Codons in the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Luanna B; Smith, Michelle K; Knight, Jennifer K

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students have persistent difficulties in understanding how central dogma processes can be affected by a stop codon mutation. To explore these difficulties, we modified two multiple-choice questions from the Genetics Concept Assessment into three open-ended questions that asked students to write about how a stop codon mutation potentially impacts replication, transcription, and translation. We then used computer-assisted lexical analysis combined with human scoring to categorize student responses. The lexical analysis models showed high agreement with human scoring, demonstrating that this approach can be successfully used to analyze large numbers of student written responses. The results of this analysis show that students' ideas about one process in the central dogma can affect their thinking about subsequent and previous processes, leading to mixed models of conceptual understanding. © 2016 L. B. Prevost et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Student Response to Faculty Instruction (SRFI): An Empirically Derived Instrument to Measure Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzel, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    The Student Response to Faculty Instruction (SRFI) is an instrument designed to measure the student perspective on courses in higher education. The SRFI was derived from decades of empirical studies of student evaluations of teaching. This article describes the development of the SRFI and its psychometric attributes demonstrated in two pilot study…

  1. The Stress and Coping Responses of Certified Graduate Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sources of stress and coping responses of certified graduate athletic training students. Design and Setting: We interviewed certified graduate athletic training students 3 times over a 9-month period. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Subjects: Three male and 3 female certified graduate athletic training students from a postcertification graduate athletic training program volunteered to participate in this investigation. The participants were full-time graduate students, with a mean age of 23 years, who had worked an average of 1.5 years as certified athletic trainers at the time of the first interview. Measurements: We used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Results: A total of 6 general sources of stress and 11 coping dimensions were revealed. The stress dimensions were labeled athletic training duties, comparing job duties, responsibilities as student, time management, social evaluation, and future concerns. The coping responses were planning, instrumental social support, adjusting to job responsibilities, positive evaluations, emotional social support, humor, wishful thinking, religion, mental or behavioral disengagement, activities outside the profession, and other outcomes. Conclusions: Certified graduate athletic training students should be encouraged to use problem-focused (eg, seeking advice, planning) and emotion-focused (eg, positive evaluations, humor) forms of coping with stress. PMID:15173872

  2. Assessing recall, conceptualization, and transfer capabilities of novice biochemistry students' across learning style preferences as revealed by self-explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenbeck-Fajardo, Jacqueline L.

    2009-08-01

    The research described herein is a multi-dimensional attempt to measure student's abilities to recall, conceptualize, and transfer fundamental and dynamic protein structure concepts as revealed by their own diagrammatic (pictorial) representations and written self-explanations. A total of 120 participants enrolled in a 'Fundamentals of Biochemistry' course contributed to this mixed-methodological study. The population of interest consisted primarily of pre-nursing and sport and exercise science majors. This course is typically associated with a high (researcher with an ideal context in which to apply novel transfer assessment strategies. In the past, students within this population have reported very little chemistry background. In the following study, student-generated diagrammatic representations and written explanations were coded thematically using a highly objective rubric that was designed specifically for this study. Responses provided by the students were characterized on the macroscopic, microscopic, molecular-level, and integrated scales. Recall knowledge gain (i.e., knowledge that was gained through multiple-choice questioning techniques) was quantitatively correlated to learning style preferences (i.e., high-object, low-object, and non-object). Quantitative measures revealed that participants tended toward an object (i.e., snapshot) -based visualization preference, a potentially limiting factor in their desire to consider dynamic properties of fundamental biochemical contexts such as heat-induced protein denaturation. When knowledge transfer was carefully assessed within the predefined context, numerous misconceptions pertaining to the fundamental and dynamic nature of protein structure were revealed. Misconceptions tended to increase as the transfer model shifted away from the context presented in the original learning material. Ultimately, a fundamentally new, novel, and unique measure of knowledge transfer was developed as a main result of this study

  3. Students Prefer Audience Response System for Lecture Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Turban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Student evaluation of courses is an important component of overall course evaluation. The extent of student participation in the evaluation may be related to the ease of the evaluation process. The standard evaluation format is a paper form. This study examines medical students preference of utilizing Audience Response System compared to a paper method. Methods: Following several medical school lectures, students were queried if they preferred Audience Response System versus a paper method, and if they would prefer using Audience Response System more for future course evaluations. Results: 391 students were queried. Overall response rate was 94%. Using a five point Likert scale, 299 out of 361 (82% responded they agreed, or strongly agreed with the statement “We should use ARS more. . .” When asked which format they preferred to use for evaluation, 299/367 (81% responded Audience Response System, 31 (8% preferred paper, and 37 (10% were not sure, or had no opinion (chi squared = 378.936, df2, p<0.0001. Conclusion: The medical students surveyed showed a strong preference for utilizing Audience Response System as a course evaluation modality, and desired its continued use in medical school. Audience Response System should be pursued as a lecture evaluation modality, and its use in medical school education should be encouraged.

  4. Personal Universes: revealing community college students' competences though their organization of the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Bracey, Zoë

    2017-10-01

    In this article I present a study on learners' conceptions in cosmology by situating the results in the context of broader historical and sociocultural themes. Participants were community college students in California from non-dominant cultural and linguistic backgrounds finishing their first semester of astronomy. Data were collected through a drawing activity and card sort given during clinical-style interviews. This type of work is typically done from the perspective of conceptual change theory, using drawings to reveal student "misconceptions." I argue that in analyzing this kind of data, we need to come from the perspective that students are competent, and put their conceptions in context. I begin by presenting traditional frameworks for evaluating and describing learning, all of which rely on an outdated "banking" or "transmission" model of learning that puts an over-emphasis on the performance and attributes of individuals. Not only do these theories provide an incomplete picture of what learning looks like, they create and reify unnecessary divides between "scientific" and "unscientific" that can contribute to student alienation from the world of science. To illustrate this, I present my own results as a window into the logic of learners' assumptions within a sociocultural context, and suggest ways to support their learning trajectories, rather than figuring out how to unlearn their misconceptions. Through this analysis, I hope to show how taking student conceptions out of sociocultural context can potentially exclude students from non-dominant cultural and linguistic backgrounds from science.

  5. Response to Haskell's "Academic Freedom ... & Student Evaluation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Stake

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.

  6. How College Students Conceptualize and Practice Responsible Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Goodson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to employ a mixed-methods approach to (a) qualitatively explore responsible drinking beliefs and behaviors among a sample of college students, and (b) quantitatively assess the prevalence of those behaviors. Participants: Convenience samples, drawn from currently enrolled students attending a large public university in…

  7. Culturally Responsive Social Skill Instruction for Latino Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Correa, Vivian I.; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural friendships and peer interactions are important skills for Latino students to become socially adjusted in U.S. schools. Culturally responsive social skill instruction allows educators to teach essential social skills while attending to the native culture and personal experiences of the students. The present study examined the…

  8. Facilitating Student Engagement: Social Responsibility and Freshmen Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Lindsey N.; MacCartney, Danielle; Miller, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is advanced as a method for promoting social responsibility, with an emphasis on promoting ideals of "global citizenship" among undergraduate students. At the same time, the practice of learning communities is widespread on college campuses for retaining freshmen and promoting student success. However, there is…

  9. Examining Experienced Teachers' Noticing of and Responses to Students' Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W.; Wendell, Kristen B.; Watkins, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Engineering design places unique demands on teachers, as students are coming up with new, unanticipated ideas to problems along often unpredictable trajectories. These demands motivate a responsive approach to teaching, in which teachers attend their students' thinking and flexibly adapt their instructional plans and objectives. A great deal of…

  10. Factors Responsible for Students' Involvement in Internet Fraud as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet fraud is one of the most rapidly increasing forms of cybercrime. It has become rampant among students generally because they make use of different Internet devices in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors responsible for students' involvement in Internet fraud as expressed by tertiary ...

  11. Software-Based Student Response Systems: An Interdisciplinary Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carol M.; Hoffman, Michael S.; Casey, Nancy C.; Cox, Maureen P.

    2015-01-01

    Colleagues from information technology and three academic departments collaborated on an instructional technology initiative to employ student response systems in classes in mathematics, accounting and education. The instructors assessed the viability of using software-based systems to enable students to use their own devices (cell phones,…

  12. Student Rights and Responsibilities. Derechos y Responsabilidades de Estudiantes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Developed to enable teachers, counselors, and administrators in local school districts to provide Mexican American parents and students with needed information regarding student rights and responsibilities, this Spanish translation for the state of Washington provides general information concerning state regulations which school districts and…

  13. College Students' Responses to Kanakun and Kantaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Fumiko

    1998-01-01

    Japanese learners must acquire three sets of orthographic characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Computerized programs were developed to facilitate learners' acquisition of Japanese characters and vocabulary items. Surveys of college students in first-, second-, and third-year Japanese courses examined their feelings about the programs. The…

  14. Alcohol drinking among college students: college responsibility for personal troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorant, Vincent; Nicaise, Pablo; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; d'Hoore, William

    2013-06-28

    One young adult in two has entered university education in Western countries. Many of these young students will be exposed, during this transitional period, to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialisation groups, and social activities. This kind of transition is often associated with risky behaviour such as excessive alcohol consumption. So far, however, there is little evidence about the social determinants of alcohol consumption among college students. We set out to explore how college environmental factors shape college students' drinking behaviour. In May 2010 a web questionnaire was sent to all bachelor and master students registered with an important Belgian university; 7,015 students participated (participation = 39%). The survey looked at drinking behaviour, social involvement, college environmental factors, drinking norms, and positive drinking consequences. On average each student had 1.7 drinks a day and 2.8 episodes of abusive drinking a month. We found that the more a student was exposed to college environmental factors, the greater the risk of heavy, frequent, and abusive drinking. Alcohol consumption increased for students living on campus, living in a dormitory with a higher number of room-mates, and having been in the University for a long spell. Most such environmental factors were explained by social involvement, such as participation to the student folklore, pre-partying, and normative expectations. Educational and college authorities need to acknowledge universities' responsibility in relation to their students' drinking behaviour and to commit themselves to support an environment of responsible drinking.

  15. Responsibility among bachelor degree nursing students: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Saeed; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2018-01-01

    Responsibility is an important component of the professional values and core competencies for bachelor degree nursing students and has relationships with nursing education and professionalization. It is important for providing safe and high-quality care to the clients for the present and future performance of student. But there is no clear and operational definition of this concept for bachelor degree nursing students; however, there are extensive contents and debates about the definitions, attributes, domains and boundaries of responsibility in nursing and non-nursing literature. To examine the concept of responsibility among bachelor degree nursing students using the evolutionary approach to concept analysis. A total of 75 articles published between 1990 and 2016 and related to the concept of responsibility were selected from seven databases and considered for concept analysis based on Rogers' evolutionary approach. Ethical considerations: Throughout all stages of data collection, analysis and reporting, accuracy and bailment were respected. Responsibility is a procedural, spectral, dynamic and complex concept. The attributes of the concept are smart thinking, appropriate managerial behaviours, appropriate communicational behaviours, situational self-mandatory and task-orientation behaviours. Personal, educational and professional factors lead to the emergence of the responsible behaviours among bachelor degree nursing students. The emergence of such behaviours facilitates the learning and education process, ensures nursing profession life and promotes clients and community health level. Responsibility has some effects on nursing students. This concept had been changed over time since 1990-2016. There are similarities and differences in the elements of this concept in disciplines of nursing and other educational disciplines. Conclusion The analysis of this concept can help to develop educational or managerial theories, design instruments for better identification

  16. Revealing Students' Cognitive Structure about Physical and Chemical Change: Use of a Word Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirir, Hasene Esra; Demirkol, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed at examining the utility of a word association test in revealing students' cognitive structure in a specific chemistry topic through a word association test. The participants were 153 6th graders in a western Turkish city. The results revealed that the word association test serves a useful purpose in exploring the students'…

  17. Meaning Making: What Reflective Essays Reveal about Biology Students' Conceptions about Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Montplaisir, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    The process of reflective writing can play a central role in making meaning as learners process new information and connect it to prior knowledge. An examination of the written discourse can therefore be revealing of learners' cognitive understanding and affective (beliefs, feelings, motivation to learn) responses to concepts. Despite reflective…

  18. Chat Transcript Analysis Reveals that Undergraduate Students are Open to Instruction, While Instructors and Librarians Care About Supporting Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Jacoby, J., Ward, D., Avery, S., & Marcyk, E. (2016. The value of chat reference services: A pilot study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 16(1, 109-129. https://doi.org/10.1353/pla.2016.0013 Objective – To investigate student, instructor, and librarian perspectives of chat reference service in the context of first-year undergraduate students conducting research for an introductory composition course. Design – Focus groups, individual interviews, and surveys. Setting – A large, public university in the United States of America. Subjects – 57 library reference providers, 36 instructors of an introductory composition course, and approximately 936 undergraduate students in certain sections of the introductory composition course who were assigned a specific research project. Methods – In spring of 2014, all participants were invited via email to respond to an anonymous chat transcript of a librarian interacting with a student working on his or her research project. Study participants could participate via a brief survey or by taking part in a focus group or individual interview. The invited instructors were asked to forward the invitation to the students in their sections, and reminder emails were sent two weeks after the initial email. Main Results – Nine instructors, 24 students, and 25 library reference providers participated in the study, representing a response rate of 25%, 3% (estimated, and 44%, respectively. The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of key themes that were derived from both the focus groups or individual interviews and the survey questions. The themes were: students as novice researchers, question negotiation, open and closed questions, instruction, speed and convenience, customer service, and referrals. The theme of “students as novice researchers” is based on student comments related to their frustrations of being inexperienced researchers, as well as librarian comments on strategies for

  19. Social Responsibility in Advertising: A Marketing Communications Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…

  20. Minority Students' Responses to Racism: The Case of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Charalambous, Panayiota; Mesaritou, Evgenia; Spyrou, Spyros; Van Praag, Lore; D'hondt, Fanny; Vervaet, Roselien; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    While research has focused on the role of racism in (re)producing ethnic/racial inequalities in education, there is very little research that investigates how variability in minority students' responses to racism can be explained. By using an ecological approach to integrate existing research on actors' responses to racism, this study finds that…

  1. Business Students' Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a key element of today's Business school curricula. Proponents of CSR have argued that a business has an obligation to balance the interests of its many stakeholders. Critics of CSR, however, have argued that a business has an obligation only to its owners--its shareholders. In this paper I examined the…

  2. Formation of Social Competencies and Socially Responsible Thinking of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Belousov, Artyom; Redko, Lyudmila Anatolevna; Tichonova, Evgeniya; Yanushevskaya, Marina Nikolaevna

    2017-01-01

    The research is focused on the preparation of undergraduate students enrolled in the quality management program in Tomsk Polytechnic University. The subject of the research is organizational and pedagogical conditions necessary for the formation of social competencies and socially responsible thinking in future undergraduate students enrolled in the quality management program. The research aims to identify and present the theoretical basis for organizational and pedagogical conditions to form...

  3. Model-Based Collaborative Filtering Analysis of Student Response Data: Machine-Learning Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Yoav; Droschler, Stefan; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel; Pritchard, David E.

    2012-01-01

    We apply collaborative filtering (CF) to dichotomously scored student response data (right, wrong, or no interaction), finding optimal parameters for each student and item based on cross-validated prediction accuracy. The approach is naturally suited to comparing different models, both unidimensional and multidimensional in ability, including a…

  4. Development of diagnostic test instruments to reveal level student conception in kinematic and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handhika, J.; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.; Sunarno, W.; Purwandari, P.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a diagnostic test instrument to reveal students' conceptions in kinematics and dynamics. The diagnostic test was developed based on the content indicator the concept of (1) displacement and distance, (2) instantaneous and average velocity, (3) zero and constant acceleration, (4) gravitational acceleration (5) Newton's first Law, (6) and Newton's third Law. The diagnostic test development model includes: Diagnostic test requirement analysis, formulating test-making objectives, developing tests, checking the validity of the content and the performance of reliability, and application of tests. The Content Validation Index (CVI) results in the category are highly relevant, with a value of 0.85. Three questions get negative Content Validation Ratio CVR) (-0.6), after revised distractors and clarify visual presentation; the CVR become 1 (highly relevant). This test was applied, obtained 16 valid test items, with Cronbach Alpha value of 0.80. It can conclude that diagnostic test can be used to reveal the level of students conception in kinematics and dynamics.

  5. Academic disintegrity among medical students: a randomised response technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz Hejri, Sameh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Asghari, Fariba; Fotouhi, Akbar; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-02-01

    Medical students, as tomorrow's doctors, are responsible for their patients' health; cheating may affect their academic knowledge and clinical skills. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of and attitudes towards academic disintegrity among medical students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Anonymous questionnaires including questions about various types of academic disintegrity were distributed among medical students during the clerkship and internship phases of the curriculum. Randomised response technique (RRT) was used to maintain the responders' privacy. Because the study design guaranteed the confidentiality of respondents, the TUMS Institutional Review Board declared that formal ethical approval was not required. A total of 124 students were enrolled in this study, of whom 63 were in the clerkship phase and 61 were in the internship phase. Of these respondents, 29% (n = 36) were male. The most frequently reported type of academic disintegrity was found to be 'impersonating an absent student in a class' (93%) and the least frequent to be 'legitimising absences by using bribes' (5%). Only a small number of interns considered 'buying hospital shifts', 'selling hospital shifts', 'impersonating an absent student' and 'helping others to cheat in examinations' as representing academic disintegrity. Approximately one third of participants stated that the RRT increased their confidence in anonymity and 90% of students found the use of RRT not difficult. Academic integrity is widely disrespected in different ways among medical students. Effective policies and interventions are required to control these misbehaviours in future doctors in order to optimise medical practice. Almost all respondents found it not difficult to use the RRT; the technique proved to be an effective and easily applied method of eliciting truthful responses to sensitive questions and represents an alternative to conventional anonymising techniques.

  6. Dissecting a role for melanopsin in behavioural light aversion reveals a response independent of conventional photoreception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'ayan Semo

    Full Text Available Melanopsin photoreception plays a vital role in irradiance detection for non-image forming responses to light. However, little is known about the involvement of melanopsin in emotional processing of luminance. When confronted with a gradient in light, organisms exhibit spatial movements relative to this stimulus. In rodents, behavioural light aversion (BLA is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon during which animals attribute salience to light and remove themselves from it. Here, using genetically modified mice and an open field behavioural paradigm, we investigate the role of melanopsin in BLA. While wildtype (WT, melanopsin knockout (Opn4(-/- and rd/rd cl (melanopsin only (MO mice all exhibit BLA, our novel methodology reveals that isolated melanopsin photoreception produces a slow, potentiating response to light. In order to control for the involvement of pupillary constriction in BLA we eliminated this variable with topical atropine application. This manipulation enhanced BLA in WT and MO mice, but most remarkably, revealed light aversion in triple knockout (TKO mice, lacking three elements deemed essential for conventional photoreception (Opn4(-/- Gnat1(-/- Cnga3(-/-. Using a number of complementary strategies, we determined this response to be generated at the level of the retina. Our findings have significant implications for the understanding of how melanopsin signalling may modulate aversive responses to light in mice and humans. In addition, we also reveal a clear potential for light perception in TKO mice.

  7. The Impact of Student Response Systems on the Learning Experience of Undergraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklet, Elaine; Davis, Sarah; Farrelly, Daniel; Muse, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Student response systems (SRS) are hand-held devices or mobile phone polling systems which collate real-time, individual responses to on-screen questions. Previous research examining their role in higher education has highlighted both advantages and disadvantages of their use. This paper explores how different SRS influence the learning experience…

  8. Ki-67 expression reveals strong, transient influenza specific CD4 T cell responses after adult vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xi; Miao, Hongyu; Henn, Alicia; Topham, David J.; Wu, Hulin; Zand, Martin S.; Mosmann, Tim R.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have found minimal changes in CD4 T cell responses after vaccination of adults with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, daily sampling and monitoring of the proliferation marker Ki-67 have now been used to reveal that a substantial fraction of influenza-specific CD4 T cells respond to vaccination. At 4–6 days after vaccination, there is a sharp rise in the numbers of Ki-67-expressing PBMC that produce IFNγ, IL-2 and/or TNFα in vitro in response to influenza vacc...

  9. Teachers’ Relationship Closeness with Students as a Resource for Teacher Wellbeing: A Response Surface Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Anne; Lüftenegger, Marko; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ relationship quality with students has been argued to be an important source of teacher wellbeing. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate to what extent teachers’ relationship closeness toward students, combined with attachment security is a resource protecting against teacher burnout. Eighty-three elementary school teachers reported on their most and least attached student’s relationship closeness, their attachment security and levels of burnout, as measured by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Response surface analysis (RSA), enabling researchers to investigate the effect of congruence/incongruence of two predictors on an outcome, revealed that teachers’ depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were lowest when they developed homogenous close relationships toward the students within their classroom and when teachers in general made congruent relationship experiences. No RSA model could be specified for personal accomplishment, even though a correlational analysis revealed that increasing closeness with students fostered teachers’ personal accomplishment. Teachers’ secure attachment experiences were not directly related to burnout, but enhanced their capability to establish close relationships toward their students. Findings suggest that teachers’ relationships toward students are a resource for the teacher’s wellbeing, which highlights once again the importance of student–teacher relationships in education. PMID:26779045

  10. The Impact of a Student Response System on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Victoria K.

    2011-01-01

    Today, the importance of learning mathematics and reading by students in our schools has been underscored by the introduction of various high-stakes testing regimens in all states across the country. The requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (2002) necessitated a response to intervention that introduced many difficult challenges…

  11. Court Decisions Specific to Public School Responses to Student Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an up-to-date and comprehensive canvassing of the judicial case law concerning the responses to students with concussions in the public school context. The two categories of court decisions are (a) those concerning continued participation in interscholastic athletics, referred to under the rubric of "return to play"…

  12. Faculty verbal evaluations reveal strategies used to promote medical student performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Tong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preceptors rarely follow medical students’ developing clinical performance over time and across disciplines. This study analyzes preceptors’ descriptions of longitudinal integrated clerkship (LIC students’ clinical development and their identification of strategies to guide students’ progress. Methods: We used a common evaluation framework, reporter-interpreter-manager-educator, to guide multidisciplinary LIC preceptors’ discussions of students’ progress. We conducted thematic analysis of transcripts from preceptors’ (seven longitudinal ambulatory preceptors per student quarterly group discussions of 15 students’ performance over one year. Results: All students’ clinical development progressed, although most experienced obstacles. Lack of structure in the history and physical exam commonly obstructed progression. Preceptors used templates for data gathering, and modeling or experiences in the inpatient setting to provide time and solidify structure. To advance students’ knowledge acquisition, many preceptors identified focused learning topics with their students; to promote application of knowledge, preceptors used reasoning strategies to teach the steps involved in synthesizing clinical data. Preceptors shared accountability for helping students advance as the LIC allowed them to follow students’ response to teaching strategies. Discussion: These results depict preceptors’ perceptions of LIC students’ developmental continuum and illustrate how multidisciplinary preceptors can use a common evaluation framework to identify strategies to improve performance and follow students’ performance longitudinally.

  13. Stochasticity in the enterococcal sex pheromone response revealed by quantitative analysis of transcription in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Rebecca J; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie A; Barnes, Aaron M T; Hunter, Ryan C; Hu, Wei-Shou; Dunny, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, sex pheromone-mediated transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids can occur under unfavorable conditions, for example, when inducing pheromone concentrations are low and inhibiting pheromone concentrations are high. To better understand this paradox, we adapted fluorescence in situ hybridization chain reaction (HCR) methodology for simultaneous quantification of multiple E. faecalis transcripts at the single cell level. We present direct evidence for variability in the minimum period, maximum response level, and duration of response of individual cells to a specific inducing condition. Tracking of induction patterns of single cells temporally using a fluorescent reporter supported HCR findings. It also revealed subpopulations of rapid responders, even under low inducing pheromone concentrations where the overall response of the entire population was slow. The strong, rapid induction of small numbers of cells in cultures exposed to low pheromone concentrations is in agreement with predictions of a stochastic model of the enterococcal pheromone response. The previously documented complex regulatory circuitry controlling the pheromone response likely contributes to stochastic variation in this system. In addition to increasing our basic understanding of the biology of a horizontal gene transfer system regulated by cell-cell signaling, demonstration of the stochastic nature of the pheromone response also impacts any future efforts to develop therapeutic agents targeting the system. Quantitative single cell analysis using HCR also has great potential to elucidate important bacterial regulatory mechanisms not previously amenable to study at the single cell level, and to accelerate the pace of functional genomic studies.

  14. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-04-21

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  15. Relationships between drought, heat and air humidity responses revealed by transcriptome-metabolome co-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii, Elisabeth; Jin, Ming; Zhao, Jin; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Albert, Andreas; Winkler, J Barbro; Schäffner, Anton R

    2017-07-10

    Elevated temperature and reduced water availability are frequently linked abiotic stresses that may provoke distinct as well as interacting molecular responses. Based on non-targeted metabolomic and transcriptomic measurements from Arabidopsis rosettes, this study aims at a systematic elucidation of relevant components in different drought and heat scenarios as well as relationships between molecular players of stress response. In combined drought-heat stress, the majority of single stress responses are maintained. However, interaction effects between drought and heat can be discovered as well; these relate to protein folding, flavonoid biosynthesis and growth inhibition, which are enhanced, reduced or specifically induced in combined stress, respectively. Heat stress experiments with and without supplementation of air humidity for maintenance of vapor pressure deficit suggest that decreased relative air humidity due to elevated temperature is an important component of heat stress, specifically being responsible for hormone-related responses to water deprivation. Remarkably, this "dry air effect" is the primary trigger of the metabolomic response to heat. In contrast, the transcriptomic response has a substantial temperature component exceeding the dry air component and including up-regulation of many transcription factors and protein folding-related genes. Data level integration independent of prior knowledge on pathways and condition labels reveals shared drought and heat responses between transcriptome and metabolome, biomarker candidates and co-regulation between genes and metabolic compounds, suggesting novel players in abiotic stress response pathways. Drought and heat stress interact both at transcript and at metabolite response level. A comprehensive, non-targeted view of this interaction as well as non-interacting processes is important to be taken into account when improving tolerance to abiotic stresses in breeding programs. Transcriptome and metabolome

  16. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Collins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H2O2 and menadione/FeCl3 exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H2O2, but not menadione/FeCl3 (i.e., valosin-containing protein, indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  17. Global Transcription Profiling Reveals Comprehensive Insights into Hypoxic Response in Arabidopsis1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenglong; VanToai, Tara; Moy, Linda P.; Bock, Geoffrey; Linford, Lara D.; Quackenbush, John

    2005-01-01

    Plants have evolved adaptation mechanisms to sense oxygen deficiency in their environments and make coordinated physiological and structural adjustments to enhance their hypoxic tolerance. To gain insight into how plants respond to low-oxygen stress, gene expression profiling using whole-genome DNA amplicon microarrays was carried out at seven time points over 24 h, in wild-type and transgenic PSAG12:ipt Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Transcript levels of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation pathways, ethylene synthesis and perception, calcium signaling, nitrogen utilization, trehalose metabolism, and alkaloid synthesis were significantly altered in response to oxygen limitation. Analysis based on gene ontology assignments suggested a significant down-regulation of genes whose functions are associated with cell walls, nucleosome structures, water channels, and ion transporters and a significant up-regulation of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity, and auxin responses under conditions of oxygen shortage. Promoter analysis on a cluster of up-regulated genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of the AtMYB2-binding motif (GT motif), a sugar response element-like motif, and a G-box-related sequence, and also identified several putative anaerobic response elements. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions using 29 selected genes independently verified the microarray results. This study represents one of the most comprehensive analyses conducted to date investigating hypoxia-responsive transcriptional networks in plants. PMID:15734912

  18. Global transcription profiling reveals comprehensive insights into hypoxic response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenglong; Vantoai, Tara; Moy, Linda P; Bock, Geoffrey; Linford, Lara D; Quackenbush, John

    2005-03-01

    Plants have evolved adaptation mechanisms to sense oxygen deficiency in their environments and make coordinated physiological and structural adjustments to enhance their hypoxic tolerance. To gain insight into how plants respond to low-oxygen stress, gene expression profiling using whole-genome DNA amplicon microarrays was carried out at seven time points over 24 h, in wild-type and transgenic P(SAG12):ipt Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Transcript levels of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation pathways, ethylene synthesis and perception, calcium signaling, nitrogen utilization, trehalose metabolism, and alkaloid synthesis were significantly altered in response to oxygen limitation. Analysis based on gene ontology assignments suggested a significant down-regulation of genes whose functions are associated with cell walls, nucleosome structures, water channels, and ion transporters and a significant up-regulation of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, protein kinase activity, and auxin responses under conditions of oxygen shortage. Promoter analysis on a cluster of up-regulated genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of the AtMYB2-binding motif (GT motif), a sugar response element-like motif, and a G-box-related sequence, and also identified several putative anaerobic response elements. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions using 29 selected genes independently verified the microarray results. This study represents one of the most comprehensive analyses conducted to date investigating hypoxia-responsive transcriptional networks in plants.

  19. Functional Genomic Screening Reveals Core Modulators of Echinocandin Stress Responses in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavia Caplan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Candida albicans is a leading cause of death due to fungal infection. Treatment of systemic candidiasis often relies on echinocandins, which disrupt cell wall synthesis. Resistance is readily acquired via mutations in the drug target gene, FKS1. Both basal tolerance and resistance to echinocandins require cellular stress responses. We performed a systematic analysis of 3,030 C. albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins. We identified 16 genes for which deletion or transcriptional repression enhanced echinocandin susceptibility, including components of the Pkc1-MAPK signaling cascade. We discovered that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for the stability of Pkc1 and Bck1, establishing key mechanisms through which Hsp90 mediates echinocandin resistance. We also discovered that perturbation of the CCT chaperonin complex causes enhanced echinocandin sensitivity, altered cell wall architecture, and aberrant septin localization. Thus, we provide insights into the mechanisms by which cellular chaperones enable crucial responses to echinocandin-induced stress. : Caplan et al. screen 3,030 Candida albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins, the first-line therapy for systemic candidiasis. They reveal that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for stability of Pkc1 and Bck1 and that the CCT chaperonin complex is a key modulator of echinocandin susceptibility. Keywords: fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, echinocandins, Hsp90, Pkc1, CCT complex, client protein, stress response, functional genomic screen, drug resistance

  20. Active nuclear transcriptome analysis reveals inflammasome-dependent mechanism for early neutrophil response to Mycobacterium marinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Amy; Gavriouchkina, Daria; Zorman, Jernej; Napolitani, Giorgio; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana

    2017-07-26

    The mechanisms governing neutrophil response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain poorly understood. In this study we utilise biotagging, a novel genome-wide profiling approach based on cell type-specific in vivo biotinylation in zebrafish to analyse the initial response of neutrophils to Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis used to model tuberculosis. Differential expression analysis following nuclear RNA-seq of neutrophil active transcriptomes reveals a significant upregulation in both damage-sensing and effector components of the inflammasome, including caspase b, NLRC3 ortholog (wu: fb15h11) and il1β. Crispr/Cas9-mediated knockout of caspase b, which acts by proteolytic processing of il1β, results in increased bacterial burden and less infiltration of macrophages to sites of mycobacterial infection, thus impairing granuloma development. We also show that a number of immediate early response genes (IEGs) are responsible for orchestrating the initial neutrophil response to mycobacterial infection. Further perturbation of the IEGs exposes egr3 as a key transcriptional regulator controlling il1β transcription.

  1. A model for successful use of student response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kathleen; Kientz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model developed to assist teachers in selecting, implementing, and assessing student response system (SRS) use in the classroom. Research indicates that SRS technology is effective in achieving desired outcomes in higher education settings. Studies indicate that effective SRS use promotes greater achievement of learning outcomes, increased student attention, improved class participation, and active engagement. The model offered in this article is based on best practices described in the literature and several years of SRS use in a traditional higher education classroom setting. Student feedback indicates increased class participation and engagement with SRS technology. Teacher feedback indicates opportunities for contingent teaching. The model described in this article provides a process to assist teachers in the successful selection, implementation, and assessment of SRS technology in the classroom.

  2. Global phosphoproteome profiling reveals unanticipated networks responsive to cisplatin treatment of embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pines, Alex; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vrouwe, Mischa G

    2011-01-01

    (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-labeled murine embryonic stem cells with the anticancer drug cisplatin. Network and pathway analyses indicated that processes related to the DNA damage response and cytoskeleton organization were significantly affected. Although the ATM (ataxia...... rearrangements. Integration of transcriptomic and proteomic data revealed a poor correlation between changes in the relative levels of transcripts and their corresponding proteins, but a large overlap in affected pathways at the levels of mRNA, protein, and phosphoprotein. This study provides an integrated view...

  3. Students' attitude-related responses to inquiry learning in undergraduate kinesiology laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henige, Kimberly Ann

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the student attitudes are impacted when teaching methods in an undergraduate Kinesiology lab course shift from a traditional, cookbook-style, low inquiry-level to an investigative, high inquiry-level approach. Students participated in five weeks of Level 0-1 (low) inquiry activities, followed by five weeks of a Level 3 (high) inquiry project. The same Likert-scale survey was administered to students before and after each 5-week period. The attitudes measured by the survey included students' (a) attitude to scientific inquiry, (b) adoption of scientific attitudes, (c) enjoyment of science lessons, and (d) motivation in science. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant change in any of the attitude measures when the survey results from the different time points were compared. An open-ended qualitative survey was given to the students at the end of the semester and provided more insight. When asked to compare the low and high-level inquiry experiences, most students reported enjoying the higher level of inquiry more. On the other hand, most students felt they learned more during the low inquiry-level activities. The reported level of motivation in lab was about the same for both levels. When asked what they liked most about the high-level inquiry project, students favored aspects such as the independence, responsibility, and personal relevance. When asked what they liked the least, most students said there was nothing they disliked. Of the minority of students who did not like the high-level of inquiry, most claimed to be uncomfortable with the lack of structure and guidance. Other findings were that many students expressed a new or increased respect and appreciation for what scientists do. Some students experienced a decrease in their reliance on science to be true and correct. While some students thought the high-level inquiry was harder, others perceived it as being easier. These findings illustrate

  4. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  5. Experimental evolution reveals differences between phenotypic and evolutionary responses to population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K B; Simmons, L W

    2017-09-01

    Group living can select for increased immunity, given the heightened risk of parasite transmission. Yet, it also may select for increased male reproductive investment, given the elevated risk of female multiple mating. Trade-offs between immunity and reproduction are well documented. Phenotypically, population density mediates both reproductive investment and immune function in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. However, the evolutionary response of populations to these traits is unknown. We created two replicated populations of P. interpunctella, reared and mated for 14 generations under high or low population densities. These population densities cause plastic responses in immunity and reproduction: at higher numbers, both sexes invest more in one index of immunity [phenoloxidase (PO) activity] and males invest more in sperm. Interestingly, our data revealed divergence in PO and reproduction in a different direction to previously reported phenotypic responses. Males evolving at low population densities transferred more sperm, and both males and females displayed higher PO than individuals at high population densities. These positively correlated responses to selection suggest no apparent evolutionary trade-off between immunity and reproduction. We speculate that the reduced PO activity and sperm investment when evolving under high population density may be due to the reduced population fitness predicted under increased sexual conflict and/or to trade-offs between pre- and post-copulatory traits. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Ki-67 expression reveals strong, transient influenza specific CD4 T cell responses after adult vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Miao, Hongyu; Henn, Alicia; Topham, David J; Wu, Hulin; Zand, Martin S; Mosmann, Tim R

    2012-06-29

    Although previous studies have found minimal changes in CD4 T cell responses after vaccination of adults with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, daily sampling and monitoring of the proliferation marker Ki-67 have now been used to reveal that a substantial fraction of influenza-specific CD4 T cells respond to vaccination. At 4-6 days after vaccination, there is a sharp rise in the numbers of Ki-67-expressing PBMC that produce IFNγ, IL-2 and/or TNFα in vitro in response to influenza vaccine or peptide. Ki-67(+) cell numbers then decline rapidly, and 10 days after vaccination, both Ki-67(+) and overall influenza-specific cell numbers are similar to pre-vaccination levels. These results provide a tool for assessing the quality and quantity of CD4 T cell responses to different influenza vaccines, and raise the possibility that the anti-influenza T cell memory response may be qualitatively altered by vaccination, even if the overall memory cell numbers do not change significantly. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Assessment of the effects of student response systems on student learning and attitudes over a broad range of biology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B; Shuster, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six biology courses showed that strong majorities of students had favorable overall impressions of the use of student response systems and also thought that the technology improved their interest in the course, attendance, and understanding of course content. Students in lower-division courses had more strongly positive overall impressions than did students in upper-division courses. To assess the effects of the response systems on student learning, the number of in-class questions was varied within each course throughout the semester. Students' performance was compared on exam questions derived from lectures with low, medium, or high numbers of in-class questions. Increased use of the response systems in lecture had a positive influence on students' performance on exam questions across all six biology courses. Students not only have favorable opinions about the use of student response systems, increased use of these systems increases student learning.

  8. RNA-Seq Reveals Extensive Transcriptional Response to Heat Stress in the Stony Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing; Xu, Tao; Su, Dingjia; Wu, Ying; Cheng, Li; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Galaxea fascicularis, a stony coral belonging to family Oculinidae, is widely distributed in Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and large areas of the Indo-Pacific oceans. So far there is a lack of gene expression knowledge concerning this massive coral. In the present study, G. fascicularis was subjected to heat stress at 32.0 ± 0.5°C in the lab, we found that the density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly; meanwhile apparent bleaching and tissue lysing were observed at 10 h and 18 h after heat stress. The transcriptome responses were investigated in the stony coral G. fascicularis during heat bleaching using RNA-seq. A total of 42,028 coral genes were assembled from over 439 million reads. Gene expressions were compared at 10 and 18 h after heat stress. The significantly upregulated genes found in the Control_10h vs. Heat_10h comparison, presented mainly in GO terms related with DNA integration and unfolded protein response; and for the Control_18h vs. Heat_18h comparison, the GO terms include DNA integration. In addition, comparison between groups of Control_10h vs. Heat_10h and Control_18h vs. Heat_18h revealed that 125 genes were significantly upregulated in common between the two groups, whereas 21 genes were significantly downregulated in common, all these differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in stress response, DNA integration and unfolded protein response. Taken together, our results suggest that high temperature could activate the stress response at the early stage, and subsequently induce the bleaching and lysing through DNA integration and unfolded protein response, which are able to disrupt the balance of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral G. fascicularis. PMID:29487614

  9. RNA-Seq Reveals Extensive Transcriptional Response to Heat Stress in the Stony Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Galaxea fascicularis, a stony coral belonging to family Oculinidae, is widely distributed in Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and large areas of the Indo-Pacific oceans. So far there is a lack of gene expression knowledge concerning this massive coral. In the present study, G. fascicularis was subjected to heat stress at 32.0 ± 0.5°C in the lab, we found that the density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly; meanwhile apparent bleaching and tissue lysing were observed at 10 h and 18 h after heat stress. The transcriptome responses were investigated in the stony coral G. fascicularis during heat bleaching using RNA-seq. A total of 42,028 coral genes were assembled from over 439 million reads. Gene expressions were compared at 10 and 18 h after heat stress. The significantly upregulated genes found in the Control_10h vs. Heat_10h comparison, presented mainly in GO terms related with DNA integration and unfolded protein response; and for the Control_18h vs. Heat_18h comparison, the GO terms include DNA integration. In addition, comparison between groups of Control_10h vs. Heat_10h and Control_18h vs. Heat_18h revealed that 125 genes were significantly upregulated in common between the two groups, whereas 21 genes were significantly downregulated in common, all these differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in stress response, DNA integration and unfolded protein response. Taken together, our results suggest that high temperature could activate the stress response at the early stage, and subsequently induce the bleaching and lysing through DNA integration and unfolded protein response, which are able to disrupt the balance of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral G. fascicularis.

  10. Preparing for Success: One Institution's Aspirational and Student Focused Response to the National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Abbi; Oxley, Anne; Helm, Paul; Bradley, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes quality enhancement (QE) focused response to the 2006 National Student Survey (NSS) by a post-1992 Higher Education Institution. Recognising the increasing importance of the NSS to a wide range of stakeholders, the University established a task team to explore, from a QE perspective, why the institution received particular…

  11. Evolutionary divergence in the fungal response to fluconazole revealed by soft clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Dwight; Tan, Kai; Zinman, Guy; Ravasi, Timothy; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ideker, Trey

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fungal infections are an emerging health risk, especially those involving yeast that are resistant to antifungal agents. To understand the range of mechanisms by which yeasts can respond to anti-fungals, we compared gene expression patterns across three evolutionarily distant species - Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces lactis - over time following fluconazole exposure. Results: Conserved and diverged expression patterns were identified using a novel soft clustering algorithm that concurrently clusters data from all species while incorporating sequence orthology. The analysis suggests complementary strategies for coping with ergosterol depletion by azoles - Saccharomyces imports exogenous ergosterol, Candida exports fluconazole, while Kluyveromyces does neither, leading to extreme sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis we find that only Saccharomyces becomes more azole resistant in ergosterol-supplemented media; that this depends on sterol importers Aus1 and Pdr11; and that transgenic expression of sterol importers in Kluyveromyces alleviates its drug sensitivity. Conclusions: We have compared the dynamic transcriptional responses of three diverse yeast species to fluconazole treatment using a novel clustering algorithm. This approach revealed significant divergence among regulatory programs associated with fluconazole sensitivity. In future, such approaches might be used to survey a wider range of species, drug concentrations and stimuli to reveal conserved and divergent molecular response pathways.

  12. Evolutionary divergence in the fungal response to fluconazole revealed by soft clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Dwight

    2010-07-23

    Background: Fungal infections are an emerging health risk, especially those involving yeast that are resistant to antifungal agents. To understand the range of mechanisms by which yeasts can respond to anti-fungals, we compared gene expression patterns across three evolutionarily distant species - Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces lactis - over time following fluconazole exposure. Results: Conserved and diverged expression patterns were identified using a novel soft clustering algorithm that concurrently clusters data from all species while incorporating sequence orthology. The analysis suggests complementary strategies for coping with ergosterol depletion by azoles - Saccharomyces imports exogenous ergosterol, Candida exports fluconazole, while Kluyveromyces does neither, leading to extreme sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis we find that only Saccharomyces becomes more azole resistant in ergosterol-supplemented media; that this depends on sterol importers Aus1 and Pdr11; and that transgenic expression of sterol importers in Kluyveromyces alleviates its drug sensitivity. Conclusions: We have compared the dynamic transcriptional responses of three diverse yeast species to fluconazole treatment using a novel clustering algorithm. This approach revealed significant divergence among regulatory programs associated with fluconazole sensitivity. In future, such approaches might be used to survey a wider range of species, drug concentrations and stimuli to reveal conserved and divergent molecular response pathways.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of human retinal detachment reveals both inflammatory response and photoreceptor death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Delyfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal detachment often leads to a severe and permanent loss of vision and its therapeutic management remains to this day exclusively surgical. We have used surgical specimens to perform a differential analysis of the transcriptome of human retinal tissues following detachment in order to identify new potential pharmacological targets that could be used in combination with surgery to further improve final outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Statistical analysis reveals major involvement of the immune response in the disease. Interestingly, using a novel approach relying on coordinated expression, the interindividual variation was monitored to unravel a second crucial aspect of the pathological process: the death of photoreceptor cells. Within the genes identified, the expression of the major histocompatibility complex I gene HLA-C enables diagnosis of the disease, while PKD2L1 and SLCO4A1 -which are both down-regulated- act synergistically to provide an estimate of the duration of the retinal detachment process. Our analysis thus reveals the two complementary cellular and molecular aspects linked to retinal detachment: an immune response and the degeneration of photoreceptor cells. We also reveal that the human specimens have a higher clinical value as compared to artificial models that point to IL6 and oxidative stress, not implicated in the surgical specimens studied here. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic analysis confirmed the occurrence of both neurodegeneration and inflammation during retinal detachment, and further identifies precisely the modification of expression of the different genes implicated in these two phenomena. Our data henceforth give a new insight into the disease process and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting inflammation and photoreceptor damage associated with retinal detachment and, in turn, improving visual prognosis after retinal surgery.

  14. Association genetics and transcriptome analysis reveal a gibberellin-responsive pathway involved in regulating photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianbo; Tian, Jiaxing; Du, Qingzhang; Chen, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-05-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate a wide range of important processes in plant growth and development, including photosynthesis. However, the mechanism by which GAs regulate photosynthesis remains to be understood. Here, we used multi-gene association to investigate the effect of genes in the GA-responsive pathway, as constructed by RNA sequencing, on photosynthesis, growth, and wood property traits, in a population of 435 Populus tomentosa By analyzing changes in the transcriptome following GA treatment, we identified many key photosynthetic genes, in agreement with the observed increase in measurements of photosynthesis. Regulatory motif enrichment analysis revealed that 37 differentially expressed genes related to photosynthesis shared two essential GA-related cis-regulatory elements, the GA response element and the pyrimidine box. Thus, we constructed a GA-responsive pathway consisting of 47 genes involved in regulating photosynthesis, including GID1, RGA, GID2, MYBGa, and 37 photosynthetic differentially expressed genes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association analysis showed that 142 SNPs, representing 40 candidate genes in this pathway, were significantly associated with photosynthesis, growth, and wood property traits. Epistasis analysis uncovered interactions between 310 SNP-SNP pairs from 37 genes in this pathway, revealing possible genetic interactions. Moreover, a structural gene-gene matrix based on a time-course of transcript abundances provided a better understanding of the multi-gene pathway affecting photosynthesis. The results imply a functional role for these genes in mediating photosynthesis, growth, and wood properties, demonstrating the potential of combining transcriptome-based regulatory pathway construction and genetic association approaches to detect the complex genetic networks underlying quantitative traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights

  15. Dissection of Ire1 functions reveals stress response mechanisms uniquely evolved in Candida glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiga Miyazaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is vital in all eukaryotes. When misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, the transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 initiates splicing of HAC1 mRNA to generate the bZIP transcription factor Hac1, which subsequently activates its target genes to increase the protein-folding capacity of the ER. This cellular machinery, called the unfolded protein response (UPR, is believed to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In this study, we comprehensively characterized mutant phenotypes of IRE1 and other related genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Unexpectedly, Ire1 was required for the ER stress response independently of Hac1 in this fungus. C. glabrata Ire1 did not cleave mRNAs encoding Hac1 and other bZIP transcription factors identified in the C. glabrata genome. Microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional response to ER stress is not mediated by Ire1, but instead is dependent largely on calcineurin signaling and partially on the Slt2 MAPK pathway. The loss of Ire1 alone did not confer increased antifungal susceptibility in C. glabrata contrary to UPR-defective mutants in other fungi. Taken together, our results suggest that the canonical Ire1-Hac1 UPR is not conserved in C. glabrata. It is known in metazoans that active Ire1 nonspecifically cleaves and degrades a subset of ER-localized mRNAs to reduce the ER load. Intriguingly, this cellular response could occur in an Ire1 nuclease-dependent fashion in C. glabrata. We also uncovered the attenuated virulence of the C. glabrata Δire1 mutant in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. This study has unveiled the unique evolution of ER stress response mechanisms in C. glabrata.

  16. Effectiveness of Student Response Systems in Terms of Learning Environment, Attitudes and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen T.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of using Student Response Systems (SRS) among grade 7 and 8 science students in New York, the How Do You Feel About This Class? (HDYFATC) questionnaire was administered to 1097 students (532 students did use SRS and 565 students who did not use SRS). Data analyses attested to the sound factorial validity…

  17. The transcriptome and proteome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana reveal a diverse phosphorus stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya T Dyhrman

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a critical driver of phytoplankton growth and ecosystem function in the ocean. Diatoms are an abundant class of marine phytoplankton that are responsible for significant amounts of primary production. With the control they exert on the oceanic carbon cycle, there have been a number of studies focused on how diatoms respond to limiting macro and micronutrients such as iron and nitrogen. However, diatom physiological responses to P deficiency are poorly understood. Here, we couple deep sequencing of transcript tags and quantitative proteomics to analyze the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana grown under P-replete and P-deficient conditions. A total of 318 transcripts were differentially regulated with a false discovery rate of <0.05, and a total of 136 proteins were differentially abundant (p<0.05. Significant changes in the abundance of transcripts and proteins were observed and coordinated for multiple biochemical pathways, including glycolysis and translation. Patterns in transcript and protein abundance were also linked to physiological changes in cellular P distributions, and enzyme activities. These data demonstrate that diatom P deficiency results in changes in cellular P allocation through polyphosphate production, increased P transport, a switch to utilization of dissolved organic P through increased production of metalloenzymes, and a remodeling of the cell surface through production of sulfolipids. Together, these findings reveal that T. pseudonana has evolved a sophisticated response to P deficiency involving multiple biochemical strategies that are likely critical to its ability to respond to variations in environmental P availability.

  18. Developing cultural competence and social responsibility in preclinical dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Richard W

    2004-04-01

    Dental student development of cultural competence and social responsibility is recognized by educators as an important element in the overall shaping of minds and attitudes of modem dental practitioners. Yet training modalities to achieve these competencies are not clearly defined, and outcome measurements are elusive. This article shows an effective method to meet these desired outcomes. Sixty-one freshmen (class of 2005) participated in forty hours of nondental community service, and reflective journals were completed by the end of second year. Competency outcomes were measured by selecting key words and phrases found in the individual journals. Key phrases were related to compassion, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom. Also, phrases had to be accompanied by written indications of direct program causation. The combination of active-learning (based upon service learning models) in public health settings outside of the dental realm, accompanied by reflective journaling, enhanced cultural understanding and community spirit in the majority of students.

  19. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals similarities and dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains response to nitrogen availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Barbosa

    Full Text Available Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23, under low (67 mg/L and high nitrogen (670 mg/L regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12 h, 24 h and 96 h. Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12 h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this

  20. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Similarities and Dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strains Response to Nitrogen Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Catarina; García-Martínez, José; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12h, 24h and 96h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the grape

  1. Shotgun proteomics reveals physiological response to ocean acidification in Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins-Schiffman, Emma; Coffey, William D; Hua, Wilber; Nunn, Brook L; Dickinson, Gary H; Roberts, Steven B

    2014-11-03

    Ocean acidification as a result of increased anthropogenic CO2 emissions is occurring in marine and estuarine environments worldwide. The coastal ocean experiences additional daily and seasonal fluctuations in pH that can be lower than projected end-of-century open ocean pH reductions. In order to assess the impact of ocean acidification on marine invertebrates, Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were exposed to one of four different p CO2 levels for four weeks: 400 μatm (pH 8.0), 800 μatm (pH 7.7), 1000 μatm (pH 7.6), or 2800 μatm (pH 7.3). At the end of the four week exposure period, oysters in all four p CO2 environments deposited new shell, but growth rate was not different among the treatments. However, micromechanical properties of the new shell were compromised by elevated p CO2. Elevated p CO2 affected neither whole body fatty acid composition, nor glycogen content, nor mortality rate associated with acute heat shock. Shotgun proteomics revealed that several physiological pathways were significantly affected by ocean acidification, including antioxidant response, carbohydrate metabolism, and transcription and translation. Additionally, the proteomic response to a second stress differed with p CO2, with numerous processes significantly affected by mechanical stimulation at high versus low p CO2 (all proteomics data are available in the ProteomeXchange under the identifier PXD000835). Oyster physiology is significantly altered by exposure to elevated p CO2, indicating changes in energy resource use. This is especially apparent in the assessment of the effects of p CO2 on the proteomic response to a second stress. The altered stress response illustrates that ocean acidification may impact how oysters respond to other changes in their environment. These data contribute to an integrative view of the effects of ocean acidification on oysters as well as physiological trade-offs during environmental stress.

  2. Using Student Writing and Lexical Analysis to Reveal Student Thinking about the Role of Stop Codons in the Central Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Luanna B.; Smith, Michelle K.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students have persistent difficulties in understanding how central dogma processes can be affected by a stop codon mutation. To explore these difficulties, we modified two multiple-choice questions from the Genetics Concept Assessment into three open-ended questions that asked students to write about how a stop codon…

  3. Multitaxon activity profiling reveals differential microbial response to reduced seawater pH and oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Costa, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Marina; Polónia, Ana R M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-09-01

    There is growing concern that predicted changes to global ocean chemistry will interact with anthropogenic pollution to significantly alter marine microbial composition and function. However, knowledge of the compounding effects of climate change stressors and anthropogenic pollution is limited. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA (cDNA)-based activity profiling to investigate the differential responses of selected microbial taxa to ocean acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results revealed that a lower relative abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus clade) due to an adverse effect of seawater acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination (reduced pH-oil treatment) may be coupled to changes in sediment archaeal communities. In particular, we observed a pronounced compositional shift and marked reduction in the prevalence of otherwise abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal Marine Benthic Group B and Marine Hydrothermal Vent Group (MHVG) in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Conversely, the abundance of several putative hydrocarbonoclastic fungal OTUs was higher in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Sediment hydrocarbon profiling, furthermore, revealed higher concentrations of several alkanes in the reduced pH-oil treatment, corroborating the functional implications of the structural changes to microbial community composition. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of the response of a complex microbial community to the interaction between reduced pH and anthropogenic pollution. In future acidified marine environments, oil hydrocarbon contamination may alter the typical mixotrophic and k-/r-strategist composition of surface sediment microbiomes towards a more heterotrophic state with lower doubling rates, thereby impairing the ability of the ecosystem to recover from acute oil contamination events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comprehensive transcriptional profiling of NaCl-stressed Arabidopsis roots reveals novel classes of responsive genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyholos Michael K

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roots are an attractive system for genomic and post-genomic studies of NaCl responses, due to their primary importance to agriculture, and because of their relative structural and biochemical simplicity. Excellent genomic resources have been established for the study of Arabidopsis roots, however, a comprehensive microarray analysis of the root transcriptome following NaCl exposure is required to further understand plant responses to abiotic stress and facilitate future, systems-based analyses of the underlying regulatory networks. Results We used microarrays of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes representing 23,686 Arabidopsis genes to identify root transcripts that changed in relative abundance following 6 h, 24 h, or 48 h of hydroponic exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Enrichment analysis identified groups of structurally or functionally related genes whose members were statistically over-represented among up- or down-regulated transcripts. Our results are consistent with generally observed stress response themes, and highlight potentially important roles for underappreciated gene families, including: several groups of transporters (e.g. MATE, LeOPT1-like; signalling molecules (e.g. PERK kinases, MLO-like receptors, carbohydrate active enzymes (e.g. XTH18, transcription factors (e.g. members of ZIM, WRKY, NAC, and other proteins (e.g. 4CL-like, COMT-like, LOB-Class 1. We verified the NaCl-inducible expression of selected transcription factors and other genes by qRT-PCR. Conclusion Micorarray profiling of NaCl-treated Arabidopsis roots revealed dynamic changes in transcript abundance for at least 20% of the genome, including hundreds of transcription factors, kinases/phosphatases, hormone-related genes, and effectors of homeostasis, all of which highlight the complexity of this stress response. Our identification of these transcriptional responses, and groups of evolutionarily related genes with either similar or divergent

  5. Clustering Patterns of Engagement in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): The Use of Learning Analytics to Reveal Student Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammad; Ebner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are remote courses that excel in their students' heterogeneity and quantity. Due to the peculiarity of being massiveness, the large datasets generated by MOOC platforms require advanced tools and techniques to reveal hidden patterns for purposes of enhancing learning and educational behaviors. This publication…

  6. Ribosome•RelA structures reveal the mechanism of stringent response activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Anna B; Bah, Eugene; Madireddy, Rohini; Zhang, Ying; Brilot, Axel F; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Korostelev, Andrei A

    2016-01-01

    Stringent response is a conserved bacterial stress response underlying virulence and antibiotic resistance. RelA/SpoT-homolog proteins synthesize transcriptional modulators (p)ppGpp, allowing bacteria to adapt to stress. RelA is activated during amino-acid starvation, when cognate deacyl-tRNA binds to the ribosomal A (aminoacyl-tRNA) site. We report four cryo-EM structures of E. coli RelA bound to the 70S ribosome, in the absence and presence of deacyl-tRNA accommodating in the 30S A site. The boomerang-shaped RelA with a wingspan of more than 100 Å wraps around the A/R (30S A-site/RelA-bound) tRNA. The CCA end of the A/R tRNA pins the central TGS domain against the 30S subunit, presenting the (p)ppGpp-synthetase domain near the 30S spur. The ribosome and A/R tRNA are captured in three conformations, revealing hitherto elusive states of tRNA engagement with the ribosomal decoding center. Decoding-center rearrangements are coupled with the step-wise 30S-subunit 'closure', providing insights into the dynamics of high-fidelity tRNA decoding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17029.001 PMID:27434674

  7. Quantitative proteomics reveals dynamic responses of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to next-generation biofuel butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxu; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhang, Weiwen

    2013-01-14

    Butanol is a promising biofuel, and recent metabolic engineering efforts have demonstrated the use of photosynthetic cyanobacterial hosts for its production. However, cyanobacteria have very low tolerance to butanol, limiting the economic viability of butanol production from these renewable producing systems. The existing knowledge of molecular mechanism involved in butanol tolerance in cyanobacteria is very limited. To build a foundation necessary to engineer robust butanol-producing cyanobacterial hosts, in this study, the responses of Synechocystis PCC 6803 to butanol were investigated using a quantitative proteomics approach with iTRAQ - LC-MS/MS technologies. The resulting high-quality dataset consisted of 25,347 peptides corresponding to 1452 unique proteins, a coverage of approximately 40% of the predicted proteins in Synechocystis. Comparative quantification of protein abundances led to the identification of 303 differentially regulated proteins by butanol. Annotation and GO term enrichment analysis showed that multiple biological processes were regulated, suggesting that Synechocystis probably employed multiple and synergistic resistance mechanisms in dealing with butanol stress. Notably, the analysis revealed the induction of heat-shock protein and transporters, along with modification of cell membrane and envelope were the major protection mechanisms against butanol. A conceptual cellular model of Synechocystis PCC 6803 responses to butanol stress was constructed to illustrate the putative molecular mechanisms employed to defend against butanol stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphoproteomic dynamics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) reveals shared and distinct components of dehydration response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, Pratigya; Barua, Pragya; Kumar, Rajiv; Datta, Asis; Soni, Kamlesh Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2013-11-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism that plays critical roles in transducing stress signals to bring about coordinated intracellular responses. To gain better understanding of dehydration response in plants, we have developed a differential phosphoproteome in a food legume, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to progressive dehydration by withdrawing water, and the changes in the phosphorylation status of a large repertoire of proteins were monitored. The proteins were resolved by 2-DE and stained with phosphospecific fluorescent Pro-Q Diamond dye. Mass spectrometric analysis led to the identification of 91 putative phosphoproteins, presumably involved in a variety of functions including cell defense and rescue, photosynthesis and photorespiration, molecular chaperones, and ion transport, among others. Multiple sites of phosphorylation were predicted on several key elements, which include both the regulatory as well as the functional proteins. A critical survey of the phosphorylome revealed a DREPP (developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein) plasma membrane polypeptide family protein, henceforth designated CaDREPP1. The transcripts of CaDREPP1 were found to be differentially regulated under dehydration stress, further corroborating the proteomic results. This work provides new insights into the possible phosphorylation events triggered by the conditions of progressive water-deficit in plants.

  9. Thyroid transcriptome analysis reveals different adaptive responses to cold environmental conditions between two chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Wang, Dehe; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Ning; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua

    2018-01-01

    Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles. RIR chickens had higher egg production than BS chickens under warm conditions, but BS chickens produced more eggs than RIRs under cold conditions. Furthermore, BS chickens showed stable body weight gain under cold conditions while RIRs did not. These results suggested that BS breed is a preferable candidate for cold-tolerance selection and that the cold adaptability of RIRs should be improved in the future. BS chickens had higher serum thyroid hormone concentrations than RIRs under both environments. RNA-Seq generated 344.3 million paired-end reads from 16 sequencing libraries, and about 90% of the processed reads were concordantly mapped to the chicken reference genome. Differential expression analysis identified 46-1,211 genes in the respective comparisons. With regard to breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome, BS chickens showed higher cell replication and development, and immune response-related activity, while RIR chickens showed higher carbohydrate and protein metabolism activity. The cold environment reduced breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome compared with the warm environment. Transcriptional plasticity analysis revealed different adaptive responses in BS and RIR chickens to cope with the cold

  10. Aspects of Teaching and Learning Science: What students' diaries reveal about inquiry and traditional modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalkar, Aisha; Vijapurkar, Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of students' reflective writing (diaries) of two cohorts of Grade 8 students, one undergoing inquiry and the other traditional science teaching. Students' writing included a summary of what students had learned in class on that day and their opinions and feelings about the class. The entries were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. This analysis of students' first-person accounts of their learning experience and their notes taken during class was useful in two ways. First, it brought out a spectrum of differences in outcomes of these two teaching modes-conceptual, affective and epistemic. Second, this analysis brought out the significance and meaning of the learning experience for students in their own words, thus adding another dimension to researchers' characterisation of the two teaching methods.

  11. An Investigation of Primary School Students' Perceptions of Violence Revealed Through Their Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Saban

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, primary school students' perceptions of violence were investigated by means of pictures drawn by them. The participants included 80 students between the ages of 9 and 11 who attended three primary schools (3rd, 4th, and 5th grades in the city of Konya during the 2011-2012 academic year. According to the findings of the study, the students mostly drew pictures of general violence which occurred in a family environment in the form of physical violence. In addition, students drew “father” as a figure practicing violence most, and “male child” and “mother” as figures exposed to violence most.

  12. Chat Transcript Analysis Reveals that Undergraduate Students are Open to Instruction, While Instructors and Librarians Care About Supporting Student Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Sullo

    2017-01-01

    A Review of: Jacoby, J., Ward, D., Avery, S., & Marcyk, E. (2016). The value of chat reference services: A pilot study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 16(1), 109-129. https://doi.org/10.1353/pla.2016.0013 Objective – To investigate student, instructor, and librarian perspectives of chat reference service in the context of first-year undergraduate students conducting research for an introductory composition course. Design – Focus groups, individual interviews, and surveys. S...

  13. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-10-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  14. Women Ph.D. Students in Engineering and a Nuanced Terrain: Avoiding and Revealing Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Shelley K.

    2012-01-01

    Tensions regarding gender emerged from interviews conducted with 20 women Ph.D. students. This article does not focus explicitly on the reasons for women's continued underrepresentation in engineering. Rather the students' explanations for underrepresentation serve as a case study with which to analyze their gendered experiences. They avoid freely…

  15. Critical Pedagogy, Internationalisation, and a Third Space: Cultural Tensions Revealed in Students' Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Margaret Jane; Brooks, Catherine F.

    2017-01-01

    Set within the context of a global pursuit towards the internationalisation of higher education, this paper critically examines student discourse in a globally connected classroom between learners in the USA and Singapore. It makes salient some of the cultural assumptions and tensions that undergird students' discourse in collaborative…

  16. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-06-12

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  17. Excess fertilizer responsive miRNAs revealed in Linum usitatissimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Nataliya V; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Rachinskaia, Olga A; Lakunina, Valentina A; Krasnov, George S; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Uroshlev, Leonid A; Koroban, Nadezda V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Amosova, Alexandra V; Zelenin, Alexander V; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Kudryavtseva, Anna V

    2015-02-01

    Effective fertilizer application is necessary to increase crop yields and reduce risk of plant overdosing. It is known that expression level of microRNAs (miRNAs) alters in plants under different nutrient concentrations in soil. The aim of our study was to identify and characterize miRNAs with expression alterations under excessive fertilizer in agriculturally important crop - flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). We have sequenced small RNAs in flax grown under normal and excessive fertilizer using Illumina GAIIx. Over 14 million raw reads was obtained for two small RNA libraries. 84 conserved miRNAs from 20 families were identified. Differential expression was revealed for several flax miRNAs under excessive fertilizer according to high-throughput sequencing data. For 6 miRNA families (miR395, miR169, miR408, miR399, miR398 and miR168) expression level alterations were evaluated on the extended sampling using qPCR. Statistically significant up-regulation was revealed for miR395 under excessive fertilizer. It is known that target genes of miR395 are involved in sulfate uptake and assimilation. However, according to our data alterations of the expression level of miR395 could be associated not only with excess sulfur application, but also with redundancy of other macro- and micronutrients. Furthermore expression level was evaluated for miRNAs and their predicted targets. The negative correlation between miR399 expression and expression of its predicted target ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 gene was shown in flax for the first time. So we suggested miR399 involvement in phosphate regulation in L. usitatissimum. Revealed in our study expression alterations contribute to miRNA role in flax response to excessive fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Jennifer C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT. The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for

  19. Growth and carbon isotopes of Mediterranean trees reveal contrasting responses to increased carbon dioxide and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Elena; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Camarero, J Julio; Voltas, Jordi; Valladares, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics will depend upon the physiological performance of individual tree species under more stressful conditions caused by climate change. In order to compare the idiosyncratic responses of Mediterranean tree species (Quercus faginea, Pinus nigra, Juniperus thurifera) coexisting in forests of central Spain, we evaluated the temporal changes in secondary growth (basal area increment; BAI) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) during the last four decades, determined how coexisting species are responding to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations (C(a)) and drought stress, and assessed the relationship among iWUE and growth during climatically contrasting years. All species increased their iWUE (ca. +15 to +21%) between the 1970s and the 2000s. This increase was positively related to C(a) for J. thurifera and to higher C(a) and drought for Q. faginea and P. nigra. During climatically favourable years the study species either increased or maintained their growth at rising iWUE, suggesting a higher CO2 uptake. However, during unfavourable climatic years Q. faginea and especially P. nigra showed sharp declines in growth at enhanced iWUE, likely caused by a reduced stomatal conductance to save water under stressful dry conditions. In contrast, J. thurifera showed enhanced growth also during unfavourable years at increased iWUE, denoting a beneficial effect of C(a) even under climatically harsh conditions. Our results reveal significant inter-specific differences in growth driven by alternative physiological responses to increasing drought stress. Thus, forest composition in the Mediterranean region might be altered due to contrasting capacities of coexisting tree species to withstand increasingly stressful conditions.

  20. Electrical brain responses in language-impaired children reveal grammar-specific deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fonteneau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and public fascination with human language have included intensive scrutiny of language disorders as a new window onto the biological foundations of language and its evolutionary origins. Specific language impairment (SLI, which affects over 7% of children, is one such disorder. SLI has received robust scientific attention, in part because of its recent linkage to a specific gene and loci on chromosomes and in part because of the prevailing question regarding the scope of its language impairment: Does the disorder impact the general ability to segment and process language or a specific ability to compute grammar? Here we provide novel electrophysiological data showing a domain-specific deficit within the grammar of language that has been hitherto undetectable through behavioural data alone.We presented participants with Grammatical(G-SLI, age-matched controls, and younger child and adult controls, with questions containing syntactic violations and sentences containing semantic violations. Electrophysiological brain responses revealed a selective impairment to only neural circuitry that is specific to grammatical processing in G-SLI. Furthermore, the participants with G-SLI appeared to be partially compensating for their syntactic deficit by using neural circuitry associated with semantic processing and all non-grammar-specific and low-level auditory neural responses were normal.The findings indicate that grammatical neural circuitry underlying language is a developmentally unique system in the functional architecture of the brain, and this complex higher cognitive system can be selectively impaired. The findings advance fundamental understanding about how cognitive systems develop and all human language is represented and processed in the brain.

  1. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  2. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  3. Visualizing Changes in Pretest and Post-Test Student Responses with Consistency Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Michael C.; Black, Katrina E.

    2014-01-01

    Tabular presentations of student data often hide information about the switches in responses by individual students over the course of a semester. We extend unpublished work by Kanim on "escalator diagrams," which show changes in student responses from correct to incorrect (and vice versa) while representing pre- and postinstruction…

  4. Third Year Medical School Students' Experiences of Revealing Patients' Stories through Role Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Zeliha; Avsar, Zeynep; Tastan, Kenan

    2015-02-01

    Studying medicine is hard and it takes longer time compared to other majors. In addition, medical students find medical education boring. It is now necessary to turn medical education into an enjoyable and interesting way. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of an educational program related to how to learn taking medical history and how an effective patient-doctor interview should be. The program is structured in various scenarios, on the students learning skills, by the "role playing" method. A scenario prepared by the lecturer was employed in this study. While one of the students acted in a doctor role, the other one played in the role of patient's relative. The lecturer always played in the role of patient. After performing the role playing, students' written and oral feedbacks were gathered. Data were analysed by using SPSS 20.0 program. A total of 470 feedbacks (51.3% were given by the female students) were taken from the students. Thirty-three volunteer students, nineteen of them were male, took part in the role playing. In the patient-doctor interview, the field that students were best were greeting the patients and dealing only with patients during the examination. The mean scores were 3.81±0.95 and 3.79±0.94 respectively. The ability to "summarize" and to "address the patient with his/her name" had the lowest scores; the mean scores of the students in these areas were 2.94±1.11 and 2.70±1.31, respectively. Medical education is a long and tough process. Therefore, it should be interesting, attention getting and cheerful. Role playing can be effective in meeting that need.

  5. How revealing rankings affects student attitude and rerformance in a peer review learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible benefits as well as the overall impact on the behaviour of students within a learning environment, which is based on double-blinding reviewing of freely selected peer works. Fifty-six sophomore students majoring in Informatics and Telecommunications Engi....... The students that participated in the other two conditions were provided with their usage information (logins, peer work viewed/reviewed, etc.), while members of the last group could also have access to ranking information about their positioning in their group, based on their usage data. According to our...

  6. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  7. Transcriptomics reveal several gene expression patterns in the piezophile Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis in response to hydrostatic pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Amrani

    Full Text Available RNA-seq was used to study the response of Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East-Pacific Rise at a depth of 2,600 m, to various hydrostatic pressure growth conditions. The transcriptomic datasets obtained after growth at 26, 10 and 0.1 MPa identified only 65 differentially expressed genes that were distributed among four main categories: aromatic amino acid and glutamate metabolisms, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and unknown function. The gene expression patterns suggest that D. hydrothermalis uses at least three different adaptation mechanisms, according to a hydrostatic pressure threshold (HPt that was estimated to be above 10 MPa. Both glutamate and energy metabolism were found to play crucial roles in these mechanisms. Quantitation of the glutamate levels in cells revealed its accumulation at high hydrostatic pressure, suggesting its role as a piezolyte. ATP measurements showed that the energy metabolism of this bacterium is optimized for deep-sea life conditions. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms linked to hydrostatic pressure adaptation in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  8. Transcriptomics Reveal Several Gene Expression Patterns in the Piezophile Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis in Response to Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Amira; Bergon, Aurélie; Holota, Hélène; Tamburini, Christian; Garel, Marc; Ollivier, Bernard; Imbert, Jean; Dolla, Alain; Pradel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    RNA-seq was used to study the response of Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East-Pacific Rise at a depth of 2,600 m, to various hydrostatic pressure growth conditions. The transcriptomic datasets obtained after growth at 26, 10 and 0.1 MPa identified only 65 differentially expressed genes that were distributed among four main categories: aromatic amino acid and glutamate metabolisms, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and unknown function. The gene expression patterns suggest that D. hydrothermalis uses at least three different adaptation mechanisms, according to a hydrostatic pressure threshold (HPt) that was estimated to be above 10 MPa. Both glutamate and energy metabolism were found to play crucial roles in these mechanisms. Quantitation of the glutamate levels in cells revealed its accumulation at high hydrostatic pressure, suggesting its role as a piezolyte. ATP measurements showed that the energy metabolism of this bacterium is optimized for deep-sea life conditions. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms linked to hydrostatic pressure adaptation in sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:25215865

  9. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Catharina M; Cools, Bernadette M; van Gurp, Petra J M; van der Meer, Jos W M; Postma, Cornelis T

    2017-08-29

    During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze what expert physicians apply as indicators in their assessment of medical students' diagnostic reasoning abilities during history taking. Twelve randomly selected clinical encounter recordings of students at the end of the internal medicine clerkships were observed by six expert assessors, who were prompted to formulate their assessment criteria in a think-aloud procedure. These formulations were then analyzed to identify the common denominators and leading principles. The main indicators of clinical reasoning ability were abstracted from students' observable acts during history taking in the encounter. These were: taking control, recognizing and responding to relevant information, specifying symptoms, asking specific questions that point to pathophysiological thinking, placing questions in a logical order, checking agreement with patients, summarizing and body language. In addition, patients' acts and the course, result and efficiency of the conversation were identified as indicators of clinical reasoning, whereas context, using self as a reference, and emotion/feelings were identified by the clinicians as variables in their assessment of clinical reasoning. In observing and assessing clinical reasoning during history taking by medical students, general and specific phenomena to be used as indicators for this process could be identified. These phenomena can be traced back to theories on the development and the process of clinical reasoning.

  10. Plant physiology and proteomics reveals the leaf response to drought in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Erice, Gorka; Avice, Jean Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Despite its relevance, protein regulation, metabolic adjustment, and the physiological status of plants under drought is not well understood in relation to the role of nitrogen fixation in nodules. In this study, nodulated alfalfa plants were exposed to drought conditions. The study determined the physiological, metabolic, and proteomic processes involved in photosynthetic inhibition in relation to the decrease in nitrogenase (N(ase)) activity. The deleterious effect of drought on alfalfa performance was targeted towards photosynthesis and N(ase) activity. At the leaf level, photosynthetic inhibition was mainly caused by the inhibition of Rubisco. The proteomic profile and physiological measurements revealed that the reduced carboxylation capacity of droughted plants was related to limitations in Rubisco protein content, activation state, and RuBP regeneration. Drought also decreased amino acid content such as asparagine, and glutamic acid, and Rubisco protein content indicating that N availability limitations were caused by N(ase) activity inhibition. In this context, drought induced the decrease in Rubisco binding protein content at the leaf level and proteases were up-regulated so as to degrade Rubisco protein. This degradation enabled the reallocation of the Rubisco-derived N to the synthesis of amino acids with osmoregulant capacity. Rubisco degradation under drought conditions was induced so as to remobilize Rubisco-derived N to compensate for the decrease in N associated with N(ase) inhibition. Metabolic analyses showed that droughted plants increased amino acid (proline, a major compound involved in osmotic regulation) and soluble sugar (D-pinitol) levels to contribute towards the decrease in osmotic potential (Ψ(s)). At the nodule level, drought had an inhibitory effect on N(ase) activity. This decrease in N(ase) activity was not induced by substrate shortage, as reflected by an increase in total soluble sugars (TSS) in the nodules. Proline accumulation

  11. Students' performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students' exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, pskill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students' clinical reasoning development.

  12. Middle School Students' Perceptions of and Responses to Cyber Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Brett; Grabe, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the nature and extent of middle school students' (n = 665) experiences with cyber bullying. Approximately one in five students reported being cyber bullied in the past year, with 55% of those students being repeatedly victimized within the past 30 days. Female students were more likely to be involved in cyber bullying (victim,…

  13. Teaching assistants’ performance at identifying common introductory student difficulties in mechanics revealed by the Force Concept Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maries

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory (FCI has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students’ initial knowledge states in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants (TAs: knowledge of introductory student alternate conceptions in mechanics as revealed by the FCI. For each item on the FCI, the TAs were asked to identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students. This exercise was followed by a class discussion with the TAs related to this task, including the importance of knowing student difficulties in teaching and learning. Then, we used FCI pretest and post-test data from a large population (∼900 of introductory physics students to assess the extent to which TAs were able to identify alternate conceptions of introductory students related to force and motion. In addition, we carried out think-aloud interviews with graduate students who had more than two semesters of teaching experience in recitations to examine how they reason about the task. We find that while the TAs, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory students’ difficulties with FCI content, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory physics students have after traditional instruction. We discuss specific alternate conceptions, the extent to which TAs are able to identify them, and results from the think-aloud interviews that provided valuable information

  14. A critique of response strategies: Measures to induce a paradigmatic shift in response to student writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores response to student writing in entry-level English modules in an Open and Distance Learning (ODL context at the University of South Africa (UNISA. After an evaluation of the research undertaken by Spencer (1999 and Lephalala and Pienaar (2008, both conducted in this specific teaching context, the argument is put forward that the predominantly formalist orientation of the marking can be described as an attractor (Weideman, 2009, since it seems that the system is attracted into this state and has maintained it over a number of years. There is a need to shift towards a cognitive, reader-based orientation. The author uses the categories defined in Lephalala and Pienaar (2008 to describe feedback styles. The categories are L1 (minimal feedback, L2 (general and non-text-specific feedback and L3 (feedback with a focus on content and organisation. Four amendments are proposed to the existing marking code which will encourage markers to operate in the desired L3 feedback category. This paper argues that these additions to the marking code will address limitations inherent in the marking code. At present, marked scripts contain a jumble of recommendations relating to content/form and global/local issues and there is little indication of the relative importance of an error. The marking code is inherently negative in orientation and promotes a formalist L1 style of response. A qualitative investigation into the reaction to the proposed changes was obtained from 33 marked samples of response to student writing provided by external markers. Compared to the data given in Lephalala and Pienaar (2008, the changes tested in this study were unable to influence the dominant L1 response strategy, but caused a shift away from L2 formulaic responses and an increase in the desired L3 feedback. There is a need for intensive investigation into feedback in this ODL teaching context and into measures to promote L3 feedback.

  15. Evolving social responsibility understandings, motivations, and career goals of undergraduate students initially pursuing engineering degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulifson, Gregory A.

    Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social

  16. What Institutional Websites Reveal about Diversity-Related Partnerships between Academic and Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePeau, Lucy A.; Hurtado, Sarah S.; Davis, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    Little is understood about how campus educators within Academic Affairs and Student Affairs use institutional websites to articulate what their institutional commitments to diversity, inclusion, and social justice are and how they are enacted. Through an exploratory content analysis using LePeau's (2015) framework on pathways to partnership (i.e.,…

  17. The Internet Is Forever: Student Indiscretions Reveal the Need for Effective Social Media Policies in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Carolyn; Silvestri, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Students' imprudent use of social media might threaten their employability and undermine their emerging professional identities. Most professions acknowledge that any benefits of social media must be balanced against its potential to negatively affect workers' professional lives and the public trust. Professional bodies have developed social media…

  18. A Novel Code System for Revealing Sources of Students' Difficulties with Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Overton, Tina L.; Bowman, Charles R.; Fynewever, Herb

    2013-01-01

    A coding scheme is presented and used to evaluate solutions of seventeen students working on twenty five stoichiometry problems in a think-aloud protocol. The stoichiometry problems are evaluated as a series of sub-problems (e.g., empirical formulas, mass percent, or balancing chemical equations), and the coding scheme was used to categorize each…

  19. Medical Students in the United States Reveal Their Ideal Expectations to Help Planners of a New Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn Conway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Aronoff, N. (2016. Surveying medical students to gauge library use and plan for a new medical library. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 35(2, 187-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02763869.2016.1152144 Abstract Objective – To help plan for a new library by exploring student use of existing library services and identifying their priorities for the new space. Design – Online survey, sent via email. Setting – Medical school at a university in New York. Subjects – 585 medical students. Methods – The researchers emailed a 45-item online survey to all medical students enrolled at the school. Responses were anonymised and all questions were non-mandatory. Main results – 27% of students (157 out of 585 took part in the survey by answering at least one question. The questions were categorised into the following six topic areas: 1. Use of space and expectations for the new library space: More than half of the participants (67% indicated that they rarely or never came to the library during the academic year in question. Of the students who reported frequenting the library on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, the majority indicated that they preferred independent study to group study. The following resources were ranked as very important for an ideal library space: sufficient electrical outlets, strong wireless connectivity, printing facilities, individual and quiet study spaces, comfortable seating, online resources, computers, windows/natural light, and group study spaces. Open-ended responses indicated that students desire close proximity to food and beverage services, large study tables to accommodate reading materials and technology, improved opening hours, and satisfactory bathroom facilities. 2. Where medical students study: Of the participants, one third of students reported studying at home, 21% chose to describe the physical characteristics of their place of study rather than name a place, 18% of students studied in

  20. Students' Reading Responses to Tess of the d'Urbervilles, a Novel by Thomas Hardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Basthomi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study explored how students responded to Tess of the d'Urbervilles, a novel by Thomas Hardy. This study was a case study of an in-tact class of Prose I at the English Department, Universitas Negeri Malang. The data were collected from 25 students, and were in the form of students' papers, written in English, which were of the students' personal responses towards the novel. The study found that the students resorted to their re-ligius knowledge (ideology when responding to the characters and subject matter of the novel. Students also developed certain kinds of feeling (emotion as their religious ideology was challenged by that offered by the novel. The study also diclosed that the students' responses fell into the categories of thematic and empathetic. It follows that teachers of Literature need to make attempts to situate the students to arrive at higher level of responses: motivational, predictive, and critical-evaluative.

  1. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Aunins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under

  2. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunins, Thomas R; Erickson, Keesha E; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Mastracchio, Rick; Stodieck, Louis; Klaus, David; Zea, Luis; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under extreme stress

  3. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunins, Thomas R.; Erickson, Keesha E.; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E.; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Mastracchio, Rick; Stodieck, Louis; Klaus, David; Zea, Luis; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under extreme stress

  4. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students - a preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of anonymous audience response technology (ART) to actively engage students in classroom learning has been evaluated positively across multiple settings. To date, however, there has been no empirical evaluation of the use of individualised ART handsets and formative feedback of ART scores. The present study investigates student perceptions of such a system and the relationship between formative feedback results and exam performance. Methods Four successive cohorts of Non-Medical Prescribing students (n=107) had access to the individualised ART system and three of these groups (n=72) completed a questionnaire about their perceptions of using ART. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of seven students who achieved a range of scores on the formative feedback. Using data from all four cohorts of students, the relationship between mean ART scores and summative pharmacology exam score was examined using a non-parametric correlation. Results Questionnaire and interview data suggested that the use of ART enhanced the classroom environment, motivated students and promoted learning. Questionnaire data demonstrated that students found the formative feedback helpful for identifying their learning needs (95.6%), guiding their independent study (86.8%), and as a revision tool (88.3%). Interviewees particularly valued the objectivity of the individualised feedback which helped them to self-manage their learning. Interviewees’ initial anxiety about revealing their level of pharmacology knowledge to the lecturer and to themselves reduced over time as students focused on the learning benefits associated with the feedback. A significant positive correlation was found between students’ formative feedback scores and their summative pharmacology exam scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.71, N=107, pstudents rated the helpfulness of the individualised handsets and personalised formative feedback highly. The significant correlation between ART

  5. What does media use reveal about personality and mental health? An exploratory investigation among German students

    OpenAIRE

    Brailovskaia, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related t...

  6. Facebook dethroned: Revealing the more likely social media destinations for college students' depictions of underage drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; Earle, Andrew M; LaBrie, Joseph W; Ballou, Kayla

    2017-02-01

    Studies examining representations of college drinking on social media have almost exclusively focused on Facebook. However, recent research suggests college students may be more influenced by peers' alcohol-related posts on Instagram and Snapchat, two image-based platforms popular among this demographic. One potential explanation for this differential influence is that qualitative distinctions in the types of alcohol-related content posted by students on these three platforms may exist. Informed by undergraduate focus groups, this study examined the hypothesis that, of the three platforms, students tend to use Instagram most often for photos glamourizing drinking and Snapchat for incriminating photos of alcohol misuse and negative consequences. Undergraduate research assistants aided investigators in developing hypothetical vignettes and photographic examples of posts both glamorizing and depicting negative consequences associated with college drinking. In an online survey, vignette and photo stimuli were followed by counterbalanced paired comparisons that presented each possible pair of social media platforms. Undergraduates (N=196) selected the platform from each pair on which they would be more likely to see each post. Generalized Bradley-Terry models examined the probabilities of platform selections. As predicted, Instagram was seen as the most probable destination (and Facebook least probable) for photos depicting alcohol use as attractive and glamorous. Conversely, Snapchat was selected as the most probable destination (and Facebook least probable) for items depicting negative consequences associated with heavy drinking. Results suggest researchers aiming to mitigate the potential influences associated with college students' glamorous and consequential alcohol-related photos posted social media posts should shift their focus from Facebook to Instagram and Snapchat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Revealing the Universe to Our Community: NMSU's Society of Astronomy Students' Dedication to Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Mercedes; Rees, S.; Medina, A.; Beasley, D.; Campos, A.; Chanover, N. J.; Uckert, K.; McKeever, J.

    2014-01-01

    The New Mexico State University (NMSU) Society of Astronomy Students (SAS) is an undergraduate organization centered on students’ passions for learning and sharing knowledge about the field of astronomy. The SAS strives to become one of the most active clubs on the NMSU campus by their involvement in both astronomy and non-astronomy related public outreach and community service events. NMSU is located in Las Cruces, NM, where Clyde Tombaugh made great contributions both to the field of astronomy and to our local community. He was able to spark the community's interest in astronomy and science in general; this is an aspect of his career that the SAS strives to emulate. To do this, the SAS participates in community outreach events with the goal of stimulating curiosity and providing opportunities for the public to observe and understand exciting phenomenon occurring in our universe. With help from the NMSU Astronomy Department, the SAS is able to volunteer alongside the Astronomy Graduate Student Organization (AGSO) at events for people of all ages. Working jointly with the AGSO allows us to be mentored by the very students who were in our shoes not long ago; they educate us about the wonders of the universe, just as we wish to educate the community. This provides an enlightening and enriching environment for both club and community members. The NMSU Astronomy Department hosts events for the entire community, such as observing nights held at Tombaugh Observatory — which SAS members attend and help advertise — where community members learn about and view objects in the night sky through telescopes. SAS members assist with field trips where local middle and elementary school students attend presentations and participate in astronomy-related activities on the NMSU campus. These hands-on activities are presented in an understandable way, and are meant to increase appreciation for all of the exciting subjects our universe has to offer. Other outreach events include

  8. Individual Values and Sensitivity to Corporate Ethical Responsibility of Business Students and Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrinjaquet, A.; Furrer, O.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between individual values and sensitivity to corporate ethical responsibility (CER) among current business students and practicing managers. Using Schwartz’s values typology and Maignan and Ferrell’s corporate ethical responsibility operationalization, survey

  9. A Comparison of Reading Response Methods to Increase Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cheryl J.; Zane, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    It is common in college courses to test students on the required readings for that course. With a rise in online education it is often the case that students are required to provide evidence of reading the material. However, there is little empirical research stating the best written means to assess that students read the materials. This study…

  10. Affective Responses of Students Who Witness Classroom Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Burger, Amanda; Blosser, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    For this study, 82 general psychology students (51 females, 31 males) witnessed a peer cheating while completing a test. Following the incident, we tape recorded semi-structured interviews with each student who saw the cheating event for later analysis. Using qualitative coding and methodology, themes emerged regarding students' emotional…

  11. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecke, Ronald; Jensen, Jacy

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We…

  12. Culturally Responsive Reading Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourea, Lefki; Gibson, Lenwood; Werunga, Robai

    2018-01-01

    As student populations are becoming more diverse in ability and ethnicity across American classrooms, teachers are faced with instructional challenges in meeting their students' learning needs. Challenges are heightened for general and special education teachers who teach students with learning disabilities (LD) and have a culturally and…

  13. Experiences of faculty and students using an audience response system in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Monturo, Cheryl; Conroy, Katherine

    2011-07-01

    The advent of innovative technologies, such as the audience response system, provides an opportunity to engage students and enhance learning. Based on their experiences, three nursing faculty evaluated the use of an audience response system in four distinct nursing courses through the use of informal survey results. When using the audience response system, the faculty experienced an increased perception of student attentiveness and engagement, high level of class attendance, and enhanced learning. Faculty feelings were mixed concerning the burden in adapting to increased classroom time and increased preparation time. Students' perception of the value of audience response system use was mostly positive, except when responses were included as part of the grade. The majority of the students indicated that use of the audience response system enhanced learning and was a helpful learning method when used with NCLEX-style questions. Overall, faculty believed that the benefits of student engagement and enhanced learning outweighed the burdens of incorporating this new technology in the classroom.

  14. Using Audience Response Systems to Encourage Student Engagement and Reflection on Ethical Orientation and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletto, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess student's ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices…

  15. Qualitative Student Responses to Service Learning with Veterans who are Homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay A. Phillips

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a description of a service learning activity in which students assisted veterans who are homeless. The article outlines how the event was organized, provides resources for implementation, discusses student response using evaluations from 15 students, and discusses considerations made in organizing such an event. KEYWORDSService Learning, Qualitative Evaluation, Homeless Veterans

  16. Students' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas in an Academic Setting and in the Work Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teer, Faye P.; Kruck, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    It is important for students to be prepared to act ethically when they face real world situations that test their ethical leadership. The purpose of this study was to examine university students' responses to ethical dilemmas. One hundred and sixty two students in numerous majors and both undergraduate and graduate classifications responded to a…

  17. Language Teaching and Technology Forum: The Integration of a Student Response System in Flipped Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    The present study incorporates a student response system (SRS) as a means to engage students in a flipped classroom and promote active learning. While the effectiveness of such systems with regard to student learning has been well documented in disciplines that are dominated by lecture-based instruction, no studies have compared the effectiveness…

  18. Getting the Most out of Audience Response Systems: Predicting Student Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trew, Jennifer L.; Nelsen, Jacqueline L.

    2012-01-01

    Audience response systems (ARS) are effective tools for improving learning outcomes and student engagement in large undergraduate classes. However, if students do not accept ARS and do not find them to be useful, ARS may be less effective. Predicting and improving student perceptions of ARS may help to ensure positive outcomes. The present study…

  19. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  20. Repeated diffusion MRI reveals earliest time point for stratification of radiotherapy response in brain metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Faisal; Johannesen, Helle H; Geertsen, Poul

    2017-01-01

    An imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response potentially provides a non-invasive tool for better prognostics and individualized management of the disease. Radiotherapy (RT) response is generally related to changes in gross tumor volume manifesting months later. In this prospect......An imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response potentially provides a non-invasive tool for better prognostics and individualized management of the disease. Radiotherapy (RT) response is generally related to changes in gross tumor volume manifesting months later....... In this prospective study we investigated the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction and pseudo diffusion coefficient derived from diffusion weighted MRI as potential early biomarkers for radiotherapy response of brain metastases. It was a particular aim to assess the optimal time point...

  1. Investigation of Millennial Students' Responses to a Shelter-in-Place Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Frick, Melodie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated millennial students' responses to an armed gunman threat and shelter-in-place warnings that occurred on a university campus. Using descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis, several significant differences were found for students' responses for sheltering-in-place and engaging in protective behaviors. Baxter Magolda'…

  2. Listen Up! Be Responsible! What Graduate Students Hear about University Teaching, Graduate Education and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenlieder, Erin; Kloet, Marie Vander

    2014-01-01

    What we hear at universities and in public conversations is that there is a crisis in graduate student education and employment. We are interested here in the (re)circulation of the discourses of crisis and responsibility. What do graduate students hear about their education, their career prospects, and their responsibilities? How does work in…

  3. Instructional Reasoning about Interpretations of Student Thinking That Supports Responsive Teaching in Secondary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Elizabeth B.; Sherin, Miriam Gamoran

    2016-01-01

    Basing instruction on the substance of student thinking, or responsive teaching, is a critical strategy for supporting student learning. Previous research has documented responsive teaching by identifying observable teaching practices in a broad range of disciplines and classrooms. However, this research has not provided access to the teacher…

  4. Student Writing Accepted as High-Quality Responses to Analytic Text-Based Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Elaine; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Correnti, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Literacy standards increasingly emphasize the importance of analytic text-based writing. Little consensus exists, however, around what high-quality student responses should look like in this genre. In this study, we investigated fifth-grade students' writing in response to analytic text-based writing tasks (15 teachers, 44 writing tasks, 88 pieces…

  5. Relations of perception of responsibility to intrinsic motivation and physical activity among Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Kim, Younhee; Kim, Oung Jun

    2012-12-01

    To validate the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire, the relations between perceived responsibility and intrinsic motivation were examined among Korean middle school students. The relations of change in stages of physical activity and students' perceived responsibility were also examined. Participants were 357 middle school students (160 boys, 197 girls) from three schools in the Seoul metropolitan area. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure with effort and self-direction merged into one factor and the responsibilities of respect and caring for others constituted separate factors. Pearson correlations among factors showed perceptions of personal responsibility were associated with more intrinsic motivation toward physical education and a higher stage of physical activity. A moderate or low association between perceived social responsibility and intrinsic motivation implied a need to develop strategies for Korean students to use social responsibility for promoting physical activity.

  6. The Effect of Student Collaboration in Solving Physics Problems Using an Online Interactive Response System

    OpenAIRE

    Balta, Nuri; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Advanced technology helps educational institutes to improve student learning performance and outcomes. In this study, our aim is to measure and assess student engagement and collaborative learning in engineering classes when using online technology in solving physics problems. The interactive response system used in this study is a collaborative learning tool that allows teachers to monitor their students’ response and progress in real time. Our results indicated that students have highly pos...

  7. What does media use reveal about personality and mental health? An exploratory investigation among German students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Brailovskaia

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related to these personality and mental health variables. The use of platforms that focus more on written interaction (Twitter, Tumblr was assumed to be negatively associated with positive mental health variables and significantly positively with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In contrast, Instagram use, which focuses more on photo-sharing, correlated positively with positive mental health variables. Possible practical implications of the present results for mental health, as well as the limitations of the present work are discussed.

  8. What does media use reveal about personality and mental health? An exploratory investigation among German students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related to these personality and mental health variables. The use of platforms that focus more on written interaction (Twitter, Tumblr) was assumed to be negatively associated with positive mental health variables and significantly positively with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In contrast, Instagram use, which focuses more on photo-sharing, correlated positively with positive mental health variables. Possible practical implications of the present results for mental health, as well as the limitations of the present work are discussed. PMID:29370275

  9. What does media use reveal about personality and mental health? An exploratory investigation among German students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovskaia, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related to these personality and mental health variables. The use of platforms that focus more on written interaction (Twitter, Tumblr) was assumed to be negatively associated with positive mental health variables and significantly positively with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In contrast, Instagram use, which focuses more on photo-sharing, correlated positively with positive mental health variables. Possible practical implications of the present results for mental health, as well as the limitations of the present work are discussed.

  10. Changes in the Social Responsibility Attitudes of Engineering Students Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Canney, Nathan E

    2016-10-01

    This research explored how engineering student views of their responsibility toward helping individuals and society through their profession, so-called social responsibility, change over time. A survey instrument was administered to students initially primarily in their first year, senior year, or graduate studies majoring in mechanical, civil, or environmental engineering at five institutions in September 2012, April 2013, and March 2014. The majority of the students (57 %) did not change significantly in their social responsibility attitudes, but 23 % decreased and 20 % increased. The students who increased, decreased, or remained the same in their social responsibility attitudes over time did not differ significantly in terms of gender, academic rank, or major. Some differences were found between institutions. Students who decreased in social responsibility initially possessed more positive social responsibility attitudes, were less likely to indicate that college courses impacted their views of social responsibility, and were more likely to have decreased in the frequency that they participated in volunteer activities, compared to students who did not change or increased their social responsibility. Although the large percentage of engineering students who decreased their social responsibility during college was disappointing, it is encouraging that courses and participation in volunteer activities may combat this trend.

  11. The Military and Domestic Disaster Response: Lead Role Revealed Through the Eye of Hurricane Katrina?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Juliana M

    2006-01-01

    .... During and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina however the slow and perceived inept response to the massive disaster prompted a national debate on the appropriate role of the military in major domestic disasters...

  12. Quantitative proteomics and dynamic imaging of the nucleolus reveal distinct responses to UV and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Henna M; Bai, Baoyan; Boisvert, François-Michel; Latonen, Leena; Rantanen, Ville; Simpson, Jeremy C; Pepperkok, Rainer; Lamond, Angus I; Laiho, Marikki

    2011-10-01

    The nucleolus is a nuclear organelle that coordinates rRNA transcription and ribosome subunit biogenesis. Recent proteomic analyses have shown that the nucleolus contains proteins involved in cell cycle control, DNA processing and DNA damage response and repair, in addition to the many proteins connected with ribosome subunit production. Here we study the dynamics of nucleolar protein responses in cells exposed to stress and DNA damage caused by ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in diploid human fibroblasts. We show using a combination of imaging and quantitative proteomics methods that nucleolar substructure and the nucleolar proteome undergo selective reorganization in response to UV damage. The proteomic responses to UV include alterations of functional protein complexes such as the SSU processome and exosome, and paraspeckle proteins, involving both decreases and increases in steady state protein ratios, respectively. Several nonhomologous end-joining proteins (NHEJ), such as Ku70/80, display similar fast responses to UV. In contrast, nucleolar proteomic responses to IR are both temporally and spatially distinct from those caused by UV, and more limited in terms of magnitude. With the exception of the NHEJ and paraspeckle proteins, where IR induces rapid and transient changes within 15 min of the damage, IR does not alter the ratios of most other functional nucleolar protein complexes. The rapid transient decrease of NHEJ proteins in the nucleolus indicates that it may reflect a response to DNA damage. Our results underline that the nucleolus is a specific stress response organelle that responds to different damage and stress agents in a unique, damage-specific manner.

  13. Human cortical responses to slow and fast binaural beats reveal multiple mechanisms of binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Bernhard; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Thompson, Jessica; Jamali, Shahab; Fujioka, Takako

    2014-10-15

    When two tones with slightly different frequencies are presented to both ears, they interact in the central auditory system and induce the sensation of a beating sound. At low difference frequencies, we perceive a single sound, which is moving across the head between the left and right ears. The percept changes to loudness fluctuation, roughness, and pitch with increasing beat rate. To examine the neural representations underlying these different perceptions, we recorded neuromagnetic cortical responses while participants listened to binaural beats at a continuously varying rate between 3 Hz and 60 Hz. Binaural beat responses were analyzed as neuromagnetic oscillations following the trajectory of the stimulus rate. Responses were largest in the 40-Hz gamma range and at low frequencies. Binaural beat responses at 3 Hz showed opposite polarity in the left and right auditory cortices. We suggest that this difference in polarity reflects the opponent neural population code for representing sound location. Binaural beats at any rate induced gamma oscillations. However, the responses were largest at 40-Hz stimulation. We propose that the neuromagnetic gamma oscillations reflect postsynaptic modulation that allows for precise timing of cortical neural firing. Systematic phase differences between bilateral responses suggest that separate sound representations of a sound object exist in the left and right auditory cortices. We conclude that binaural processing at the cortical level occurs with the same temporal acuity as monaural processing whereas the identification of sound location requires further interpretation and is limited by the rate of object representations. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Differential reproductive responses to stress reveal the role of life-history strategies within a species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultner, J; Kitaysky, A S; Gabrielsen, G W; Hatch, S A; Bech, C

    2013-11-22

    Life-history strategies describe that 'slow'- in contrast to 'fast'-living species allocate resources cautiously towards reproduction to enhance survival. Recent evidence suggests that variation in strategies exists not only among species but also among populations of the same species. Here, we examined the effect of experimentally induced stress on resource allocation of breeding seabirds in two populations with contrasting life-history strategies: slow-living Pacific and fast-living Atlantic black-legged kittiwakes. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive responses in kittiwakes under stress reflect their life-history strategies. We predicted that in response to stress, Pacific kittiwakes reduce investment in reproduction compared with Atlantic kittiwakes. We exposed chick-rearing kittiwakes to a short-term (3-day) period of increased exogenous corticosterone (CORT), a hormone that is released during food shortages. We examined changes in baseline CORT levels, parental care and effects on offspring. We found that kittiwakes from the two populations invested differently in offspring when facing stress. In response to elevated CORT, Pacific kittiwakes reduced nest attendance and deserted offspring more readily than Atlantic kittiwakes. We observed lower chick growth, a higher stress response in offspring and lower reproductive success in response to CORT implantation in Pacific kittiwakes, whereas the opposite occurred in the Atlantic. Our findings support the hypothesis that life-history strategies predict short-term responses of individuals to stress within a species. We conclude that behaviour and physiology under stress are consistent with trade-off priorities as predicted by life-history theory. We encourage future studies to consider the pivotal role of life-history strategies when interpreting inter-population differences of animal responses to stressful environmental events.

  15. Colony-specific investigations reveal highly variable responses among individual corals to ocean acidification and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, Javid; Reimer, James Davis; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    As anthropogenic climate change is an ongoing concern, scientific investigations on its impacts on coral reefs are increasing. Although impacts of combined ocean acidification (OA) and temperature stress (T) on reef-building scleractinian corals have been studied at the genus, species and population levels, there are little data available on how individual corals respond to combined OA and anomalous temperatures. In this study, we exposed individual colonies of Acropora digitifera, Montipora digitata and Porites cylindrica to four pCO2-temperature treatments including 400 μatm-28 °C, 400 μatm-31 °C, 1000 μatm-28 °C and 1000 μatm-31 °C for 26 days. Physiological parameters including calcification, protein content, maximum photosynthetic efficiency, Symbiodinium density, and chlorophyll content along with Symbiodinium type of each colony were examined. Along with intercolonial responses, responses of individual colonies versus pooled data to the treatments were investigated. The main results were: 1) responses to either OA or T or their combination were different between individual colonies when considering physiological functions; 2) tolerance to either OA or T was not synonymous with tolerance to the other parameter; 3) tolerance to both OA and T did not necessarily lead to tolerance of OA and T combined (OAT) at the same time; 4) OAT had negative, positive or no impacts on physiological functions of coral colonies; and 5) pooled data were not representative of responses of all individual colonies. Indeed, the pooled data obscured actual responses of individual colonies or presented a response that was not observed in any individual. From the results of this study we recommend improving experimental designs of studies investigating physiological responses of corals to climate change by complementing them with colony-specific examinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Classification of frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus reveals continua not discrete classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian

    2013-08-15

    A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hypothesis is that the frequency response class of any given neuron in the IC is predominantly inherited from one of three major afferent pathways projecting to the IC, giving rise to three distinct receptive field classes. Here, we applied subjective classification, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and other objective statistical measures, to a large population (2826) of frequency response areas from single neurons recorded in the IC of the anaesthetised guinea pig. Subjectively, we recognised seven frequency response classes (V-shaped, non-monotonic Vs, narrow, closed, tilt down, tilt up and double-peaked), that were represented at all frequencies. We could identify similar classes using our objective classification tools. Importantly, however, many neurons exhibited properties intermediate between these classes, and none of the objective methods used here showed evidence of discrete response classes. Thus receptive field shapes in the IC form continua rather than discrete classes, a finding consistent with the integration of afferent inputs in the generation of frequency response areas. The frequency disposition of inhibition in the response areas of some neurons suggests that across-frequency inputs originating at or below the level of the IC are involved in their generation.

  17. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-07-14

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly "domain general" conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects.

  18. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly “domain general” conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects. PMID:26169473

  19. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...... associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...

  20. The human auditory brainstem response to running speech reveals a subcortical mechanism for selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Antonio Elia; Etard, Octave; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2017-10-10

    Humans excel at selectively listening to a target speaker in background noise such as competing voices. While the encoding of speech in the auditory cortex is modulated by selective attention, it remains debated whether such modulation occurs already in subcortical auditory structures. Investigating the contribution of the human brainstem to attention has, in particular, been hindered by the tiny amplitude of the brainstem response. Its measurement normally requires a large number of repetitions of the same short sound stimuli, which may lead to a loss of attention and to neural adaptation. Here we develop a mathematical method to measure the auditory brainstem response to running speech, an acoustic stimulus that does not repeat and that has a high ecological validity. We employ this method to assess the brainstem's activity when a subject listens to one of two competing speakers, and show that the brainstem response is consistently modulated by attention.

  1. Dialogizing Response in the Writing Classroom: Students Answer Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Pamela

    1998-01-01

    Notes that while informed teachers of writing have moved toward more dialogic approaches, they still have colonial tendencies when responding to student writing. Suggests an activity that invites students to talk back to the teacher-reader as a means of helping them move more effectively toward revision. (PA)

  2. Cognitive Responses of Students Who Witness Classroom Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Burger, Amanda; Blosser, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    We arranged for 82 General Psychology students (51 females, 31 males) to observe peers in a course cheating situation. Individual, in-depth, qualitative interviews following the experiment we were conducting, using rigorous coding and grounded theory methodology for analysis. Results showed students to experience particular cognitive stages as…

  3. A Qualitative Study of Student Responses to Body Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gabrielle M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-three preclinical medical students participated in 24 focus groups over the period 2007-2009 at Durham University. Focus groups were conducted to ascertain whether or not medical students found body painting anatomical structures to be an educationally beneficial learning activity. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory…

  4. Students Learning Agroecology: Phenomenon-Based Education for Responsible Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Edvin; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Preparing students for a complex and dynamic future is a challenge for educators. This article explores three crucial issues related to agroecological education and learning: (1) the phenomenological foundation for learning agroecology in higher education; (2) the process of students' interactions with a wide range of various learners within and…

  5. Student Press and Distribution Issues: Rights and Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Larry D.

    1984-01-01

    This review analyzes case law in the area of student press and distribution and offers some guidelines for developing and implementing school policy and rules. Litigation is reviewed in order to clarify students' rights, limitations on administrative authority in matters of censorship and prior restraint, and actions in connection with writing and…

  6. Online Peer Review: Encouraging Student Response and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansiquot, Reneta; Rosalia, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the use of a tailored online peer review program for first-year undergraduate students at an urban college of technology. The program facilitated group peer review in meaningful and technologically elegant ways. Students in a composition class were divided into two groups. One group acted as first reviewers, and the other group…

  7. Thermal reactionomes reveal divergent responses to thermal extremes in warm and cool-climate ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanton-Geddes, John; Nguyen, Andrew; Chick, Lacy

    2016-01-01

    across an experimental gradient. We characterized thermal reactionomes of two common ant species in the eastern U.S, the northern cool-climate Aphaenogaster picea and the southern warm-climate Aphaenogaster carolinensis, across 12 temperatures that spanned their entire thermal breadth.......The distributions of species and their responses to climate change are in part determined by their thermal tolerances. However, little is known about how thermal tolerance evolves. To test whether evolutionary extension of thermal limits is accomplished through enhanced cellular stress response...

  8. Vocal responses to noise reveal the presence of the Lombard effect in a frog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halfwerk, W.H.; Lea, A.M.; Guerra, M.A.; Page, R.A.; Ryan, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many animal communication systems have evolved signal flexibility depending on environmental conditions. A common strategy of vocal communication is to increase amplitude in response to increasing noise levels. This phenomenon, known as the Lombard effect, is a widespread trait among mammals and

  9. Thymus transcriptome reveals novel pathways in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Liu, P; Nolan, L K; Lamont, S J

    2016-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause significant morbidity in chickens. The thymus provides the essential environment for T cell development; however, the thymus transcriptome has not been examined for gene expression in response to APEC infection. An improved understanding of the host genomic response to APEC infection could inform future breeding programs for disease resistance and APEC control. We therefore analyzed the transcriptome of the thymus of birds challenged with APEC, contrasting susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Thousands of genes were differentially expressed in birds of the 5-day post infection (dpi) challenged-susceptible group vs. 5 dpi non-challenged, in 5 dpi challenged-susceptible vs. 5 dpi challenged-resistant birds, as well as in 5 dpi vs. one dpi challenged-susceptible birds. The Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was the major innate immune response for birds to respond to APEC infection. Moreover, lysosome and cell adhesion molecules pathways were common mechanisms for chicken response to APEC infection. The T-cell receptor signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways were significantly activated in resistant birds to resist APEC infection. These results provide a comprehensive assessment of global gene networks and biological functionalities of differentially expressed genes in the thymus under APEC infection. These findings provide novel insights into key molecular genetic mechanisms that differentiate host resistance from susceptibility in this primary lymphoid tissue, the thymus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  10. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q.; van Gaal, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue,

  11. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of protein arginine phosphorylation in the bacterial stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response.

  12. Multimodal stimulation of Colorado potato beetle reveals modulation of pheromone response by yellow light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available Orientation of insects to host plants and conspecifics is the result of detection and integration of chemical and physical cues present in the environment. Sensory organs have evolved to be sensitive to important signals, providing neural input for higher order multimodal processing and behavioral output. Here we report experiments to determine decisions made by Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in response to isolated stimuli and multimodal combinations of signals on a locomotion compensator. Our results show that in complete darkness and in the absence of other stimuli, pheromonal stimulation increases attraction behavior of CPB as measured in oriented displacement and walking speed. However, orientation to the pheromone is abolished when presented with the alternative stimulation of a low intensity yellow light in a dark environment. The ability of the pheromone to stimulate these diurnal beetles in the dark in the absence of other stimuli is an unexpected but interesting observation. The predominance of the phototactic response over that to pheromone when low intensity lights were offered as choices seems to confirm the diurnal nature of the insect. The biological significance of the response to pheromone in the dark is unclear. The phototactic response will play a key role in elucidating multimodal stimulation in the host-finding process of CPB, and perhaps other insects. Such information might be exploited in the design of applications to attract and trap CPB for survey or control purposes and other insect pests using similar orientation mechanisms.

  13. Coral-zooxanthellae meta-transcriptomics reveals integrated response to pollutant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Kurt A; Najar, Fares Z; Habib, Tanwir; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Piggot, Alan M; Fouke, Bruce W; Laird, Jennifer G; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Rawat, Arun; Indest, Karl J; Roe, Bruce A; Perkins, Edward J

    2014-07-12

    Corals represent symbiotic meta-organisms that require harmonization among the coral animal, photosynthetic zooxanthellae and associated microbes to survive environmental stresses. We investigated integrated-responses among coral and zooxanthellae in the scleractinian coral Acropora formosa in response to an emerging marine pollutant, the munitions constituent, 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX; 5 day exposures to 0 (control), 0.5, 0.9, 1.8, 3.7, and 7.2 mg/L, measured in seawater). RDX accumulated readily in coral soft tissues with bioconcentration factors ranging from 1.1 to 1.5. Next-generation sequencing of a normalized meta-transcriptomic library developed for the eukaryotic components of the A. formosa coral holobiont was leveraged to conduct microarray-based global transcript expression analysis of integrated coral/zooxanthellae responses to the RDX exposure. Total differentially expressed transcripts (DET) increased with increasing RDX exposure concentrations as did the proportion of zooxanthellae DET relative to the coral animal. Transcriptional responses in the coral demonstrated higher sensitivity to RDX compared to zooxanthellae where increased expression of gene transcripts coding xenobiotic detoxification mechanisms (i.e. cytochrome P450 and UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family) were initiated at the lowest exposure concentration. Increased expression of these detoxification mechanisms was sustained at higher RDX concentrations as well as production of a physical barrier to exposure through a 40% increase in mucocyte density at the maximum RDX exposure. At and above the 1.8 mg/L exposure concentration, DET coding for genes involved in central energy metabolism, including photosynthesis, glycolysis and electron-transport functions, were decreased in zooxanthellae although preliminary data indicated that zooxanthellae densities were not affected. In contrast, significantly increased transcript expression for genes involved in cellular energy production

  14. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  15. Quantitative proteomics reveals the central changes of wheat in response to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Mandal, Siddikun Nabi; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chunhuan; Ji, Wanquan

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Pm), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the most important crop diseases, causing severe economic losses to wheat production worldwide. However, there are few reports about the proteomic response to Bgt infection in resistant wheat. Hence, quantitative proteomic analysis of N9134, a resistant wheat line, was performed to explore the molecular mechanism of wheat in defense against Bgt. Comparing the leaf proteins of Bgt-inoculated N9134 with that of mock-inoculated controls, a total of 2182 protein-species were quantified by iTRAQ at 24, 48 and 72h postinoculation (hpi) with Bgt, of which 394 showed differential accumulation. These differentially accumulated protein-species (DAPs) mainly included pathogenesis-related (PR) polypeptides, oxidative stress responsive proteins and components involved in primary metabolic pathways. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism and photosynthesis-antenna proteins were the key pathways in response to Bgt infection. InterProScan 5 and the Gibbs Motif Sampler cluster 394 DAPs into eight conserved motifs, which shared leucine repeats and histidine sites in the sequence motifs. Moreover, eight separate protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were predicted from STRING database. This study provides a powerful platform for further exploration of the molecular mechanism underlying resistant wheat responding to Bgt. Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive pathogenic disease in wheat-producing regions worldwide, resulting in severe yield reductions. Although many resistant wheat varieties have been cultivated, there are few reports about the proteomic response to Bgt infection in resistant wheat. Therefore, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of a resistant wheat line (N9134) in response to Bgt infection has been performed. This paper provides new insights into the underlying molecular

  16. Analysis of morphine responses in mice reveals a QTL on Chromosome 7 [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim E. Crusio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL on mouse Chromosome 7 associated with locomotor activity and rearing post morphine treatment. This QTL was revealed after correcting for the effects of another QTL peak on Chromosome 10 using composite interval mapping. The positional candidate genes are Syt9 and Ppfibp2. Several other genes within the interval are linked to neural processes, locomotor activity, and the defensive response to harmful stimuli.

  17. Analysis of morphine responses in mice reveals a QTL on Chromosome 7 [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim E. Crusio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL on mouse Chromosome 7 associated with locomotor activity and rearing post morphine treatment. This QTL was revealed after correcting for the effects of another QTL peak on Chromosome 10 using composite interval mapping. The positional candidate genes are Syt9 and Ppfibp2. Several other genes within the interval are linked to neural processes, locomotor activity, and the defensive response to harmful stimuli.

  18. Linear and Non-Linear Dose-Response Functions Reveal a Hormetic Relationship Between Stress and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zoladz, Phillip R.; Diamond, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as ...

  19. Comment on "Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Huang, Ling; Lian, Xu; Piao, Shilong

    2018-06-15

    Forzieri et al (Reports, 16 June 2017, p. 1180) used satellite data to show that boreal greening caused regional warming. We show that this positive sensitivity of temperature to the greening can be derived from the positive response of vegetation to boreal warming, which indicates that results from a statistical regression with satellite data should be carefully interpreted. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Specific gene expression responses to parasite genotypes reveal redundancy of innate immunity in vertebrates.

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    David Haase

    Full Text Available Vertebrate innate immunity is the first line of defense against an invading pathogen and has long been assumed to be largely unspecific with respect to parasite/pathogen species. However, recent phenotypic evidence suggests that immunogenetic variation, i.e. allelic variability in genes associated with the immune system, results in host-parasite genotype-by-genotype interactions and thus specific innate immune responses. Immunogenetic variation is common in all vertebrate taxa and this reflects an effective immunological function in complex environments. However, the underlying variability in host gene expression patterns as response of innate immunity to within-species genetic diversity of macroparasites in vertebrates is unknown. We hypothesized that intra-specific variation among parasite genotypes must be reflected in host gene expression patterns. Here we used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to examine the effect of parasite genotypes on gene expression patterns of a vertebrate host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. By infecting naïve fish with distinct trematode genotypes of the species Diplostomum pseudospathaceum we show that gene activity of innate immunity in three-spined sticklebacks depended on the identity of an infecting macroparasite genotype. In addition to a suite of genes indicative for a general response against the trematode we also find parasite-strain specific gene expression, in particular in the complement system genes, despite similar infection rates of single clone treatments. The observed discrepancy between infection rates and gene expression indicates the presence of alternative pathways which execute similar functions. This suggests that the innate immune system can induce redundant responses specific to parasite genotypes.

  1. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Jiang; Qinglin Zhang; Simon Van Gaal

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict a...

  2. Consistency Over Flattery: Self-Verification Processes Revealed in Implicit and Behavioral Responses to Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Ayduk, O; Gyurak, A; Akinola, M; Mendes, WB

    2013-01-01

    Negative social feedback is often a source of distress. However, self-verification theory provides the counterintuitive explanation that negative feedback leads to less distress when it is consistent with chronic self-views. Drawing from this work, the present study examined the impact of receiving self-verifying feedback on outcomes largely neglected in prior research: implicit responses (i.e., physiological reactivity, facial expressions) that are difficult to consciously regulate and downs...

  3. Experimentally induced spermatophore production and immune responses reveal a trade-off in crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Angela M. Kerr; Susan N. Gershman; Scott K. Sakaluk

    2010-01-01

    The energetic demands of the immune system and reproduction are often high and can lead to trade-offs between these 2 life-history traits. In decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, much of a male's reproductive effort is devoted to calling, and to the synthesis of a spermatophylax, a large, gelatinous, non--sperm-containing mass forming part of the spermatophore and consumed by the female after mating. We employed a reciprocal design in which we experimentally induced an immune response in...

  4. Classification of frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus reveals continua not discrete classes

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hy...

  5. The influence of response competition on cerebral asymmetries for processing hierarchical stimuli revealed by ERP recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski, Peter; Hübner, Ronald; Keil, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the left and right hemispheres differ with respect to the processing of global and local aspects of visual stimuli. Recently, behavioural experiments have shown that this processing asymmetry strongly depends on the response competition between the global and local levels of a stimulus. Here we report electrophysiological data that underline this observation. Hemispheric differences for global/local processing were mainly observed for responseincompatible stimuli an...

  6. Electro-responsivity of ionic liquid boundary layers in a polar solvent revealed by neutron reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Georgia A.; Harris, Kathryn; Bergendal, Erik; Reddy, Akepati Bhaskar; Palsson, Gunnar K.; Vorobiev, Alexei; Antzutkin, Oleg. N.; Glavatskih, Sergei; Rutland, Mark W.

    2018-05-01

    Using neutron reflectivity, the electro-responsive structuring of the non-halogenated ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium-bis(mandelato)borate, [P6,6,6,14][BMB], has been studied at a gold electrode surface in a polar solvent. For a 20% w/w IL mixture, contrast matched to the gold surface, distinct Kiessig fringes were observed for all potentials studied, indicative of a boundary layer of different composition to that of the bulk IL-solvent mixture. With applied potential, the amplitudes of the fringes from the gold-boundary layer interface varied systematically. These changes are attributable to the differing ratios of cations and anions in the boundary layer, leading to a greater or diminished contrast with the gold electrode, depending on the individual ion scattering length densities. Such electro-responsive changes were also evident in the reflectivities measured for the pure IL and a less concentrated (5% w/w) IL-solvent mixture at the same applied potentials, but gave rise to less pronounced changes. These measurements, therefore, demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity achieved by contrast matching the bulk solution and that the structure of the IL boundary layers formed in mixtures is strongly influenced by the bulk concentration. Together these results represent an important step in characterising IL boundary layers in IL-solvent mixtures and provide clear evidence of electro-responsive structuring of IL ions in their solutions with applied potential.

  7. Transcriptome profiling reveals the immune response of goose T cells under selenium stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Li, Wanyan; Li, Bingxin; Tian, Yunbo; Xu, Danning

    2017-12-01

    The goose is an economically important poultry species and a principal natural host of avian viruses. This study aimed to determine the effects of selenium on the immune response of geese. Under selenium stimulation, gene expression profiling was investigated using transcriptome sequencing. The selenoproteins were promoted by selenium stimulation, while the heat shock proteins, interleukin and interferons were mainly down-regulated. After comparison, 2228 differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in immune and environmental response, and infectious disease and genetic information processing related pathways were identified. Specifically, the enzymes of the lysosomes which acted as a safeguard in preventing pathogens were mostly up-regulated and six randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the most proportional increased transcription factor family basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) located in the 5' flank of selenoprotein P-like protein for selenium metabolism was identified by response to the selenium stimulation in this study. These analyses show that selenium can promote immune function by activating selenoproteins, transcript factors and lysosome pathway related genes, while weakening cytokine content genes in geese. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Pupillary responses reveal infants' discrimination of facial emotions independent of conscious perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Sarah; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Sensitive responding to others' emotions is essential during social interactions among humans. There is evidence for the existence of subcortically mediated emotion discrimination processes that occur independent of conscious perception in adults. However, only recently work has begun to examine the development of automatic emotion processing systems during infancy. In particular, it is unclear whether emotional expressions impact infants' autonomic nervous system regardless of conscious perception. We examined this question by measuring pupillary responses while subliminally and supraliminally presenting 7-month-old infants with happy and fearful faces. Our results show greater pupil dilation, indexing enhanced autonomic arousal, in response to happy compared to fearful faces regardless of conscious perception. Our findings suggest that, early in ontogeny, emotion discrimination occurs independent of conscious perception and is associated with differential autonomic responses. This provides evidence for the view that automatic emotion processing systems are an early-developing building block of human social functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Badoud

    Full Text Available To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO individuals.Thirty adults (35-70 yrs were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs.The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05. Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC.MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals.

  10. Digital quantification of gene expression in sequential breast cancer biopsies reveals activation of an immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinath M Jeselsohn

    Full Text Available Advancements in molecular biology have unveiled multiple breast cancer promoting pathways and potential therapeutic targets. Large randomized clinical trials remain the ultimate means of validating therapeutic efficacy, but they require large cohorts of patients and are lengthy and costly. A useful approach is to conduct a window of opportunity study in which patients are exposed to a drug pre-surgically during the interval between the core needle biopsy and the definitive surgery. These are non-therapeutic studies and the end point is not clinical or pathological response but rather evaluation of molecular changes in the tumor specimens that can predict response. However, since the end points of the non-therapeutic studies are biologic, it is critical to first define the biologic changes that occur in the absence of treatment. In this study, we compared the molecular profiles of breast cancer tumors at the time of the diagnostic biopsy versus the definitive surgery in the absence of any intervention using the Nanostring nCounter platform. We found that while the majority of the transcripts did not vary between the two biopsies, there was evidence of activation of immune related genes in response to the first biopsy and further investigations of the immune changes after a biopsy in early breast cancer seem warranted.

  11. Differential stress response of Saccharomyces hybrids revealed by monitoring Hsp104 aggregation and disaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Claudia; Lengeler, Klaus; Wendland, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Proteotoxic stress may occur upon exposure of yeast cells to different stress conditions. The induction of stress response mechanisms is important for cells to adapt to changes in the environment and ensure survival. For example, during exposure to elevated temperatures the expression of heat shock proteins such as Hsp104 is induced in yeast. Hsp104 extracts misfolded proteins from aggregates to promote their refolding. We used an Hsp104-GFP reporter to analyze the stress profiles of Saccharomyces species hybrids. To this end a haploid S. cerevisiae strain, harboring a chromosomal HSP104-GFP under control of its endogenous promoter, was mated with stable haploids of S. bayanus, S. cariocanus, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, S. paradoxus and S. uvarum. Stress response behaviors in these hybrids were followed over time by monitoring the appearance and dissolution of Hsp104-GFP foci upon heat shock. General stress tolerance of these hybrids was related to the growth rate detected during exposure to e.g. ethanol and oxidizing agents. We observed that hybrids were generally more resistant to high temperature and ethanol stress compared to their parental strains. Amongst the hybrids differential responses regarding the appearance of Hsp104-foci and the time required for dissolving these aggregates were observed. The S. cerevisiae/S. paradoxus hybrid, combining the two most closely related strains, performed best under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  13. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Gene expression and metal tissue concentrations were compared in Mytilus edulis. • Expression levels of several transcripts correlated with metal concentrations. • Transcripts involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced. • Integration of transcriptomics and tissue levels provides insight to toxicity. - Abstract: Marine biomonitoring programs in the U.S. and Europe have historically relied on monitoring tissue concentrations of bivalves to monitor contaminant levels and ecosystem health. By integrating ‘omic methods with these tissue residue approaches we can uncover mechanistic insight to link tissue concentrations to potential toxic effects. In an effort to identify novel biomarkers and better understand the molecular toxicology of metal bioaccumulation in bivalves, we exposed the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., to sub-lethal concentrations (0.54 μM) of cadmium, lead, and a Cd + Pb mixture. Metal concentrations were measured in gill tissues at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and increased linearly over the 4 week duration. In addition, there was evidence that Pb interfered with Cd uptake in the mixture treatment. Using a 3025 sequence microarray for M. edulis, we performed transcriptomic analysis, identifying 57 differentially expressed sequences. Hierarchical clustering of these sequences successfully distinguished the different treatment groups demonstrating that the expression profiles were reproducible among the treatments. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms identified several biological processes that were perturbed by the treatments, including nucleoside phosphate biosynthetic processes, mRNA metabolic processes, and response to stress. To identify transcripts whose expression level correlated with metal bioaccumulation, we performed Pearson correlation analysis. Several transcripts correlated with gill metal concentrations including mt10, mt20, and contig 48, an unknown transcript containing a wsc domain. In addition

  14. Nursing students' responses to ethical dilemmas in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M; Janssen, P J

    1997-01-01

    In literature as well as in nursing practice a growing concern about nurses' ethical competence can be observed. Based on the cognitive theory of moral development by Kohlberg, this research examined nursing students' ethical behaviour in five nursing dilemmas. Ethical behaviour refers not only to the ethical reasoning of nursing students but also to the relationship between reasoning and behaviour. Kohlberg's definition of morality was refined by adding a care perspective. The results show that the majority of students can be located in the fourth moral stage according to Kohlberg's theory, that is, the conventional level of moral development. This finding implies that students are still guided by professional rules, norms and duties, and have not (yet) succeeded in making personal ethical decisions on the basis of their own principles and acting according to such decisions.

  15. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  16. Student Perception on a Student Response System Formed by Combining Mobile Phone and a Polling Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Every teacher understands the importance of getting timely student feedback for effective and efficient teaching and learning. However, students are not always keen to answer questions in the classroom in front of their peers. There is a need for an efficient method to engage all the students in a classroom and quickly evaluate the progress of…

  17. Students and Teacher Responses to a Unit of Student-Designed Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley; Hastie, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the support in primary education that student-designed games enhance student contextualisation of skills and tactics, there has been little support in secondary education, nor any empirical research exploring these claims. This paper attempts to rekindle these beliefs and explores the use of student-designed games in an English…

  18. Transcriptome analysis reveals a stress response of Shewanella oneidensis deprived of background levels of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoping; Schilkey, Faye; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Natural ionizing background radiation has exerted a constant pressure on organisms since the first forms of life appeared on Earth, so that cells have developed molecular mechanisms to avoid or repair damages caused directly by radiation or indirectly by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional effect of depriving Shewanella oneidensis cultures of background levels of radiation by growing the cells in a mine 655 m underground, thus reducing the dose rate from 72.1 to 0.9 nGy h-1 from control to treatment, respectively. RNASeq transcriptome analysis showed the differential expression of 4.6 and 7.6% of the S. oneidensis genome during early- and late-exponential phases of growth, respectively. The greatest change observed in the treatment was the downregulation of ribosomal proteins (21% of all annotated ribosomal protein genes during early- and 14% during late-exponential) and tRNA genes (14% of all annotated tRNA genes in early-exponential), indicating a marked decrease in protein translation. Other significant changes were the upregulation of membrane transporters, implying an increase in the traffic of substrates across the cell membrane, as well as the up and downregulation of genes related to respiration, which could be interpreted as a response to insufficient oxidants in the cells. In other reports, there is evidence in multiple species that some ROS not just lead to oxidative stress, but act as signaling molecules to control cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level. Consistent with these reports, several genes involved in the metabolism of carbon and biosynthesis of amino acids were also regulated, lending support to the idea of a wide metabolic response. Our results indicate that S. oneidensis is sensitive to the withdrawal of background levels of ionizing radiation and suggest that a transcriptional response is required to maintain homeostasis and retain normal growth. PMID:29768440

  19. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  20. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  1. Meta-analysis reveals profound responses of plant traits to glacial CO2 levels

    OpenAIRE

    Temme, A A; Cornwell, W K; Cornelissen, J H C; Aerts, R

    2013-01-01

    A general understanding of the links between atmospheric CO2 concentration and the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere requires not only an understanding of plant trait responses to the ongoing transition to higher CO2 but also the legacy effects of past low CO2. An interesting question is whether the transition from current to higher CO2 can be thought of as a continuation of the past trajectory of low to current CO2 levels. Determining this trajectory requires quantifying the effect si...

  2. Evolution of Students' Varied Conceptualizations About Socially Responsible Engineering: A Four Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulifson, Greg; Bielefeldt, Angela R

    2018-03-20

    Engineers should learn how to act on their responsibility to society during their education. At present, however, it is unknown what students think about the meaning of socially responsible engineering. This paper synthesizes 4 years of longitudinal interviews with engineering students as they progressed through college. The interviews revolved broadly around how students saw the connections between engineering and social responsibility, and what influenced these ideas. Using the Weidman Input-Environment-Output model as a framework, this research found that influences included required classes such as engineering ethics, capstone design, and some technical courses, pre-college volunteering and familial values, co-curricular groups such as Engineers Without Borders and the Society of Women Engineers, as well as professional experiences through internships. Further, some experiences such as technical courses and engineering internships contributed to confine students' understanding of an engineer's social responsibility. Overall, students who stayed in engineering tended to converge on basic responsibilities such as safety and bettering society as a whole, but tended to become less concerned with improving the lives of the marginalized and disadvantaged. Company loyalty also became important for some students. These results have valuable, transferable contributions, providing guidance to foster students' ideas on socially responsible engineering.

  3. Shipwreck rates reveal Caribbean tropical cyclone response to past radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, Valerie; Harley, Grant L; Domínguez-Delmás, Marta

    2016-03-22

    Assessing the impact of future climate change on North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity is of crucial societal importance, but the limited quantity and quality of observational records interferes with the skill of future TC projections. In particular, North Atlantic TC response to radiative forcing is poorly understood and creates the dominant source of uncertainty for twenty-first-century projections. Here, we study TC variability in the Caribbean during the Maunder Minimum (MM; 1645-1715 CE), a period defined by the most severe reduction in solar irradiance in documented history (1610-present). For this purpose, we combine a documentary time series of Spanish shipwrecks in the Caribbean (1495-1825 CE) with a tree-growth suppression chronology from the Florida Keys (1707-2009 CE). We find a 75% reduction in decadal-scale Caribbean TC activity during the MM, which suggests modulation of the influence of reduced solar irradiance by the cumulative effect of cool North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, El Niño-like conditions, and a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results emphasize the need to enhance our understanding of the response of these oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns to radiative forcing and climate change to improve the skill of future TC projections.

  4. Analysis of Natural Variation in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Reveals Physiological Responses Underlying Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H2O2 content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23285294

  5. Time-Resolved Fast Mammalian Behavior Reveals the Complexity of Protective Pain Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam E. Browne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentially harmful stimuli are detected at the skin by nociceptor sensory neurons that drive rapid protective withdrawal reflexes and pain. We set out to define, at a millisecond timescale, the relationship between the activity of these sensory neurons and the resultant behavioral output. Brief optogenetic activation of cutaneous nociceptors was found to activate only a single action potential in each fiber. This minimal input was used to determine high-speed behavioral responses in freely behaving mice. The localized stimulus generated widespread dynamic repositioning and alerting sub-second behaviors whose nature and timing depended on the context of the animal and its position, activity, and alertness. Our findings show that the primary response to injurious stimuli is not limited, fixed, or localized, but is dynamic, and that it involves recruitment and gating of multiple circuits distributed throughout the central nervous system at a sub-second timescale to effectively both alert to the presence of danger and minimize risk of harm.

  6. Meta-Analysis of High-Throughput Datasets Reveals Cellular Responses Following Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Bowick

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing use of high-throughput assays to investigate cellular responses to infection is providing a large repository of information. Due to the large number of differentially expressed transcripts, often running into the thousands, the majority of these data have not been thoroughly investigated. Advances in techniques for the downstream analysis of high-throughput datasets are providing additional methods for the generation of additional hypotheses for further investigation. The large number of experimental observations, combined with databases that correlate particular genes and proteins with canonical pathways, functions and diseases, allows for the bioinformatic exploration of functional networks that may be implicated in replication or pathogenesis. Herein, we provide an example of how analysis of published high-throughput datasets of cellular responses to hemorrhagic fever virus infection can generate additional functional data. We describe enrichment of genes involved in metabolism, post-translational modification and cardiac damage; potential roles for specific transcription factors and a conserved involvement of a pathway based around cyclooxygenase-2. We believe that these types of analyses can provide virologists with additional hypotheses for continued investigation.

  7. Comprehensive proteome analysis of lysosomes reveals the diverse function of macrophages in immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanpan; Chen, Yanyu; Zhan, Shaohua; Zhang, Wenhao; Xiong, Feng; Ge, Wei

    2017-01-31

    Phagocytosis and autophagy in macrophages have been shown to be essential to both innate and adaptive immunity. Lysosomes are the main catabolic subcellular organelles responsible for degradation and recycling of both extracellular and intracellular material, which are the final steps in phagocytosis and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lysosomal functions after infection remain obscure. In this study, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of the changes in constitution and glycosylation of proteins in lysosomes derived from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells treated with different types of pathogens comprising examples of bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, L. m), DNA viruses (herpes simplex virus type-1, HSV-1) and RNA viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV). In total, 3,704 lysosome-related proteins and 300 potential glycosylation sites on 193 proteins were identified. Comparative analysis showed that the aforementioned pathogens induced distinct alterations in the proteome of the lysosome, which is closely associated with the immune functions of macrophages, such as toll-like receptor activation, inflammation and antigen-presentation. The most significant changes in proteins and fluctuations in glycosylation were also determined. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that the changes in expression of these proteins were undetectable at the whole cell level. Thus, our study provides unique insights into the function of lysosomes in macrophage activation and immune responses.

  8. Analysis of natural variation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) reveals physiological responses underlying drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H₂O₂ content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system.

  9. Integrated approach reveals diet, APOE genotype and sex affect immune response in APP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyong Nyon; Wolfe, Cody M; Fitz, Nicholas F; Letronne, Florent; Castranio, Emilie L; Mounier, Anais; Schug, Jonathan; Lefterov, Iliya; Koldamova, Radosveta

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is influenced by genetic and environmental risk factors, such as inheritance of ε4 allele of APOE (APOE4), sex and diet. Here, we examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on amyloid pathology and expression profile in brains of AD model mice expressing human APOE isoforms (APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice). APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice were fed HFD or Normal diet for 3months. We found that HFD significantly increased amyloid plaques in male and female APP/E4, but not in APP/E3 mice. To identify differentially expressed genes and gene-networks correlated to diet, APOE isoform and sex, we performed RNA sequencing and applied Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis. We determined that the immune response network with major hubs Tyrobp/DAP12, Csf1r, Tlr2, C1qc and Laptm5 correlated significantly and positively to the phenotype of female APP/E4-HFD mice. Correspondingly, we found that in female APP/E4-HFD mice, microglia coverage around plaques, particularly of larger size, was significantly reduced. This suggests altered containment of the plaque growth and sex-dependent vulnerability in response to diet. The results of our study show concurrent impact of diet, APOE isoform and sex on the brain transcriptome and AD-like phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. With great control comes great responsibility: the relationship between perceived academic control, student responsibility, and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Evan J

    2014-12-01

    Students' perceived control over academic outcomes has been linked to their use of self-regulated strategies. However, students' sense of responsibility, or internal commitment to produce such outcomes, has not often been considered in this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived academic control (PAC), student responsibility (SR), and knowledge building (KB). Participants were 152 undergraduate students enrolled in an educational technology course. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to demonstrate the distinction between the PAC and SR constructs. A series of regression analyses were conducted to address the research hypotheses, and a bootstrap test was used to assess the mediating role of SR in the relationship between the PAC variables and KB. Initial evidence regarding the uniqueness of the PAC and SR constructs was provided. PAC (both primary control and secondary control [SC]) were positively and significantly related to SR. KB was positively and significantly related to SR, as was SC. Additionally, SR partially mediated the relationship between the PAC variables and KB. The findings showed that those who perceived the capability to achieve academic outcomes were more likely to feel internally obligated to produce such outcomes. The same was true for students who perceived the capability to psychologically adjust to academic situations. The results also demonstrated that students' sense of responsibility for academic outcomes played a partially mediating role in the relationship between their perceptions of control and reported use of self-regulated behaviour. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Variant allele frequency enrichment analysis in vitro reveals sonic hedgehog pathway to impede sustained temozolomide response in GBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Nidhan K; Chandra, Vikas; Sarkar-Roy, Neeta; Das, Tapojyoti; Bhattacharya, Rabindra N; Tripathy, Laxmi N; Basu, Sunandan K; Kumar, Shantanu; Das, Subrata; Chatterjee, Ankita; Mukherjee, Ankur; Basu, Pryiadarshi; Maitra, Arindam; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Basu, Analabha; Dhara, Surajit

    2015-01-21

    Neoplastic cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may or may not show sustained response to temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. We hypothesize that TMZ chemotherapy response in GBM is predetermined in its neoplastic clones via a specific set of mutations that alter relevant pathways. We describe exome-wide enrichment of variant allele frequencies (VAFs) in neurospheres displaying contrasting phenotypes of sustained versus reversible TMZ-responses in vitro. Enrichment of VAFs was found on genes ST5, RP6KA1 and PRKDC in cells showing sustained TMZ-effect whereas on genes FREM2, AASDH and STK36, in cells showing reversible TMZ-effect. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) revealed that these genes alter cell-cycle, G2/M-checkpoint-regulation and NHEJ pathways in sustained TMZ-effect cells whereas the lysine-II&V/phenylalanine degradation and sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathways in reversible TMZ-effect cells. Next, we validated the likely involvement of the Hh-pathway in TMZ-response on additional GBM neurospheres as well as on GBM patients, by extracting RNA-sequencing-based gene expression data from the TCGA-GBM database. Finally, we demonstrated TMZ-sensitization of a TMZ non-responder neurosphere in vitro by treating them with the FDA-approved pharmacological Hh-pathway inhibitor vismodegib. Altogether, our results indicate that the Hh-pathway impedes sustained TMZ-response in GBM and could be a potential therapeutic target to enhance TMZ-response in this malignancy.

  12. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during the dry season. Both hybrids differ in productivity when grown under water deficit. Results Pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices provided extensive transcriptome coverage - a catalog of 129,993 unigenes (49,748 contigs and 80,245 singletons) was generated from 398 million base pairs, or 1.14 million reads. The pyrosequencing data enriched considerably existing Eucalyptus EST collections, adding 36,985 unigenes not previously represented. Digital analysis of read abundance in 14,460 contigs identified 1,280 that were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, 155 contigs showing differential expression between treatments (irrigated vs. non irrigated conditions during the dry season), and 274 contigs with significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. The more productive genotype displayed a larger set of genes responding to water stress. Moreover, stress signal transduction seemed to involve different pathways in the two genotypes, suggesting that water shortage induces distinct cellular stress cascades. Similarly, the response of functional proteins also varied widely between genotypes: the most productive genotype decreased expression of genes related to photosystem, transport and secondary metabolism, whereas genes related to primary metabolism and cell organisation were over-expressed. Conclusions For the most productive genotype, the ability to express a broader set of genes in response to water availability appears to be a key characteristic in the maintenance

  13. Genome Wide Transcriptome Analysis reveals ABA mediated response in Arabidopsis during Gold (AuCl4- treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh eShukla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The unique physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs find manifold applications in diagnostics, medicine and catalysis. Chemical synthesis produces reactive AuNPs and generates hazardous by-products. Alternatively, plants can be utilized to produce AuNPs in an eco-friendly manner. To better control the biosynthesis of AuNPs, we need to first understand the detailed molecular response induced by AuCl4- In this study, we carried out global transcriptome analysis in root tissue of Arabidopsis grown for 12- hours in presence of gold solution (HAuCl4 using the novel unbiased Affymetrix exon array. Transcriptomics analysis revealed differential regulation of a total of 704 genes and 4900 exons. Of these, 492 and 212 genes were up- and downregulated, respectively. The validation of the expressed key genes, such as glutathione-S-transferases, auxin responsive genes, cytochrome P450 82C2, methyl transferases, transducin (G protein beta subunit, ERF transcription factor, ABC, and MATE transporters, was carried out through quantitative RT-PCR. These key genes demonstrated specific induction under AuCl4- treatment relative to other heavy metals, suggesting a unique plant-gold interaction. GO enrichment analysis reveals the upregulation of processes like oxidative stress, glutathione binding, metal binding, transport, and plant hormonal responses. Changes predicted in biochemical pathways indicated major modulation in glutathione mediated detoxification, flavones and derivatives, and plant hormone biosynthesis. Motif search analysis identified a highly significant enriched motif, ACGT, which is an abscisic acid responsive core element (ABRE, suggesting the possibility of ABA- mediated signaling. Identification of abscisic acid response element (ABRE points to the operation of a predominant signaling mechanism in response to AuCl4- exposure. Overall, this study presents a useful picture of plant-gold interaction with an identification of

  14. Nonlinear responses within the medial prefrontal cortex reveal when specific implicit information influences economic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Michael; Schwindt, Wolfram; Kugel, Harald; Plassmann, Hilke; Kenning, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individual economic decisions are influenced by implicit memory contributions. Twenty-two participants were asked to make binary decisions between different brands of sensorily nearly undistinguishable consumer goods. Changes of brain activity comparing decisions in the presence or absence of a specific target brand were detected by fMRI. Only when the tar get brand was the participant's favorite one did the authors find reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and occipital cortices and the left premotor area (Brodmann areas [BA] 9, 46, 7/19, and 6). Simultaneously, activity was increased in the inferior precuneus and posterior cingulate (BA 7), right superior frontal gyrus (BA 10), right supramarginal gyrus (BA 40), and, most pronounced, in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BA 10). For products mainly distinguishable by brand information, the authors revealed a nonlinear winner-take-all effect for a participant's favorite brand characterized, on one hand, by reduced activation in brain areas associated with working memory and reasoning and, on the other hand, increased activation in areas involved in processing of emotions and self-reflections during decision making.

  15. Geographical gradients in selection can reveal genetic constraints for evolutionary responses to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Marshall, Dustin; Dupont, Sam; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Bodrossy, Levente; Hobday, Alistair J

    2017-02-01

    Geographical gradients in selection can shape different genetic architectures in natural populations, reflecting potential genetic constraints for adaptive evolution under climate change. Investigation of natural pH/pCO 2 variation in upwelling regions reveals different spatio-temporal patterns of natural selection, generating genetic and phenotypic clines in populations, and potentially leading to local adaptation, relevant to understanding effects of ocean acidification (OA). Strong directional selection, associated with intense and continuous upwellings, may have depleted genetic variation in populations within these upwelling regions, favouring increased tolerances to low pH but with an associated cost in other traits. In contrast, diversifying or weak directional selection in populations with seasonal upwellings or outside major upwelling regions may have resulted in higher genetic variances and the lack of genetic correlations among traits. Testing this hypothesis in geographical regions with similar environmental conditions to those predicted under climate change will build insights into how selection may act in the future and how populations may respond to stressors such as OA. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Integrative Genomics Reveals Mechanisms of Copy Number Alterations Responsible for Transcriptional Deregulation in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jordi; Nguyen, Quang Tri; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Knutsen, Turid; McNeil, Nicole E.; Wangsa, Danny; Hummon, Amanda B.; Grade, Marian; Ried, Thomas; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of chromosomal aberrations in colorectal cancer (CRC), we used a combination of spectral karyotyping, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and array-based global gene expression profiling on 31 primary carcinomas and 15 established cell lines. Importantly, aCGH showed that the genomic profiles of primary tumors are recapitulated in the cell lines. We revealed a preponderance of chromosome breakpoints at sites of copy number variants (CNVs) in the CRC cell lines, a novel mechanism of DNA breakage in cancer. The integration of gene expression and aCGH led to the identification of 157 genes localized within high-level copy number changes whose transcriptional deregulation was significantly affected across all of the samples, thereby suggesting that these genes play a functional role in CRC. Genomic amplification at 8q24 was the most recurrent event and led to the overexpression of MYC and FAM84B. Copy number dependent gene expression resulted in deregulation of known cancer genes such as APC, FGFR2, and ERBB2. The identification of only 36 genes whose localization near a breakpoint could account for their observed deregulated expression demonstrates that the major mechanism for transcriptional deregulation in CRC is genomic copy number changes resulting from chromosomal aberrations. PMID:19691111

  17. In Vivo Profiling Reveals a Competent Heat Shock Response in Adult Neurons: Implications for Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisia Carnemolla

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is the main pathway used by cells to counteract proteotoxicity. The inability of differentiated neurons to induce an HSR has been documented in primary neuronal cultures and has been proposed to play a critical role in ageing and neurodegeneration. However, this accepted dogma has not been demonstrated in vivo. We used BAC transgenic mice generated by the Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas project to investigate the capacity of striatal medium sized spiny neurons to induce an HSR as compared to that of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. We found that all cell populations were competent to induce an HSR upon HSP90 inhibition. We also show the presence and relative abundance of heat shock-related genes and proteins in these striatal cell populations. The identification of a competent HSR in adult neurons supports the development of therapeutics that target the HSR pathway as treatments for neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Dynamic crossmodal links revealed by steady-state responses in auditory-visual divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ritske; Toffanin, Paolo; Harbers, Marten

    2010-01-01

    Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were smaller, but still significant, in detection than in discrimination. The auditory steady-state response (SSR) showed no effects of attention at frontocentral locations, but did so at occipital locations where it was evident only when attention was divided between audition and vision. Similarly, the visual SSR at occipital locations was substantially enhanced when attention was divided across modalities. Both effects were equally present in detection and discrimination. We suggest that both effects reflect a common cause: An attention-dependent influence of auditory information processing on early cortical stages of visual information processing, mediated by enhanced effective connectivity between the two modalities under conditions of divided attention. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Statistics Analysis Reveals the Defense Response Mechanism in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhichao; Zhao, Yunjie; Zeng, Chen; Computational Biophysics Lab Team

    As the main protein of the bacterial flagella, flagellin plays an important role in perception and defense response. The newly discovered locus, FLS2, is ubiquitously expressed. FLS2 encodes a putative receptor kinase and shares many homologies with some plant resistance genes and even with some components of immune system of mammals and insects. In Arabidopsis, FLS2 perception is achieved by the recognition of epitope flg22, which induces FLS2 heteromerization with BAK1 and finally the plant immunity. Here we use both analytical methods such as Direct Coupling Analysis (DCA) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations to get a better understanding of the defense mechanism of FLS2. This may facilitate a redesign of flg22 or de-novo design for desired specificity and potency to extend the immune properties of FLS2 to other important crops and vegetables.

  20. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  1. Serine Proteolytic Pathway Activation Reveals an Expanded Ensemble of Wound Response Genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rachel A.; Juarez, Michelle T.; Hermann, Anita; Sasik, Roman; Hardiman, Gary; McGinnis, William

    2013-01-01

    After injury to the animal epidermis, a variety of genes are transcriptionally activated in nearby cells to regenerate the missing cells and facilitate barrier repair. The range and types of diffusible wound signals that are produced by damaged epidermis and function to activate repair genes during epidermal regeneration remains a subject of very active study in many animals. In Drosophila embryos, we have discovered that serine protease function is locally activated around wound sites, and is also required for localized activation of epidermal repair genes. The serine protease trypsin is sufficient to induce a striking global epidermal wound response without inflicting cell death or compromising the integrity of the epithelial barrier. We developed a trypsin wounding treatment as an amplification tool to more fully understand the changes in the Drosophila transcriptome that occur after epidermal injury. By comparing our array results with similar results on mammalian skin wounding we can see which evolutionarily conserved pathways are activated after epidermal wounding in very diverse animals. Our innovative serine protease-mediated wounding protocol allowed us to identify 8 additional genes that are activated in epidermal cells in the immediate vicinity of puncture wounds, and the functions of many of these genes suggest novel genetic pathways that may control epidermal wound repair. Additionally, our data augments the evidence that clean puncture wounding can mount a powerful innate immune transcriptional response, with different innate immune genes being activated in an interesting variety of ways. These include puncture-induced activation only in epidermal cells in the immediate vicinity of wounds, or in all epidermal cells, or specifically in the fat body, or in multiple tissues. PMID:23637905

  2. Suppressive responses by visual food cues in postprandial activities of insular cortex as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-06-03

    'Hara-Hachibu' in Japanese means a subjective sense by which we stop eating just before the motivation to eat is completely lost, a similar concept to caloric restriction (CR). Insular cortex is a critical platform which integrates sensory information into decision-making processes in eating behavior. We compared the responses of insular cortex, as assessed by magnetoencephalography (MEG), immediately after presentation of food images in the Fasting condition with those in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition. Eleven healthy, right-handed males [age, 27.2±9.6 years; body mass index, 22.6±2.1kg/m(2) (mean±SD)] were enrolled in a randomized, two-crossover experiment (Fasting and 'Hara-Hachibu' conditions). Before the MEG recordings in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition, the participants consumed rice balls as much as they judged themselves to have consumed shortly before reaching satiety. During the MEG recordings, they viewed food pictures projected on a screen. The intensities of MEG responses to viewing food pictures were significantly lower in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition than those in the Fasting condition (Pvisual food stimuli in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition was positively associated with the factor-3 (food tasted) (r=0.693, P=0.018) and aggregated scores (r=0.659, P=0.027) of the Power of Food Scale, a self-report measure of hedonic hunger. These findings may help to elucidate the neural basis of variability of appetite phenotypes under the condition of CR among individuals, and to develop possible strategies for the maintenance of adequate CR in daily life. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High throughput transcriptome analysis of coffee reveals prehaustorial resistance in response to Hemileia vastatrix infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Juan Carlos; Mofatto, Luciana Souto; do Livramento Freitas-Lopes, Rejane; Ferreira, Sávio Siqueira; Zambolim, Eunize Maciel; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Zambolim, Laércio; Caixeta, Eveline Teixeira

    2017-12-01

    We provide a transcriptional profile of coffee rust interaction and identified putative up regulated resistant genes Coffee rust disease, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, is one of the major diseases in coffee throughout the world. The use of resistant cultivars is considered to be the most effective control strategy for this disease. To identify candidate genes related to different mechanism defense in coffee, we present a time-course comparative gene expression profile of Caturra (susceptible) and Híbrido de Timor (HdT, resistant) in response to H. vastatrix race XXXIII infection. The main objectives were to obtain a global overview of transcriptome in both interaction, compatible and incompatible, and, specially, analyze up-regulated HdT specific genes with inducible resistant and defense signaling pathways. Using both Coffea canephora as a reference genome and de novo assembly, we obtained 43,159 transcripts. At early infection events (12 and 24 h after infection), HdT responded to the attack of H. vastatrix with a larger number of up-regulated genes than Caturra, which was related to prehaustorial resistance. The genes found in HdT at early hours were involved in receptor-like kinases, response ion fluxes, production of reactive oxygen species, protein phosphorylation, ethylene biosynthesis and callose deposition. We selected 13 up-regulated HdT-exclusive genes to validate by real-time qPCR, which most of them confirmed their higher expression in HdT than in Caturra at early stage of infection. These genes have the potential to assist the development of new coffee rust control strategies. Collectively, our results provide understanding of expression profiles in coffee-H. vastatrix interaction over a time course in susceptible and resistant coffee plants.

  4. Plant root transcriptome profiling reveals a strain-dependent response during Azospirillum-rice cooperation

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    Benoît eDrogue

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation involving Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria results in improvements of plant growth and health. While pathogenic and symbiotic interactions are known to induce transcriptional changes for genes related to plant defence and development, little is known about the impact of phytostimulating rhizobacteria on plant gene expression. This study aims at identifying genes significantly regulated in rice roots upon Azospirillum inoculation, considering possible favored interaction between a strain and its original host cultivar. Genome-wide analyses of Oryza sativa japonica cultivars Cigalon and Nipponbare were performed, by using microarrays, seven days post inoculation with A. lipoferum 4B (isolated from Cigalon or Azospirillum sp. B510 (isolated from Nipponbare and compared to the respective non-inoculated condition. A total of 7,384 genes were significantly regulated, which represent about 16 % of total rice genes. A set of 34 genes is regulated by both Azospirillum strains in both cultivars, including a gene orthologous to PR10 of Brachypodium, and these could represent plant markers of Azospirillum-rice interactions. The results highlight a strain-dependent response of rice, with 83 % of the differentially expressed genes being classified as combination-specific. Whatever the combination, most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in primary metabolism, transport, regulation of transcription and protein fate. When considering genes involved in response to stress and plant defence, it appears that strain B510, a strain displaying endophytic properties, leads to the repression of a wider set of genes than strain 4B. Individual genotypic variations could be the most important driving force of rice roots gene expression upon Azospirillum inoculation. Strain-dependent transcriptional changes observed for genes related to auxin and ethylene signalling highlight the complexity of hormone signalling networks in the Azospirillum

  5. High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R; Bayard, Trina S; Gjerdrum, Carina; Hill, Jason M; Meiman, Susan; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-05-01

    Sea-level rise will affect coastal species worldwide, but models that aim to predict these effects are typically based on simple measures of sea level that do not capture its inherent complexity, especially variation over timescales shorter than 1 year. Coastal species might be most affected, however, by floods that exceed a critical threshold. The frequency and duration of such floods may be more important to population dynamics than mean measures of sea level. In particular, the potential for changes in the frequency and duration of flooding events to result in nonlinear population responses or biological thresholds merits further research, but may require that models incorporate greater resolution in sea level than is typically used. We created population simulations for a threatened songbird, the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus), in a region where sea level is predictable with high accuracy and precision. We show that incorporating the timing of semidiurnal high tide events throughout the breeding season, including how this timing is affected by mean sea-level rise, predicts a reproductive threshold that is likely to cause a rapid demographic shift. This shift is likely to threaten the persistence of saltmarsh sparrows beyond 2060 and could cause extinction as soon as 2035. Neither extinction date nor the population trajectory was sensitive to the emissions scenarios underlying sea-level projections, as most of the population decline occurred before scenarios diverge. Our results suggest that the variation and complexity of climate-driven variables could be important for understanding the potential responses of coastal species to sea-level rise, especially for species that rely on coastal areas for reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students - a preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostyn Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of anonymous audience response technology (ART to actively engage students in classroom learning has been evaluated positively across multiple settings. To date, however, there has been no empirical evaluation of the use of individualised ART handsets and formative feedback of ART scores. The present study investigates student perceptions of such a system and the relationship between formative feedback results and exam performance. Methods Four successive cohorts of Non-Medical Prescribing students (n=107 had access to the individualised ART system and three of these groups (n=72 completed a questionnaire about their perceptions of using ART. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of seven students who achieved a range of scores on the formative feedback. Using data from all four cohorts of students, the relationship between mean ART scores and summative pharmacology exam score was examined using a non-parametric correlation. Results Questionnaire and interview data suggested that the use of ART enhanced the classroom environment, motivated students and promoted learning. Questionnaire data demonstrated that students found the formative feedback helpful for identifying their learning needs (95.6%, guiding their independent study (86.8%, and as a revision tool (88.3%. Interviewees particularly valued the objectivity of the individualised feedback which helped them to self-manage their learning. Interviewees’ initial anxiety about revealing their level of pharmacology knowledge to the lecturer and to themselves reduced over time as students focused on the learning benefits associated with the feedback. A significant positive correlation was found between students’ formative feedback scores and their summative pharmacology exam scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.71, N=107, p Conclusions Despite initial anxiety about the use of individualised ART units, students rated the helpfulness of the

  7. How does feedback in mini-CEX affect students' learning response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarso, Sulistiawati; Rahayu, Gandes Retno; Suhoyo, Yoyo

    2016-12-19

    This study was aimed to explore students' learning response toward feedback during mini-CEX encounter. This study used a phenomenological approach to identify the students' experiences toward feedback during mini-CEX encounter. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussion (FGD) for all students who were in their final week of clerkship in the internal medicine rotation. There were 4 FGD groups (6 students for each group). All FGD were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The FGD transcripts were analyzed thematically and managed using Atlas-ti (version 7.0). Feedback content and the way of providing feedback on mini-CEX stimulated students' internal process, including self-reflection, emotional response, and motivation. These internal processes encouraged the students to take action or do a follow-up on the feedback to improve their learning process. In addition, there was also an external factor, namely consequences, which also influenced the students' reaction to the follow-up on feedback. In the end, this action caused several learning effects that resulted in the students' increased self-efficacy, attitude, knowledge and clinical skill. Feedback content and the way of providing feedback on mini-CEX stimulates the students' internal processes to do a follow-up on feedback. However, another external factor also affects the students' decision on the follow-up actions. The follow-ups result in various learning effects on the students. Feedback given along with summative assessment enhances learning effects on students, as well. It is suggested that supervisors of clinical education are prepared to comprehend every factor influencing feedback on mini CEX to improve the students' learning response.

  8. Emotional Intelligence and Social Responsibility of Boy Students in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; K, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to know the relationship between emotional intelligence and social responsibility of boy students in middle school using correlation. Survey method was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 100 boy students studying in Miandoab City of Iran during the academic year, 2012-13 who were selected…

  9. Blindness and Selective Mutism: One Student's Response to Voice-Output Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Mary; Johnson, Ashli; Herzberg, Tina

    2014-01-01

    This case study was designed to measure the response of one student with blindness and selective mutism to the intervention of voice-output devices across two years and two different teachers in two instructional settings. Before the introduction of the voice output devices, the student did not choose to communicate using spoken language or…

  10. Social and Spatial Disparities in Emotional Responses to Education: Feelings of "Guilt" among Student-Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emotional responses to higher education of students with dependent children, and draws on 68 in-depth interviews conducted with student-parents in universities in the UK and Denmark. By focussing on one specific emotion--guilt--it contends that emotions are important in helping to understand the way in which particular…

  11. Experiences with Use of Various Pedagogical Methods Utilizing a Student Response System -- Motivation and Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Ketil; Korpas, Guri Sivertsen; Hennissen, Jon Eirik; Stav, John Birger

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes use of an online Student Response System (SRS) in a pre-qualification course for engineering studies in Norway. The SRS in use, where students answer quizzes using handheld mobile devices like Smartphones, PADs, iPods etc., has been developed at Sor-Trondelag University College. The development of the SRS was co-funded by the …

  12. Developing Culturally Responsive Mathematics Teachers: Secondary Teachers' Evolving Conceptions of Knowing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Frieda; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Novak, Jodie D.

    2017-01-01

    Research advances in teaching, learning, curriculum, and assessment have not changed the continued underperformance of marginalized students in mathematics education. Culturally responsive teaching is a means of addressing the needs of these students. It is sometimes challenging, however, to convince secondary mathematics teachers about the…

  13. Teaching Socially Valid Social Interaction Responses to Students with Severe Disabilities in an Integrated School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nientimp, Edward G.; Cole, Christine L.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated effects of procedure to teach appropriate social responses to adolescents with severe disabilities by employing ABA withdrawal design, replicated twice with two students, and AB design with third student. Results showed increases in correct responding and decreases in echolalia following intervention. Generalization of appropriate…

  14. Student and Teacher Responses to Prayer at a Modern Orthodox Jewish High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Devra

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the attitudes of students and teachers to prayer at an American Modern Orthodox Jewish high school. Relevant data, based on observation and interviews, emerged from a larger study of the school's Jewish and secular worlds. A significant gap in responses became apparent. Students viewed prayer as a challenge to their autonomy,…

  15. A Case Study on Primary, Secondary and University Students' Environmentally Responsible Behaviors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to prove the environmentally responsible behaviors of primary, secondary and university students in Turkey. The students', who attended the study as participants, environmentally political behaviors, consumer/economical behaviors, direct behaviors toward protecting the environment and individual and public persuasion…

  16. Non-Response in Student Surveys: The Role of Demographics, Engagement and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at participation across multiple surveys to understand survey non-response; by using multiple surveys we minimize the impact of survey salience. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use…

  17. Temporal dynamics of hot desert microbial communities reveal structural and functional responses to water input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alacia; Valverde, Angel; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Jansson, Janet K; Hopkins, David W; Aspray, Thomas J; Seely, Mary; Trindade, Marla I; Cowan, Don A

    2016-09-29

    The temporal dynamics of desert soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Given the implications for ecosystem functioning under a global change scenario, a better understanding of desert microbial community stability is crucial. Here, we sampled soils in the central Namib Desert on sixteen different occasions over a one-year period. Using Illumina-based amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that α-diversity (richness) was more variable at a given sampling date (spatial variability) than over the course of one year (temporal variability). Community composition remained essentially unchanged across the first 10 months, indicating that spatial sampling might be more important than temporal sampling when assessing β-diversity patterns in desert soils. However, a major shift in microbial community composition was found following a single precipitation event. This shift in composition was associated with a rapid increase in CO 2 respiration and productivity, supporting the view that desert soil microbial communities respond rapidly to re-wetting and that this response may be the result of both taxon-specific selection and changes in the availability or accessibility of organic substrates. Recovery to quasi pre-disturbance community composition was achieved within one month after rainfall.

  18. Functional analysis of rice HOMEOBOX4 (Oshox4) gene reveals a negative function in gibberellin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingqiu; Hu, Yongfeng; Ma, Qian; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2008-02-01

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) putative transcription factor genes are divided into 4 families. In this work, we studied the function of a rice HD-Zip I gene, H OME O BO X4 (Oshox4). Oshox4 transcripts were detected in leaf and floral organ primordia but excluded from the shoot apical meristem and the protein was nuclear localized. Over-expression of Oshox4 in rice induced a semi-dwarf phenotype that could not be complemented by applied GA3. The over-expression plants accumulated elevated levels of bioactive GA, while the GA catabolic gene GA2ox3 was upregulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, over-expression of Oshox4 blocked GA-dependent alpha-amylase production. However, down-regulation of Oshox4 in RNAi transgenic plants induced no phenotypic alteration. Interestingly, the expression of YAB1 that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of the GA biosynthesis was upregulated in the Oshox4 over-expressing plants. One-hybrid assays showed that Oshox4 could interact with YAB1 promoter in yeast. In addition, Oshox4 expression was upregulated by GA. These data together suggest that Oshox4 may be involved in the negative regulation of GA signalling and may play a role to fine tune GA responses in rice.

  19. Robust dynamic classes revealed by measuring the response function of a social system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Riley; Sornette, Didier

    2008-10-14

    We study the relaxation response of a social system after endogenous and exogenous bursts of activity using the time series of daily views for nearly 5 million videos on YouTube. We find that most activity can be described accurately as a Poisson process. However, we also find hundreds of thousands of examples in which a burst of activity is followed by an ubiquitous power-law relaxation governing the timing of views. We find that these relaxation exponents cluster into three distinct classes and allow for the classification of collective human dynamics. This is consistent with an epidemic model on a social network containing two ingredients: a power-law distribution of waiting times between cause and action and an epidemic cascade of actions becoming the cause of future actions. This model is a conceptual extension of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to social systems [Ruelle, D (2004) Phys Today 57:48-53] and [Roehner BM, et al., (2004) Int J Mod Phys C 15:809-834], and provides a unique framework for the investigation of timing in complex systems.

  20. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Network Analysis Reveals a Common Host–Pathogen Interaction Pattern in Arabidopsis Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many plant pathogens secrete virulence effectors into host cells to target important proteins in host cellular network. However, the dynamic interactions between effectors and host cellular network have not been fully understood. Here, an integrative network analysis was conducted by combining Arabidopsis thaliana protein–protein interaction network, known targets of Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis effectors, and gene expression profiles in the immune response. In particular, we focused on the characteristic network topology of the effector targets and differentially expressed genes (DEGs. We found that effectors tended to manipulate key network positions with higher betweenness centrality. The effector targets, especially those that are common targets of an individual effector, tended to be clustered together in the network. Moreover, the distances between the effector targets and DEGs increased over time during infection. In line with this observation, pathogen-susceptible mutants tended to have more DEGs surrounding the effector targets compared with resistant mutants. Our results suggest a common plant–pathogen interaction pattern at the cellular network level, where pathogens employ potent local impact mode to interfere with key positions in the host network, and plant organizes an in-depth defense by sequentially activating genes distal to the effector targets.

  2. Temporal dynamics of hot desert microbial communities reveal structural and functional responses to water input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Alacia; Valverde, Angel; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Jansson, Janet K.; Hopkins, David W.; Aspray, Thomas J.; Seely, Mary; Trindade, Marla I.; Cowan, Don A.

    2016-09-29

    The temporal dynamics of desert soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Given the implications for ecosystem functioning under a global change scenario, a better understanding of desert microbial community stability is crucial. Here, we sampled soils in the central Namib Desert on sixteen different occasions over a one-year period. Using Illumina-based amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that α-diversity (richness) was more variable at a given sampling date (spatial variability) than over the course of one year (temporal variability). Community composition remained essentially unchanged across the first 10 months, indicating that spatial sampling might be more important than temporal sampling when assessing β-diversity patterns in desert soils. However, a major shift in microbial community composition was found following a single precipitation event. This shift in composition was associated with a rapid increase in CO2 respiration and productivity, supporting the view that desert soil microbial communities respond rapidly to re-wetting and that this response may be the result of both taxon-specific selection and changes in the availability or accessibility of organic substrates. Recovery to quasi pre-disturbance community composition was achieved within one month after rainfall.

  3. Molecular profiling of prostate cancer derived exosomes may reveal a predictive signature for response to docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaziha, Pedram; Chioureas, Dimitris; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Baltatzis, George; Lennartsson, Lena; Fonseca, Pedro; Azimi, Alireza; Hultenby, Kjell; Zubarev, Roman; Ullén, Anders; Yachnin, Jeffrey; Nilsson, Sten; Panaretakis, Theocharis

    2015-08-28

    Docetaxel is a cornerstone treatment for metastatic, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) which remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, worldwide. The clinical usage of docetaxel has resulted in modest gains in survival, primarily due to the development of resistance. There are currently no clinical biomarkers available that predict whether a CRPC patient will respond or acquire resistance to this therapy. Comparative proteomics analysis of exosomes secreted from DU145 prostate cancer cells that are sensitive (DU145 Tax-Sen) or have acquired resistance (DU145 Tax-Res) to docetaxel, demonstrated significant differences in the amount of exosomes secreted and in their molecular composition. A panel of proteins was identified by proteomics to be differentially enriched in DU145 Tax-Res compared to DU145 Tax-Sen exosomes and was validated by western blotting. Importantly, we identified MDR-1, MDR-3, Endophilin-A2 and PABP4 that were enriched only in DU145 Tax-Res exosomes. We validated the presence of these proteins in the serum of a small cohort of patients. DU145 cells that have uptaken DU145 Tax-Res exosomes show properties of increased matrix degradation. In summary, exosomes derived from DU145 Tax-Res cells may be a valuable source of biomarkers for response to therapy.

  4. Leaf Proteome Analysis Reveals Prospective Drought and Heat Stress Response Mechanisms in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayudh Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat are among the major abiotic stresses that affect soybean crops worldwide. During the current investigation, the effect of drought, heat, and drought plus heat stresses was compared in the leaves of two soybean varieties, Surge and Davison, combining 2D-DIGE proteomic data with physiology and biochemical analyses. We demonstrated how 25 differentially expressed photosynthesis-related proteins affect RuBisCO regulation, electron transport, Calvin cycle, and carbon fixation during drought and heat stress. We also observed higher abundance of heat stress-induced EF-Tu protein in Surge. It is possible that EF-Tu might have activated heat tolerance mechanisms in the soybean. Higher level expressions of heat shock-related protein seem to be regulating the heat tolerance mechanisms. This study identifies the differential expression of various abiotic stress-responsive proteins that regulate various molecular processes and signaling cascades. One inevitable outcome from the biochemical and proteomics assays of this study is that increase of ROS levels during drought stress does not show significant changes at the phenotypic level in Davison and this seems to be due to a higher amount of carbonic anhydrase accumulation in the cell which aids the cell to become more resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2.

  5. A Versatile Phenotyping System and Analytics Platform Reveals Diverse Temporal Responses to Water Availability in Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Feldman, Maximilian; Gehan, Malia A; Wilson, Melinda S; Shyu, Christine; Bryant, Douglas W; Hill, Steven T; McEntee, Colton J; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Kumar, Indrajit; Ficor, Tracy; Turnipseed, Stephanie; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Brutnell, Thomas P; Carrington, James C; Mockler, Todd C; Baxter, Ivan

    2015-10-05

    Phenotyping has become the rate-limiting step in using large-scale genomic data to understand and improve agricultural crops. Here, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform for controlled-environment plant growth and automated multimodal phenotyping is described. The system has capacity for 1140 plants, which pass daily through stations to record fluorescence, near-infrared, and visible images. Plant Computer Vision (PlantCV) was developed as open-source, hardware platform-independent software for quantitative image analysis. In a 4-week experiment, wild Setaria viridis and domesticated Setaria italica had fundamentally different temporal responses to water availability. While both lines produced similar levels of biomass under limited water conditions, Setaria viridis maintained the same water-use efficiency under water replete conditions, while Setaria italica shifted to less efficient growth. Overall, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform and PlantCV software detected significant effects of genotype and environment on height, biomass, water-use efficiency, color, plant architecture, and tissue water status traits. All ∼ 79,000 images acquired during the course of the experiment are publicly available. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. First year Health Psychology students perception of responsibility as a value in their professors

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Pomares Alfonso; Ana María Molina Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Background: as teachers are able to express in their conduct and relationships with the students values such as responsibility, love for their country and profession, honesty and sense of justice, among others, they will enhance their preparation as a learning motive. Objective: to assess the perception of first year Health Psychology students on their professor’s responsibility value. Methods: a descriptive study conducted at the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos in March, 2010 th...

  7. A RESEARCH ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PERCEPTIONS OF MARITIME FACULTY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA ÖZBAĞ, Gönül

    2017-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) concept has attracted considerable interest in recent years byresearchers and practitioners. Due to an increased awareness of theneed for CSR this study examines corporate social responsibility perceptions ofmaritime faculty students (MFS).  MFSwere chosen for this research since these students are usually employed by aninternational organization and have diffuculties in interpreting ethical issuesin a business context because of...

  8. Do students in Croatia care about corporate social responsibility performance of banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a relevance of the corporate social responsibility of banks from the students’ point of view. By doing so, we can pinpoint a compliance of the Croatian banks’ corporate social responsibility praxis with the expectations of students’ population as their current and/or future customers. Moreover, as we focus on the students of the higher years of studies at the Faculty of Economics, University of Split, who are potential employees or even future managers in the financial services industry, the results which are obtained throughout a questionnaire research might be perceived as a sort of a wider empirical verification of the stakeholder theory approach to corporate social responsibility. According to 163 responses, corporate social responsibility performance of banks in Croatia seems to be important to students, and some noticed disparities in their attitudes are discussed with regards to their socio-demographic characteristics. Nevertheless, most of students perceive an image and public reputation improvement to be the main driver of corporate social responsibility achievements in the Croatian banking sector, and thus they ask for a more responsible banking, especially from the foreign-owned banks. Apart from the identified policy recommendations in the corporate social responsibility area for the Croatian banks, students support the idea that faculties of economics should educate their students more on the ethical issues in business practices.

  9. Analysis of global gene expression in Brachypodium distachyon reveals extensive network plasticity in response to abiotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D Priest

    Full Text Available Brachypodium distachyon is a close relative of many important cereal crops. Abiotic stress tolerance has a significant impact on productivity of agriculturally important food and feedstock crops. Analysis of the transcriptome of Brachypodium after chilling, high-salinity, drought, and heat stresses revealed diverse differential expression of many transcripts. Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis revealed 22 distinct gene modules with specific profiles of expression under each stress. Promoter analysis implicated short DNA sequences directly upstream of module members in the regulation of 21 of 22 modules. Functional analysis of module members revealed enrichment in functional terms for 10 of 22 network modules. Analysis of condition-specific correlations between differentially expressed gene pairs revealed extensive plasticity in the expression relationships of gene pairs. Photosynthesis, cell cycle, and cell wall expression modules were down-regulated by all abiotic stresses. Modules which were up-regulated by each abiotic stress fell into diverse and unique gene ontology GO categories. This study provides genomics resources and improves our understanding of abiotic stress responses of Brachypodium.

  10. Format as a False Judge of Credibility: Messages from Librarians and Faculty and Student Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Mark

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to explore how students make sense of and respond to messages about information in higher education. This study identifies the messages students in higher education receive about information gathering, conducting research, and the credibility and authority of information sources. This research revealed that students are receiving the message from faculty that format is a stand-in for credibility. Research to date focuses on how to steer students to information privileged by the academy: academic, peer reviewed articles, and books. The voice of students is often absent. This study employs the critical framework of Paulo Freire in order to give voice to student perceptions of information.

  11. A ChIP-chip approach reveals a novel role for transcription factor IRF1 in the DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontini, Mattia; Vijayakumar, Meeraa; Garvin, Alexander; Clarke, Nicole

    2009-03-01

    IRF1 is a transcription factor that regulates key processes in the immune system and in tumour suppression. To gain further insight into IRF1's role in these processes, we searched for new target genes by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to a CpG island microarray (ChIP-chip). Using this approach we identified 202 new IRF1-binding sites with high confidence. Functional categorization of the target genes revealed a surprising cadre of new roles that can be linked to IRF1. One of the major functional categories was the DNA damage response pathway. In order to further validate our findings, we show that IRF1 can regulate the mRNA expression of a number of the DNA damage response genes in our list. In particular, we demonstrate that the mRNA and protein levels of the DNA repair protein BRIP1 [Fanconi anemia gene J (FANC J)] are upregulated after IRF1 over-expression. We also demonstrate that knockdown of IRF1 by siRNA results in loss of BRIP1 expression, abrogation of BRIP1 foci after DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) damage and hypersensitivity to the DNA crosslinking agent, melphalan; a characteristic phenotype of FANC J cells. Taken together, our data provides a more complete understanding of the regulatory networks controlled by IRF1 and reveals a novel role for IRF1 in regulating the ICL DNA damage response.

  12. A ChIP–chip approach reveals a novel role for transcription factor IRF1 in the DNA damage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontini, Mattia; Vijayakumar, Meeraa; Garvin, Alexander; Clarke, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    IRF1 is a transcription factor that regulates key processes in the immune system and in tumour suppression. To gain further insight into IRF1's role in these processes, we searched for new target genes by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to a CpG island microarray (ChIP–chip). Using this approach we identified 202 new IRF1-binding sites with high confidence. Functional categorization of the target genes revealed a surprising cadre of new roles that can be linked to IRF1. One of the major functional categories was the DNA damage response pathway. In order to further validate our findings, we show that IRF1 can regulate the mRNA expression of a number of the DNA damage response genes in our list. In particular, we demonstrate that the mRNA and protein levels of the DNA repair protein BRIP1 [Fanconi anemia gene J (FANC J)] are upregulated after IRF1 over-expression. We also demonstrate that knockdown of IRF1 by siRNA results in loss of BRIP1 expression, abrogation of BRIP1 foci after DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) damage and hypersensitivity to the DNA crosslinking agent, melphalan; a characteristic phenotype of FANC J cells. Taken together, our data provides a more complete understanding of the regulatory networks controlled by IRF1 and reveals a novel role for IRF1 in regulating the ICL DNA damage response. PMID:19129219

  13. Counselor Educators' Gatekeeping Responsibilities and Students' First Amendment Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Neal; Block, Jason; Young, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In 2 recent legal cases, graduate counselor education students challenged the imposition of remediation plans as violating their First Amendment rights of freedom of speech and religion. With special emphasis on this recent litigation, the article examines the legal standards governing the authority of counselor educators at public colleges and…

  14. Educational Development for Responsible Graduate Students in the Neoliberal University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kloet, Marie; Aspenlieder, Erin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine how our work in educational development, specifically in graduate student training, enacts the logic of neoliberalism in higher education in Canada. We approach this examination through a collaborative autoethnographic consideration of and reflection on our practices and experiences as educational developers, the design…

  15. Using Joseph Campbell to Improve Students' Response to Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Carol M.

    1992-01-01

    Shows how teachers can use the videotapes and writings of Joseph Campbell to help students see patterns in literature and respond personally to it. Presents Campbell's explanation of the monomyth of the hero's journey, and discusses three works in which the pattern is present. (SR)

  16. Rationalizing Neglect: An Institutional Response to Transfer Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Cox, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on institutional efforts affecting the transfer student experience at a single research institution. Findings based on interviews with institutional representatives, both faculty and staff, using the rational, natural, and open system perspectives of organizational theory, provide insights into the institutional…

  17. Validity of Palestinian University Students' Responses in Evaluating Their Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ahmad M.

    1986-01-01

    A study of Palestinian university students' evaluations of their teachers' instruction examined the possible biasing effect of their sex, academic class, or expected grade in the course. The results are examined in the context of Arab and Third World higher education and the need to establish standards of evaluation. (MSE)

  18. Loss, Responsibility, Blame? Staff Discourses of Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Lesley; Deane, Janis

    2012-01-01

    Student plagiarism and difficulties with writing have been widely investigated in the literature, but there has been less research on staff perspectives. A Joint Information Services Committee (JISC)-funded questionnaire (n = 80) and focus group study investigated the views of lecturers, librarians and study advisors at a UK post-92 university,…

  19. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qijun; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhu, Zhujun; Yang, Rui; Qian, Feijian; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1) At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2) After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3) Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  20. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Luo

    Full Text Available Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1 At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2 After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3 Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  1. Transcriptome analysis reveals regulatory networks underlying differential susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in response to nitrogen availability in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eVega

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the main limiting nutrients for plant growth and crop yield. It is well documented that changes in nitrate availability, the main N source found in agricultural soils, influences a myriad of developmental programs and processes including the plant defense response. Indeed, many agronomical reports indicate that the plant N nutritional status influences their ability to respond effectively when challenged by different pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in N-modulation of plant susceptibility to pathogens are poorly characterized. In this work, we show that Solanum lycopersicum defense response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is affected by plant N availability, with higher susceptibility in nitrate-limiting conditions. Global gene expression responses of tomato against B. cinerea under contrasting nitrate conditions reveals that plant primary metabolism is affected by the fungal infection regardless of N regimes. This result suggests that differential susceptibility to pathogen attack under contrasting N conditions is not only explained by a metabolic alteration. We used a systems biology approach to identify the transcriptional regulatory network implicated in plant response to the fungus infection under contrasting nitrate conditions. Interestingly, hub genes in this network are known key transcription factors involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. This result positions these hormones as key integrators of nitrate and defense against B. cinerea in tomato plants. Our results provide insights into potential crosstalk mechanisms between necrotrophic defense response and N status in plants.

  2. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  3. Application of xCELLigence RTCA Biosensor Technology for Revealing the Profile and Window of Drug Responsiveness in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The xCELLigence technology is a real-time cellular biosensor, which measures the net adhesion of cells to high-density gold electrode arrays printed on custom-designed E-plates. The strength of cellular adhesion is influenced by a myriad of factors that include cell type, cell viability, growth, migration, spreading and proliferation. We therefore hypothesised that xCELLigence biosensor technology would provide a valuable platform for the measurement of drug responses in a multitude of different experimental, clinical or pharmacological contexts. In this manuscript, we demonstrate how xCELLigence technology has been invaluable in the identification of (1 not only if cells respond to a particular drug, but (2 the window of drug responsiveness. The latter aspect is often left to educated guess work in classical end-point assays, whereas biosensor technology reveals the temporal profile of the response in real time, which enables both acute responses and longer term responses to be profiled within the same assay. In our experience, the xCELLigence biosensor technology is suitable for highly targeted drug assessment and also low to medium throughput drug screening, which produces high content temporal data in real time.

  4. The Responsible Inclusion of Students Receiving Special Education Services for Emotional Disturbance: Unraveling the Practice to Research Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, John William; Solis, Michael; Brigham, Frederick; Adamson, Reesha

    2018-03-01

    The majority of students receiving special education services for emotional disturbance (ED) receive a significant amount of instruction in general education classrooms, which emphasizes curriculums based on college and career readiness standards. In turn, those teachers who provide instruction to students with ED in inclusive settings are responsible for using evidence-based practices (EBPs) for those teaching situations in which they exist to meet free appropriate public education (FAPE) mandates. However, the identification of EBPs is a necessary pre-condition to eventual school adoption and teacher use of such practices. In this investigation, we completed a synthesis of syntheses to (a) determine the degree to which academic intervention research has focused on students with ED in general education classrooms and (b) identify practices that are effective at improving the academic performance of students with ED in these settings. Overall, few studies were identified. Of those studies identified, half did not disaggregate outcomes for students with ED. A quality indicator coding based on the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) design standards revealed that no studies with disaggregated outcomes permitted causal inferences. Implications for school practice and areas for future research are discussed.

  5. Comprehensive transcriptome analyses correlated with untargeted metabolome reveal differentially expressed pathways in response to cell wall alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, Nathan T; Chen, Han-Yi; Hur, Manhoi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Li, Xu; Li, Ling; Zabotina, Olga

    2018-03-01

    This research provides new insights into plant response to cell wall perturbations through correlation of transcriptome and metabolome datasets obtained from transgenic plants expressing cell wall-modifying enzymes. Plants respond to changes in their cell walls in order to protect themselves from pathogens and other stresses. Cell wall modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana have profound effects on gene expression and defense response, but the cell signaling mechanisms underlying these responses are not well understood. Three transgenic Arabidopsis lines, two with reduced cell wall acetylation (AnAXE and AnRAE) and one with reduced feruloylation (AnFAE), were used in this study to investigate the plant responses to cell wall modifications. RNA-Seq in combination with untargeted metabolome was employed to assess differential gene expression and metabolite abundance. RNA-Seq results were correlated with metabolite abundances to determine the pathways involved in response to cell wall modifications introduced in each line. The resulting pathway enrichments revealed the deacetylation events in AnAXE and AnRAE plants induced similar responses, notably, upregulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and changes in regulation of primary metabolic pathways that supply substrates to specialized metabolism, particularly those related to defense responses. In contrast, genes and metabolites of lipid biosynthetic pathways and peroxidases involved in lignin polymerization were downregulated in AnFAE plants. These results elucidate how primary metabolism responds to extracellular stimuli. Combining the transcriptomics and metabolomics datasets increased the power of pathway prediction, and demonstrated the complexity of pathways involved in cell wall-mediated signaling.

  6. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  7. Student responses to being taught physics in isiZulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naven Chetty

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The University of KwaZulu-Natal is in the process of formulating a language policy to introduce teaching and learning in isiZulu as well as in English to improve throughput and increase the number of graduates. The aim of this study was to determine if this policy is feasible within the discipline of physics. Critical engagement with students and a literature search allowed the determination of the potential gains and pitfalls of such a language introduction. The study also provides some useful insight into student contexts, schooling history and their perceptions of being taught in their vernacular. The inconsistent use of isiZulu words to translate basic physics words will require the development of a common vocabulary for teaching physics in isiZulu.

  8. Pre-Service Teachers’ Responses to Student Behavior in a Mixed-Reality Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Black

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether student gender and the type of student misbehavior affected the classroom management techniques of pre-service teachers. Participants were pre-service teachers who interacted with avatar students controlled by an actor in a mixed-reality environment. Avatar students’ behaviors were systematically coded along with their gender. Pre-service teachers’ responses were organized into four categories: coercion, retreatism, normative, and remunerative. Pre-service teachers’ use of proximity and tone of voice were also recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA tests. Significant differences in pre-service teacher responses were found for type of avatar student misbehavior but not avatar student gender. Results and implications for future research are discussed.

  9. Systems biology integration of proteomic data in rodent models of depression reveals involvement of the immune response and glutamatergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Lucia; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Caberlotto, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The pathophysiological basis of major depression is incompletely understood. Recently, numerous proteomic studies have been performed in rodent models of depression to investigate the molecular underpinnings of depressive-like behaviours with an unbiased approach. The objective of the study is to integrate the results of these proteomic studies in depression models to shed light on the most relevant molecular pathways involved in the disease. Network analysis is performed integrating preexisting proteomic data from rodent models of depression. The IntAct mouse and the HRPD are used as reference protein-protein interaction databases. The functionality analyses of the networks are then performed by testing overrepresented GO biological process terms and pathways. Functional enrichment analyses of the networks revealed an association with molecular processes related to depression in humans, such as those involved in the immune response. Pathways impacted by clinically effective antidepressants are modulated, including glutamatergic signaling and neurotrophic responses. Moreover, dysregulations of proteins regulating energy metabolism and circadian rhythms are implicated. The comparison with protein pathways modulated in depressive patients revealed significant overlapping. This systems biology study supports the notion that animal models can contribute to the research into the biology and therapeutics of depression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  11. The Relationship between Alcohol Use and Social Responsibility in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Riley H.; Strano, Donald A.

    This study examines the relationship between college student alcohol use and the construct of social responsibility. For purposes of the study, alcohol use was defined by average number of drinks a week and frequency of binge drinking; social responsibility was defined by employment, marriage, living with children, living with parents, and hours…

  12. Students' Response to Curriculum Review of Undergraduate Religion/Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluu, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the imperative and students' response to curriculum review of undergraduate Religion/Education programme in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. The study was a survey type and a fifteen (15) item questionnaire was designed to elicit response from the respondents. The population of the study comprised all the second…

  13. Culturally Responsive Pedagogies in the Classroom: Indigenous Student Experiences across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Catherine; Hindle, Rawiri; Meyer, Luanna H.; Hynds, Anne; Penetito, Wally; Sleeter, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    There is agreement that teaching practices should be responsive to the cultural identities of their students, but less clarity regarding both the specifics of culturally responsive pedagogies and effective strategies for implementing them in classrooms across the curriculum. A mixed-methods research approach evaluated the impact of teacher…

  14. Responsible Conduct of Research in Communication Sciences and Disorders: Faculty and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minifie, Fred D.; Robey, Randall R.; Horner, Jennifer; Ingham, Janis C.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Alldredge, Elham-Eid; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two Web-based surveys (Surveys I and II) were used to assess perceptions of faculty and students in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) regarding the responsible conduct of research (RCR). Method: Survey questions addressed 9 RCR domains thought important to the responsible conduct of research: (a) human subjects protections; (b)…

  15. Student perceptions of gamified audience response system interactions in large group lectures and via lecture capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Robin K; McCoy, Lise; Kinney, Marjorie; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-05-22

    Higher education students have positive attitudes about the use of audience response systems (ARS), but even technology-enhanced lessons can become tiresome if the pedagogical approach is exactly the same with each implementation. Gamification is the notion that gaming mechanics can be applied to routine activities. In this study, TurningPoint (TP) ARS interactions were gamified and implemented in 22 large group medical microbiology lectures throughout an integrated year 1 osteopathic medical school curriculum. A 32-item questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of the gamified TP interactions at the end of their first year. The survey instrument generated both Likert scale and open-ended response data that addressed game design and variety, engagement and learning features, use of TP questions after class, and any value of lecture capture technology for reviewing these interactive presentations. The Chi Square Test was used to analyze grouped responses to Likert scale questions. Responses to open-ended prompts were categorized using open-coding. Ninety-one students out of 106 (86 %) responded to the survey. A significant majority of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the games were engaging, and an effective learning tool. The questionnaire investigated the degree to which specific features of these interactions were engaging (nine items) and promoted learning (seven items). The most highly ranked engagement aspects were peer competition and focus on the activity (tied for highest ranking), and the most highly ranked learning aspect was applying theoretical knowledge to clinical scenarios. Another notable item was the variety of interactions, which ranked in the top three in both the engagement and learning categories. Open-ended comments shed light on how students use TP questions for exam preparation, and revealed engaging and non-engaging attributes of these interactive sessions for students who review them via lecture capture

  16. Responsibly managing students' learning experiences in student-run clinics: a virtues-based ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, John H; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-01-01

    Many medical schools now offer students a distinctive clinical and learning opportunity, the student-run clinic (SRC), in which generalist physicians often play the major role. Although SRCs have become popular, they pose as-yet unexplored ethical challenges for the learning experiences of students. In SRCs students not only take on a significant administrative role especially in coordinating care, but also provide direct patient care for a clinically challenging, biopsychosocially vulnerable, medically indigent population of patients. SRCs provide an exemplar of the ethical challenges of care for such patients. The ethical framework proposed in this article emphasizes that these valued learning opportunities for students should occur in the context of professional formation, with explicit attention to developing the professional virtues, with faculty as role models for these virtues. The valued learning opportunities for students in SRCs should occur in the context of professional formation, with explicit attention to developing the professional virtues of integrity, compassion, self-effacement, self-sacrifice, and courage, which are required for the appropriate care of the vulnerable populations served by SRCs.

  17. An audience response system strategy to improve student motivation, attention, and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Black, Esther P; Rohr, Jürgen

    2009-04-07

    To implement an audience response system (ARS) to improve student motivation and attention during lectures and provide immediate feedback to the instructor concerning student understanding of lecture content in a Physiological Chemistry/Molecular Biology course. Students used ARS devices to respond to strategically placed questions throughout physiological chemistry/molecular biology lectures. The instructor inserted 6 to 7 questions that promoted student/class interactivity into each of several 50-minute lectures to focus students' attention and provide feedback on students' comprehension of material. Ninety-eight percent of first-year pharmacy (P1) students (n = 109) reported that strategically placed ARS questions throughout lectures helped them maintain attention. Reports from an independent focus group indicated that students favored this strategy. Furthermore, ARS feedback helped the instructor gauge student comprehension and adjust lectures accordingly. Focused, strategically placed ARS questions throughout lectures may help students maintain attention and stay motivated to learn. Feedback from these questions also allows instructors to adapt lectures to address areas of deficiency.

  18. Analysing task design and students' responses to context-based problems through different analytical frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Karolina; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2015-05-01

    Background:Context-based learning approaches are used to enhance students' interest in, and knowledge about, science. According to different empirical studies, students' interest is improved by applying these more non-conventional approaches, while effects on learning outcomes are less coherent. Hence, further insights are needed into the structure of context-based problems in comparison to traditional problems, and into students' problem-solving strategies. Therefore, a suitable framework is necessary, both for the analysis of tasks and strategies. Purpose:The aim of this paper is to explore traditional and context-based tasks as well as students' responses to exemplary tasks to identify a suitable framework for future design and analyses of context-based problems. The paper discusses different established frameworks and applies the Higher-Order Cognitive Skills/Lower-Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS/LOCS) taxonomy and the Model of Hierarchical Complexity in Chemistry (MHC-C) to analyse traditional tasks and students' responses. Sample:Upper secondary students (n=236) at the Natural Science Programme, i.e. possible future scientists, are investigated to explore learning outcomes when they solve chemistry tasks, both more conventional as well as context-based chemistry problems. Design and methods:A typical chemistry examination test has been analysed, first the test items in themselves (n=36), and thereafter 236 students' responses to one representative context-based problem. Content analysis using HOCS/LOCS and MHC-C frameworks has been applied to analyse both quantitative and qualitative data, allowing us to describe different problem-solving strategies. Results:The empirical results show that both frameworks are suitable to identify students' strategies, mainly focusing on recall of memorized facts when solving chemistry test items. Almost all test items were also assessing lower order thinking. The combination of frameworks with the chemistry syllabus has been

  19. Analysis of Transcriptional Signatures in Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection Reveals Temporal Changes That Result from Type I Interferon Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Krzysztof; Graham, Christine M.; Moreira-Teixeira, Lucia; McNab, Finlay W.; Howes, Ashleigh; Stavropoulos, Evangelos; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; O’Garra, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the mouse transcriptional response to Listeria monocytogenes infection reveals that a large set of genes are perturbed in both blood and tissue and that these transcriptional responses are enriched for pathways of the immune response. Further we identified enrichment for both type I and type II interferon (IFN) signaling molecules in the blood and tissues upon infection. Since type I IFN signaling has been reported widely to impair bacterial clearance we examined gene expression from blood and tissues of wild type (WT) and type I IFNαβ receptor-deficient (Ifnar1-/-) mice at the basal level and upon infection with L. monocytogenes. Measurement of the fold change response upon infection in the absence of type I IFN signaling demonstrated an upregulation of specific genes at day 1 post infection. A less marked reduction of the global gene expression signature in blood or tissues from infected Ifnar1-/- as compared to WT mice was observed at days 2 and 3 after infection, with marked reduction in key genes such as Oasg1 and Stat2. Moreover, on in depth analysis, changes in gene expression in uninfected mice of key IFN regulatory genes including Irf9, Irf7, Stat1 and others were identified, and although induced by an equivalent degree upon infection this resulted in significantly lower final gene expression levels upon infection of Ifnar1-/- mice. These data highlight how dysregulation of this network in the steady state and temporally upon infection may determine the outcome of this bacterial infection and how basal levels of type I IFN-inducible genes may perturb an optimal host immune response to control intracellular bacterial infections such as L. monocytogenes. PMID:26918359

  20. CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY OF STUDENTS REGARDING USING MOBILE DEVICES AND VIOLATING THE PRINCIPLES OF INFORMATION SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Markelj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of information security and criminal law in the case of usage of smart mobile phones among the students is a very relevant and current topic. Namely, the number of smart mobile phones’ users is rising daily, including among the student population, due to the need for perpetual communication and constant access to information. However, the lack of knowledge about recommendations on information security and safe use of smart mobile phone together with their disregard could lead to criminal responsibility of the users of smart mobile phones, including students. The purpose of this paper is therefore to represent the potential consequences of criminal responsibility and how to avoid it. The knowledge on safe use of smart mobile phones, their software, but also threats and safety solutions is very low among students, as the survey shows. Due to the loss, conveyance or disclosure of protected data, criminal responsibility of a user could therefore be relevant. In certain cases the juvenile criminal justice system is partly still relevant due to the students’ age, whereas in every case the students' culpability should be assessed precisely. This assessment namely distinguishes the cases, when the student is a perpetrator of a criminal act from the cases, when the student is only a victim of a criminal act due to his improper use of smart mobile phones.

  1. Examining How Proactive Management and Culturally Responsive Teaching Relate to Student Behavior: Implications for Measurement and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine E.; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2018-01-01

    The discipline gap between White students and African American students has increased demand for teacher training in culturally responsive and behavior management practices. Extant research, however, is inconclusive about how culturally responsive teaching practices relate to student behavior or how to assess using such practices in the classroom.…

  2. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students--a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostyn, Alison; Meade, Oonagh; Lymn, Joanne S

    2012-11-13

    The use of anonymous audience response technology (ART) to actively engage students in classroom learning has been evaluated positively across multiple settings. To date, however, there has been no empirical evaluation of the use of individualised ART handsets and formative feedback of ART scores. The present study investigates student perceptions of such a system and the relationship between formative feedback results and exam performance. Four successive cohorts of Non-Medical Prescribing students (n=107) had access to the individualised ART system and three of these groups (n=72) completed a questionnaire about their perceptions of using ART. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of seven students who achieved a range of scores on the formative feedback. Using data from all four cohorts of students, the relationship between mean ART scores and summative pharmacology exam score was examined using a non-parametric correlation. Questionnaire and interview data suggested that the use of ART enhanced the classroom environment, motivated students and promoted learning. Questionnaire data demonstrated that students found the formative feedback helpful for identifying their learning needs (95.6%), guiding their independent study (86.8%), and as a revision tool (88.3%). Interviewees particularly valued the objectivity of the individualised feedback which helped them to self-manage their learning. Interviewees' initial anxiety about revealing their level of pharmacology knowledge to the lecturer and to themselves reduced over time as students focused on the learning benefits associated with the feedback.A significant positive correlation was found between students' formative feedback scores and their summative pharmacology exam scores (Spearman's rho = 0.71, N=107, p<.01). Despite initial anxiety about the use of individualised ART units, students rated the helpfulness of the individualised handsets and personalised formative feedback highly

  3. Influence of country of study on student responsiveness to the H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, S M; Wong, A H; Kim, J H; Yung, T K C; Lau, J T F

    2010-08-01

    University students, both travelling abroad on holiday or exchange students entering a country, can serve as mobile carriers of infectious diseases during a pandemic, and thus require special attention when considering preventive measures. The objectives of this study were to evaluate student compliance and opinions on preventive measures of a university before and during an H1N1 influenza pandemic, and to explore environmental and behavioural factors that might contribute towards compliance. Cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire. Local and foreign students attending an international summer school programme were invited to participate in a self-administered survey. Respondents complied with most of the preventive measures, excluding website viewing and mask wearing. Significant differences in compliance and perceived necessity were found amongst students from Singapore, Hong Kong and the USA. Singaporean students were significantly more likely to comply with all measures and consume antiviral medication in response to the pandemic than students studying in the US. Students' responses towards university pandemic measures were largely positive, but sensitivity towards these measures varied between groups by country of study. This should be considered in further comparative studies. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions of nursing students regarding responsible use of social media in the Eastern Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangeni, Thando; Du Rand, Suzette; Van Rooyen, Dalena

    2015-07-24

    Social media have become a popular communication system that has transformed communication from the traditional to the Web-based model. Because social media use has no limitations to place and time, it is now used extensively at clinical facilities. Social media useis becoming a popular activity amongst students at Nursing Education Institutions (NEI) in South Africa. However, lack of accountability and unethical use of social media by nursing students in South Africa has been reported. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing students regarding responsible use of social media. A qualitative, descriptive, explorative and contextual research design was used to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing students regarding the responsible use of social media. Twelve nursing students registered for the undergraduate nursing degree were purposely selected and interviewed individually using a semi-structured interview method. The results of this research study demonstrate that nursing students use socialmedia irresponsibly. Nursing students experience blurred boundaries between personal and professional lines and lack accountability when using social media. The extensive use of social media in the clinical environment, by healthcare students, requires a joint effort by Nursing Education Institutions and healthcare facilities to ensure that social media are used in an ethically acceptable manner. The implementation of the recommendations of this research study could positively influence legally and ethically acceptable use of social media at healthcare facilities.

  5. Communication Breakdown: How Conflict Can Promote Responsible Leadership in Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study of an outdoor-based leadership course for teenagers shows how open-ended, difficult group tasks can enable participants to develop "dispositions for learning," which promote "responsible leadership." The latter is defined as responding ethically and uniquely to encounters with difference. Uses of educational…

  6. Teaching Students Personal and Social Responsibility with Measurable Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaiolo, Frank P.; Neilson, Steve; Daugherty, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005 the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) launched a national initiative that championed the importance of a twenty-first century liberal education. What was unique about this initiative was the underlying assumption that educating for personal and social responsibility was "core" for an educated citizenry and should be…

  7. Item Response Theory in the context of Improving Student Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Chase; Davis, Jeremy; Pyper, Brian

    2011-10-01

    We are interested to see if Item Response Theory can help to better inform the development of reasoning ability in introductory physics. A first pass through our latest batch of data from the Heat and Temperature Conceptual Evaluation, the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, and the Epistemological Beliefs About Physics Survey may help in this effort.

  8. The Responses of Tenth-Grade Students to Four Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstaff, Faye Louise

    To compare structural analysis with experiential reflective analysis as teaching techniques for literature, a study was made of the written responses of three groups of typical 10th-graders after reading four modern novels--Paul Annixter's "Swiftwater," Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451," Bel Kaufman's "Up the Down Staircase," and John…

  9. Long-term In Vivo Calcium Imaging of Astrocytes Reveals Distinct Cellular Compartment Responses to Sensory Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, Jillian L; Ferrari, Kim David; Barrett, Matthew J P; Stobart, Michael J; Looser, Zoe J; Saab, Aiman S; Weber, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Localized, heterogeneous calcium transients occur throughout astrocytes, but the characteristics and long-term stability of these signals, particularly in response to sensory stimulation, remain unknown. Here, we used a genetically encoded calcium indicator and an activity-based image analysis scheme to monitor astrocyte calcium activity in vivo. We found that different subcellular compartments (processes, somata, and endfeet) displayed distinct signaling characteristics. Closer examination of individual signals showed that sensory stimulation elevated the number of specific types of calcium peaks within astrocyte processes and somata, in a cortical layer-dependent manner, and that the signals became more synchronous upon sensory stimulation. Although mice genetically lacking astrocytic IP3R-dependent calcium signaling (Ip3r2-/-) had fewer signal peaks, the response to sensory stimulation was sustained, suggesting other calcium pathways are also involved. Long-term imaging of astrocyte populations revealed that all compartments reliably responded to stimulation over several months, but that the location of the response within processes may vary. These previously unknown characteristics of subcellular astrocyte calcium signals provide new insights into how astrocytes may encode local neuronal circuit activity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaño-Pachón Diego

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs, ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. Results Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Conclusion Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of

  11. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Porras, Judith L; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Dreyer, Ingo; Mayer, Jorge E; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2007-08-01

    In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs), ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE) associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs) in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of interacting with transcription factors. Further studies will be

  12. New Approaches to the Study of Students' Response to Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Lars

    2011-01-01

    of science and school science. In this chapter I describe two new approaches to the study of students’ responses to school science, both pragmatic by nature, and combining perspectives from cultural research with a quantitative or a Mixed Methods methodology. The approaches have been applied to studies......’Students’ responses’ to science include their attitudes and internalization of science (e.g. valueing, identifying) as well as their choices and actions related to science. This broader conception has advantages over attitudes alone, when it comes to understanding students’ paths in and out...... of Physics in Danish upper secondary school, and though these targeted different aspects of students’ responses and applied highly different methods the results were found to complement each other. A study using the first approach related students’ attitudes towards physics to various types of Cultural...

  13. "What Say These Young Ones": Students' Responses to Shakespeare--An Icon of Englishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinska-Ourdeva, Vessela; Johnston, Ingrid; Mangat, Joyti; McKeown, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Challenging the taken-for-granted status of canonical authors, especially Shakespeare, is difficult, but not impossible. This research offers a glimpse into the inferential processes of a group of grade ten students from diverse backgrounds who read unfamiliar passages from Shakespeare. The findings reveal a complex picture of meaning-making,…

  14. Differential proteomic analysis reveals sequential heat stress-responsive regulatory network in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-05-01

    Differential abundance protein species (DAPS) involved in reducing damage and enhancing thermotolerance in radish were firstly identified. Proteomic analysis and omics association analysis revealed a HS-responsive regulatory network in radish. Heat stress (HS) is a major destructive factor influencing radish production and supply in summer, for radish is a cool season vegetable crop being susceptible to high temperature. In this study, the proteome changes of radish taproots under 40 °C treatment at 0 h (Control), 12 h (Heat12) and 24 h (Heat24) were analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach. In total, 2258 DAPS representing 1542 differentially accumulated uniprotein species which respond to HS were identified. A total of 604, 910 and 744 DAPS was detected in comparison of Control vs. Heat12, Control vs. Heat24, and Heat12 vs. Heat24, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that annexin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ATP synthase, heat shock protein (HSP) and other stress-related proteins were predominately enriched in signal transduction, stress and defense pathways, photosynthesis and energy metabolic pathways, working cooperatively to reduce stress-induced damage in radish. Based on iTRAQ combined with the transcriptomics analysis, a schematic model of a sequential HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. The initial sensing of HS occurred at the plasma membrane, and then key components of stress signal transduction triggered heat-responsive genes in the plant protective metabolism to re-establish homeostasis and enhance thermotolerance. These results provide new insights into characteristics of HS-responsive DAPS and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying heat tolerance in radish and other root crops.

  15. Responsible use of social media by undergraduate student nurses / Ingrid van der Walt

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Walt, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The background and problem statement centre on the evolution of technology within teaching and learning, which involves undergraduate student nurses, as well as the use of social media as interactive teaching and communication tool. While examining the background to this topic, the researcher recognised a need to gain a deeper understanding of responsible social media use by undergraduate student nurses to the benefit of all the stakeholders, namely the Nursing Education Institution (NEI), ap...

  16. Personalized instructor responses to guided student reflections: Analysis of two instructors' perspectives and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2017-11-01

    One way to foster a supportive culture in physics departments is for instructors to provide students with personal attention regarding their academic difficulties. To this end, we have developed the Guided Reflection Form (GRF), an online tool that facilitates student reflections and personalized instructor responses. In the present work, we report on the experiences and practices of two instructors who used the GRF in an introductory physics lab course. Our analysis draws on two sources of data: (i) post-semester interviews with both instructors and (ii) the instructors' written responses to 134 student reflections. Interviews focused on the instructors' perceptions about the goals and framing of the GRF activity, and characteristics of good or bad feedback. Their GRF responses were analyzed for the presence of up to six types of statement: encouraging statements, normalizing statements, empathizing statements, strategy suggestions, resource suggestions, and feedback to the student on the structure of students' reflections. We find that both instructors used all six response types, in alignment with their perceptions of what counts as good feedback. In addition, although each instructor had their own unique feedback style, both instructors' feedback practices were compatible with two principles for effective feedback: praise should focus on effort, express confidence in students' abilities, and be sincere; and process-level feedback should be specific and strategy-oriented. This exploratory qualitative investigation demonstrates that the GRF can serve as a mechanism for instructors to pay personal attention to their students. In addition, it opens the door to future work about the impact of the GRF on student-teacher interactions.

  17. Editors’ Overview Perspectives on Teaching Social Responsibility to Students in Science and Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandvoort, Henk; Bird, Stephanie J.; Børsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    . If the social responsibility of scientists and engineers implies a duty to safeguard or promote a peaceful, just and sustainable world society, then science and engineering education should empower students to fulfil this responsibility. The contributions to this special issue present European examples...... of teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering, and provide examples and discussion of how this teaching can be promoted, and of obstacles that are encountered. Speaking generally, education aimed at preparing future scientists and engineers for social responsibility is presently...... very limited and seemingly insufficient in view of the enormous ethical and social problems that are associated with current science and technology. Although many social, political and professional organisations have expressed the need for the provision of teaching for social responsibility, important...

  18. Amygdala subnuclei connectivity in response to violence reveals unique influences of individual differences in psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Keith J; Porges, Eric C; Decety, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Atypical amygdala function and connectivity have reliably been associated with psychopathy. However, the amygdala is not a unitary structure. To examine how psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample are linked to amygdala response to violence, this study used probabilistic tractography to classify amygdala subnuclei based on anatomical projections to and from amygdala subnuclei in a group of 43 male participants. The segmentation identified the basolateral complex (BLA; lateral, basal, and accessory basal subnuclei) and the central subnucleus (CE), which were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis to identify differences in neuronal coupling specific to observed violence. While a full amygdala seed showed significant connectivity only to right middle occipital gyrus, subnuclei seeds revealed unique connectivity patterns. BLA showed enhanced coupling with anterior cingulate and prefrontal regions, while CE showed increased connectivity with the brainstem, but reduced connectivity with superior parietal and precentral gyrus. Further, psychopathic personality factors were related to specific patterns of connectivity. Fearless Dominance scores on the psychopathic personality inventory predicted increased coupling between the BLA seed and sensory integration cortices, and increased connectivity between the CE seed and posterior insula. Conversely, Self-Centered Impulsivity scores were negatively correlated with coupling between BLA and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and Coldheartedness scores predicted increased functional connectivity between BLA and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how subnuclei segmentations reveal important functional connectivity differences that are otherwise inaccessible. Such an approach yields a better understanding of amygdala dysfunction in psychopathy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Omics approaches on fresh-cut lettuce reveal global molecular responses to sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddiego, Loretta; Bianco, Linda; Capodicasa, Cristina; Carbone, Fabrizio; Dalmastri, Claudia; Daroda, Lorenza; Del Fiore, Antonella; De Rossi, Patrizia; Di Carli, Mariasole; Donini, Marcello; Lopez, Loredana; Mengoni, Alessio; Paganin, Patrizia; Perrotta, Gaetano; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable that is extensively commercialized as a ready-to-eat product because of its widespread use in human nutrition as salad. It is well known that washing treatments can severely affect the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat vegetables. The study presented here evaluated the effect of two washing procedures on fresh-cut lettuce during storage. An omics approach was applied to reveal global changes at molecular level induced by peracetic acid washing in comparison with sodium hypochlorite treatment. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify total bacterial abundance and composition. The study revealed wide metabolic alterations induced by the two sanitizers. In particular, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses pointed out a number of transcripts and proteins differentially accumulated in response to peracetic acid washing, mainly occurring on the first day of storage. In parallel, different microbiota composition and significant reduction in total bacterial load following washing were also observed. The results provide useful information for the fresh-cut industry to select an appropriate washing procedure preserving fresh-like attributes as much as possible during storage of the end product. Molecular evidence indicated peracetic acid to be a valid alternative to sodium hypochlorite as sanitizer solution. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Transcriptional profiling reveals the expression of novel genes in response to various stimuli in the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino-Ferreira Roseli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous mycoses are common human infections among healthy and immunocompromised hosts, and the anthropophilic fungus Trichophyton rubrum is the most prevalent microorganism isolated from such clinical cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the transcriptional profile of T. rubrum exposed to various stimuli in order to obtain insights into the responses of this pathogen to different environmental challenges. Therefore, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST collection by constructing one cDNA library and nine suppression subtractive hybridization libraries. Results The 1388 unigenes identified in this study were functionally classified based on the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS categories. The identified proteins were involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular defense and stress, protein degradation, signaling, transport, and secretion, among other functions. Analysis of these unigenes revealed 575 T. rubrum sequences that had not been previously deposited in public databases. Conclusion In this study, we identified novel T. rubrum genes that will be useful for ORF prediction in genome sequencing and facilitating functional genome analysis. Annotation of these expressed genes revealed metabolic adaptations of T. rubrum to carbon sources, ambient pH shifts, and various antifungal drugs used in medical practice. Furthermore, challenging T. rubrum with cytotoxic drugs and ambient pH shifts extended our understanding of the molecular events possibly involved in the infectious process and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  1. The Effectiveness of Using a Student Response System on Baccalaureate Nursing Student Dominant Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeschi, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Professional nurses are challenged to provide high quality, evidence-based care in today's increasingly complex healthcare environment. Thus, nurses need to develop an appreciation for life-long learning. Understanding student approach to learning may provide nurse educators with empirical evidence to support specific teaching/learning strategies…

  2. Students' proficiency scores within multitrait item response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a series of item response models of data collected using the Force Concept Inventory. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was designed to poll the Newtonian conception of force viewed as a multidimensional concept, that is, as a complex of distinguishable conceptual dimensions. Several previous studies have developed single-trait item response models of FCI data; however, we feel that multidimensional models are also appropriate given the explicitly multidimensional design of the inventory. The models employed in the research reported here vary in both the number of fitting parameters and the number of underlying latent traits assumed. We calculate several model information statistics to ensure adequate model fit and to determine which of the models provides the optimal balance of information and parsimony. Our analysis indicates that all item response models tested, from the single-trait Rasch model through to a model with ten latent traits, satisfy the standard requirements of fit. However, analysis of model information criteria indicates that the five-trait model is optimal. We note that an earlier factor analysis of the same FCI data also led to a five-factor model. Furthermore the factors in our previous study and the traits identified in the current work match each other well. The optimal five-trait model assigns proficiency scores to all respondents for each of the five traits. We construct a correlation matrix between the proficiencies in each of these traits. This correlation matrix shows strong correlations between some proficiencies, and strong anticorrelations between others. We present an interpretation of this correlation matrix.

  3. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini J. Negi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  4. Implicit theories of writing and their impact on students' response to a SRSD intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A

    2014-12-01

    In the field of intelligence research, it has been shown that some people conceive intelligence as a fixed trait that cannot be changed (entity beliefs), whereas others conceive it as a malleable trait that can be developed (incremental beliefs). What about writing? Do people hold similar implicit theories about the nature of their writing ability? Furthermore, are these beliefs likely to influence students' response to a writing intervention? We aimed to develop a scale to measure students' implicit theories of writing (pilot study) and to test whether these beliefs influence strategy-instruction effectiveness (intervention study). In the pilot and intervention studies participated, respectively, 128 and 192 students (Grades 5-6). Based on existing instruments that measure self-theories of intelligence, we developed the Implicit Theories of Writing (ITW) scale that was tested with the pilot sample. In the intervention study, 109 students received planning instruction based on the self-regulated strategy development model, whereas 83 students received standard writing instruction. Students were evaluated before, in the middle, and after instruction. ITW's validity was supported by piloting results and their successful cross-validation in the intervention study. In this, intervention students wrote longer and better texts than control students. Moreover, latent growth curve modelling showed that the more the intervention students conceived writing as a malleable skill, the more the quality of their texts improved. This research is of educational relevance because it provides a measure to evaluate students' implicit theories of writing and shows their impact on response to intervention. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. A Model for Screening Twice-Exceptional Students (Gifted with Learning Disabilities) within a Response to Intervention Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Coles, Jeremy Thomas; Miller, Kelli Caldwell; Hopkins, Michael B.; Hilton-Prillhart, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a model for screening for twice-exceptional status (i.e., gifted students who have a learning disability). Curriculum-based measures (Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Reading and Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Math) were administered to 1,242 third-grade students within a Response to…

  6. Extracting gene expression patterns and identifying co-expressed genes from microarray data reveals biologically responsive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paules Richard S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common observation in the analysis of gene expression data is that many genes display similarity in their expression patterns and therefore appear to be co-regulated. However, the variation associated with microarray data and the complexity of the experimental designs make the acquisition of co-expressed genes a challenge. We developed a novel method for Extracting microarray gene expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes, designated as EPIG. The approach utilizes the underlying structure of gene expression data to extract patterns and identify co-expressed genes that are responsive to experimental conditions. Results Through evaluation of the correlations among profiles, the magnitude of variation in gene expression profiles, and profile signal-to-noise ratio's, EPIG extracts a set of patterns representing co-expressed genes. The method is shown to work well with a simulated data set and microarray data obtained from time-series studies of dauer recovery and L1 starvation in C. elegans and after ultraviolet (UV or ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA damage in diploid human fibroblasts. With the simulated data set, EPIG extracted the appropriate number of patterns which were more stable and homogeneous than the set of patterns that were determined using the CLICK or CAST clustering algorithms. However, CLICK performed better than EPIG and CAST with respect to the average correlation between clusters/patterns of the simulated data. With real biological data, EPIG extracted more dauer-specific patterns than CLICK. Furthermore, analysis of the IR/UV data revealed 18 unique patterns and 2661 genes out of approximately 17,000 that were identified as significantly expressed and categorized to the patterns by EPIG. The time-dependent patterns displayed similar and dissimilar responses between IR and UV treatments. Gene Ontology analysis applied to each pattern-related subset of co-expressed genes revealed underlying

  7. Long-term heat stress induces the inflammatory response in dairy cows revealed by plasma proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Shengguo; Cheng, Jianbo; Yang, Yongxin; Zhang, Yangdong; Yang, Hongjian; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-04

    In this work we employed a comparative proteomic approach to evaluate seasonal heat stress and investigate proteomic alterations in plasma of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows were used and the treatments were: heat stress (n = 6) in hot summer (at the beginning of the moderate heat stress) and no heat stress (n = 6) in spring natural ambient environment, respectively. Subsequently, heat stress treatment lasted 23 days (at the end of the moderate heat stress) to investigate the alterations of plasma proteins, which might be employed as long-term moderate heat stress response in dairy cows. Changes in plasma proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the properties of the identified proteins revealed that the alterations of plasma proteins were related to inflammation in long-term moderate heat stress. Furthermore, the increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) directly demonstrated that long-term moderate heat stress caused an inflammatory response in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental proteomics reveals early microbial community responses to biostimulation at a uranium- and nitrate-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Nissen, Silke [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Pffifner, Susan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Loeffler, Frank E [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry instrumentation coupled with improved protein extraction techniques enable metaproteomics to identify active members of soil and groundwater microbial communities. Metaproteomics workflows were applied to study the initial responses (i.e., 4 days post treatment) of the indigenous aquifer microbiota to biostimulation with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) at a uranium-contaminated site. Members of the Betaproteobacteria (i.e., Dechloromonas, Ralstonia, Rhodoferax, Polaromonas, Delftia, Chromobacterium) and Firmicutes dominated the biostimulated aquifer community. Proteome characterization revealed distinct differences in protein expression between the microbial biomass collected from groundwater influenced by biostimulation and groundwater collected up-gradient of the EVO injection points. In particular, proteins involved in ammonium assimilation, EVO degradation, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation were prominent following biostimulation. Interestingly, the atypical NosZ of a Dechloromonas sp. was highly expressed suggesting active nitrous oxide (N2O) respiration. c-type cytochromes were barely detected, as was citrate synthase, a biomarker for hexavalent uranium reduction activity, suggesting that metal reduction has not commenced 4 days post EVO delivery. Environmental metaproteomics identified microbial community responses to biostimulation and elucidated active pathways demonstrating the value of this technique for complementing nucleic acid-based approaches.

  9. Arabidopsis decuple mutant reveals the importance of SnRK2 kinases in osmotic stress responses in vivo

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki

    2011-01-10

    Osmotic stress associated with drought or salinity is a major factor that limits plant productivity. Protein kinases in the SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family are activated by osmotic stress, suggesting that the kinases are involved in osmotic stress signaling. However, due to functional redundancy, their contribution to osmotic stress responses remained unclear. In this report, we constructed an Arabidopsis line carrying mutations in all 10 members of the SnRK2 family. The decuple mutant snrk2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10 grew poorly under hyperosmotic stress conditions but was similar to the wild type in culture media in the absence of osmotic stress. The mutant was also defective in gene regulation and the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), proline, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate under osmotic stress. In addition, analysis of mutants defective in the ABA-activated SnRK2s (snrk2.2/3/6) and mutants defective in the rest of the SnRK2s (snrk2.1/4/5/7/8/9/10) revealed that SnRK2s are a merging point of ABA-dependent and -independent pathways for osmotic stress responses. These results demonstrate critical functions of the SnRK2s in mediating osmotic stress signaling and tolerance.

  10. Transcriptomics of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in response to the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes reveals candidate fungal defense response genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Mathioni

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have evolved a first line of defense response to pathogens called innate or basal immunity. While basal defenses in these organisms are well studied, there is almost a complete lack of understanding of such systems in fungal species, and more specifically, how they are able to detect and mount a defense response upon pathogen attack. Hence, the goal of the present study was to understand how fungi respond to biotic stress by assessing the transcriptional profile of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, when challenged with the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes. Based on microscopic observations of interactions between M. oryzae and wild-type L. enzymogenes strain C3, we selected early and intermediate stages represented by time-points of 3 and 9 hours post-inoculation, respectively, to evaluate the fungal transcriptome using RNA-seq. For comparative purposes, we also challenged the fungus with L. enzymogenes mutant strain DCA, previously demonstrated to be devoid of antifungal activity. A comparison of transcriptional data from fungal interactions with the wild-type bacterial strain C3 and the mutant strain DCA revealed 463 fungal genes that were down-regulated during attack by C3; of these genes, 100 were also found to be up-regulated during the interaction with DCA. Functional categorization of genes in this suite included those with roles in carbohydrate metabolism, cellular transport and stress response. One gene in this suite belongs to the CFEM-domain class of fungal proteins. Another CFEM class protein called PTH11 has been previously characterized, and we found that a deletion in this gene caused advanced lesion development by C3 compared to its growth on the wild-type fungus. We discuss the characterization of this suite of 100 genes with respect to their role in the fungal defense response.

  11. Brain transcriptional responses to high-fat diet in Acads-deficient mice reveal energy sensing pathways.

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    Claudia Kruger

    Full Text Available How signals from fatty acid metabolism are translated into changes in food intake remains unclear. Previously we reported that mice with a genetic inactivation of Acads (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, short-chain, the enzyme responsible for mitochondrial beta-oxidation of C4-C6 short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, shift consumption away from fat and toward carbohydrate when offered a choice between diets. In the current study, we sought to indentify candidate genes and pathways underlying the effects of SCFA oxidation deficiency on food intake in Acads-/- mice.We performed a transcriptional analysis of gene expression in brain tissue of Acads-/- and Acads+/+ mice fed either a high-fat (HF or low-fat (LF diet for 2 d. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed three top-scoring pathways significantly modified by genotype or diet: oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and CREB signaling in neurons. A comparison of statistically significant responses in HF Acads-/- vs. HF Acads+/+ (3917 and Acads+/+ HF vs. LF Acads+/+ (3879 revealed 2551 genes or approximately 65% in common between the two experimental comparisons. All but one of these genes were expressed in opposite direction with similar magnitude, demonstrating that HF-fed Acads-deficient mice display transcriptional responses that strongly resemble those of Acads+/+ mice fed LF diet. Intriguingly, genes involved in both AMP-kinase regulation and the neural control of food intake followed this pattern. Quantitative RT-PCR in hypothalamus confirmed the dysregulation of genes in these pathways. Western blotting showed an increase in hypothalamic AMP-kinase in Acads-/- mice and HF diet increased, a key protein in an energy-sensing cascade that responds to depletion of ATP.Our results suggest that the decreased beta-oxidation of short-chain fatty acids in Acads-deficient mice fed HF diet produces a state of energy deficiency in the brain and that AMP-kinase may be the cellular energy

  12. Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Shuta; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Furzer, Oliver J.; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome. PMID:25329884

  13. Proteomic analysis reveals contrasting stress response to uranium in two nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains, differentially tolerant to uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Bandita; Basu, Bhakti; Acharya, Celin; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar, E-mail: aptesk@barc.gov.in

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Response of two native cyanobacterial strains to uranium exposure was studied. • Anabaena L-31 exhibited higher tolerance to uranium as compared to Anabaena 7120. • Uranium exposure differentially affected the proteome profiles of the two strains. • Anabaena L-31 showed better sustenance of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. • Anabaena L-31 displayed superior oxidative stress defense than Anabaena 7120. - Abstract: Two strains of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena, native to Indian paddy fields, displayed differential sensitivity to exposure to uranyl carbonate at neutral pH. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Anabaena sp. strain L-31 displayed 50% reduction in survival (LD{sub 50} dose), following 3 h exposure to 75 μM and 200 μM uranyl carbonate, respectively. Uranium responsive proteome alterations were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis, followed by protein identification by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. The two strains displayed significant differences in levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and oxidative stress alleviation, commensurate with their uranium tolerance. Higher uranium tolerance of Anabaena sp. strain L-31 could be attributed to sustained photosynthesis and carbon metabolism and superior oxidative stress defense, as compared to the uranium sensitive Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Significance: Uranium responsive proteome modulations in two nitrogen-fixing strains of Anabaena, native to Indian paddy fields, revealed that rapid adaptation to better oxidative stress management, and maintenance of metabolic and energy homeostasis underlies superior uranium tolerance of Anabaena sp. strain L-31 compared to Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

  14. Transcriptional response of zebrafish embryos exposed to neurotoxic compounds reveals a muscle activity dependent hspb11 expression.

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    Nils Klüver

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors are widely used as pesticides and drugs. Their primary effect is the overstimulation of cholinergic receptors which results in an improper muscular function. During vertebrate embryonic development nerve activity and intracellular downstream events are critical for the regulation of muscle fiber formation. Whether AChE inhibitors and related neurotoxic compounds also provoke specific changes in gene transcription patterns during vertebrate development that allow them to establish a mechanistic link useful for identification of developmental toxicity pathways has, however, yet not been investigated. Therefore we examined the transcriptomic response of a known AChE inhibitor, the organophosphate azinphos-methyl (APM, in zebrafish embryos and compared the response with two non-AChE inhibiting unspecific control compounds, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DMB and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP. A highly specific cluster of APM induced gene transcripts was identified and a subset of strongly regulated genes was analyzed in more detail. The small heat shock protein hspb11 was found to be the most sensitive induced gene in response to AChE inhibitors. Comparison of expression in wildtype, ache and sop(fixe mutant embryos revealed that hspb11 expression was dependent on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR activity. Furthermore, modulators of intracellular calcium levels within the whole embryo led to a transcriptional up-regulation of hspb11 which suggests that elevated intracellular calcium levels may regulate the expression of this gene. During early zebrafish development, hspb11 was specifically expressed in muscle pioneer cells and Hspb11 morpholino-knockdown resulted in effects on slow muscle myosin organization. Our findings imply that a comparative toxicogenomic approach and functional analysis can lead to the identification of molecular mechanisms and specific marker genes for potential neurotoxic compounds.

  15. Serum metabolomics reveals betaine and phosphatidylcholine as potential biomarkers for the toxic responses of processed Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong; Ko, Joshua; Liu, Xinru; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jian; Xiao, Cheng; Li, Li; Niu, Xuyan; Jiang, Miao; He, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Hongyan; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Zhijun; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Weidong; Lu, Aiping

    2014-07-29

    We recently reported that processed Aconitum carmichaelii Debx (Bai-Fu-Pian in Chinese, BFP) elicits differential toxic responses in rats under various health conditions. The present study aimed to determine the graded toxicity of BFP so as to derive a safe therapeutic rationale in clinical practice. Sensitive and reliable biomarkers of toxicity were also identified, with the corresponding metabolic pathways being unveiled. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 6) and received oral administration of BFP extract (0.32, 0.64, 1.28 or 2.56 g kg(-1) per day) or an equal volume of drinking water (control) for 15 days. The metabolomic profiles of rat serum were analyzed by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). Linear regression analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were used to elucidate the differentiated altered metabolites and associated network relationships. Results from biochemical and histopathological examinations revealed that BFP could induce prominent toxicity in the heart, liver and kidneys at a dose of 2.56 g kg(-1) per day. Betaine up-regulation and phosphatidylcholine down-regulation were detected in the serum samples of drug-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, betaine and phosphatidylcholine could be regarded as sensitive biomarkers for the toxic responses of BFP. Perturbations of RhoA signaling, choline metabolism and free radical scavenging were found to be partly responsible for the toxic effects of the herbal drug. Based on the metabolomics findings, we could establish a safe therapeutic range in the clinical use of BFP, with promising predictions of possible drug toxicity.

  16. Expression profiling during arabidopsis/downy mildew interaction reveals a highly-expressed effector that attenuates responses to salicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuta Asai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome.

  17. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Undetected rheumatic heart disease revealed using portable echocardiography in a population of school students in Tairawhiti, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Geoffrey; Stonehouse, Mary; Webb, Rachel; Webb, Rachel; Chaffey-Aupouri, Gina; Wilson, Nigel

    2012-10-12

    The aim of this programme was to find undetected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in students from selected schools in the Tairawhiti region (eastern part of the North Island) of New Zealand. Portable echocardiography was used to scan students in 5 urban and rural schools in Tairawhiti where the population is predominantly Maori. The age range of students in the urban schools was 10-13 years and in the rural schools 5-17 years. Those with abnormal echocardiograms were referred for a paediatric consultation, with hospital-based echocardiography if required for the clarification of diagnoses and further management. A total of 685 students, representing over 95% of the schools' students, consented to having echocardiographic scanning. After repeat hospital based echocardiography for 11 students, a total of 52 scans were regarded as abnormal. In this population definite (n=4) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 11 students a prevalence of 1.61% (95%CIs 0.80-2.85). Possible RHD was found in 19 students. Previously undetected confirmed (n=1) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 8 students a prevalence of 1.17% (95%CIs 0.51-2.29). Congenital heart defects (CHD) were found in 22 students a prevalence of 3.21% (95%CIs 2.02-4.83). Echocardiography was a popular modality and detected a significant burden of previously unknown RHD in this young Maori population who are now receiving penicillin. However, echocardiography detected a greater prevalence of possible RHD for which optimum management is at present uncertain. Echocardiography also detected students with a range of severity of CHD. Screening with echocardiography for RHD would involve a significant use of public health, paediatric and cardiac resources with 7.6% of students and their families requiring clinical consultations and ongoing management of the abnormal echocardiographic results.

  19. Detailed characteristics of radiation belt electrons revealed by CSSWE/REPTile measurements: Geomagnetic activity response and precipitation observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D.; Zhao, H.; Millan, R.

    2017-08-01

    Earth's outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit (LEO) CubeSat, which traverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 h) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitation. We focus on the measured electron response to geomagnetic activity for different energies to show that there are abundant sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt and slot region. These electrons are further enhanced during active times, while there is a lack of >1.63 MeV electrons in these regions. We also show that the variation of measured electron flux at LEO is strongly dependent on the local magnetic field strength, which is far from a dipole approximation. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 January 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE, the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, and one of the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites. In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58-1.63 MeV electrons (L = 3.5-6) is estimated to account for 6.8% of the total electron content.

  20. Public responses to intimate partner violence: comparing preferences of Chinese and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuning; Button, Deeanna M; Smolter, Nicole; Poteyeva, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Based on data collected from college students in Beijing and Hong Kong (China) and in Newark and Detroit (United States), this study assesses and explains citizen preferences of 2 major formalized responses to intimate partner violence (IPV)--law enforcement and social services intervention--in a cross-cultural context. Results show that Chinese respondents have lower support for law enforcement responses. Regional variation is only observed within China with students from Hong Kong supporting both law enforcement and social services responses more than their Beijing counterparts. Results also show that social attitudinal variables--including male dominance ideology, perceptions of IPV causation, support for the criminalization of IPV, and tolerance of IPV--influence public preferences of responses to IPV more than do demographic and experiential variables.

  1. Perceptions of contraceptive responsibility among female college students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Ersek, Jennifer L

    2011-03-01

    An important, although understudied, area related to contraceptive use is perceptions of contraceptive responsibility. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate these perceptions among female college students. Web-based or mailed questionnaires were completed by 326 students from 2006-2007. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to model the associations between select demographic and lifestyle characteristics and contraceptive responsibility (shared vs. individual responsibility). Although 89.1% of women felt that contraceptive responsibility should be shared, only 51.8% indicated that responsibility is actually shared in their relationships. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, and year of study, women using "other" methods of contraception (i.e. withdrawal, rhythm, sterilization, etc.) had 3.25 times the odds of stating that contraceptive responsibility is actually shared as compared to hormonal users (95% CI: 1.20, 8.80). For college women, there is a disconnect between who they feel should be responsible for contraception and who actually is responsible. Insight into perceptions of contraceptive responsibility in the university setting may help guide health educators and clinicians in designing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programming. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Rao

    Full Text Available Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs. Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  3. Using Student Video Cases to Assess Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Engineering Teaching Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Tejaswini; Wendell, Kristen

    2017-10-01

    Our study addresses the need for new approaches to prepare novice elementary teachers to teach both science and engineering, and for new tools to measure how well those approaches are working. This in particular would inform the teacher educators of the extent to which novice teachers are developing expertise in facilitating their students' engineering design work. One important dimension to measure is novice teachers' abilities to notice the substance of student thinking and to respond in productive ways. This teacher noticing is particularly important in science and engineering education, where students' initial, idiosyncratic ideas and practices influence the likelihood that particular instructional strategies will help them learn. This paper describes evidence of validity and reliability for the Video Case Diagnosis (VCD) task, a new instrument for measuring pre-service elementary teachers' engineering teaching responsiveness. To complete the VCD, participants view a 6-min video episode of children solving an engineering design problem, describe in writing what they notice about the students' science ideas and engineering practices, and propose how a teacher could productively respond to the students. The rubric for scoring VCD responses allowed two independent scorers to achieve inter-rater reliability. Content analysis of the video episode, systematic review of literature on science and engineering practices, and solicitation of external expert educator responses establish content validity for VCD. Field test results with three different participant groups who have different levels of engineering education experience offer evidence of construct validity.

  4. Keeping the door open: Exploring experiences of, and responses to, university students who disclose mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna McAuliffe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available University educators increasingly manage situations where students disclose serious mental health issues. This is a significant issue, particularly for health and human service professions, as the importance of valuing the lived experience of mental illness lies alongside concerns for professional practice standards. Thus the responsibilities of students to disclose their mental health status and the responsibilities of Universities to provide appropriate support within established disability frameworks must be clear. However, students often do not know who they should disclose to, what will happen to disclosed information, and who has access to this information. Student's often fear embarrassment, stigma, and shame about disclosing mental illness, which is compounded by the diverse attitudes, experiences, and beliefs of educators. Consequently, this paper will review existing literature on university responses to, and students’ experiences of, mental illness in order to set a research agenda for this topic. The authors argue that such research must be undertaken urgently, in a context of inclusivity in higher education that gives voice to the experiences of students, their families and carers, university staff, and practitioners in the field.

  5. A Dose-Response Strategy Reveals Differences between Normal-Weight and Obese Men in Their Metabolic and Inflammatory Responses to a High-Fat Meal123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A.; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G.; Piya, Milan K.; Gijs, Martin A. M.; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2014-01-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20–25 kg/m2) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m2) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed for a range of metabolic, inflammatory, and hormonal variables, including plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein and serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endotoxin. Insulin was the only variable that could differentiate the postprandial response of normal-weight and obese participants at each of the 3 caloric doses. A significant response of the inflammatory marker IL-6 was only observed in the obese group after ingestion of the HF meal containing 1500 kcal [net incremental AUC (iAUC) = 22.9 ± 6.8 pg/mL × 6 h, P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the net iAUC for triglycerides significantly increased from the 1000 to the 1500 kcal meal in the obese group (5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.015) but not in the normal-weight group (4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.31). We propose that caloric dose-response studies may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic impact of food on the human organism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01446068. PMID:24812072

  6. A dose-response strategy reveals differences between normal-weight and obese men in their metabolic and inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Piya, Milan K; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2014-10-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20-25 kg/m(2)) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed for a range of metabolic, inflammatory, and hormonal variables, including plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein and serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endotoxin. Insulin was the only variable that could differentiate the postprandial response of normal-weight and obese participants at each of the 3 caloric doses. A significant response of the inflammatory marker IL-6 was only observed in the obese group after ingestion of the HF meal containing 1500 kcal [net incremental AUC (iAUC) = 22.9 ± 6.8 pg/mL × 6 h, P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the net iAUC for triglycerides significantly increased from the 1000 to the 1500 kcal meal in the obese group (5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.015) but not in the normal-weight group (4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.31). We propose that caloric dose-response studies may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic impact of food on the human organism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01446068. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Mixed-Method Research on Learning Vocabulary through Technology Reveals Vocabulary Growth in Second-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, SuHua

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-method embedded research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the integration of technology for second-grade students' vocabulary development and learning. Two second-grade classes with a total of 40 students (21 boys and 19 girls) were randomly selected to participate in this study for the course of a semester. One…

  8. Distinct herpesvirus resistances and immune responses of three gynogenetic clones of gibel carp revealed by comprehensive transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan-Xiang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Mou, Cheng-Yan; Li, Zhi; Deng, Yuan-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-07-24

    Gibel carp is an important aquaculture species in China, and a herpesvirus, called as Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV), has hampered the aquaculture development. Diverse gynogenetic clones of gibel carp have been identified or created, and some of them have been used as aquaculture varieties, but their resistances to herpesvirus and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. To reveal their susceptibility differences, we firstly performed herpesvirus challenge experiments in three gynogenetic clones of gibel carp, including the leading variety clone A + , candidate variety clone F and wild clone H. Three clones showed distinct resistances to CaHV. Moreover, 8772, 8679 and 10,982 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) were identified from comparative transcriptomes between diseased individuals and control individuals of clone A + , F and H, respectively. Comprehensive analysis of the shared DEUs in all three clones displayed common defense pathways to the herpesvirus infection, activating IFN system and suppressing complements. KEGG pathway analysis of specifically changed DEUs in respective clones revealed distinct immune responses to the herpesvirus infection. The DEU numbers identified from clone H in KEGG immune-related pathways, such as "chemokine signaling pathway", "Toll-like receptor signaling pathway" and others, were remarkably much more than those from clone A + and F. Several IFN-related genes, including Mx1, viperin, PKR and others, showed higher increases in the resistant clone H than that in the others. IFNphi3, IFI44-like and Gig2 displayed the highest expression in clone F and IRF1 uniquely increased in susceptible clone A + . In contrast to strong immune defense in resistant clone H, susceptible clone A + showed remarkable up-regulation of genes related to apoptosis or death, indicating that clone A + failed to resist virus offensive and evidently induced apoptosis or death. Our study is the first attempt to screen distinct resistances and

  9. Mandated college students' response to sequentially administered alcohol interventions in a randomized clinical trial using stepped care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Hustad, John T P; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P; Kahler, Christopher W; Eaton, Erica; Monti, Peter M

    2016-02-01

    Students referred to school administration for alcohol policies violations currently receive a wide variety of interventions. This study examined predictors of response to 2 interventions delivered to mandated college students (N = 598) using a stepped care approach incorporating a peer-delivered 15-min brief advice (BA) session (Step 1) and a 60- to 90-min brief motivational intervention (BMI) delivered by trained interventionists (Step 2). Analyses were completed in 2 stages. First, 3 types of variables (screening variables, alcohol-related cognitions, mandated student profile) were examined in a logistic regression model as putative predictors of lower risk drinking (defined as 3 or fewer heavy episodic drinking [HED] episodes and/or 4 or fewer alcohol-related consequences in the past month) 6 weeks following the BA session. Second, we used generalized estimating equations to examine putative moderators of BMI effects on HED and peak blood alcohol content compared with assessment only (AO) control over the 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-ups. Participants reporting lower scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, more benefits to changing alcohol use, and those who fit the "Bad Incident" profile at baseline were more likely to report lower risk drinking 6 weeks after the BA session. Moderation analyses revealed that Bad Incident students who received the BMI reported more HED at 9-month follow-up than those who received AO. Current alcohol use as well as personal reaction to the referral event may have clinical utility in identifying which mandated students benefit from treatments of varying content and intensity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Engineers' Responsibilities for Global Electronic Waste: Exploring Engineering Student Writing Through a Care Ethics Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ryan C; Wilson, Denise

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an empirically informed perspective on the notion of responsibility using an ethical framework that has received little attention in the engineering-related literature to date: ethics of care. In this work, we ground conceptual explorations of engineering responsibility in empirical findings from engineering student's writing on the human health and environmental impacts of "backyard" electronic waste recycling/disposal. Our findings, from a purposefully diverse sample of engineering students in an introductory electrical engineering course, indicate that most of these engineers of tomorrow associated engineers with responsibility for the electronic waste (e-waste) problem in some way. However, a number of responses suggested attempts to deflect responsibility away from engineers towards, for example, the government or the companies for whom engineers work. Still other students associated both engineers and non-engineers with responsibility, demonstrating the distributed/collective nature of responsibility that will be required to achieve a solution to the global problem of excessive e-waste. Building upon one element of a framework for care ethics adopted from the wider literature, these empirical findings are used to facilitate a preliminary, conceptual exploration of care-ethical responsibility within the context of engineering and e-waste recycling/disposal. The objective of this exploration is to provide a first step toward understanding how care-ethical responsibility applies to engineering. We also hope to seed dialogue within the engineering community about its ethical responsibilities on the issue. We conclude the paper with a discussion of its implications for engineering education and engineering ethics that suggests changes for educational policy and the practice of engineering.

  11. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how South African students talk about sexual risk and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Riet, Mary; Nicholson, Tamaryn Jane

    2014-01-01

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative study used focus groups and interviews with a sample of 28 tertiary level students and 7 peri-urban youth. The constructions of risk intersected with raced and gendered narratives around sexual risk and responsibility. These constructions were used by the participants to assign and displace responsibility for the risks of HIV and pregnancy, rendering some groups immune to these risks. This constitutes a form of stigmatisation and also has implications for participants' prevention practices.

  12. RELATION BETWEEN THE LATENT MOTOR DIMENSIONS RESPONSIBLE FOR MOVEMENTS OF STUDENTS IN ACQUIRING THE MOTOR TESTS

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    Viktor Mitrevski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research has been carried out on a sample defined by the population of students who attended regularly their training classes in primary school in the Republic of Macedonia (from the region of Prespa and Pelagonia and the Republic of Serbia (from the region of Banat, municipality Kikinda. The total number of entities is 179, of which 124 are from Macedonia, and 55 – from Serbia who are eight-grade students, aged 14-15 (± 3 months. The aim of the study is to establish the relation between the results and obtained marks in motor tests with the latent motor dimensions responsible for the movements of students. By using factor analysis – varimax rotation, there is determined the effect and relation between the marks obtained in acquiring the motor tests for estimating the explosive power, start speed, and precisity of students.

  13. Comparative research on response stereotypes for daily operation tasks of Chinese and American engineering students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui-Feng; Chan, Alan H S

    2004-02-01

    A group of Mainland Chinese engineering students were asked to respond to 12 questions by indicating their design conventions and expectations about operations, directions-of-motion, and descriptions of movement for items such as doors, keys, taps, and knobs. Chi-square tests demonstrated strong response stereotypes for tasks of all 12 questions. A comparison of the stereotype strengths found here with that of Hong Kong Chinese and American engineering students reported earlier indicated that stereotype strengths of engineering students from the three regions were generally different. For some cases stereotype characteristics of two regions were more alike than the other, and also for some subjects in the three regions performed similarly. The Mainland and Hong Kong Chinese were more alike in making their choices on questions of conceptual compatibility, while more consistent preferences on movement compatibility and spatial compatibility were noted between the Mainland Chinese and American students than Hong Kong Chinese.

  14. Chief Student Affairs Officers' Perceptions of Institutional Crisis Management, Preparedness, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenberg, Heather Nicole Lancin

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examined chief student affairs officers' perceptions of institutional crisis management, preparedness, and response. A goal of this study was to uncover findings that can benefit crisis management protocols or best practices regarding crisis management team training, plan communications, and emergency management personnel on…

  15. Sharing Responsibility for College Success: A Model Partnership Moves Students to Diplomas and Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In order to prepare the large number of postsecondary-educated youth our economy demands, high schools and higher education must break through the boundaries that have traditionally separated them and assume joint responsibility for student success. This brief describes an unusual school district partnership with colleges that has achieved…

  16. Influences of Leadership Program Participation on Students' Capacities for Socially Responsible Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, John P.; Bohle, Christopher W.; Gebhardt, Matt; Hofert, Meghan; Wilk, Emily; Cooney, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differential effects of various types of individual leadership experiences (e.g., retreats, academic minors) on college students' capacities for socially responsible leadership using data from 8,961 seniors representing 99 colleges and universities. Participation in individual leadership experiences explained a significant,…

  17. Assessing Tuition and Student Aid Strategies: Using Price-Response Measures to Simulate Pricing Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    1994-01-01

    A study used price-response measures from recent national studies to assess college and university pricing (tuition and student aid) alternatives in diverse institutional settings. It is concluded that such analyses are feasible. Analysis indicated limits to "Robin Hood" pricing patterns are predominant in private colleges. Consideration…

  18. An Examination of Involvement and Socially Responsible Leadership Development of Black Students Attending Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurtis, Bridget R.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an identifiable decline in moral decision making and socially responsible behaviors in society based on recent national events such as Enron and the Bernie Madoff scandal (Arvedlund, 2009; Doran, 2004). This study attempts to address this leadership crisis by examining college student involvement and leadership experiences that may…

  19. Hybridising Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility to Include Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…

  20. Responses of Study Abroad Students in Australia to Experience-Based Pedagogy in Sport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard; Georgakis, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to research on the scholarship of teaching in the physical education/sport studies fields by examining the responses of study abroad students from overseas studying in Australia to a unit of study in sport studies that placed the interpretation of experience as the centre of the learning process. It draws on research…

  1. Culturally Responsive Education: Developing Lesson Plans for Vietnamese Students in the American Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of the philosophical principles of John Dewey and Culturally Responsive Education in the creation of lesson plans for Vietnamese students in the American Diaspora. Through a Fulbright-Hayes Program a group of teachers from the New York City Public School System and Long Island spent six weeks in Vietnam…

  2. Students' Sense of Responsibility in Event Planning: The Moral Aspect of Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powellson, Tina Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Many scholars have asserted that college should contribute to the moral development of students, developing them into people who can think and act morally (Chickering, 1969; Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Mathaisen, 2005). This responsibility applies not only to the classroom, but to the co-curricular experience as well. The…

  3. Social media as a student response system: new evidence on learning impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitousness of social media renders it a potentially powerful tool in higher education. This study explores the use of Twitter as a tool to enhance active learning and improve feedback during large-sized lectures. Students in a final-year undergraduate accounting course at an Australian university engaged in Twitter-based synchronous activities, including answering in-lecture quizzes and posting questions. This study explores two key questions: (1 ‘what encourages students to actively utilise social media in their learning process?’ and (2 ‘what pedagogical advantages are offered by social media in enhancing students’ learning experiences?’ Results of a student survey administered at the end of the course show that (1 students are more likely to participate in in-lecture Twitter activities if they are familiar with the technology, (2 Twitter activities encourage students to participate in active learning, (3 Twitter provides a platform enabling two-way student–instructor communication and (4 students find Twitter activities helpful regardless of whether they attend the lecture in real time or view online lecture recordings. These findings deepen our understanding of the pedagogical benefits of using Twitter as a student response system, which will assist educators to better harness the power of social media in the learning–teaching process.

  4. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.

  5. Student Response to Remote-Online Case-Based Learning: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Maloney, Stephen

    2016-03-22

    Case-based learning (CBL) typically involves face-to-face interaction in small collaborative groups with a focus on self-directed study. To our knowledge, no published studies report an evaluation of Web conferencing in CBL. The primary aim of this study was to explore student perceptions and attitudes in response to a remote-online case-based learning (RO-CBL) experience. This study took place over a 2-week period in 2013 at Monash University, Victoria, Australia. A third year cohort (n=73) of physiotherapy students was invited to participate. Students were required to participate in 2 training sessions, followed by RO-CBL across 2 sessions. The primary outcome of interest was the student feedback on the quality of the learning experience during RO-CBL participation. This was explored with a focus group and a survey. Most students (68/73) completed the postintervention survey (nonparticipation rate 8%). RO-CBL was generally well received by participants, with 59% (40/68) of participates stating that they'd like RO-CBL to be used in the future and 78% (53/68) of participants believing they could meet the CBL's learning objectives via RO-CBL. The 4 key themes relevant to student response to RO-CBL that emerged from the focus groups and open-ended questions on the postintervention survey were how RO-CBL compared to expectations, key benefits of RO-CBL including flexibility and time and cost savings, communication challenges in the online environment compared to face-to-face, and implications of moving to an online platform. Web conferencing may be a suitable medium for students to participate in CBL. Participants were satisfied with the learning activity and felt they could meet the CBL's learning objectives. Further study should evaluate Web conferencing CBL across an entire semester in regard to student satisfaction, perceived depth of learning, and learning outcomes.

  6. Sex-specific automatic responses to infant cries: TMS reveals greater excitability in females than males in motor evoked potentials

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    Irene eMessina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.

  7. Host and Non-Host roots in rice: cellular and molecular approaches reveal differential responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

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    Valentina eFiorilli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa, a model plant for Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, has both host and non-host roots. Large lateral (LLR and fine lateral (FLR roots display opposite responses: LLR support AM colonization, but FLR do not. Our research aimed to study the molecular, morphological and physiological aspects related to the non-host behavior of FLR. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LLR and FLR displayed divergent expression profiles, including changes in many metabolic pathways. Compared with LLR, FLR showed down-regulation of genes instrumental for AM establishment and gibberellin signaling, and a higher expression of nutrient transporters. Consistent with the transcriptomic data, FLR had higher phosphorus content. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated that, surprisingly, in the Selenio cultivar, FLR have a two-layered cortex, which is theoretically compatible with AM colonization. According to RNA-seq, a gibberellin inhibitor treatment increased anticlinal divisions leading to a higher number of cortex cells in FLR.We propose that some of the differentially regulated genes that lead to the anatomical and physiological properties of the two root types also function as genetic factors regulating fungal colonization. The rice root apparatus offers a unique tool to study AM symbiosis, allowing direct comparisons of host and non-host roots in the same individual plant.

  8. Metabolomics reveals metabolic targets and biphasic responses in breast cancer cells treated by curcumin alone and in association with docetaxel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bayet-Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin (CUR has deserved extensive research due to its anti-inflammatory properties, of interest in human diseases including cancer. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical responses of tumor cells have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of CUR remain uncompletely elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics was applied to get novel insight into responses of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to CUR alone, and MCF7 cells to CUR in cotreatment with docetaxel (DTX. In both cell types, a major target of CUR was glutathione metabolism. Total glutathione (GSx increased at low dose CUR (≤ 10 mg.l(-1-28 µM- (up to +121% in MCF7 cells, P<0.01, and +138% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.01, but decreased at high dose (≥ 25 mg.l(-1 -70 µM- (-49%, in MCF7 cells, P<0.02, and -56% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.025. At high dose, in both cell types, GSx-related metabolites decreased, including homocystein, creatine and taurine (-60 to -80%, all, P<0.05. Together with glutathione-S-transferase actvity, data established that GSx biosynthesis was upregulated at low dose, and GSx consumption activated at high dose. Another major target, in both cell types, was lipid metabolism involving, at high doses, accumulation of polyunsaturated and total free fatty acids (between ×4.5 and ×11, P<0.025, and decrease of glycerophospho-ethanolamine and -choline (about -60%, P<0.025. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a metabolic transition, even a biphasic behavior of some metabolites including GSx, between low and high doses. In addition, CUR at 10 mg.l(-1 in cotreatment with DTX induced modifications in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization. Some of these changes were biphasic depending on the duration of exposure to CUR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Metabolomics reveals major metabolic targets of CUR in breast cancer cells, and biphasic responses that challenge the widely accepted

  9. Transcriptomic analysis reveals importance of ROS and phytohormones in response to short-term salinity stress in Populus tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu eZheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar is well adapted to various extreme environments, and is considered an important species to study the effects of salinity stress on poplar trees. To decipher the mechanism of poplar’s rapid response to short-term salinity stress, we firstly detected the changes in H2O2 and hormone, and then profiled the gene expression pattern of ten-week-old seedling roots treated with 200 mM NaCl for 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours (h by RNA-seq on the Illumina-Solexa platform. Physiological determination showed that the significant increase in H2O2 began at 6 h, while that in hormone ABA was at 24 h, under salt stress. Compared with controls (0 h, 3991, 4603 and 4903 genes were up regulated, and 1408, 2206 and 3461 genes were down regulated (adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05 and |log2Ratio|≥1 at 6, 12, and 24 h time points, respectively. The Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway annotation revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs were highly enriched in hormone- and reactive oxygen species-related biological processes, including ‘response to oxidative stress or abiotic stimulus’, ‘peroxidase activity’, ‘regulation of transcription’, ‘hormone synthetic and metabolic process’, ‘hormone signal transduction’, ‘antioxidant activity’ and ‘transcription factor activity’. Moreover, K-means clustering demonstrated that DEGs (total RPKM value>12 from four time points could be categorized into four kinds of expression trends: quick up/down over 6 h or 12 h, and slow up/down over 24 h. Of these, DEGs involved in H2O2- and hormone- producing and signal-related genes were further enriched in this analysis, which indicated that the two kinds of small molecules, hormones and H2O2, play pivotal roles in the short-term salt stress response in poplar. This study provides a basis for future studies of the molecular adaptation of poplar and other tree species to salinity

  10. Ectopic Expression of GsSRK in Medicago sativa Reveals Its Involvement in Plant Architecture and Salt Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Qian, Xue; Chen, Chao; Cheng, Shufei; Jia, Bowei; Zhu, Yanming; Sun, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    stress responses. In conclusion, results in this research reveal the dual role of GsSRK in regulating both plant architecture and salt stress responses.

  11. Threat Assessment Teams: A Model for Coordinating the Institutional Response and Reducing Legal Liability when College Students Threaten Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penven, James C.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of college students with mental health issues are enrolling in college. If these students threaten suicide they present serious legal issues for college officials. Lack of communication and coordination of a response to these students exacerbates the issue. Threat assessment teams can serve as mechanisms to coordinate the…

  12. Student and Teacher Responses to Violence in School: The Divergent Views of Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    School bullying is a worldwide worrisome phenomenon that occurs within a broad context in which pupils and teachers can either reinforce or undermine violent behavior through interaction. Based on a nationally representative sample of students in Israel, this study examined patterns in student perceptions of student and teacher responses to school…

  13. Measuring Organizational Responses to the Student Complaints in the Perceived Justice Framework: Some Evidence from Northern Cyprus Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Erdogan H.; Arasli, Huseyin; Farivarsadri, Guita; Bavik, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to determine what kind of complaints students have, how universities react to these complaints, and how relevant reactions affect justice perceptions, complainant satisfaction, exit and negative word of mouth intensions of the students. In order to find out students' perceptions on university responses to their…

  14. Welcome to My House: African American and European American Students' Responses to Virginia Hamilton's "House of Dies Drear."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears-Bunton, Linda A.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between reader response and culture. Presents portraits of a teacher and her Black students and White students as they studied a series of African American literary texts, including Virginia Hamilton's "House of Dies Drear" (1968). The reading of this text marked a turning point for the teacher and students.…

  15. Mobile-Phone-Based Classroom Response Systems: Students' Perceptions of Engagement and Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Richardson, Alice; Oprescu, Florin; McDonald, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Using a Classroom Response System (CRS) has been associated with positive educational outcomes, by fostering student engagement and by allowing immediate feedback to both students and instructors. This study examined a low-cost CRS (VotApedia) in a large first-year class, where students responded to questions using their mobile phones. This study…

  16. Speciality preferences in Dutch medical students influenced by their anticipation on family responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, Margret; Pepping, Tess; Bor, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Physician gender is associated with differences in the male-to-female ratio between specialities and with preferred working hours. We explored how graduating students' sex or full-time or part-time preference influences their speciality choice, taking work-life issues into account. Graduating medical students at Radboud University Medical Centre, the Netherlands participated in a survey (2008-2012) on career considerations. Logistic regression tested the influence of sex or working hour preference on speciality choice and whether work-life issues mediate. Of the responding students (N = 1,050, response rate 83, 73.3 % women), men preferred full-time work, whereas women equally opted for part time. More men chose surgery, more women family medicine. A full-time preference was associated with a preference for surgery, internal medicine and neurology, a part-time preference with psychiatry and family medicine. Both male and female students anticipated that foremost the career of women will be negatively influenced by family life. A full-time preference was associated with an expectation of equality in career opportunities or with a less ambitious partner whose career would affect family life. This increased the likelihood of a choice for surgery and reduced the preference for family medicine among female students. Gender specifically plays an important role in female graduates' speciality choice making, through considerations on career prospects and family responsibilities.

  17. Responses of Multi-Aged Music Students to Mid-20th-Century Art Music: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation replicates previous research into K-12 students' responses to mid-20th-century art music. The study extends that research to include undergraduates and graduates as well as an additional group of graduate students who had taken a 20th-century music class. Children's responses showed remarkable consistency and indicated that…

  18. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  19. Use of Multi-Response Format Test in the Assessment of Medical Students' Critical Thinking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafinejad, Mahboobeh Khabaz; Arabshahi, Seyyed Kamran Soltani; Monajemi, Alireza; Jalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Rasouli, Javad

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student's ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 159 undergraduate third-year medical students. All the participants completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) consisting of 34 multiple-choice questions to measure general critical thinking skills and a researcher-developed test that combines open and closed-ended questions. A researcher-developed 48-question exam, consisting of 8 short-answers and 5 essay questions, 19 Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ), and 16 True-False (TF) questions, was used to measure critical thinking skills. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson's coefficient to explore the association between the total scores of tests and subtests. One hundred and fifty-nine students participated in this study. The sample comprised 81 females (51%) and 78 males (49%) with an age range of 20±2.8 years (mean 21.2 years). The response rate was 64.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between types of questions and critical thinking scores, of which the correlations of MCQ (r=0.82) and essay questions (r=0.77) were strongest. The significant positive correlations between multi-response format test and CCTST's subscales were seen in analysis, evaluation, inference and inductive reasoning. Unlike CCTST subscales, multi-response format test have weak correlation with CCTST total score (r=0.45, p=0.06). This study highlights the importance of considering multi-response format test in the assessment of critical thinking abilities of medical

  20. A case study of teaching social responsibility to doctoral students in the climate sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia

    2013-12-01

    The need to make young scientists aware of their social responsibilities is widely acknowledged, although the question of how to actually do it has so far gained limited attention. A 2-day workshop entitled "Prepared for social responsibility?" attended by doctoral students from multiple disciplines in climate science, was targeted at the perceived needs of the participants and employed a format that took them through three stages of ethics education: sensitization, information and empowerment. The workshop aimed at preparing doctoral students to manage ethical dilemmas that emerge when climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences.

  1. Individual and organizational predictors of the ethicality of graduate students' responses to research integrity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J; Bent, Blake J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective means to enhance research integrity by universities requires baseline measures of individual, programmatic, and institutional factors known to contribute to ethical decision making and behavior. In the present study, master's thesis and Ph.D. students in the fields of biological, health and social sciences at a research extensive university completed a field appropriate measure of research ethical decision making and rated the seriousness of the research issue and importance for implementing the selection response. In addition they were asked to rate their perceptions of the institutional and departmental research climate and to complete a measure of utilitarian and formalistic predisposition. Female students were found to be more ethical in their decision making compared to male students. The research ethical decision measure was found to be related to participants' ethical predisposition and overall perception of organizational and departmental research climate; however, formalism was the only individual predictor to reach statistical significance and none of the individual subscales of the research climate measure were significantly correlated to ethicality. Participants' ratings of the seriousness of the issue were correlated with their ratings of the importance of carrying out their selected response but neither was significantly predictive of the ethicality of their responses. The implications of these findings for the development of more effective training programs and environments for graduate students in research ethics and integrity are discussed.

  2. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Culturally and linguistically diverse students in speech-language pathology courses: A platform for culturally responsive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Stacie; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue

    2017-06-01

    Increasing the proportion of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students and providing intercultural learning opportunities for all students are two strategies identified to facilitate greater access to culturally responsive speech-language pathology services. To enact these strategies, more information is needed about student diversity. This study collected descriptive information about CALD speech-language pathology students in Australia. Cultural and linguistic background information was collected through surveying 854 domestic and international speech-language pathology students from three Australian universities. Students were categorised according to defined or perceived CALD status, international student status, speaking English as an Additional Language (EAL), or speaking a Language Other than English at Home (LOTEH). Overall, 32.1% of students were either defined or perceived CALD. A total of 14.9% spoke EAL and 25.7% identified speaking a LOTEH. CALD students were more likely to speak EAL or a LOTEH than non-CALD students, were prominently from Southern and South-Eastern Asian backgrounds and spoke related languages. Many students reported direct or indirect connections with their cultural heritage and/or contributed linguistic diversity. These students may represent broader acculturative experiences in communities. The sociocultural knowledge and experience of these students may provide intercultural learning opportunities for all students and promote culturally responsive practices.

  4. Responsive eLearning exercises to enhance student interaction with metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, William J; Dreaver-Charles, Kristine

    2018-05-01

    Successful learning of biochemistry requires students to engage with the material. In the past this often involved students writing out pathways by hand, and more recently directing students to online resources such as videos, songs, and animated slide presentations. However, even these latter resources do not really provide students an opportunity to engage with the material in an active fashion. As part of an online introductory metabolism course that was developed at our university, we created a series of twelve online interactive activities using Adobe Captivate 9. These activities targeted glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism, the citric acid cycle, and fatty acid oxidation. The interactive exercises consisted of two types. One involved dragging objects such as names of enzymes or allosteric modifiers to their correct drop locations such as a particular point in a metabolic pathway, a specific enzyme, and so forth. A second type involved clicking on objects, locations within a pathway, and so forth, in response to a particular question. In both types of exercises, students received feedback on their decisions in order to enhance learning. The student feedback received on these activities was very positive, and indicated that they found them to increase their confidence in the material and that they had learned the key principles of each pathway. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(3):223-229, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Innovative Strategies for Empowering Your Students to Become Active, Responsible Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, B.

    2011-09-01

    The economy continues to sputter along, and the repercussions are now hitting hard at publicly-funded colleges and universities, with enrollment increasing and funding decreasing. Funding agencies are starting to look at retention and completion rates as a way to allocate scarce dollars. Improving these rates is also one way to increase the future stream of tuition; students who can't pass introductory classes like ASTRO101 won't enroll and pay tuition for the next level, and they won't complete their degree. So what can you, a mere professor of astronomy, do? Tired of the "What do you want me to know?" questions? Provide your students with learner-centered structures to help them learn more deeply. Do your students resist active-engagement techniques and hate group work? Share empowerment strategies for helping students become active, responsible learners who can thrive in a learner-centered environment. Do you think that it's wrong for the freshman classes to be over-crowded, yet your sophomore classes don't get enough students or don't even exist? After using the proven curriculum of On Course, college and universities across the country have improved their retention across a wide range of disciplines (http://www.OnCourseWorkshop.com/Data.htm). Experience a sample of the fun and engaging activities developed over two decades to help students (1) accept personal responsibility, (2) discover self motivation, (3) master self-management, (4) use interdependence, (5) gain self-awareness, (6) adopt lifelong learning, (7) develop emotional intelligence, and (8) believe in themselves. Since this is only a one-hour workshop, we will focus on choices one and four: to be successful, students need to see themselves as the primary cause of their outcomes and experiences and to build mutually supportive relationships in our classroom and labs. Outcomes: (1) one ASTRO101 Course-ready activity to help students accept personal responsibility; (2) one ASTRO101 Course

  6. Transcriptional response of P. pastoris in fed-batch cultivations to Rhizopus oryzae lipase production reveals UPR induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero Francisco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of transcriptional levels of the genes involved in protein synthesis and secretion is a key factor to understand the host organism's responses to recombinant protein production, as well as their interaction with the cultivation conditions. Novel techniques such as the sandwich hybridization allow monitoring quantitatively the dynamic changes of specific RNAs. In this study, the transcriptional levels of some genes related to the unfolded protein response (UPR and central metabolism of Pichia pastoris were analysed during batch and fed-batch cultivations using an X-33-derived strain expressing a Rhizopus oryzae lipase under control of the formaldehyde dehydrogenase promoter (FLD1, namely the alcohol oxidase gene AOX1, the formaldehyde dehydrogenase FLD1, the protein disulfide isomerase PDI, the KAR2 gene coding for the BiP chaperone, the 26S rRNA and the R. oryzae lipase gene ROL. Results The transcriptional levels of the selected set of genes were first analysed in P. pastoris cells growing in shake flask cultures containing different carbon and nitrogen sources combinations, glycerol + ammonium, methanol + methylamine and sorbitol + methylamine. The transcriptional levels of the AOX1 and FLD1 genes were coherent with the known regulatory mechanism of C1 substrates in P. pastoris, whereas ROL induction lead to the up-regulation of KAR2 and PDI transcriptional levels, thus suggesting that ROL overexpression triggers the UPR. This was further confirmed in fed-batch cultivations performed at different growth rates. Transcriptional levels of the analysed set of genes were generally higher at higher growth rates. Nevertheless, when ROL was overexpressed in a strain having the UPR constitutively activated, significantly lower relative induction levels of these marker genes were detected. Conclusion The bead-based sandwich hybridization assay has shown its potential as a reliable instrument for quantification of

  7. Fast, visual specialization for reading in English revealed by the topography of the N170 ERP response

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    McCandliss Bruce D

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N170 effects associated with visual words may be related to perceptual expertise effects that have been demonstrated for faces and other extensively studied classes of visual stimuli. Although face and other object expertise effects are typically bilateral or right-lateralized, the spatial topography of reading-related N170 effects are often left-lateralized, providing potential insights into the unique aspects of reading-related perceptual expertise. Methods Extending previous research in German 1, we use a high-density channel array to characterize the N170 topography for reading-related perceptual expertise in English, a language with inconsistent spelling-to-sound mapping. N170 effects related to overall reading-related expertise are defined by contrasting responses to visual words versus novel symbol strings. By contrasting each of these conditions to pseudowords, we examined how this reading-related N170 effect generalizes to well-ordered novel letter strings. Results A sample-by-sample permutation test computed on word versus symbol ERP topographies revealed differences during two time windows corresponding to the N170 and P300 components. Topographic centroid analysis of the word and symbol N170 demonstrated significant differences in both left-right as well as inferior-superior dimensions. Words elicited larger N170 negativities than symbols at inferior occipito-temporal channels, with the maximal effect over left inferior regions often unsampled in conventional electrode montages. Further contrasts produced inferior-superior topographic effects for the pseudoword-symbol comparison and left-lateralized topographic effects for the word-pseudoword comparison. Conclusion Fast specialized perception related to reading experience produces an N170 modulation detectable across different EEG systems and different languages. Characterization of such effects may be improved by sampling with greater spatial frequency recordings

  8. In vivo phosphoproteome characterization reveals key starch granule-binding phosphoproteins involved in wheat water-deficit response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Xing; Zhen, Shou-Min; Liu, Yan-Lin; Yan, Xing; Zhang, Ming; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2017-10-23

    Drought stress during grain development causes significant yield loss in cereal production. The phosphorylated modification of starch granule-binding proteins (SGBPs) is an important mechanism regulating wheat starch biosynthesis. In this study, we performed the first proteomics and phosphoproteomics analyses of SGBPs in elite Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Jingdong 17 under well-watered and water-stress conditions. Water stress treatment caused significant reductions in spike grain numbers and weight, total starch and amylopectin content, and grain yield. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the quantity of SGBPs was reduced significantly by water-deficit treatment. Phosphoproteome characterization of SGBPs under water-deficit treatment demonstrated a reduced level of phosphorylation of main starch synthesis enzymes, particularly for granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS I), starch synthase II-a (SS II-a), and starch synthase III (SS III). Specifically, the Ser34 site of the GBSSI protein, the Tyr358 site of SS II-a, and the Ser837 site of SS III-a exhibited significant less phosphorylation under water-deficit treatment than well-watered treatment. Furthermore, the expression levels of several key genes related with starch biosynthesis detected by qRT-PCR were decreased significantly at 15 days post-anthesis under water-deficit treatment. Immunolocalization showed a clear movement of GBSS I from the periphery to the interior of starch granules during grain development, under both water-deficit and well-watered conditions. Our results demonstrated that the reduction in gene expression or transcription level, protein expression and phosphorylation levels of starch biosynthesis related enzymes under water-deficit conditions is responsible for the significant decrease in total starch content and grain yield.

  9. The early asthmatic response is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondria activity as revealed by proteomic analysis in rats

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    Xu Yu-Dong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of allergens by allergic asthmatics results in the early asthmatic response (EAR, which is characterized by acute airway obstruction beginning within a few minutes. The EAR is the earliest indicator of the pathological progression of allergic asthma. Because the molecular mechanism underlying the EAR is not fully defined, this study will contribute to a better understanding of asthma. Methods In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of the EAR, we examined changes in protein expression patterns in the lung tissue of asthmatic rats during the EAR using 2-DE/MS-based proteomic techniques. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data was then performed using PPI Spider and KEGG Spider to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Results In total, 44 differentially expressed protein spots were detected in the 2-DE gels. Of these 44 protein spots, 42 corresponded to 36 unique proteins successfully identified using mass spectrometry. During subsequent bioinformatic analysis, the gene ontology classification, the protein-protein interaction networking and the biological pathway exploration demonstrated that the identified proteins were mainly involved in glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity. Using western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed the changes in expression of five selected proteins, which further supports our proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Conclusions Our results reveal that the allergen-induced EAR in asthmatic rats is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity, which could establish a functional network in which calcium binding may play a central role in promoting the progression of asthma.

  10. African-American esophageal squamous cell carcinoma expression profile reveals dysregulation of stress response and detox networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Johnson, Kory; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Karkera, Deepa; Trachiotis, Gregory; Adib, Houtan; Hoffman, Eric P; Wadleigh, Robert G

    2017-06-19

    Esophageal carcinoma is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide and is largely unresponsive to therapy. African-Americans have an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the subtype that shows marked variation in geographic frequency. The molecular architecture of African-American ESCC is still poorly understood. It is unclear why African-American ESCC is more aggressive and the survival rate in these patients is worse than those of other ethnic groups. To begin to define genetic alterations that occur in African-American ESCC we conducted microarray expression profiling in pairs of esophageal squamous cell tumors and matched control tissues. We found significant dysregulation of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and stress response components of the NRF2- mediated oxidative damage pathway, potentially representing key genes in African-American esophageal squamous carcinogenesis. Loss of activity of drug metabolizing enzymes would confer increased sensitivity of esophageal cells to xenobiotics, such as alcohol and tobacco smoke, and may account for the high incidence and aggressiveness of ESCC in this ethnic group. To determine whether certain genes are uniquely altered in African-American ESCC we performed a meta-analysis of ESCC expression profiles in our African-American samples and those of several Asian samples. Down-regulation of TP53 pathway components represented the most common feature in ESCC of all ethnic groups. Importantly, this analysis revealed a potential distinctive molecular underpinning of African-American ESCC, that is, a widespread and prominent involvement of the NRF2 pathway. Taken together, these findings highlight the remarkable interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of African-American ESCC.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Mapping Reveals Multiple QTLs Governing Tolerance Response for Seedling Stage Chilling Stress in Indica Rice

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    Sharat K. Pradhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop is sensitive to cold stress at seedling stage. A panel of population representing 304 shortlisted germplasm lines was studied for seedling stage chilling tolerance in indica rice. Six phenotypic classes were exposed to six low temperature stress regimes under control phenotyping facility to investigate response pattern. A panel of 66 genotypes representing all phenotypic classes was used for ensuring genetic diversity, population structure and association mapping for the trait using 58 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 2 direct trait linked markers. A moderate level of genetic diversity was detected in the panel population for the trait. Deviation of Hardy-Weinberg's expectation was detected in the studied population using Wright's F statistic. The panel showed 30% variation among population and 70% among individuals. The entire population was categorized into three sub-populations through STRUCTURE analysis. This revealed tolerance for the trait had a common primary ancestor for each sub-population with few admix individuals. The panel population showed the presence of many QTLs for cold stress tolerance in the individuals representing like genome-wide expression of the trait. Nineteen SSR markers were significantly associated at chilling stress of 8°C to 4°C for 7–21 days duration. Thus, the primers linked to the seedling stage cold tolerance QTLs namely qCTS9, qCTS-2, qCTS6.1, qSCT2, qSCT11, qSCT1a, qCTS-3.1, qCTS11.1, qCTS12.1, qCTS-1b, and CTB2 need to be pyramided for development of strongly chilling tolerant variety.

  12. Engineers’ Responsibilities for Global Electronic Waste: Exploring Engineering Student Writing Through a Care Ethics Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ryan C.; Wilson, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an empirically informed perspective on the notion of responsibility using an ethical framework that has received little attention in the engineering-related literature to date: ethics of care. In this work, we ground conceptual explorations of engineering responsibility in empirical findings from engineering student’s writing on the human health and environmental impacts of “backyard” electronic waste recycling/disposal. Our findings, from a purposefully diverse sample of engineering students in an introductory electrical engineering course, indicate that most of these engineers of tomorrow associated engineers with responsibility for the electronic waste (e-waste) problem in some way. However, a number of responses suggested attempts to deflect responsibility away from engineers towards, for example, the government or the companies for whom engineers work. Still other students associated both engineers and non-engineers with responsibility, demonstrating the distributed/collective nature of responsibility that will be required to achieve a solution to the global problem of excessive e-waste. Building upon one element of a framework for care ethics adopted from the wider literature, these empirical findings are used to facilitate a preliminary, conceptual exploration of care-ethical responsibility within the context of engineering and e-waste recycling/disposal. The objective of this exploration is to provide a first step toward understanding how care-ethical responsibility applies to engineering. We also hope to seed dialogue within the engineering community about its ethical responsibilities on the issue. We conclude the paper with a discussion of its implications for engineering education and engineering ethics that suggests changes for educational policy and the practice of engineering. PMID:27368195

  13. Engineering Students' Views of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study from Petroleum Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica M; McClelland, Carrie J; Smith, Nicole M

    2017-12-01

    The mining and energy industries present unique challenges to engineers, who must navigate sometimes competing responsibilities and codes of conduct, such as personal senses of right and wrong, professional ethics codes, and their employers' corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the current dominant framework used by industry to conceptualize firms' responsibilities to their stakeholders, yet has it plays a relatively minor role in engineering ethics education. In this article, we report on an interdisciplinary pedagogical intervention in a petroleum engineering seminar that sought to better prepare engineering undergraduate students to critically appraise the strengths and limitations of CSR as an approach to reconciling the interests of industry and communities. We find that as a result of the curricular interventions, engineering students were able to expand their knowledge of the social, rather than simply environmental and economic dimensions of CSR. They remained hesitant, however, in identifying the links between those social aspects of CSR and their actual engineering work. The study suggests that CSR may be a fruitful arena from which to illustrate the profoundly sociotechnical dimensions of the engineering challenges relevant to students' future careers.

  14. CATERING STUDENTS' NEEDS TO PROMOTE AESTHETIC EXPERIENCE IN EFL LITERATURE CLASS WITH REFERENCE TO RESPONSE-CENTRED CURRICULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkak Said

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of literature instruction is dependent upon not only the teaching strategies, but also the well-developed curriculum, which accommodates student needs. Teaching practice of literature in the multicultural contexts has to do with teachers' belieft in approaching to their day-to-day practice endowed in the curriculum they are concerned with. In this respect, the existing literature curricula should ideally reflect aesthetic experiences that enhance students' freedom and enjoyment with literary works assigned The present study examines how three case High School English teachers from different sites with different multicultural entities in West Java, Indonesia, developed literature curricula in such a way that their students got 'free room' to express what they wanted and needed to say and to do. Following the traditions of a qualitative multi-case and -site study, the present study investigated the process of teaching literature in language studies streams of the three sites by occupying classroom observation and interview, and administering questionnaires as well. The findings revealed that, in their classroom practices, the three cases endeavored to cater their students' needs through developing negotiated response-based literature curriculum that led to varied and unique activities in the forms of celebrations showing their personal engagements in responding to.Jiterature assigned. Yet, their different schooling systems and contextual factors, and the subjects' perspectives in literature pedagogy and their lived-through literary. reading experiences, have made each case indicate typical and unique phenomena, which is in accordance with the spirit of school-based curriculum.

  15. Comparison of Responses on the 1994 Biennial Student Survey by the Consumer and Hospitality Services Division and Overall Students of the Milwaukee Area Technical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advincula-Carpenter, Marietta M.

    To gather curriculum planning information, the Research, Planning and Development Division of Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC) conducts student surveys biennially. Responses of 579 MATC students enrolled in consumer and hospitality services division (CHSD) programs to the 1994 survey were compared with those of the 5,071 students…

  16. Comparative Study of Three Different Personal Response Systems with Fourth-Year Undergraduate Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Denis; Senior, Avril

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different Personal Response Systems that have been used in recent years at the School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool: a technology-free system (Communicubes), a handset delivery device (TurningPoint), and a cloud-based technology (Poll Everywhere) that allows students to use a range of personal computing devices to register their answer. All three systems offer a method to promote active learning, and lecturers were encouraged to use them. However, there are cost and logistical implications for each. The authors found that both staff and students did have particular preferences for a specific system. This preference was not the same for both groups. The outcome of the comparison is that further research is needed into cloud-based technology as it offers benefits to the students but is also a distraction.

  17. STUDENTS POSITIVE RESPONSE THROUGH THINK PAIR SHARE STRATEGY ON ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Baroroh Ma’arif

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmonious communication has an important role in teaching and learning process, especially in encouraging the success of teaching and learning process in the classroom. This research was conducted to know the student's response to the implementation of Think Pair Share strategy in Speaking course. This strategy emphasizes how students are more active in communicating using English in the classroom. The purpose of this research is 1 how the implementation of Think Pair Share strategy in class; 2 how students respond to the Think Pair Share strategy in the classroom; The design of this study is descriptive-qualitative to answer these questions. In this study, researchers themselves are the main instrument. In collecting data, researchers used observation sheets, and field notes.

  18. Revealing the Whiteboard to Blind Students: An Inclusive Approach to Provide Mediation in Synchronous E-Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Andre P.; Linhalis, Flavia; Bianchini, Sandro L.; Fortes, Renata P. M.; Pimentel, Maria de Graca C.

    2010-01-01

    Promoting the inclusion of students with disabilities in e-learning systems has brought many challenges for researchers and educators. The use of synchronous communication tools such as interactive whiteboards has been regarded as an obstacle for inclusive education. In this paper, we present the proposal of an inclusive approach to provide blind…

  19. School Principals' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Student Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Principal Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study was designed to determine how principals perceived the ethicality of sanctions for students engaged in sexting behavior relative to the race/ethnicity and gender of the student. Personality traits of the principals were surveyed to determine if Openness and/or Conscientiousness would predict principal response. Sexting is…

  20. Developing a Numerical Ability Test for Students of Education in Jordan: An Application of Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…

  1. Predictors of Response and Mechanisms of Change in an Organizational Skills Intervention for Students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Becker, Stephen P; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Girio-Herrera, Erin

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictors of response and mechanisms of change for the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Twenty-three middle school students with ADHD (grades 6-8) received the HOPS intervention implemented by school mental health providers and made significant improvements in parent-rated materials organization and planning skills, impairment due to organizational skills problems, and homework problems. Predictors of response examined included demographic and child characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, intelligence, ADHD and ODD symptom severity, and ADHD medication use. Mechanisms of change examined included the therapeutic alliance and adoption of the organization and planning skills taught during the HOPS intervention. Participant implementation of the HOPS binder materials organization system and the therapeutic alliance as rated by the student significantly predicted post-intervention outcomes after controlling for pre-intervention severity. Adoption of the binder materials organization system predicted parent-rated improvements in organization, planning, and homework problems above and beyond the impact of the therapeutic alliance. These findings demonstrate the importance of teaching students with ADHD to use a structured binder organization system for organizing and filing homework and classwork materials and for transferring work to and from school.

  2. Childhood education student teachers responses to a simulation game on food security

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Felicity Petersen

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an account of student teachers responses to a simulation game about food scarcity and how the game served as a conversation starter about the influence of food scarcity on educational provisioning. The simulation game was utilised as part of a suite of activities during an educational excursion for first years in primary school teacher education. In this investigation data were generated via video recordings of the simulation game itself, summary notes of the key points of...

  3. AIDS prevention and college students: male and female responses to "fear-provoking" messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K; LaTour, M S

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of fear appeals in AIDS prevention messages and to determine whether or not males and females differ in their response to these appeals. MANOVA results from a sample of 179 junior and senior business students at a mid-Atlantic urban university indicate that significant differences in message effects were associated with type of appeal, gender of the respondent, and the interaction between appeal and gender.

  4. MOTIVATION TO STUDY – STUDENTS` MOTIVATIONAL RESPONSE ON VARIOUS MOTIVATIONAL ACTIONS IN STATISTICAL COURSES

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    Pacáková, Zuzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation to study is a topic to be studied on various levels of educational process, although the methods to be used can be very different. We have examined the motivational response of university students on various motivational actions. Credit tests results of a sample of Business and Administration study programme students from the period 2009/10 to 2012/13 were analyzed. During this period several motivational actions were accepted. The most important one was a chance to pass the exam on the basis of credit tests results only, if given 15 or more points from maximum of 20 points. On the other hand the students were given less tries to finish the test. It was found an increase in mean point results especially in the winter term. There is also an increasing percentage of students able to pass the test on the first attempt and increasing proportion of students who are given exam grade on the basis of the credit tests results. Therefore it can be assumed, that motivation in a form of possibility to be given the exam grade on the basis of credit tests, is very strong.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals distinct ethylene-independent regulation of ripening in response to low temperature in kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiche, William O; Mitalo, Oscar W; Kasahara, Yuka; Tosa, Yasuaki; Mworia, Eric G; Owino, Willis O; Ushijima, Koichiro; Nakano, Ryohei; Yano, Kentaro; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2018-03-21

    Kiwifruit are classified as climacteric since exogenous ethylene (or its analogue propylene) induces rapid ripening accompanied by ethylene production under positive feedback regulation. However, most of the ripening-associated changes (Phase 1 ripening) in kiwifruit during storage and on-vine occur largely in the absence of any detectable ethylene. This ripening behavior is often attributed to basal levels of system I ethylene, although it is suggested to be modulated by low temperature. To elucidate the mechanisms regulating Phase 1 ripening in kiwifruit, a comparative transcriptome analysis using fruit continuously exposed to propylene (at 20 °C), and during storage at 5 °C and 20 °C was conducted. Propylene exposure induced kiwifruit softening, reduction of titratable acidity (TA), increase in soluble solids content (SSC) and ethylene production within 5 days. During storage, softening and reduction of TA occurred faster in fruit at 5 °C compared to 20 °C although no endogenous ethylene production was detected. Transcriptome analysis revealed 3761 ripening-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2742 were up-regulated by propylene while 1058 were up-regulated by low temperature. Propylene exclusively up-regulated 2112 DEGs including those associated with ethylene biosynthesis and ripening such as AcACS1, AcACO2, AcPL1, AcXET1, Acβ-GAL, AcAAT, AcERF6 and AcNAC7. Similarly, low temperature exclusively up-regulated 467 DEGS including AcACO3, AcPL2, AcPMEi, AcADH, Acβ-AMY2, AcGA2ox2, AcNAC5 and AcbZIP2 among others. A considerable number of DEGs such as AcPG, AcEXP1, AcXET2, Acβ-AMY1, AcGA2ox1, AcNAC6, AcMADS1 and AcbZIP1 were up-regulated by either propylene or low temperature. Frequent 1-MCP treatments failed to inhibit the accelerated ripening and up-regulation of associated DEGs by low temperature indicating that the changes were independent of ethylene. On-vine kiwifruit ripening proceeded in the absence of any detectable

  6. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals the adaptive responses of citrus to long-term boron-toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Huang, Jing-Hao; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-10-28

    Boron (B)-toxicity is an important disorder in agricultural regions across the world. Seedlings of 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) and 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) were fertigated every other day until drip with 10 μM (control) or 400 μM (B-toxic) H3BO3 in a complete nutrient solution for 15 weeks. The aims of this study were to elucidate the adaptive mechanisms of citrus plants to B-toxicity and to identify B-tolerant genes. B-toxicity-induced changes in seedlings growth, leaf CO2 assimilation, pigments, total soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and phosphorus were less pronounced in C. sinensis than in C. grandis. B concentration was higher in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. Here we successfully used cDNA-AFLP to isolate 67 up-regulated and 65 down-regulated transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) from B-toxic C. grandis leaves, whilst only 31 up-regulated and 37 down-regulated TDFs from B-toxic C. sinensis ones, demonstrating that gene expression is less affected in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. These differentially expressed TDFs were related to signal transduction, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, protein and amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton modification, stress responses and cell transport. The higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis might be related to the findings that B-toxic C. sinensis leaves had higher expression levels of genes involved in photosynthesis, which might contribute to the higher photosyntheis and light utilization and less excess light energy, and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging compared to B-toxic C. grandis leaves, thus preventing them from photo-oxidative damage. In addition, B-toxicity-induced alteration in the expression levels of genes encoding inorganic pyrophosphatase 1, AT4G01850 and methionine synthase differed between the two species, which might play a role in the B-tolerance of C. sinensis. C. sinensis

  7. Differential Gene Expression by Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in Response to Phenolic Compounds Reveals New Genes Involved in Tannin Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Inés; Jiménez, Natalia; Curiel, José Antonio; Peñas, Elena; López de Felipe, Félix; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2017-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that can degrade food tannins by the successive action of tannase and gallate decarboxylase enzymes. In the L. plantarum genome, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of gallate decarboxylase ( lpdC , or lp_2945 ) is only 6.5 kb distant from the gene encoding inducible tannase ( L. plantarum tanB [ tanB Lp ], or lp_2956 ). This genomic context suggests concomitant activity and regulation of both enzymatic activities. Reverse transcription analysis revealed that subunits B ( lpdB , or lp_0271 ) and D ( lpdD , or lp_0272 ) of the gallate decarboxylase are cotranscribed, whereas subunit C ( lpdC , or lp_2945 ) is cotranscribed with a gene encoding a transport protein ( gacP , or lp_2943 ). In contrast, the tannase gene is transcribed as a monocistronic mRNA. Investigation of knockout mutations of genes located in this chromosomal region indicated that only mutants of the gallate decarboxylase (subunits B and C), tannase, GacP transport protein, and TanR transcriptional regulator ( lp_2942 ) genes exhibited altered tannin metabolism. The expression profile of genes involved in tannin metabolism was also analyzed in these mutants in the presence of methyl gallate and gallic acid. It is noteworthy that inactivation of tanR suppresses the induction of all genes overexpressed in the presence of methyl gallate and gallic acid. This transcriptional regulator was also induced in the presence of other phenolic compounds, such as kaempferol and myricetin. This study complements the catalog of L. plantarum expression profiles responsive to phenolic compounds, which enable this bacterium to adapt to a plant food environment. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus plantarum is a bacterial species frequently found in the fermentation of vegetables when tannins are present. L. plantarum strains degrade tannins to the less-toxic pyrogallol by the successive action of tannase and gallate decarboxylase enzymes. The genes encoding these enzymes are

  8. School performance and personal attitudes and social responsibility in preadolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Carbonero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the differences observed between students with different levels of academic performance in their social attitudes and personal responsibility towards study, according to various theories and models. Participants were 235 students from the third cycle of Primary Education (10-12 years old. They completed two attitude rating scales: (a Assessment Scale of Social Responsibility Attitudes of Primary School Pupils (EARSA-P, Monsalvo, 2012b, consisting of 23 items grouped into six factors (obedience in the family, polite and accepting their mistakes, trust in their parents, responsible in school setting, friendly and willing to help and careful of their environment; and (b Assessment Scale of General Attitudes towards Study E-1 (Morales, 2006, which consists of 15 items grouped into five dimensions (high aspirations, enjoyment of study, study organization, efforts to understand and desire to continue learning. We compared the levels of social responsibility and attitudes toward study according to the level of academic achievement, finding significant group differences in attitudes toward study and responsibility in terms of academic achievement.

  9. A reflective discussion: questions about globalization and multiculturalism in nursing as revealed during a student/staff exchange programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Iain; Norman, Linda

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present elements of a discussion on the discipline of nursing that arose from a student-faculty exchange programme, as a reflection of the experiences the students and faculty had during the 3-year exchange. It suggests that the globalization of health and the international migration of nurses might prove to be an opportunity for nurses to learn more about nursing practice. It became apparent to the participants that the phenomenon of nursing, although understood by them all, was not easy to describe, and words used in Swedish, Finnish or British or American English were often not easy to interpret or explain. These reflections were noted by the authors when the group came together to plan the programme and design experiences for the participants. We were concerned how nursing could contribute to health-care improvement globally if it wasn't universally understood within the four countries concerned.

  10. Editors' overview perspectives on teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, Henk; Børsen, Tom; Deneke, Michael; Bird, Stephanie J

    2013-12-01

    Global society is facing formidable current and future problems that threaten the prospects for justice and peace, sustainability, and the well-being of humanity both now and in the future. Many of these problems are related to science and technology and to how they function in the world. If the social responsibility of scientists and engineers implies a duty to safeguard or promote a peaceful, just and sustainable world society, then science and engineering education should empower students to fulfil this responsibility. The contributions to this special issue present European examples of teaching social responsibility to students in science and engineering, and provide examples and discussion of how this teaching can be promoted, and of obstacles that are encountered. Speaking generally, education aimed at preparing future scientists and engineers for social responsibility is presently very limited and seemingly insufficient in view of the enormous ethical and social problems that are associated with current science and technology. Although many social, political and professional organisations have expressed the need for the provision of teaching for social responsibility, important and persistent barriers stand in the way of its sustained development. What is needed are both bottom-up teaching initiatives from individuals or groups of academic teachers, and top-down support to secure appropriate embedding in the university. Often the latter is lacking or inadequate. Educational policies at the national or international level, such as the Bologna agreements in Europe, can be an opportunity for introducing teaching for social responsibility. However, frequently no or only limited positive effect of such policies can be discerned. Existing accreditation and evaluation mechanisms do not guarantee appropriate attention to teaching for social responsibility, because, in their current form, they provide no guarantee that the curricula pay sufficient attention to

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of CD8+-T-Cell Responses against Hepatitis C Virus Reveals Multiple Unpredicted Specificities

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, Georg M.; Ouchi, Kei; Chung, Raymond T.; Nguyen, Tam N.; Day, Cheryl L.; Purkis, Deborah R.; Reiser, Markus; Kim, Arthur Y.; Lucas, Michaela; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce D.

    2002-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+-T-cell response is thought to play a critical role in HCV infection. Studies of these responses have largely relied on the analysis of a small number of previously described or predicted HCV epitopes, mostly restricted by HLA A2. In order to determine the actual breadth and magnitude of CD8+-T-cell responses in the context of diverse HLA class I alleles, we performed a comprehensive analysis of responses to all expressed HCV proteins. By using a panel...

  12. Validation of self-directed learning instrument and establishment of normative data for nursing students in taiwan: using polytomous item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Fen; Lee-Hsieh, Jane; Turton, Michael A; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2014-06-01

    Little research has investigated the establishment of norms for nursing students' self-directed learning (SDL) ability, recognized as an important capability for professional nurses. An item response theory (IRT) approach was used to establish norms for SDL abilities valid for the different nursing programs in Taiwan. The purposes of this study were (a) to use IRT with a graded response model to reexamine the SDL instrument, or the SDLI, originally developed by this research team using confirmatory factor analysis and (b) to establish SDL ability norms for the four different nursing education programs in Taiwan. Stratified random sampling with probability proportional to size was used. A minimum of 15% of students from the four different nursing education degree programs across Taiwan was selected. A total of 7,879 nursing students from 13 schools were recruited. The research instrument was the 20-item SDLI developed by Cheng, Kuo, Lin, and Lee-Hsieh (2010). IRT with the graded response model was used with a two-parameter logistic model (discrimination and difficulty) for the data analysis, calculated using MULTILOG. Norms were established using percentile rank. Analysis of item information and test information functions revealed that 18 items exhibited very high discrimination and two items had high discrimination. The test information function was higher in this range of scores, indicating greater precision in the estimate of nursing student SDL. Reliability fell between .80 and .94 for each domain and the SDLI as a whole. The total information function shows that the SDLI is appropriate for all nursing students, except for the top 2.5%. SDL ability norms were established for each nursing education program and for the nation as a whole. IRT is shown to be a potent and useful methodology for scale evaluation. The norms for SDL established in this research will provide practical standards for nursing educators and students in Taiwan.

  13. GLOBAL TRANSCRIPTION PROFILING REVEALS DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSES TO CHRONIC NITROGEN STRESS AND PUTATIVE NITROGEN REGULATORY COMPONENTS IN ARABIDOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A large quantity of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is used for crop production to achieve high yields at a significant economic and environmental cost. Efforts have been directed to understanding the molecular basis of plant responses to N and to identifying N-responsive gen...

  14. Fueling the public health workforce pipeline through student surge capacity response teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, J A; Davis, M K; Ricchetti-Masterson, K L; MacDonald, P D M

    2014-02-01

    In January 2003, the University of North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness established Team Epi-Aid to match graduate student volunteers with state and local health departments to assist with outbreaks and other applied public health projects. This study assessed whether Team Epi-Aid participation by full-time graduate students impacted post-graduation employment, particularly by influencing students to work in governmental public health upon graduation. In September 2010, 223 program alumni were contacted for an online survey and 10 selected for follow-up interviews. Eighty-three Team Epi-Aid alumni answered the survey (response rate = 37 %). Forty-one (49 %) reported participating in at least one activity, with 12/41 (29 %) indicating participation in Team Epi-Aid influenced their job choice following graduation. In 6 months prior to enrolling at UNC, 30 (36 %) reported employment in public health, with 16/30 (53 %) employed in governmental public health. In 6 months following graduation, 34 (41 %) reported employment in public health, with 27 (80 %) employed in governmental public health. Eight alumni completed telephone interviews (response rate = 80 %). Five credited Team Epi-Aid with influencing their post-graduation career. Experience in applied public health through a group such as Team Epi-Aid may influence job choice for public health graduates.

  15. A descriptive study of baccalaureate nursing students' responses to suicide prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Julie M; Gilje, Fredricka; Tesar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, little is known regarding the amount of educational content on suicide in undergraduate nursing curriculum. The literature conducted found few published research studies on implementation of suicide prevention instruction in baccalaureate nursing curriculum, even though various international healthcare and nursing initiatives address suicide prevention. The aim was to describe senior baccalaureate students' responses to an evidence-based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program entitled Question-Persuade-Refer implemented in a required course. This is a multi-method descriptive study. Data were collected utilizing a pre-post-survey questionnaire administered to 150 students in four classes of a psychiatric nursing course over a two-year period. The quantitative data were statistically significant (p suicide'. Students responded very positively to the evidence based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program. The instruction addresses various national initiatives and strategies filling a void in nursing curriculum, as well as empowering students to engage in suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood education student teachers responses to a simulation game on food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Felicity Petersen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of student teachers responses to a simulation game about food scarcity and how the game served as a conversation starter about the influence of food scarcity on educational provisioning. The simulation game was utilised as part of a suite of activities during an educational excursion for first years in primary school teacher education. In this investigation data were generated via video recordings of the simulation game itself, summary notes of the key points of the discussion session during the game, and students’ learning portfolios. Analysis of the various data sets indicate that student-teachers’ engaged with the game both viscerally and cerebrally, with the game providing a powerful concrete introduction to the issues of food scarcity and unequal distribution of resources. Most student teachers were able to relate the lessons learned from the game to the classroom and educational situation. In addition, I found that the simulation game as method can assist students in their activity of learning to look at education as an equity and justice issue.

  17. A Systems Vaccinology Approach Reveals Temporal Transcriptomic Changes of Immune Responses to the Yellow Fever 17D Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Wang, Shuhui; Jia, Manxue; Li, Dan; Liu, Ying; Li, Zhengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Huifang; Sun, Meiping; Lu, Li; Zhou, Zhinan; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Qichen; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; Yao, Lena; Yu, Xuesong; Carpp, Lindsay N; Huang, Yunda; McElrath, Julie; Self, Steve; Shao, Yiming

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we used a systems vaccinology approach to identify temporal changes in immune response signatures to the yellow fever (YF)-17D vaccine, with the aim of comprehensively characterizing immune responses associated with protective immunity. We conducted a cohort study in which 21 healthy subjects in China were administered one dose of the YF-17D vaccine; PBMCs were collected at 0 h and then at 4 h and days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 84, and 168 postvaccination, and analyzed by transcriptional profiling and immunological assays. At 4 h postvaccination, genes associated with innate cell differentiation and cytokine pathways were dramatically downregulated, whereas receptor genes were upregulated, compared with their baseline levels at 0 h. Immune response pathways were primarily upregulated on days 5 and 7, accompanied by the upregulation of the transcriptional factors JUP, STAT1, and EIF2AK2. We also observed robust activation of innate immunity within 2 d postvaccination and a durable adaptive response, as assessed by transcriptional profiling. Coexpression network analysis indicated that lysosome activity and lymphocyte proliferation were associated with dendritic cell (DC) and CD4 + T cell responses; FGL2, NFAM1, CCR1, and TNFSF13B were involved in these associations. Moreover, individuals who were baseline-seropositive for Abs against another flavivirus exhibited significantly impaired DC, NK cell, and T cell function in response to YF-17D vaccination. Overall, our findings indicate that YF-17D vaccination induces a prompt innate immune response and DC activation, a robust Ag-specific T cell response, and a persistent B cell/memory B cell response. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. The complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1 reveals a processing system involved in the quorumsensing signal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte, Vinicius da Silva; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1. The 2.3-Mbp genome contains an extremely interesting AI-2 transporter and processing system related to the quorum-sensing signal response. This specific feature is described in this species for the first time and might be ...... be responsible for a new pathogenic behavior.......We present here the complete genome sequence of Trueperella pyogenes UFV1. The 2.3-Mbp genome contains an extremely interesting AI-2 transporter and processing system related to the quorum-sensing signal response. This specific feature is described in this species for the first time and might...

  19. An estrogen-responsive plasma protein expression signature in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) revealed by SELDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mari Mæland; Meyer, Sonnich; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2011-01-01

    Compound-specific protein expression signatures( PESs) can be revealed by proteomic techniques. The SELDI-TOF MS approach is advantageous due to its simplicity and high-throughput capacity,however, there are concerns regarding the reproducibility of this method. The aim of this study was to define...

  20. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  1. Experiences from a Student Programme Designed to Examine the Role of the Accountant in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Leigh

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates how one course--a final year undergraduate module--has been developed and implemented to inform students about corporate social responsibility from an accounting perspective. It takes as its core the notion of accounting and accountability, and is delivered by accounting lecturers to business students following a range of…

  2. The Grasshopper and the Ant: Motivational Responses of Low-Achieving Students to High-Stakes Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Melissa; Engel, Mimi

    2001-01-01

    Examined the responses of 102 low achieving sixth and eighth graders to Chicago's highly publicized efforts to end social promotion. Students generally described increased work efforts, and students with high levels of work effort generally had greater than average learning gains and positive outcomes in terms of promotion. About one-third of…

  3. 3D Virtual Worlds as Art Media and Exhibition Arenas: Students' Responses and Challenges in Contemporary Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lilly

    2013-01-01

    3D virtual worlds (3D VWs) are considered one of the emerging learning spaces of the 21st century; however, few empirical studies have investigated educational applications and student learning aspects in art education. This study focused on students' responses to and challenges with 3D VWs in both aspects. The findings show that most participants…

  4. The Relationship of Student Involvement in Political Organizations to Self-Reported Capacities for Socially Responsible Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendorp, Melanie Beth

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between college students' political involvement and their capacities for socially responsible leadership, including which student characteristics, precollege experiences, and collegiate experiences contributed to these capacities. Political involvement was defined as participation in co-curricular,…

  5. Responsiveness to a Prospective Student E-Mail Inquiry by Community Colleges in the Nine Mega-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadinger, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated e-mail responsiveness by community colleges in the nine mega-states to an inquiry from a prospective student. Noel-Levitz (2006b) reported that prospective students want to receive an e-mail with information about an institution prior to applying for admission. Specifically, high school juniors and seniors want…

  6. Teachers and Students' Perceptions of a Hybrid Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Menendez-Santurio, Jose Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess students and teachers' perceptions concerning their participation in an educational kickboxing learning unit based on a hybridization of two pedagogical models: Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility. Method: Seventy-one students and three physical education teachers…

  7. White House Unveils America's College Promise Proposal: Tuition-Free Community College for Responsible Students. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White House, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In January, 2015, the President unveiled the America's College Promise proposal, which would make two years of community college free for responsible students, letting students earn the first half of a bachelor's degree and earn skills needed in the workforce at no cost. This proposal will require everyone to do their part: community colleges must…

  8. International Students, Academic Publications and World University Rankings: The Impact of Globalisation and Responses of a Malaysian Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yao Sua; Goh, Soo Khoon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the responses of a Malaysian public university, namely Universiti Sains Malaysia, to the impact of globalisation vis-à-vis three key issues: international students, academic publications and world university rankings. There are concerted efforts put in place by the university to recruit more international students. But a global…

  9. Developing Responsibility for Completing and Handing in Daily Homework Assignments for Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Joan M.

    This practicum was designed to increase responsibility for completing and handing in homework among students in grades three, four, and five in a mid-Atlantic school district. Of a total of 128 students in these grades, 28 were identified to learn strategies to aid in completing homework. Nine solution strategies were employed: (1) provide…

  10. Parenting responsibility expectations of senior Australian dental students: do the next generations' family responsibilities impact workforce planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Ala'a; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, there has been a substantial increase in work-based demands, thought to be due to an intensifying, competitive work environment. However, more recently, the question of work-life balance is increasingly attracting attention. The purpose of this study was to discover the attitudes of the next generation of dentists in Australia to parenting responsibility and work-life balance perceptions. Questionnaires on work-life balance were distributed to all fourth-year students at three dental schools in Australia. A total of 137 (76 percent) surveys were completed and returned. Most respondents indicated that they would take time off to focus on childcare, and just over half thought childcare should be shared by both parents. Thirty-seven percent felt that a child would have a considerable effect on their careers. Differences were seen in responses when compared by gender. The application of sensitivity analysis to workforce calculations based around changing societal work-life expectations can have substantial effects on predicting workforce data a decade into the future. It is not just the demographic change to a more feminized workforce in Australia that can have substantial effect, but also the change in social expectations of males in regards to parenting.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of personal response system technology on millennial student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Mary K; Hunter Revell, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    As nurse educators, we must explore new technologies that capitalize on the characteristics of millennial learners. One such technology, the personal response system (PRS), is an effective way to promote active learning and increase comprehension. Few nursing studies have examined the benefits of PRS technology on student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PRS technology on learning outcomes in two sections of an undergraduate nursing research course. A crossover design compared class quiz averages between and within groups. Findings related to between and within class quiz scores were mixed, whereas the effectiveness of in-class PRS questions on paper-and-pencil quiz scores and PRS-targeted quiz items was significant. Knowledge gained from this study can be used to enhance our ability to actively engage our technologically savvy undergraduate students. By threading technology into the undergraduate curriculum, learning outcomes may be improved. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. A Case Study of Teaching Social Responsibility to Doctoral Students in the Climate Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N.; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia

    2013-01-01

    climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors......: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science......, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences....

  13. Comparative analyses reveal potential uses of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for cold stress responses in temperate grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP genes, fructosyltransferase (FST genes, and many C-repeat binding factor (CBF genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here we used comparative analyses to study conservation and evolution of these gene families in B. distachyon to better understand its potential as a model species for agriculturally important temperate grasses. Results Brachypodium distachyon contains cold responsive IRIP genes which have evolved through Brachypodium specific gene family expansions. A large cold responsive CBF3 subfamily was identified in B. distachyon, while CBF4 homologs are absent from the genome. No B. distachyon FST gene homologs encode typical core Pooideae FST-motifs and low temperature induced fructan accumulation was dramatically different in B. distachyon compared to core Pooideae species. Conclusions We conclude that B. distachyon can serve as an interesting model for specific molecular mechanisms involved in low temperature responses in core Pooideae species. However, the evolutionary history of key genes involved in low temperature responses has been different in Brachypodium and core Pooideae species. These differences limit the use of B. distachyon as a model for holistic studies relevant for agricultural core Pooideae species.

  14. Students' response to disaster: a lesson for health care professional schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Humberto

    2010-11-16

    The response of medical students, young physicians, and other health professionals to the February 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Chile provides important lessons about health care delivery during disasters and about the development of professionalism. Tertiary and secondary care of victims of these disasters was possible because local and national resources were available and field hospitals provided by Chile's armed forces and foreign countries replaced damaged hospitals. However, primary care of persons living on the outskirts of towns and in small villages and coves that were destroyed and isolated by the disaster required the involvement of volunteer groups that were largely composed of students and other young members of the health professions, all of whom were motivated by solidarity, compassion, and social commitment. This experience, similar to previous catastrophes in Chile and elsewhere, reinforces that medical and other health professional schools must instill in graduates an understanding that the privileges of being a health professional come with responsibilities to society. Beyond providing high-quality scientific and technological education, curricula in these schools should include training that enables graduates to meaningfully contribute in the setting of unexpected disasters and that nurtures a sense of responsibility to do so.

  15. CRiSP: An Instrument for Assessing Student Perceptions of Classroom Response Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; McDonald, Christine; Oprescu, Florin

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument for evaluating classroom response systems (CRS). While a number of studies evaluating CRS have been published to date, no standardised instrument exists as a means of evaluating the impact of using the CRS. This means that comparing the different systems, or evaluating the benefits of using the CRS in different ways or settings, is very difficult despite the number of published reports, as indicated by Kay and LeSage (2009). An instrument was developed, called the classroom response system perceptions (CRiSP) questionnaire, which allows the evaluation of varied CRS on three scales: the usability; the impact on student engagement; and the impact on student learning. The development of CRiSP was undertaken in three universities, using different CRS, and evaluated through focus groups, one-on-one interviews and a factor analysis of the survey responses. We found no evidence of difference on the scales according to gender or age groups. The final CRiSP questionnaire consists of 26 base questions, with additional optional questions available. This paper proposes that the CRiSP Questionnaire could, in its current state or with minor changes, be used to evaluate the impact on learning of other classroom technologies also.

  16. Students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum: A psychometric evaluation based on item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Kuan, Hoi Kei; Chung, Joyce O K; Chan, Cecilia K Y; Li, William H C

    2018-07-01

    The investigation of learning approaches in the clinical workplace context has remained an under-researched area. Despite the validation of learning approach instruments and their applications in various clinical contexts, little is known about the extent to which an individual item, that reflects a specific learning strategy and motive, effectively contributes to characterizing students' learning approaches. This study aimed to measure nursing students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum using the Approaches to Learning at Work Questionnaire (ALWQ). Survey research design was used in the study. A sample of year 3 nursing students (n = 208) who undertook a 6-week clinical practicum course participated in the study. Factor analyses were conducted, followed by an item response theory analysis, including model assumption evaluation (unidimensionality and local independence), item calibration and goodness-of-fit assessment. Two subscales, deep and surface, were derived. Findings suggested that: (a) items measuring the deep motive from intrinsic interest and deep strategies of relating new ideas to similar situations, and that of concept mapping served as the strongest discriminating indicators; (b) the surface strategy of memorizing facts and details without an overall picture exhibited the highest discriminating power among all surface items; and, (c) both subscales appeared to be informative in assessing a broad range of the corresponding latent trait. The 21-item ALWQ derived from this study presented an efficient, internally consistent and precise measure. Findings provided a useful psychometric evaluation of the ALWQ in the clinical practicum context, added evidence to the utility of the ALWQ for nursing education practice and research, and echoed the discussions from previous studies on the role of the contextual factors in influencing student choices of different learning strategies. They provided insights for clinical educators to measure

  17. Small RNA profiling reveals important roles for miRNAs in Arabidopsis response to Bacillus velezensis FZB42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Jiang, Haiyang; Xu, Zhilan; Xu, Qianqian; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-09-20

    Bacillus velezensis FZB42 (previously classified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42) has been confirmed to successfully colonize plant roots and enhance defense response against pathogen infection. This study indicated that FZB42 inoculation enhanced Arabidopsis defense response against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 through inducing the expression of PR1, PDF1.2 and stomata closure. To further clarify the induced defense response at miRNA level, sRNA libraries from Arabidopsis roots inoculated with FZB42 and control were constructed and sequenced. The reads of 21nt and 24nt in length were the most abundant groups in FZB42-treated library and control library, respectively. 234 known miRNAs and 16 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 11 known miRNAs and 4 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed after FZB42 inoculation. Moreover cis-elements (TC-rich repeats, TCA-element and CGTCA-motif) associated with plant defense were also found in the promoters of these miRNAs. Additionally, 141 mRNAs were predicted as potential targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs. GO annotations of the target genes indicated their potential roles in polyamine biosynthetic process and intracellular protein transport biological process, which may contribute to increased defense response. Our findings indicated that Bacillus velezensis FZB42 inoculation altered the expression of Arabidopsis miRNAs and their target genes, which were associated with defense response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.

  19. Integrative omic analysis reveals distinctive cold responses in leaves and roots of strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa ‘Korona’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage eKoehler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess underlying metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms during cold exposure of strawberry, integrative omic approaches were applied to Fragaria × ananassa Duch. ‘Korona’. Both root and leaf tissues were examined for responses to the cold acclimation processes. Levels of metabolites, proteins, and transcripts in tissues from plants grown at 18°C were compared to those following 1 to 10 days of cold (2°C exposure. Overall, ‘Korona’ showed a modest increase of protective metabolites such as amino acids (aspartic acid, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, pentoses, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated hexoses, and distinct compounds of the raffinose pathway (galactinol and raffinose. By 2DE proteomics a total of 845 spots were observed in leaves; 4.6% changed significantly in response to cold.Transcript levels in leaves were determined by microarray, where dozens of cold associated transcripts were quantitatively characterized, and levels of several potential key contributors (e.g., the dehydrin COR47 and GADb to cold tolerance were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Cold responses are placed within the existing knowledge base of low temperature stress change in plants, allowing an evaluation of the uniqueness or generality of Fragaria responses in photosynthetic tissues. Overall, the cold response characteristics of ‘Korona’ are consistent with a moderately cold tolerant plant.

  20. Bioethical reasoning and the orientation towards corporate social responsibility of business students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia López Paláu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethical conflicts are ever more complex and require more interdisciplinary reflection to attain a solution. Bioethical reasoning can contribute to the understanding and eventual solution of many ethical conflicts in business. This study seeks to determine if a relationship exist among the social responsibility of business and the bioethical reasoning. A conceptual model using the multidimensional enterprise model proposed by Carroll (1979 and the bioethical principles proposed by Beauchamp and Childress (1979 is presented. A measurement instrument reliable for both constructs is developed. The results provide invaluable information that can help design new approaches for the ethical education of students.

  1. Distress in response to emotional and sexual infidelity: evidence of evolved gender differences in Spanish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana Maria; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Zubeidat, Ihab

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied gender differences in response to hypothetical infidelity in Spanish students. Using a forced-choice methodology, the authors asked a sample of 266 participants to indicate which kind of infidelity would be more distressing: emotional or sexual. Men were significantly more distressed by sexual infidelity than were women, and women were significantly more distressed by emotional infidelity than were men. Results supported the hypothesis that particular infidelity types, which resemble adaptive problems that human beings faced in the past, contribute to the psychology of jealousy. The results are consistent with previous cross-cultural research.

  2. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki

    2012-10-18

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Urban elementary students' views of environmental scientists, environmental caretakers and environmentally responsible behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for follow-up semi-structured interviews based on their illustrations. A general conclusion is some of the stereotypes, particularly related to gender, revealed in prior research (Barman, 1999, Chambers, 1983; Huber & Burton, 1995; Schibeci & Sorensen's, 1983; Sumrall, 1995) are evident among many elementary students. Male environmental scientists were drawn twice as often as female environmental scientists. Females were represented in more pictures of environmental caretakers than environmental scientists. Students overwhelmingly drew environmental scientists (98.1%) and environmental caretakers (76.5%) working alone. Wildlife was noticeably absent from most drawings (85%). Where wildlife was included, it was most often birds (6.9%) and fish (3.1%). More than one species was evident in only 2.5% of the pictures. Fifty percent of environmental caretakers were shown picking up trash from land. Actions such as reducing resource use occurred in only 13 out of 319 pictures (4.1%). Pictures of environmental caretakers sharing knowledge were even less common (2.5%). Almost 22% of females drew multiple individuals compared to 18.5% drawn by males. Females were more likely to show individuals collaborating (22.4% to 16.8%) while males were more likely to show individuals working in opposition (5.2% to 2.0%).

  4. Integration of the Pokeweed miRNA and mRNA Transcriptomes Reveals Targeting of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira C. M. Neller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, displays broad-spectrum resistance to plant viruses and is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator. However, little is known about the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in this non-model plant. To investigate the control of miRNAs in gene expression, we sequenced the small RNA transcriptome of pokeweed treated with jasmonic acid (JA, a hormone that mediates pathogen defense and stress tolerance. We predicted 145 miRNAs responsive to JA, most of which were unique to pokeweed. These miRNAs were low in abundance and condition-specific, with discrete expression change. Integration of paired mRNA-Seq expression data enabled us to identify correlated, novel JA-responsive targets that mediate hormone biosynthesis, signal transduction, and pathogen defense. The expression of approximately half the pairs was positively correlated, an uncommon finding that we functionally validated by mRNA cleavage. Importantly, we report that a pokeweed-specific miRNA targets the transcript of OPR3, novel evidence that a miRNA regulates a JA biosynthesis enzyme. This first large-scale small RNA study of a Phytolaccaceae family member shows that miRNA-mediated control is a significant component of the JA response, associated with widespread changes in expression of genes required for stress adaptation.

  5. Comparing genomic expression patterns across plant species reveals highly diverged transcriptional dynamics in response to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Close Timothy J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice and barley are both members of Poaceae (grass family but have a marked difference in salt tolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference was previously unexplored. This study employs a comparative genomics approach to identify analogous and contrasting gene expression patterns between rice and barley. Results A hierarchical clustering approach identified several interesting expression trajectories among rice and barley genotypes. There were no major conserved expression patterns between the two species in response to salt stress. A wheat salt-stress dataset was queried for comparison with rice and barley. Roughly one-third of the salt-stress responses of barley were conserved with wheat while overlap between wheat and rice was minimal. These results demonstrate that, at transcriptome level, rice is strikingly different compared to the more closely related barley and wheat. This apparent lack of analogous transcriptional programs in response to salt stress is further highlighted through close examination of genes associated with root growth and development. Conclusion The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that conservation of transcriptional signatures in response to environmental cues depends on the genetic similarity among the genotypes within a species, and on the phylogenetic distance between the species.

  6. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki; Pierik, Ronald; Fricker, Mark D.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a

  7. The response of mammalian cells to UV-light reveals Rad54-dependent and independent pathways of homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eppink, Berina; Tafel, Agnieszka A; Hanada, Katsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    with lesions in replicating DNA. The core HR protein in mammalian cells is the strand exchange protein RAD51, which is aided by numerous proteins, including RAD54. We used RAD54 as a cellular marker for HR to study the response of mammalian embryonic stem (ES) cells to UV irradiation. In contrast to yeast, ES...

  8. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bé lair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic

  9. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into the Adaptive Response of Skeletonema costatum to Changing Ambient Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Feng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a limiting macronutrient for diatom growth and productivity in the ocean. Much effort has been devoted to the physiological response of marine diatoms to ambient P change, however, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we utilized RNA-Seq to compare the global gene expression patterns of a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum grown in inorganic P-replete, P-deficient, and inorganic- and organic-P resupplied conditions. In total 34,942 unique genes were assembled and 20.8% of them altered significantly in abundance under different P conditions. Genes encoding key enzymes/proteins involved in P utilization, nucleotide metabolism, photosynthesis, glycolysis and cell cycle regulation were significantly up-regulated in P-deficient cells. Genes participating in circadian rhythm regulation, such as circadian clock associated 1, were also up-regulated in P-deficient cells. The response of S. costatum to ambient P deficiency shows several similarities to the well-described responses of other marine diatom species, but also has its unique features. S. costatum has evolved the ability to re-program its circadian clock and intracellular biological processes in response to ambient P deficiency. This study provides new insights into the adaptive mechanisms to ambient P deficiency in marine diatoms.

  10. Comparative proteomics of oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM reveals effects on DNA repair and cysteine de novo synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderini, Elia; Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Villarroel, Julia

    2017-01-01

    acidophilus NCFM to H2O2, simulating an oxidative environment. Bacterial growth was monitored by BioScreen and batch cultures were harvested at exponential phase for protein profiling of stress responses by 2D gel-based comparative proteomics. Proteins identified in 19 of 21 spots changing in abundance due...

  11. RNAseq reveals weed-induced PIF3-like as a candidate target to manipulate weed stress response in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, David P; Hansen, Stephanie A; Moriles-Miller, Janet P; Pierik, Ronald; Yan, Changhui; Clay, David E; Scheffler, Brian; Clay, Sharon A

    2015-07-01

    Weeds reduce yield in soybeans (Glycine max) through incompletely defined mechanisms. The effects of weeds on the soybean transcriptome were evaluated in field conditions during four separate growing seasons. RNASeq data were collected from six biological samples of soybeans growing with or without weeds. Weed species and the methods to maintain weed-free controls varied between years to mitigate treatment effects, and to allow detection of general soybean weed responses. Soybean plants were not visibly nutrient- or water-stressed. We identified 55 consistently downregulated genes in weedy plots. Many of the downregulated genes were heat shock genes. Fourteen genes were consistently upregulated. Several transcription factors including a PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-like gene (PIF3) were included among the upregulated genes. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated roles for increased oxidative stress and jasmonic acid signaling responses during weed stress. The relationship of this weed-induced PIF3 gene to genes involved in shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis provide evidence that this gene may be important in the response of soybean to weeds. These results suggest that the weed-induced PIF3 gene will be a target for manipulating weed tolerance in soybean. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Integrated molecular analysis of tumor biopsies on sequential CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade reveals markers of response and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Whijae; Chen, Pei-Ling; Reuben, Alexandre; Spencer, Christine N.; Prieto, Peter A.; Miller, John P.; Gopalakrishnan, Vancheswaran; Wang, Feng; Cooper, Zachary A.; Reddy, Sangeetha M.; Gumbs, Curtis; Little, Latasha; Chang, Qing; Chen, Wei-Shen; Wani, Khalida; Petaccia De Macedo, Mariana; Chen, Eveline; Austin-Breneman, Jacob L.; Jiang, Hong; Roszik, Jason; Tetzlaff, Michael T.; Davies, Michael A.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Tawbi, Hussein; Lazar, Alexander J.; Hwu, Patrick; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Diab, Adi; Glitza, Isabella C.; Patel, Sapna P.; Woodman, Scott E.; Amaria, Rodabe N.; Prieto, Victor G.; Hu, Jianhua; Sharma, Padmanee; Allison, James P.; Chin, Lynda; Zhang, Jianhua; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Futreal, P. Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade produces clinical benefit in many patients. However better biomarkers of response are still needed, and mechanisms of resistance remain incompletely understood. To address this, we recently studied a cohort of melanoma patients treated with sequential checkpoint blockade against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) followed by programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), and identified immune markers of response and resistance. Building on these studies, we performed deep molecular profiling including T-cell receptor sequencing (TCR-seq) and whole exome sequencing (WES) within the same cohort, and demonstrated that a more clonal T cell repertoire was predictive of response to PD-1 but not CTLA-4 blockade. Analysis of copy number alterations identified a higher burden of copy number loss in non-responders to CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade and found that it was associated with decreased expression of genes in immune-related pathways. The effect of mutational load and burden of copy number loss on response was non-redundant, suggesting the potential utility of a combinatorial biomarker to optimize patient care with checkpoint blockade therapy. PMID:28251903

  13. Conservation and divergence of chemical defense system in the tunicate Oikopleura dioica revealed by genome wide response to two xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadetie Fekadu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals have developed extensive mechanisms of response to xenobiotic chemical attacks. Although recent genome surveys have suggested a broad conservation of the chemical defensome across metazoans, global gene expression responses to xenobiotics have not been well investigated in most invertebrates. Here, we performed genome survey for key defensome genes in Oikopleura dioica genome, and explored genome-wide gene expression using high density tiling arrays with over 2 million probes, in response to two model xenobiotic chemicals - the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP the pharmaceutical compound Clofibrate (Clo. Results Oikopleura genome surveys for key genes of the chemical defensome suggested a reduced repertoire. Not more than 23 cytochrome P450 (CYP genes could be identified, and neither CYP1 family genes nor their transcriptional activator AhR was detected. These two genes were present in deuterostome ancestors. As in vertebrates, the genotoxic compound BaP induced xenobiotic biotransformation and oxidative stress responsive genes. Notable exceptions were genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR signaling pathway. Clo also affected the expression of many biotransformation genes and markedly repressed genes involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction pathways. Conclusions Oikopleura has the smallest number of CYP genes among sequenced animal genomes and lacks the AhR signaling pathway. However it appears to have basic xenobiotic inducible biotransformation genes such as a conserved genotoxic stress response gene set. Our genome survey and expression study does not support a role of AhR signaling pathway in the chemical defense of metazoans prior to the emergence of vertebrates.

  14. Objective assessment of chromatic and achromatic pattern adaptation reveals the temporal response properties of different visual pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Anthony G; Kulikowski, Janus J

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the temporal response properties of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular visual pathways using increment/decrement changes in contrast to elicit visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Static achromatic and isoluminant chromatic gratings were generated on a monitor. Chromatic gratings were modulated along red/green (R/G) or subject-specific tritanopic confusion axes, established using a minimum distinct border criterion. Isoluminance was determined using minimum flicker photometry. Achromatic and chromatic VEPs were recorded to contrast increments and decrements of 0.1 or 0.2 superimposed on the static gratings (masking contrast 0-0.6). Achromatic increment/decrement changes in contrast evoked a percept of apparent motion when the spatial frequency was low; VEPs to such stimuli were positive in polarity and largely unaffected by high levels of static contrast, consistent with transient response mechanisms. VEPs to finer achromatic gratings showed marked attenuation as static contrast was increased. Chromatic VEPs to R/G or tritan chromatic contrast increments were of negative polarity and showed progressive attenuation as static contrast was increased, in keeping with increasing desensitization of the sustained responses of the color-opponent visual pathways. Chromatic contrast decrement VEPs were of positive polarity and less sensitive to pattern adaptation. The relative contribution of sustained/transient mechanisms to achromatic processing is spatial frequency dependent. Chromatic contrast increment VEPs reflect the sustained temporal response properties of parvocellular and koniocellular pathways. Cortical VEPs can provide an objective measure of pattern adaptation and can be used to probe the temporal response characteristics of different visual pathways.

  15. Protective Effect of Self-compassion to Emotional Response among Students with Chronic Academic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature has shown that self-compassion is a protective factor of an individual’s emo-tional response to chronic stress. However, this stress-buffering effect has not been complete-ly analyzed in individuals who report significantly high academic stress. The present study explored the role of self-compassion in a group of undergraduate students who experience chronic academic stress. A total of 208 undergraduate students who were preparing for the Postgraduate Entrance Examination (PEE were recruited and completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Check List, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Differences analysis confirmed that the participants reported significantly higher academic stress than their peers who were not preparing for PEE. Self-compassion positively related to positive affect but negatively related to negative affect and learning stress. Further analysis showed that self-compassion negatively mediated the relationship be-tween chronic academic stress and negative affect. Findings imply that self-compassion-centered interventions can be developed in the educational context to assist students cope with chronic academic stress.

  16. Host transcriptomic responses to pneumonic plague reveal that Yersinia pestis inhibits both the initial adaptive and innate immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiying; Wang, Tong; Tian, Guang; Zhang, Qingwen; Wu, Xiaohong; Xin, Youqian; Yan, Yanfeng; Tan, Yafang; Cao, Shiyang; Liu, Wanbing; Cui, Yujun; Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonic plague is the most deadly form of infection caused by Yersinia pestis and can progress extremely fast. However, our understanding on the host transcriptomic response to pneumonic plague is insufficient. Here, we used RNA-sequencing technology to analyze transcriptomic responses in mice infected with fully virulent strain 201 or EV76, a live attenuated vaccine strain lacking the pigmentation locus. Approximately 600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in lungs from both 201- and EV76-infected mice at 12h post-infection (hpi). DEGs in lungs of 201-infected mice exceeded 2000 at 48hpi, accompanied by sustained large numbers of DEGs in the liver and spleen; however, limited numbers of DEGs were detected in those organs of EV-infected mice. Remarkably, DEGs in lungs were significantly enriched in critical immune responses pathways in EV76-infected but not 201-infected mice, including antigen processing and presentation, T cell receptor signaling among others. Pathological and bacterial load analyses confirmed the rapid systemic dissemination of 201-infection and the confined EV76-infection in lungs. Our results suggest that fully virulent Y. pestis inhibits both the innate and adaptive immune responses that are substantially stimulated in a self-limited infection, which update our holistic views on the transcriptomic response to pneumonic plague. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined chromatin and expression analysis reveals specific regulatory mechanisms within cytokine genes in the macrophage early immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Iglesias

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a critical role in innate immunity, and the expression of early response genes orchestrate much of the initial response of the immune system. Macrophages undergo extensive transcriptional reprogramming in response to inflammatory stimuli such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS.To identify gene transcription regulation patterns involved in early innate immune responses, we used two genome-wide approaches--gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq analysis. We examined the effect of 2 hrs LPS stimulation on early gene expression and its relation to chromatin remodeling (H3 acetylation; H3Ac and promoter binding of Sp1 and RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at serine 5 (S5P RNAPII, which is a marker for transcriptional initiation. Our results indicate novel and alternative gene regulatory mechanisms for certain proinflammatory genes. We identified two groups of up-regulated inflammatory genes with respect to chromatin modification and promoter features. One group, including highly up-regulated genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF, was characterized by H3Ac, high CpG content and lack of TATA boxes. The second group, containing inflammatory mediators (interleukins and CCL chemokines, was up-regulated upon LPS stimulation despite lacking H3Ac in their annotated promoters, which were low in CpG content but did contain TATA boxes. Genome-wide analysis showed that few H3Ac peaks were unique to either +/-LPS condition. However, within these, an unpacking/expansion of already existing H3Ac peaks was observed upon LPS stimulation. In contrast, a significant proportion of S5P RNAPII peaks (approx 40% was unique to either condition. Furthermore, data indicated a large portion of previously unannotated TSSs, particularly in LPS-stimulated macrophages, where only 28% of unique S5P RNAPII peaks overlap annotated promoters. The regulation of the inflammatory response appears to occur in a very specific manner at

  18. In Situ Microscopy Analysis Reveals Local Innate Immune Response Developed around Brucella Infected Cells in Resistant and Susceptible Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copin, Richard; Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Machelart, Arnaud; De Trez, Carl; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Magez, Stefan; Akira, Shizuo; Ryffel, Bernhard; Carlier, Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Brucella are facultative intracellular bacteria that chronically infect humans and animals causing brucellosis. Brucella are able to invade and replicate in a broad range of cell lines in vitro, however the cells supporting bacterial growth in vivo are largely unknown. In order to identify these, we used a Brucella melitensis strain stably expressing mCherry fluorescent protein to determine the phenotype of infected cells in spleen and liver, two major sites of B. melitensis growth in mice. In both tissues, the majority of primary infected cells expressed the F4/80 myeloid marker. The peak of infection correlated with granuloma development. These structures were mainly composed of CD11b+ F4/80+ MHC-II+ cells expressing iNOS/NOS2 enzyme. A fraction of these cells also expressed CD11c marker and appeared similar to inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs). Analysis of genetically deficient mice revealed that differentiation of iNOS+ inflammatory DC, granuloma formation and control of bacterial growth were deeply affected by the absence of MyD88, IL-12p35 and IFN-γ molecules. During chronic phase of infection in susceptible mice, we identified a particular subset of DC expressing both CD11c and CD205, serving as a reservoir for the bacteria. Taken together, our results describe the cellular nature of immune effectors involved during Brucella infection and reveal a previously unappreciated role for DC subsets, both as effectors and reservoir cells, in the pathogenesis of brucellosis. PMID:22479178

  19. Polynomial algebra reveals diverging roles of the unfolded protein response in endothelial cells during ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Sylvain; Dimitrova, Elena; Hannaert, Patrick; Konovalov, Alexander; Volmer, Romain; Ron, David; Thuillier, Raphaël; Hauet, Thierry

    2014-08-25

    The unfolded protein response (UPR)--the endoplasmic reticulum stress response--is found in various pathologies including ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, its role during IRI is still unclear. Here, by combining two different bioinformatical methods--a method based on ordinary differential equations (Time Series Network Inference) and an algebraic method (probabilistic polynomial dynamical systems)--we identified the IRE1α-XBP1 and the ATF6 pathways as the main UPR effectors involved in cell's adaptation to IRI. We validated these findings experimentally by assessing the impact of their knock-out and knock-down on cell survival during IRI. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Why do they not answer and do they really learn? A case study in analysing student response flows in introductory physics using an audience response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jääskeläinen, Markku; Lagerkvist, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate teaching with a classroom response system in introductory physics with emphasis on two issues. First, we discuss retention between question rounds and the reasons why students avoid answering the question a second time. A question with declining response rate was followed by a question addressing the student reasons for not answering. We find that there appear to be several reasons for the observed decline, and that the students need to be reminded. We argue that small drops are unimportant as the process appears to work despite the drops. Second, we discuss the dynamics of learning in a concept-sequence in electromagnetism, where a majority of the students, despite poor statistics in a first round, manage to answer a followup question correctly. In addition, we analyse the response times for both situations to connect with research on student reasoning on situations with misconception-like answers. From the combination of the answer flows and response time behaviours we find it plausible that conceptual learning occurred during the discussion phase. (paper)

  1. Analysis of trophic interactions reveals highly plastic response to climate change in a tri-trophic High-Arctic ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Hoye, Toke T.

    2016-01-01

    As a response to current climate changes, individual species have changed various biological traits, illustrating an inherent phenotypic plasticity. However, as species are embedded in an ecological network characterised by multiple consumer-resource interactions, ecological mismatches are likely...... to arise when interacting species do not respond homogeneously. The approach of biological networks analysis calls for the use of structural equation modelling (SEM), a multidimensional analytical setup that has proven particularly useful for analysing multiple interactions across trophic levels. Here we...

  2. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the i...

  3. Analysis of whitefly transcriptional responses to Beauveria bassiana infection reveals new insights into insect-fungus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Shan; Li, Fang-Fang; Feng, Ming-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is an efficient biocontrol agent against a variety of agricultural pests. A thorough understanding of the basic principles of insect-fungus interactions may enable the genetic modification of Beauveria bassiana to enhance its virulence. However, the molecular mechanism of insect response to Beauveria bassiana infection is poorly understood, let alone the identification of fungal virulent factors involved in pathogenesis. Here, next generation sequencing technology was applied to examine the expression of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genes in response to the infection of Beauveria bassiana. Results showed that, compared to control, 654 and 1,681genes were differentially expressed at 48 hours and 72 hours post-infected whiteflies, respectively. Functional and enrichment analyses indicated that the DNA damage stimulus response and drug metabolism were important anti-fungi strategies of the whitefly. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was also likely involved in the whitefly defense responses. Furthermore, the notable suppression of general metabolism and ion transport genes observed in 72 hours post-infected B. tabaci might be manipulated by fungal secreted effectors. By mapping the sequencing tags to B. bassiana genome, we also identified a number of differentially expressed fungal genes between the early and late infection stages. These genes are generally associated with fungal cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism. The expression of fungal cell wall protein genes might play an important role in fungal pathogenesis and the dramatically up-regulated enzymes of carbon metabolism indicate the increasing usage of energy during the fungal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular mechanism of fungus-whitefly interactions. Our results provide a road map for future investigations on insect-pathogen interactions and genetically modifying the fungus to enhance its efficiency in whitefly

  4. Multimodal Microvascular Imaging Reveals that Selective Inhibition of Class I PI3K Is Sufficient to Induce an Antivascular Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sampath

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K pathway is a central mediator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-driven angiogenesis. The discovery of small molecule inhibitors that selectively target PI3K or PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR provides an opportunity to pharmacologically determine the contribution of these key signaling nodes in VEGF-A-driven tumor angiogenesis in vivo. This study used an array of microvascular imaging techniques to monitor the antivascular effects of selective class I PI3K, mTOR, or dual PI3K/ mTOR inhibitors in colorectal and prostate cancer xenograft models. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT angiography, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI, vessel size index (VSI MRI, and DCE ultrasound (DCE-U/S were employed to quantitatively evaluate the vascular (structural and physiological response to these inhibitors. GDC-0980, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, was found to reduce micro-CT angiography vascular density, while VSI MRI demonstrated a significant reduction in vessel density and an increase in mean vessel size, consistent with a loss of small functional vessels and a substantial antivascular response. DCE-MRI showed that GDC-0980 produces a strong functional response by decreasing the vascular permeability/perfusion-related parameter, Ktrans. Interestingly, comparable antivascular effects were observed for both GDC-980 and GNE-490 (a selective class I PI3K inhibitor. In addition, mTOR-selective inhibitors did not affect vascular density, suggesting that PI3K inhibition is sufficient to generate structural changes, characteristic of a robust antivascular response. This study supports the use of noninvasive microvascular imaging techniques (DCE-MRI, VSI MRI, DCE-U/S as pharmacodynamic assays to quantitatively measure the activity of PI3K and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in vivo.

  5. Metabolomics by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the response to chloroethylnitrosourea reveals drug efficacy and tumor adaptive metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aicha

    2007-03-01

    Metabolomics of tumors may allow discovery of tumor biomarkers and metabolic therapeutic targets. Metabolomics by two-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to investigate metabolite disorders following treatment by chloroethylnitrosourea of murine B16 melanoma (n = 33) and 3LL pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31) in vivo. Treated tumors of both types resumed growth after a delay. Nitrosoureas provoke DNA damage but the metabolic consequences of genotoxic stress are little known yet. Although some differences were observed in the metabolite profile of untreated tumor types, the prominent metabolic features of the response to nitrosourea were common to both. During the growth inhibition phase, there was an accumulation of glucose (more than x10; P < 0.05), glutamine (x3 to 4; P < 0.01), and aspartate (x2 to 5; P < 0.01). This response testified to nucleoside de novo synthesis down-regulation and drug efficacy. However, this phase also involved the increase in alanine (P < 0.001 in B16 melanoma), the decrease in succinate (P < 0.001), and the accumulation of serine-derived metabolites (glycine, phosphoethanolamine, and formate; P < 0.01). This response witnessed the activation of pathways implicated in energy production and resumption of nucleotide de novo synthesis, thus metabolic pathways of DNA repair and adaptation to treatment. During the growth recovery phase, it remained polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation (x1.5 to 2; P < 0.05) and reduced utilization of glucose compared with glutamine (P < 0.05), a metabolic fingerprint of adaptation. Thus, this study provides the proof of principle that metabolomics of tumor response to an anticancer agent may help discover metabolic pathways of drug efficacy and adaptation to treatment.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    OpenAIRE

    Riaño-Pachón Diego; Gómez-Porras Judith L; Dreyer Ingo; Mayer Jorge E; Mueller-Roeber Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with...

  7. A Social Responsibility Guide for Engineering Students and Professionals of all Faith Traditions: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, Vito L

    2017-07-18

    The development of the various themes of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) is based on numerous papal documents and ecclesiastical statements. While this paper provides a summary of a number of these documents, this paper focuses on two themes: the common good and care of the environment, and on three documents authored by Pope John Paul II in 1990, by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010, and by Pope Francis in 2015. By analyzing these documents from an engineer's perspective, the author proposes a model for Socially Responsible Engineering. The proposed model is intended to serve as a guide for engineering students and practicing engineers of all faith traditions and to those with no faith tradition at all who wish to incorporate CST in the daily conduct of their personal and professional lives; to provide guidance for the professional the author terms the aspiring Socially Responsible Engineer; and to offer engineers a preferred alternative to the undesirable aspects of the technocratic paradigm. While intended primarily for engineers, this document also serves as a guide for those with expertise in social justice and who, by gaining a better understanding of the thought processes of engineers, can become better mentors for engineering students and practicing engineers seeking to incorporate CST into their daily lives.

  8. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMoffett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs, including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll., are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genera Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense response in N. tabacum, and tobacco was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  9. Proteogenomic analysis reveals alternative splicing and translation as part of the abscisic acid response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Ye, Neng-Hui; Shi, Lu; Ma, Kai-Long; Yang, Jing-Fang; Cao, Yun-Ying; Zhang, Youjun; Yoshida, Takuya; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fan, Guang-Yi; Wen, Bo; Zhou, Ruo; Liu, Tie-Yuan; Fan, Tao; Gao, Bei; Zhang, Di; Hao, Ge-Fei; Xiao, Shi; Liu, Ying-Gao; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-08-01

    In eukaryotes, mechanisms such as alternative splicing (AS) and alternative translation initiation (ATI) contribute to organismal protein diversity. Specifically, splicing factors play crucial roles in responses to environment and development cues; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well investigated in plants. Here, we report the parallel employment of short-read RNA sequencing, single molecule long-read sequencing and proteomic identification to unravel AS isoforms and previously unannotated proteins in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Combining the data from the two sequencing methods, approximately 83.4% of intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced. Two AS types, which are referred to as alternative first exon (AFE) and alternative last exon (ALE), were more abundant than intron retention (IR); however, by contrast to AS events detected under normal conditions, differentially expressed AS isoforms were more likely to be translated. ABA extensively affects the AS pattern, indicated by the increasing number of non-conventional splicing sites. This work also identified thousands of unannotated peptides and proteins by ATI based on mass spectrometry and a virtual peptide library deduced from both strands of coding regions within the Arabidopsis genome. The results enhance our understanding of AS and alternative translation mechanisms under normal conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An immunoproteomic approach revealing peptides from Sporothrix brasiliensis that induce a cellular immune response in subcutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2018-03-08

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent fungus of the Sporothrix complex and is the main species recovered in the sporotrichosis zoonotic hyperendemic area in Rio de Janeiro. A vaccine against S. brasiliensis could improve the current sporotrichosis situation. Here, we show 3 peptides from S. brasiliensis immunogenic proteins that have a higher likelihood for engaging MHC-class II molecules. We investigated the efficiency of the peptides as vaccines for preventing subcutaneous sporotrichosis. In this study, we observed a decrease in lesion diameters in peptide-immunized mice, showing that the peptides could induce a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis. ZR8 peptide is from the GP70 protein, the main antigen of the Sporothrix complex, and was the best potential vaccine candidate by increasing CD4 + T cells and higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-1β characterizing a strong cellular immune response. This immune environment induced a higher number of neutrophils in lesions that are associated with fungus clearance. These results indicated that the ZR8 peptide induces a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis and is a vaccine candidate against S. brasiliensis infection.

  11. Bayesian Diallel Analysis Reveals Mx1-Dependent and Mx1-Independent Effects on Response to Influenza A Virus in Mice

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    Paul L. Maurizio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a respiratory pathogen that causes substantial morbidity and mortality during both seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Infection outcomes in unexposed populations are affected by host genetics, but the host genetic architecture is not well understood. Here, we obtain a broad view of how heritable factors affect a mouse model of response to IAV infection using an 8 × 8 diallel of the eight inbred founder strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC. Expanding on a prior statistical framework for modeling treatment response in diallels, we explore how a range of heritable effects modify acute host response to IAV through 4 d postinfection. Heritable effects in aggregate explained ∼57% of the variance in IAV-induced weight loss. Much of this was attributable to a pattern of additive effects that became more prominent through day 4 postinfection and was consistent with previous reports of antiinfluenza myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1 polymorphisms segregating between these strains; these additive effects largely recapitulated haplotype effects observed at the Mx1 locus in a previous study of the incipient CC, and are also replicated here in a CC recombinant intercross population. Genetic dominance of protective Mx1 haplotypes was observed to differ by subspecies of origin: relative to the domesticus null Mx1 allele, musculus acts dominantly whereas castaneus acts additively. After controlling for Mx1, heritable effects, though less distinct, accounted for ∼34% of the phenotypic variance. Implications for future mapping studies are discussed.

  12. Comparative proteomic analyses reveal the proteome response to short-term drought in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum.

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    Ling Pan

    Full Text Available Drought is a major abiotic stress that impairs growth and productivity of Italian ryegrass. Comparative analysis of drought responsive proteins will provide insight into molecular mechanism in Lolium multiflorum drought tolerance. Using the iTRAQ-based approach, proteomic changes in tolerant and susceptible lines were examined in response to drought condition. A total of 950 differentially accumulated proteins was found to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and signal transduction pathway, such as β-D-xylosidase, β-D-glucan glucohydrolase, glycerate dehydrogenase, Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, glutamine synthetase 1a, Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, diacylglycerol, and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate, which might contributed to enhance drought tolerance or adaption in Lolium multiflorum. Interestingly, the two specific metabolic pathways, arachidonic acid and inositol phosphate metabolism including differentially accumulated proteins, were observed only in the tolerant lines. Cysteine protease cathepsin B, Cysteine proteinase, lipid transfer protein and Aquaporin were observed as drought-regulated proteins participating in hydrolysis and transmembrane transport. The activities of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxin, dehydroascorbate reductase, peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase and monodehydroascorbate reductase associated with alleviating the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in stress inducing environments. Our results showed that drought-responsive proteins were closely related to metabolic processes including signal transduction, antioxidant defenses, hydrolysis, and transmembrane transport.

  13. A meta-analysis of responses of canopy photosynthetic conversion efficiency to environmental factors reveals major causes of yield gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Rebecca A.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Ort, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Improving plant energy conversion efficiency (εc) is crucial for increasing food and bioenergy crop production and yields. Using a meta-analysis, the effects of greenhouse gases, weather-related stresses projected to intensify due to climate change, and management practices including inputs, shading, and intercropping on εc were statistically quantified from 140 published studies to identify where improvements would have the largest impact on closing yield gaps. Variation in the response of εc to treatment type and dosage, plant characteristics, and growth conditions were also examined. Significant mean increases in εc were caused by elevated [CO2] (20%), shade (18%), and intercropping (15%). εc increased curvilinearly up to 55% with nitrogen additions whereas phosphorus application was most beneficial at low levels. Significant decreases in εc of –8.4% due to elevated [O3], –16.8% due to water stress, and –6.5% due to foliar damage were found. A non-significant decrease in εc of –17.3% was caused by temperature stress. These results identify the need to engineer greater stress tolerance and enhanced responses to positive factors such as [CO2] and nitrogen to improve average yields and yield potential. Optimizing management strategies will also enhance the benefits possible with intercropping, shade, and pest resilience. To determine optimal practices for εc improvement, further studies should be conducted in the field since several responses were exaggerated by non-field experimental conditions. PMID:23873996

  14. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2015-08-11

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  15. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible. PMID:23610641

  16. Protein Profiles Reveal Diverse Responsive Signaling Pathways in Kernels of Two Maize Inbred Lines with Contrasting Drought Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major factor that contributes to disease susceptibility and yield loss in agricultural crops. To identify drought responsive proteins and explore metabolic pathways involved in maize tolerance to drought stress, two maize lines (B73 and Lo964 with contrasting drought sensitivity were examined. The treatments of drought and well water were applied at 14 days after pollination (DAP, and protein profiles were investigated in developing kernels (35 DAP using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. Proteomic analysis showed that 70 and 36 proteins were significantly altered in their expression under drought treatments in B73 and Lo964, respectively. The numbers and levels of differentially expressed proteins were generally higher in the sensitive genotype, B73, implying an increased sensitivity to drought given the function of the observed differentially expressed proteins, such as redox homeostasis, cell rescue/defense, hormone regulation and protein biosynthesis and degradation. Lo964 possessed a more stable status with fewer differentially expressed proteins. However, B73 seems to rapidly initiate signaling pathways in response to drought through adjusting diverse defense pathways. These changes in protein expression allow for the production of a drought stress-responsive network in maize kernels.

  17. Proteomic analysis of the intestinal adaptation response reveals altered expression of fatty acid binding proteins following massive small bowel resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Andrew N; Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Wilson, Guineva; Taylor, Russell G; Rainczuk, Adam; Meehan, Katie L; Sourial, Magdy; Fuller, Peter J; Stanton, Peter G; Robertson, David M; Bines, Julie E

    2010-03-05

    Intestinal adaptation in response to the loss of the small intestine is essential to restore enteral autonomy in patients who have undergone massive small bowel resection (MSBR). In a proportion of patients, intestinal function is not restored, resulting in chronic intestinal failure (IF). Early referral of such patients for transplant provides the best prognosis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain elusive and there is currently no convenient marker to predict whether patients will develop IF. We have investigated the adaptation response in a well-characterized porcine model of intestinal adaptation. 2D DIGE analysis of ileal epithelium from piglets recovering from massive small bowel resection (MSBR) identified over 60 proteins that changed specifically in MSBR animals relative to nonoperational or sham-operated controls. Three fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP, FABP-6, and I-FABP) showed changes in MSBR animals. The expression changes and localization of each FABP were validated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis. FABP expression changes in MSBR animals occurred concurrently with altered triglyceride and bile acid metabolism as well as weight gain. The observed FABP expression changes in the ileal epithelium occur as part of the intestinal adaptation response and could provide a clinically useful marker to evaluate adaptation following MSBR.

  18. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Response to Cadmium-Induced Stress in Poplar (Populus yunnanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Excess amounts of heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with significant ecological and nutritional effects. Cdmium (Cd is of particular concern because of its widespread occurrence and high toxicity. We conducted physiological and proteomic analyses to improve our understanding of the responses of Populus yunnanensis to Cd stress. The plantlets experienced two apparent stages in their response to Cd stress. During the first stage, transiently induced defense-response molecules, photosynthesis- and energy-associated proteins, antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs accumulated to enhance protein stability and establish a new cellular homeostasis. This activity explains why plant photosynthetic capability during this period barely changed. During the second stage, a decline of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO and HSP levels led to imbalance of the plant photosynthetic system. Additionally, the expression of Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6 and a homeobox-leucine zipper protein was higher in the second stage. Higher expression of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT may regulate plant cell wall synthesis for greater Cd storage. These genes may be candidates for further research and use in genetic manipulation of poplar tolerance to Cd stress.

  19. A Dualistic Conformational Response to Substrate Binding in the Human Serotonin Transporter Reveals a High Affinity State for Serotonin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  20. Responses of high-elevation herbaceous plant assemblages to low glacial CO₂ concentrations revealed by fossil marmot (Marmota) teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S; Ward, Joy K; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric CO2 cycles of the Quaternary likely imposed major constraints on the physiology and growth of C3 plants worldwide. However, the measured record of this remains both geographically and taxonomically sparse. We present the first reconstruction of physiological responses in a late Quaternary high-elevation herbaceous plant community from the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA. We used a novel proxy-fossilized tooth enamel of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)-which we developed using detailed isotopic analysis of modern individuals. Calculated C isotopic discrimination (Δ) of alpine plants was nearly 2 ‰ lower prior to the Last Glacial Maximum than at present, a response almost identical to that of nonherbaceous taxa from lower elevations. However, initial shifts in Δ aligned most closely with the onset of the late Pleistocene bipolar temperature "seesaw" rather than CO2 increase, indicating unique limitations on glacial-age high-elevation plants may have existed due to both low temperatures and low CO2. Further development of system-specific faunal proxies can help to clarify this and other plant- and ecosystem-level responses to past environmental change.

  1. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheliga, Boris M; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Cumming, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion.

  2. Learning to Act Like a Lawyer: A Model Code of Professional Responsibility for Law Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Tanovich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Law students are the future of the legal profession. How well prepared are they when they leave law school to assume the professional and ethical obligations that they owe themselves, the profession and the public? This question has led to a growing interest in Canada in the teaching of legal ethics. It is also led to a greater emphasis on the development of clinical and experiential learning as exemplified in the scholarship and teaching of Professor Rose Voyvodic. Less attention, however, has been placed on identifying the general ethical responsibilities of law students when not working in a clinic or other legal context. This can be seen in the presence of very few Canadian articles exploring the issue, and more significantly, in the paucity of law school discipline policies or codes of conduct that set out the professional obligations owed by law students. This article develops an idea that Professor Voyvodic and I talked about on a number of occasions. It argues that all law schools should have a code of conduct which is separate and distinct from their general University code and which resembles, with appropriate modifications, the relevant set of rules of professional responsibility law students will be bound by when called to the Bar. A student code of conduct which educates law students about their professional obligations is an important step in deterring such conduct while in law school and preparing students for ethical practice. The idea of a law school code of professional responsibility raises a number of questions. Why is it necessary for law schools to have their own student code of conduct? The article provides a threefold response. First, law students are members of the legal profession and a code of conduct should reflect this. Second, it must be relevant and comprehensive in order to ensure that it can inspire students to be ethical lawyers. And, third, as a practical matter, the last few years have witnessed a number of

  3. Commercial Airline In-Flight Emergency: Medical Student Response and Review of Medicolegal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Josh H; Richards, John R

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of air travel increases, in-flight medical emergencies occur more frequently. A significant percentage of these emergencies occur when there is no certified physician, nurse, or paramedic onboard. During these situations, flight crews might enlist the help of noncertified passengers, such as medical students, dentists, or emergency medical technicians in training. Although Good Samaritan laws exist, many health care providers are unfamiliar with the limited legal protections and resources provided to them after responding to an in-flight emergency. A 78-year-old woman lost consciousness and became pulseless onboard a commercial aircraft. No physician was available. A medical student responded and coordinated care with the flight crew, ground support physician, and other passengers. After receiving a packet (4 g) of sublingual sucrose and 1 L i.v. crystalloid, the patient regained pulses and consciousness. The medical student made the decision not to divert the aircraft based on the patient's initial response to therapy and, 45 min later, the patient had normal vital signs. Upon landing, she was met and taken by paramedics to the nearest emergency department for evaluation of her collapse. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians are the most qualified to assist in-flight emergencies, but they might not be aware of the medicolegal risks involved with in-flight care, the resources available, and the role of the flight crew in liability and decision making. This case, which involved a medical student who was not given explicit protection under Good Samaritan laws, illustrates the authority of the flight crew during these events and highlights areas of uncertainty in the legislation for volunteer medical professionals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Students' Perceptions of Personal and Social Responsibility and the Relationship to Intrinsic Motivation in Urban Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Wright, Paul M.; Rukavina, Paul Bernard; Pickering, Molly

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the validity and reliability of a two-factor model of the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) and examine the relationships between perceptions of personal and social responsibility and intrinsic motivation in physical education. Participants were 253 middle school students who…

  5. Optogenetic activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons at the dorsal and ventral hippocampus evokes distinct brain-wide responses revealed by mouse fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Takata

    Full Text Available The dorsal and ventral hippocampal regions (dHP and vHP are proposed to have distinct functions. Electrophysiological studies have revealed intra-hippocampal variances along the dorsoventral axis. Nevertheless, the extra-hippocampal influences of dHP and vHP activities remain unclear. In this study, we compared the spatial distribution of brain-wide responses upon dHP or vHP activation and further estimate connection strengths between the dHP and the vHP with corresponding extra-hippocampal areas. To achieve this, we first investigated responses of local field potential (LFP and multi unit activities (MUA upon light stimulation in the hippocampus of an anesthetized transgenic mouse, whose CA1 pyramidal neurons expressed a step-function opsin variant of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2. Optogenetic stimulation increased hippocampal LFP power at theta, gamma, and ultra-fast frequency bands, and augmented MUA, indicating light-induced activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Brain-wide responses examined using fMRI revealed that optogenetic activation at the dHP or vHP caused blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI signals in situ. Although activation at the dHP induced BOLD responses at the vHP, the opposite was not observed. Outside the hippocampal formation, activation at the dHP, but not the vHP, evoked BOLD responses at the retrosplenial cortex (RSP, which is in line with anatomical evidence. In contrast, BOLD responses at the lateral septum (LS were induced only upon vHP activation, even though both dHP and vHP send axonal fibers to the LS. Our findings suggest that the primary targets of dHP and vHP activation are distinct, which concurs with attributed functions of the dHP and RSP in spatial memory, as well as of the vHP and LS in emotional responses.

  6. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Dynamic Maize Responses to Aphid Feeding Are Revealed by a Time Series of Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Assays1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzin, Vered; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Richter, Annett; Schmelz, Eric A.; Schoettner, Matthias; Schäfer, Martin; Ahern, Kevin R.; Meihls, Lisa N.; Kaur, Harleen; Huffaker, Alisa; Mori, Naoki; Degenhardt, Joerg; Mueller, Lukas A.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    As a response to insect attack, maize (Zea mays) has inducible defenses that involve large changes in gene expression and metabolism. Piercing/sucking insects such as corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) cause direct damage by acquiring phloem nutrients as well as indirect damage through the transmission of plant viruses. To elucidate the metabolic processes and gene expression changes involved in maize responses to aphid attack, leaves of inbred line B73 were infested with corn leaf aphids for 2 to 96 h. Analysis of infested maize leaves showed two distinct response phases, with the most significant transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in the first few hours after the initiation of aphid feeding. After 4 d, both gene expression and metabolite profiles of aphid-infested maize reverted to being more similar to those of control plants. Although there was a predominant effect of salicylic acid regulation, gene expression changes also indicated prolonged induction of oxylipins, although not necessarily jasmonic acid, in aphid-infested maize. The role of specific metabolic pathways was confirmed using Dissociator transposon insertions in maize inbred line W22. Mutations in three benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes, Bx1, Bx2, and Bx6, increased aphid reproduction. In contrast, progeny production was greatly decreased by a transposon insertion in the single W22 homolog of the previously uncharacterized B73 terpene synthases TPS2 and TPS3. Together, these results show that maize leaves shift to implementation of physical and chemical defenses within hours after the initiation of aphid feeding and that the production of specific metabolites can have major effects in maize-aphid interactions. PMID:26378100

  8. Transcriptome analysis reveals the host response to Schmallenberg virus in bovine cells and antagonistic effects of the NSs protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomström, Anne-Lie; Gu, Quan; Barry, Gerald; Wilkie, Gavin; Skelton, Jessica K; Baird, Margaret; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2015-04-19

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus (Bunyaviridae family) causing malformations and abortions in ruminants. Although, as for other members of this family/genus, the non-structural protein NSs has been shown to be an interferon antagonist, very little is known regarding the overall inhibitory effects and targets of orthobunyavirus NSs proteins on host gene expression during infection. Therefore, using RNA-seq this study describes changes to the transcriptome of primary bovine cells following infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) or with a mutant lacking the non-structural protein NSs (SBVdelNSs) providing a detailed comparison of the effect of NSs expression on the host cell. The sequence reads from all samples (uninfected cells, SBV and SBVdelNSs) assembled well to the bovine host reference genome (on average 87.43% of the reads). During infection with SBVdelNSs, 649 genes were differentially expressed compared to uninfected cells (78.7% upregulated) and many of these were known antiviral and IFN-stimulated genes. On the other hand, only nine genes were differentially expressed in SBV infected cells compared to uninfected control cells, demonstrating the strong inhibitory effect of NSs on cellular gene expression. However, the majority of the genes that were expressed during SBV infection are involved in restriction of viral replication and spread indicating that SBV does not completely manage to shutdown the host antiviral response. In this study we show the effects of SBV NSs on the transcriptome of infected cells as well as the cellular response to wild type SBV. Although NSs is very efficient in shutting down genes of the host innate response, a number of possible antiviral factors were identified. Thus the data from this study can serve as a base for more detailed mechanistic studies of SBV and other orthobunyaviruses.

  9. Alu-miRNA interactions modulate transcript isoform diversity in stress response and reveal signatures of positive selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajesh; Bhattacharya, Aniket; Bhardwaj, Vivek; Jha, Vineet; Mandal, Amit K.; Mukerji, Mitali

    2016-09-01

    Primate-specific Alus harbor different regulatory features, including miRNA targets. In this study, we provide evidence for miRNA-mediated modulation of transcript isoform levels during heat-shock response through exaptation of Alu-miRNA sites in mature mRNA. We performed genome-wide expression profiling coupled with functional validation of miRNA target sites within exonized Alus, and analyzed conservation of these targets across primates. We observed that two miRNAs (miR-15a-3p and miR-302d-3p) elevated in stress response, target RAD1, GTSE1, NR2C1, FKBP9 and UBE2I exclusively within Alu. These genes map onto the p53 regulatory network. Ectopic overexpression of miR-15a-3p downregulates GTSE1 and RAD1 at the protein level and enhances cell survival. This Alu-mediated fine-tuning seems to be unique to humans as evident from the absence of orthologous sites in other primate lineages. We further analyzed signatures of selection on Alu-miRNA targets in the genome, using 1000 Genomes Phase-I data. We found that 198 out of 3177 Alu-exonized genes exhibit signatures of selection within Alu-miRNA sites, with 60 of them containing SNPs supported by multiple evidences (global-FST > 0.3, pair-wise-FST > 0.5, Fay-Wu’s H  2.0, high ΔDAF) and implicated in p53 network. We propose that by affecting multiple genes, Alu-miRNA interactions have the potential to facilitate population-level adaptations in response to environmental challenges.

  10. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Bartness, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensory nerve circuits, to define these projections. HSV-1 was injected into interscapular BAT (IBAT) of Siberian hamsters and HSV-1 immunoreactivity (ir) was assessed 24, 48, 72, 96, and 114 h postinjection. The 96- and 114-h groups had the most HSV-1-ir neurons with marked infections in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, olivary areas, parabrachial nuclei, raphe nuclei, and reticular areas. These sites also are involved in sympathetic outflow to BAT suggesting possible BAT sensory-SNS thermogenesis feedback circuits. We tested the functional contribution of IBAT sensory innervation on thermogenic responses to an acute (24 h) cold exposure test by injecting the specific sensory nerve toxin capsaicin directly into IBAT pads and then measuring core (T(c)) and IBAT (T(IBAT)) temperature responses. CGRP content was significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated IBAT demonstrating successful sensory nerve destruction. T(IBAT) and T(c) were significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated hamsters compared with the saline controls at 2 h of cold exposure. Thus the central sensory circuits from IBAT have been delineated for the first time, and impairment of sensory feedback from BAT appears necessary for the appropriate, initial thermogenic response to acute cold exposure.

  11. Quantitative proteomics reveals divergent responses in Apis mellifera worker and drone pupae to parasitization by Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlis, Carla; Carolan, James C; Coffey, Mary; Kavanagh, Kevin

    Varroa destructor is a haemophagous ectoparasite of honeybees and is considered a major causal agent of colony losses in Europe and North America. Although originating in Eastern Asia where it parasitizes Apis cerana, it has shifted hosts to the western honeybee Apis mellifera on which it has a greater deleterious effect on the individual and colony level. To investigate this important host-parasite interaction and to determine whether Varroa causes different effects on different castes we conducted a label free quantitative proteomic analysis of Varroa-parasitized and non-parasitized drone and worker Apis mellifera pupae. 1195 proteins were identified in total, of which 202 and 250 were differentially abundant in parasitized drone and worker pupae, respectively. Both parasitized drone and worker pupae displayed reduced abundance in proteins associated with the cuticle, lipid transport and innate immunity. Proteins involved in metabolic processes were more abundant in both parasitized castes although the response in workers was more pronounced. A number of caste specific responses were observed including differential abundance of numerous cytoskeletal and muscle proteins, which were of higher abundance in parasitized drones in comparison to parasitized workers. Proteins involved in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism were more abundant in parasitized workers as were a large number of ribosomal proteins highlighting either potentially divergent responses to Varroa or a different strategy by the mite when parasitizing the different castes. This data improves our understanding of this interaction and may provide a basis for future studies into improvements to therapy and control of Varroasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cloning the uteroglobin gene promoter from the relic volcano rabbit (Romerolagus diazi) reveals an ancient estrogen-response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-MontesdeOca, Adriana; Zariñán, Teresa; Macías, Héctor; Pérez-Solís, Marco A; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Sagal, Rubén

    2012-05-01

    To gain further insight on the estrogen-dependent transcriptional regulation of the uteroglobin (UG) gene, we cloned the 5'-flanking region of the UG gene from the phylogenetically ancient volcano rabbit (Romerolagus diazi; Rd). The cloned region spans 812 base pairs (bp; -812/-1) and contains a noncanonical TATA box (TACA). The translation start site is 48 bp downstream from the putative transcription initiation site (AGA), and is preceded by a consensus Kozak box. Comparison of the Rd-UG gene with that previously isolated from rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) showed 93% in sequence identity as well as a number of conserved cis-acting elements, including the estrogen-response element (ERE; -265/-251), which differs from the consensus by two nucleotides. In MCF-7 cells, 17β-estradiol (E(2)) induced transcription of a luciferase reporter driven by the Rd-UG promoter in a similar manner as in an equivalent rabbit UG reporter; the Rd-UG promoter was 30% more responsive to E(2) than the rabbit promoter. Mutagenesis studies on the Rd-ERE confirmed this cis-element as a target of E(2) as two luciferase mutant reporters of the Rd-promoter, one with the rabbit and the other with the consensus ERE, were more responsive to the hormone than the wild-type reporter. Gel shift and super-shift assays showed that estrogen receptor-α indeed binds to the imperfect palindromic sequence of the Rd-ERE. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, J K; Morin, D E

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5...... 0.05), with 86 DEG up-regulated and 201 DEG down-regulated. Canonical pathways most affected by NEB were IL-8 Signaling (10 genes), Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling (13), and NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress Response (10). Among genes differentially expressed by NEB, Cell Growth and Proliferation (48...

  14. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new approach for determining phase response curves reveals that Purkinje cells can act as perfect integrators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Phoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar Purkinje cells display complex intrinsic dynamics. They fire spontaneously, exhibit bistability, and via mutual network interactions are involved in the generation of high frequency oscillations and travelling waves of activity. To probe the dynamical properties of Purkinje cells we measured their phase response curves (PRCs. PRCs quantify the change in spike phase caused by a stimulus as a function of its temporal position within the interspike interval, and are widely used to predict neuronal responses to more complex stimulus patterns. Significant variability in the interspike interval during spontaneous firing can lead to PRCs with a low signal-to-noise ratio, requiring averaging over thousands of trials. We show using electrophysiological experiments and simulations that the PRC calculated in the traditional way by sampling the interspike interval with brief current pulses is biased. We introduce a corrected approach for calculating PRCs which eliminates this bias. Using our new approach, we show that Purkinje cell PRCs change qualitatively depending on the firing frequency of the cell. At high firing rates, Purkinje cells exhibit single-peaked, or monophasic PRCs. Surprisingly, at low firing rates, Purkinje cell PRCs are largely independent of phase, resembling PRCs of ideal non-leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. These results indicate that Purkinje cells can act as perfect integrators at low firing rates, and that the integration mode of Purkinje cells depends on their firing rate.

  16. TaWRKY68 responses to biotic stresses are revealed by the orthologous genes from major cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors have been extensively characterized in the past 20 years, but in wheat, studies onWRKY genes and their function are lagging behind many other species. To explore the function of wheat WRKY genes, we identified a TaWRKY68 gene from a common wheat cultivar. It encodes a protein comprising 313 amino acids which harbors 19 conserved motifs or active sites. Gene expression patterns were determined by analyzing microarray data of TaWRKY68 in wheat and of orthologous genes from maize, rice and barley using Genevestigator. TaWRKY68 orthologs were identified and clustered using DELTA-BLAST and COBALT programs available at NCBI. The results showed that these genes, which are expressed in all tissues tested, had relatively higher levels in the roots and were up-regulated in response to biotic stresses. Bioinformatics results were confirmed by RT-PCR experiments using wheat plants infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Blumeria graminis, or treated with Deoxynivalenol, a Fusarium graminearum-induced mycotoxin in wheat or barley. In summary,TaWRKY68 functions differ during plant developmental stages and might be representing a hub gene function in wheat responses to various biotic stresses. It was also found that including data from major cereal genes in the bioinformatics analysis gave more accurate and comprehensive predictions of wheat gene functions.

  17. Identification and expression analyses of WRKY genes reveal their involvement in growth and abiotic stress response in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Hao; Yang, Yongchao; Wang, Yongqi; Mo, Yanling; Zhang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2018-01-01

    Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III) and five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.

  18. Identification and expression analyses of WRKY genes reveal their involvement in growth and abiotic stress response in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Yang

    Full Text Available Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III and five subgroups (IIa-IIe in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.

  19. A meta-analysis reveals the commonalities and differences in Arabidopsis thaliana response to different viral pathogens.

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    Guillermo Rodrigo

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which plants trigger host defenses in response to viruses has been a challenging problem owing to the multiplicity of factors and complexity of interactions involved. The advent of genomic techniques, however, has opened the possibility to grasp a global picture of the interaction. Here, we used Arabidopsis thaliana to identify and compare genes that are differentially regulated upon infection with seven distinct (+ssRNA and one ssDNA plant viruses. In the first approach, we established lists of genes differentially affected by each virus and compared their involvement in biological functions and metabolic processes. We found that phylogenetically related viruses significantly alter the expression of similar genes and that viruses naturally infecting Brassicaceae display a greater overlap in the plant response. In the second approach, virus-regulated genes were contextualized using models of transcriptional and protein-protein interaction networks of A. thaliana. Our results confirm that host cells undergo significant reprogramming of their transcriptome during infection, which is possibly a central requirement for the mounting of host defenses. We uncovered a general mode of action in which perturbations preferentially affect genes that are highly connected, central and organized in modules.

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals molecular mechanism of seedling roots of different salt tolerant soybean genotypes in responses to salinity stress

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    Hongyu Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield. To understand salt-responsive protein networks in soybean seedling, the extracted proteins from seedling roots of two different genotypes (Lee 68 and Jackson were analyzed under salt stress by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. The identified proteins were involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Proteins correlated to brassinosteroid and gilbberellin signalings were significantly increased only in the genotype Lee 68 under salt stress; abscisic acid content was positively correlated with this genotype; proteins that can be correlated to Ca2+ signaling were more strongly enhanced by salt stress in the seedling roots of genotype Lee 68 than in those of genotype Jackson; moreover, genotype Lee 68 had stronger capability of reactive oxygen species scavenging and cell K+/Na+ homeostasis maintaining in seedling roots than genotype Jackson under salt stress. Since the genotype Lee 68 has been described in literature as being tolerant and Jackson as sensitive, we hypothesize that these major differences in the genotype Lee 68 might contribute to salt tolerance. Combined with our previous comparative proteomics analysis on seedling leaves, the similarities and differences between the salt-responsive protein networks found in the seedling leaves and roots of both the genotypes were discussed. Such a result will be helpful in breeding of salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.