Sample records for student reasoning ability


    Bird, Lillian


    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  2. Logical Reasoning Abilities of Junior High School Students in the Province of Cotabato, Philippines

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    Paul John B. Ongcoy


    Full Text Available Reasoning abilities of the learners and its development was well-discussed in the world of education. The higher the ability of the person to reason abstractly, the higher the probability that a person will effectively function in the society. Thus, it is the main goal of the K-12 Curriculum of the Department of Education to improve the reasoning abilities and formal reasoning among students in the country. The higher the reasoning ability of a person, the more productive he is. The ability of logical reasoning has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts. This study aimed to determine the logical reasoning abilities of 150 randomly selected junior high school students. Specifically, this study aimed to determine the logical reasoning abilities namely combinatorial reasoning, controlling variables, correlation reasoning, probabilistic reasoning and proportional reasoning among the grade 10 junior high school students and determine whether there is a significant difference in students’ logical reasoning abilities according to their gender. The respondents answered the Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT. Thirty respondents were interviewed to verify their answers. The findings of the study led to the following conclusions: most students correctly answered problems in probabilistic reasoning and least number of students correctly answered problems in proportional reasoning and combinatorial reasoning and, male and female respondents have equal performances in problems pertaining to combinatorial reasoning, controlling variables, correlational reasoning and probabilistic reasoning but female respondents are better in proportional reasoning than the male respondents.



    C. Daisy Nambikkai; Dr. A.Veliappan


    The present study aims to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and reasoning ability of the higher secondary students. Among the population, 724 samples of higher secondary students were selected randomly from Puducherry region. Findings of the study were i) significant difference is found between male and female higher secondary students in their reasoning ability in science on analogical reasoning, classification as reasoning, eclectic reasoning, deductive reasoning and ...

  4. Logical Reasoning Abilities of Junior High School Students in the Province of Cotabato, Philippines


    Paul John B. Ongcoy


    Reasoning abilities of the learners and its development was well-discussed in the world of education. The higher the ability of the person to reason abstractly, the higher the probability that a person will effectively function in the society. Thus, it is the main goal of the K-12 Curriculum of the Department of Education to improve the reasoning abilities and formal reasoning among students in the country. The higher the reasoning ability of a person, the more productive he is. T...

  5. The Enhancement of Mathematical Reasoning Ability of Junior High School Students by Applying Mind Mapping Strategy (United States)

    Ayal, Carolina S.; Kusuma, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Dahlan, Jarnawi Afgan


    Mathematical reasoning ability, are component that must be governable by the student. Mathematical reasoning plays an important role, both in solving problems and in conveying ideas when learning mathematics. In fact there ability are not still developed well, even in middle school. The importance of mathematical reasoning ability (KPM are…

  6. Reflective ability and moral reasoning in final year medical students: a semi-qualitative cohort study. (United States)

    Chalmers, Patricia; Dunngalvin, Audrey; Shorten, George


    Moral reasoning and reflective ability are important concepts in medical education. To date, the association between reflective ability and moral reasoning in medical students has not been measured. This study tested the hypotheses that, amongst final year medical students, (1) moral reasoning and reflective ability improve over time and (2) positive change in reflective ability favourably influences moral reasoning. With Institutional Ethical approval, 56 medical students (of a class of 110) participated fully both at the beginning and end of the final academic year. Reflective ability and moral reasoning were assessed at each time using Sobral's reflection-in-learning scale (RLS), Boenink's overall reflection score and by employing Kohlberg's schema for moral reasoning. The most important findings were that (1) Students' level of reflective ability scores related to medicine decreased significantly over the course of the year, (2) students demonstrated a predominantly conventional level of moral reasoning at both the beginning and end of the year, (3) moral reasoning scores tended to decrease over the course of the year and (4) RLS is a strong predictor of change in moral reasoning over time. This study confirms the usefulness of Sobral's RLS and BOR score for evaluating moral development in the context of medical education. This study further documents regression and levelling in the moral reasoning of final year medical students and a decrease in reflective ability applied in the medical context. Further studies are required to determine factors that would favourably influence reflective ability and moral reasoning among final year medical students.

  7. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet


    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  8. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.


    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  9. The enhancement of mathematical analogical reasoning ability of university students through concept attainment model (United States)

    Angraini, L. M.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Dahlan, J. A.


    This study aims to see the enhancement of mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the university students through concept attainment model learning based on overall and Prior Mathematical Knowledge (PMK) and interaction of both. Quasi experiments with the design of this experimental-controlled equivalent group involved 54 of second semester students at the one of State Islamic University. The instrument used is pretest-postest. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene test, t test, two-way ANOVA test were used to analyse the data. The result of this study includes: (1) The enhancement of the mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the students who gets the learning of concept attainment model is better than the enhancement of the mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the students who gets the conventional learning as a whole and based on PMK; (2) There is no interaction between the learning that is used and PMK on enhancing mathematical analogical reasoning ability.

  10. Effects of mathematics computer games on special education students' multiplicative reasoning ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.H.A.M. van den; Robitzsch, A.


    This study examined the effects of a teacher-delivered intervention with online mathematics mini-games on special education students' multiplicative reasoning ability (multiplication and division). The games involved declarative, procedural, as well as conceptual knowledge of multiplicative

  11. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haring, C.M.; Cools, B.M.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Postma, C.T.


    BACKGROUND: During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. METHODS: A

  12. Effects of playing mathematics computer games on primary school students' multiplicative reasoning ability

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    Bakker, Marjoke; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Robitzsch, Alexander


    This study used a large-scale cluster randomized longitudinal experiment (N=719; 35schools) to investigate the effects of online mathematics mini-games on primary school students' multiplicative reasoning ability. The experiment included four conditions: playing at school, integrated in a lesson

  13. Effects of Mathematics Computer Games on Special Education Students' Multiplicative Reasoning Ability (United States)

    Bakker, Marjoke; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Robitzsch, Alexander


    This study examined the effects of a teacher-delivered intervention with online mathematics mini-games on special education students' multiplicative reasoning ability (multiplication and division). The games involved declarative, procedural, as well as conceptual knowledge of multiplicative relations, and were accompanied with teacher-led lessons…

  14. Improving students’ creative mathematical reasoning ability students through adversity quotient and argument driven inquiry learning (United States)

    Hidayat, W.; Wahyudin; Prabawanto, S.


    This study aimed to investigate the role factors of Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction in improving mathematical creative reasoning ability from students’ who is a candidate for a math teacher. The study was designed in the form of experiments with a pretest-posttest control group design that aims to examine the role of Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) learning on improving students’ mathematical creative reasoning abilities. The population in this research was the student of mathematics teacher candidate in Cimahi City, while the sample of this research was 90 students of the candidate of the teacher of mathematics specified purposively then determined randomly which belong to experiment class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it was concluded that: (1) Improvement the ability of mathematical creative reasoning of students’ who was a candidate for a math teacher who received Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction is better than those who received direct instruction is reviewed based on the whole; (2) There was no different improvement the ability of mathematical creative reasoning of students’ who is a candidate for a math teacher who received Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instruction and direct instruction was reviewed based on the type of Adversity Quotient (Quitter / AQ Low, Champer / AQ Medium, and the Climber / AQ High); (3) Learning factors and type of Adversity Quotient (AQ) affected the improvement of students’ mathematical creative reasoning ability. In addition, there was no interaction effect between learning and AQ together in developing of students’ mathematical creative reasoning ability; (4) mathematical creative reasoning ability of students’ who is a candidate for math teacher had not been achieved optimally on the indicators novelty.

  15. Improving the Reasoning Ability of Elementary School Student through the Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education

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    Muhamad Saleh


    Full Text Available By taking the role as a mentor and a facilitator, a teacher in the 4th grade of elementary school needs to look at the condition of the students in the concrete thinking stage. Learning process needs to be adjusted such that the abstract objects in mathematics can be represented through concrete objects as a bridge to enter the knowledge that the students already had, especially for the material of fraction. This research aims to analyze the achievement and the improvement of students’ mathematics reasoning ability through the implementation of Indonesian realistic mathematics education (PMRI approach. The research subject consisted of 51 students in the experiment group and 45 students in the control group which categorized into three levels (low, intermediate, and high. The result suggests that the achievement and the improvement of students’ reasoning ability in the mathematics learning using PMRI approach are better than the conventional learning.

  16. Assessing clinical reasoning abilities of medical students using clinical performance examination

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    Sunju Im


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of new clinical performance examination (CPX for assessing clinical reasoning skills and evaluating clinical reasoning ability of the students. Methods: Third-year medical school students (n=313 in Busan-Gyeongnam consortium in 2014 were included in the study. One of 12 stations was developed to assess clinical reasoning abilities. The scenario and checklists of the station were revised by six experts. Chief complaint of the case was rhinorrhea, accompanied by fever, headache, and vomiting. Checklists focused on identifying of the main problem and systematic approach to the problem. Students interviewed the patient and recorded subjective and objective findings, assessments, plans (SOAP note for 15 minutes. Two professors assessed students simultaneously. We performed statistical analysis on their scores and survey. Results: The Cronbach α of subject station was 0.878 and Cohen κ coefficient between graders was 0.785. Students agreed on CPX as an adequate tool to evaluate students’ performance, but some graders argued that the CPX failed to secure its validity due to their lack of understanding the case. One hundred eight students (34.5% identified essential problem early and only 58 (18.5% performed systematic history taking and physical examination. One hundred seventy-three of them (55.3% communicated correct diagnosis with the patient. Most of them had trouble in writing SOAP notes. Conclusion: To gain reliability and validity, interrater agreement should be secured. Students' clinical reasoning skills were not enough. Students need to be trained on problem identification, reasoning skills and accurate record-keeping.

  17. Profile of mathematical reasoning ability of 8th grade students seen from communicational ability, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking (United States)

    Sumarsih; Budiyono; Indriati, D.


    This research aims to understand the students’ weaknesses in mathematical reasoning ability in junior secondary school. A set of multiple choice tests were used to measure this ability involve components mathematical communication, basic skills, connection, and logical thinking. A total of 259 respondents were determined by stratified cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova test with Fobs = 109.5760 and F = 3.0000. The results show that students’ ability from schools with high National Exam in mathematics category was the best and followed by medium and low category. Mathematical connection is the most difficult component performed by students. In addition, most students also have difficulty in expressing ideas and developing logical arguments.

  18. Improving Junior High School Students' Spatial Reasoning Ability through Model Eliciting Activities with Cabri 3D (United States)

    Hartatiana; Darhim; Nurlaelah, Elah


    One of students' abilities which can facilitate them to understand geometric concepts is spatial reasoning ability. Spatial reasoning ability can be defined as an ability involving someone's cognitive processing to present and manipulate spatial figures, relationship, and figure formations. This research aims to find out significant difference on…

  19. Does Marketing Attract Less Ethical Students? An Assessment of the Moral Reasoning Ability of Undergraduate Marketing Students (United States)

    Herington, Carmel; Weaven, Scott


    This article assesses the level of moral reasoning ability (MRA) of undergraduate marketing students and compares the results with the MRA of students in a range of other business disciplines. The aim was to determine if marketing attracts individuals who have a greater predisposition to unethical behaviors given that marketing is often reported…

  20. Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement among Secondary School Students in Trivandrum (United States)

    Rani, K. V.


    Reasoning ability is the 'problem solving skills' or 'analytical ability' or 'deductive and inductive reasoning'. Academic achievement is the total score one achieved at school, college, or university from class, laboratory, library, or field work. The objectives of the study were to explore the relationship between reasoning ability and academic…

  1. The Effectiveness of MURDER Cooperative Model towards Students' Mathematics Reasoning Ability and Self Concept of Ten Grade

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    Sofan Tri Prasetiyo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the effectiveness of MURDER cooperative model towards students’ mathematics reasoning ability and self concept of ten grade. Population of this research were students of MIA ten grade Senior High School 1 Kebumen in the academic year 2016/1017. Sampling technique using simple random sampling technique. The data collected by the method of documentation, test methods, observation methods, and questionnaire methods. The analyzed of data are used completeness test and average different test. The results showed that: (1 mathematics reasoning ability of students that following MURDER cooperative model have completed individual and classical study completeness; (2 mathematics reasoning ability of students that following MURDER cooperative model better than mathematics reasoning ability of students that following ekspository learning; (3 self concept of students that following MURDER cooperative model better than self concept of students that following ekspository learning.

  2. The Analysis of Students Scientific Reasoning Ability in Solving the Modified Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (MLCTSR Problems by Applying the Levels of Inquiry

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    N. Novia


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the students’ achievement in answering modified lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning (MLCTSR questions in overall science teaching and by every aspect of scientific reasoning abilities. There are six aspects related to the scientific reasoning abilities that were measured; they are conservatorial reasoning, proportional reasoning, controlling variables, combinatorial reasoning, probabilistic reasoning, correlational reasoning. The research is also conducted to see the development of scientific reasoning by using levels of inquiry models. The students reasoning ability was measured using the Modified Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (MLCTSR. MLCTSR is a test developed based on the test of scientific reasoning of Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR in 2000 which amounted to 12 multiple-choice questions. The research method chosen in this study is descriptive quantitative research methods. The research design used is One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The population of this study is the entire junior high students class VII the academic year 2014/2015 in one junior high school in Bandung. The samples in this study are one of class VII, which is class VII C. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling. The results showed that there is an increase in quantitative scientific reasoning although its value is not big.

  3. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Haring, Catharina M; Cools, Bernadette M; van Gurp, Petra J M; van der Meer, Jos W M; Postma, Cornelis T


    During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze what expert physicians apply as indicators in their assessment of medical students' diagnostic reasoning abilities during history taking. Twelve randomly selected clinical encounter recordings of students at the end of the internal medicine clerkships were observed by six expert assessors, who were prompted to formulate their assessment criteria in a think-aloud procedure. These formulations were then analyzed to identify the common denominators and leading principles. The main indicators of clinical reasoning ability were abstracted from students' observable acts during history taking in the encounter. These were: taking control, recognizing and responding to relevant information, specifying symptoms, asking specific questions that point to pathophysiological thinking, placing questions in a logical order, checking agreement with patients, summarizing and body language. In addition, patients' acts and the course, result and efficiency of the conversation were identified as indicators of clinical reasoning, whereas context, using self as a reference, and emotion/feelings were identified by the clinicians as variables in their assessment of clinical reasoning. In observing and assessing clinical reasoning during history taking by medical students, general and specific phenomena to be used as indicators for this process could be identified. These phenomena can be traced back to theories on the development and the process of clinical reasoning.

  4. The Role of Moral Reasoning and Order Effects on Ethical Decision Making Ability: Novice vs. Experienced Accounting Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus

    that novice accounting students cannot differentiate between these two types of reasoning, but would exhibit order effects while making ethical decisions. One hundred forty graduate accounting students from universities in Denmark respond to an audit-specific DIT instrument, measuring prescriptive...... investigates the order effects of presentation of dilemmas on ethical decision making ability of novice and experienced accounting students. Rest (1979, 1983, 1991) categorizes moral reasoning into prescriptive reasoning i.e. consideration of what should ideally be done to resolve a particular ethical dilemma...... and deliberative reasoning i.e. consideration of what would actually be done in resolving ethical dilemmas. Because of lack of work experience, novice accounting students often do not face scenarios where there is a difference between their prescriptive and deliberative reasoning. This study hypothesizes...

  5. The Precalculus Concept Assessment: A Tool for Assessing Students' Reasoning Abilities and Understandings (United States)

    Carlson, Marilyn; Oehrtman, Michael; Engelke, Nicole


    This article describes the development of the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) instrument, a 25-item multiple-choice exam. The reasoning abilities and understandings central to precalculus and foundational for beginning calculus were identified and characterized in a series of research studies and are articulated in the PCA Taxonomy. These…

  6. Semantic, executive, and visuospatial abilities in mathematical reasoning of referred college students. (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T; Morris, Mary K; Morris, Robin D


    Semantic retrieval (SR) and executive-procedural (EP), but not visuospatial (VS) skills, have been found to be uniquely predictive of mathematical calculation skills in a sample of clinically referred college students. This study set out to cross-validate these results in an independent sample of clinically referred college students (N = 337) as well as extend them by examination of the contributions of these cognitive domains to math reasoning skills. Results indicate that these cognitive domains were able to predict 30% of the variance in calculation skills and 50% of the variance in math reasoning; however, in both cases, only the domains of semantic retrieval and visuospatial skill contributed uniquely. Differences between studies, and the lack of unique contribution of the EP domain to either type of math skill, may be due to measurement and sampling differences, the degree of shared relations among domains, and the choice of measures that represent the EP domain. Implications and future directions are explored.

  7. The effects of students' reasoning abilities on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, S; Cataloglu, E


    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen/first year students' reasoning abilities, conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics. The sample consisted of 165 freshmen science education prospective teachers (female = 86, male = 79; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course. Data collection was done during the fall semesters in two successive years. At the beginning of each semester, the force concept inventory (FCI) and the classroom test of scientific reasoning (CTSR) were administered to assess students' initial understanding of basic concepts in mechanics and reasoning levels. After completing the course, the FCI and the mechanics baseline test (MBT) were administered. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in problem-solving skill test mean scores, as measured by the MBT, among concrete, formal and postformal reasoners. There were no significant differences in conceptual understanding levels of pre- and post-test mean scores, as measured by FCI, among the groups. The Benferroni post hoc comparison test revealed which set of reasoning levels showed significant difference for the MBT scores. No statistical difference between formal and postformal reasoners' mean scores was observed, while the mean scores between concrete and formal reasoners and concrete and postformal reasoners were statistically significantly different


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    N. A. C. Damawati


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of Inquiry Based Learningon the reasoning ability of grade 7 students about heat concept. This study is a quasi-experimental research design with non-equivalent post-test only controls group design. Two groups of seventh grade students were included as samples, which receive the experimental class of Inquiry Based Learning treatment while the other group acted as a control group who received the learning process in accordance with the applicable provisions of the curriculum. The data collected in this study is the students reasoning ability which obtained from the test of reasoning ability. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical parametric t-test. Results of independet research shows that there are significant differences in reasoning abilities between the experimental class and control class. In this research, the experiment class perform more better reasoning skills than the control class.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh Inquiry Based Learning terhadap kemampuan penalaran siswa kelas VII pada materi Kalor. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan non-equivalent post-test only control group design.  Dua kelompok siswa kelas VII  dilibatkan sebagai sampel penelitian, dimana kelas eksperimen menerima perlakuan Inquiry Based Learning sementara kelompok lainnya bertindak sebagai kelas kontrol yang menerima proses pembelajaran sesuai dengan ketentuan kurikulum yang berlaku di sekolah tempat penelitian dilaksanakan. Data yang dikumpulkan dalam penelitian ini adalah kemampuan penalaran siswa yang diperoleh dari hasil tes kemampuan penalaran. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan statistik parametrik Independent t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kemampuan penalaran yang signifikan antara kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol Kelas eksperimen menunjukkan kemampuan penalaran yang lebih baik

  9. A Teacher Competency Enhancement Model based on the Coaching Processes to Increase Mathematical Reasoning Abilities of Lower-Secondary Students

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    Uaychai Sukanalam


    Full Text Available This research study aimed to: 1 investigate problems and needs for the learning management that helps increase capacities of mathematics teachers at the lower-secondary level, 2 develop a teacher competency enhancement model based on the coaching processes to enhance mathematical reasoning abilities of lower-secondary students, 3 find out the educational supervisors’ opinions on the model designed. The samples of the study comprised 212 mathematics teachers at the lower-secondary level from 60 schools under jurisdiction of the Office of Secondary Educational Service Area 27, who were selected through the simple random sampling technique ; and 201 educational supervisors in charge of the mathematics learning strand from 42 educational service areas, who were selected through the purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted in the academic year 2015. The research instruments included: 1 a teacher competency enhancement manual that illustrated the steps and procedures for increasing the teacher’s capacities based on the coaching processes in order to enhance mathematical reasoning abilities of lower-secondary students, 2 a survey on problems and needs for the learning management to enhance capacities of mathematics teachers at the lower-secondary level, 3 A questionnaire concerning the educational supervisor’s opinion on the model designed. The statistics used included percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The study results showed that: 1. According to the study and analysis of basic data, problems and needs, it was found that the needs for increasing capacities of mathematics teachers at the lower-secondary level was overall at the high level. In terms of identifying behaviors as “mathematical competencies”, there were some problems associated with thinking and reasoning abilities of the teachers, and their needs in developing the learning management were at the highest level. To solve such problems, it is suggested that

  10. Development of Reasoning Test Instruments Based on TIMSS Framework for Measuring Reasoning Ability of Senior High School Student on the Physics Concept (United States)

    Muslim; Suhandi, A.; Nugraha, M. G.


    The purposes of this study are to determine the quality of reasoning test instruments that follow the framework of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) as a development results and to analyse the profile of reasoning skill of senior high school students on physics materials. This research used research and development method (R&D), furthermore the subject were 104 students at three senior high schools in Bandung selected by random sampling technique. Reasoning test instruments are constructed following the TIMSS framework in multiple choice forms in 30 questions that cover five subject matters i.e. parabolic motion and circular motion, Newton’s law of gravity, work and energy, harmonic oscillation, as well as the momentum and impulse. The quality of reasoning tests were analysed using the Content Validity Ratio (CVR) and classic test analysis include the validity of item, level of difficulty, discriminating power, reliability and Ferguson’s delta. As for the students’ reasoning skills profiles were analysed by the average score of achievements on eight aspects of the reasoning TIMSS framework. The results showed that reasoning test have a good quality as instruments to measure reasoning skills of senior high school students on five matters physics which developed and able to explore the reasoning of students on all aspects of reasoning based on TIMSS framework.

  11. The Effectiveness of Interacting with Scientific Animations in Chemistry Using Mobile Devices on Grade 12 Students' Spatial Ability and Scientific Reasoning Skills (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.


    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The experimental group studied chemistry using mobile tablets that had a digital instructional package with different animation and simulations. There was one tablet per student. A spatial ability test and a scientific reasoning test were administered to both groups prior and after the study, which lasted for 9 weeks. The findings showed that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of spatial ability in favour of the experimental group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of reasoning ability. The authors reasoned that the types of animations and simulations used in the current study featured a wide range of three-dimensional animated illustrations at the particulate level of matter. Most probably, this decreased the level of abstractness that usually accompanies chemical entities and phenomena and helped the students to visualize the interactions between submicroscopic entities spatially. Further research is needed to decide on types of scientific animations that could help students improve their scientific reasoning.

  12. Speed of reasoning and its relation to reasoning ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldhammer, F.; Klein Entink, R.H.


    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying

  13. The Influence of Cognitive Reasoning Level, Cognitive Restructuring Ability, Disembedding Ability, Working Memory Capacity, and Prior Knowledge On Students' Performance On Balancing Equations by Inspection. (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Jacks, Tom


    Investigates the influence of five cognitive variables on high school students' performance on balancing chemical equations by inspection. Reports that reasoning, restructuring, and disembedding variables could be a single variable, and that working memory capacity does not influence overall performance. Results of hierarchical regression analysis…

  14. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria (United States)

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele


    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  15. Predicting Student Success in a Major's Introductory Biology Course via Logistic Regression Analysis of Scientific Reasoning Ability and Mathematics Scores (United States)

    Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.


    Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in those courses wherein the majority of students are in the first semester and have no previous record of college GPA or attendance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT Mathematics subject exam and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning in predicting success in a major's introductory biology course. A logistic regression was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a combination of scientific reasoning (SR) scores and ACT math (ACT-M) scores to predict student success. In summary, we found that the model—with both SR and ACT-M as significant predictors—could be an effective predictor of student success and thus could potentially be useful in practical decision making for the course, such as directing students to support services at an early point in the semester.

  16. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Comment on 'The effects of students' reasoning abilities on conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics' (United States)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Savinainen, Antti; Steinert, Jeffrey J.


    In a recent article, Ates and Cataloglu (2007 Eur. J. Phys. 28 1161-71), in analysing results for a course in introductory mechanics for prospective science teachers, found no statistically significant correlation between students' pre-instruction scores on the Lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning ability (CTSR) and post-instruction scores on the force concept inventory (FCI). As a possible explanation, the authors suggest that the FCI does not probe for skills required to determine reasoning abilities. Our previously published research directly contradicts the authors' finding. We summarize our research and present a likely explanation for their observation of no correlation.

  17. Indicators that influence prospective mathematics teachers representational and reasoning abilities (United States)

    Darta; Saputra, J.


    Representational and mathematical reasoning ability are very important ability as basic in mathematics learning process. The 2013 curriculum suggests that the use of a scientific approach emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Therefore, a scientific approach is required in mathematics learning to improve ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The objectives of this research are: (1) to analyze representational and reasoning abilities, (2) to analyze indicators affecting the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning, (3) to analyze scientific approaches that can improve the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The subject of this research is the students of mathematics prospective teachers in the first semester at Private Higher Education of Bandung City. The research method of this research was descriptive analysis. The research data were collected using reasoning and representation tests on sixty-one students. Data processing was done by descriptive analysis specified based on the indicators of representation ability and mathematical reasoning that influenced it. The results of this first-year study showed that students still had many weaknesses in reasoning and mathematical representation that were influenced by the ability to understand the indicators of both capabilities. After observing the results of the first-year research, then in the second and third year, the development of teaching materials with a scientific approach in accordance with the needs of prospective students was planned.

  18. The Development of Geometri Teaching Materials Based on Constructivism to Improve the Students' Mathematic Reasoning Ability through Cooperative Learing Jigsaw at the Class VIII of SMP Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan (United States)

    Dewi, Izwita; Harahap, Muhammad Syahri


    The purposes of this research were to know the validity, practicality, and effectivity of geometrical learning material based on the constructivism to Increase students' mathematic reasoning ability and increasing students' mathematic reasoning ability by using learning material at the grade VIII of SMP Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan. Type of the…

  19. The effects of an integrated Algebra 1/physical science curriculum on student achievement in Algebra 1, proportional reasoning and graphing abilities (United States)

    Lawrence, Lettie Carol


    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if an integrated curriculum in algebra 1/physical science facilitates acquisition of proportional reasoning and graphing abilities better than a non-integrated, traditional, algebra 1 curriculum. Also, this study was to ascertain if the integrated algebra 1/physical science curriculum resulted in greater student achievement in algebra 1. The curriculum used in the experimental class was SAM 9 (Science and Mathematics 9), an investigation-based curriculum that was written to integrate physical science and basic algebra content. The experiment was conducted over one school year. The subjects in the study were 61 ninth grade students. The experimental group consisted of one class taught concurrently by a mathematics teacher and a physical science teacher. The control group consisted of three classes of algebra 1 students taught by one mathematics teacher and taking physical science with other teachers in the school who were not participating in the SAM 9 program. This study utilized a quasi-experimental non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design. The investigator obtained end-of-algebra 1 scores from student records. The written open-ended graphing instruments and the proportional reasoning instrument were administered to both groups as pretests and posttests. The graphing instruments were also administered as a midtest. A two sample t-test for independent means was used to determine significant differences in achievement on the end-of-course algebra 1 test. Quantitative data from the proportional reasoning and graphing instruments were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance to determine differences in scores over time for the experimental and control groups. The findings indicate no significant difference between the experimental and control groups on the end-of-course algebra 1 test. Results also indicate no significant differences in proportional reasoning and graphing abilities between

  20. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keeley


    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  1. Analogical reasoning abilities of recovering alcoholics. (United States)

    Gardner, M K; Clark, E; Bowman, M A; Miller, P J


    This study investigated analogical reasoning abilities of alcoholics who had been abstinent from alcohol for at least 1 year. Their performance was compared to that of nonalcoholic controls matched as a group for education, age, and gender. Solution times and error rates were modeled using a regression model. Results showed a nonsignificant trend for alcoholics to be faster, but more error prone, than controls. The same componential model applied to both groups, and fit them equally well. Although differences have been found in analogical reasoning ability between controls and alcoholics immediately following detoxification, we find no evidence of differences after extended periods of sobriety.

  2. Development and psychometric testing of a Clinical Reasoning Evaluation Simulation Tool (CREST) for assessing nursing students' abilities to recognize and respond to clinical deterioration. (United States)

    Liaw, Sok Ying; Rashasegaran, Ahtherai; Wong, Lai Fun; Deneen, Christopher Charles; Cooper, Simon; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Goh, Hongli Sam; Ignacio, Jeanette


    The development of clinical reasoning skills in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration is essential in pre-registration nursing education. Simulation has been increasingly used by educators to develop this skill. To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Clinical Reasoning Evaluation Simulation Tool (CREST) for measuring clinical reasoning skills in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration in a simulated environment. A scale development with psychometric testing and mixed methods study. Nursing students and academic staff were recruited at a university. A three-phase prospective study was conducted. Phase 1 involved the development and content validation of the CREST; Phase 2 included the psychometric testing of the tool with 15 second-year and 15 third-year nursing students who undertook the simulation-based assessment; Phase 3 involved the usability testing of the tool with nine academic staff through a survey questionnaire and focus group discussion. A 10-item CREST was developed based on a model of clinical reasoning. A content validity of 0.93 was obtained from the validation of 15 international experts. The construct validity was supported as the third-year students demonstrated significantly higher (preasoning scores than the second-year students. The concurrent validity was also supported with significant positive correlations between global rating scores and almost all subscale scores, and the total scores. The predictive validity was supported with an existing tool. The internal consistency was high with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. A high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.88. The usability of the tool was rated positively by the nurse educators but the need to ease the scoring process was highlighted. A valid and reliable tool was developed to measure the effectiveness of simulation in developing clinical reasoning skills for recognising and responding to

  3. Cognitive Ability, Principled Reasoning and Political Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    Individuals are not equally politically tolerant. To explain why, individual differences in emotions and threat have received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, extant research also shows that psychological dispositions, habitual cognitive styles, ideological orientation...... and ‘principled reasoning’ influence political tolerance judgments. The extent to which cognitive ability plays a role has not been entertained even if the capacity to think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and apply abstract ideas to concrete situations is inherent to both principled tolerance judgment...... and cognitive ability. Cognitive ability, we argue and show, adds to the etiology of political tolerance. In Danish and American samples cognitive ability strongly predicts political tolerance after taking habitual cognitive styles (as measured by personality traits), education, social ideology, and feelings...

  4. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability (United States)

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul


    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  5. Exploring students' patterns of reasoning (United States)

    Matloob Haghanikar, Mojgan

    As part of a collaborative study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses were considered inquiry oriented. To probe students' reasoning, we developed open-ended written content questions with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. We devised a protocol for developing written content questions that provided a common structure for probing and classifying students' sophistication level of reasoning. In designing our protocol, we considered several distinct criteria, and classified students' responses based on their performance for each criterion. First, we classified concepts into three types: Descriptive, Hypothetical, and Theoretical and categorized the abstraction levels of the responses in terms of the types of concepts and the inter-relationship between the concepts. Second, we devised a rubric based on Bloom's revised taxonomy with seven traits (both knowledge types and cognitive processes) and a defined set of criteria to evaluate each trait. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We used the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to rank the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. We conducted logistic regression for a sample of 18courses with about 900 students and reported the results for performing logistic regression to estimate the relationship between traits of reasoning and RTOP score. In addition, we analyzed conceptual structure of students' responses, based on conceptual classification schemes, and clustered students' responses into six categories. We derived regression model, to estimate the relationship between the sophistication of the categories of conceptual structure and RTOP scores. However, the

  6. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test (United States)

    Bhat, Mehraj A.


    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  7. Reasoning Abilities and Potential Correlates Among Jordanian School Children. (United States)

    Almomani, Fidaa; Al-Momani, Murad O; Alsheyab, Nihayah; Al Mhdawi, Khader


    Objectives To investigate factors related to reasoning skills in 434 school children aged 5-9 years. Methods The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised was used to assess reasoning skills. Demographic, work and family income data, information on child's daily behavior and school academic achievement were provided by the participating children's parents. Results Reasoning scores increased by 4.56 points with increasing subject's age, 1.71 points with increasing level of father's occupation, 1.86 points with each increase in the subject's GPA, 1.13 points with consumption of breakfast at home and 1.81 points when child slept more hours. Having a father who smoked and living in a rural area decreased scores in reasoning. Conclusions for Practice Screening of reasoning and associated factors is essential for a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the child's abilities and limitations. Understanding the child's reasoning abilities is critical for establishing intervention goals and planning therapeutic activities.

  8. The influence of analogical reasoning instruction on the pedagogical reasoning ability of preservice elementary teachers (United States)

    James, Mark Charles

    Novice teachers with little prior knowledge of science concepts often resort to teaching science as a litany of jargon and definitions. The primary objective of this study was to establish the efficacy of analogy-based pedagogy on influencing the teaching performance of preservice elementary teachers, a group that has been identified for their particular difficulties in teaching science content. While numerous studies have focused on the efficacy of analogy-based instruction on the conceptual knowledge of learners, this was the first study to focus on the influence of analogy-based pedagogy instruction on the teaching performance of novice teachers. The study utilized a treatment/contrast group design where treatment and contrast groups were obtained from intact sections of a university course on methods of teaching science for preservice elementary education students. Preservice teachers in the treatment group were provided instruction in pedagogy that guided them in the generation of analogies to aid in the explanation phase of their learning cycle lessons. The process of generating and evaluating analogies for use in teaching was instrumental in focusing the preservice teachers' lesson planning efforts on critical attributes in target concepts, and away from misplaced concentrations on jargon and definitions. Teaching performance was primarily analyzed using coded indicants of Shulman's (1986) six stages of pedagogical reasoning ability. The primary data source was preservice teachers' work submitted for a major course assignment where the preservice teachers interviewed an elementary school student to gauge prior knowledge of Newtonian force concepts. The culmination of the semester-long assignment was the design of an individualized lesson that was presented by the preservice teachers to individual elementary school students. The results of this study strongly suggest that instruction in methods to include analogy-based pedagogy within a learning cycle lesson

  9. Investigating Primary School Mathematics Teachers’ Deductive Reasoning Ability through Varignon’s Theorem (United States)

    Jupri, A.


    The responsibility to promote the growth of deductive reasoning ability of school students through learning mathematics is in the hand of mathematics teachers and particularly primary school mathematics teachers. However, how we can make sure whether teachers are able to do so. To investigate this issue, we conducted a three-step of an exploratory survey study. First, we designed tasks from the Varignon’s theorem. Second, we administered an individual written test involving twenty master students of primary education program, in which they are prospective of and primary school mathematics teachers. Finally, we address the results in the light of Van Hiele theory. The results showed that participated students lack of deductive reasoning ability in the context of geometry. For further research, we wonder whether the designed tasks are also applicable to assess student deductive reasoning ability if the students have acquired appropriate teaching.

  10. Evaluating Middle Years Students' Proportional Reasoning (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Geoff; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia


    Proportional reasoning is a key aspect of numeracy that is not always developed naturally by students. Understanding the types of proportional reasoning that students apply to different problem types is a useful first step to identifying ways to support teachers and students to develop proportional reasoning in the classroom. This paper describes…

  11. Ability Of Mathematical Reasoning in SMK 10th Grade with LAPS- Heuristic using Performance Assessment


    Aulia Nur Arivina; Masrukan Masrukan; Ardhi Prabowo


    The purposes of this research are: (1) Test the learning with LAPS-Heuristic model using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete, (2) to test the difference of students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry material between the learning model of LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model with Expository learning model, (3) test the ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristik o...

  12. Statistical Reasoning Ability, Self-Efficacy, and Value Beliefs in a University Statistics Course (United States)

    Olani, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Harskamp, E.; van der Werf, G.


    Introduction: The study investigated the degree to which students' statistical reasoning abilities, statistics self-efficacy, and perceived value of statistics improved during a reform based introductory statistics course. The study also examined whether the changes in these learning outcomes differed with respect to the students' mathematical…

  13. Effects of Scaffolds and Scientific Reasoning Ability on Web-Based Scientific Inquiry (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Ling; Weng, Hsiao-Lan; She, Hsiao-Ching


    This study examined how background knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and various scaffolding forms influenced students' science knowledge and scientific inquiry achievements. The students participated in an online scientific inquiry program involving such activities as generating scientific questions and drawing evidence-based conclusions,…

  14. Predicting Student Success in a Major's Introductory Biology Course via Logistic Regression Analysis of Scientific Reasoning Ability and Mathematics Scores (United States)

    Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.


    Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in…

  15. Students' Distributive Reasoning with Fractions and Unknowns (United States)

    Hackenberg, Amy J.; Lee, Mi Yeon


    To understand relationships between students' quantitative reasoning with fractions and their algebraic reasoning, a clinical interview study was conducted with 18 middle and high school students. The study included six students with each of three different multiplicative concepts, which are based on how students create and coordinate composite…

  16. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.


    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  17. Students' Reasoning about p-Values (United States)

    Aquilonius, Birgit C.; Brenner, Mary E.


    Results from a study of 16 community college students are presented. The research question concerned how students reasoned about p-values. Students' approach to p-values in hypothesis testing was procedural. Students viewed p-values as something that one compares to alpha values in order to arrive at an answer and did not attach much meaning to…

  18. Strategies to Support Ethical Reasoning in Student Argumentation (United States)

    Carlton Griswold, Joan; Ting Chowning, Jean


    This article discusses the importance and benefits of incorporating ethics\tinto the classroom and presents five strategies that both scaffold students'\tunderstanding of ethical issues and support students' abilities to come to a reasoned and well-supported decision about those issues. (Contains 1 table and 4 notes.)

  19. Analysis of algebraic reasoning ability of cognitive style perspectives on field dependent field independent and gender (United States)

    Rosita, N. T.


    The purpose of this study is to analyse algebraic reasoning ability using the SOLO model as a theoretical framework to assess students’ algebraic reasoning abilities of Field Dependent cognitive (FD), Field Independent (FI) and Gender perspectives. The method of this study is a qualitative research. The instrument of this study is the researcher himself assisted with algebraic reasoning tests, the problems have been designed based on NCTM indicators and algebraic reasoning according to SOLO model. While the cognitive style of students is determined using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT), as well as interviews on the subject as triangulation. The subjects are 15 female and 15 males of the sixth semester students of mathematics education, STKIP Sebelas April. The results of the qualitative data analysis is that most subjects are at the level of unistructural and multi-structural, subjects at the relational level have difficulty in forming a new linear pattern. While the subjects at the extended abstract level are able to meet all the indicators of algebraic reasoning ability even though some of the answers are not perfect yet. Subjects of FI tend to have higher algebraic reasoning abilities than of the subject of FD.

  20. College Students' Reasons for Concealing Suicidal Ideation (United States)

    Burton Denmark, Adryon; Hess, Elaine; Becker, Martin Swanbrow


    Self-reported reasons for concealing suicidal ideation were explored using data from a national survey of undergraduate and graduate students: 558 students indicated that they seriously considered attempting suicide during the previous year and did not tell anyone about their suicidal thoughts. Content analysis of students' qualitative responses…

  1. Ability Of Mathematical Reasoning in SMK 10th Grade with LAPS- Heuristic using Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Nur Arivina


    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are: (1 Test the learning with LAPS-Heuristic model using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete, (2 to test the difference of students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry material between the learning model of LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model with Expository learning model, (3 test the ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristik on Trigonometry material of SMK on 10th grade using performance assessment is increase. This is a quantitative research. The population is students of 10th grade of SMK 10 Semarang academic year 2016/2017 and the subject of research is selected by clustering random sampling. The results show that (1 Learning by model LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete (2 there are differences in students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry materials between LAPS-Heuristic learning model using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model, and Expository learning model, (3 The ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristic on Trigonometry material of SMK class X using performance assessment increased.

  2. An Investigation into the Clinical Reasoning Development of Veterinary Students. (United States)

    Vinten, Claire E K; Cobb, Kate A; Freeman, Sarah L; Mossop, Liz H

    Clinical reasoning is a fundamental skill for veterinary clinicians and a competency required of graduates by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. However, it is unknown how veterinary students develop reasoning skills and where strengths and shortcomings of curricula lie. This research aimed to use the University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science (SVMS) as a case study to investigate the development of clinical reasoning among veterinary students. The analysis was framed in consideration of the taught, learned, and declared curricula. Sixteen staff and sixteen students from the SVMS participated separately in a total of four focus groups. In addition, five interviews were conducted with recent SVMS graduates. Audio transcriptions were used to conduct a thematic analysis. A content analysis was performed on all curriculum documentation. It was found that SVMS graduates feel they have a good level of reasoning ability, but they still experience a deficit in their reasoning capabilities when starting their first job. Overarching themes arising from the data suggest that a lack of responsibility for clinical decisions during the program and the embedded nature of the clinical reasoning skill within the curriculum could be restricting development. In addition, SVMS students would benefit from clinical reasoning training where factors influencing "real life" decisions (e.g., finances) are explored in more depth. Integrating these factors into the curriculum could lead to improved decision-making ability among SVMS graduates and better prepare students for the stressful transition to practice. These findings are likely to have implications for other veterinary curricula.

  3. Analyzing high school students' reasoning about electromagnetic induction (United States)

    Jelicic, Katarina; Planinic, Maja; Planinsic, Gorazd


    Electromagnetic induction is an important, yet complex, physics topic that is a part of Croatian high school curriculum. Nine Croatian high school students of different abilities in physics were interviewed using six demonstration experiments from electromagnetism (three of them concerned the topic of electromagnetic induction). Students were asked to observe, describe, and explain the experiments. The analysis of students' explanations indicated the existence of many conceptual and reasoning difficulties with the basic concepts of electromagnetism, and especially with recognizing and explaining the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. Three student mental models of electromagnetic induction, formed during the interviews, which reoccurred among students, are described and analyzed within the knowledge-in-pieces framework.

  4. Teaching clinical reasoning to medical students. (United States)

    Gay, Simon; Bartlett, Maggie; McKinley, Robert


    Keele Medical School's new curriculum includes a 5-week course to extend medical students' consultation skills beyond those historically required for competent inductive diagnosis. Clinical reasoning is a core skill for the practice of medicine, and is known to have implications for patient safety, yet historically it has not been explicitly taught. Rather, it has been assumed that these skills will be learned by accumulating a body of knowledge and by observing expert clinicians. This course aims to assist students to develop their own clinical reasoning skills and promote their greater understanding of, and potential to benefit from, the clinical reasoning skills of others. The course takes place in the fourth or penultimate year, and is integrated with students' clinical placements, giving them opportunities to practise and quickly embed their learning. This course emphasises that clinical reasoning extends beyond initial diagnosis into all other aspects of clinical practice, particularly clinical management. It offers students a variety of challenging and interesting opportunities to engage with clinical reasoning across a wide range of clinical practice. It addresses bias through metacognition and increased self-awareness, considers some of the complexities of prescribing and non-pharmacological interventions, and promotes pragmatic evidence-based practice, information management within the consultation and the maximising of patient adherence. This article describes clinical reasoning-based classroom and community teaching. Early evaluation suggests that students value the course and benefit from it. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Academic Achievement in Physics-Chemistry: The Predictive Effect of Attitudes and Reasoning Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N. Vilia


    Full Text Available Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students’ attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student’s attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008. The participants were 470 students (267 girls – 56.8% and 203 boys – 43.2%, aged 14–16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58. The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students’ quarterly (9-week grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β, calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student’s grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with

  6. Students' reasons for preferring teleological explanations (United States)

    Trommler, Friederike; Gresch, Helge; Hammann, Marcus


    The teleological bias, a major learning obstacle, involves explaining biological phenomena in terms of purposes and goals. To probe the teleological bias, researchers have used acceptance judgement tasks and preference judgement tasks. In the present study, such tasks were used with German high school students (N = 353) for 10 phenomena from human biology, that were explained both teleologically and causally. A sub-sample (n = 26) was interviewed about the reasons for their preferences. The results showed that the students favoured teleological explanations over causal explanations. Although the students explained their preference judgements etiologically (i.e. teleologically and causally), they also referred to a wide range of non-etiological criteria (i.e. familiarity, complexity, relevance and five more criteria). When elaborating on their preference for causal explanations, the students often focused not on the causality of the phenomenon, but on mechanisms whose complexity they found attractive. When explaining their preference for teleological explanations, they often focused not teleologically on purposes and goals, but rather on functions, which they found familiar and relevant. Generally, students' preference judgements rarely allowed for making inferences about causal reasoning and teleological reasoning, an issue that is controversial in the literature. Given that students were largely unaware of causality and teleology, their attention must be directed towards distinguishing between etiological and non-etiological reasoning. Implications for educational practice as well as for future research are discussed.

  7. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin


    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  8. Feedback on students' clinical reasoning skills during fieldwork education. (United States)

    de Beer, Marianne; Mårtensson, Lena


    Feedback on clinical reasoning skills during fieldwork education is regarded as vital in occupational therapy students' professional development. The nature of supervisors' feedback however, could be confirmative and/or corrective and corrective feedback could be with or without suggestions on how to improve. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of supervisors' feedback on final-year occupational therapy students' clinical reasoning skills through comparing the nature of feedback with the students' subsequent clinical reasoning ability. A mixed-method approach with a convergent parallel design was used combining the collection and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. From focus groups and interviews with students, data were collected and analysed qualitatively to determine how the students experienced the feedback they received from their supervisors. By quantitatively comparing the final practical exam grades with the nature of the feedback, their fieldwork End-of-Term grades and average academic performance it became possible to merge the results for comparison and interpretation. Students' clinical reasoning skills seem to be improved through corrective feedback if accompanied by suggestions on how to improve, irrespective of their average academic performance. Supervisors were inclined to underrate high performing students and overrate lower performing students. Students who obtained higher grades in the final practical examinations received more corrective feedback with suggestions on how to improve from their supervisors. Confirmative feedback alone may not be sufficient for improving the clinical reasoning skills of students. © 2015 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Investigation of Student Reasoning about Harmonic Motions (United States)

    Tongnopparat, N.; Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    This study aimed to investigate student reasoning about harmonic oscillations. We conducted a semi-structured interview based on three situations of harmonic motions—(1) a mass attaching to spring and horizontally oscillating without damping, (2) the same situation but vertically oscillating and (3) a mass attaching to spring and oscillating in viscous liquid. Forty-five second-year students taking a vibrations and wave course at Chiang Mai University, Thailand participated in a fifteen-minute interview, which was video-recorded. The videos were transcribed and analyzed by three physics instructors. As results, we found that most students had misconceptions about angular frequency and energy mostly in the second and third situations.

  10. Conservation Reasoning Ability and Performance on BSCS Blue Version Examinations. (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Nordland, Floyd H.

    Twenty-three high school biology students were individually administered three conservation tasks (weight, volume, volume displacement). During one semester, they were examined over the course material using published Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Blue Version examination questions which were previously classified as requiring either…

  11. The Analysis of Geometrical Reasoning Ability Viewed from Self-Efficacy on Connected Mathematic Project (CMP Learning Etnomathematics-Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Dwi Damaryanti


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the geometrical reasoning ability of the students viewed from the self-efficacy through the learning of  Connected Mathematic Project (CMP ethnomathematic-based. The type of this research was qualitative which was descriptive. To obtained the validity of the qualitative data, the checking technique used in this research was sources triangulation, which had been done by comparing the suitability of the obtained data from the results of the interview and the test. Population of this research was the students of grade VIII at SMP Negeri 1 Sidoharjo and the sample was the students from VIII A Class. At the final, 12 research subjects were chosen to represent the group of level 1 self-efficacy, level 2 self-efficacy, level 3 self-efficacy, level 4 self efficacy, level 5 self-efficacy, and level 6 self-efficacy. In this research, there was a finding which shows us that the students with high self-efficacy had low ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test, while the students with low self-efficacy had the ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test. The factors which affected the finding were the motivations and the interest of learning mathematics which was affecting the attitude of the students in the classroom.

  12. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills? (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.


    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  13. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.


    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  14. Assessment of Scientific Reasoning: the Effects of Task Context, Data, and Design on Student Reasoning in Control of Variables. (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Han, Jing; Koenig, Kathleen; Raplinger, Amy; Pi, Yuan; Li, Dan; Xiao, Hua; Fu, Zhao; Bao, Lei


    Scientific reasoning is an important component under the cognitive strand of the 21st century skills and is highly emphasized in the new science education standards. This study focuses on the assessment of student reasoning in control of variables (COV), which is a core sub-skill of scientific reasoning. The main research question is to investigate the extent to which the existence of experimental data in questions impacts student reasoning and performance. This study also explores the effects of task contexts on student reasoning as well as students' abilities to distinguish between testability and causal influences of variables in COV experiments. Data were collected with students from both USA and China. Students received randomly one of two test versions, one with experimental data and one without. The results show that students from both populations (1) perform better when experimental data are not provided, (2) perform better in physics contexts than in real-life contexts, and (3) students have a tendency to equate non-influential variables to non-testable variables. In addition, based on the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, a possible progression of developmental levels of student reasoning in control of variables is proposed, which can be used to inform future development of assessment and instruction.

  15. Student reasoning while investigating plant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Näs


    Full Text Available In this project, 10-12 year old students in three classes, investigated plant material to learn more about plants and photosynthesis. The research study was conducted to reveal the students’ scientific reasoning during their work. The eleven different tasks helped students investigate plant anatomy, plant physiology, and the gases involved in photosynthesis and respiration. The study was carried out in three ordinary classrooms. The collected data consisted of audio-taped discussions, students’ notebooks, and field notes. Students’ discussions and written work, during the different plant tasks, were analysed to see how the students’ learning and understanding processes developed. The analysis is descriptive and uses categories from a modified general typology of student’s epistemological reasoning. The study shows students’ level of interest in doing the tasks, their struggle with new words and concepts, and how they develop their knowledge about plant physiology. The study confirms thatstudents, in this age group, develop understanding and show an interest in complicated processes in natural science, e.g. photosynthesis.

  16. Explicitly Targeting Pre-Service Teacher Scientific Reasoning Abilities and Understanding of Nature of Science through an Introductory Science Course (United States)

    Koenig, Kathleen; Schen, Melissa; Bao, Lei


    Development of a scientifically literate citizenry has become a national focus and highlights the need for K-12 students to develop a solid foundation of scientific reasoning abilities and an understanding of nature of science, along with appropriate content knowledge. This implies that teachers must also be competent in these areas; but…

  17. Improving Students' Speaking Ability through Scaffolding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ginaya


    Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process.  The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability

  18. Non-Mathematics Students' Reasoning in Calculus Tasks (United States)

    Jukic Matic, Ljerka


    This paper investigates the reasoning of first year non-mathematics students in non-routine calculus tasks. The students in this study were accustomed to imitative reasoning from their primary and secondary education. In order to move from imitative reasoning toward more creative reasoning, non-routine tasks were implemented as an explicit part of…

  19. Ḥikmah (wisdom pedagogy and students’ thinking and reasoning abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosnani Hashim


    Full Text Available This research drew on the authors’ long experience in the implementation of the “Hikmah Pedagogy” which is based on the Philosophy for Children’s teaching method. Specifically, the study examined the influence of the pedagogy on the participants’ perceptions of and feelings about their thinking and reasoning skills. The sample comprised 188 Malaysian and international students from an international secondary school in Malaysia. This consisted of students in four Grade levels, ranging from Grades 7 to 10. An instrument named “Hikmah Feedback Survey - HFS” was employed for data collection. The findings were supportive of the positive influence of the pedagogy on students’ abilities to think and reason better after experiencing the programme. Furthermore, the participants demonstrated a considerable improvement in their cognitive and social-communicative skills, as evidenced in the scores obtained for the post-programme’s test. This affirms the fact that the ḥikmah pedagogy is highly recommended in Malaysia’s march towards its Vision 2020 developmental goals. Implications of the study were discussed and suggestions were proposed to educators and stakeholders in secondary school education.

  20. Training the elderly on the ability factors of spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. (United States)

    Willis, S L; Schaie, K W


    We examined the effects of cognitive training with elderly participants from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Subjects were classified as having remained stable or having declined over the previous 14-year interval on each of two primary abilities, spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. Subjects who had declined on one of these abilities received training on that ability; subjects who had declined on both abilities or who had remained stable on both were randomly assigned to the spatial orientation or inductive reasoning training programs. Training outcomes were examined within an ability-measurement framework with empirically determined factorial structure. Significant training effects, at the level of the latent ability constructs, occurred for both spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. These effects were general, in that no significant interactions with decline status or gender were found. Thus, training interventions were effective both in remediating cognitive decline on the target abilities and in improving the performance of stable subjects.

  1. Medical students' agenda-setting abilities during medical interviews. (United States)

    Roh, HyeRin; Park, Kyung Hye; Jeon, Young-Jee; Park, Seung Guk; Lee, Jungsun


    Identifying patients' agendas is important; however, the extent of Korean medical students' agenda-setting abilities is unknown. The study aim was to investigate the patterns of Korean medical students' agenda solicitation. A total of 94 third-year medical students participated. One scenario involving a female patient with abdominal pain was created. Students were video-recorded as they interviewed the patient. To analyze whether students identify patients' reasons for visiting, a checklist was developed based on a modified version of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to the Medical Interview: Communication Process checklist. The duration of the patient's initial statement of concerns was measured in seconds. The total number of patient concerns expressed before interruption and the types of interruption effected by the medical students were determined. The medical students did not explore the patients' concerns and did not negotiate an agenda. Interruption of the patient's opening statement occurred in 4.62±2.20 seconds. The most common type of initial interruption was a recompleter (79.8%). Closed-ended questions were the most common question type in the second and third interruptions. Agenda setting should be emphasized in the communication skills curriculum of medical students. The Korean Clinical Skills Exam must assess medical students' ability to set an agenda.

  2. Scientific reasoning profile of junior secondary school students on the concept of static fluid (United States)

    Mariana, N.; Siahaan, P.; Utari, S.


    Scientific reasoning is one of the most important ability. This study aims to determine the profile of scientific reasoning of junior high school students about the concept of static fluid. This research uses a descriptive method with a quantitative approach to get an idea about the scientific reasoning of One Roof Junior Secondary School Student Kotabaru Reteh in Riau. The technique of collecting data is done by test of scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning capability refers to Furtak’s EBR (Evidence Based Reasoning) scientific reasoning indicator that contains the components of claims, data, evidence, and rules. The result obtained on each element of scientific reasoning is 35% claim, 23% data, 21% evidence and 17% rule. The conclusions of this research that scientific reasoning of Satu Atap Junior Secondary School student Kotabaru Reteh, Riau Province still in the low category.

  3. Covariation of learning and "reasoning" abilities in mice: evolutionary conservation of the operations of intelligence. (United States)

    Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Chris; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Smith, Andrew M; Matzel, Louis D


    Contemporary descriptions of human intelligence hold that this trait influences a broad range of cognitive abilities, including learning, attention, and reasoning. Like humans, individual genetically heterogeneous mice express a "general" cognitive trait that influences performance across a diverse array of learning and attentional tasks, and it has been suggested that this trait is qualitatively and structurally analogous to general intelligence in humans. However, the hallmark of human intelligence is the ability to use various forms of "reasoning" to support solutions to novel problems. Here, we find that genetically heterogeneous mice are capable of solving problems that are nominally indicative of inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, and that individuals' capacity for reasoning covaries with more general learning abilities. Mice were characterized for their general learning ability as determined by their aggregate performance (derived from principal component analysis) across a battery of five diverse learning tasks. These animals were then assessed on prototypic tests indicative of deductive reasoning (inferring the meaning of a novel item by exclusion, i.e., "fast mapping") and inductive reasoning (execution of an efficient search strategy in a binary decision tree). The animals exhibited systematic abilities on each of these nominal reasoning tasks that were predicted by their aggregate performance on the battery of learning tasks. These results suggest that the coregulation of reasoning and general learning performance in genetically heterogeneous mice form a core cognitive trait that is analogous to human intelligence. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Fronto-Parietal Network Reconfiguration Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability. (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A


    The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12-18-year olds. For 9-11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6-8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Improving University Students' Perception of Mathematics and Mathematics Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly L. Wismath


    Full Text Available Although mathematical and quantitative reasoning skills are an essential part of adult life in our society, many students arrive at post-secondary education without such skills. Taking a standard mathematics course such as calculus may do little to improve those skills. Using a modification of the Tapia & Marsh questionnaire, we surveyed 62 students taking a broad quantitative reasoning course designed to develop quantitative skills, with respect to two broad attitudinal areas: students’ perception of their own ability, confidence and anxiety, and their perception of the value of mathematics in their studies and their lives. Pre- to post-course comparisons were done by both paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Our results showed a significant increase in confidence and decrease in anxiety, while perception of the value of mathematics was already high and changed little by the end of the course.

  6. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk


    The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

  7. Implications of a framework for student reasoning in an interview (United States)

    Gray, Kara E.; Hrepic, Zdeslav; Itza-Ortiz, Salomon F.; Allbaugh, Alicia R.; Engelhardt, Paula V.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Zollman, Dean A.


    We discuss the implications of a framework to characterize student reasoning in an interview and its underpinnings in cognitive psychology. Our framework, described in a previous paper in these Proceedings, enables a researcher to identify various cognitive elements used by a student during an interview. Our thesis is that this framework can help identify reasoning paths used by the students. We discuss how this framework can be applied to both a coarse and fine grained analysis of reasoning and how it can be used to infer a student's implicit reasoning processes.

  8. The Moral Reasoning of Sports Management Students in the United States and Italy (United States)

    Forte, Almerinda


    The researcher analyzed the moral reasoning ability of Sports Management students in the United States and Italy. The researcher statistically analyzed data collected through a survey questionnaire designed to measure moral reasoning. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) developed by James Rest using Kohlberg's six stages of moral judgment was used in…

  9. Promoting Middle School Students' Proportional Reasoning Skills through an Ongoing Professional Development Programme for Teachers (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn


    Proportional reasoning, the ability to use ratios in situations involving comparison of quantities, is essential for mathematical competence, especially in the middle school years, and is an important determinant of success beyond school. Research shows students find proportional reasoning and its foundational concepts difficult. Proportional…

  10. Improvement of metacognitive skills and students’ reasoning ability through problem-based learning (United States)

    Haryani, S.; Masfufah; Wijayati, N.; Kurniawan, C.


    The aim of this research is to know the influence of PBL application to the improvement of metacognitive skill and students’ reasoning ability on Constanta solubility product (Ksp). The research used mix method with concurrent triangulation strategy and pretest-posttest control group design. Metacognitive skills are known from the results of written tests and questionnaires with N-Gain analysis, t-test, whereas reasoning ability is known from observations and interviews with descriptive analysis. The results showed that the N-Gain effect of PBL on metacognitive skills is 0,59 with medium category and N-Gain value of PBL influence on reasoning ability is 0.71 with the high category. The steps in the PBL affect the metacognitive skills and can train learners to develop their reasoning skills in the solving problems.

  11. A Framework for Assessing High School Students' Statistical Reasoning. (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Ismail, Zaleha; Sumintono, Bambang


    Based on a synthesis of literature, earlier studies, analyses and observations on high school students, this study developed an initial framework for assessing students' statistical reasoning about descriptive statistics. Framework descriptors were established across five levels of statistical reasoning and four key constructs. The former consisted of idiosyncratic reasoning, verbal reasoning, transitional reasoning, procedural reasoning, and integrated process reasoning. The latter include describing data, organizing and reducing data, representing data, and analyzing and interpreting data. In contrast to earlier studies, this initial framework formulated a complete and coherent statistical reasoning framework. A statistical reasoning assessment tool was then constructed from this initial framework. The tool was administered to 10 tenth-grade students in a task-based interview. The initial framework was refined, and the statistical reasoning assessment tool was revised. The ten students then participated in the second task-based interview, and the data obtained were used to validate the framework. The findings showed that the students' statistical reasoning levels were consistent across the four constructs, and this result confirmed the framework's cohesion. Developed to contribute to statistics education, this newly developed statistical reasoning framework provides a guide for planning learning goals and designing instruction and assessments.

  12. Developmental Differences in Relational Reasoning among Primary and Secondary School Students (United States)

    Jablansky, Sophie; Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Compton, Vicki


    Relational reasoning, the ability to discern meaningful patterns within a stream of information, is considered a critical capacity for students. However, little is known about how this ability is demonstrated by children of different ages in the context of discourse with a more knowledgeable other. Thus, this study sought to investigate the ways…

  13. Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses (United States)

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.


    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy) are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.

  14. Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Moore


    Full Text Available We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.

  15. Reasons for Synthetic THC Use among College Students (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Burbage, Michelle L.


    Synthetic THC, also known as fake marijuana, is used by college students in the United States. The present study examined reasons for recent synthetic THC use among college students (N = 339). Students completed a 3-page survey during regularly scheduled class times. Results indicated students reported using synthetic THC for curiosity, to get…

  16. Enhancing inferential abilities in adolescence: new hope for students in poverty. (United States)

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Motes, Michael M; Riddle, Russell; Lyon, G Reid; Spence, Jeffrey S; Chapman, Sandra B


    The ability to extrapolate essential gist through the analysis and synthesis of information, prediction of potential outcomes, abstraction of ideas, and integration of relationships with world knowledge is critical for higher-order learning. The present study investigated the efficacy of cognitive training to elicit improvements in gist reasoning and fact recall ability in 556 public middle school students (grades seven and eight), vs. a sample of 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group, to determine if changes in gist reasoning and fact recall were demonstrated without cognitive training. The results showed that, in general, cognitive training increased gist reasoning and fact recall abilities in students from families in poverty as well as students from families living above poverty. However, the magnitude of gains in gist reasoning varied as a function of gender and grade level. Our primary findings were that seventh and eighth grade girls and eighth grade boys showed significant increases in gist reasoning after training regardless of socioeconomic status (SES). There were no significant increases in gist reasoning or fact recall ability for the 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group. We postulate that cognitive training in middle school is efficacious for improving gist reasoning ability and fact recall in students from all socioeconomic levels.

  17. Enhancing Inferential Abilities in Adolescence: New Hope for Students in Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn F Gamino


    Full Text Available The ability to extrapolate essential gist through the analysis and synthesis of information, prediction of potential outcomes, abstraction of ideas, and integration of relationships with world knowledge is critical for higher-order learning. The present study investigated the efficacy of cognitive training to elicit improvements in gist-reasoning and fact recall ability in 556 public middle-school students (grades seven and eight, versus a sample of 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group, to determine if changes in gist-reasoning and fact recall were demonstrated without cognitive training. The results showed that, in general, cognitive training increased gist-reasoning and fact recall abilities in students from families in poverty as well as students from families living above poverty. However, the magnitude of gains in gist-reasoning varied as a function of gender and grade-level. Our primary findings were that seventh and eighth grade girls and eighth grade boys showed significant increases in gist-reasoning after training regardless of socioeconomic status. There were no significant increases in gist-reasoning or fact recall ability for the 357 middle school students who served in the comparison group. We postulate that cognitive training in middle school is efficacious for improving gist-reasoning ability and fact recall in students from all socioeconomic levels.

  18. Truth Matters: Teaching Young Students to Search for the Most Reasonable Answer (United States)

    Reznitskaya, Alina; Wilkinson, Ian A. G.


    Learning how to formulate, comprehend, and evaluate arguments is an essential part of helping students develop the ability to make better, more reasonable judgments. The Common Core identified argumentation as a fundamental life skill that is broadly important for the literate person. According to the authors, having students engage in an inquiry…

  19. Middle School Students' Reasoning about 3-Dimensional Objects: A Case Study (United States)

    Okumus, Samet


    According to the National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (NCTM) (2000), K-12 students should be given an opportunity to develop their spatial reasoning abilities. One of the topics that may allow students to develop their spatial skills is forming 3-dimensional objects using spinning and extrusion methods. Also, extrusion and spinning methods…

  20. The Most Reasonable Answer: Helping Students Build Better Arguments Together (United States)

    Reznitskaya, Alina; Wilkinson, Ian A. G.


    "The Most Reasonable Answer" is an innovative and comprehensive guide to engaging students in inquiry dialogue--a type of talk used in text-based classroom discussions. During inquiry dialogue, students collectively search for the most reasonable answers to big, controversial questions, and, as a result, enhance their argumentation…

  1. Investigating Students' Reasoning about Acid-Base Reactions (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Kouyoumdjian, Hovig; Underwood, Sonia M.


    Acid-base chemistry is central to a wide range of reactions. If students are able to understand how and why acid-base reactions occur, it should provide a basis for reasoning about a host of other reactions. Here, we report the development of a method to characterize student reasoning about acid-base reactions based on their description of…

  2. Undergraduate Students' Quantitative Reasoning in Economic Contexts (United States)

    Mkhatshwa, Thembinkosi Peter; Doerr, Helen M.


    Contributing to a growing body of research on undergraduate students' quantitative reasoning, the study reported in this article used task-based interviews to investigate business calculus students' quantitative reasoning when solving two optimization tasks situated in the context of revenue and profit maximization. Analysis of verbal responses…

  3. Self-Reported Reasons for Why College Students Drink. (United States)

    Klein, Hugh


    Surveyed 526 on-campus college students about their reasons for drinking alcoholic beverages. Results indicated that students reported drinking because they liked the taste of alcohol and because drinking helped them celebrate special occasions. Negative or disintegrative reasons were endorsed rarely, and then usually by males, Greek organization…

  4. Engaging students in learning science through promoting creative reasoning (United States)

    Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan


    Student engagement in learning science is both a desirable goal and a long-standing teacher challenge. Moving beyond engagement understood as transient topic interest, we argue that cognitive engagement entails sustained interaction in the processes of how knowledge claims are generated, judged, and shared in this subject. In this paper, we particularly focus on the initial claim-building aspect of this reasoning as a crucial phase in student engagement. In reviewing the literature on student reasoning and argumentation, we note that the well-established frameworks for claim-judging are not matched by accounts of creative reasoning in claim-building. We develop an exploratory framework to characterise and enact this reasoning to enhance engagement. We then apply this framework to interpret two lessons by two science teachers where they aimed to develop students' reasoning capabilities to support learning.

  5. Morphometry of Left Frontal and Temporal Poles Predicts Analogical Reasoning Abilities. (United States)

    Aichelburg, Clarisse; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Humbert, Frederic; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle


    Analogical reasoning is critical for making inferences and adapting to novelty. It can be studied experimentally using tasks that require creating similarities between situations or concepts, i.e., when their constituent elements share a similar organization or structure. Brain correlates of analogical reasoning have mostly been explored using functional imaging that has highlighted the involvement of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) in healthy subjects. However, whether inter-individual variability in analogical reasoning ability in a healthy adult population is related to differences in brain architecture is unknown. We investigated this question by employing linear regression models of performance in analogy tasks and voxel-based morphometry in 54 healthy subjects. Our results revealed that the ability to reason by analogy was associated with structural variability in the left rlPFC and the anterior part of the inferolateral temporal cortex. Tractography of diffusion-weighted images suggested that these 2 regions have a different set of connections but may exchange information via the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest that enhanced integrative and semantic abilities supported by structural variation in these areas (or their connectivity) may lead to more efficient analogical reasoning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  6. The Facilitatory Effect of Negative Feedback on the Emergence of Analogical Reasoning Abilities (United States)

    Ball, Linden J.; Hoyle, Alison M.; Towse, Andrea S.


    This paper focuses on the development of analogical reasoning abilities in 5- and 6-year-old children. Our particular interest relates to the way in which analogizing is influenced by the provision of task-based feedback coupled with a self-explanation requirement. Both feedback and self-explanation provide children with opportunities to engage in…

  7. Teaching towards historical expertise : Developing students’ ability to reason causally in history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, G.L.


    Explaining historical events is an important goal in history education, but not much is known about pedagogical approaches to support this reasoning. In this dissertation, we therefore developed and investigated a learning-environment intended to foster students’ ability for causal historical

  8. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective (United States)

    Erskine, Michael A.


    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  9. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach (United States)

    Kühhirt, Michael; Klein, Markus


    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of…

  10. Effects of mathematics computer games on special education students’ multiplicative reasoning ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355337770; Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069266255; Robitzsch, Alexander


    This study examined the effects of a teacher-delivered intervention with online math-ematics mini-games on special education students’ multiplicative reasoning ability(multiplication and division). The games involved declarative, procedural, as well asconceptual knowledge of multiplicative

  11. Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni M. Lakin


    Full Text Available The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate sex differences. Existing sex differences work on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT has analyzed manifest variables, leaving open questions about sex differences in latent narrow cognitive abilities and the underlying broad ability of fluid reasoning (Gf. This study attempted to address these questions. A confirmatory bifactor model was used to estimate Gf and three residual narrow ability factors (verbal, quantitative, and figural. We found that latent mean differences were larger than manifest estimates for all three narrow abilities. However, mean differences in Gf were trivial, consistent with previous research. In estimating group variances, the Gf factor showed substantially greater male variability (around 20% greater. The narrow abilities varied: verbal reasoning showed small variability differences while quantitative and figural showed substantial differences in variance (up to 60% greater. These results add precision and nuance to the study of the variability and masking hypothesis.

  12. Item Response Theory in the context of Improving Student Reasoning (United States)

    Goddard, Chase; Davis, Jeremy; Pyper, Brian


    We are interested to see if Item Response Theory can help to better inform the development of reasoning ability in introductory physics. A first pass through our latest batch of data from the Heat and Temperature Conceptual Evaluation, the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, and the Epistemological Beliefs About Physics Survey may help in this effort.

  13. Prospective Teachers Proportional Reasoning and Presumption of Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyem Sapti


    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the proportional reasoning of prospective teachers and their predictions about students' answers. Subjects were 4 prospective teacher  7th semester Department of Mathematics Education, Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo. Proportional reasoning task used to obtain research data. Subjects were asked to explain their reasoning and write predictions of student completion. Data was taken on October 15th, 2014. Interviews were conducted after the subjects completed the task and recorded with audio media. The research data were subject written work and interview transcripts. Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. In solving the proportional reasoning task, subjects using the cross product. However, they understand the meaning of the cross product. Subject also could predict students' reasoning on the matter.

  14. "Can You Tell Me More?" Student Journaling and Reasoning (United States)

    Yow, Jan A.


    Journals provide a history of each student's thinking over time and allow this history to be easy to review. Journaling in mathematics has been found to be a valuable tool both for students and for teachers. Students benefit from journaling because it advances their mathematical understanding and ability to communicate in mathematics; teachers…

  15. Reasons of tutoring Phenomena among Secondary Stage Students


    Mustafa Ayroutt; Heba hammad


    Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons of tutoring phenomena among secondary stage students in Amman City as perceived by School Principals. Approach: The sample of the study consisted of (117 male principals and 57 female principals). Results: The evaluations of principals regarding tutoring reasons were high, factors related to students came first, followed by the factors related to the family while the factors related to the cur...

  16. Practicing a musical instrument in childhood is associated with enhanced verbal ability and nonverbal reasoning. (United States)

    Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried


    In this study we investigated the association between instrumental music training in childhood and outcomes closely related to music training as well as those more distantly related. Children who received at least three years (M = 4.6 years) of instrumental music training outperformed their control counterparts on two outcomes closely related to music (auditory discrimination abilities and fine motor skills) and on two outcomes distantly related to music (vocabulary and nonverbal reasoning skills). Duration of training also predicted these outcomes. Contrary to previous research, instrumental music training was not associated with heightened spatial skills, phonemic awareness, or mathematical abilities. While these results are correlational only, the strong predictive effect of training duration suggests that instrumental music training may enhance auditory discrimination, fine motor skills, vocabulary, and nonverbal reasoning. Alternative explanations for these results are discussed.

  17. Fallacious Argumentation in Student Reasoning: Are There Benefits? (United States)

    Mueller, Mary; Yankelewitz, Dina


    This article reports on an analysis of episodes of invalid or controversial arguments that occurred while two different groups of students worked on similar fraction tasks and examine the role that these types of arguments played in the development of students' reasoning. One group consisted of suburban, middle-class, fourth graders who worked on…

  18. An Inquiry-Based Quantitative Reasoning Course for Business Students (United States)

    Piercey, Victor; Militzer, Erin


    Quantitative Reasoning for Business is a two-semester sequence that serves as an alternative to elementary and intermediate algebra for first-year business students with weak mathematical preparation. Students who take the sequence have been retained at a higher rate and demonstrated a larger reduction in math anxiety than those who take the…

  19. Impacts of Socratic questioning on moral reasoning of nursing students. (United States)

    Torabizadeh, Camellia; Homayuni, Leyla; Moattari, Marzieh


    Nurses are often faced with complex situations that made them to make ethical decisions; and to make such decisions, they need to possess the power of moral reasoning. Studies in Iran show that the majority of nursing students lack proper ethical development. Socratic teaching is a student-centered method which is strongly opposed to the lecturing method. This study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of Socratic questioning on the moral reasoning of the nursing students. In a quasi-experimental study, Crisham's Nursing Dilemma Test was used to evaluate the results of three groups before, immediately after, and 2 months after intervention. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v 15). Participants and research context: Through random allocation, 103 nursing students were divided into three groups. In experiment group 1 (37 students), intervention consisted of Socratic questioning-based sessions on ethics and how to deal with moral dilemmas; experiment group 2 (33 students) attended a 4-h workshop; and the control group (33 students) was not subject to any interventions. Signed informed consent forms: This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University. All the participants signed written informed consents. There were significant differences between experiment group 1 and experiment group 2's pre-test and post-test scores on moral reasoning (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), nursing principled thinking (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), and practical considerations (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.031). Both the teaching approaches improved the subjects' moral reasoning; however, Socratic questioning proved more effective than lecturing. Compared to other similar studies in Iran and other countries, the students had inadequate moral reasoning competence. This study confirms the need for the development of an efficient course on ethics in the nursing curriculum. Also, it appears that Socratic questioning is an effective method to teach nursing ethics

  20. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Bhattacharya, D.; Garg, Mohan L.; Khushu, Subash


    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, D. [Base Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Delhi Cantt (India); Garg, Mohan L. [Panjab University, Department of Biophysics, Chandigarh (India); Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); INMAS, DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India)


    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  2. Group Work, Students' Reading Ability, And Motivation


    Wahidah, Farah Sukmawati


    Teachers must be able to cooperate with their students in the class to make the teaching and learning activities enjoyable. A good teacher has to use appropriate strategies to make his or her students fluent readers. Teachers also have to make students feel comfortable so that they can achieve the objective of the teaching and learning activities. Responding to the problems and considering the factors causing them, the researcher taught that the best way to improve the students' reading abili...

  3. Patterns of Reasoning about Ecological Systemic Reasoning for Early Elementary Students (United States)

    Hokayem, H.


    Systems and system models are recognized as a crosscutting concept in the newly released framework for K-12 science education (NRC [National Research Council], 2012). In previous work, I developed a learning progression for systemic reasoning in ecology at the elementary level. The learning progression captured five levels of students' reasoning…

  4. Using Discourse Analysis to Understand Variation in Students' Reasoning from Accepted Ways of Reasoning (United States)

    Gruver, John


    In this study, I use a systemic functional linguistics approach to examine mathematics classroom discourse with the aim of providing a plausible explanation of how students could actively participate in productive classroom discussions without adopting ways of reasoning that were accepted in the classroom community. In this way, I work in the…

  5. Teaching for clinical reasoning - helping students make the conceptual links. (United States)

    McMillan, Wendy Jayne


    Dental educators complain that students struggle to apply what they have learnt theoretically in the clinical context. This paper is premised on the assumption that there is a relationship between conceptual thinking and clinical reasoning. The paper provides a theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between conceptual learning and clinical reasoning. A review of current literature is used to explain the way in which conceptual understanding influences clinical reasoning and the transfer of theoretical understandings to the clinical context. The paper argues that the connections made between concepts are what is significant about conceptual understanding. From this point of departure the paper describes teaching strategies that facilitate the kinds of learning opportunities that students need in order to develop conceptual understanding and to be able to transfer knowledge from theoretical to clinical contexts. Along with a variety of teaching strategies, the value of concept maps is discussed. The paper provides a framework for understanding the difficulties that students have in developing conceptual networks appropriate for later clinical reasoning. In explaining how students learn for clinical application, the paper provides a theoretical framework that can inform how dental educators facilitate the conceptual learning, and later clinical reasoning, of their students.

  6. Analyzing High School Students' Reasoning about Electromagnetic Induction (United States)

    Jelicic, Katarina; Planinic, Maja; Planinsic, Gorazd


    Electromagnetic induction is an important, yet complex, physics topic that is a part of Croatian high school curriculum. Nine Croatian high school students of different abilities in physics were interviewed using six demonstration experiments from electromagnetism (three of them concerned the topic of electromagnetic induction). Students were…

  7. Growing geometric reasoning in solving problems of analytical geometry through the mathematical communication problems to state Islamic university students (United States)

    Mujiasih; Waluya, S. B.; Kartono; Mariani


    Skills in working on the geometry problems great needs of the competence of Geometric Reasoning. As a teacher candidate, State Islamic University (UIN) students need to have the competence of this Geometric Reasoning. When the geometric reasoning in solving of geometry problems has grown well, it is expected the students are able to write their ideas to be communicative for the reader. The ability of a student's mathematical communication is supposed to be used as a marker of the growth of their Geometric Reasoning. Thus, the search for the growth of geometric reasoning in solving of analytic geometry problems will be characterized by the growth of mathematical communication abilities whose work is complete, correct and sequential, especially in writing. Preceded with qualitative research, this article was the result of a study that explores the problem: Was the search for the growth of geometric reasoning in solving analytic geometry problems could be characterized by the growth of mathematical communication abilities? The main activities in this research were done through a series of activities: (1) Lecturer trains the students to work on analytic geometry problems that were not routine and algorithmic process but many problems that the process requires high reasoning and divergent/open ended. (2) Students were asked to do the problems independently, in detail, complete, order, and correct. (3) Student answers were then corrected each its stage. (4) Then taken 6 students as the subject of this research. (5) Research subjects were interviewed and researchers conducted triangulation. The results of this research, (1) Mathematics Education student of UIN Semarang, had adequate the mathematical communication ability, (2) the ability of this mathematical communication, could be a marker of the geometric reasoning in solving of problems, and (3) the geometric reasoning of UIN students had grown in a category that tends to be good.

  8. Five reasons for the lack of nursing students' motivation to learn public health. (United States)

    Kudo, Yasushi; Hayashi, Sachiko; Yoshimura, Emiko; Tsunoda, Masashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shibuya, Akitaka; Aizawa, Yoshiharu


    Prevention is better than cure. Public health plays an important role in promoting prevent medicine. To obtain the abilities to provide appropriate nursing services, learning public health is necessary for students who want to become registered nurses. When teachers teach public health to nursing students, it is important to motivate them to learn it. Therefore, we investigated the reasons for the lack of motivation to learn public health by conducting a questionnaire survey. The subjects were female nursing students in 29 vocational schools in Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures of Japan that allow graduation after a 3-year study period. We asked the students whether or not they had completed the subject of public health and analyzed those students who answered affirmatively. We analyzed 1,553 respondents whose average age was 22.6 ± 5.2 years (range, 18 to 45). Using factor analysis, we discovered the 5 reasons that lead to the lack of nursing students' motivation to learn public health: "Difficulties acquiring knowledge of public health," "Inappropriate attitudes of public health teachers," "Thinking lightly about the national examination in the field of public health," "Lack of understanding the importance of learning public health," and "Future plans that do not specialize in public health." Using multiple linear regression analysis, these 5 reasons were significant predictors for the lack of students' motivation. Older students also had significantly less motivation to learn public health than did younger students. When teachers instruct their students, they should teach public health better with the present knowledge.

  9. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach. (United States)

    Kühhirt, Michael; Klein, Markus


    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores. The findings suggest only modest differences in the above ability measures between children who have been exposed to very different patterns of eary maternal employment, but with similar observed covariate history. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Identifying developmental features in students' clinical reasoning to inform teaching. (United States)

    Pinnock, Ralph; Anakin, Megan; Lawrence, Julie; Chignell, Helen; Wilkinson, Tim


    There is increasing evidence that students at different levels of training may benefit from different methods of learning clinical reasoning. Two of the common methods of teaching are the "whole - case" format and the "serial cue" approach. There is little empirical evidence to guide teachers as to which method to use and when to introduce them. We observed 23 students from different stages of training to examine how they were taking a history and how they were thinking whilst doing this. Each student interviewed a simulated patient who presented with a straightforward and a complex presentation. We inferred how students were reasoning from how they took a history and how they described their thinking while doing this. Early in their training students can only take a generic history. Only later in training are they able to take a focused history, remember the information they have gathered, use it to seek further specific information, compare and contrast possibilities and analyze their data as they are collecting it. Early in their training students are unable to analyze data during history taking. When they have started developing illness scripts, they are able to benefit from the "serial cue" approach of teaching clinical reasoning.

  11. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda


    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  12. College Students' Reasons for Depression Nondisclosure in Primary Care (United States)

    Meyer, William J.; Morrison, Patrick; Lombardero, Anayansi; Swingle, Kelsey; Campbell, Duncan G.


    Unwillingness to share depression experiences with primary care physicians contributes to the undertreatment of depression. This project examined college students' reasons for depression nondisclosure to primary care providers (PCPs). Undergraduate participants read a vignette describing someone with depression and completed measures of disclosure…

  13. Taking It to the Next Level: Students Using Inductive Reasoning (United States)

    Murawska, Jaclyn M.; Zollman, Alan


    Although discussions about inductive reasoning can be traced back thousands of years (Fitelson 2011), the implementation of the Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP) within the Common Core State Standards (CCSSI 2010) is generating renewed attention to how students learn mathematics. The third SMP, "Construct viable arguments and critique…

  14. The Perceptions of Elementary Students about the Reasons for Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Kartal


    Full Text Available A person is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly and over time to negative actions on the part of one or more persons. Incidents of bullying are frequent occurrences for many children at school. This study was intended to investigate the perceptions of the elementary students about the reasons for bullying in the school. For this purpose 688 students from 4-8th. Grades of an elementary school were given a questionnaire “Colorado School Climate Survey”. The data was analyzed in terms of frequencies and percentiles. The results revealed that the most frequently reported reason was being physically weak (for bullies 56.5%, bullyvictims 52.9%, victims 48.6%, being fat (for victims bully-victims 45.1%, victims 42.6% and being poor (for bully-victims 43.2%, victims 41.5%, neither bully nor victims 39.4%. Almost half of the girls reported that the reasons of bullying are being short, being poor and being fat. Boys reported these reasons physical weakness, being fat and being skinny. According to neither bullies nor victims the reasons of bullying are physical weakness, poorness, and bad wearing. Victims also reported that first reason is physical weakness. Bullies reported that children without friends, short and poor children mostly bullied. Bully/victims again talked about physical weakness

  15. Context and clinical reasoning : Understanding the medical student perspective. (United States)

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Schuwirth, Lambert; O'Neill, Daniel; Meyer, Holly; Madden, Shelby J; Durning, Steven J


    Studies have shown that a physician's clinical reasoning performance can be influenced by contextual factors. We explored how the clinical reasoning performance of medical students was impacted by contextual factors in order to expand upon previous findings in resident and board certified physicians. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of medical students in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors has on their reasoning performance. Seventeen medical student participants viewed three video recordings of clinical encounters portraying straightforward diagnostic cases in internal medicine with explicit contextual factors inserted. Participants completed a computerized post-encounter form as well as a think-aloud protocol. Three authors analyzed verbatim transcripts from the think-aloud protocols using a constant comparative approach. After iterative coding, utterances were analyzed and grouped into categories and themes. Six categories and ten associated themes emerged, which demonstrated overlap with findings from previous studies in resident and attending physicians. Four overlapping categories included emotional disturbances, behavioural inferences about the patient, doctor-patient relationship, and difficulty with closure. Two new categories emerged to include anchoring and misinterpretation of data. The presence of contextual factors appeared to impact clinical reasoning performance in medical students. The data suggest that a contextual factor can be innate to the clinical scenario, consistent with situated cognition theory. These findings build upon our understanding of clinical reasoning performance from both a theoretical and practical perspective.

  16. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa


    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  17. Students' Experiences of Ability-Based Streaming in Vocational Education (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Nielsen, Klaus; Jørgensen, Christian Helms


    Purpose: Since 2007, it has been mandatory for all vocational schools in Denmark to assess the prior qualifications of all students when they begin at the school and to use this assessment to divide students into different ability-based courses (streaming) with the aim of increasing the retention of students. The purpose of this paper is to…

  18. Profile of student critical thinking ability on static fluid concept (United States)

    Sulasih; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto


    Critical thinking ability is an important part of educational goals. It has higher complex processes, such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflection. This study is aimed to know the critical thinking ability of students in learning static fluids of senior high school students. This research uses the descriptive method which its instruments based on the indicator of critical thinking ability developed according to Ennis. The population of this research is XIth grade science class Public Senior High School, SMA N 1, Sambungmacan, Sragen, Central Java. The static fluid teaching material is delivered using Problem Based Learning Model through class experiment. The results of this study shows that the average student of XIth science class have high critical thinking skills, particularly in the ability of providing simple explanation, build basic skill, and provide advanced explanation, but they do not have high enough in ability of drawing conclusion and strategic and tactical components of critical thinking ability in the study of static fluid teaching material. The average of students critical thinking ability is 72.94, with 27,94% of students are in a low category and 72,22% of students in the high category of critical thinking ability.

  19. Coping with examinations: exploring relationships between students' coping strategies, implicit theories of ability, and perceived control. (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine


    Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.

  20. Developing a Construct-Based Assessment to Examine Students' Analogical Reasoning around Physical Models in Earth Science (United States)

    Rivet, Ann E.; Kastens, Kim A.


    In recent years, science education has placed increasing importance on learners' mastery of scientific reasoning. This growing emphasis presents a challenge for both developers and users of assessments. We report on our effort around the conceptualization, development, and testing the validity of an assessment of students' ability to reason around…

  1. A practice course to cultivate students' comprehensive ability of photoelectricity (United States)

    Lv, Yong; Liu, Yang; Niu, Chunhui; Liu, Lishuang


    After the studying of many theoretical courses, it's important and urgent for the students from specialty of optoelectronic information science and engineering to cultivate their comprehensive ability of photoelectricity. We set up a comprehensive practice course named "Integrated Design of Optoelectronic Information System" (IDOIS) for the purpose that students can integrate their knowledge of optics, electronics and computer programming to design, install and debug an optoelectronic system with independent functions. Eight years of practice shows that this practice course can train students' ability of analysis, design/development and debugging of photoelectric system, improve their ability in document retrieval, design proposal and summary report writing, teamwork, innovation consciousness and skill.

  2. Familial and individual reasons for student dropout: Schools’ perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videnović Marina


    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to identify individual and familial factors students cite as the reasons for dropping out of school or being at the risk of doing so. We interviewed a total of twelve students who dropped out of school or are at the risk of dropping out of primary (six students or secondary school (six students and four parents. A semi-structured interview was used. We singled out four categories of students, determined by their perception of the reasons for dropping out of school. Those categories included: underage pregnancy, assuming a parental role, problematic behaviour (thefts, fights and weak motivation for school and learning. It seems justified to look for a typology of dropout cases since each of the selected groups of students requires specific preventive measures in order to secure continuation of their education. Furthermore, research has shown that, when it comes to their children dropping out of school, parents tend to blame the child’s character traits they deem unchangeable. The failure of school staff to help the child further encourages this belief in parents.

  3. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention. (United States)

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney


    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.

  4. Secondary School Students' Understanding of Science and Their Socioscientific Reasoning (United States)

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian


    Research in socioscientific issue (SSI)-based interventions is relatively new (Sadler in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41:513-536, 2004; Zeidler et al. in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 46:74-101, 2009), and there is a need for understanding more about the effects of SSI-based learning environments (Sadler in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41:513-536, 2004). Lee and Witz (International Journal of Science Education 31:931-960, 2009) highlighted the need for detailed case studies that would focus on how students respond to teachers' practices of teaching SSI. This study presents case studies that investigated the development of secondary school students' science understanding and their socioscientific reasoning within SSI-based learning environments. A multiple case study with embedded units of analysis was implemented for this research because of the contextual differences for each case. The findings of the study revealed that students' understanding of science, including scientific method, social and cultural influences on science, and scientific bias, was strongly influenced by their experiences in SSI-based learning environments. Furthermore, multidimensional SSI-based science classes resulted in students having multiple reasoning modes, such as ethical and economic reasoning, compared to data-driven SSI-based science classes. In addition to portraying how participants presented complexity, perspectives, inquiry, and skepticism as aspects of socioscientific reasoning (Sadler et al. in Research in Science Education 37:371-391, 2007), this study proposes the inclusion of three additional aspects for the socioscientific reasoning theoretical construct: (1) identification of social domains affecting the SSI, (2) using cost and benefit analysis for evaluation of claims, and (3) understanding that SSIs and scientific studies around them are context-bound.

  5. Ability grouping of gifted students: effects on academic self-concept and boredom. (United States)

    Preckel, Franzis; Götz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne


    Securing appropriate challenge or preventing boredom is one of the reasons frequently used to justify ability grouping of gifted students, which has been shown to have beneficial effects for achievement. On the other hand, critics stress psychosocial costs, such as detrimental effects on academic self-concept (contrast or big-fish-little-pond effect). The effects of full-time ability grouping in special classrooms for the gifted on students' academic self-concept and their experience of boredom in mathematics classes were investigated. The sample comprised 186 ninth-grade students (106 male) from eight classes at one Austrian high school. Four of these classes were part of a gifted track beginning from school year 9 on (N=93). Students were assessed repeatedly within the first half of the school year, three times via self-report questionnaires and once by applying a standardized IQ-test. Students in gifted classes reported a decrease in maths academic self-concept which was most pronounced early in the academic year. Interventions to counterbalance the negative effect of exposure to a high-ability reference group should therefore be implemented when ability grouping begins. No evidence for the boredom hypothesis was found (higher levels of boredom among gifted students in regular classes). However, students clearly differed in the reasons they stated for experiencing boredom. Boredom attributions changed over time and supported the assumption that gifted classes provide more appropriate levels of challenge.

  6. University Students' Problem Posing Abilities and Attitudes towards Mathematics. (United States)

    Grundmeier, Todd A.


    Explores the problem posing abilities and attitudes towards mathematics of students in a university pre-calculus class and a university mathematical proof class. Reports a significant difference in numeric posing versus non-numeric posing ability in both classes. (Author/MM)

  7. Conjecturing via analogical reasoning constructs ordinary students into like gifted student (United States)

    Supratman; Ratnaningsih, N.; Ryane, S.


    The purpose of this study is to reveal the development of knowledge of ordinary students to be like gifted students in the classroom based on Piaget's theory. In exposing it, students are given an open problem of classical analogy. Researchers explore students who conjecture via analogical reasoning in problem solving. Of the 32 students, through the method of think out loud and the interview was completed: 25 students conjecture via analogical reasoning. Of the 25 students, all of them have almost the same character in problem solving/knowledge construction. For that, a student is taken to analyze the thinking process while solving the problem/construction of knowledge based on Piaget's theory. Based on Piaget's theory in the development of the same knowledge, gifted students and ordinary students have similar structures in final equilibrium. They begin processing: assimilation and accommodation of problem, strategies, and relationships.

  8. Correlation, necessity, and sufficiency: Common errors in the scientific reasoning of undergraduate students for interpreting experiments. (United States)

    Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N


    Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Ethical reasoning through simulation: a phenomenological analysis of student experience. (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth; McCullough, Melissa; Maxwell, Alexander P; Gormley, Gerard J


    Medical students transitioning into professional practice feel underprepared to deal with the emotional complexities of real-life ethical situations. Simulation-based learning (SBL) may provide a safe environment for students to probe the boundaries of ethical encounters. Published studies of ethics simulation have not generated sufficiently deep accounts of student experience to inform pedagogy. The aim of this study was to understand students' lived experiences as they engaged with the emotional challenges of managing clinical ethical dilemmas within a SBL environment. This qualitative study was underpinned by an interpretivist epistemology. Eight senior medical students participated in an interprofessional ward-based SBL activity incorporating a series of ethically challenging encounters. Each student wore digital video glasses to capture point-of-view (PoV) film footage. Students were interviewed immediately after the simulation and the PoV footage played back to them. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. An interpretative phenomenological approach, using an established template analysis approach, was used to iteratively analyse the data. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) 'Authentic on all levels?', (2)'Letting the emotions flow', (3) 'Ethical alarm bells' and (4) 'Voices of children and ghosts'. Students recognised many explicit ethical dilemmas during the SBL activity but had difficulty navigating more subtle ethical and professional boundaries. In emotionally complex situations, instances of moral compromise were observed (such as telling an untruth). Some participants felt unable to raise concerns or challenge unethical behaviour within the scenarios due to prior negative undergraduate experiences. This study provided deep insights into medical students' immersive and embodied experiences of ethical reasoning during an authentic SBL activity. By layering on the human dimensions of ethical decision-making, students can understand their

  10. Development of the Spatial Ability Test for Middle School Students (United States)

    Yildiz, Sevda Göktepe; Özdemir, Ahmet Sükrü


    The purpose of this study was to develop a test to determine spatial ability of middle school students. The participants were 704 middle school students (6th, 7th and 8th grade) who were studying at different schools from Istanbul. Item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis were used to analyse the data.…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability (United States)

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon


    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  12. Developing engineering students' research and technology assessment abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Stroeken, J.H.M.


    This article describes research done among M. Eng. students in several faculties of the Eindhoven University of Technology into their abilities to integrate nontechnical (social) elements in the research that led to their M. Eng. theses. It was found that these students often lacked research skills

  13. Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students (United States)

    Budak, Ibrahim


    Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…

  14. Current Trends in Developing Medical Students' Critical Thinking Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Harasym


    Full Text Available Health care is fallible and prone to diagnostic and management errors. The major categories of diagnostic errors include: (1 no-fault errors—the disease is present but not detected; (2 system errors—a diagnosis is delayed or missed because of the imperfection in the health care system; and (3 cognitive errors—a misdiagnosis from faulty data collection or interpretation, flawed reasoning, or incomplete knowledge. Approximately one third of patient problems are mismanaged because of diagnostic errors. Part of the solution lies in improving the diagnostic skills and critical thinking abilities of physicians as they progress through medical school and residency training. However, this task is challenging since both medical problem-solving and the learning environments are complex and not easily understood. There are many interacting variables including the motivation of the medical student (e.g. deep versus surface learning, the acquisition and evolution of declarative and conditional knowledge (e.g. reduced, dispersed, elaborated, scheme, and scripted, problem-solving strategies (e.g. procedural knowledge—guessing, hypothetical deductive, scheme inductive, and pattern recognition, curricular models (e.g. apprenticeship, discipline-based, body system-based, case-based, clinical presentation-based, teaching strategies (e.g. teaching general to specific or specific to general, the presented learning opportunities (PBL versus scheme inductive PBL, and the nature of the learning environment (e.g. modeling critical thinking and expert problem-solving. This paper elaborates on how novices differ from experts and how novices can be educated in a manner that enhances their level of expertise and diagnostic abilities as they progress through several years of medical training.

  15. The moral reasoning abilities of men and women with intellectual disabilities who have a history of criminal offending behaviour


    McDermott, Emily; Langdon, Peter E.


    Purpose. The current study had the following two aims (a) to examine the moral reasoning abilities of four groups of people: (i) men and women with IDs who had a documented history of criminal offending, and (ii) men and women with IDs with no known history of criminal offending, and (b) to examine the relationship between emotional and behavioural problems and moral reasoning. It was predicted that (a) there would be no significant difference between the moral reasoning of men and women with...

  16. Profile of Scientific Ability of Chemistry Education Students in Basic Physics Course (United States)

    Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.


    The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.

  17. Oral Cancer Knowledge and Diagnostic Ability Among Dental Students. (United States)

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F


    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.

  18. Reasoning Abilities in Primary School: A Pilot Study on Poor Achievers vs. Normal Achievers in Computer Game Tasks (United States)

    Dagnino, Francesca Maria; Ballauri, Margherita; Benigno, Vincenza; Caponetto, Ilaria; Pesenti, Elia


    This paper presents the results of preliminary research on the assessment of reasoning abilities in primary school poor achievers vs. normal achievers using computer game tasks. Subjects were evaluated by means of cognitive assessment on logical abilities and academic skills. The aim of this study is to better understand the relationship between…

  19. Student Moon Observations and Spatial-Scientific Reasoning (United States)

    Cole, Merryn; Wilhelm, Jennifer; Yang, Hongwei


    Relationships between sixth grade students' moon journaling and students' spatial-scientific reasoning after implementation of an Earth/Space unit were examined. Teachers used the project-based Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning curriculum. We used a regression model to analyze the relationship between the students' Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) post-test score variables and several predictors, including moon journal score, number of moon journal entries, student gender, teacher experience, and pre-test score. The model shows that students who performed better on moon journals, both in terms of overall score and number of entries, tended to score higher on the LPCI. For every 1 point increase in the overall moon journal score, participants scored 0.18 points (out of 20) or nearly 1% point higher on the LPCI post-test when holding constant the effects of the other two predictors. Similarly, students who increased their scores by 1 point in the overall moon journal score scored approximately 1% higher in the Periodic Patterns (PP) and Geometric Spatial Visualization (GSV) domains of the LPCI. Also, student gender and teacher experience were shown to be significant predictors of post-GSV scores on the LPCI in addition to the pre-test scores, overall moon journal score, and number of entries that were also significant predictors on the LPCI overall score and the PP domain. This study is unique in the purposeful link created between student moon observations and spatial skills. The use of moon journals distinguishes this study further by fostering scientific observation along with skills from across science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines.

  20. Using Students' Design Tasks to Develop Scientific Abilities (United States)

    Zou, Xueli


    To help students develop the scientific abilities desired in the 21st century workplace, four different types of student design tasks—observation, verification, application, and investigation experiments—have been developed and implemented in our calculus-based introductory courses. Students working in small groups are engaged in designing and conducting their own experiments to observe some physical phenomena, test a physical principle, build a real-life device, solve a complex problem, or conduct an open-inquiry investigation. A preliminary study has shown that, probed by a performance-based task, the identified scientific abilities are more explicitly demonstrated by design-lab students than non-design lab students. In this paper, detailed examples of the design tasks and assessment results will be reported.

  1. Frontoparietal Structural Connectivity in Childhood Predicts Development of Functional Connectivity and Reasoning Ability: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Investigation. (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Ghetti, Simona; Bailey, Stephen K; Cutting, Laurie; Bunge, Silvia A


    Prior research points to a positive concurrent relationship between reasoning ability and both frontoparietal structural connectivity (SC) as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (Tamnes et al., 2010) and frontoparietal functional connectivity (FC) as measured by fMRI (Cocchi et al., 2014). Further, recent research demonstrates a link between reasoning ability and FC of two brain regions in particular: rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (Wendelken et al., 2016). Here, we sought to investigate the concurrent and dynamic, lead-lag relationships among frontoparietal SC, FC, and reasoning ability in humans. To this end, we combined three longitudinal developmental datasets with behavioral and neuroimaging data from 523 male and female participants between 6 and 22 years of age. Cross-sectionally, reasoning ability was most strongly related to FC between RLPFC and IPL in adolescents and adults, but to frontoparietal SC in children. Longitudinal analysis revealed that RLPFC-IPL SC, but not FC, was a positive predictor of future changes in reasoning ability. Moreover, we found that RLPFC-IPL SC at one time point positively predicted future changes in RLPFC-IPL FC, whereas, in contrast, FC did not predict future changes in SC. Our results demonstrate the importance of strong white matter connectivity between RLPFC and IPL during middle childhood for the subsequent development of both robust FC and good reasoning ability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human capacity for reasoning develops substantially during childhood and has a profound impact on achievement in school and in cognitively challenging careers. Reasoning ability depends on communication between lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Therefore, to understand how this capacity develops, we examined the dynamic relationships over time among white matter tracts connecting frontoparietal cortices (i.e., structural connectivity, SC), coordinated frontoparietal activation

  2. The Process of Clinical Reasoning among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djon Machado Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Research in the field of medical reasoning has shed light on the reasoning process used by medical students. The strategies in this process are related to the analytical [hypothetical-deductive (HD] and nonanalytic [scheme-inductive (SI] systems, and pattern recognition (PR]. Objective: To explore the clinical reasoning process of students from the fifth year of medical school at the end of the clinical cycle of medical internship, and to identify the strategies used in preparing diagnostic hypotheses, knowledge organization and content. Method: Qualitative research conducted in 2014 at a Brazilian public university with medical interns. Following Stamm's method, a case in internal medicine (IM was built based on the theory of prototypes (Group 1 = 47 interns, in which the interns listed, according to their own perceptions, the signs, symptoms, syndromes, and diseases typical of internal medicine. This case was used for evaluating the clinical reasoning process of Group 2 (30 students = simple random sample obtained with the "think aloud" process. The verbalizations were transcribed and evaluated by Bardin's thematic analysis. The content analysis were approved by two experts at the beginning and at the end of the analysis process. Results: The interns developed 164 primary and secondary hypotheses when solving the case. The SI strategy prevailed with 48.8%, followed by PR (35.4%, HD (12.2%, and mixed (1.8 % each: SI + HD and HD + PR. The students built 146 distinct semantic axes, resulting in an average of 4.8/ participant. During the analysis, 438 interpretation processes were executed (average of 14.6/participant, and 124 combination processes (average of 4.1/participant. Conclusions: The nonanalytic strategies prevailed with the PR being the most used in the development of primary hypotheses (46.8% and the SI in secondary hypotheses (93%. The interns showed a strong semantic network and did three and a half times more

  3. I Can Assess Myself: Singaporean Primary Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Self-Assessment Ability (United States)

    Wong, Hwei Ming


    Student self-assessment engages the students in purposeful reflection about what they are learning and how they are learning it. This study investigated the perceptions of students and teachers towards the students' self-assessment ability in two Singapore primary schools. A total of 75 students were taught how to use self-assessment. Eighteen…

  4. Historical reasoning: towards a framework for analyzing students' reasoning about the past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, J.; van Boxtel, C.


    This article explores historical reasoning, an important activity in history learning. Based upon an extensive review of empirical literature on students’ thinking and reasoning about history, a theoretical framework of historical reasoning is proposed. The framework consists of six components:

  5. Desirable characteristics for teachers of High Ability/Gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins


    Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.

  6. Real-time capture of student reasoning while writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott V. Franklin


    Full Text Available We present a new approach to investigating student reasoning while writing: real-time capture of the dynamics of the writing process. Key-capture or video software is used to record the entire writing episode, including all pauses, deletions, insertions, and revisions. A succinct shorthand, “S notation,” is used to highlight significant moments in the episode that may be indicative of shifts in understanding and can be used in followup interviews for triangulation. The methodology allows one to test the widespread belief that writing is a valuable pedagogical technique, which currently has little directly supportive research. To demonstrate the method, we present a case study of a writing episode. The data reveal an evolution of expression and articulation, discontinuous in both time and space. Distinct shifts in the tone and topic that follow long pauses and revisions are not restricted to the most recently written text. Real-time writing analysis, with its study of the temporal breaks and revision locations, can serve as a complementary tool to more traditional research methods (e.g., speak-aloud interviews into student reasoning during the writing process.

  7. Real-time capture of student reasoning while writing (United States)

    Franklin, Scott V.; Hermsen, Lisa M.


    We present a new approach to investigating student reasoning while writing: real-time capture of the dynamics of the writing process. Key-capture or video software is used to record the entire writing episode, including all pauses, deletions, insertions, and revisions. A succinct shorthand, "S notation," is used to highlight significant moments in the episode that may be indicative of shifts in understanding and can be used in followup interviews for triangulation. The methodology allows one to test the widespread belief that writing is a valuable pedagogical technique, which currently has little directly supportive research. To demonstrate the method, we present a case study of a writing episode. The data reveal an evolution of expression and articulation, discontinuous in both time and space. Distinct shifts in the tone and topic that follow long pauses and revisions are not restricted to the most recently written text. Real-time writing analysis, with its study of the temporal breaks and revision locations, can serve as a complementary tool to more traditional research methods (e.g., speak-aloud interviews) into student reasoning during the writing process.

  8. Gender, abilities, cognitive style and students' achievement in cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in mathematics and native language and to analyze students' achievement in cooperative learning according to their gender, abilities and cognitive style. Three hundred and seventy three (170 in the experimental and 203 in the control group fifth grade students from nine different primary schools participated in the study. In experimental group, cooperative learning was introduced in one quarter of the hours dedicated to mathematics and Slovene language during the school year. Control group received the traditional way of teaching in both courses. The results were analyzed with ANOVA. Positive effects of cooperative learning were found in both courses. Results in cooperative learning group were further analyzed according to students' gender, abilities and cognitive style. No significant interaction between students' achievement and their gender or abilities were found. Statistically significant interactions between students' cognitive style and achievement were found in both courses. Field-dependent students benefited most from cooperative learning.

  9. Student use of model-based reasoning when troubleshooting an electronic circuit (United States)

    Lewandowski, Heather; Stetzer, Mackenzie; van de Bogart, Kevin; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri


    Troubleshooting systems is an integral part of experimental physics in both research and educational settings. Accordingly, ability to troubleshoot is an important learning goal for undergraduate physics lab courses. We investigate students' model-based reasoning on a troubleshooting task using data collected in think-aloud interviews during which pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning circuit. Our analysis scheme was informed by the Experimental Modeling Framework, which describes physicists' use of mathematical and conceptual models when reasoning about experimental systems. We show that system and subsystem models were crucial for the evaluation of repairs to the circuit and played an important role in some troubleshooting strategies. Finally, drawing on data from interviews with electronics instructors from a broad range of institution types, we outline recommendations for model-based approaches to teaching and learning troubleshooting skills.

  10. Student use of model-based reasoning when troubleshooting an electric circuit (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri


    Troubleshooting systems is an integral part of experimental physics in both research and educational settings. Accordingly, ability to troubleshoot is an important learning goal for undergraduate physics lab courses. We investigate students' model-based reasoning on a troubleshooting task using data collected in think-aloud interviews during which pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning circuit. Our analysis scheme was informed by the Experimental Modeling Framework, which describes physicists' use of mathematical and conceptual models when reasoning about experimental systems. We show that system and subsystem models were crucial for the evaluation of repairs to the circuit and played an important role in some troubleshooting strategies. Finally, drawing on data from interviews with electronics instructors from a broad range of institution types, we outline recommendations for model-based approaches to teaching and learning troubleshooting skills.

  11. Effects of cognitive training on change in accuracy in inductive reasoning ability. (United States)

    Boron, Julie Blaskewicz; Turiano, Nicholas A; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner


    We investigated cognitive training effects on accuracy and number of items attempted in inductive reasoning performance in a sample of 335 older participants (M = 72.78 years) from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. We assessed the impact of individual characteristics, including chronic disease. The reasoning training group showed significantly greater gain in accuracy and number of attempted items than did the comparison group; gain was primarily due to enhanced accuracy. Reasoning training effects involved a complex interaction of gender, prior cognitive status, and chronic disease. Women with prior decline on reasoning but no heart disease showed the greatest accuracy increase. In addition, stable reasoning-trained women with heart disease demonstrated significant accuracy gain. Comorbidity was associated with less change in accuracy. The results support the effectiveness of cognitive training on improving the accuracy of reasoning performance.

  12. Prospective Middle-School Mathematics Teachers' Quantitative Reasoning and Their Support for Students' Quantitative Reasoning (United States)

    Kabael, Tangul; Akin, Ayca


    The aim of this research is to examine prospective mathematics teachers' quantitative reasoning, their support for students' quantitative reasoning and the relationship between them, if any. The teaching experiment was used as the research method in this qualitatively designed study. The data of the study were collected through a series of…

  13. Pedagogical Management of University Students' Communication Ability Development (United States)

    Anatolievna, Spirchagova Tatiana; Munirovna, Nasyrova Albina; Kasimovna, Vakhitova Dilyara; Mirzayanovna, Sadrieva Liliya; Anatolievna, Brodskaya Tatiana


    The development of social interaction forms emphasizes urgency and importance of the topic. The purpose of the study is to find out peculiarities of pedagogical management of university students' communication ability development. The leading approach to the research was the narrative approach which allows considering pedagogical management of…

  14. Athletics for All: Providing Opportunities for Students of All Abilities (United States)

    Whitmer, Regina


    The glory days of high school sports are no longer reserved for dream team athletes, as athletic directors are increasingly opening up sports to all students, regardless of ability, and seeing winning results on the field and off. This push is reflected in the most recent National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) survey, which…

  15. Changes in Studying Abilities as Perceived by Students Attending Psychotherapy (United States)

    Härkäpää, Kristiina; Junttila, Outi; Lindfors, Olavi; Järvikoski, Aila


    In rehabilitative psychotherapy, the goal is to support and improve the person's working and studying capacity and to secure his/her staying in or entering the workforce. In this qualitative study, the aim was to describe the changes students experienced in their studying ability and the advancement of their studies as a result of the therapy…

  16. A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability (United States)

    Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.


    The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…

  17. Scientific reasoning abilities in kindergarten: dynamic assessment of the control of variables strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. van der; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    A dynamic assessment tool was developed and validated using Mokken scale analysis to assess the extent to which kindergartners are able to construct unconfounded experiments, an essential part of scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning is one of the learning processes happening within science

  18. Natural-Born Arguers: Teaching How to Make the Best of Our Reasoning Abilities (United States)

    Mercier, Hugo; Boudry, Maarten; Paglieri, Fabio; Trouche, Emmanuel


    We summarize the argumentative theory of reasoning, which claims that the main function of reasoning is to argue. In this theory, argumentation is seen as being essentially cooperative (people have to listen to others' arguments and be ready to change their mind) but with an adversarial dimension (their goal as argument producers is to convince).…

  19. Assessment of clinical reasoning: A Script Concordance test designed for pre-clinical medical students. (United States)

    Humbert, Aloysius J; Johnson, Mary T; Miech, Edward; Friedberg, Fred; Grackin, Janice A; Seidman, Peggy A


    The Script Concordance test (SCT) measures clinical reasoning in the context of uncertainty by comparing the responses of examinees and expert clinicians. It uses the level of agreement with a panel of experts to assign credit for the examinee's answers. This study describes the development and validation of a SCT for pre-clinical medical students. Faculty from two US medical schools developed SCT items in the domains of anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, and histology. Scoring procedures utilized data from a panel of 30 expert physicians. Validation focused on internal reliability and the ability of the SCT to distinguish between different cohorts. The SCT was administered to an aggregate of 411 second-year and 70 fourth-year students from both schools. Internal consistency for the 75 test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73). The SCT successfully differentiated second- from fourth-year students and both student groups from the expert panel in a one-way analysis of variance (F(2,508) = 120.4; p students from the two schools were not significantly different (p = 0.20). This SCT successfully differentiated pre-clinical medical students from fourth-year medical students and both cohorts of medical students from expert clinicians across different institutions and geographic areas. The SCT shows promise as an easy-to-administer measure of "problem-solving" performance in competency evaluation even in the beginning years of medical education.

  20. Integrating quantitative thinking into an introductory biology course improves students' mathematical reasoning in biological contexts. (United States)

    Hester, Susan; Buxner, Sanlyn; Elfring, Lisa; Nagy, Lisa


    Recent calls for improving undergraduate biology education have emphasized the importance of students learning to apply quantitative skills to biological problems. Motivated by students' apparent inability to transfer their existing quantitative skills to biological contexts, we designed and taught an introductory molecular and cell biology course in which we integrated application of prerequisite mathematical skills with biology content and reasoning throughout all aspects of the course. In this paper, we describe the principles of our course design and present illustrative examples of course materials integrating mathematics and biology. We also designed an outcome assessment made up of items testing students' understanding of biology concepts and their ability to apply mathematical skills in biological contexts and administered it as a pre/postcourse test to students in the experimental section and other sections of the same course. Precourse results confirmed students' inability to spontaneously transfer their prerequisite mathematics skills to biological problems. Pre/postcourse outcome assessment comparisons showed that, compared with students in other sections, students in the experimental section made greater gains on integrated math/biology items. They also made comparable gains on biology items, indicating that integrating quantitative skills into an introductory biology course does not have a deleterious effect on students' biology learning.

  1. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students. (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali


    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  2. Cognitive abilities of Emirati and German engineering university students. (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Baumeister, Antonia E E; Gröper, Anne


    According to human capital theory, individual competences and personality attributes are relevant for individual productivity and income. Within human capital, intelligence is crucial. To study engineering and work successfully as an engineer, high cognitive abilities are necessary, especially for work in research and development. In a study of 30 German and 30 Emirati engineering students (mean age: 22 years), both groups were tested with mathematical and figural intelligence scales (CogAT). German engineering students achieved a mean IQ of 116, and Emirati students 104 (in converted UK norms). In both groups male students achieved better results than females (2 to 4 IQ point difference). The results are compared with those from PISA and TIMSS. The possible causes of these results, their consequences and strategies for improvement are discussed.

  3. Examining the Effect of Enactment of a Geospatial Curriculum on Students' Geospatial Thinking and Reasoning (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong; Kulo, Violet; Peffer, Tamara


    A potential method for teaching geospatial thinking and reasoning (GTR) is through geospatially enabled learning technologies. We developed an energy resources geospatial curriculum that included learning activities with geographic information systems and virtual globes. This study investigated how 13 urban middle school teachers implemented and varied the enactment of the curriculum with their students and investigated which teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students' GTR posttest achievement. Data included biweekly implementation surveys from teachers and energy resources content and GTR pre- and posttest achievement measures from 1,049 students. Students significantly increased both their energy resources content knowledge and their GTR skills related to energy resources at the end of the curriculum enactment. Both multiple regression and hierarchical linear modeling found that students' initial GTR abilities and gain in energy content knowledge were significantly explanatory variables for their geospatial achievement at the end of curriculum enactment, p critical components of the curriculum or the number of years the teachers had taught the curriculum, did not have significant effects on students' geospatial posttest achievement. The findings from this study provide support that learning with geospatially enabled learning technologies can support GTR with urban middle-level learners.

  4. Identification of possible factors impacting dental students' ability to locate MB2 canals in maxillary molars. (United States)

    Park, Ellen; Chehroudi, Babak; Coil, Jeffrey M


    This study examined the effect of the access size and straight-line path of access on third-year dental students' ability to locate a second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first and second molars. One hundred and six third-year dental students at one Faculty of Dentistry performed simulated root canal treatment with the aid of 2x magnification loupes on extracted teeth. A postgraduate endodontic student subsequently made a reasonable search for an untreated MB2 canal with the aid of a dental operating microscope. The mesiobuccal roots were then sectioned horizontally for determination of the canal configuration. The dental students were able to treat an MB2 canal in 15.8 percent of the teeth, but this was not associated with satisfactory access criteria. The postgraduate endodontic student identified an MB2 canal in 54.7 percent of the remaining tooth samples excluding those where the MB2 canal was found by the dental students; this represented 94.3 percent of those teeth confirmed by horizontal sectioning of the root to have an MB2 canal. The postgraduate student troughed, on average, 2.6 mm before negotiating the MB2 canal. As satisfactory access criteria and straight-line path of access did not correlate with the dental students' ability to find a second mesiobuccal canal, this result has important implications for educational goals with respect to endodontic treatment of maxillary molar teeth.

  5. Of mode of reasoning and context: Danish evidence of accounting student’s moral reasoning abilities in resolving ethical dilemmas related to fraud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus

    The differing nature of engagement and work assignments continuously exposes auditors to varied ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas may be, contextually, grey areas for which there may be no official guidelines. To resolve these situations, auditors either undertake prescriptive or deliberative...... were focused on ethical decision making ability of Danish auditors’, this study closes the loop by presenting an accounting students perspective. By providing an understanding of the complex issues involved in ethical decision-making, this study also serves strategically in strengthening ethics...

  6. Much ado about aha!: Insight problem solving is strongly related to working memory capacity and reasoning ability. (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam; Jastrzębski, Jan


    A battery comprising 4 fluid reasoning tests as well as 13 working memory (WM) tasks that involved storage, recall, updating, binding, and executive control, was applied to 318 adults in order to evaluate the true relationship of reasoning ability and WM capacity (WMC) to insight problem solving, measured using 40 verbal, spatial, math, matchstick, and remote associates problems (insight problems). WMC predicted 51.8% of variance in insight problem solving and virtually explained its almost isomorphic link to reasoning ability (84.6% of shared variance). The strong link between WMC and insight pertained generally to most WM tasks and insight problems, was identical for problems solved with and without reported insight, was linear throughout the ability levels, and was not mediated by age, motivation, anxiety, psychoticism, and openness to experience. In contrast to popular views on the sudden and holistic nature of insight, the solving of insight problems results primarily from typical operations carried out by the basic WM mechanisms that are responsible for the maintenance, retrieval, transformation, and control of information in the broad range of intellectual tasks (including fluid reasoning). Little above and beyond WM is unique about insight. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Empowering the crowd: faculty discourse strategies for facilitating student reasoning in large lecture (United States)

    Demaree, Dedra


    Oregon State University (OSU) has restructured its introductory calculus-based sequence including reformed curriculum modeled after the Interactive Science Learning Environment (ISLE). ISLE is driven by an experimental cycle roughly summarized as: observe phenomena, find patterns and devise explanations, test explanations, develop a model, apply the model to new observations. In implementing ISLE at OSU we have chosen to focus on student scientific reasoning, specifically student ability to develop and test models, make explicit judgments on how to approach open-ended tasks, and take an authoritative role in knowledge development. In order to achieve these goals, the lecture course heavily utilizes social engagement. During large-lecture group work, emphasis is placed on facilitating student discourse about issues such as what systems to choose or how to define an open-ended problem. Instructional strategies are aimed at building off the group discourse to create a full-class community where knowledge is developed through collaboration with peers. We are achieving these goals along with an increase in measured student conceptual knowledge and traditional problem solving abilities, and no loss of content coverage. It is an ongoing effort to understand ``best'' instructional strategies and to facilitate new faculty when they teach the curriculum. Our research has focused on understanding how to facilitate activities that promote this form of discourse. We have quantitative analysis of engagement based on video data, qualitative analysis of dialogue from audio data, classroom observations by an external researcher, and survey data. In this session we share a subset of what we have learned about how to engage students in scientific reasoning discourse during large lecture, both at the group-work and full-class level.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubiša Lilić


    Full Text Available Considering the fact that one of the most fundamental tasks of training is developing motoric dimensions of sportsmen, the common goal of this work was to achieve relevant knowledge on the infl uence of ten-day-skiing course on students`* development and to establish their level. The special aim of this work was diagnosing the amount of some of the students` motoric abilities. According to the subjects, problems and goal of the research, there was a hypothesis put: motoric and morphological dimensions of students are coherent with their chrono logical growth and development ten-day-skiing course has signifi cant infl uence on developing some of the students` motoric abilities Besides remaining, the choice of examined samples was put under limits of organizational capacities for realizing researching procedure.It was necessary to insure required devices and standardized conditions under which planned research was supposed to be realized. The sample is taken from students` population implied in regular skiing course. Examined sample consists of thirty male students, each of which is twenty years old. Because of technical and organizational reasons it was not possible to diagnose the whole motoric range of tested students. Due to that a specifi c selection of tests was done and only six variables (that reliably predict levels of motoric abilities on which the training affects were taken: foot tapping, medicine ball throwing, pull-ups with undertaking, trunk lifting in 60 seconds and deep forward band. The level of students` motoric abilities after ten-day-skiing course is on a higher level then initial measuring, and we can certainly claim that it is the result of programmed training process during skiing course. According to the data gained from control and fi nal measuring you can fi nd out the effects of applied resources towards initial measuring.

  9. Analysis of students’ mathematical reasoning (United States)

    Sukirwan; Darhim; Herman, T.


    The reasoning is one of the mathematical abilities that have very complex implications. This complexity causes reasoning including abilities that are not easily attainable by students. Similarly, studies dealing with reason are quite diverse, primarily concerned with the quality of mathematical reasoning. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of mathematical reasoning based perspective Lithner. Lithner looked at how the environment affects the mathematical reasoning. In this regard, Lithner made two perspectives, namely imitative reasoning and creative reasoning. Imitative reasoning can be memorized and algorithmic reasoning. The Result study shows that although the students generally still have problems in reasoning. Students tend to be on imitative reasoning which means that students tend to use a routine procedure when dealing with reasoning. It is also shown that the traditional approach still dominates on the situation of students’ daily learning.

  10. Two New Empirically Derived Reasons To Use the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities. (United States)

    Richards, David F.; Williams, W. Larry; Follette, William C.


    Scores on the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Wechsler Intelligences Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) were obtained for 30 adults with mental retardation. Correlations between the Vineland domains and ABLA were all significant. No participants performing below ABLA Level 6 were testable on the…

  11. Building Students' Reasoning Skills by Promoting Student-Led Discussions in an Algebra II Class (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana


    Current research and professional organizations call for greater emphasis on reasoning and sense making in algebra (Chazan, 2000; Cuoco, Goldenberg, & Mark, 1996; Harel & Sowder, 2005; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2009, 2010). This paper illustrates how students in an Algebra II class had opportunities to develop…

  12. The effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xinyi; Ziegler, Albert


    Inhibitory control (including response inhibition and interference control) develops rapidly during the preschool period and is important for early cognitive development. This study aimed to determine the training and transfer effects on response inhibition in young children. Children....../week, for 3 weeks. Several cognitive tasks (involving inhibitory control, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were used to evaluate the transfer effects, and electroencephalography (EEG) was performed during a go/no-go task. Progress on the trained game was significant, while performance on a reasoning...

  13. Effects of Inquiry-Based Agriscience Instruction on Student Scientific Reasoning (United States)

    Thoron, Andrew C.; Myers, Brian E.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inquiry-based agriscience instruction on student scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning is defined as the use of the scientific method, inductive, and deductive reasoning to develop and test hypothesis. Developing scientific reasoning skills can provide learners with a connection to the…

  14. Validation of Reasons for Living and Their Relationship with Suicidal Ideation in Korean College Students (United States)

    Lee, Yuri; Oh, Kyung Ja


    This study aimed to examine the validity of reasons for living (RFL) and the protective role they may play against suicidal ideation in college students in South Korea. A total of 277 undergraduate students participated by completing the College Student Reasons for Living Inventory (CS-RFL), along with measures of suicide risk including…

  15. The Influence of 16-year-old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements (United States)

    Devetak, Iztok; Aleksij Glažar, Saša


    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities, and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the maximum influence on students' reading and drawing SMRs. A total of 386 secondary school students (aged 16.3 years) participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were: test of Chemical Knowledge, Test of Logical Thinking, two tests of visualization abilities Patterns and Rotations, and questionnaire on Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Science. The results show moderate, but statistically significant correlations between students' intrinsic motivation, formal reasoning abilities and chemical knowledge at submicroscopic level based on reading and drawing SMRs. Visualization abilities are not statistically significantly correlated with students' success on items that comprise reading or drawing SMRs. It can be also concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between male and female students in solving problems that include reading or drawing SMRs. Based on these statistical results and content analysis of the sample problems, several educational strategies can be implemented for students to develop adequate mental models of chemical concepts on all three levels of representations.

  16. Prelicensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Perceptions of Their Development of Clinical Reasoning. (United States)

    Herron, Elizabeth K; Sudia, Tanya; Kimble, Laura P; Davis, Alison H


    Establishing a strong foundation for the development of clinical reasoning in nursing students is essential to ensure safe and effective patient care. This study explored prelicensure baccalaureate nursing students' perceptions of their development of clinical reasoning, as well as their perceptions of how it is taught. In this phenomenological study, individual semistructured interviews were conducted to gather data related to participants' perceptions of their development of clinical reasoning. Data were analyzed using procedural steps delineated by Giorgi. Data analysis revealed three main themes: Instructor Characteristics, Importance of Clinical Reasoning, and Best Place to Learn Clinical Reasoning. Students recognized how clinical reasoning enhances safe and effective clinical practice and indicated the clinical arena was the most beneficial environment in which to learn clinical reasoning. Understanding students' perceptions of learning benefits nurse educators in planning nursing program curricula to enhance and facilitate the development of clinical reasoning. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(6):329-335.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Geoscience Data Puzzles: Developing Students' Ability to Make Meaning from Data (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Turrin, M.


    One of the most fundamental aspects of geoscience expertise is the ability to extract insights from observational earth data. Where an expert might see trends, patterns, processes, and candidate causal relationships, a novice could look at the same data representation and see dots, wiggles and blotches of color. The problem is compounded when the student was not personally involved in collecting the data or samples and thus has no experiential knowledge of the Earth setting that the data represent. In other words, the problem is especially severe when students tap into the vast archives of professionally-collected data that the geoscience community has worked so hard to make available for instructional use over the internet. Moreover, most high school and middle school teachers did not themselves learn Earth Science through analyzing data, and they may lack skills and/or confidence needed to scaffold students through the process of learning to interpret realistically-complex data sets. We have developed “Geoscience Data Puzzles” with the paired goals of (a) helping students learn about the earth from data, and (b) helping teachers learn to teach with data. Geoscience Data Puzzles are data-using activities that purposefully present a low barrier-to-entry for teachers and a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses authentic geoscience data, but the data are carefully pre-selected in order to illuminate a fundamental Earth process within tractable snippets of data. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" moments, when the connection between data and process comes clear in a rewarding burst of insight. Every Puzzle is accompanied by a Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) guide, which explicates the chain of reasoning by which the puzzle-solver can use the evidence provided by the data to construct scientific claims. Four types of reasoning are stressed: spatial reasoning, in which students make inferences from observations about location, orientation, shape

  18. The Development of Introductory Statistics Students' Informal Inferential Reasoning and Its Relationship to Formal Inferential Reasoning (United States)

    Jacob, Bridgette L.


    The difficulties introductory statistics students have with formal statistical inference are well known in the field of statistics education. "Informal" statistical inference has been studied as a means to introduce inferential reasoning well before and without the formalities of formal statistical inference. This mixed methods study…

  19. Myth 15: High-Ability Students Don't Face Problems and Challenges (United States)

    Moon, Sidney M.


    One rationale for failure to address the needs of high-ability students in schools is that high-ability students do not need special services because they do not face any special problems or challenges. A more extreme corollary of this attitude is the notion that high ability is so protective that students with high ability do not face problems or…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orachorn KITCHAKARN


    Full Text Available Due to a rapid development and expansion of technology and, as a result, Web 2.0 technologies are providing both teachers and learners with new solutions to the limitations of traditional method in the field of language teaching and learning. The research compared students’ writing ability before and after they were taught through blog, a new medium or tool for written communication and interaction in many different languages around the world. The research design is a kind of one group pretest posttest. Participants were 35 first-year students. They were divided into eight groups. Four or five students in each group created a blog,, and they worked together for twelve weeks to produce six pieces of writing assignments. Each member in the group worked through providing comments, editing and revising on the blog until the group got a final writing and submitted that to the teacher for grading. The instruments used in this study were: Ø two writing tests Ø a questionnaire surveying students’ attitude toward learning through blogs, and Ø postings on blogs to reflect their learning experiences. The results revealed that after the students worked together on weblogs, their English writing mean score of the posttest was higher than that of the pretest, and they had positive attitudes towards using weblogs in learning. Regarding cooperative learning experiences through using weblogs, most students thought that it was interesting, a new experience to work with their friends on the weblogs.

  1. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students (United States)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.


    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  2. Comparing the Spelling and Reading Abilities of Students with Cochlear Implants and Students with Typical Hearing (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Masterson, Julie J.


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with and without hearing loss (HL) differed in their spelling abilities and, specifically, in the underlying linguistic awareness skills that support spelling ability. Furthermore, we examined whether there were differences between the two groups in the relationship between reading and…

  3. Students who developed logical reasoning skills reported improved confidence in drug dose calculation: Feedback from remedial maths classes. (United States)

    Shelton, Chris


    The safe administration of drugs is a focus of attention in healthcare. It is regarded as acceptable that a formula card or mnemonic can be used to find the correct dose and fill a prescription even though this removes any requirement for performing the underlying computation. Feedback and discussion in class reveal that confidence in arithmetic skills can be low even when students are able to pass the end of semester drug calculation exam. To see if confidence in the understanding and performance of arithmetic for drug calculations can be increased by emphasising student's innate powers of logical reasoning after reflection. Remedial classes offered for students who have declared a dislike or lack of confidence in arithmetic have been developed from student feedback adopting a reasoning by logical step methodology. Students who gave up two hours of their free learning time were observed to engage seriously with the learning methods, focussing on the innate ability to perform logical reasoning necessary for drug calculation problems. Working in small groups allowed some discussion of the route to the answer and this was followed by class discussion and reflection. The results were recorded as weekly self-assessment scores for confidence in calculation. A self-selecting group who successfully completed the end of semester drug calculation exam reported low to moderate confidence in arithmetic. After four weeks focussing on logical skills a significant increase in self-belief was measured. This continued to rise in students who remained in the classes. Many students hold a negative belief regarding their own mathematical abilities. This restricts the learning of arithmetic skills making alternate routes using mnemonics and memorised steps an attractive alternative. Practising stepwise logical reasoning skills consolidated by personal reflection has been effective in developing student's confidence and awareness of their innate powers of deduction supporting an

  4. Factors in the development of proportional reasoning strategies by concrete operational college students (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Milkent, Marlene M.

    This study was designed as a test for two neo-Piagetian theories. More specifically, this research examined the relationships between the development of proportional reasoning strategies and three cognitive variables from Pascual-Leone's and Case's neo-Piagetian theories. A priori hypotheses linked the number of problems students worked until they induced a proportional reasoning strategy to the variables of M-space, degree of field dependence, and short-term storage space. The subjects consisted of students enrolled in Physical Science I, a science course for nonscience majors at the University of Southern Mississippi. Of the 34 subjects in the study, 23 were classified as concrete operational on the basis of eight ratio tasks. Problems corresponding to five developmental levels of proportional reasoning (according to Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theory), were presented by a microcomputer to the 23 subjects who had been classified as concrete operational. After a maximum of 6 hours of treatment, 17 of the 23 subjects had induced ratio schemata at the upper formal level (IIIB), while the remaining subjects used lower formal level (IIIA) schemata. The data analyses showed that neither M-space and degree of field-dependence, either alone or in combination, nor short-term storage predicted the number of problems students need to do until they induce an appropriate problem-solving strategy. However, there were significant differences in the short-term storage space of those subjects who mastered ratio problems at the highest level and those who did not. Also, the subjects' degree of field-dependence was not a predictor of either the ability to transfer problem-solving strategies to a new setting or the reuse of inappropriate strategies. The results of this study also suggest that short-term storage space is a variable with high correlations to a number of aspects of learning such as transfer and choice of strategy after feedback.

  5. The Effect of Naive Ideas on Students' Reasoning about Electricity and Magnetism (United States)

    Leppavirta, Johanna


    Traditional multiple-choice concept inventories measure students' critical conceptual understanding and are designed to reveal students' naive or alternate ideas. The overall scores, however, give little information about the state of students' knowledge and the consistency of reasoning. This study investigates whether students have consistent…

  6. The Effects of Emotive Reasoning on Secondary School Students' Decision-Making in the Context of Socioscientific Issues (United States)

    Powell, Wardell A.

    The discrepancy between what students are being taught within K-12 science classrooms and what they experience in the real world has been well documented. This study sought to explore the ways a high school biology curriculum, which integrates socioscientific issues, impacts students' emotive reasoning and their ability to evaluate evidence, make informed decisions on contemporary scientific dilemmas, and integrate scientific content knowledge in their reasoning on SSI. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine differences within and between an SSI treatment group and a comparison group as well as individual differences among students' responses over a semester of high school biology. Results indicated students used emotions largely to evaluate evidence and make decisions on contentious scientific dilemmas. In addition, the results showed students used newly gained scientific content knowledge to make logical predictions on contentious scientific issues. Statistical significance was found between groups of students in regard to their interest in the use of embryonic stem cell treatments to restore rats' vision, as well as students' abilities to evaluate evidence. Theoretical implications regarding the use of SSI in the classroom are presented.

  7. Clinical reasoning of nursing students on clinical placement: Clinical educators' perceptions. (United States)

    Hunter, Sharyn; Arthur, Carol


    Graduate nurses may have knowledge and adequate clinical psychomotor skills however they have been identified as lacking the clinical reasoning skills to deliver safe, effective care suggesting contemporary educational approaches do not always facilitate the development of nursing students' clinical reasoning. While nursing literature explicates the concept of clinical reasoning and develops models that demonstrate clinical reasoning, there is very little published about nursing students and clinical reasoning during clinical placements. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten clinical educators to gain an understanding of how they recognised, developed and appraised nursing students' clinical reasoning while on clinical placement. This study found variability in the clinical educators' conceptualisation, recognition, and facilitation of students' clinical reasoning. Although most of the clinical educators conceptualised clinical reasoning as a process those who did not demonstrated the greatest variability in the recognition and facilitation of students' clinical reasoning. The clinical educators in this study also described being unable to adequately appraise a student's clinical reasoning during clinical placement with the use of the current performance assessment tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Reading Skills on Reading Comprehension Ability of Turkish EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Kaya


    Full Text Available Reading is a part of our daily lives. It is performed both for pleasure and information. Reading skills are important for the individuals since they foster comprehension in reading. If the students do not have knowledge of reading skills, they cannot be expected to be successful readers. Thus, they cannot achieve the level of comprehension required to pass exams in their own departments. For this reason, reading skills should be taught in universities for the students to be able to cope with comprehension problems. This case study aims to find out whether or not reading skills has a role on the reading comprehension ability of Turkish EFL students. This study is both a qualitative and a quantitative study which lasted for a duration of 14 weeks. Two groups were selected (experimental and control among prep classes at Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University. Both groups were administered a pre-test and questionnaire at the beginning of the study to find out if they were aware of reading skills. In addition, 10 students were chosen randomly for interview. During the study, reading skills were infused into the curriculum through designing lesson plans in accordance with the language content and topics for level C students, as determined by the Common European Language Framework. The lessons required the students to use reading skills before, during, and post reading. At the end of the study, the same questionnaire was re-administered. The students were given the post-test and then interviewed. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The obtained data revealed that the students enhanced their comprehension ability provided that they were taught to use reading skills.

  9. Identifying Student Resources in Reasoning about Entropy and the Approach to Thermal Equilibrium (United States)

    Loverude, Michael


    As part of an ongoing project to examine student learning in upper-division courses in thermal and statistical physics, we have examined student reasoning about entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. We have examined reasoning in terms of heat transfer, entropy maximization, and statistical treatments of multiplicity and probability. In…

  10. Students' Reasoning When Tackling Electric Field and Potential in Explanation of DC Resistive Circuits (United States)

    Leniz, Ane; Zuza, Kristina; Guiasola, Jenaro


    This study examines the causal reasoning that university students use to explain how dc circuits work. We analyze how students use the concepts of electric field and potential difference in their explanatory models of dc circuits, and what kinds of reasoning they use at the macroscopic and microscopic levels in their explanations. This knowledge…

  11. Moral Reasoning in College Students: Effects of Two General Education Curricula. (United States)

    Mustapha, Sherry L.; Seybert, Jeffrey A.


    Two different approaches to the undergraduate general education and liberal arts curricula were studied in terms of moral reasoning for 188 college students. Results reveal more advanced levels of moral reasoning for students in the integrated curriculum organized around decision making than for those in the traditional curriculum. (SLD)

  12. The Relationship between Ethical Decision Making and Ethical Reasoning in Information Technology Students (United States)

    Woodward, Belle; Davis, Diane C.; Hodis, Flaviu A.


    This study examined undergraduate information technology (IT) students' (N = 122) level of ethical reasoning and decision making at a Midwestern university. The purpose was to determine whether IT students' level of ethical reasoning provided information about the degree of their ethical decision making. The Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT-2) was used…

  13. Exploring High School Students Beginning Reasoning about Significance Tests with Technology (United States)

    García, Víctor N.; Sánchez, Ernesto


    In the present study we analyze how students reason about or make inferences given a particular hypothesis testing problem (without having studied formal methods of statistical inference) when using Fathom. They use Fathom to create an empirical sampling distribution through computer simulation. It is found that most student´s reasoning rely on…

  14. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning Involving the Unit of Combustion (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching


    This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…

  15. In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Study of the Reasons Australian University Students Plagiarize (United States)

    Devlin, Marcia; Gray, Kathleen


    The ways in which universities and individual academics attempt to deter and respond to student plagiarism may be based on untested assumptions about particular or primary reasons for this behaviour. Using a series of group interviews, this qualitative study gathered the views of 56 Australian university students on the possible reasons for…

  16. The Reasons for the Decline of the Results of Jordanian Students in "TIMSS 2015" (United States)

    Abu Tayeh, Khaled; Al-Rsa'i, Mohammad S.; Al-Shugairat, Mohammad F.


    The study aimed at identifying the reasons behind the Jordanian students' drop of performance in the TIMSS 2015 from the point of view of their teachers. Survey method was used because teachers are the most able to decide upon the reasons of this fall and so a questionnaire was designed to recognize their point of view concerning the reasons of…

  17. Didactical Handling of Students' Reasoning Processes in Problem Solving Situations (United States)

    Brousseau, Guy; Gibel, Patrick


    In this paper, we analyze an investigative situation proposed to a class of 5th graders in a primary school. The situation is based on the following task: In a sale with group rates on a sliding scale, the students must find the lowest possible purchase price for a given number of tickets. A study of students' arguments made it possible to…

  18. The relationship of ethics education to moral sensitivity and moral reasoning skills of nursing students. (United States)

    Park, Mihyun; Kjervik, Diane; Crandell, Jamie; Oermann, Marilyn H


    This study described the relationships between academic class and student moral sensitivity and reasoning and between curriculum design components for ethics education and student moral sensitivity and reasoning. The data were collected from freshman (n = 506) and senior students (n = 440) in eight baccalaureate nursing programs in South Korea by survey; the survey consisted of the Korean Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire and the Korean Defining Issues Test. The results showed that moral sensitivity scores in patient-oriented care and conflict were higher in senior students than in freshman students. Furthermore, more hours of ethics content were associated with higher principled thinking scores of senior students. Nursing education in South Korea may have an impact on developing student moral sensitivity. Planned ethics content in nursing curricula is necessary to improve moral sensitivity and moral reasoning of students.

  19. Students' Thinking about Effort and Ability: The Role of Developmental, Contextual, and Individual Difference Factors (United States)

    Muenks, Katherine; Miele, David B.


    Students' thinking about the relation between effort and ability can influence their motivation, affect, and academic achievement. Students sometimes think of effort as inversely related to ability (such that people with low ability must work harder than people with high ability) and other times think of effort as positively related to ability…

  20. The Importance of Spatial Reasoning Skills in Undergraduate Geology Students and the Effect of Weekly Spatial Skill Trainings (United States)

    Gold, Anne; Pendergast, Philip; Stempien, Jennifer; Ormand, Carol


    Spatial reasoning is a key skill for student success in STEM disciplines in general and for students in geosciences in particular. However, spatial reasoning is neither explicitly trained, nor evenly distributed, among students and by gender. This uneven playing field allows some students to perform geoscience tasks easily while others struggle. A lack of spatial reasoning skills has been shown to be a barrier to success in the geosciences, and for STEM disciplines in general. Addressing spatial abilities early in the college experience might therefore be effective in retaining students, especially females, in STEM disciplines. We have developed and implemented a toolkit for testing and training undergraduate student spatial reasoning skills in the classroom. In the academic year 2014/15, we studied the distribution of spatial abilities in more than 700 undergraduate Geology students from 4 introductory and 2 upper level courses. Following random assignment, four treatment groups received weekly online training and intermittent hands-on trainings in spatial thinking while four control groups only participated in a pre- and a posttest of spatial thinking skills. In this presentation we summarize our results and describe the distribution of spatial skills in undergraduate students enrolled in geology courses. We first discuss the factors that best account for differences in baseline spatial ability levels, including general intelligence (using standardized test scores as a proxy), major, video gaming, and other childhood play experiences, which help to explain the gender gap observed in most research. We found a statistically significant improvement of spatial thinking still with large effect sizes for the students who received the weekly trainings. Self-report data further shows that students improve their spatial thinking skills and report that their improved spatial thinking skills increase their performance in geoscience courses. We conclude by discussing the

  1. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning. (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard


    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  2. Reasons for Dropout for Vocational High School Students (United States)

    Tas, Ali; Selvitopu, Abdullah; Bora, Veysel; Demirkaya, Yusuf


    This study aimed to determine the reasons for dropout for persons who have not completed vocational education programme and left school without a diploma. By using snowball sampling method, 19 persons, willing to participate in the study, were reached. Data were obtained by semi structured interview forms. In data analysis process, inductive…

  3. Choosing Teaching Profession as a Career: Students' Reasons (United States)

    Balyer, Aydin; Özcan, Kenan


    The success of educational change inevitably depends on the quality and performance of teachers. Therefore, the importance of employing high quality teachers is crucial for educational systems. Choosing talented and committed brains to teaching career depends on making it an attractive profession. It is considered that there are some reasons why…

  4. Developing students' statistical reasoning connecting research and teaching practice

    CERN Document Server

    Garfield, Joan; Chance, Beth


    This book summarizes the research and highlights the important concepts for teachers to emphasize, showing the interrelationships among concepts. It makes specific suggestions on building classroom activities, and assessing students' learning.

  5. Examining Teacher Framing, Student Reasoning, and Student Agency in School-Based Citizen Science (United States)

    Harris, Emily Mae

    This dissertation presents three interrelated studies examining opportunities for student learning through contributory citizen science (CS), where students collect and contribute data to help generate new scientific knowledge. I draw on sociocultural perspectives of learning to analyze three cases where teachers integrated CS into school science, one third grade, one fourth grade, and one high school Marine Biology classroom. Chapter 2 is a conceptual investigation of the opportunities for students to engage in scientific reasoning practices during CS data collection activities. Drawing on science education literature and vignettes from case studies, I argue that the teacher plays an important role in mediating opportunities for students to engage in investigative, explanatory, and argumentative practices of science through CS. Chapter 3 focuses on teacher framing of CS, how teachers perceive what is going on (Goffman, 1974) and how they communicate that to students as they launch CS tasks. Through analysis of videos and interviews of two upper elementary school teachers, I found that teachers frame CS for different purposes. These framings were influenced by teachers' goals, orientations towards science and CS, planning for instruction, and prior knowledge and experience. Chapter 4 examines how students demonstrate agency with environmental science as they explore their personal interests across their third grade classroom, school garden, and science lab contexts, through the lens of social practice theory (Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, & Cain, 1998). Through analysis of classroom observations, student interviews, teacher interviews and important moments for three focal students, I found that student agency was enabled and constrained by the different cultures of the classroom, garden, and science lab. Despite affordances of the garden and science lab, the teachers' epistemic authority in the classroom permeated all three contexts, constraining student agency. In

  6. Sexual Orientation and College Students' Reasons for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs. (United States)

    Dagirmanjian, Faedra R; McDaniel, Anne E; Shadick, Richard


    Nonmedical use of prescription pain medications, sedatives, and stimulants is a well-documented problem among college students. Research has indicated that students who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are at elevated risk. However, little is known about students' reasons for use. (1) To replicate findings that sexual minority students report higher nonmedical use than heterosexual students, moving from a campus-specific to a multicampus sample and (2) to test for an association between sexual orientation and reasons for use. The 2015 College Prescription Drug Study surveyed 3389 students from nine 4-year public and private colleges and universities across the United States using an anonymous online survey. Measures assessed demographic information, prevalence of nonmedical use, frequency of use, where the drugs were obtained, reasons for use, and consequences of use. Stepwise logistic regression models were used to determine if sexual orientation predicted use. Chi-square tests of independence were also used to analyze prevalence of use by demographics as well as to assess differences in reasons for use by sexual orientation. Sexual minority students were significantly more likely than heterosexual students to nonmedically use any prescription drug, pain medications, and sedatives. Sexual minority students were also more likely to select that they used pain medications to relieve anxiety, enhance social interactions, and to feel better. Conclusions/Importance: Although sexual minority students are more likely to report nonmedical use, students overall use prescription medications for similar reasons, with the exception of painkillers. Implications and areas for future research are discussed.

  7. Conjecturing via Analogical Reasoning in Developing Scientific Approach in Junior High School Students (United States)

    Supratman; Ryane, S.; Rustina, R.


    This study aims to explore the extent to which the use of analogy reasoning when students conduct conjecture in developing the scientific approach, so that the knowledge of the students can be used to build new knowledge. Analysis was conducted on student learning outcomes in Ciamis district. Based on these results, it was found the teacher not give an opportunity to the students to make conjecture on the students in problem solving as well as the construction of new knowledge. Moreover, teachers do not take advantage of analogical reasoning and scientific approach in constructing new knowledge.

  8. The use of high-frequency data to engage students in quantitative reasoning and scientific discourse (United States)

    O'Reilly, C.; Meixner, T.; Bader, N.; Carey, C.; Castendyk, D.; Gougis-Darner, R.; Fuller, R.; Gibson, C.; Klug, J.; Richardson, D.; Stomberg, J.


    Scientists are increasingly using sensor-collected, high-frequency datasets to study environmental processes. To expose undergraduate students to similar experiences, our team has developed six classroom modules that utilize large, long-term, and sensor-based, datasets for science courses designed to: 1) Improve quantitative skills and reasoning; 2) Develop scientific discourse and argumentation; and 3) Increase student engagement in science. A team of ten interdisciplinary faculty from both private and public research universities and undergraduate institutions have developed flexible modules suitable for a variety of undergraduate courses. These modules meet a series of pedagogical goals that include: 1) Developing skills required to manipulate large datasets at different scales to conduct inquiry-based investigations; 2) Developing students' reasoning about statistical variation; and 3) Fostering desirable conceptions about the nature of environmental science. Six modules on the following topics are being piloted during the 2014-15 and 2015-16 academic years prior to broad dissemination: 1) Temporal stream discharge evaluation using USGS data; 2) Temporal stream nutrient loads and eutrophication risk using USGS and MCM-LTER data; 3) Climate change using NOAA weather and Vostok ice core data; 4) Lake ice-off dates using GLEON data; 5) Thermal dynamics in lakes using GLEON data; and 6) Lake metabolism dynamics using GLEON data. To assess achievement of the pedagogical goals, we will use pre/post questionnaires and video-recordings of students working on modules. Questionnaires will contain modified items from the Experimental Design Ability Test (Sirum & Humberg 2011), the Views on the Nature of Science questionnaire (Lederman et al. 2001), and a validated instrument to measure students' ideas about variation (Watson et al. 2003). Information gained from these assessments and recordings will allow us to determine whether our modules are effective at engaging

  9. A Study on Reading Printed Books or E-Books: Reasons for Student-Teachers Preferences (United States)

    Tosun, Nilgun


    This study tried to determine the preferences of student-teachers on reading printed books or e-books and the reasons for these preferences. Reading printed books and e-books preferences of students are discussed in terms of gender and department variables. 258 student-teachers who are studying in Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

  10. Explaining Newton's Laws of Motion: Using Student Reasoning through Representations to Develop Conceptual Understanding (United States)

    Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan; Sellings, Peter


    The development of students' reasoning and argumentation skills in school science is currently attracting strong research interest. In this paper we report on a study where we aimed to investigate student learning on the topic of motion when students, guided by their teacher, responded to a sequence of representational challenges in which their…

  11. Measurements Matter: Taking the DIT-2 Multiple Times and College Students' Moral Reasoning Development (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Trolian, Teniell; Selznick, Benjamin


    The purpose of this paper was to examine differences between undergraduate students who had multiple exposures to an assessment of moral reasoning development (DIT-2) and students of the same cohort who had fewer exposures to the same assessment. Controlling for a host of individual covariates, the analysis determined that students who took the…

  12. The Reasons for the Reluctance of Princess Alia University College Students' from Practicing Sports Activities (United States)

    Odat, Jebril


    This study aimed at investigating the reasons lying behind the reluctance of participation in sport activities among Alia Princess College female students, using descriptive approach. The population of the study consisted of (2000) female students, whereas the sample was of (200) students. They were randomly selected and a questionnaire of 31…

  13. Mapping Students' Modes of Reasoning When Thinking about Chemical Reactions Used to Make a Desired Product (United States)

    Weinrich, M. L.; Talanquer, V.


    The central goal of this study was to analyze the complexity of students' explanations about how and why chemical reactions happen in terms of the types of causal connections students built between expressed concepts and ideas. We were particularly interested in characterizing differences in the types of reasoning applied by students with…

  14. A Reason to Live: The Protective Influence of Close Friendships on College Students (United States)

    Hope, Keely J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among college age student's experiences in close friendship, emotional autonomy and reasons to live. This study was grounded in Attachment Theory and College Student Development. A sample of undergraduate students was drawn from one Southeastern U.S. university. A total of 441 participants…

  15. Faculty Development for Fostering Clinical Reasoning Skills in Early Medical Students Using a Modified Bayesian Approach. (United States)

    Addy, Tracie Marcella; Hafler, Janet; Galerneau, France


    Clinical reasoning is a necessary skill for medical students to acquire in the course of their education, and there is evidence that they can start this process at the undergraduate level. However, physician educators who are experts in their given fields may have difficulty conveying their complex thought processes to students. Providing faculty development that equips educators with tools to teach clinical reasoning may support skill development in early medical students. We provided faculty development on a modified Bayesian method of teaching clinical reasoning to clinician educators who facilitated small-group, case-based workshops with 2nd-year medical students. We interviewed them before and after the module regarding their perceptions on teaching clinical reasoning. We solicited feedback from the students about the effectiveness of the method in developing their clinical reasoning skills. We carried out this project during an institutional curriculum rebuild where clinical reasoning was a defined goal. At the time of the intervention, there was also increased involvement of the Teaching and Learning Center in elevating the status of teaching and learning. There was high overall satisfaction with the faculty development program. Both the faculty and the students described the modified Bayesian approach as effective in fostering the development of clinical reasoning skills. Through this work, we learned how to form a beneficial partnership between a clinician educator and Teaching and Learning Center to promote faculty development on a clinical reasoning teaching method for early medical students. We uncovered challenges faced by both faculty and early learners in this study. We observed that our faculty chose to utilize the method of teaching clinical reasoning in a variety of manners in the classroom. Despite obstacles and differing approaches utilized, we believe that this model can be emulated at other institutions to foster the development of clinical

  16. 7 Reasons for Accommodating Transgender Students at School (United States)

    Arenas, Alberto; Gunckel, Kristin L.; Smith, William L.


    Schools have become ground zero for clashes over transgender rights, and critics are denouncing academic institutions--and more recently, the Obama administration--for supporting transgender students in their right to use restrooms and locker rooms that match their gender identity. This article responds to the seven most common claims made by…

  17. Engaging Students in Learning Science through Promoting Creative Reasoning (United States)

    Waldrip, Bruce; Prain, Vaughan


    Student engagement in learning science is both a desirable goal and a long-standing teacher challenge. Moving beyond engagement understood as transient topic interest, we argue that cognitive engagement entails sustained interaction in the processes of how knowledge claims are generated, judged, and shared in this subject. In this paper, we…

  18. Elementary Students' Reasoning about Angle Constructions (United States)

    Cullen, Amanda L.; Cullen, Craig J.; O'Hanlon, Wendy A.


    In this report, we discuss the findings from 2 pilot studies investigating the effects of interventions designed to provide students in Grades 3-5 with opportunities to work with dynamic and static models of angles in a dynamic geometry environment. We discuss the effects of the interventions on the children's development of quantitative reasoning…

  19. Conceptual Precalculus: Strengthening Students' Quantitative and Covariational Reasoning (United States)

    Madison, Bernard L.; Carlson, Marilyn; Oehrtman, Michael; Tallman, Michael


    Research over the past few decades points to ways precalculus and calculus courses can be strengthened to improve student learning in these courses. This research has informed the development of the Algebra and Precalculus Concept Readiness (APCR) and the Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) assessments. In this article, the authors present three…

  20. Aspects of Students' Reasoning about Variation in Empirical Sampling Distributions (United States)

    Noll, Jennifer; Shaughnessy, J. Michael


    Sampling tasks and sampling distributions provide a fertile realm for investigating students' conceptions of variability. A project-designed teaching episode on samples and sampling distributions was team-taught in 6 research classrooms (2 middle school and 4 high school) by the investigators and regular classroom mathematics teachers. Data…

  1. Why Do Students Plagiarize? Efl Undergraduates’ Views on the Reasons Behind Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doró Katalin


    Full Text Available Cheating and plagiarism spread like pandemics in many educational contexts and are difficulty to detect, fight and also to understand. The purpose of this exploratory study is to investigate what first-year students of English at a large Hungarian university believe to be the main reasons for plagiarism. Twenty-five students were asked to express their views in a free opinion essay. Perceived reasons were categorized into twelve main groups based on the literature and the reasons for plagiarism provided by faculty members at the same university. The most often mentioned reasons included saving time and effort and unintentional plagiarism.

  2. Assessing Student Peer Dialogue in Collaborative Settings: A Window into Student Reasoning (United States)

    Stone, Antoinette

    The use of science classroom discourse analysis as a way to gain a better understanding of various student cognitive outcomes has a rich history in Science Education in general and Physics Education Research (PER) in particular. When students talk to each other in a collaborative peer instruction environment, such as in the CLASP classes (Collaborative Learning and Sense-making in Physics) at UC Davis, they get to practice and enhance their reasoning and sense-making skills, develop collaborative approaches to problem solving, and participate in co-construction of knowledge and shared thinking. To better understand these important cognitive processes, an analysis tool for monitoring, assessing and categorizing the peer talk arising in this environment is needed as a first step in teasing out evidence for these processes inherent in such talk. In order to meaningfully contribute to the extensive body of knowledge that currently exists, deeper, more insightful answers to the question of what happens linguistically when students struggle to "make sense" and how students use language to mediate these important cognitive outcomes is needed. To this end, a new tool for interpreting particularly qualitative linguistic data is needed, and the first part of the dissertation expounds on the development of a discourse analysis tool that has as its underpinnings a framework for coding borrowed extensively from Systemic Functional Linguistics Theory (SFL). The second part of this dissertation illustrates multiple ways in which the tool is used and how it can be utilized to address many current research questions.

  3. Promoting student case creation to enhance instruction of clinical reasoning skills: a pilot feasibility study. (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Hamsika; Gesundheit, Neil; Nevins, Andrew B; Pompei, Peter; Bruce, Janine; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei


    It is a common educational practice for medical students to engage in case-based learning (CBL) exercises by working through clinical cases that have been developed by faculty. While such faculty-developed exercises have educational strengths, there are at least two major drawbacks to learning by this method: the number and diversity of cases is often limited; and students decrease their engagement with CBL cases as they grow accustomed to the teaching method. We sought to explore whether student case creation can address both of these limitations. We also compared student case creation to traditional clinical reasoning sessions in regard to tutorial group effectiveness, perceived gains in clinical reasoning, and quality of student-faculty interaction. Ten first-year medical students participated in a feasibility study wherein they worked in small groups to develop their own patient case around a preassigned diagnosis. Faculty provided feedback on case quality afterwards. Students completed pre- and post-self-assessment surveys. Students and faculty also participated in separate focus groups to compare their case creation experience to traditional CBL sessions. Students reported high levels of team engagement and peer learning, as well as increased ownership over case content and understanding of clinical reasoning nuances. However, students also reported decreases in student-faculty interaction and the use of visual aids ( P study suggest that student-generated cases can be a valuable adjunct to traditional clinical reasoning instruction by increasing content ownership, encouraging student-directed learning, and providing opportunities to explore clinical nuances. However, these gains may reduce student-faculty interaction. Future studies may be able to identify an improved model of faculty participation, the ideal timing for incorporation of this method in a medical curriculum, and a more rigorous assessment of the impact of student case creation on the

  4. Establishing the competences of clinical reasoning for nursing students in Taiwan: From the nurse educators' perspectives. (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Man; Huang, Chu-Yu; Lee-Hsieh, Jane; Cheng, Su-Fen


    Clinical reasoning is an essential core competence for nurses. Maintaining quality of care and safety of patients results from cultivation of student's clinical reasoning competency. However, the concept of clinical reasoning in nursing students is complex and its meaning and process needs further clarification. The objectives were to explore the meaning of clinical reasoning competency in Taiwanese nursing students and to operationalize the concept in order to structure a framework illustrating the process of clinical reasoning. Thirteen seasoned nursing experts who had more than ten years of experience in nursing education or clinical practice participated in the interviews. The interviews were conducted in settings that the participants perceived as convenient, quiet and free of disturbance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded and field notes were taken. The data were analyzed using Waltz et al.'s (2010) method of content analysis. The data revealed four domains and 11 competency indicators. The four domains include: awareness of clinical cues, confirmation of clinical problems, determination and implementation of actions, and evaluation and self-reflection. Each domain comprises of 2-4 indicators of clinical reasoning competency. In addition, this study established a framework for cultivation of clinical reasoning competency in nursing students. The indicators of clinical reasoning competency in nursing students are interwoven, interactive and interdependent to form a dynamic process. The findings of this study may facilitate evaluation of nursing students' clinical reasoning competency and development of instruments to assess clinical reasoning in nursing students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Student Analogy Reasons When Solving Area Concepts in Pyramids and Prisms (United States)

    Mashuri, A.; Sudjadi, I.; Pramudya, I.; Gembong, S.


    The purpose of this study is to describe the reasoning of students’ analogies in solving the broad concept problem in pyramids and prisms. This research method using descriptive qualitative. Data collection uses analogous reasoning tests and interviews. After that tested to 32 students of Junior High School. Based on the results of the analysis can be concluded that (1) 16% of students solve the problem of source and target problem correctly. (2) 29% of students correctly solve source problems and target problems incorrectly. (3) 55% solve source problems and target problems wrong. This is because students tend to memorize formulas not using analogy reasoning to solve new problems. Finally, the students have difficulties in solving new problems, because students are not accustomed to using the experience they have gained to solve new problems.

  6. [Exploratory study of clinical reasoning in nursing students with concept mapping]. (United States)

    Paucard-Dupont, Sylvie; Marchand, Claire


    The training reference leading to the state nursing diploma places the learning of clinical reasoning at the center of the training. We have been wondering about the possibilities of making visible the student nurse's mental processes when they provide nursing care in order to identify their strategies and reasoning difficulties. It turns out that concept mapping is a research tool capable of showing these two aspects. The aim of this study is to verify a concept mapping made during an interview and built from the speech of a nursing student when analyzing a simulated clinical situation, is able to make visible its strategies clinical reasoning and reasoning difficulties. In a second phase of it, is to explore how the concept map once elaborated allows students to identify their own intellectual reasoning. 12 nursing second year students have participated in the study. Concept maps were constructed by the trainer/researcher as the students analyzed aloud a simulated clinical situation written. Concept maps were analyzed from a reference grid. Interviews were conducted following the elaboration of concept maps and student's comments were analyzed. Students reasoning strategies were either mixed inductive dominant (5/12) or hypothetical-deductive dominant (5/12). Reasoning difficulties identified are related to the lack of identification of important information, the lack of analysis of data, lack of connection or the existence of faulty links. Analysis of the comments highlights that concept mapping contributed to the development of metacognitive skills. The concept mapping has shown benefits in contributing to a diagnostic assessment of clinical reasoning learning. It is an additional resource tool to facilitate the development of metacognitive skills for students. This tool can be useful to implement support learning strategies in clinical reasoning.

  7. Clinical reasoning skills in final-year dental students: A qualitative cross-curricula comparison. (United States)

    Nafea, E T; Dennick, R


    The aim of this research was to explore the perceptions of undergraduate dental students regarding clinical reasoning skills and also discover the influences of different curriculum designs on the acquisition of these skills by students. Eighteen final-year students from three different dental schools with varied curricula and cultures participated in the current research. The research used qualitative methodology. The study took place in 2013-2014. Interviews captured the participants' own understanding of clinical reasoning and its acquisition plus they "talked through" a clinical problem using a "think-aloud" technique. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the transcripts of the recorded interviews. Results obtained were related to curriculum structure. Unfamiliarity with the term clinical reasoning was common in students. Students from different schools used different strategies to reason when discussing clinical vignettes. Clinical reasoning process was dominated by pattern recognition. Students' behaviours seemed to be influenced by cultural factors. This research contributes to a greater understanding of how students learn, understand and apply dental clinical reasoning which will improve educational practices in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. University Students' Knowledge Structures and Informal Reasoning on the Use of Genetically Modified Foods: Multidimensional Analyses (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien


    This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and quantitative analyses, this study revealed that those students with more extended and better-organized knowledge structures, as well as those who more frequently used higher-order information processing modes, were more oriented towards achieving a higher-level informal reasoning quality. The regression analyses further showed that the "richness" of the students' knowledge structures explained 25 % of the variation in their rebuttal construction, an important indicator of reasoning quality, indicating the significance of the role of students' sophisticated knowledge structure in SSI reasoning. Besides, this study also provides some initial evidence for the significant role of the "core" concept within one's knowledge structure in one's SSI reasoning. The findings in this study suggest that, in SSI-based instruction, science instructors should try to identify students' core concepts within their prior knowledge regarding the SSI, and then they should try to guide students to construct and structure relevant concepts or ideas regarding the SSI based on their core concepts. Thus, students could obtain extended and well-organized knowledge structures, which would then help them achieve better learning transfer in dealing with SSIs.

  9. Use of Multi-Response Format Test in the Assessment of Medical Students' Critical Thinking Ability. (United States)

    Mafinejad, Mahboobeh Khabaz; Arabshahi, Seyyed Kamran Soltani; Monajemi, Alireza; Jalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Rasouli, Javad


    To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student's ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 159 undergraduate third-year medical students. All the participants completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) consisting of 34 multiple-choice questions to measure general critical thinking skills and a researcher-developed test that combines open and closed-ended questions. A researcher-developed 48-question exam, consisting of 8 short-answers and 5 essay questions, 19 Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ), and 16 True-False (TF) questions, was used to measure critical thinking skills. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson's coefficient to explore the association between the total scores of tests and subtests. One hundred and fifty-nine students participated in this study. The sample comprised 81 females (51%) and 78 males (49%) with an age range of 20±2.8 years (mean 21.2 years). The response rate was 64.1%. A significant positive correlation was found between types of questions and critical thinking scores, of which the correlations of MCQ (r=0.82) and essay questions (r=0.77) were strongest. The significant positive correlations between multi-response format test and CCTST's subscales were seen in analysis, evaluation, inference and inductive reasoning. Unlike CCTST subscales, multi-response format test have weak correlation with CCTST total score (r=0.45, p=0.06). This study highlights the importance of considering multi-response format test in the assessment of critical thinking abilities of medical

  10. Research and Practice on Basic Composition and Cultivation Pattern of College Students' Innovative Ability (United States)

    Xu, Zhenhui; Chen, Hanlin


    Facing the increasingly fierce international competition, it has been the core of higher education to explore how to cultivate college students with innovative ability. College students' innovative ability is mainly composed of basic ability, innovative thinking and innovative actions. In conformity to the above composition, the cultivation…

  11. Improving critical thinking : Effects of dispositions and instructions oneconomics students' reasoning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred


    This experiment investigated the impact of critical thinking dispositions and instructions on economics students' performance on reasoning skills. Participants (. N=. 183) were exposed to one of four conditions: critical thinking instruction, critical thinking instruction with self-explanation

  12. Reasoning up and down a Food Chain: Using an Assessment Framework to Investigate Students' Middle Knowledge (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Songer, Nancy Butler


    Being able to make claims about what students know and can do in science involves gathering systematic evidence of students' knowledge and abilities. This paper describes an assessment system designed to elicit information from students at many placements along developmental trajectories and demonstrates how this system was used to gather…

  13. The Effect of Problem-Solving Video Games on the Science Reasoning Skills of College Students (United States)

    Fanetti, Tina M.

    As the world continues to rapidly change, students are faced with the need to develop flexible skills, such as science reasoning that will help them thrive in the new knowledge economy. Prensky (2001), Gee (2003), and Van Eck (2007) have all suggested that the way to engage learners and teach them the necessary skills is through digital games, but empirical studies focusing on popular games are scant. One way digital games, especially video games, could potentially be useful if there were a flexible and inexpensive method a student could use at their convenience to improve selected science reasoning skills. Problem-solving video games, which require the use of reasoning and problem solving to answer a variety of cognitive challenges could be a promising method to improve selected science reasoning skills. Using think-aloud protocols and interviews, a qualitative study was carried out with a small sample of college students to examine what impact two popular video games, Professor Layton and the Curious Village and Professor Layton and the Diabolical Box, had on specific science reasoning skills. The subject classified as an expert in both gaming and reasoning tended to use more higher order thinking and reasoning skills than the novice reasoners. Based on the assessments, the science reasoning of college students did not improve during the course of game play. Similar to earlier studies, students tended to use trial and error as their primary method of solving the various puzzles in the game and additionally did not recognize when to use the appropriate reasoning skill to solve a puzzle, such as proportional reasoning.

  14. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students (United States)

    Helming, Luralyn


    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  15. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students (United States)

    Chang, Y.


    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to explore the…

  16. Consequences the extensive use of multiple-choice questions might have on student's reasoning structure


    Raduta, C. M.


    Learning physics is a context dependent process. I consider a broader interdisciplinary problem of where differences in understanding and reasoning arise. I suggest the long run effects a multiple choice based learning system as well as society cultural habits and rules might have on student reasoning structure.

  17. Experienced and less-experienced nurses' diagnostic reasoning: implications for fostering students' critical thinking. (United States)

    Ferrario, Catherine G


    To compare the use of mental representations (heuristics) in diagnostic reasoning of expert (> or = 5 years' experience) and novice (thinking and spare cognitive reserves for reasoning needed for complex patients. Faculty need to promote student's cognitive development through strategies that promote active, reflective, and integrative learning.

  18. Student Strategies Suggesting Emergence of Mental Structures Supporting Logical and Abstract Thinking: Multiplicative Reasoning (United States)

    Carrier, Jim


    For many students, developing mathematical reasoning can prove to be challenging. Such difficulty may be explained by a deficit in the core understanding of many arithmetical concepts taught in early school years. Multiplicative reasoning is one such concept that produces an essential foundation upon which higher-level mathematical thinking skills…

  19. Students' Reasoning and Decision Making about a Socioscientific Issue: A Cross-Context Comparison (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Grace, Marcus


    It has been argued that decision making about socioscientific issue (SSIs) necessitates informal reasoning, which involves multiperspective thinking and moral judgment. This study extends the scope of the literature concerning students' reasoning on SSIs to a cross-contextual study by comparing decisions made on avian flu by 12-13-year-old Chinese…

  20. Playful Fostering of 6- to 8-Year-Old Students' Inductive Reasoning (United States)

    Molnar, Gyongyver


    This paper focuses on a training program in inductive reasoning for first-grade students and presents the direct results as well as the longitudinal effects of the evaluation study. The training is based on Klauer's theory of inductive reasoning and on his "Cognitive training for children" concept (Klauer, 1989a). The training program consists of…

  1. Withholding answers during hands-on scientific investigations? Comparing effects on developing students' scientific knowledge, reasoning, and application (United States)

    Zhang, Lin


    As more concerns have been raised about withholding answers during science teaching, this article argues for a need to detach 'withholding answers' from 'hands-on' investigation tasks. The present study examined students' learning of light-related content through three conditions: 'hands-on' + no 'withholding' (hands-on only: HO), 'hands-on' + 'withholding' (hands-on investigation with answers withheld: HOW), and no 'hands-on' + no 'withholding' (direction instruction: DI). Students were assessed in terms of how well they (1) knew the content taught in class; (2) reasoned with the learned content; and (3) applied the learned content to real-life situations. Nine classes of students at 4th and 5th grades, N = 136 in total, were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. ANCOVA results showed that students in the hands-on only condition reasoned significantly better than those in the other two conditions. Students in this condition also seemed to know the content fairly better although the advance was not significant. Students in all three conditions did not show a statistically significant difference in their ability to apply the learned content to real-life situations. The findings from this study provide important contributions regarding issues relating to withholding answers during guided scientific inquiry.

  2. Intelligent tutoring system for clinical reasoning skill acquisition in dental students. (United States)

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan


    Learning clinical reasoning is an important core activity of the modern dental curriculum. This article describes an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for clinical reasoning skill acquisition. The system is designed to provide an experience that emulates that of live human-tutored problem-based learning (PBL) sessions as much as possible, while at the same time permitting the students to participate collaboratively from disparate locations. The system uses Bayesian networks to model individual student knowledge and activity, as well as that of the group. Tutoring algorithms use the models to generate tutoring hints. The system incorporates a multimodal interface that integrates text and graphics so as to provide a rich communication channel between the students and the system, as well as among students in the group. Comparison of learning outcomes shows that student clinical reasoning gains from the ITS are similar to those obtained from human-tutored sessions.

  3. SAFETY: an integrated clinical reasoning and reflection framework for undergraduate nursing students. (United States)

    Hicks Russell, Bedelia; Geist, Melissa J; House Maffett, Jenny


    Nurse educators can no longer focus on imparting to students knowledge that is merely factual and content specific. Activities that provide students with opportunities to apply concepts in real-world scenarios can be powerful tools. Nurse educators should take advantage of student-patient interactions to model clinical reasoning and allow students to practice complex decision making throughout the entire curriculum. In response to this change in nursing education, faculty in a pediatric course designed a reflective clinical reasoning activity based on the SAFETY template, which is derived from the National Council of State Boards of Nursing RN practice analysis. Students were able to prioritize key components of nursing care, as well as integrate practice issues such as delegation, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations, and questioning the accuracy of orders. SAFETY is proposed as a framework for integration of content knowledge, clinical reasoning, and reflection on authentic professional nursing concerns. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons. (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R


    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.

  5. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures. (United States)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir


    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  6. Promoting Modeling and Covariational Reasoning among Secondary School Students in the Context of Big Data (United States)

    Gil, Einat; Gibbs, Alison L.


    In this study, we follow students' modeling and covariational reasoning in the context of learning about big data. A three-week unit was designed to allow 12th grade students in a mathematics course to explore big and mid-size data using concepts such as trend and scatter to describe the relationships between variables in multivariate settings.…

  7. In Their Own Words: Reasons Underlying the Achievement Striving of Students in Schools (United States)

    Lee, Minhye; Bong, Mimi


    By analyzing the open-ended reasons for studying generated by 3 different groups of Korean middle school students, we aimed to provide partial answers to current issues in achievement goal research that are difficult to resolve solely with the use of survey ratings. We categorized student responses using the achievement goal frameworks of Midgley…

  8. The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia


    Researchers believe that the way that students talk, specifically the language that they use, can offer a window into their reasoning processes. Yet the connection between what students are saying and what they are actually thinking can be ambiguous. We present the results of an exploratory interview study with 10 participants, designed to…

  9. Growing Misconception of Technology: Investigation of Elementary Students' Recognition of and Reasoning about Technological Artifacts (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet


    Knowledge of technology is an educational goal of science education. A primary way of increasing technology literacy in a society is to develop students' conception of technology starting from their elementary school years. However, there is a lack of research on student recognition of and reasoning about technology and technological artifacts. In…

  10. A Content Analysis of Undergraduate Students' Perceived Reasons for Changes in Personal Leadership Behaviors (United States)

    Burbank, Michael; Odom, Summer F.; Sandlin, M'Randa R.


    Leadership educators seek to understand how they can better develop leadership among their students through formal and informal course experiences. The purpose of this study was to understand how undergraduate students perceive reasons for changes in their leadership practices, after completing a personal leadership education course. The course…

  11. A Study of Moral Reasoning Development of Teacher Education Students in Northern Louisiana (United States)

    Wade, April Mitchell


    This quantitative descriptive study identified the differences in the moral reasoning development levels between undergraduate teacher education students enrolled in methods courses and graduate teacher education students enrolled in an alternative certification education program using the Defining Issues Test-2 instrument. Based on Kohlberg's…

  12. Understanding Neurophobia: Reasons behind Impaired Understanding and Learning of Neuroanatomy in Cross-Disciplinary Healthcare Students (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Asim; Chakraborty, Shelly; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët; Toulouse, André


    Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a…

  13. How to Reason with Economic Concepts: Cognitive Process of Japanese Undergraduate Students Solving Test Items (United States)

    Asano, Tadayoshi; Yamaoka, Michio


    The authors administered a Japanese version of the Test of Understanding in College Economics, the fourth edition (TUCE-4) to assess the economic literacy of Japanese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2009. These two test results were combined to investigate students' cognitive process or reasoning with specific economic concepts and principles…

  14. To what extent do student teachers develop their mathematical problem solving ability by self-study?


    Kool, Marjolein; Keijzer, Ronald


    A primary teacher needs mathematical problem solving ability. That is why Dutch student teachers have to show this ability in a nationwide mathematics test that contains many non-routine problems. Most student teachers prepare for this test by working on their own solving test-like problems. To what extent does these individual problem solving activities really contribute to their mathematical problem solving ability? Developing mathematical problem solving ability requires reflective mathema...

  15. Measurement Model of Reasoning Skills among Science Students Based on Socio Scientific Issues (SSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The lack of reasoning skills has been recognized as one of the contributing factors to the declined achievement in the Trends in Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA assessments in Malaysia. The use of socio-scientific issues (SSI as a learning strategy offers the potential of improving the level of students' reasoning skills and consequently improves students’ achievement in science subjects. This study examined the development of a measurement model of reasoning skills among science students based on SSI using the analysis of moment structure (AMOS approach before going to second level to full structured equation modelling (SEM. A total of 450 respondents were selected using a stratified random sampling. Results showed a modified measurement model of reasoning skills consisting of the View Knowledge (VK was as a main construct. The items that measure the level of pre-reflection of students fulfilled the elements of unidimensionality, validity, and reliability. Although the level of student reasoning skills was still low but this development of measurement model could be identified and proposed teaching methods that could be adopted to improve students’ reasoning skills.

  16. Documenting the use of expert scientific reasoning processes by high school physics students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lynn Stephens


    Full Text Available We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.

  17. Student reasoning about electrostatic and gravitational potential energy: An exploratory study with interdisciplinary consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Lindsey


    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation into student reasoning about potential energy in the context of introductory electrostatics. Similar incorrect reasoning patterns emerged both in written questions administered after relevant instruction and in one-on-one interviews. These reasoning patterns are also prevalent in responses to questions posed about gravitational potential energy in the context of universal gravitation in introductory mechanics. This finding is relevant for interdisciplinary research, because many courses in multiple disciplines first introduce the concept of electric potential energy in analogy to gravitational potential energy. The results suggest that in introductory courses students do not gain an understanding of potential energy that is sufficiently robust to apply in more advanced physics courses or in disciplines other than physics, in which students must frequently reason with energy in the context of interactions between atoms and molecules.

  18. Common Variance Among Three Measures of Nonverbal Cognitive Ability: WISC-R Performance Scale, WJPB-TCA Reasoning Cluster, and Halstead Category Test. (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Harr, Gale A.


    Examined the relationships among two psychometric measures of nonverbal cognitive ability - The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJPB-TCA) and a neuropsychological test of abstract reasoning and concept formation (Halstead Category Test) in 25…

  19. Increasing Reasoning Awareness: Video Analysis of Students' Two-Party Virtual Patient Interactions. (United States)

    Edelbring, Samuel; Parodis, Ioannis; Lundberg, Ingrid E


    Collaborative reasoning occurs in clinical practice but is rarely developed during education. The computerized virtual patient (VP) cases allow for a stepwise exploration of cases and thus stimulate active learning. Peer settings during VP sessions are believed to have benefits in terms of reasoning but have received scant attention in the literature. The objective of this study was to thoroughly investigate interactions during medical students' clinical reasoning in two-party VP settings. An in-depth exploration of students' interactions in dyad settings of VP sessions was performed. For this purpose, two prerecorded VP sessions lasting 1 hour each were observed, transcribed in full, and analyzed. The transcriptions were analyzed using thematic analysis, and short clips from the videos were selected for subsequent analysis in relation to clinical reasoning and clinical aspects. Four categories of interactions were identified: (1) task-related dialogue, in which students negotiated a shared understanding of the task and strategies for information gathering; (2) case-related insights and perspectives were gained, and the students consolidated and applied preexisting biomedical knowledge into a clinical setting; (3) clinical reasoning interactions were made explicit. In these, hypotheses were followed up and clinical examples were used. The researchers observed interactions not only between students and the VP but also (4) interactions with other resources, such as textbooks. The interactions are discussed in relation to theories of clinical reasoning and peer learning. The dyad VP setting is conducive to activities that promote analytic clinical reasoning. In this setting, components such as peer interaction, access to different resources, and reduced time constraints provided a productive situation in which the students pursued different lines of reasoning. ©Samuel Edelbring, Ioannis Parodis, Ingrid E Lundberg. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (http

  20. Aim for Wow-ability when Selecting Student Center Furniture. (United States)

    Payne, Jill M.


    Advises colleges to keep in mind several qualities when purchasing furniture for student centers: durability, cleanability, repairability, flexibility, storability, credibility, sustainability, comfort, affordability, and "wowability." (EV)

  1. Visual abilities in students with severe developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI...... impairment is a common condition in students with severe DD. Despite increased awareness of VI in the school and health care system, we continued to find a considerable number of students with hitherto undiagnosed decreased vision....

  2. Improving Elementary and Middle School Students' Abilities To Manage Conflict. (United States)

    Karneboge, Lynn; Smith, Stacia B.; VandeSchraaf, Cary; Wiegardt, Craig G.; Wormer, Gail

    This action research project evaluated the effectiveness of a program to enhance students' social skills with peers. The targeted population was comprised of elementary and junior high school students in an economically diverse, predominantly blue collar community in central Illinois. The problem of inability to problem solve, listen actively,…

  3. Diagnosis of students' ability in a statistical course based on Rasch probabilistic outcome (United States)

    Mahmud, Zamalia; Ramli, Wan Syahira Wan; Sapri, Shamsiah; Ahmad, Sanizah


    Measuring students' ability and performance are important in assessing how well students have learned and mastered the statistical courses. Any improvement in learning will depend on the student's approaches to learning, which are relevant to some factors of learning, namely assessment methods carrying out tasks consisting of quizzes, tests, assignment and final examination. This study has attempted an alternative approach to measure students' ability in an undergraduate statistical course based on the Rasch probabilistic model. Firstly, this study aims to explore the learning outcome patterns of students in a statistics course (Applied Probability and Statistics) based on an Entrance-Exit survey. This is followed by investigating students' perceived learning ability based on four Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) and students' actual learning ability based on their final examination scores. Rasch analysis revealed that students perceived themselves as lacking the ability to understand about 95% of the statistics concepts at the beginning of the class but eventually they had a good understanding at the end of the 14 weeks class. In terms of students' performance in their final examination, their ability in understanding the topics varies at different probability values given the ability of the students and difficulty of the questions. Majority found the probability and counting rules topic to be the most difficult to learn.

  4. The effect of short-term workshop on improving clinical reasoning skill of medical students. (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Jafari, Farshad; Kahbazi, Manijeh; Rafiei, Mohammad; Pakniyat, AbdolGhader


    Clinical reasoning process leads clinician to get purposeful steps from signs and symptoms toward diagnosis and treatment. This research intends to investigate the effect of teaching clinical reasoning on problem-solving skills of medical students. This research is a semi-experimental study. Nineteen Medical student of the pediatric ward as case group participated in a two-day workshop for training clinical reasoning. Before the workshop, they filled out Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI) questionnaires. Fifteen days after the workshop the DTI questionnaire completed and "key feature" (KF) test and "clinical reasoning problem" (CRP) test was held. 23 Medical student as the control group, without passing the clinical reasoning workshop DTI questionnaire completed, and KF test and CRP test was held. The average score of the DTI questionnaire in the control group was 162.04 and in the case group before the workshop was 153.26 and after the workshop was 181.68. Compare the average score of the DTI questionnaire before and after the workshop there is a significant difference. The difference between average KF test scores in the control and the case group was not significant but between average CRP test scores was significant. Clinical reasoning workshop is effectiveness in promoting problem-solving skills of students.

  5. Model Based Reasoning by Introductory Students When Analyzing Earth Systems and Societal Challenges (United States)

    Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.


    Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and

  6. A Globalization Simulation to Teach Corporate Social Responsibility: Design Features and Analysis of Student Reasoning (United States)

    Bos, Nathan D.; Shami, N. Sadat; Naab, Sara


    There is an increasing need for business students to be taught the ability to think through ethical dilemmas faced by corporations conducting business on a global scale. This article describes a multiplayer online simulation game, ISLAND TELECOM, that exposes students to ethical dilemmas in international business. Through role playing and…

  7. Teacher Immediacy and Decreased Student Quantitative Reasoning Anxiety: The Mediating Effect of Perception (United States)

    Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary


    There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructional…

  8. Fostering 21st-Century Evolutionary Reasoning: Teaching Tree Thinking to Introductory Biology Students. (United States)

    Novick, Laura R; Catley, Kefyn M


    The ability to interpret and reason from Tree of Life (ToL) diagrams has become a vital component of science literacy in the 21st century. This article reports on the effectiveness of a research-based curriculum, including an instructional booklet, laboratory, and lectures, to teach the fundamentals of such tree thinking in an introductory biology class for science majors. We present the results of a study involving 117 undergraduates who received either our new research-based tree-thinking curriculum or business-as-usual instruction. We found greater gains in tree-thinking abilities for the experimental instruction group than for the business-as-usual group, as measured by performance on our novel assessment instrument. This was a medium size effect. These gains were observed on an unannounced test that was administered ∼5-6 weeks after the primary instruction in tree thinking. The nature of students' postinstruction difficulties with tree thinking suggests that the critical underlying concept for acquiring expert-level competence in this area is understanding that any specific phylogenetic tree is a subset of the complete, unimaginably large ToL. © 2016 L. R. Novick and K. M. Catley. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  9. Answer first: Applying the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to examine student intuitive thinking in the context of physics


    Mila Kryjevskaia; MacKenzie R. Stetzer; Nathaniel Grosz


    We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics s...

  10. Promoting the self-regulation of clinical reasoning skills in nursing students. (United States)

    Kuiper, R; Pesut, D; Kautz, D


    The purpose of this paper is to describe the research surrounding the theories and models the authors united to describe the essential components of clinical reasoning in nursing practice education. The research was conducted with nursing students in health care settings through the application of teaching and learning strategies with the Self-Regulated Learning Model (SRL) and the Outcome-Present-State-Test (OPT) Model of Reflective Clinical Reasoning. Standardized nursing languages provided the content and clinical vocabulary for the clinical reasoning task. This descriptive study described the application of the OPT model of clinical reasoning, use of nursing language content, and reflective journals based on the SRL model with 66 undergraduate nursing students over an 8 month period of time. The study tested the idea that self-regulation of clinical reasoning skills can be developed using self-regulation theory and the OPT model. This research supports a framework for effective teaching and learning methods to promote and document learner progress in mastering clinical reasoning skills. Self-regulated Learning strategies coupled with the OPT model suggest benefits of self-observation and self-monitoring during clinical reasoning activities, and pinpoints where guidance is needed for the development of cognitive and metacognitive awareness. Thinking and reasoning about the complexities of patient care needs requires attention to the content, processes and outcomes that make a nursing care difference. These principles and concepts are valuable to clinical decision making for nurses globally as they deal with local, regional, national and international health care issues.

  11. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School (United States)

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md


    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of the Relationship Between Academic Ability and Achievement of Middlesex Community College Students. (United States)

    Lee, Glenda E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between the academic achievement and academic ability of students who did and those who did not request assistance in reading. Subjects used in the study were 416 entering students at Middlesex Community College in the fall of 1973. Responses on tests of reading ability,…

  13. Learning Style Preferences of Gifted, Average- Ability, and Special Needs Students: A Multivariate Perspective. (United States)

    Pyryt, Michael C.; Sandals, Lauran H.; Begoray, John


    Compared learning-style preferences of intellectually gifted, average-ability, and special-needs students on the Learning Style Inventory. Also examined the general differences among ability level and gender. Analyses indicated that gifted students preferred learning alone, being self-motivated, and using tactile learning approaches, and that…

  14. Locus of Control, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Dishonesty among High Ability College Students (United States)

    Rinn, Anne N.; Boazman, Janette


    The purposes of the current study were to evaluate a measure of academic dishonesty and examine high ability college students' loci of control and its effect on behaviors of academic dishonesty, as moderated by academic self-concept. A total of 357 high ability college students enrolled at two universities in the southwestern United States took…

  15. Newspaper Reading among College Students in Development of Their Analytical Ability (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh


    The study investigated the newspaper reading among college students in development of their analytical ability. Newspapers are one of the few sources of information that are comprehensive, interconnected and offered in one format. The main objective of the study was to find out the development of the analytical ability among college students by…

  16. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei


    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…

  17. To what extent do student teachers develop their mathematical problem solving ability by self-study?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjolein Kool; Ronald Keijzer


    A primary teacher needs mathematical problem solving ability. That is why Dutch student teachers have to show this ability in a nationwide mathematics test that contains many non-routine problems. Most student teachers prepare for this test by working on their own solving test-like problems. To what

  18. Students' socio-scientific reasoning on controversies from the viewpoint of education for sustainable development (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence; Simonneaux, Jean


    In this article, we study third-year university students' reasoning about three controversial socio-scientific issues from the viewpoint of education for sustainable development: local issues (the reintroduction of bears in the Pyrenees in France, wolves in the Mercantour) and a global one (global warming). We used the theoretical frameworks of social representations and of socio-scientific reasoning. Students' reasoning varies according to the issues, in particular because of their emotional proximity with the issues and their socio-cultural origin. About this kind of issues, it seems pertinent to integrate into the operations of socio-scientific reasoning not only the consideration of values, but also the analysis of the modes of governance and the place given to politics.

  19. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ranjbar


    Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.

  20. Analogical Reasoning and Computer Programming. (United States)

    Clement, Catherine A.; And Others


    A study of correlations between analogical reasoning and Logo programming mastery among female high school students related the results of pretests of analogical reasoning to posttests of programming mastery. A significant correlation was found between analogical reasoning and the ability to write subprocedures for use in several different…

  1. Profile of Cognitive Ability and Multiple Intelligence of Vocational Students in Application of Electric Energy Conservation (United States)

    Kurniawan, A.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Kaniawati, I.; Hasanah, L.


    The purpose of this study is to obtain a profile picture of cognitive ability and multiple intelligence of students on physics learning activities in relation to the discourse of conservation of electrical energy. Research activities are conducted in the even semester of the 2015/2016 school year. The subjects of the study were the students of class XI (36 students) in one of the state vocational schools in Bandung consisting of one class chosen at random (cluster random sampling). Research data in the form of cognitive ability test results and multiple intelligences are analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Research data is then analyzed and compared with predetermined success indicators. The results showed that the cognitive abilities profile of students in vocational schools in Bandung is still low. This can be seen from the average score of cognitive ability of students in remember (C1) of 57.75, understanding (C2) of 53.50, applying (C3) of 43.75, and analyzing (C4) of 37.75. The multiple intelligence profiles indicate frequency of linguistic intelligence number 9 students, musical intelligence 3 students, logical mathematical intelligence 13 students, spatial intelligence 7 students, kinesthetic intelligence 5 students, intrapersonal intelligence 7 students, interpersonal intelligence 6 students, and naturalistic intelligence 5 students.

  2. Promoting student case creation to enhance instruction of clinical reasoning skills: a pilot feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekar H


    Full Text Available Hamsika Chandrasekar,1 Neil Gesundheit,2 Andrew B Nevins,3 Peter Pompei,4 Janine Bruce,5 Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell6 1Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 5Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: It is a common educational practice for medical students to engage in case-based learning (CBL exercises by working through clinical cases that have been developed by faculty. While such faculty-developed exercises have educational strengths, there are at least two major drawbacks to learning by this method: the number and diversity of cases is often limited; and students decrease their engagement with CBL cases as they grow accustomed to the teaching method. We sought to explore whether student case creation can address both of these limitations. We also compared student case creation to traditional clinical reasoning sessions in regard to tutorial group effectiveness, perceived gains in clinical reasoning, and quality of student–faculty interaction. Methods: Ten first-year medical students participated in a feasibility study wherein they worked in small groups to develop their own patient case around a preassigned diagnosis. Faculty provided feedback on case quality afterwards. Students completed pre- and post-self-assessment surveys. Students and faculty also participated in separate focus groups to compare their case creation experience to traditional CBL sessions. Results: Students reported high levels of team engagement

  3. Pictorial Visual Rotation Ability of Engineering Design Graphics Students (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy Vaughn; Lane, Diarmaid; Clark, Aaron C.


    The ability to rotate visual mental images is a complex cognitive skill. It requires the building of graphical libraries of information through short or long term memory systems and the subsequent retrieval and manipulation of these towards a specified goal. The development of mental rotation skill is of critical importance within engineering…

  4. The effectiveness of simulation activities on the cognitive abilities of undergraduate third-year nursing students: a randomised control trial. (United States)

    Secomb, Jacinta; McKenna, Lisa; Smith, Colleen


    To provide evidence on the effectiveness of simulation activities on the clinical decision-making abilities of undergraduate nursing students. Based on previous research, it was hypothesised that the higher the cognitive score, the greater the ability a nursing student would have to make informed valid decisions in their clinical practice. Globally, simulation is being espoused as an education method that increases the competence of health professionals. At present, there is very little evidence to support current investment in time and resources. Following ethical approval, fifty-eight third-year undergraduate nursing students were randomised in a pretest-post-test group-parallel controlled trial. The learning environment preferences (LEP) inventory was used to test cognitive abilities in order to refute the null hypothesis that activities in computer-based simulated learning environments have a negative effect on cognitive abilities when compared with activities in skills laboratory simulated learning environments. There was no significant difference in cognitive development following two cycles of simulation activities. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that two simulation tasks, either computer-based or laboratory-based, have no effect on an undergraduate student's ability to make clinical decisions in practice. However, there was a significant finding for non-English first-language students, which requires further investigation. More longitudinal studies that quantify the education effects of simulation on the cognitive, affective and psychomotor attributes of health science students and professionals from both English-speaking and non-English-speaking backgrounds are urgently required. It is also recommended that to achieve increased participant numbers and prevent non-participation owing to absenteeism, further studies need to be imbedded directly into curricula. This investigation confirms the effect of simulation activities on real-life clinical

  5. A comprehensive test of clinical reasoning for medical students: An olympiad experience in Iran. (United States)

    Monajemi, Alireza; Arabshahi, Kamran Soltani; Soltani, Akbar; Arbabi, Farshid; Akbari, Roghieh; Custers, Eugene; Hadadgar, Arash; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh; Changiz, Tahereh; Adibi, Peyman


    Although some tests for clinical reasoning assessment are now available, the theories of medical expertise have not played a major role in this filed. In this paper, illness script theory was chose as a theoretical framework and contemporary clinical reasoning tests were put together based on this theoretical model. This paper is a qualitative study performed with an action research approach. This style of research is performed in a context where authorities focus on promoting their organizations' performance and is carried out in the form of teamwork called participatory research. Results are presented in four parts as basic concepts, clinical reasoning assessment, test framework, and scoring. we concluded that no single test could thoroughly assess clinical reasoning competency, and therefore a battery of clinical reasoning tests is needed. This battery should cover all three parts of clinical reasoning process: script activation, selection and verification. In addition, not only both analytical and non-analytical reasoning, but also both diagnostic and management reasoning should evenly take into consideration in this battery. This paper explains the process of designing and implementing the battery of clinical reasoning in the Olympiad for medical sciences students through an action research.

  6. Answer First: Applying the Heuristic-Analytic Theory of Reasoning to Examine Student Intuitive Thinking in the Context of Physics (United States)

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel


    We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after…

  7. [Dentistry students' reasons for choosing dentistry as a career in Damascus University]. (United States)

    Mashlah, A M


    This cross-sectional questionnaire survey assessed the motives for choosing dentist as a profession among dentistry students at Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic. A total of 408 undergraduate students (233 males and 175 females) aged 18-23 years were selected randomly from students in the second, third and fourth years of dentistry study. They completed a questionnaire that enquired about their reasons for studying dentistry as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. The number of admissions in females had increased over the 3 years. Most parents of the students were university-educated. The main motivation for choosing dentistry was as a means to achieve personal goals, including getting a good job abroad, having financial independence, and attaining a good reputation. There were significant differences between the sexes with regard to the reasons for choosing dentistry.

  8. Superior Students: Family Size, Birth Order and Intellectual Ability (United States)

    Pulvino, Charles J.; Lupton, Paul E.


    Findings from a study of 380 gifted and talented high school students supported R. Zajonc's conclusion that there is an advantage for a child to be raised in a small family and to be first born if intellectual skills development is used as the sole criteria. (CL)

  9. An Assessment of the Speed Reading Ability of Sandwich Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and usefulness of rapid reading. It also reports a study in which the Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria Sandwich students formed the subjects. Their pre-training reading speed and comprehension scores were determined through a pre-test, after which they were subjected to ...

  10. Measuring College Students' Reading Comprehension Ability Using Cloze Tests (United States)

    Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole


    Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Milosavljević


    Full Text Available English for medical purposes falls within the category of discipline-specific language learning. It is characterized by specific linguistic features and requires specific study that is possible to carry out using specially designed programmes. Reading skill is one way of learning strategy of English for medical purposes. Most often, students use this skill in order to obtain information for some particular topic from the area of medical science, or because they need some sort of instruction in order to carry out certain task. Vocabulary acquisition plays a very important role in EMP teaching. It is achieved best through learning vocabulary in context, rather than in isolation. One of the most important questions in EMP teaching is related to what grammatical constructions should be analysed and emphasised. Some types of these activities would include, for example, asking students to find examples of one particular structure in the text or fill in the blanks with the missing forms such as tenses, passive forms, prepositions, etc. Speaking skill represents productive skill the aim of which is communication. In order for foreign language communication to be suucessful, a student should know linguistic and cultural features of native speakers and follow certain rules and conventions that are not easy to define. It is of crucial importance that during teaching process students develop strategies and techniques that will help them use linguistic structures fluently, apply language in different situations, take part in discussions, and use acquired vocabulary in accurate and precise way.

  12. Institutional Assessment of Student Information Literacy Ability: A Case Study (United States)

    Chan, Christopher


    With increasing interest in the assessment of learning outcomes in higher education, stakeholders are demanding concrete evidence of student learning. This applies no less to information literacy outcomes, which have been adopted by many colleges and universities around the world. This article describes the experience of a university library in…

  13. Critical thinking ability of 3rd year radiography students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracey Pieterse

    Background: Developing the critical thinking skills of student radiographers is imperative in ... Peer review under responsibility of Johannesburg University. .... the need to teach such skills, and to guide facilitators carefully ..... doctor. In the current study participants could identify the problem but were unable to propose ...

  14. Profile of Secondary School Students with High Mathematics Ability in Solving Shape and Space Problem (United States)

    Putra, Mulia; Novita, Rita


    This study aimed to describe the profile of secondary school students with high mathematics ability in solving shape and space problem in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, in which the subjects in this study were students of class VIII SMP N 1 Banda Aceh. The results show…

  15. Were Knowledge Management Abilities of University Students Enhanced after Creating Personal Blog-Based Portfolios? (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Chen, To-Yu


    The effect of creating blog-based portfolios on knowledge management (KM) abilities among university students was examined in the present study. Participants included 43 students majoring in Multimedia and Game Science at a University in Taiwan. Students spent nine weeks creating their personal portfolios by using a blog. The "t"-test…

  16. The Relation between Specialty Choice of Psychology Students and Their Interests, Personality, and Cognitive Abilities (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Vorst, Harrie C. M.


    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology were on average more extraverted than students of…

  17. Grade Inflation Rates among Different Ability Students, Controlling for Other Factors. (United States)

    Mc Spirit, Stephanie; Jones, Kirk E.


    Compared grade inflation rates among students of different abilities at an open-admissions public university by examining trends in graduating grade point average from 1983 to 1996. The higher grade inflation rates among low aptitude students suggest that faculty might be using grades to encourage learning among marginal students. (SLD)

  18. Developing Students' Critical Reasoning About Online Health Information: A Capabilities Approach (United States)

    Wiblom, Jonna; Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Andrée, Maria


    The internet has become a main source for health-related information retrieval. In addition to information published by medical experts, individuals share their personal experiences and narratives on blogs and social media platforms. Our increasing need to confront and make meaning of various sources and conflicting health information has challenged the way critical reasoning has become relevant in science education. This study addresses how the opportunities for students to develop and practice their capabilities to critically approach online health information can be created in science education. Together with two upper secondary biology teachers, we carried out a design-based study. The participating students were given an online retrieval task that included a search and evaluation of health-related online sources. After a few lessons, the students were introduced to an evaluation tool designed to support critical evaluation of health information online. Using qualitative content analysis, four themes could be discerned in the audio and video recordings of student interactions when engaging with the task. Each theme illustrates the different ways in which critical reasoning became practiced in the student groups. Without using the evaluation tool, the students struggled to overview the vast amount of information and negotiate trustworthiness. Guided by the evaluation tool, critical reasoning was practiced to handle source subjectivity and to sift out scientific information only. Rather than a generic skill and transferable across contexts, students' critical reasoning became conditioned by the multi-dimensional nature of health issues, the blend of various contexts and the shift of purpose constituted by the students.

  19. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cortat Simonetti


    Full Text Available This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and higher amplitude what was not observed in the group without any superior intellectual ability. Even taking into account methodological limitations, this study may contribute to the understanding of a relationship between the intellectual quotient (IQ and alpha waves frequency and amplitude, as observed during performance on cognitive tasks. Such results may suggest a possibility to complement psychometric measures with encephalic registers in giftedness research studies.

  20. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students


    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali


    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  1. Arts, literature and reflective writing as educational strategies to promote narrative reasoning capabilities among physiotherapy students. (United States)

    Caeiro, Carmen; Cruz, Eduardo Brazete; Pereira, Carla Mendes


    The use of arts, literature and reflective writing has becoming increasingly popular in health professionals education. However, research examining its contribution as an educational strategy to promote narrative reasoning capabilities is limited, particularly from the students' perspective. This study aimed to explore the final year physiotherapy students' perspectives about the contribution of arts, literature and reflective writing in facilitating narrative reasoning capabilities. Three focus group meetings using a semi-structured interview schedule were carried out to collect data. Focus group sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to conduct the study and analyze the transcripts. Three themes emerged: (1) developmental understanding of the patients' experiences; (2) developmental understanding about the self; and (3) embedding reflection in clinical practice. Students emphasized an increasing capability to be sensitive and vicariously experience the patient's experience. Through reflective writing, students reported they became more capable of thinking critically about their practice and learning needs for continuous professional development. Finally, students highlighted the contribution of these strategies in making reflection part of their practice. Final year physiotherapy students reported enhanced skills of narrative reasoning. The findings support the inclusion of these strategies within the undergraduate physiotherapy curricula.

  2. Does Early Algebraic Reasoning Differ as a Function of Students' Difficulty with Calculations versus Word Problems? (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S


    According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 2 nd - grade students, we administered (a) measures of calculations and word problems in the fall and (b) an assessment of pre-algebraic reasoning, with items that assessed solving equations and functions, in the spring. Based on the calculation and word-problem measures, we placed 148 students into 1 of 4 difficulty status categories: typically performing, calculation difficulty, word-problem difficulty, or difficulty with calculations and word problems. Analyses of variance were conducted on the 148 students; path analytic mediation analyses were conducted on the larger sample of 789 students. Across analyses, results corroborated the finding that word-problem difficulty is more strongly associated with difficulty with pre-algebraic reasoning. As an indicator of later algebra difficulty, word-problem difficulty may be a more useful predictor than calculation difficulty, and students with word-problem difficulty may require a different level of algebraic reasoning intervention than students with calculation difficulty.

  3. Analitycal Descriptive Study of Students' Critical Mathematic Thinking Ability Through Graded Response Model (Grm)


    nurul, didin; zahra anasha, zara


    Critical mathematic thinking ability is very important to solve daily problems. But in reality, junior high school students' critical mathematic thinking ability is still low. Ability measurement such as measurement of critical mathematic thinking ability cannot be measured through multiple choices test. In that case, an essay test in which graded scoring is used as scoring technique more suitable than multiple choices test. The result of the essay test will be analyzed to describe...

  4. An Experimental Study Related to Planning Abilities of Gifted and Average Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar


    Full Text Available Gifted students differ from their average peers in psychological, social, emotional and cognitive development. One of these differences in the cognitive domain is related to executive functions. One of the most important executive functions is planning and organization ability. The aim of this study was to compare planning abilities of gifted students with those of their average peers and to test the effectiveness of a training program on planning abilities of gifted students and average students. First, students’ intelligence and planning abilities were measured and then assigned to either experimental or control group. The groups were matched by intelligence and planning ability (experimental: (13 gifted and 8 average; control: 14 gifted and 8 average. In total 182 students (79 gifted and 103 average participated in the study. Then, a training program was implemented in the experimental group to find out if it improved students’ planning ability. Results showed that boys had better planning abilities than girls did, and gifted students had better planning abilities than their average peers did. Significant results were obtained in favor of the experimental group in the posttest scores

  5. A Multilevel Examination of the Influence of Institutional Type on the Moral Reasoning Development of First-Year Students (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of institutional type on the moral reasoning development of 1,469 first-year students. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to account for students nested within institutions. Moral reasoning gains were related to, but not dependent upon, institutional type, with students at liberal arts…

  6. Errors of Students Learning With React Strategy in Solving the Problems of Mathematical Representation Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsika Pramata Sari


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high school in Bandung consisting of two samples. The instrument used was a test to measure students' mathematical representation ability. The reliability coefficient about the mathematical representation ability was 0.56. The most prominent errors of mathematical representation ability of students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning, was on indicator that solving problem involving arithmetic symbols (symbolic representation. In addition, errors were also experienced by many students with traditional learning on the indicator of making the image of a real world situation to clarify the problem and facilitate its completion (visual representation.

  7. Math anxiety, self-efficacy, and ability in British undergraduate nursing students. (United States)

    McMullan, Miriam; Jones, Ray; Lea, Susan


    Nurses need to be able to make drug calculations competently. In this study, involving 229 second year British nursing students, we explored the influence of mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and numerical ability on drug calculation ability and determined which factors would best predict this skill. Strong significant relationships (p anxiety, self-efficacy, and ability. Students who failed the numerical and/or drug calculation ability tests were more anxious (p < .001) and less confident (p ≤ .002) in performing calculations than those who passed. Numerical ability made the strongest unique contribution in predicting drug calculation ability (beta = 0.50, p < .001) followed by drug calculation self-efficacy (beta = 0.16, p = .04). Early testing is recommended for basic numerical skills. Faculty are advised to refresh students' numerical skills before introducing drug calculations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne


    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  9. Effect of Strategy Teaching for the Solution of Ratio Problems on Students' Proportional Reasoning Skills (United States)

    Sen, Ceylan; Güler, Gürsel


    The study was conducted to reveal the effects of the instruction of different problem-solving strategies on the proportional reasoning skills of students in solving proportional problems in the 6th grade math's class. Quasi-experimental research model with pretest-posttest control group was employed in the study. For eight class hours, the…

  10. Reasoning about Evolution's Grand Patterns: College Students' Understanding of the Tree of Life (United States)

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.


    Tree thinking involves using cladograms, hierarchical diagrams depicting the evolutionary history of a set of taxa, to reason about evolutionary relationships and support inferences. Tree thinking is indispensable in modern science. College students' tree-thinking skills were investigated using tree (much more common in professional biology) and…

  11. Senior High School Students' Preference and Reasoning Modes about Nuclear Energy Use. (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Anderson, O. Roger


    Examines senior high school students' cognitive orientation toward scientific or social information, designated as information preference, and associated preferential reasoning modes when presented with an environmental issue concerning nuclear energy usage. Investigates the association of information preference variable with academic and personal…

  12. Proportional Reasoning and Related Concepts: Analysis of Gaps and Understandings of Middle Grade Students (United States)

    Ojose, Bobby


    This study investigated proportional reasoning and the related concepts of decimal, percent, and ratio. In particular, the research focused on analyzing the gaps and understandings that grades 6, 7, and 8 students have and advanced factors for such gaps and understandings. The study employed a mixed method approach in which quantitative data was…

  13. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.


    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  14. Application of the Theory of Reason Action for Preventing of Ecstasy Abuse among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was assessed the effect of educational program for preventing of ecstasy abuse among college students in Hamadan based on Theory of Reason Action (TRA. Method: A quasi-experimental study carried out in college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. Data-gathering tools consisted of a two-part questionnaire: Knowledge of ecstasy abuse consequences and one scale for measuring TRA variables. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at before and two months after intervention. Results: The results showed that among constructs of the theory of reason action, subjective norms were better predictor of ecstasy abuse. There were significant differences between the scores of reason action constructs namely: attitude against drug abuse, subjective norms and intention of ecstasy abuse with consideration of group (witness and experimental. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on Theory of Reasoned Action is effective in improving of attitude, subjective norm and behavioral intention of students. Therefore it is highly recommended that TRA education can be use for preventing of drug abuse education programs.

  15. Reasons for Attending, Expected Obstacles, and Degree Aspirations of Asian Pacific American Community College Students (United States)

    Wang, Winnie W.; Chang, June C.; Lew, Jonathan W.


    This study examined how the academic aspirations of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) attending community colleges are influenced by their demographic and educational background, reasons for attending, and obstacles they expect to encounter. The sample consisted of 846 APAs out of a total student sample of 5,000 in an urban community college…

  16. The Effectiveness of Reason Racer, a Game Designed to Engage Middle School Students in Scientific Argumentation (United States)

    Ault, Marilyn; Craig-Hare, Jana; Frey, Bruce; Ellis, James D.; Bulgren, Janis


    Reason Racer is an online, rate-based, multiplayer game that applies specific game features in order to engage middle school students in introductory knowledge of and thinking related to scientific argumentation. Game features include rapid and competitive play, timed performance, immediate feedback, and high rates of response across many…

  17. Functioning and Participation Problems of Students with ADHD in Higher Education: Which Reasonable Accommodations Are Effective? (United States)

    Jansen, Dorien; Petry, Katja; Ceulemans, Eva; van der Oord, Saskia; Noens, Ilse; Baeyens, Dieter


    Students with ADHD struggle in higher education as a result of various functioning and participation problems. However, there are remaining gaps in the literature. First, it remains unclear how often and during which teaching and evaluation methods problems arise. Second, we do not yet know which reasonable accommodations are most effective to…

  18. Using a Model to Describe Students' Inductive Reasoning in Problem Solving (United States)

    Canadas, Maria C.; Castro, Encarnacion; Castro, Enrique


    Introduction: We present some aspects of a wider investigation (Canadas, 2007), whose main objective is to describe and characterize inductive reasoning used by Spanish students in years 9 and 10 when they work on problems that involved linear and quadratic sequences. Method: We produced a test composed of six problems with different…

  19. Exploring Logical Reasoning and Mathematical Proof in Grade 6 Elementary School Students (United States)

    Flegas, Konstantinos; Charalampos, Lemonidis


    Research and classroom experience reveal that the construction of mathematical proofs is difficult for all students. While many contemporary mathematics curricula recognize the importance of teaching reasoning and proof, in Greece these concepts are introduced at the secondary education level. In this study, we will attempt to investigate a group…

  20. Effects of a Case-Based Reasoning System on Student Performance in a Java Programming Course (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecil


    The purpose of this study was to determine if a case-based reasoning tool would improve a student's understanding of the complex concepts in a Java programming course. Subjects for the study were randomly assigned from two sections of an introductory Java programming course. Posttests were used to measure the effects of the case-based reasoning…

  1. Technical and Non-Technical Programme Students' Attitudes and Reasons for Plagiarism (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Ismail, Zalina; Chetty, Thiba Naraina; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni


    To date, plagiarism continues to be a widespread problem in higher education. Deemed to be endemic, researchers continue to examine various aspects of plagiarism, including students' perception, practices, attitudes and reasons for plagiarism, in addressing this growing concern. Most studies, however, tend to examine these aspects independently.…

  2. How Do High School Students Solve Probability Problems? A Mixed Methods Study on Probabilistic Reasoning (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Deleye, Maarten; Saenen, Lore; Van Dooren, Wim; Onghena, Patrick


    When studying a complex research phenomenon, a mixed methods design allows to answer a broader set of research questions and to tap into different aspects of this phenomenon, compared to a monomethod design. This paper reports on how a sequential equal status design (QUAN ? QUAL) was used to examine students' reasoning processes when solving…

  3. Self-directed questions to improve students' ability in solving chemical problems (United States)

    Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Muna, Khairiatul; Suharto, Bambang; Syahmani


    Students' ability in solving chemical problems is seen from their ability to solve chemicals' non-routine problems. It is due to learning faced directly on non-routine problems will generate a meaningful learning for students. Observations in Banjarmasin Public High School 1 (SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin) showed that students did not give the expected results when they were given the non-routine problems. Learning activities by emphasizing problem solving was implemented based on the existence of knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. Both of these elements are components of metacognition. The self-directed question is a strategy that involves metacognition in solving chemical problems. This research was carried out using classroom action research design in two cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation and reflection. The subjects were 34 students of grade XI-4 at majoring science (IPA) of SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin. The data were collected using tests of the students' ability in problem solving and non-tests instrument to know the process of implementation of the actions. Data were analyzed with descriptivequantitativeand qualitative analysis. The ability of students in solving chemical problems has increased from an average of 37.96 in cycle I became 61.83 in cycle II. Students' ability to solve chemical problems is viewed based on their ability to answer self-directed questions. Students' ability in comprehension questions increased from 73.04 in the cycle I became 96.32 in cycle II. Connection and strategic questions increased from 54.17 and 16.50 on cycle I became 63.73 and 55.23 on cycle II respectively. In cycle I, reflection questions were 26.96 and elevated into 36.27 in cycle II. The self-directed questions have the ability to help students to solve chemical problems through metacognition questions. Those questions guide students to find solutions in solving chemical problems.

  4. Self-Explanation, An Instructional Strategy to Foster Clinical Reasoning in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Chamberland


    Full Text Available Clinical reasoning is a critical and complex skill that medical students have to develop in the course of their training. Although research on medical expertise has successfully examined the different components of that skill, designing educational interventions that support the development of clinical reasoning in students remains a challenge for medical educators. The theory of medical expertise describes how students׳ medical knowledge develops and is progressively restructured during their training and in particular through clinical exposure to patient problems. Instructional strategies to foster students’ learning from practice with clinical cases are scarce. This article describes the use of self-explanation as such a strategy. Self-explanation is an active learning technique of proven effectiveness in other domains which consists of having students explaining to themselves information on to-be-learned materials. The mechanisms through which self-explanation fosters learning are described. Self-explanation promotes knowledge development and revision of mental representations through elaboration on new information, organisation and integration of new knowledge into existing cognitive structures and monitoring of the learning process. Subsequently, the article shows how self-explanation has recently been investigated in medicine as an instructional strategy to support students׳ clinical reasoning. Available studies have demonstrated that students׳ diagnostic performance improves when they use self-explanation while solving clinical problems of a less familiar clinical topic. Unfamiliarity seems to trigger more self-explanations and to stimulate students to reactivate relevant biomedical knowledge, which could lead to the development of more coherent representations of diseases. The benefit of students׳ self-explanation is increased when it is combined with listening to residents׳ self-explanation examples and with prompts. The

  5. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM? (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl


    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  6. University Programme Preferences of High School Science Students in Singapore and Reasons that Matter in their Preferences: A Rasch analysis (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.


    This study explored an under-researched area in science education-the university programmes preferred by high school students who take physical science subjects and the reasons that matter in their preferences. A total of 1,071 upper secondary and pre-university students in Singapore, who take physical science subjects among their range of subjects, participated in this study. A survey method was adopted and the Rasch model was used to analyse the data. Overall, Business Studies was ranked as the predominant choice; nonetheless, scientific programmes such as Science, Engineering, and Mathematics are generally still well liked by the students. When gender differences were examined, we found that students largely followed gender-typical programme preferences, in which males tend to incline towards Engineering while females tend to incline towards Arts and Social Sciences. Students prefer a university programme based on their individual interest and ability, with career aspiration and remuneration coming next. Interestingly, females place greater emphasis on career aspiration than males. Some implications of the study are discussed.

  7. Evaluating Secondary Students' Scientific Reasoning in Genetics Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument (United States)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David


    While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10 and 12 students' understanding of genetics in terms of reasoning. The pretest and posttest forms of the diagnostic instrument were used alongside other methods in evaluating students' understanding of genetics in a case-based qualitative study on teaching and learning with multiple representations in three Western Australian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that a two-tier diagnostic instrument is useful in probing students' understanding or misunderstanding of scientific concepts and ideas. The diagnostic instrument in this study was designed and then progressively refined, improved, and implemented to evaluate student understanding of genetics in three case schools. The final version of the instrument had Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.75 and 0.64, respectively, for its pretest and the posttest forms when it was administered to a group of grade 12 students (n = 17). This two-tier diagnostic instrument complemented other qualitative data collection methods in this research in generating a more holistic picture of student conceptual learning of genetics in terms of scientific reasoning. Implications of the findings of this study using the diagnostic instrument are discussed.

  8. Evidence of students' content reasoning in relation to measure of reform (United States)

    Haghanikar, Mojgan Matloob; Murphy, Sytil; Zollman, Dean


    As part of a study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses are considered inquiry oriented. First, we devised written content questions, which were open ended with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. All the questions developed were based on a common template that required students to recognize and generalize the relevant facts or concepts and their interrelationships to suggest an applicable or plausible theory. To evaluate students' answers, we developed a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy as revised and expanded by Anderson. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited 20 universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We ranked the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. With the large amount of collected data, we found that the likelihood of the higher cognitive processes are in favor of classes with higher measures of inquiry.

  9. Of Pigs and Men: Understanding Students' Reasoning About the Use of Pigs as Donors for Xenotransplantation (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar


    Two important roles of education are to provide students with knowledge for their democratic participation in society and to provide knowledge for a future profession. In science education, students encounter values that may be in conflict with their worldview. Such conflicts may, for example, lead to constructive reflections as well as rejection of scientific knowledge and technology. Students’ ways of reasoning are important starting points for discussing problematic issues and may be crucial for constructive dialogues in the classroom. This study investigates students’ reasoning about conflicting values concerning the human-animal relationship exemplified by the use of genetically modified pigs as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Students’ reasoning is analyzed using Giddens’ concepts of disembedded and embedded practices in parallel with moral philosophical theories in a framework based on human-animal relationships. Thirteen students were interviewed and their stances categorized. Kantian deontological and classical utilitarian ethics were found within the patronage and the partnership models. These students appreciated expert knowledge but those using the partnership model could not accept xenotransplantation if pigs were to be killed. Students using care ethics did not appreciate expert knowledge since it threatened naturalness. The results suggest that stances against the use of scientific knowledge are more problematic than knowledge per se, and that conflicting stances have similarities that present opportunities for understanding and development of students’ argumentation skills for future participation in societal discourse on utilizing expert knowledge. Furthermore it is argued that science education could benefit from a higher awareness of the presence of different morals.

  10. Impact of Cooperative Learning in Developing Students' Cognitive Abilities for Academic Achievement (United States)

    Hoorani, Bareerah Hafeez


    This study used an Action Research Method to investigate ways to improve the thinking and reasoning skills of grade eight science students in an under-resourced school in Karachi. The students' rote learning patterns were challenged using the schema provided by Blooms' taxonomy of learning domains. A cooperative learning environment was generated…

  11. Problem solving based learning model with multiple representations to improve student's mental modelling ability on physics (United States)

    Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran


    Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7Mental Modelling Ability (M-MMA) for 3Mental Modelling Ability (L-MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.

  12. Dreams and disappointments regarding nursing: Student nurses' reasons for attrition and retention. A qualitative study design. (United States)

    Ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Castelein, Stynke; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie


    In the Netherlands, hundreds of students register annually for a nursing programme, but not all of these students manage to complete their training. The main aim of this study was to examine which factors affect student nurses' decision to leave or complete their programme. The study used an exploratory descriptive design, employing a qualitative phenomenological approach. Student nurses (n=17) at the beginning of their third year of the four-year Bachelor's programme. Data were collected at four Universities of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands, from December 2013 to January 2014. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data, using an interview guide. The main reasons for students to become nurses were the caring aspect, personal experiences with healthcare, role models in their immediate environment, and job opportunities. They had both altruistic and professional perceptions of their profession. Reasons for attrition were strongly related to the training programme and to their clinical placements, in particular the perceived lack of support from mentors and team. Feelings of being welcomed and working in a nice team proved to be more important reasons for completing the programme than the specific clinical field. Student nurses started their studies with many dreams, such as caring for people and having the opportunity to deliver excellent nursing care. When their expectations were not met, their dreams became disappointments which caused them to consider stopping and even to leave (attrition). The role of lecturers and mentors seems invaluable in protecting and guiding students through their programme and placements. Optimal cooperation between lecturers and mentors is of paramount importance to retain student nurses in their training programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Dotsenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the problem of motor abilities development and health of students of special medical group in the process of physical education in technical universities. Determine the major factors, characteristics, and the relationship of physical development, physical fitness and coordination abilities of female students in special medical group. Establish regularities in precise movements mastering of different coordination structure and develop model characteristics of the relationship of coordination abilities and motor characteristics of students in special medical group. To substantiate and verify efficiency of coordination abilities development method of female students with regard to their functional status in the course of physical education in higher school. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological argument, characteristic of the experimental program in physical education teaching process of students in special medical group was shown. Findings. Research is to develop the training content in special medical groups with the use of coordinating elements and exercises to enhance the motor abilities of female students. Their influence on the level of physical development, functional training, as well as regularities in mastering and movement control of different coordinating structure at the female students of special medical group was studied. The comparative characteristic of female students athletic ability in the dynamics of the educational process, differentiated into groups according to nosology was presented. The criterion of spare capacities upgrade of the motor system in controlling the movements of different coordination structure was determined. Originality. The method of coordination abilities development of female students in special medical group, that aims on the formation and correction of motor control system of different coordination structure, a sense of body position and its individual parts in space, improving

  14. Verbal working memory and reading abilities among students with visual impairment. (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Masoura, Elvira; Tsiakali, Thomai K; Nikolaraizi, Magda; Lappa, Christina


    This study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM) and reading abilities among students with visual impairment (VI). Seventy-five students with VI (visually impairment and blindness), aged 10-15 years old participated in the study, of whom 44 were visually impaired and 31 were blind. The participants' reading ability was assessed with the standardized reading ability battery Test-A (Padeliadu & Antoniou, 2008) and their verbal working memory ability was assessed with the listening recall task from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (Pickering et al., 2001). Data analysis indicated a strong correlation between verbal WM and decoding, reading comprehension and overall reading ability among the participants with VI, while no correlation was found between reading fluency and verbal WM. The present study points out the important role of verbal WM in reading among students who are VI and carries implications for the education of those individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Student Teachers’ Self-Appraised Problem-Solving Ability and Willingness to Engage in Troubleshooting Activities

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    Benedict Iorzer Labe


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of student teachers’ willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities and their technological problem-solving self-appraised ability. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design to collect data from 310 purposively random sampled students from three universities in Northern Nigeria. Results of data analyses indicated that student teachers from the universities surveyed reported a moderate willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities as well as a moderately positive self-appraisal of their problem-solving ability. The student teachers’ willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities was also significantly related to the pattern of their self-appraised problem-solving ability. It was therefore concluded that the findings from this research do not support the pedestrian view that students from Nigerian universities are reluctant to engage in problem-solving activities.

  16. Students' Reasoning Processes in Making Decisions about an Authentic, Local Socio-Scientific Issue: Bat Conservation (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Grace, Marcus


    Education for scientific literacy entails the development of scientific knowledge and the ability to apply this knowledge and value judgments to decisions about real-life issues. This paper reports an attempt to involve secondary level biology students in making decisions about an authentic socio-scientific issue--that of bat conservation--through…

  17. Bioethical reasoning and the orientation towards corporate social responsibility of business students

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    Silvia López Paláu


    Full Text Available Ethical conflicts are ever more complex and require more interdisciplinary reflection to attain a solution. Bioethical reasoning can contribute to the understanding and eventual solution of many ethical conflicts in business. This study seeks to determine if a relationship exist among the social responsibility of business and the bioethical reasoning. A conceptual model using the multidimensional enterprise model proposed by Carroll (1979 and the bioethical principles proposed by Beauchamp and Childress (1979 is presented. A measurement instrument reliable for both constructs is developed. The results provide invaluable information that can help design new approaches for the ethical education of students.

  18. Analogical Matrices in Young Children and Students with Intellectual Disability: Reasoning by Analogy or Reasoning by Association? (United States)

    Denaes, Caroline


    Background: Analogical reasoning (AR) is renowned for being a complex activity. Young children tend to reason by association, rather by analogy, and people with intellectual disability present problems of memorization. Both these populations usually show low performances in AR. The present author investigated whether familiar material and external…

  19. A study about the relation between religiousness and the moral reasoning of accounting undergraduate students

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    Leandro da Costa Santos


    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the relation between religiousness and the moral reasoning of Accounting undergraduate students. To achieve that, the religiousness and moral reasoning of the subjects were first described and, subsequently, correlated. In order to measure religiousness, the Faith Maturity Scale developed by Benson, Donahue, Erickson (1993 was used. The measuring of moral reasoning, on the other hand, was carried out using the Defining Issues Test -2 created by Rest and Narvaez (1988. The sample was drawn from 67 Accounting undergraduate students, in their last semester of College, from two universities in Paraíba, and the internal consistency reliability test of the research instruments was carried out using the model defined by Cronbach (1951. To verify whether there is a relation between religiousness and moral reasoning, the Spearman (rs non-parametric correlation coefficient was used. The main results revealed that the majority of the subjects have their faith classified as integrated. As for moral reasoning, most of the subjects were classified in the level of maintaining the norms, which indicates that, for the bulk of subjects, the conformity to the laws and norms is the most important thing. Still on moral reasoning, it has been shown that, when analysed by type, most individuals fall into type 2 (personal interest, but in transition, with the important observation that individuals of this type, when involved in moral dilemmas, tend to prioritise their own interests. With regards to the analysis of the relation between religiousness and moral reasoning, it’s been demonstrated that there is no relevant evidence that confirms it, since the relation between both variables was not significant.

  20. Examining the Relationship of Scientific Reasoning with Physics Problem Solving (United States)

    Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen


    Recent research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little research has been done to establish a relationship between scientific reasoning and problem solving abilities by novices. In this exploratory study, we compared scientific reasoning abilities of students enrolled in a college level…

  1. Analysis of EFL Students' Ability in Reading Vocabulary of Synonyms and Antonyms

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    Vina Fathira


    Full Text Available Reading is an important thing for academic level. Every student must have many vocabularies to encourage her/his reading skill. The aim of this research is to analyze the students' understanding of reading vocabularies of synonyms and antonyms in the higher education level. Synonyms and antonyms are two important things should be mastered to get better reading comprehension. The method used in this research was quantitative with survey design. The population same as the sample of this research was from fifth semester students of STIBA Persada Bunda Pekanbaru. The procedures of the research were divided into 3 parts. First, students were asked to choose the best choice in the multiple choice for synonyms and anton, number and the wrong number, and grouped the wrong number into difficulties level. Last, the researcher analyzed the students' ability in reading vocabulary of synonyms and antonyms and concluded the result of students' ability in reading vocabulary of synonyms and antonyms in elementary, intermediate, and advanced level. The result of this research showed that the students' ability in reading vocabulary of synonyms and antonyms was categorized into "excellent" level with mean score 85. From the three difficulties level of question, the findings of this research were explained every level of question. In synonyms, the mean score of students' ability were 89, 85, and 84 for elementary, intermediate, and advanced level of question. Whereas, in antonyms, the mean score of students' ability were 97, 85, and 69 for elementary, intermediate, and advanced level of question.Keywords: students' ability, reading vocabulary, synonyms and antonyms

  2. Investigation of Problem-Solving and Problem-Posing Abilities of Seventh-Grade Students (United States)

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan


    This study aims to examine the effect of multiple problem-solving skills on the problem-posing abilities of gifted and non-gifted students and to assess whether the possession of such skills can predict giftedness or affect problem-posing abilities. Participants' metaphorical images of problem posing were also explored. Participants were 20 gifted…

  3. Critical Reading Skills and Translation Ability of Thai EFL Students: Pragmatic, Syntactic, and Semantic Aspects (United States)

    Sriwantaneeyakul, Suttawan


    Translation ability requires many language skills to produce an accurate and complete text; however, one important skill, critical reading in the research, has been neglected. This research, therefore, employed the explanatory sequential mixed method to investigate the differences in Thai-English translation ability between students with a high…

  4. Performances of Student Activism: Sound, Silence, Gender, and Dis/ability (United States)

    Pasque, Penny A.; Vargas, Juanita Gamez


    This chapter explores the various performances of activism by students through sound, silence, gender, and dis/ability and how these performances connect to social change efforts around issues such as human trafficking, homeless children, hunger, and children with varying abilities.


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    S. Anbahan ARIADURAI


    Full Text Available Faculty of Engineering Technology of the Open University of Sri Lanka has been offering engineering programmes at a distance for the last two decades or so. However, completion rates in Faculty of Engineering Technology are lower compared to the other faculties of the University. This paper investigates the reasons for low completion rates in the faculty and suggests ways and means to overcome this problem. The study concludes that increasing student numbers will not necessarily increase percentage of students completing the programme though the number of students completing is increased. It is found that students offering courses for the first time in the system of distance education in their academic career perform poorer because they are not conversant with distance education techniques. It is recommended that the Faculty must offer an orientation programme on distance education to all the students enrolling for the first time, before they commence their regular programmes. Further, it has been found that considerable percentage of students who obtain eligibility to sit the final examination by completing the continuous assessments do not sit the final examination. This has been found to contribute towards non-completion of programmes as students sitting the final examination in the subsequent years perform poorly in their exams. To overcome this problem, it is recommended that current practise of allowing the student to carry forward their eligibility to unlimited period of time must be disbanded.

  6. The failure of medical education to develop moral reasoning in medical students. (United States)

    Murrell, Vicki S


    The goal of this study was to determine differences in moral judgment among students in medical school. This cross-sectional study involved students currently enrolled in undergraduate medical education. Recruited via email, 192 students took an online version of the Defining Issues Test to determine their current stage of moral judgment, as well as their percentage of postconventional thought. Independent variables included year of graduation, which indicated curriculum completion as well as participation in a professionalism course. Data was analyzed primarily using One-Way Analysis of Variance. Of the 192 participants, 165 responses were utilized. ANOVA showed no significant differences in moral judgment between or among any of the student cohorts, which were grouped by year of matriculation. Comparisons included students in the four years of medical school, divided by graduation year; students about to graduate (n=30) vs. those still in school (n=135); and students who had participated in a course in professionalism (n=91) vs. those who had not (n=74). These results demonstrate a lack of evolution in the moral reasoning of medical students and raise the issue of what might stimulate positive changes in moral judgment during the medical school experience.

  7. Improve Student Understanding Ability Through Gamification in Instructional Media Based Explicit Instruction (United States)

    Firdausi, N.; Prabawa, H. W.; Sutarno, H.


    In an effort to maximize a student’s academic growth, one of the tools available to educators is the explicit instruction. Explicit instruction is marked by a series of support or scaffold, where the students will be guided through the learning process with a clear statement of purpose and a reason for learning new skills, a clear explanation and demonstration of learning targets, supported and practiced with independent feedback until mastery has been achieved. The technology development trend of todays, requires an adjustment in the development of learning object that supports the achievement of explicit instruction targets. This is where the gamification position is. In the role as a pedagogical strategy, the use of gamification preformance study class is still relatively new. Gamification not only use the game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts, but also to empower and engage learners with the ability of motivation on learning approach and maintains a relaxed atmosphere. With using Reseach and Development methods, this paper presents the integration of technology (which in this case using the concept of gamification) in explicit instruction settings and the impact on the improvement of students’ understanding.

  8. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis


    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  9. Errors of Students Learning with React Strategy in Solving the Problems of Mathematical Representation Ability (United States)

    Sari, Delsika Pramata; Darhim; Rosjanuardi, Rizky


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Faculty-Librarian Collaboration and First-Year Students' Information Literacy Abilities (United States)

    Douglas, Veronica Arellano; Rabinowitz, Celia E.


    Using surveys, interviews, and a rubric-based assessment of student research essays, the St. Mary's College of Maryland Assessment in Action team investigated the relationship between faculty-librarian collaboration in a First Year Seminar (FYS) course and students' demonstrated information literacy (IL) abilities. In gathering information on the…

  11. Culture-Based Contextual Learning to Increase Problem-Solving Ability of First Year University Student (United States)

    Samo, Damianus Dao; Darhim; Kartasasmita, Bana G.


    The purpose of this study is to show the differences in problem-solving ability between first-year University students who received culture-based contextual learning and conventional learning. This research is a quantitative research using quasi-experimental research design. Samples were the First-year students of mathematics education department;…

  12. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Identify Mistakes Related to Angle Concept of Sixth Grade Students (United States)

    Arslan, Cigdem; Erbay, Hatice Nur; Guner, Pinar


    In the present study we try to highlight prospective mathematics teachers' ability to identify mistakes of sixth grade students related to angle concept. And also we examined prospective mathematics teachers' knowledge of angle concept. Study was carried out with 30 sixth-grade students and 38 prospective mathematics teachers. Sixth grade students…

  13. Improving Junior High School Students' Mathematical Analogical Ability Using Discovery Learning Method (United States)

    Maarif, Samsul


    The aim of this study was to identify the influence of discovery learning method towards the mathematical analogical ability of junior high school's students. This is a research using factorial design 2x2 with ANOVA-Two ways. The population of this research included the entire students of SMPN 13 Jakarta (State Junior High School 13 of Jakarta)…

  14. Effect of chronotype and student learning time on mathematical ability based on self-regulated learning (United States)

    Ratnaningsih, N.; El Akbar, R. R.; Hidayat, E.


    One of ways to improve students' learning ability is conduct a research, with purpose to obtain a method to improve students' ability. Research often carried out on the modification of teaching methods, uses of teaching media, motivation, interests and talents of students. Research related to the internal condition of students becomes very interesting to studied, including research on circadian rhythms. Every person in circadian rhythms has its own Chronotype, which divided into two types namely early type and night late type. Chronotype affects the comfort in activity, for example a person with Chronotype category of early type tends to be more comfort in daytime activities. The purpose of this study is to examine the conditions of students, related Chronotype suitable or appropriate for student learning time. This suitability then studied in relation to the ability of learning mathematics with self- regulated learning approach. This study consists of three stages; (i) student Chronotype measurement, (ii) data retrieval, and (iii) analysis of research results. The results show the relationship between the students' learning ability in mathematics to learning time corresponding to Chronotype.

  15. The Relationship between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities among High School Students (United States)

    Motamedi, Vahid; Yaghoubi, Razeyah Mohagheghyan


    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage) and the…

  16. The relation between specialty choice of psychology students and their interests, personality, and cognitive abilities

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    Wicherts, J.M.; Vorst, H.C.M.


    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology

  17. Using the Think-Pair-Share Strategy to Improve Students' Speaking Ability at STAIN Ternate (United States)

    Usman, Abdurrahman Hi


    This research was conducted to improve students' English speaking ability by using the think-pair-share strategy designed in CAR. The findings in Cycle 1 was unsuccessful because the students' average scores was 74.18 and classroom atmospheres were "mid" that did not meet the criteria of success. Therefore, the implementation of the…

  18. What Do Education Students Think about Their Ability to Write Essays? (United States)

    Quintero, Gisela Consolación


    The present study reflects the results obtained from a diagnosis carried out with Education students concerning the writing of academic essays. The objective was to identify the perceptions that Comprehensive Education students have about their ability to write academic essays. A descriptive cross-sectional research study was conducted at a single…

  19. Diagnosing academic language ability : An analysis of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anna; Weideman, Albert


    Following the observation that a large number of postgraduate students may not possess an adequate level of academic language ability to complete their studies successfully, this study investigates postgraduate students' strengths and weaknesses in academic literacy, with a specific focus on

  20. Academic Self-Perceptions of Ability and Course Planning among Academically Advanced Students (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Callahan, Carolyn M.


    The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of gender to the academic self-perceptions of ability and related coursework plans for high school and college across academically advanced students. Participants were academically advanced students (N = 447) from grades 5 to 12. Findings revealed that (a) girls' self-perceptions of ability…

  1. Improving Mathematical Communication Ability and Self Regulation Learning of Junior High Students by Using Reciprocal Teaching (United States)

    Qohar, Abdul; Sumarmo, Utari


    This paper presents the findings from a posttest experiment control group design by using reciprocal teaching, conducted in Indonesia University of Education to investigate students' ability in mathematical communication and self regulated learning. Subject of the study were 254 of 9th grade students from three junior high schools of high, medium,…

  2. Volta-Based Cells Materials Chemical Multiple Representation to Improve Ability of Student Representation (United States)

    Helsy, I.; Maryamah; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.


    This study aimed to describe the application of teaching materials, analyze the increase in the ability of students to connect the three levels of representation and student responses after application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. The method used quasi one-group pretest-posttest design to 71 students. The results showed the application of teaching materials carried 88% with very good category. A significant increase ability to connect the three levels of representation of students after the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry with t-value > t-crit (11.402 > 1.991). Recapitulation N-gain pretest and posttest showed relatively similar for all groups is 0.6 criterion being achievement. Students gave a positive response to the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. Students agree teaching materials used in teaching chemistry (88%), and agrees teaching materials to provide convenience in connecting the three levels of representation (95%).

  3. Multi-representation ability of students on the problem solving physics (United States)

    Theasy, Y.; Wiyanto; Sujarwata


    Accuracy in representing knowledge possessed by students will show how the level of student understanding. The multi-representation ability of students on the problem solving of physics has been done through qualitative method of grounded theory model and implemented on physics education student of Unnes academic year 2016/2017. Multiforms of representation used are verbal (V), images/diagrams (D), graph (G), and mathematically (M). High and low category students have an accurate use of graphical representation (G) of 83% and 77.78%, and medium category has accurate use of image representation (D) equal to 66%.

  4. Anticipating students' reasoning and planning prompts in structured problem-solving lessons (United States)

    Vale, Colleen; Widjaja, Wanty; Doig, Brian; Groves, Susie


    Structured problem-solving lessons are used to explore mathematical concepts such as pattern and relationships in early algebra, and regularly used in Japanese Lesson Study research lessons. However, enactment of structured problem-solving lessons which involves detailed planning, anticipation of student solutions and orchestration of whole-class discussion of solutions is an ongoing challenge for many teachers. Moreover, primary teachers have limited experience in teaching early algebra or mathematical reasoning actions such as generalising. In this study, the critical factors of enacting the structured problem-solving lessons used in Japanese Lesson Study to elicit and develop primary students' capacity to generalise are explored. Teachers from three primary schools participated in two Japanese Lesson Study teams for this study. The lesson plans and video recordings of teaching and post-lesson discussion of the two research lessons along with students' responses and learning are compared to identify critical factors. The anticipation of students' reasoning together with preparation of supporting and challenging prompts was critical for scaffolding students' capacity to grasp and communicate generality.

  5. Development of the Quantitative Reasoning Items on the National Survey of Student Engagement

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    Amber D. Dumford


    Full Text Available As society’s needs for quantitative skills become more prevalent, college graduates require quantitative skills regardless of their career choices. Therefore, it is important that institutions assess students’ engagement in quantitative activities during college. This study chronicles the process taken by the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE to develop items that measure students’ participation in quantitative reasoning (QR activities. On the whole, findings across the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest good overall properties for the developed QR items. The items show great promise to explore and evaluate the frequency with which college students participate in QR-related activities. Each year, hundreds of institutions across the United States and Canada participate in NSSE, and, with the addition of these new items on the core survey, every participating institution will have information on this topic. Our hope is that these items will spur conversations on campuses about students’ use of quantitative reasoning activities.

  6. Answer first: Applying the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to examine student intuitive thinking in the context of physics

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    Mila Kryjevskaia


    Full Text Available We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics students fail to build reasoning chains from fundamental principles even though they possess the required knowledge and skills to do so. Instead, they often rely on a variety of intuitive reasoning strategies. In this study, we developed and employed a methodology that allowed for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding and reasoning approaches through the use of sequences of related questions. We have shown that the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning can be used to account for, in a mechanistic fashion, the observed inconsistencies in student responses. In particular, we found that students tended to apply their correct ideas in a selective manner that supported a specific and likely anticipated conclusion while neglecting to employ the same ideas to refute an erroneous intuitive conclusion. The observed reasoning patterns were consistent with the heuristic-analytic theory, according to which reasoners develop a “first-impression” mental model and then construct an argument in support of the answer suggested by this model. We discuss implications for instruction and argue that efforts to improve student metacognition, which serves to regulate the interaction between intuitive and analytical reasoning, is likely to lead to improved student reasoning.

  7. Supporting Students' Learning and Socioscientific Reasoning About Climate Change—the Effect of Computer-Based Concept Mapping Scaffolds (United States)

    Eggert, Sabina; Nitsch, Anne; Boone, William J.; Nückles, Matthias; Bögeholz, Susanne


    Climate change is one of the most challenging problems facing today's global society (e.g., IPCC 2013). While climate change is a widely covered topic in the media, and abundant information is made available through the internet, the causes and consequences of climate change in its full complexity are difficult for individuals, especially non-scientists, to grasp. Science education is a field which can play a crucial role in fostering meaningful education of students to become climate literate citizens (e.g., NOAA 2009; Schreiner et al., 41, 3-50, 2005). If students are, at some point, to participate in societal discussions about the sustainable development of our planet, their learning with respect to such issues needs to be supported. This includes the ability to think critically, to cope with complex scientific evidence, which is often subject to ongoing inquiry, and to reach informed decisions on the basis of factual information as well as values-based considerations. The study presented in this paper focused on efforts to advance students in (1) their conceptual understanding about climate change and (2) their socioscientific reasoning and decision making regarding socioscientific issues in general. Although there is evidence that "knowledge" does not guarantee pro-environmental behavior (e.g. Schreiner et al., 41, 3-50, 2005; Skamp et al., 97(2), 191-217, 2013), conceptual, interdisciplinary understanding of climate change is an important prerequisite to change individuals' attitudes towards climate change and thus to eventually foster climate literate citizens (e.g., Clark et al. 2013). In order to foster conceptual understanding and socioscientific reasoning, a computer-based learning environment with an embedded concept mapping tool was utilized to support senior high school students' learning about climate change and possible solution strategies. The evaluation of the effect of different concept mapping scaffolds focused on the quality of student

  8. Enjoyment and other reasons for electronic cigarette use: Results from college students in New York. (United States)

    Saddleson, M L; Kozlowski, L T; Giovino, G A; Goniewicz, M L; Mahoney, M C; Homish, G G; Arora, A


    Young people are more likely to have experimented with e-cigarettes (e-cigs) compared with older adults. Few studies identify reasons for experimentation/use of e-cigs among young people; we sought to discover what drives college students to use e-cigs. Undergraduate students (ages 18-23) at four universities in New York State were surveyed. Among e-cig ever users (n=429), reasons for use were examined. A multinomial logistic regression model analyzed the relative risk of reasons for using e-cigs among discontinued, current non-daily and current daily e-cig users. Using e-cigs for enjoyment was associated with current non-daily (RR=2.11, 95% CI=1.18-3.75) and current daily use (RR=19.1, 95% CI=3.71-98.54). Non-daily use was related to use because e-cigs are less toxic than cigarettes (RR=2.80, 95% CI=1.75-4.50). More daily users reported use to quit smoking compared with either non-daily or discontinued users (53.3% vs. 12.2% and 13.3%, respectively; preason. The exception was daily e-cig users, who often reported use for quitting/reduction of smoking. Rather, college students report usage reasons related to affect (e.g. enjoyment). Overall, enjoyment was reported more often than was use for quitting smoking; affective reasons likely play a role in the popularity of e-cigs and should be considered in future assessments of e-cig users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between Students Academic Performance and Entrepreneurial Ability When Taught Saponification Reaction Using Kitchen Resources


    NJA Cecilia OBI; NEJI Hope Amba


    This paper examined the correlation between chemistry student?s academic performance and entrepreneurial ability when told saponification reaction using kitchen resources. Saponification reaction was taught using kitchen resources such as, ashes from unripe plantain, ashes from cocoa pods peels, ashes from oil palm husks, vegetable oil, coconut oil and kernel oil. The sample comprised of 50 students from Community Secondary School, Akparabong in Ikom Local Government Area of Cross River State...

  10. Mathematical problem solving ability of sport students in the statistical study (United States)

    Sari, E. F. P.; Zulkardi; Putri, R. I. I.


    This study aims to determine the problem-solving ability of sport students of PGRI Palembang semester V in the statistics course. Subjects in this study were sport students of PGRI Palembang semester V which amounted to 31 people. The research method used is quasi experiment type one case shoot study. Data collection techniques in this study use the test and data analysis used is quantitative descriptive statistics. The conclusion of this study shown that the mathematical problem solving ability of PGRI Palembang sport students of V semester in the statistical course is categorized well with the average of the final test score of 80.3.

  11. Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities


    Tarry, Estelle F


    This thesis seeks to consider Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities. Through the literature review it has been identified that higher education is globally expanding. Competing knowledgebased economies with higher education institutions have led education to be considered a market commodity and consequently the marketization of higher education in competitive world markets. This is exemplified by discussion of the United Kingdom higher education ...

  12. A Serious Game for Teaching Nursing Students Clinical Reasoning and Decision-Making Skills. (United States)

    Johnsen, Hege Mari; Fossum, Mariann; Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Fruhling, Ann; Slettebø, Åshild


    The aim of this study was to design and pilot-test a serious game for teaching nursing students clinical reasoning and decision-making skills in caring for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A video-based serious game prototype was developed. A purposeful sample of six participants tested and evaluated the prototype. Usability issues were identified regarding functionality and user-computer interface. However, overall the serious game was perceived to be useful, usable and likable to use.

  13. Cultivating the scientific research ability of undergraduate students in teaching of genetics. (United States)

    Xing, Wan-jin; Morigen, Morigen


    The classroom is the main venue for undergraduate teaching. It is worth pondering how to cultivate undergraduate's research ability in classroom teaching. Here we introduce the practices and experiences in teaching reform in genetics for training the research quality of undergraduate students from six aspects: (1) constructing the framework for curriculum framework systematicaly, (2) using the teaching content to reflect research progress, (3) explaining knowledge points with research activities, (4) explaining the scientific principles and experiments with PPT animation, (5) improving English reading ability through bilingual teaching, and (6) testing students' analysing ability through examination. These reforms stimulate undergraduate students' enthusiasm for learning, cultivate their ability to find, analyze and solve scientific problems, and improve their English reading and literature reviewing capacity, which lay a foundation for them to enter the field of scientific research.

  14. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students' Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life. Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students' oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  15. Sixth-grade students' reasoning on the order relation of integers as influenced by prior experience: an inferentialist analysis (United States)

    Schindler, Maike; Hußmann, Stephan; Nilsson, Per; Bakker, Arthur


    Negative numbers are among the first formalizations students encounter in their mathematics learning that clearly differ from out-of-school experiences. What has not sufficiently been addressed in previous research is the question of how students draw on their prior experiences when reasoning on negative numbers and how they infer from these experiences. This article presents results from an empirical study investigating sixth-grade students' reasoning and inferring from school-based and out-of-school experiences. In particular, it addresses the order relation, which deals with students' very first encounters with negative numbers. Here, students can reason in different ways, depending on the experiences they draw on. We study how students reason before a lesson series and how their reasoning is influenced through this lesson series where the number line and the context debts-and-assets are predominant. For grasping the reasoning's inferential and social nature and conducting in-depth analyses of two students' reasoning, we use an epistemological framework that is based on the philosophical theory of inferentialism. The results illustrate how the students infer their reasoning from out-of-school and from school-based experiences both before and after the lesson series. They reveal interesting phenomena not previously analyzed in the research on the order relation for integers.

  16. Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess middle years students' proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley


    Proportional reasoning involves the use of ratios in the comparison of quantities. While it is a key aspect of numeracy, particularly in the middle years of schooling, students do not always develop proportional reasoning naturally. Research suggests that many students do not apply proportional m...

  17. A Descriptive Study Examining the Impact of Digital Writing Environments on Communication and Mathematical Reasoning for Students with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; Higgins, Kristina N.; Crawford, Lindy L.


    Proficiency in mathematics, including mathematical reasoning skills, requires students to communicate their mathematical thinking. Mathematical reasoning involves making sense of mathematical concepts in a logical way to form conclusions or judgments, and is often underdeveloped in students with learning disabilities. Technology-based environments…

  18. How does questioning influence nursing students' clinical reasoning in problem-based learning? A scoping review. (United States)

    Merisier, Sophia; Larue, Caroline; Boyer, Louise


    Problem-based learning is an educational method promoting clinical reasoning that has been implemented in many fields of health education. Questioning is a learning strategy often employed in problem-based learning sessions. To explore what is known about the influence of questioning on the promotion of clinical reasoning of students in health care education, specifically in the field of nursing and using the educational method of problem-based learning. A scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five stages was conducted. The CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, and PubMed databases were searched for articles published between the years of 2000 and 2017. Each article was summarized and analyzed using a data extraction sheet in relation to its purpose, population group, setting, methods, and results. A descriptive explication of the studies based on an inductive analysis of their findings to address the aim of the review was made. Nineteen studies were included in the analysis. The studies explored the influence of questioning on critical thinking rather than on clinical reasoning. The nature of the questions asked and the effect of higher-order questions on critical thinking were the most commonly occurring themes. Few studies addressed the use of questioning in problem-based learning. More empirical evidence is needed to gain a better understanding of the benefit of questioning in problem-based learning to promote students' clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of teaching medical ethics on medical students' moral reasoning. (United States)

    Self, D J; Wolinsky, F D; Baldwin, D C


    A study assessed the effect of incorporating medical ethics into the medical curriculum and the relative effects of two methods of implementing that curriculum, namely, lecture and case-study discussions. Results indicate a statistically significant increase (p less than or equal to .0001) in the level of moral reasoning of students exposed to the medical ethics course, regardless of format. Moreover, the unadjusted posttest scores indicated that the case-study method was significantly (p less than or equal to .03) more effective than the lecture method in increasing students' level of moral reasoning. When adjustment were made for the pretest scores, however, this difference was not statistically significant (p less than or equal to .18). Regression analysis by linear panel techniques revealed that age, gender, undergraduate grade-point average, and scores on the Medical College Admission Test were not related to the changes in moral-reasoning scores. All of the variance that could be explained was due to the students' being in one of the two experimental groups. In comparison with the control group, the change associated with each experimental format was statistically significant (lecture, p less than or equal to .004; case study, p less than or equal to .0001). Various explanations for these findings and their implications are given.

  20. The profile of problem-solving ability of students of distance education in science learning (United States)

    Widiasih; Permanasari, A.; Riandi; Damayanti, T.


    This study aims to analyze the students' problem-solving ability in science learning and lesson-planning ability. The method used is descriptive-quantitative. The subjects of the study were undergraduate students of Distance Higher Education located in Serang, majoring in Primary Teacher Education in-service training. Samples were taken thoroughly from 2 groups taking the course of Science Learning in Primary School in the first term of 2017, amounted to 39 students. The technique of data collection used is essay test of problem solving from case study done at the beginning of lecture in February 2017. The results of this research can be concluded that In-service Training of Primary School Teacher Education Program are categorized as quite capable (score 66) in solving science learning problem and planning science lesson. Therefore, efforts need to be done to improve the ability of students in problem solving, for instance through online tutorials with the basis of interactive discussions.

  1. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara


    While a deficient ability to perform daily tasks on time has been reported among students with learning disabilities (LD), the underlying mechanism behind their 'being late' is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the organization in time, time estimation abilities, actual performance time pertaining to specific daily activities, as well as the executive functions of students with LD in comparison to those of controls, and to assess the relationships between these domains among each group. The participants were 27 students with LD, aged 20-30, and 32 gender and age-matched controls who completed the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). In addition, their ability to estimate the time needed to complete the task of preparing a cup of coffee as well as their actual performance time were evaluated. The results indicated that in comparison to controls, students with LD showed significantly inferior organization in time (TOPS) and executive function abilities (BRIEF-A). Furthermore, their time estimation abilities were significantly inferior and they required significantly more time to prepare a cup of coffee. Regression analysis identified the variables that predicted organization in time and task performance time among each group. The significance of the results for both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. What this paper adds? This study examines the underlying mechanism of the phenomena of being late among students with LD. Following a recent call for using ecologically valid assessments, the functional daily ability of students with LD to prepare a cup of coffee and to organize time were investigated. Furthermore, their time estimation and executive control abilities were examined as a possible underlying mechanism for their lateness. Although previous studies have indicated executive control deficits among students with LD, to our knowledge, this

  2. Intake of caffeine from all sources and reasons for use by college students. (United States)

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Giles, Grace E; Marriott, Bernadette P; Judelson, Daniel A; Glickman, Ellen L; Geiselman, Paula J; Lieberman, Harris R


    Caffeine intake in a convenience sample of U.S. college students (N = 1248) was surveyed at five geographically-dispersed United States (U.S.) universities. Intake from coffee, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, gums, and medications was assessed. Associations between caffeine intake and demographic variables including sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, general health, exercise, weight variables and tobacco use were examined. Reasons for use of caffeine-containing products were assessed. Caffeine, in any form, was consumed by 92% of students in the past year. Mean daily caffeine consumption for all students, including non-consumers, was 159 mg/d with a mean intake of 173 mg/d among caffeine users. Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake in male (120 mg/d) and female (111 mg/d) consumers. Male and female students consumed 53 vs. 30 mg/d of caffeine in energy drinks, respectively, and 28% consumed energy drinks with alcohol on at least one occasion. Students provided multiple reasons for caffeine use including: to feel awake (79%); enjoy the taste (68%); the social aspects of consumption (39%); improve concentration (31%); increase physical energy (27%); improve mood (18%); and alleviate stress (9%). As in the general U.S. population, coffee is the primary source of caffeine intake among the college students surveyed. Energy drinks provide less than half of total daily caffeine intake but more than among the general population. Students, especially women, consume somewhat more caffeine than the general population of individuals aged 19-30 y but less than individuals aged 31-50 y. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Modeling Student Motivation and Students’ Ability Estimates From a Large-Scale Assessment of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zerpa


    Full Text Available When large-scale assessments (LSA do not hold personal stakes for students, students may not put forth their best effort. Low-effort examinee behaviors (e.g., guessing, omitting items result in an underestimate of examinee abilities, which is a concern when using results of LSA to inform educational policy and planning. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between examinee motivation as defined by expectancy-value theory, student effort, and examinee mathematics abilities. A principal components analysis was used to examine the data from Grade 9 students (n = 43,562 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on their attitudes and practices related to mathematics. The results suggested a two-component model where the components were interpreted as task-values in mathematics and student effort. Next, a hierarchical linear model was implemented to examine the relationship between examinee component scores and their estimated ability on a LSA. The results of this study provide evidence that motivation, as defined by the expectancy-value theory and student effort, partially explains student ability estimates and may have implications in the information that get transferred to testing organizations, school boards, and teachers while assessing students’ Grade 9 mathematics learning.

  4. Diagnostic reasoning and underlying knowledge of students with preclinical patient contacts in PBL. (United States)

    Diemers, Agnes D; van de Wiel, Margje W J; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Baarveld, Frank; Dolmans, Diana H J M


    Medical experts have access to elaborate and integrated knowledge networks consisting of biomedical and clinical knowledge. These coherent knowledge networks enable them to generate more accurate diagnoses in a shorter time. However, students' knowledge networks are less organised and students have difficulties linking theory and practice and transferring acquired knowledge. Therefore we wanted to explore the development and transfer of knowledge of third-year preclinical students on a problem-based learning (PBL) course with real patient contacts. Before and after a 10-week PBL course with real patients, third-year medical students were asked to think out loud while diagnosing four types of paper patient problems (two course cases and two transfer cases), and explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the patient features. Diagnostic accuracy and time needed to think through the cases were measured. The think-aloud protocols were transcribed verbatim and different types of knowledge were coded and quantitatively analysed. The written pathophysiological explanations were translated into networks of concepts. Both the concepts and the links between concepts in students' networks were compared to model networks. Over the course diagnostic accuracy increased, case-processing time decreased, and students used less biomedical and clinical knowledge during diagnostic reasoning. The quality of the pathophysiological explanations increased: the students used more concepts, especially more model concepts, and they used fewer wrong concepts and links. The findings differed across course and transfer cases. The effects were generally less strong for transfer cases. Students' improved diagnostic accuracy and the improved quality of their knowledge networks suggest that integration of biomedical and clinical knowledge took place during a 10-week course. The differences between course and transfer cases demonstrate that transfer is complex and time-consuming. We

  5. Debriefing to Improve Student Ability to Assess and Plan for the Care of Persons With Disability. (United States)

    Takeda, Mikiko Y; Smith, Mark J; Cone, Catherine J


    Although recent literature suggests that students should be trained in the care of persons with disability (PWDs) as a form of cultural sensitivity (CS), healthcare professionals may receive limited experience during their formal training. After pharmacy students in 2 previous years of testing failed to adequately assess and plan for the care of a standardized patient's chief complaint and disability in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), the investigators added debriefing to the OSCE to determine if it would improve student's ability to assess and plan for the care of PWD. Two sequentially enrolled second-year pharmacy school student cohorts participated in this study (control n = 90; intervention n = 82). During the OSCE, students interviewed and examined a standardized patient with a simulated physical disability and other chronic disease states. Students were then instructed to develop a care plan considering the patient's disability and other disease states. The intervention cohort received debriefing; the control did not. Students documented the care plan in a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Investigators assessed SOAP note score (general ability of students to write a SOAP note) and CS score (specific ability to care for PWD) to determine the effectiveness of the debriefing. The intervention group showed a significantly higher percent mean CS score than the control group (93.6% ± 19% and 61.1% ± 30.7%, respectively, P improvement in pass rates (those students scoring ≥70% on the OSCE) of 59.4% with 92.7% of the students passing in the intervention group versus 33.3% of the students passing in the control group (P improved students' performance in developing care plans for disabled patients. Ideally, longitudinal studies should be completed to determine if these skills transfer from debriefings to clinical practice. Development of effective training and assessment methods is essential for students to obtain

  6. Gender-related differences in reasoning skills and learning interests of junior high school students (United States)

    Shemesh, Michal

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender-related differences in the relationship between the development of formal reasoning skills and learning interests during the early adolescent stage. For this purpose, 249 students, from seventh to ninth grade, were assessed for their level of mastery of formal reasoning skills by a test based on videotaped simple experiments. Learning interests were assessed by a written response to an open question. Results showed that adolescent boys develop patterns of formal reasoning before their girl classmates. In addition, boys tend to prefer science and technology subjects, while girls tend to prefer language, social studies, and humanities. Analysis of interactions showed that boys' tendency toward science and technology is positively correlated to their age and development of formal reasoning, while girls' tendency to the above subjects is positively related to their development of formal reasoning capacity, but inversely related to their age. Possible explanations to the above-described findings and suggestions for instructional modes that may increase girls' interest in science and technology are discussed.

  7. The geometry ability of junior high school students in Karanganyar based on the Hoffer’s theory (United States)

    Nurwijayanti, A.; Budiyono; Fitriana, L.


    Geometry ability is the aspect which underlay students to solve the geometry problems. However, some studies suggests the difficulty students when learning geometry. This leads to the ability of the geometri students difficult to develop. There are five the geometry ability based the Hoffer’s theory, namely visual, verbal, drawing, logical, and applied. These five aspects are basic geometry ability to be mastered by Junior High School students level. This study aimed to describe the students’ geometry ability according to the Hoffer’s theory. The participants of this study are six students from 9th grade in State Junior High School 1 Jaten at Karanganyar that consisted of three categories, namely higher ability, moderate ability, and lower ability students. The data collection methods used are geometry test and in-depth interview and than analyzed using triangulation. The result of the study showed that the ability of those three categories is different. Each of the students' geometry ability can be described as follows. (1) On visual skill, higher ability and moderate ability students could mention the elements of the geometrical shapes correctly based on its shapes obtained. However, lower ability students were unable to mention it specifically; (2) On verbal skill, moderate ability students were able to link the relationship among shapes based on the characteristics correctly, despite that the higher ability and lower ability seemed to have difficulty; (3) On drawing skill, higher ability students could construct the shapes based on the relationship among shapes well, but moderate ability and lower ability students continually faced difficulty; (4) On logical skill, both higher ability, and moderate ability students were able to determine the formula of a particular geometrical shape based on the relationship among the elements of the shape well, while the lower ability students were unable to; (5) On applied skill, higher ability, and moderate ability

  8. Patterns of reasoning and decision making about condom use by urban college students. (United States)

    Patel, V L; Gutnik, L A; Yoskowitz, N A; O'sullivan, L F; Kaufman, D R


    HIV infection rates are rapidly increasing among young heterosexuals, making it increasingly important to understand how these individuals make decisions regarding risk in sexual encounters. Our objective in this study was to characterize young adults' safer sex behaviour and associate this behaviour with patterns of reasoning, using cognitive, information processing methods to understand the process of sexual risk taking. Sixty urban college students from NYC maintained diaries for two weeks and then were interviewed regarding lifetime condom use and sexual history. Using cognitive analysis, we characterized four patterns of condom use behaviour: consistent condom use (35.0%), inconsistent condom use (16.7%), shifting from consistent to inconsistent condom use (35.0%), and shifting from inconsistent to consistent condom use (13.3%). Directionality of reasoning (i.e. data-driven and hypothesis-driven reasoning) was analysed in the explanations provided for condom use decisions. The consistent and inconsistent patterns of condom use were associated with data-driven heuristic reasoning, where behaviour becomes automated and is associated with a high level of confidence in one's judgment. In the other two patterns, the shift in behaviour was due to a significant event that caused a change in type of reasoning to explanation-based reasoning, reflecting feelings of uncertainty and willingness to evaluate their decisions. We discuss these results within the framework of identifying potentially high-risk groups (e.g. heterosexual young adults) as well as intervention strategies for risk reduction. Further, our findings not only identify different patterns of condom use behaviour, but our investigation of the cognitive process of decision-making characterizes the conditions under which such behaviour and reasoning change.

  9. Routes and Reasons Out, Paths Back: The Influence of Push and Pull Reasons for Leaving School on Students' School Reengagement (United States)

    Boylan, Rebecca L.; Renzulli, Linda


    Dropout is a major issue facing our country's schools; however, many students who drop out of school later go on to finish their degree either by returning to high school or by earning a General Education Development (GED) credential. Despite this, there has been relatively little research on these students who "stopout" of high school.…

  10. Effectiveness of faculty training to enhance clinical evaluation of student competence in ethical reasoning and professionalism. (United States)

    Christie, Carole; Bowen, Denise; Paarmann, Carlene


    This study evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of faculty training to enhance clinical evaluation of ethical reasoning and professionalism in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Ethics, values, and professionalism are best measured in contexts comparable to practice; therefore, authentic evaluation is desirable for assessing these areas of competence. Methods were the following: 1) a faculty development workshop implementing a core values-based clinical evaluation system for assessing students' professional judgment; 2) subsequent evaluation of the clinical faculty's use of core values for grading and providing written comments related to students' professional judgment during patient care for three academic years; and 3) evaluation of program outcomes assessments regarding clinical learning experiences related to ethics and professionalism domains. Results revealed the clinical faculty's evaluation of professional judgment during patient care was enhanced by training; written comments more frequently related to core values defined in the American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) Code of Ethics; and faculty members reported more confidence and comfort evaluating professional judgment after implementation of this evaluation system and receiving training in its application. Students were more positive in outcomes assessments about their competency and learning experiences related to professionalism and ethics. This article shares one approach for enhancing clinical faculty's authentic evaluation of student competence in ethical reasoning and professionalism.

  11. The application of interactive worksheet to improve vocational students' ability to write financial statements (United States)

    Larasati, Aisyah; Hajji, Apif Miftahul


    Vocational students in Culinary Department is required to mastering the ability on managing restaurant. One of the responsibility of the students while operating a training restaurant is writing financial statements. Most of the time, writing financial statements is the hardest part for students to be conducted in a training restaurant since the students have studied limited theory/courses on that topic. This research aims to explore the improvement of students' ability to write financial statements after the application of interactive worksheet by asking them to solve financial statements case study. This research is an experimental research. Three groups of samples are used in this research, in which each of the group consists of 74 students. The first group consists of the students who solve the case study without using any software/application, the second group solve the case study by using Microsoft excel, and the third group solve the case study by using the interactive worksheet application. The results show that the use of interactive worksheet significantly improve the students ability to solve the financial statement case study either in term of accuracy or time needed to write the financial statement.

  12. The theory of multiple intelligences in the identification of high-ability students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hernández-Torrano


    Full Text Available This study provides a framework to implement the theory of multiple intelligences (MI in the identification of high-ability students in secondary education. The internal structure of three scales to assess students' MI (students, parents and teachers' ratings was analyzed in a sample of 566 students nominated as gifted by their teachers. Participants aged 11 to 16 years (M = 14.85, SD = 1.08. The results indicated differentiated intellectual profiles depending on the informant estimating students' MI. This study provided evidence for two components that allow us to analyze the cognitive competence of high-ability students beyond the areas commonly assessed at school: an academic component composed by the linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, and visual-spatial intelligences; and a non-academic component statistically loaded by the bodily-kinesthetic, musical and social intelligences. Convergence of the two components in the three scales was evidenced; and correlations between these components and students' objective performance on a psychometric intelligence test were found to be low. Finally, the utility of the MI scales to identify high-ability students in secondary education is discussed.

  13. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.


    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  14. Effects of Virtual Reality Integrated Creative Thinking Instruction on Students' Creative Thinking Abilities (United States)

    Hu, Ridong; Wu, Yi-Yong; Shieh, Chich-Jen


    Since the popular applications of information technology, digitalized materials, media, and equipment have become the essential abilities and instruments for teachers in modern education. In addition to some curricula requiring computing & reasoning and operation & demonstration, the situations of teachers utilizing transparencies, films,…

  15. Reasons and features of occurrence of excess body weight at students taking into account gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Iushkovska


    Full Text Available Purpose: the definition of reasons and features of occurrence of excess body weight at students taking into account the gender differences, which are connected with irrational lifestyle, violation of food behavior, insufficient physical activity. Material & Methods: students of 1–4 courses of Odessa national medical university, 26 girls and 22 boys, with the excess body weight and obesity aged from 18 to 24 years for the research were selected. Results: reliable differences in adipopexis type, percent of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also indexes “waist-hip” at the respondents, connected with the article, are found. Conclusions: modification of lifestyle, wrong food behavior, selection of physical activity, has to be carried out taking into account the type of adipopexis and sex of students.

  16. How Design of Online Learning Materials can Accommodate the Heterogeneity in Student Abilities, Aptitudes and Aspirations


    Bates, Simon; Hardy, Judy; Hill, Jon; McKain, David; University of Gloucestershire


    We describe the challenges facing higher education in terms of the heterogeneity of the cohort of students that arrive at university. The reasons why such diversity exists are many: students differ widely in terms of their preparedness for study at university, their degree choice aspirations and the issue of motivation for study of a particular subject. We illustrate how well-designed e-learning course materials can support many of the particular facets of heterogeneity by offering an inheren...

  17. The differentiated approach in forming swimming abilities and skills of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolskiy A.U.


    Full Text Available It is considered the directions of organization and methods of conducting of lessons with students. In experiment took part students of the 17-20 years old. The criteria of forming of typological educational groups are presented on the initial stage of teaching swimming of students. The degree of connection of the hereditarily conditioned swimming coordinating inclination is certain with the indexes of formed swimming abilities and skills of students. It is well-proven that a process of capture motive habits is under unreserved influence of conservative heredity of individual.

  18. Development of cyberblog-based intelligent tutorial system to improve students learning ability algorithm (United States)

    Wahyudin; Riza, L. S.; Putro, B. L.


    E-learning as a learning activity conducted online by the students with the usual tools is favoured by students. The use of computer media in learning provides benefits that are not owned by other learning media that is the ability of computers to interact individually with students. But the weakness of many learning media is to assume that all students have a uniform ability, when in reality this is not the case. The concept of Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) combined with cyberblog application can overcome the weaknesses in neglecting diversity. An Intelligent Tutorial System-based Cyberblog application (ITS) is a web-based interactive application program that implements artificial intelligence which can be used as a learning and evaluation media in the learning process. The use of ITS-based Cyberblog in learning is one of the alternative learning media that is interesting and able to help students in measuring ability in understanding the material. This research will be associated with the improvement of logical thinking ability (logical thinking) of students, especially in algorithm subjects.

  19. Emotions in the classroom: the role of teachers' emotional intelligence ability in predicting students' achievement. (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela


    School days can be a difficult time, especially when students are faced with subjects that require motivational investment along with cognitive effort, such as mathematics and sciences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of teachers' emotional intelligence (El) ability, self-efficacy, and emotional states and students' self-esteem, perceptions of ability, and metacognitive beliefs in predicting school achievement. We hypothesized that the level of teacher EI ability would moderate the impact of students' self-perceptions and beliefs about their achievements in mathematics and sciences. Students from Italian junior high schools (N = 338) and their math teachers (N = 12) were involved in the study, and a multilevel approach was used. Findings showed that teachers' EI has a positive role in promoting students' achievement, by enhancing the effects of students' self-perceptions of ability and self-esteem.These results have implications for the implementation of intervention programs on the emotional, motivational, and metacognitive correlates of studying and learning behavior.

  20. The Relationship Between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities Among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Motamedi


    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage and the Newton and Bristol spatial ability questionnaire with reliability value of .85. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and spatial ability (r = .59 and p = 00.00, there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and the spatial perceived ability (r = .60 and p = .00, there was a meaningful relationship between the use of computer games and mental rotation ability (r = .48 and p = .00 and there was a meaningful relationship between computer game use and spatial visualization ability (r = .48 and p = .00. In general, the findings showed there was a positive and a significant relationship between the use of computer games and spatial abilities in students.

  1. Students' inductive reasoning skills and the relevance of prior knowledge: an exploratory study with a computer-based training course on the topic of acne vulgaris. (United States)

    Horn-Ritzinger, Sabine; Bernhardt, Johannes; Horn, Michael; Smolle, Josef


    The importance of inductive instruction in medical education is increasingly growing. Little is known about the relevance of prior knowledge regarding students' inductive reasoning abilities. The purpose is to evaluate this inductive teaching method as a means of fostering higher levels of learning and to explore how individual differences in prior knowledge (high [HPK] vs. low [LPK]) contribute to students' inductive reasoning skills. Twenty-six LPK and 18 HPK students could train twice with an interactive computer-based training object to discover the underlying concept before doing the final comprehension check. Students had a median of 76.9% of correct answers in the first, 90.9% in the second training, and answered 92% of the final assessment questions correctly. More important, 86% of all students succeeded with inductive learning, among them 83% of the HPK students and 89% of the LPK students. Prior knowledge did not predict performance on overall comprehension. This inductive instructional strategy fostered students' deep approaches to learning in a time-effective way.

  2. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Maya


    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI:

  3. An Exploratory Study on the Reasons and Preferences of Six Malaysian Students on the Video Games Played (United States)

    Leng, Eow Yee; Baki, Roselan


    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons why six Malaysian students from upper secondary school are playing video games, types of games and the features preferred. A qualitative method was being used in the study. Purposive sampling was conducted in selecting the students. The findings indicated that students played video games for a…

  4. Examining and Predicting College Students' Reading Intentions and Behaviors: An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action (United States)

    Burak, Lydia


    This study examined the recreational reading attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of college students. The theory of reasoned action provided the framework for the investigation and prediction of the students' intentions and behaviors. Two hundred and one students completed questionnaires developed according to the guidelines for the construction…

  5. Bad Luck or Bad Decisions: College Students' Perceptions of the Reasons for and Consequences of Their Alcohol Overdose (United States)

    Reis, Janet


    Reasons for and immediate consequences of an alcohol overdose were explored for 217 undergraduate students requiring a medical emergency transport because of excessive alcohol consumption. The sample was categorized into 26 students attributing their overdose solely to bad luck and 191 students citing bad decision making as an explanation. A…

  6. Healthy Reasoning: The Role of Effective Argumentation for Enhancing Elderly Patients' Self-management Abilities in Chronic Care. (United States)

    Bigi, Sarah


    One of the biggest challenges for doctors working in chronic care is the correct management of the argumentation phases during the encounters with their patients. During these phases doctors should provide patients with acceptable reasons for being adherent to treatment and for changing certain unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles, something which is particularly difficult for elderly patients, for whom changing life long habits can be extremely hard. However, the medical literature on the subject of communication in the chronic care encounter shows lack of theoretical models and methodological approaches that can highlight which specific linguistic structures or elements in different communication styles favor or impede patient commitment, trust in the relationship and adherence to treatment. The contribution describes ongoing research on argumentative strategies in the encounter with diabetes patients. I describe one recently concluded research project on the argumentation phases of medical encounters in diabetes care, which highlighted critical areas in need of improvement. I also describe the design and aims of a new research project, aimed at testing the effectiveness and usability of certain argumentation schemes in the medical encounter.

  7. Influence of Three Different Methods of Teaching Physics on the Gain in Students' Development of Reasoning (United States)

    Marušić, Mirko; Sliško, Josip


    The Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) was used to gauge the relative effectiveness of three different methods of pedagogy, Reading, Presenting, and Questioning (RPQ), Experimenting and Discussion (ED), and Traditional Methods (TM), on increasing students' level of scientific thinking. The data of a one-semester-long senior high-school project indicate that, for the LCTSR: (a) the RPQ group (n = 91) achieved effect-sizes d = 0.30 and (b) the ED group (n  =  85) attained effect-sizes d = 0.64. These methods have shown that the Piagetian and Vygotskian visions on learning and teaching can go hand in hand and as such achieve respectable results. To do so, it is important to challenge the students and thus encourage the shift towards higher levels of reasoning. This aim is facilitated through class management which recognizes the importance of collaborative learning. Carrying out Vygotsky's original intention to use teaching to promote cognitive development as well as subject concepts, this research has shown that it is better to have students experience cognitive conflict from directly observed experiments than by reflecting on reported experience from popularization papers or writings found on the internet.

  8. Strengthening Communication and Scientific Reasoning Skills of Graduate Students Through the INSPIRE Program (United States)

    Pierce, Donna M.; McNeal, K. S.; Radencic, S. P.; Schmitz, D. W.; Cartwright, J.; Hare, D.; Bruce, L. M.


    Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) is a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three nearby school districts. The primary goal of the program is to strengthen the communication and scientific reasoning skills of graduate students in geosciences, physics, chemistry, and engineering by placing them in area middle school and high school science and mathematics classrooms for ten hours a week for an entire academic year as they continue to conduct their thesis or dissertation research. Additional impacts include increased content knowledge for our partner teachers and improvement in the quality of classroom instruction using hands-on inquiry-based activities that incorporate ideas used in the research conducted by the graduate students. Current technologies, such as Google Earth, GIS, Celestia, benchtop SEM and GCMS, are incorporated into many of the lessons. Now in the third year of our program, we will present the results of our program to date, including an overview of documented graduate student, teacher, and secondary student achievements, the kinds of activities the graduate students and participating teachers have developed for classroom instruction, and the accomplishments resulting from our four international partnerships. INSPIRE is funded by the Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program (Award No. DGE-0947419), which is part of the Division for Graduate Education of the National Science Foundation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemu LEE,


    Full Text Available Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying students’ ability into different academic levels. Instead of using a traditional paper and pencil test, the WATS is expected to serve as an alternate method to promptly diagnosis and identify underachieving students through Web-based testing. The WATS can also help provide students with appropriate learning contents and necessary academic support in time. In this paper, theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed.

  10. The Geometric Construction Abilities Of Gifted Students In Solving Real - World Problems: A Case From Turkey

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    Avni YILDIZ


    Full Text Available Geometric constructions have already been of interest to mathematicians. However, studies on geometric construction are not adequate in the relevant literature. Moreover, these studies generally focus on how secondary school gifted students solve non-routine mathematical problems. The present study aims to examine the geometric construction abilities of ninth-grade (15 years old gifted students in solving real-world geometry problems; thus a case study was conducted. Six gifted students participated in the study. The data consisted of voice records, solutions, and models made by the students on the GeoGebra screen. Results indicate that gifted students use their previous knowledge effectively during the process of geometric construction. They modeled the situations available in the problems through using mathematical concepts and the software in coordination. Therefore, it is evident that gifted students think more creatively while solving problems using GeoGebra.

  11. Effects of Cooperative Learning STAD on Mathematical Communication Ability of Elementary School Student (United States)

    Maelasari, E.; Wahyudin


    The aim of this study is to describe the increasing of mathematical communications capability, and difference between students who get STAD cooperative learning and students who receive Direct Instruction. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pretest posttest study design. Subjects in this study in one of the fifth grade elementary school located in Cibeureum District, Kuningan. The research instrument used was a written test mathematical communication skills. The results showed that the improvement of mathematical communication capabilities Direct Instruction students who scored significantly better than students who learned with STAD cooperative learning. By grouping according to the ability of students will show a positive impact on student achievement in the classroom.

  12. Problem representation and mathematical problem solving of students of varying math ability. (United States)

    Krawec, Jennifer L


    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in math problem solving among students with learning disabilities (LD, n = 25), low-achieving students (LA, n = 30), and average-achieving students (AA, n = 29). The primary interest was to analyze the processes students use to translate and integrate problem information while solving problems. Paraphrasing, visual representation, and problem-solving accuracy were measured in eighth grade students using a researcher-modified version of the Mathematical Processing Instrument. Results indicated that both students with LD and LA students struggled with processing but that students with LD were significantly weaker than their LA peers in paraphrasing relevant information. Paraphrasing and visual representation accuracy each accounted for a statistically significant amount of variance in problem-solving accuracy. Finally, the effect of visual representation of relevant information on problem-solving accuracy was dependent on ability; specifically, for students with LD, generating accurate visual representations was more strongly related to problem-solving accuracy than for AA students. Implications for instruction for students with and without LD are discussed.

  13. Patient safety: numerical skills and drug calculation abilities of nursing students and registered nurses. (United States)

    McMullan, Miriam; Jones, Ray; Lea, Susan


    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of age, status, experience and drug calculation ability to numerical ability of nursing students and Registered Nurses. Competent numerical and drug calculation skills are essential for nurses as mistakes can put patients' lives at risk. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in one United Kingdom university. Validated numerical and drug calculation tests were given to 229 second year nursing students and 44 Registered Nurses attending a non-medical prescribing programme. The numeracy test was failed by 55% of students and 45% of Registered Nurses, while 92% of students and 89% of nurses failed the drug calculation test. Independent of status or experience, older participants (> or = 35 years) were statistically significantly more able to perform numerical calculations. There was no statistically significant difference between nursing students and Registered Nurses in their overall drug calculation ability, but nurses were statistically significantly more able than students to perform basic numerical calculations and calculations for solids, oral liquids and injections. Both nursing students and Registered Nurses were statistically significantly more able to perform calculations for solids, liquid oral and injections than calculations for drug percentages, drip and infusion rates. To prevent deskilling, Registered Nurses should continue to practise and refresh all the different types of drug calculations as often as possible with regular (self)-testing of their ability. Time should be set aside in curricula for nursing students to learn how to perform basic numerical and drug calculations. This learning should be reinforced through regular practice and assessment.

  14. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge? (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun


    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  15. Professional technical plantar ability in students of 1er year of the Agricultural specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonel Areces Mireles


    Full Text Available The present article which approaches on the problems as to the development of professional technical plantar ability in the Agricultural Specialty Polytechnic Leonides Blanco González. Splitting of a dialectic materialistic focus various methods were utilized and techniques: Theorists and empiricists, the ones that permitted going into the background and conception assumed for the treatment of professional technical ability like formation of the personality of the future agricultural worker, as well as determining the needs of developmental students of technical plantar ability.

  16. The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science. (United States)

    Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M


    Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.

  17. Evaluation of a Coaching Experiential Learning Project on OT Student Abilities and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A. Phillips


    Full Text Available Innovative teaching methods to address emerging practice needs are critical components of effective occupational therapy education. Experiential learning strategies can enhance skill development and translation of knowledge into OT clinical practice. In addition, skills such as coaching may provide important links to health promotion practices. Thirty-two occupational therapy students took part in an experiential project to connect occupational engagement and health for a community of older adults. A pretest/posttest design was used to evaluate program outcomes in student perceived abilities, and narrative reflection papers provided postexperience qualitative information. The students improved in all 10 areas of abilities selfassessment with mean total scores from pretest (M = 42 improving significantly at posttest (M = 58. Themes from reflection papers indicated a positive response to experiential learning and a desire for more opportunities to prepare for clinical practice, including the use of interprofessional training. The students improved in their abilities to use coaching and health promotion strategies through the use of experiential learning methods. Outcomes suggest that experiential learning opportunities are an effective way to enhance student competencies in coaching, improve readiness for wellness programming, and increase student confidence in application of skills in future clinical practice.

  18. Learning by playing: A cross-sectional descriptive study of nursing students' experiences of learning clinical reasoning. (United States)

    Koivisto, Jaana-Maija; Multisilta, Jari; Niemi, Hannele; Katajisto, Jouko; Eriksson, Elina


    Clinical reasoning is viewed as a problem-solving activity; in games, players solve problems. To provide excellent patient care, nursing students must gain competence in clinical reasoning. Utilising gaming elements and virtual simulations may enhance learning of clinical reasoning. To investigate nursing students' experiences of learning clinical reasoning process by playing a 3D simulation game. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Thirteen gaming sessions at two universities of applied sciences in Finland. The prototype of the simulation game used in this study was single-player in format. The game mechanics were built around the clinical reasoning process. Nursing students from the surgical nursing course of autumn 2014 (N=166). Data were collected by means of an online questionnaire. In terms of the clinical reasoning process, students learned how to take action and collect information but were less successful in learning to establish goals for patient care or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Learning of the different phases of clinical reasoning process was strongly positively correlated. The students described that they learned mainly to apply theoretical knowledge while playing. The results show that those who played digital games daily or occasionally felt that they learned clinical reasoning by playing the game more than those who did not play at all. Nursing students' experiences of learning the clinical reasoning process by playing a 3D simulation game showed that such games can be used successfully for learning. To ensure that students follow a systematic approach, the game mechanics need to be built around the clinical reasoning process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of attitudes towards disability among university students: a focus on the theory of reasoned action

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    Novo-Corti, Isabel


    Full Text Available The present democratic values in most Western societies have fostered social norms promoting inclusion of groups at risk of social exclusion. This research has focused on the inclusion of the disabled collectives at conventional university environment. For that purpose an inquiry was carried out to young university students registered in the University of A Coruña, in several grades and levels of Economics and Business Administration studies. Thereinafter, we performed a descriptive research and a factorial analysis based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. Results obtained indicate that dominant social values are a determining factor for inclusion, however individual attitudes, although favorable for helping and giving support to people with disabilities, are not as significant as it was expected. Furthermore, results concerning the intention to help for people with disabilities inclusion indicate that students would rather prefer public institutions to take care of this issue.

  20. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability (United States)

    Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua


    The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…

  1. The efficacy of a modified Theory of Reasoned Action to explain gambling behavior in college students. (United States)

    Thrasher, Robert G; Andrew, Damon P S; Mahony, Daniel F


    Recently, Thrasher et al. (College Student Affairs Journal 27(1): 57-75, 2007) explored the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA; Ajzen and Fishbein, Attitudes, personality, and behavior, 1980) in explaining gambling behavior of college students. However, their study found the TRA only predicted small amounts of variance in gambling intentions. Heeding their call to enhance the efficacy of the TRA through the addition of explanatory variables to the model, the present study incorporated gambling motivations and locus of control as moderating variables within the TRA to test the potential of a modified TRA in explaining gambling behavior of college students. A total of 345 students at a major metropolitan research university in the Midwest volunteered to participate in the study. A series of hierarchical linear regressions indicated intrinsic motivation to accomplish (p = .002) significantly moderated the relationship between gambling attitudes and gambling intentions. Further, internal locus of control (p < .001), chance locus of control (p < .001), and powerful others locus of control (p < .001) also significantly moderated the relationship between gambling attitudes and gambling intentions. The significant impact of the moderating variables on the relationship between gambling attitudes and intentions suggests intrinsic motivation and locus of control can alter the impact of the relationship between gambling attitudes and gambling intentions.

  2. A Framework of Mathematics Inductive Reasoning (United States)

    Christou, Constantinos; Papageorgiou, Eleni


    Based on a synthesis of the literature in inductive reasoning, a framework for prescribing and assessing mathematics inductive reasoning of primary school students was formulated and validated. The major constructs incorporated in this framework were students' cognitive abilities of finding similarities and/or dissimilarities among attributes and…

  3. Perfectionism in High-Ability Students: Relational Precursors and Influences on Achievement Motivation (United States)

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes


    The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…

  4. The Influence of Personality, Parenting Styles, and Perfectionism on Performance Goal Orientation in High Ability Students (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.


    The current study explores relationships among gender, perceived parenting style, the personality traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism, perfectionism, and achievement goal orientation in a high ability and high achieving young adult population. Using data from Honors College students at a Midwestern university, a path model suggests that…

  5. Reading Ability as a Predictor of Academic Procrastination among African American Graduate Students (United States)

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.


    The present study examined the relationship between reading ability (i.e., reading comprehension and reading vocabulary) and academic procrastination among 120 African American graduate students. A canonical correlation analysis revealed statistically significant and practically significant multivariate relationships between these two reading…

  6. The Impact of Active Visualisation of High School Students on the Ability to Memorise Verbal Definitions (United States)

    Šmajdek, Anamarija; Selan, Jurij


    The era of visual communication influences the cognitive strategies of the individual. Education, too, must adjust to these changes, which raises questions regarding the use of visualisation in teaching. In the present study, we examine the impact of visualisation on the ability of high school students to memorise text. In the theoretical part of…

  7. Reading New Environments: Students' Ability to Generalise Their Understanding between Different Ecosystems (United States)

    Magntorn, Ola; Hellden, Gustav


    This paper is based on a study of how students' read nature in different ecosystems. Its focus is on ecology and the context is outdoors. This literacy has to do with an ability to recognise organisms and relate them to material cycling and energy flow in the specific habitat that is to be read. A teaching sequence was designed in order to develop…

  8. Just-in-Time Teaching Techniques through Web Technologies for Vocational Students' Reading and Writing Abilities (United States)

    Chantoem, Rewadee; Rattanavich, Saowalak


    This research compares the English language achievements of vocational students, their reading and writing abilities, and their attitudes towards learning English taught with just-in-time teaching techniques through web technologies and conventional methods. The experimental and control groups were formed, a randomized true control group…

  9. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving (United States)



    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  10. The Relationship between Ethical Sensitivity, High Ability and Gender in Higher Education Students (United States)

    Schutte, Ingrid; Wolfensberger, Marca; Tirri, Kirsi


    This study examined the ethical sensitivity of high-ability undergraduate students (n=731) in the Netherlands who completed the 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ) developed by Tirri & Nokelainen (2007; 2011). The ESSQ is based on Narvaez' (2001) operationalization of ethical sensitivity in seven dimensions. The following…

  11. A Comparison of Selective Auditory Attention Abilities in Open-Space Versus Closed Classroom Students. (United States)

    Reinertsen, Gloria M.

    A study compared performances on a test of selective auditory attention between students educated in open-space versus closed classroom environments. An open-space classroom environment was defined as having no walls separating it from hallways or other classrooms. It was hypothesized that the incidence of auditory figure-ground (ability to focus…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Spatial Visualization Ability and Drafting Models for Industrial and Technology Education Students (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Jovanovic, Vukica; Jones, Mildred


    The main purpose of this study was to determine significant positive effects among the use of three different types of drafting models, and to identify whether any differences exist towards promotion of spatial visualization ability for students in Industrial Technology and Technology Education courses. In particular, the study compared the use of…

  13. Development of an Instrument to Evaluate High School Students' Chemical Symbol Representation Abilities (United States)

    Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Luo, Ma; Yang, Yuqin; Huang, Min


    Chemical symbol representation is a medium for transformations between the actual phenomena of the macroscopic world and those of the sub-microscopic world. The aim of this study is to develop an instrument to evaluate high school students' chemical symbol representation abilities (CSRA). Based on the current literature, we defined CSRA and…

  14. Improving Science Student Teachers' Self-Perceptions of Fluency with Innovative Technologies and Scientific Inquiry Abilities (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Küçük, Zeynel; Artun, Hüseyin


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of "Environmental Chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) self-perceptions of fluency with innovative technologies (InT) and scientific inquiry abilities. The study was conducted with 117 SSSTs (68…

  15. Visualisation Ability of Senior High School Students with Using GeoGebra and Transparent Mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thohirudin, M; Maryati, TK; Dwirahayu, G


    Visualisation ability is an ability to process, inform, and transform object which suitable for geometry topic in math. This research aims to describe the influence of using software GeoGebra and transparent mica for student’s visualisation ability. GeoGebra is shortness of geometry and algebra. GeoGebra is an open source program that is created for math. Transparent mica is a tool that is created by the author to transform a geometry object. This research is a quantitative experiment model. The subject of this research were students in grade XII of science program in Annajah Senior High School Rumpin with two classes which one as an experiment class (science one) and another one as a control class (science two). Experiment class use GeoGebra and transparent mica in the study, and control class use powerpoint in the study. Data of student’s visualisation ability is collected from posttest with visual questions which are gifted at the end of the research to both classes with topic “transformation geometry”. This research resulted that studying with GeoGebra and transparent mica had a better influence than studying with powerpoint to student’s visualisation ability. The time of study in class and the habit of the students to use software and tool affected the result of research. Although, GeoGebra and transparent mica can give help to students in transformation geometry topic. (paper)

  16. Using pedagogical discipline representations (PDRs) to enable Astro 101 students to reason about modern astrophysics (United States)

    Wallace, Colin Scott; Prather, Edward E.; Chambers, Timothy G.; Kamenetzky, Julia R.; Hornstein, Seth D.


    Instructors of introductory, college-level, general education astronomy (Astro 101) often want to include topics from the cutting-edge of modern astrophysics in their course. Unfortunately, the teaching of these cutting-edge topics is typically confined to advanced undergraduate or graduate classes, using representations (graphical, mathematical, etc.) that are inaccessible to the vast majority of Astro 101 students. Consequently, many Astro 101 instructors feel that they have no choice but to cover these modern topics at a superficial level. Pedagogical discipline representations (PDRs) are one solution to this problem. Pedagogical discipline representations are representations that are explicitly designed to enhance the teaching and learning of a topic, even though these representations may not typically be found in traditional textbooks or used by experts in the discipline who are engaged in topic-specific discourse. In some cases, PDRs are significantly simplified or altered versions of typical discipline representations (graphs, data tables, etc.); in others they may be novel and highly contextualized representations with unique features that purposefully engage novice learners’ pre-existing mental models and reasoning difficulties, facilitating critical discourse. In this talk, I will discuss important lessons that my colleagues and I have learned while developing PDRs and describe how PDRs can enable students to reason about complex modern astrophysical topics.

  17. Effects of additional team-based learning on students' clinical reasoning skills: a pilot study. (United States)

    Jost, Meike; Brüstle, Peter; Giesler, Marianne; Rijntjes, Michel; Brich, Jochen


    In the field of Neurology good clinical reasoning skills are essential for successful diagnosing and treatment. Team-based learning (TBL), an active learning and small group instructional strategy, is a promising method for fostering these skills. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a supplementary TBL-class on students' clinical decision-making skills. Fourth- and fifth-year medical students participated in this pilot study (static-group comparison design). The non-treatment group (n = 15) did not receive any additional training beyond regular teaching in the neurology course. The treatment group (n = 11) took part in a supplementary TBL-class optimized for teaching clinical reasoning in addition to the regular teaching in the neurology course. Clinical decision making skills were assessed using a key-feature problem examination. Factual and conceptual knowledge was assessed by a multiple-choice question examination. The TBL-group performed significantly better than the non-TBL-group (p = 0.026) in the key-feature problem examination. No significant differences between the results of the multiple-choice question examination of both groups were found. In this pilot study participants of a supplementary TBL-class significantly improved clinical decision-making skills, indicating that TBL may be an appropriate method for teaching clinical decision making in neurology. Further research is needed for replication in larger groups and other clinical fields.

  18. Investigating the Correlation Between Pharmacy Student Performance on the Health Science Reasoning Test and a Critical Thinking Assignment


    Nornoo, Adwoa O.; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha


    Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students? scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking.

  19. High School Students' Reasons for Their Science Dispositions: Community-Based Innovative Technology-Embedded Environmental Research Projects (United States)

    Ebenezer, Jazlin; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Kasab, Dimma


    The purpose of this investigation was to qualitatively describe high school students' reasons for their science dispositions (attitude, perception, and self-confidence) based on their long-term experience with innovative technology-embedded environmental research projects. Students in small groups conducted research projects in and out of school with the help of their teachers and community experts (scientists and engineers). During the 3-year period of this nationally funded project, a total of 135 students from five schools in a mid-west State participated in research activities. Of the 135 students, 53 students were individually interviewed to explore reasons for their science dispositions. Students' reasons for each disposition were grouped into categories, and corresponding frequency was converted to a percentage. The categories of reasons were not only attributed to the use of innovative technologies in environmental research but also the contexts and events that surrounded it. The reasons that influenced students' science dispositions positively were because engaging in environmental research projects with technology contributed to easing fear and difficulty, building a research team, disseminating findings, communicating with the community, researching with scientists, training by teachers, and acknowledging teachers' knowledge. These results advanced how and why students develop science dispositions in the positive direction, which are as follows: building science teacher capacity, developing a community of inquirers, and committing to improve pedagogical practices.

  20. Perceptions of Harm and Reasons for Misuse of Prescription Opioid Drugs and Reasons for Not Seeking Treatment for Physical or Emotional Pain Among a Sample of College Students. (United States)

    Kenne, Deric R; Hamilton, Kelsey; Birmingham, Lauren; Oglesby, Willie H; Fischbein, Rebecca L; Delahanty, Douglas L


    Since the early 1990s, the United States has seen a significant increase in the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse. Despite benefits prescription opioids provide, misuse can be fatal. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, perceived harm of misuse, and reasons for misuse for physical or emotional pain instead of seeking professional medical or mental health treatment. Survey data were collected in the fall of 2013 via an online survey to a random sample of 668 students from a public Midwestern university. Lifetime prevalence of prescription opioid misuse was 9.5%. Misusers of prescription opioid drugs generally reported lower ratings of perceived harm as compared to individuals not reporting misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Primary reasons for misuse of prescription opioid drugs was to relieve pain (33.9%), "to feel good/get high" (23.2%) and experimentation (21.4%). Lifetime misuse of a prescription opioid drug for physical or emotional pain was reported by 8.1% and 2.2% of respondents, respectively. Primary reasons for misuse for physical pain included because pain was temporary, immediate relief was needed, and no health insurance/financial resources. Primary reasons for misuse for emotional pain included not wanting others to find out, embarrassment and fear. Conclusions/Importance: Reasons for misuse of prescription opioid drugs vary by type of prescription opioid drug. Reasons for not seeking treatment that ultimately lead to misuse, vary by type of pain being treated and may be important considerations in the effort to stem the misuse of prescription opioid drugs among college students.

  1. Implicit theory of athletic ability and self-handicapping in college students. (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Kuo, Chin Fang; Shui, Shang-Hsueh


    Self-handicapping is a maladaptive behavior which undermines students' achievements, but the antecedents of self-handicapping are not well studied in physical education. The aim was to examine the relations of implicit theory of abilities and self-handicapping in physical education. 264 college students, whose mean age was 20.3 yr. (SD = 1.7), completed the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire-2 and Self-handicapping Scale for Sport. Analysis indicated entity beliefs positively predicted reduced effort and making excuses. Also, incremental beliefs negatively predicted reduced effort. Results are discussed in terms of implicit theory of ability and self-handicapping. Directions for research and implications are stated.

  2. Do writing and storytelling skill influence assessment of reflective ability in medical students' written reflections? (United States)

    Aronson, Louise; Niehaus, Brian; DeVries, Charlie D; Siegel, Jennifer R; O'Sullivan, Patricia S


    Increasingly, students are asked to write reflections as part of their medical education, but some question the influence of other factors on the evaluation of these reflections. In this pilot study, the investigators determined whether scores from a validated rubric to measure reflective ability were affected by irrelevant variance resulting from writing or storytelling ability. Students in clerkships wrote reflections on professionalism. All were given identical prompts, with half receiving additional structured guidelines on reflection. Sixty reflections, 30 from each group, were randomly chosen and scored for reflection, writing, and storytelling by trained raters using validated rubrics. There was no correlation between reflection and either writing (r = 0.049, P = .35) or storytelling (r = 0.14, P = .13). The guidelines increased reflection, but not writing or storytelling scores. Reflection is a distinct construct unaffected by learners' writing or storytelling skills. These findings support reflective ability as a distinct skill.

  3. Effect of simulation on the ability of first year nursing students to learn vital signs. (United States)

    Eyikara, Evrim; Baykara, Zehra Göçmen


    The acquisition of cognitive, affective and psychomotor knowledge and skills are required in nursing, made possible via an interactive teaching method, such as simulation. This study conducted to identify the impact of simulation on first-year nursing students' ability to learn vital signs. A convenience sample of 90 first-year nursing students enrolled at a University, Ankara, in 2014-2015. Ninety students enrolled for lessons on the "Fundamentals of Nursing" were identified using a simple random sampling method. The students were taught vital signs theory via traditional methods. They were grouped into experimental 1, experimental 2 and control group, of 30 students each. Students in the experimental 1 group attended sessions on simulation and those in the experimental 2 group sessions on laboratory work, followed by simulation. The control group were taught via traditional methods and only attended the laboratory work sessions. The students' cognitive knowledge acquisition was evaluated using a knowledge test before and after the lessons. The ability to measure vital signs in adults (healthy ones and patients) was evaluated using a skill control list. A statistically significant difference was not observed between the groups in terms of the average pre-test scores on knowledge (p>0.050). Groups exposed to simulation obtained statistically significantly higher scores than the control group in post-test knowledge (psimulation to measure vital signs in healthy adults and patients was more successful than that the control group (pSimulation had a positive effect on the ability of nursing students to measure vital signs. Thus, simulation should be included in the mainstream curriculum in order to effectively impart nursing knowledge and skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The enhancement of students' mathematical problem solving ability through teaching with metacognitive scaffolding approach (United States)

    Prabawanto, Sufyani


    This research aims to investigate the enhancement of students' mathematical problem solving through teaching with metacognitive scaffolding approach. This research used a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control. The subjects were pre-service elementary school teachers in a state university in Bandung. In this study, there were two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group consists of 60 studentswho acquire teaching mathematicsunder metacognitive scaffolding approach, while the control group consists of 58 studentswho acquire teaching mathematicsunder direct approach. Students were classified into three categories based on the mathematical prior ability, namely high, middle, and low. Data collection instruments consist of mathematical problem solving test instruments. By usingmean difference test, two conclusions of the research:(1) there is a significant difference in the enhancement of mathematical problem solving between the students who attended the course under metacognitive scaffolding approach and students who attended the course under direct approach, and(2) thereis no significant interaction effect of teaching approaches and ability level based on the mathematical prior ability toward enhancement of students' mathematical problem solving.

  5. Student ability to apply the concepts of work and energy to extended systems (United States)

    Lindsey, Beth A.; Heron, Paula R. L.; Shaffer, Peter S.


    We report results from an investigation of student ability to apply the concepts of work and energy to situations in which the internal structure of a system cannot be ignored, that is, the system cannot be treated as a particle. Students in introductory calculus-based physics courses were asked written and online questions after relevant instruction by lectures, textbook, and laboratory. Several difficulties were identified. Some related to student ability to calculate the work done on a system. Failure to associate work with the change in energy of a system was also widespread. The results have implications for instruction that aims for a rigorous treatment of energy concepts that is consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. The findings are guiding the development of two tutorials to supplement instruction.

  6. [Reading ability of junior high school students in relation to self-evaluation and depression]. (United States)

    Yamashita, Toshiya; Hayashi, Takashi


    Guidelines for the diagnosis of reading disorders in elementary school students were published recently in Japan. On the basis of these guidelines, we administrated reading test batteries to 43 Japanese junior high-school students from grade two. The reading test consisted of single sounds, single words, and single sentences. We evaluated the reading speed and the number of reading errors made by the test takers; their performance was compared with the normal value for elementary school students in grade six, as stated in the guidelines. The reading ability of the junior high-school students was not higher than that of the elementary school students. Seven students (16.3%) were found to have reading difficulties (RD group) and they met the criterion for diagnosis of reading disorder as per the guidelines. Three students had difficulties in reading single sounds and single words, but they faced no problems when reading single sentences. It was supposed that the strategies used by the students for reading sentences may have differed from those used for reading single sounds or single words. No significant differences were found between the RD and non-RD group students on scores of scholastic self-evaluation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Therefore, reading difficulty did not directly influence the level of self-evaluation or depression.

  7. "Boys Press All the Buttons and Hope It Will Help": Upper Secondary School Teachers' Gendered Conceptions about Students' Mathematical Reasoning (United States)

    Sumpter, Lovisa


    Previous results show that Swedish upper secondary school teachers attribute gender to cases describing different types of mathematical reasoning. The purpose of this study was to investigate how these teachers gender stereotype aspects of students' mathematical reasoning by studying the symbols that were attributed to boys and girls,…

  8. University Students' Knowledge Structures and Informal Reasoning on the Use of Genetically Modified Foods: Multidimensional Analyses (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien


    This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and…

  9. The identification and inclusion of students with characteristics of high abilities/giftedness: relevant discussions

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    Tatiane Negrini


    Full Text Available Thinking about education in general and about the advances that have been coming up, brings us to reflect on the proposal of the inclusive school. The Brazilian educational policies point in this direction and new propositions appear to the school in order to understand how to make significant changes in the daily education. Accordingly, this article is to hold a discussion regarding the identification of students with high abilities/giftedness, articulating with some ideas proposed by the inclusive education. It is with that highlight the importance of identifying these students for a more genuine inclusion of these students in the educational context. In this sense, is used as input theoretical Gardner (1995, Renzulli (2004, Perez (2004, Virgolim (2007, Vieira (2005, among other authors who assist in the discussion of this issue. The considerations made about the high abilities and their process of identification highlight the importance of a great attention facing the process of identification and relevance of this to the actual inclusion of students with high skills in the educational context. Since they are not identified, these students may not be receiving the necessary guidance to learn and develop their potential, often distancing themselves from colleagues and friends. Thus, it is a debate about the appropriate identification of these students and how it can contribute to the inclusion of them.

  10. The Effect of Problem Solving and Problem Posing Models and Innate Ability to Students Achievement

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    Ratna Kartika Irawati


    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Problem Solving dan Problem Posing serta Kemampuan Awal terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa   Abstract: Chemistry concepts understanding features abstract quality and requires higher order thinking skills. Yet, the learning on chemistry has not boost the higher order thinking skills of the students. The use of the learning model of Problem Solving and Problem Posing in observing the innate ability of the student is expected to resolve the issue. This study aims to determine the learning model which is effective to improve the study of the student with different level of innate ability. This study used the quasi-experimental design. The research data used in this research is the quiz/test of the class which consist of 14 multiple choice questions and 5 essay questions. The data analysis used is ANOVA Two Ways. The results showed that Problem Posing is more effective to improve the student compared to Problem Solving, students with high level of innate ability have better outcomes in learning rather than the students with low level of innate ability after being applied with the Problem solving and Problem posing model, further, Problem Solving and Problem Posing is more suitable to be applied to the students with high level of innate ability. Key Words: problem solving, problem posing, higher order thinking skills, innate ability, learning outcomes   Abstrak: Pemahaman konsep-konsep kimia yang bersifat abstrak membutuhkan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Pembelajaran kimia belum mendorong siswa melakukan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Penggunaan model pembelajaran Problem Solving dan Problem Posing dengan memperhatikan kemampuan awal siswa diduga dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model pembelajaran yang efektif dalam meningkatkan hasil belajar dengan kemampuan awal siswa yang berbeda. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan eksperimen semu. Data penelitian menggunakan tes hasil belajar

  11. Intrinsic motivation towards sports in Singaporean students: the role of sport ability beliefs. (United States)

    Wang, C K John; Biddle, Stuart J H


    This study investigated determinants of active lifestyles in Singaporean university students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a measure of lay beliefs concerning athletic ability was confirmed. Other results confirmed hypotheses that beliefs reflecting that athletic ability can be developed over time (incremental beliefs) predict an achievement task (self-referenced) orientation, while beliefs reflecting that athletic ability is relatively stable (entity beliefs) predict an ego (other-person, comparative) orientation. Goal orientations directly affect perceived competence which, in turn, influence intrinsic motivation to be physically active. A task orientation had a direct link to intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that intrinsic motivation towards sport and physical activity might be enhanced through interventions that focus on self-referenced and self-improvement notions of ability as well as perceived competence.

  12. Research of level of formed knowledge, abilities and skills on basket-ball for the students of faculty of physical education.

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    Kovalenko J.A.


    Full Text Available The results of a zero control of students of faculty of physical education are presented. The estimation of theoretical knowledge's is conducted, abilities and skills on basket-ball for the students of a 1 course of directions of preparation «Physical education», «Health of man» and «Sport». It is set that the level of their formed at most students of different directions of preparation is insufficient. It is certain that by reason of such position, foremost, there is insufficient preparation and playing practice of students during teaching at general school. A diary is developed on basket-ball for student general schools.

  13. Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students. (United States)

    Lau, Ying


    The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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    Abd. Ghofur


    Full Text Available This article explores the use of Systemic Functional Grammar for students of english language teaching entitled Analysing Media Texts. This is aims at assisting students to produce their own texts and to help them develop an understanding of the linguistic choices they make. Students are introduced to the key principles of CDA and to Halliday’s SFG to provide them with tools to assist them to understand the social and constructed nature of discourses, especially those typically found in media texts. This article focuses on students’ interpretation of media texts, their ability to read with greater understanding and to apply key concepts that they had learnt to their analyses. The students demonstrated clearly that they had developed an understanding of CDA, acquired the basic metalanguage necessary for Hallidayan analysis and some of them could produce much more rigorous textual analyses than before.

  15. How the First Year of College Influences Moral Reasoning Development for Students in Moral Consolidation and Moral Transition (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.


    Understanding the developmental issues first-time college students face is critical for scholars and educators interested in learning and development. This purpose of this study was to investigate the differential impact of first-year college experiences on the moral reasoning development of 1,469 students in moral transition versus those in moral…

  16. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad


    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  17. Influence of Ethics Education on Moral Reasoning among Pre-Service Teacher Preparation and Social Work Students (United States)

    Salopek, Michelle M.


    This comparative case study examines the influence of ethics education on moral reasoning among pre-service teacher preparation and social work students. This study specifically investigates the ethical values of students enrolled in a teacher preparation and social work education program by their fourth year of study; the degree of ethical…

  18. Investigate the "Issues" in Chinese Students' English Writing and Their "Reasons": Revisiting the Recent Evidence in Chinese Academia (United States)

    Sang, Yuan


    This research synthesis collected, compiled, and analyzed 29 academic research articles that were published in China in recent years. It addressed and explored the issues in Chinese undergraduate students' English writing and the possible reasons causing and/or explaining the issues. It was discovered that many Chinese undergraduate students have…

  19. Management of Holding and Evaluating Comprehensive System of Electronic Clinical Reasoning Exams (Sajab in the Sixth Nationwide Medical Sciences Students Olympiad

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    Manouchehr Khoshbaten


    Full Text Available Introduction: The Nationwide Medical Sciences Students purpose of the Olympiad is to discover student’s talents and encourage them to study. It seems that holding regional Olympiad exams to select students for the National Olympiad can help us to maintain fairness. The aim of this study is Management of Holding and Evaluating Clinical Reasoning Exams Using a Comprehensive System of Electronic Clinical Reasoning Exams. Methods: Study was carried out in 2013 at the University of Medical Sciences on 750 students, 250 question designers, 37 responsibles. The nationwide universities held regional exams for the Student Olympiad in the area of clinical reasoning on specific dates and times. A quality review of the exams was done to study the strengths and weaknesses and to eliminate shortcomings and problems. Therefore, a researcher created a questionnaire with a reliability of R= 0.86 and validity was confirmed by experts, which was then loaded into the system. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistics (Percent, Average, standard deviation. Results: The multimedia educational quality of the system, with an average of 69.36 ±22.79, the students and faculty members evaluated as good, with averages of 64.30 ±23.48 and 67.28 ± 22.43, respectively. The quality of the exam was evaluated as excellent by faculty members, with an average of 94.63 ±16.60 and 59.52 ±27.46, by the students. Conclusion: Evaluating the quality of the system’s performance and its ability to assess students will lead to a clarification of its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, result in the creation of a high quality evaluation system.


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    Jovica Petković


    Full Text Available The research is done for the purpose of determination and defining of the level of connection between some motoric abilities with success in realization of programmed contents from the area of gymnastics (turn ahead and turn back. The research is done on the sample of fifty one students from the fifth grade of Elementary School, on ten motoric tests and on two specific motoric assignments – turn ahead and turn back. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coefficients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied motoric assignments.

  1. Mathematical Problem Solving Ability of Junior High School Students through Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction (United States)

    Fasni, N.; Turmudi, T.; Kusnandi, K.


    This research background of this research is the importance of student problem solving abilities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether there are differences in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who have learned mathematics using Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction (AFFMMI) and students who have learned using scientific approach (SA). The method used in this research is a quasi-experimental method with pretest-postest control group design. Data analysis of mathematical problem solving ability using Indepent Sample Test. The results showed that there was a difference in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who received learning with Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction and students who received learning with a scientific approach. AFFMMI focuses on mathematical modeling. This modeling allows students to solve problems. The use of AFFMMI is able to improve the solving ability.


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    Farnia Sari


    Full Text Available IBT techniques is series of activities that involved maximally throughout the student's ability to search and investigate in a systematic, critical, logical, analytical, so that they can formulate their own discoveries with confidence the search of knowledge and understanding to satisfy curiosity. IBT technique is also supposed to the teachers be creative to set situations. This method used was quasi experimental design. The purposive sampling technique was used on this study. The data were collected by reading test. The collected data was analyzed by using paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The results showed that the students’ reading ability was improved and there was a significant difference between the students who were taught by using IBT and those who were not. With IBT technique encouraged students to take the initiative to have question the phenomenon, to conduct field observations, to analyze the data, and to draw conclusions. Thus, it is to integrate students and synergize various skills of language and different methods.

  3. Effect of a Person-Centered Course on the Empathic Ability of Dental Students. (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Julien; Blaizot, Alessandra; Cougot, Nancie; Pegon-Machat, Estelle; Hamel, Olivier; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe; Munoz-Sastre, Maria-Teresa; Vergnes, Jean-Noel


    Person-centered or patient-centered care (PCC) focuses on the individual's needs and concerns. Although PCC is widely acknowledged as a core value of modern medicine, there has been a lack of research on how dental curricula could engage future dentists in PCC approaches. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a PCC course on empathy in dental students. A controlled study was conducted with fourth-year dental students in four dental faculties in France in 2014-15. The test group (n=63) received 20 hours of PCC training including arts-based approaches, narrative dentistry activities, and workshops on communication based on the Calgary-Cambridge guide. There was no change in the curriculum of the control group (n=217). Pretest and posttest measures with the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) and Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) were compared for the two groups. The comparisons showed no significant differences on the TEQ or JSPE (p=0.25 and p=0.08, respectively). However, there was a higher proportion of students with more than an eight-point decrease in TEQ values in the control group (p=0.02). The stabilization of empathic ability in the test group may have counteracted the tendency for natural erosion of empathy among students during their clinical activities. These results suggest that PCC training constitutes a promising approach to developing dental students' empathic ability, but there is a need to assess the effects of such training over longer periods.

  4. Cultivation of students' engineering designing ability based on optoelectronic system course project (United States)

    Cao, Danhua; Wu, Yubin; Li, Jingping


    We carry out teaching based on optoelectronic related course group, aiming at junior students majored in Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering. " Optoelectronic System Course Project " is product-designing-oriented and lasts for a whole semester. It provides a chance for students to experience the whole process of product designing, and improve their abilities to search literature, proof schemes, design and implement their schemes. In teaching process, each project topic is carefully selected and repeatedly refined to guarantee the projects with the knowledge integrity, engineering meanings and enjoyment. Moreover, we set up a top team with professional and experienced teachers, and build up learning community. Meanwhile, the communication between students and teachers as well as the interaction among students are taken seriously in order to improve their team-work ability and communicational skills. Therefore, students are not only able to have a chance to review the knowledge hierarchy of optics, electronics, and computer sciences, but also are able to improve their engineering mindset and innovation consciousness.

  5. The Effects of Reading Ability and Sex Difference on Recall Protocols of Japanese University Students


    Hirano, Kinue


    This study investigates the concurrent validity of a recall test as a measure of reading comprehension and the effects of the level of reading ability and sex difference on the written recalls of 70 Japanese EFL university students. Results showed that there were moderate significant correlations between a recall test and a standardized reading test (i.e., FCE): for all the students, r = .64, p < .01; for males, r = .61, p < .01; for females, r = .67, p < .01, suggesting that a recall test is...

  6. The effect of assessment form to the ability of student to answer the problem correctly

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    Arifian Dimas


    Full Text Available Assessment is an important part of education. For educators, are collecting information about students learning and information about the learning process. For students, the assessment is the process of informing them about the progress of learning. Effective assessment process is responsive to the strengths, needs and clearly articulated student learning objectives. This research was aimed to know the effect of assessment form towards students ability in answering the problem correctly on kinematics and dynamics of motion. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. The data collecting method are assessment test and interview. Assessment test instrument are written test and animation form test. The question we use was taken "Force Concept Inventory" on kinematics and dynamics concepts. The sample are 36 student of 6th terms student of Physics Undergraduate Departement in Sebelas Maret University. The result shows that for kinematics concept, more students answer correctly for test presented in animation form but for dynamics concept conventional test is better.

  7. Using the SEE-SEP Model to Analyze Upper Secondary Students' Use of Supporting Reasons in Arguing Socioscientific Issues (United States)

    Christenson, Nina; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Höglund, Hans-Olof


    To achieve the goal of scientific literacy, the skills of argumentation have been emphasized in science education during the past decades. But the extent to which students can apply scientific knowledge to their argumentation is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyse 80 Swedish upper secondary students' informal argumentation on four socioscientific issues (SSIs) to explore students' use of supporting reasons and to what extent students used scientific knowledge in their arguments. Eighty upper secondary students were asked to express their opinions on one SSI topic they chose through written reports. The four SSIs in this study include global warming, genetically modified organisms (GMO), nuclear power, and consumption. To analyse students' supporting reasons from a holistic view, we used the SEE-SEP model, which links the six subject areas of sociology/culture (So), environment (En), economy (Ec), science (Sc), ethics/morality (Et) and policy (Po) connecting with three aspects, knowledge, value and personal experience (KVP). The results showed that students used value to a greater extent (67%) than they did scientific knowledge (27%) for all four SSI topics. According to the SEE-SEP model, the distribution of supporting reasons generated by students differed among the SSI topics. Also, some alternative concepts were disclosed in students' arguments. The implications for research and education are discussed.

  8. Virtual Reality Learning Activities for Multimedia Students to Enhance Spatial Ability

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    Rafael Molina-Carmona


    Full Text Available Virtual Reality is an incipient technology that is proving very useful for training different skills. Our hypothesis is that it is possible to design virtual reality learning activities that can help students to develop their spatial ability. To prove the hypothesis, we have conducted an experiment consisting of training the students using an on-purpose learning activity based on a virtual reality application and assessing the possible improvement of the students’ spatial ability through a widely accepted spatial visualization test. The learning activity consists of a virtual environment where some simple polyhedral shapes are shown and manipulated by moving, rotating and scaling them. The students participating in the experiment are divided into a control and an experimental group, carrying out the same learning activity with the only difference of the device used for the interaction: a traditional computer with screen, keyboard and mouse for the control group, and virtual reality goggles with a smartphone for the experimental group. To assess the experience, all the students have completed a spatial visualization test twice: just before performing the activities and four weeks later, once all the activities were performed. Specifically, we have used the well-known and widely used Purdue Spatial Visualization Test—Rotation (PSVT-R, designed to test rotational visualization ability. The results of the test show that there is an improvement in the test results for both groups, but the improvement is significantly higher in the case of the experimental group. The conclusion is that the virtual reality learning activities have shown to improve the spatial ability of the experimental group.

  9. Educator's ability to identify students with coordination disorders: A review of literature

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    Michalis Anastasiadis


    Full Text Available According to research 5-7% of the total school population face motor learning difficulties such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. In addition to that, recent findings regarding comorbidity revealed that specific learning difficulties such as Dyslexia are very often co-exist with movement difficulties such as DCD. School environment seems to be an ideal setting for early identification, assessment and in-school intervention. Therefore, educators' knowledge regarding DCD and their ability to identify and assess children with movement difficulties are crucial dimensions for an effective interventional management. The goal of the current paper was a review of the relative literature. The findings reveal that, without specific education, the educators have limited ability to recognize children with DCD. Furthermore, research has shown that well informed and educated educators can be very effective in identification and classification of students with movement difficulties. As a result, early intervention strategies can be developed and applied to help the students and their families. Therefore the current article provides a review of literature regarding the ability of the educators to identify their students with motor coordination difficulties. A review of the most commonly used identification instruments was also provided.

  10. Turkish dental students' and dentists' ability to assess gingival health status with DAAGS software. (United States)

    Camgoz, Melike; Gurgan, Cem A; Akkaya, Murat


    The aim of this study was to compare the ability of final-year Turkish dental students and dentists to assess the level of gingival health status by using the Development of Ability to Assess Gingival Status (DAAGS) computer program. Forty-eight students in their final year of dental education and 240 dentists participated in DAAGS tests in which they judged twenty-four photos. The participants were organized into one group of students and five groups of dentists: those who graduated in the last five years, in the last six to ten years, in the last eleven to fifteen years, in the last sixteen to twenty years, and twenty and/or more years ago. A gold standard of each photo was shown to participants after they completed test 1; then, test 2 was conducted immediately. Participants were asked to evaluate the DAAGS by written survey. There were significant differences between the parameters of two tests for all groups. Significance levels differed for each group and both tests considering correct answers, reproducibility, irrelevant answers, and overall ability. The findings from this study indicated that the DAAGS software is easier for more recently graduated dentists to use.

  11. Comparison of dynamic balance ability in healthy university students according to foot shape. (United States)

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho


    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance ability according to foot shape, defined as normal, pronated, or supinated on the basis of the height of the medial arch. [Subjects] In this study, 14 subjects for the pronated foot group, 14 for the supinated foot group, and 14 for the normal foot group were selected from among 162 healthy university students by using the navicular drop test proposed by Brody. To measure dynamic balance ability, a star excursion balance test (SEBT) was conducted for each group, in which a cross-shaped line and lines at 45° in eight directions were drawn on the floor. In this study, only three directions were used, namely anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial. The mean of the SEBT was calculated by measuring three times for each group, and the values were standardized using the following equation: measured value/leg length × 100. [Results] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability were found between the normal, pronated, and supinated foot groups. [Conclusion] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability according to the foot shape were found among the healthy university students with normal, pronated, and supinated feet.

  12. Reasons for use, potential use, or discontinued use of hookah among us young adult college students

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    Shreya Kothari


    Full Text Available Background Existing research regarding hookah use among young adults highlights the influences of perceptions of harm, social factors, and the draw of product design and marketing. However, limited research has quantitatively examined who is most likely to initiate or sustain hookah use, the characteristics of hookah use among users, or the range of potential reasons for hookah use or discontinued use. This study addresses these gaps by assessing: 1 differences in sociodemographics and other substance use among current, never, and former hookah users; 2 use characteristics among current users (e.g., types of devices/flavors used, quit intentions; and 3 reasons for use, potential use, and discontinued use among young adult current, never, and former hookah users. Methods We analyzed data from a cohort study of students aged 18-25 recruited from seven United States colleges/universities. Results Of 2,865 participants, 56.3% were never users, 12.4% current (past 4-month, and 31.3% former. Correlates of being a current (vs. never hookah user included being “other race” (vs. White, attending an HBCU (vs. a technical college, and use of any other tobacco product, marijuana, or alcohol. Correlates of being a former (vs. never hookah user included being older, being “other race” (vs. White, attending an HBCU (vs. a technical college, and use of any other tobacco product (except cigars, marijuana, or alcohol. Among current users, 73.7% reported no intention to quit; only 26.2% reported attempting to quit in the past 12 months. Two factors regarding current hookah use included: 1 instrumentality (e.g., flavors; and 2 social reasons. One factor emerged regarding potential use among never users, reflecting influences related to social factors and flavors. Three factors regarding discontinued use included: 1 inconvenience (e.g., messy/expensive; 2 anti-tobacco attitude (e.g., unhealthy; and 3 social reasons. Conclusions These results may inform

  13. The correlation between concept mastery and stage of moral reasoning student using socio-scientific issues on reproductive system material (United States)

    Lestari, T. A.; Saefudin; Priyandoko, D.


    This research aims to analyze the correlation between concept mastery and moral stages of students. The research method using a correlational study with stratified random sampling technique. The population in this research is all of eleventh grade students in Senior High School Bandung. Data were collected from 297 eleventh grade students of three Senior High School in Bandung with use the instrument in the form of examination and stage of moral reasoning questionnaire. The stage of moral reasoning in this research consists of two student’s moral reasoning categories based on 16 questionnaire as the indicators from Jones et al. (2007). The results of this research shows that the average of eleventh grade student’s moral reasoning stage is the advanced stage. The results of this research shows that the concept mastery and the stage of moral reasoning indicates that there are 0.370 0f a positive correlation. This research provides an overview of eleventh grade student about concept mastery and stage of moral reasoning using socio-scientific issues.

  14. Factors Affecting Differential Equation Problem Solving Ability of Students at Pre-University Level: A Conceptual Model (United States)

    Aisha, Bibi; Zamri, Sharifa NorulAkmar Syed; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Satti, Umbreen


    In this study, different factors affecting students' differential equations (DEs) solving abilities were explored at pre university level. To explore main factors affecting students' differential equations problem solving ability, articles for a 19-year period, from 1996 to 2015, were critically reviewed and analyzed. It was revealed that…

  15. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun


    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  16. The Relationship between Chinese High School Students' Implicit Theories of Ability in Sports and Perceived Enjoyment in Physical Education (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Weidong


    According to theory, students' implicit theories of ability can affect their motivation and engagement in physical education (PE). Limited research has been conducted to examine the relationships between implicit theories of ability and motivation and engagement among K-12 students in PE. Our study examined the relationship between implicit…

  17. Group techniques as a methodological strategy in acquiring teamwork abilities by college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Torres Martín


    Full Text Available From the frame of the European Higher Education Space an adaptation of teaching-learning process is being promoted by means of the pedagogical renewal, introducing into the class a major number of active or participative methodologies in order to provide students with a major autonomy in said process. This requires taking into account the incorporation of basic skills within university curriculum, especially “teamwork”. By means of group techniques students can acquire interpersonal and cognitive skills, as well as abilities that will enable them to face different group situations throughout their academic and professional career. These techniques are necessary not only as a methodological strategy in the classroom, but also as a reflection instrument for students to assess their behavior in group, with an aim to modify conduct strategies that make that relationship with others influences their learning process. Hence the importance of this ability to sensitize students positively for collective work. Thus using the research-action method in the academic classroom during one semester and making systematic intervention with different group techniques, we manage to present obtained results by means of an analysis of the qualitative data, where the selected instruments are group discussion and personal reflection.

  18. Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Abilities in Critically Identifying and Evaluating the Quality of Online Health Information. (United States)

    Theron, Maggie; Redmond, Anne; Borycki, Elizabeth M


    Both the Internet and social media have become important tools that patients and health professionals, including health professional students, use to obtain information and support their decision-making surrounding health care. Students in the health sciences require increased competence to select, appraise, and use online sources to adequately educate and support patients and advocate for patient needs and best practices. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if second year nursing students have the ability to critically identify and evaluate the quality of online health information through comparisons between student and expert assessments of selected online health information postings using an adapted Trust in Online Health Information scale. Interviews with experts provided understanding of how experts applied the selected criteria and what experts recommend for implementing nursing informatics literacy in curriculums. The difference between student and expert assessments of the quality of the online information is on average close to 40%. Themes from the interviews highlighted several possible factors that may influence informatics competency levels in students, specifically regarding the critical appraisal of the quality of online health information.

  19. Critical Thinking Skills of an Eighth Grade Male Student with High Mathematical Ability in Solving Problem (United States)



    This study aims to describe student’s critical thinking skill of grade VIII in solving mathematical problem. A qualitative research was conducted to a male student with high mathematical ability. Student’s critical thinking skill was obtained from a depth task-based interview. The result show that male student’s critical thinking skill of the student as follows. In understanding the problem, the student did categorization, significance decoding, and meaning clarification. In devising a plan he examined his ideas, detected his argument, analyzed his argument and evaluated his argument. During the implementation phase, the skill that appeared were analyzing of the argument and inference skill such as drawing conclusion, deliver alternative thinking, and problem solving skills. At last, in rechecking all the measures, they did self-correcting and self-examination.

  20. A whole-process progressive training mode to foster optoelectronic students' innovative practical ability (United States)

    Zhong, Hairong; Xu, Wei; Hu, Haojun; Duan, Chengfang


    This article analyzes the features of fostering optoelectronic students' innovative practical ability based on the knowledge structure of optoelectronic disciplines, which not only reveals the common law of cultivating students' innovative practical ability, but also considers the characteristics of the major: (1) The basic theory is difficult, and the close combination of science and technology is obvious; (2)With the integration of optics, mechanics, electronics and computer, the system technology is comprehensive; (3) It has both leading-edge theory and practical applications, so the benefit of cultivating optoelectronic students is high ; (4) The equipment is precise and the practice is costly. Considering the concept and structural characteristics of innovative and practical ability, and adhering to the idea of running practice through the whole process, we put forward the construction of three-dimensional innovation and practice platform which consists of "Synthetically Teaching Laboratory + Innovation Practice Base + Scientific Research Laboratory + Major Practice Base + Joint Teaching and Training Base", and meanwhile build a whole-process progressive training mode to foster optoelectronic students' innovative practical ability, following the process of "basic experimental skills training - professional experimental skills training - system design - innovative practice - scientific research project training - expanded training - graduation project": (1) To create an in - class practical ability cultivation environment that has distinctive characteristics of the major, with the teaching laboratory as the basic platform; (2) To create an extra-curricular innovation practice activities cultivation environment that is closely linked to the practical application, with the innovation practice base as a platform for improvement; (3) To create an innovation practice training cultivation environment that leads the development of cutting-edge, with the scientific