Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc
Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.
Smith, James F; Breyer, Benjamin N; Shindel, Alan W
The prevalence and associations of sexual bother in male medical students has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study is to analyze predictors of sexual bother in a survey of male North American medical students. Students enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February 2008 and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexuality and sexual function. The principle outcome measure was a single-item question inquiring about global satisfaction with sexual function. The survey also consisted of a questionnaire that included ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and a validated scale for the assessment of depression. Respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function, the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool, and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality survey (SEAR). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. There were 480 male subjects (mean age 26.3 years) with data sufficient for analysis. Forty-three (9%) reported sexual bother. Sexual bother was significantly more common in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), high risk of premature ejaculation (HRPE), depressive symptoms, and lower sexual frequency. However, after multivariate analysis including SEAR scores, ED, and HRPE were no longer independently predictive of sexual bother. Higher scores for all domains of the SEAR were associated with lower odds of sexual bother. ED and HRPE are associated with sexual bother in this young and presumably healthy population. However, after controlling for relationship factors neither ED nor HRPE independently predicted sexual bother. It is plausible to hypothesize that sexual dysfunction from organic causes is rare in this population and is seldom encountered outside of relationship perturbations. Attention to relationship and psychological factors is likely of key importance in
This study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between the male and female students' academic performance in radio communication in technical colleges in Delta State. There are two research questions and one null hypothesis formulated to guide the study. The population for the study consists of 735 students of ...
Gougeon, Thomas D.
Deborah Tannen's framework for interpersonal communication between males and females (published in 1990) was used to explore how male and female distance education students meet their primary needs through communication. The study population consisted of the 19 female and 6 male students enrolled in a 13-week computer conferencing course at the…
Gershen, J A; McCreary, C P
The marked increase in women enrolled in dental school warrants a reassessment of dental student personality profiles. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to compare personality profiles of two first-year dental classes, (2) to compare male and female dental student profiles to their respective norm populations, and (3) to compare male and female dental student personality traits with each other. The Comrey Personality Scales were administered to two first-year dental classes at the University of California at Los Angeles. Between sex and within sex comparisons were made over ten inventory scales. Results indicated that the collective personality profiles of male and female dental students were markedly similar to each other for both classes. These results do not reflect the differences encountered between the sexes in the norm population. It was also noted that the "average" male dental student differed from the male norms on Orderliness versus Lack of Compulsion, Social Conformity versus Rebelliousness, and Emotional Stability versus Neuroticism. In addition, "average" female dental student differed from the female norms on Masculinity versus Femininity.
... and self assessment on the self-efficacy and students' learner autonomy in the learning of mathematics as well as determining the attitude of male and female students towards the use of peer and self assessment. The population was made of senior secondary three students (SS3) of a state public school in Osun State.
Dissing, Agnete Skovlund; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard; Petersson, Birgit H
Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context. All first-year medical students (n = 979) received a questionnaire related to body perception, exercise habits, eating habits, height and weight in the fall of 2006 and 2007. The response rate was 57% (n = 561). The gender distribution of the study population was 71.8% females and 28.2% males and the average age was 21.5 years. More males (89.8%) than females (73.1%) were satisfied with their body and more females (34.8%) than males (10.9%) felt too fat. More females (42.7%) than males (19.9%) felt guilty when eating unhealthy food. 2.3% (all females) claimed to feel anxiety when they were about to eat. More males (48.4%) than females (28.6%) stated that they could not keep themselves from exercising. 13.5% of the underweight females (body mass index eating disorders than male students. Future research in this area should address the causes of such behaviour.
Goñi, Beatriz; Matsuda, Muneo; Tobari, Yoshiko N
With few exceptions, spontaneous crossing over does not normally occur in male Drosophila. Drosophila ananassae males show considerable amounts of crossing over. In wild males of D. ananassae from Asian (2008) and Brazilian populations (1986 and 2007) variable frequencies of meiotic crossing over, estimated from chiasmata counts, suggested the existence of factors controlling male crossing over in these populations. To corroborate for such prediction, we present data on spontaneous recombination in F1 males of D. ananassae heterozygous for chromosomes of the same Brazilian populations (1986) and marker chromosomes using three testers stocks. Mean recombination value was low, although high variability existed between individual frequencies. Recombination frequencies between lines in each tester stock were not significantly different, excepting when the 3ple-px and 3ple-cy testers were compared (p recombination in chromosomes 2 and 3 in F1 males tested with e(65) se; bri ru was not related, suggesting they are under independent genetic control. Our data are consistent with proposed genetic factors controlling male crossing over in the tester stocks and to the presence of enhancers and suppressors of male crossing over segregating in the Brazilian populations (1986).
Al-Amoudi, Samia; AlHomied, Moaiad Tariq Abdul-Aziz; AlSayegh, Nasser Youssef Nasser; Radi, Osama Naseem Ismail; Zagzoog, Mohammed Majed Suliman; Aloufi, Omar Faisal Mubarak; Al-Harbi, Abdullah Abdulkarim Ali; Tayeb, Safwan; Hassanien, Mohammed; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud; Eldeek, Basem; Harakeh, Steve
Breast cancer (BC) accounts for 24 % of all women cancer cases diagnosed in Saudi Arabia each year. Awareness is extremely important in combating this disease. This study was undertaken to assess male high school students' response to BC. This cross-sectional survey was performed on male high school students across schools in Jeddah. A questionnaire gathered data on respondent demographics, beliefs about BC, BC risk factors, early screening methods, and role of men in BC. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20. A total of 824 students participated, with an average age of 17.0 years. There was more than 50 % agreement that early detection of BC enhances the chances of recovery, that BC is treatable, and that clinical breast examination and breastfeeding provide protection from BC. Around half the survey population thought that BC was fatal and contagious. Fewer than 50 % thought that BC was inherited and related to smoking, consumption of contraceptive pills, repeated exposure to radiation, obesity, and wearing a bra and that breast tumors were all malignant and spread to different parts of the body. Others knew that mammograms should be performed periodically. A high percentage persuaded their relatives to have mammograms and provided them with psychological support. Knowledge of BC among male high school students in Saudi Arabia is still limited, and, therefore, programs and activities need to be established to increase awareness among high school students.
Karbasizadeh, Sina; Jani, Masih; Keshvari, Mahtab
To determine the relationship between the parent-child relationship, self-control and demographic characteristics and the desire to play video games among male university students at one university in Iran. This was a correlational, descriptive, applied study. A total of 103 male students were selected randomly as a study sample from the population of male students at Isfahan University in Iran. Data collection tools used were the Video Games Questionnaire, Tanji's Self-Control Scale, Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire, and Demographic Questionnaire. Data were analysed using stepwise regression analysis. This study found several factors increased male students' desire to play video games. Demographic characteristics associated with increased tendency to play video games among male students in Iran are older age, larger number of family members, lower parental level of education and higher socio-economic class, while other significant factors are a lower level of self‑control and a poorer parent-child relationship. PARTICIPANTS': higher socio-economic class, lower level of self-control and older age explained 8.2%, 5.2% and 5.9% of their desire to play video games, respectively. These three variables together accounted for significantly 16.9% of a male student's desire to play video games in this study ( P video games in Iran. Moreover, lower levels of self-control and a poorer parent-child relationship were found to be accompanied by a greater desire to play video games among male university students. © 2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Smith, Carine; Essop, M Faadiel
We determined selected risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and assessed the metabolic risk status (using IDF criteria) of third-year physiology students at Stellenbosch University (88 males and 178 females). Outcome measures included anthropometry [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio], blood pressure (BP), resting pulse rate, and fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, students completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A number of gender-based differences were found, with male students displaying a greater incidence of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: 6% of males versus 3% of females displayed a cluster of three risk factors. Twenty-five per cent of female students (but only 14% of males) exhibited waist circumferences above the accepted range, which was positively correlated, for males and females, with both systolic and diastolic BP, and in females only, also with total cholesterol levels. Male students on average exercised more than their female counterparts, but also exhibited poorer eating habits. Average blood triglyceride levels for both male and female students exceeded the accepted threshold (1.85 +/- 1.62 mmol/l and 2.15 +/- 1.79 mmol/l, respectively). We concluded that metabolic risk factors were evident in a much younger population than commonly expected. Moreover, the gender-specific differences observed may impact on future risk assessment and preventative measures adopted.
Compte, Emilio J; Sepulveda, Ana R; Torrente, Fernando
Studies using traditional screening instruments tend to report a lower prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) in men than is observed in women. It is therefore unclear whether such instruments are valid for the assessment of ED in males. Lack of a formal diagnostic definition of muscle dysmorphia syndrome (MD) makes it difficult to identify men at risk. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of ED and MD in male university students of Buenos Aires. A cross-sectional, two-stage, representative survey was of 472 male students from six different schools in Buenos Aires, mostly aged between 18 and 28 years. The first stage involved administration of self-report questionnaires (Eating Attitude Test-26; scores ≥15 indicate "at risk" status). In Stage 2 students at risk of developing EDs were evaluated with a clinical interview, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE; 12th edition). Two control students were interviewed for every at risk student. The prevalence of EDs among university male students was 1.9% (n = 9). All participants with an ED presented with illness classified as eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Using the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) with a 52-point threshold we identified possible MD in 6.99% (n = 33) of the sample. The prevalence of ED detected in this study is comparable with previous findings in male populations, and below that observed in female populations. However, the prevalence of possible cases of MD resembles the total rate of EDs in women. Characteristics associated with EDs and MD in men are also discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.
Raselekoane, Nanga R; Morwe, Keamogetse G; Tshitangano, Takalani
Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students' sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students' negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students' sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda.
Dittus, Patricia J; Harper, Christopher R; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Donatello, Robin A; Ethier, Kathleen A
Adolescent males are less likely to receive health care and have lower levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge than adolescent females. The purpose of this study was to determine if a school-based structural intervention focused on school nurses increases receipt of condoms and SRH information among male students. Interventions to improve student access to sexual and reproductive health care were implemented in six urban high schools with a matched set of comparison schools. Interventions included working with school nurses to improve access to sexual and reproductive health care, including the provision of condoms and information about pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention and services. Intervention effects were assessed through five cross-sectional yearly surveys, and analyses include data from 13,740 male students. Nurses in intervention schools changed their interactions with male students who visited them for services, such that, among those who reported they went to the school nurse for any reason in the previous year, those in intervention schools reported significant increases in receipt of sexual health services over the course of the study compared with students in comparison schools. Further, these results translated into population-level effects. Among all male students surveyed, those in intervention schools were more likely than those in comparison schools to report increases in receipt of sexual health services from school nurses. With a minimal investment of resources, school nurses can become important sources of SRH information and condoms for male high school students. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Erfan Soleimani Sefat; Seyyed Jalal Younesi; Asghar Dadkhah; Mohammad Rostami
Objectives: According to the prevalence of psychological problems, especially depression in people with visual impairment, this study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of group training of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing depression in visually impaired male students. Methods: This study employed a quasi-experimental design, with pre-test and post-test and control group. The study population included 30 students with visual impairment from high school and pre-universit...
Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete
Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not
Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of concern and symptoms of BDD. Methods The medical students enrolled in a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan filled out a self-report questionnaire which assessed clinical features of BDD. BDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Out of the 156 students, 57.1% were female. A total of 78.8% of the students reported dissatisfaction with some aspect of their appearance and 5.8% met the DSM-IV criteria for BDD. The male to female ratio for BDD was 1.7. Regarding gender differences in body foci of concern, the top three reported foci of concern in male students were head hair (34.3%, being fat (32.8%, skin (14.9% and nose(14.9%, whereas in females they were being fat (40.4%, skin (24.7% and teeth (18%. Females were significantly more concerned about being fat (p = 0.005. Male students were significantly more concerned about being thin (p = 0.01 and about head hair (p = 0.012. Conclusion BDD is fairly common in our medical student population, with a higher prevalence in males. Important gender differences in BDD symptomatology and reported body foci of concern were identified which reflected the influence of media on body image perception. The impact of cultural factors on the prevalence as well as gender differences in BDD symptomatology was also established.
This study was initiated to compare the performance of male and female distance education students of the University of Education, Winneba in Integrated Science. This was done by randomly selecting the cumulated grades of male and female students of 2002, 2003 and 2004-year groups in Integrated Science for analysis ...
Cai, Long-Biao; Xu, Fang-Rong; Cheng, Qing-Zhou; Zhan, Jian; Xie, Tao; Ye, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Shang-Zhi; McCarthy, Kayne; He, Qi-Qiang
China has a high prevalence of smoking, but the characteristics of social smoking in Chinese college students have not been investigated. We examined the pattern of social smoking and explored the association between social smoking and personal cessation efforts and mental health factors among Chinese male college students. Study design was a cross-sectional survey. P. R. China was the setting of the study. Participants were a random sample of 1327 male college students. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that examined their smoking behaviors and a group of specific mental health factors (loneliness, self-harm, suicide, depression, and anxiety). Analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, χ 2 analysis, and multivariate logistic regression. Of a total of 207 current smokers, 102 (49.3%) were identified as social smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, social smokers had increased risks for depression (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.65). Among daily smokers, social smokers were less likely to have an intention to quit smoking than nonsocial smokers (odds ratio, .08; 95% confidence interval, .01-.57). This study reveals unique psychologic characteristics related to social smoking. College students are a particular group of interest because unhealthy behaviors initiated during adolescence may continue through adulthood. Our findings provide evidence for future tobacco control intervention among this population.
Hossain, Md Golam; Saw, Aik; Alam, Rashidul; Ohtsuki, Fumio; Kamarul, Tunku
Cephalic index (CI), the ratio of head breadth to head length, is widely used to categorise human populations. The aim of this study was to access the impact of anthropometric measurements on the CI of male Japanese university students. This study included 1,215 male university students from Tokyo and Kyoto, selected using convenient sampling. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the effect of anthropometric measurements on CI. The variance inflation factor (VIF) showed no evidence of a multicollinearity problem among independent variables. The coefficients of the regression line demonstrated a significant positive relationship between CI and minimum frontal breadth (p regression analysis showed a greater likelihood for minimum frontal breadth (p regression analysis revealed bizygomatic breadth, head circumference, minimum frontal breadth, head height and morphological facial height to be the best predictor craniofacial measurements with respect to CI. The results suggest that most of the variables considered in this study appear to influence the CI of adult male Japanese students.
Verbeck, Teresa A.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 male collegiate student-athletes in a revenue-generating sport in an effort to better inform current academic support practitioners how to best serve this population. The inquiry focused on student-athlete perceptions of two areas: (1) perceptions regarding the expectations academic personnel have…
This article explores the gendered importance of sportiness in terms of students' judgments of themselves and their classmates as suitable physiotherapy students. The article is based on observations and qualitative interviews with students attending clinical skills training classes in the first year of a bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy in Norway. The analysis focuses on sportiness as a display of masculinity and is inspired by Connell's concept of multiple masculinities. The findings demonstrate sportiness as a shared common value among students. However, it was also found that there are two main typologies: (1) hyper-sportiness; and (2) ordinary sportiness. Male students judged as possessing hyper-sportiness are acknowledged as particularly suitable physiotherapy students and assume a hegemonic position in the student milieu. Female students who adapt hyper-sportiness have the potential to assume a hegemonic position, but tend not to do so. Female students with an ordinary level of sportiness have no particular problems in being identified as suitable physiotherapy students, whereas male students do encounter such problems. The article demonstrates how physiotherapy students' sportiness is more complex than previously known, particularly concerning differences in how female and male students are acknowledged in terms of perceived suitability as physiotherapy students. Additionally, this work shows a continuity of historical lines with respect to how sportiness is embedded in gender within the physiotherapy profession.
Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi; Zahra Shahabinezhad
Background and Objectives: Modern technologies have a prominent role in adolescent's daily life. These technologies include specific cultural and moral patterns, which could be highly effective on adolescents. This research aimed at comparing the amount of time spent on computer games and aggressive behavior in male middle school students of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This study had a descriptive design. The study population included all male students of middle school of Tehran, and th...
Hornaday, Robert W.; And Others
A study analyzed the grade point averages (GPAs) and scores on a business concepts quiz of 419 undergraduate business students. Effect of student major was also controlled. Females earned higher overall grades than males; males outperformed females in ability to describe basic business concepts. Gender and academic major accounted for over 10…
H. Richard Milner
Full Text Available Teacher education programs in the United States (U.S. struggle to prepare teachers to meet the complex needs of elementary and secondary students in public schools - especially those of color, those living in poverty, and those whose first language is not English. In this article, we argue for focused attention on preparing educators to teach African American male students as these students face particular institutional challenges in successfully navigating the U.S. public school system. Drawing from the significant body of research on teacher education and teacher learning for equity and social justice, four Black teacher educators discuss challenges they have faced in classes designed to prepare teachers to teach Black male students. Through an analysis of commonalities in their experiences, they propose means for teacher educators to foster greater understandings of the heterogeneity found among Black male students so that teachers can craft more responsive and responsible educational experiences for Black males.
Sherry, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Chui, Wing Hong
This study examines the experiences of international students at The University of Toledo, where international students comprise approximately 10% of the student population. It highlights problems international students experience such as adapting to a new culture, English language problems, financial problems and lack of understanding from the…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using condoms consistently could prevent unintended pregnancy among young people. This study highlights multiple domains of inﬂuence on condom use among male college students in China, including knowledge, attitudes, health services utility on condom use and reproductive health information sources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify factors associated with condom use in Chinese male college students, we examined a sample of 870 sexually experienced male students in seven colleges in Wuhan, China, 2009. 535 (61.5% of 870 male students reported condom use during their most recent sexual encounter. Male students with steady partners were more likely to use condoms than students with casual partners (adjusted OR = 3.11, 95%CI 2.30-4.20. And positive attitudes toward contraceptive responsibility were associated with greater odds of condom use (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95%CI 1.02-1.92. Only 54(6.2% and 83(9.5% of respondents reported that free condoms and reproductive health counseling were available at the student health center. Providing free condoms and reproductive health counseling at the student health central were associated with increased condom use among college students (both P<0.05. In addition, students who gained reproductive health information mainly through websites, television and radio programs were more likely to use condoms than through school education (all P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Improving attitudes of male students toward contraceptive responsibility, providing proper reproductive health information through mass media and making free condoms and reproductive health counseling available in school may help increase condom use among college students in China.
Basow, Susan A.; Silberg, Nancy T.
Over 1,000 undergraduates evaluated 16 male and female professors in terms of teaching effectiveness and sex-typed characteristics. Male students gave female professors significantly poorer ratings than male professors on the six teaching evaluation measures. Female students evaluated female professors less favorably than male professors on three…
Seyed Mohammad Karim Afzali
Full Text Available The present research intends to investigate and compare the relationship between anxiety and self-esteem amongst high school freshman students (male and female with Amblyopia in Gachsaran city. To this end, all the male and female freshman students (1st Grade in high school suffering from Amblyopia in Gachsaran participated in the study as the research statistical population among which 80 students, including 40 girls and 40 boys, were selected based on Simple Random Sampling Method. Materials and tools used in this research included Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Cooper-smith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI and Snellen chart. In order to analyze results obtained from the present research, t-student test and correlation coefficient were used to investigate the relationship between the variables. Accordingly, the results indicated that: there is a statistically significant relationship between anxiety and self-esteem in students with Amblyopia (P˂0.000. Statistically significant difference in anxiety between male and female students with Amblyopia (P˂0.05 was observed. The results also showed that there is no any statistically significant difference in self-esteem between male and female students with Amblyopia (P˂0.66.
Full Text Available This research is a semi-experimental study (pretest-posttest and follow-up design with a nonequivalent control group. To this end, a sample size of 30 secondary school male students (first period was selected through convenience sampling and voluntarily from the statistical population of 10133 male students studying in District 1 of Mashhad. For data collection, Olweus Bully Questionnaire, Garnefski Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Social Adjustment Scale (SAS were applied. The data was analyzed using SPSS software and based on variance analysis test with repeated measures, Hine-Feldet post hoc test and also the paired testof Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The results of this research demonstrated that behavioral parent training has had a significant impact on bullying, emotional regulation and social adjustment of students (P= 0.000.
Muhammad, Tukur; Daniel, Esther Gananamalar Sarojini; Abdurauf, Rose Amnah
This study was conducted to examine the association between cognitive styles (Field dependence/Independence) and scientific achievement in Male and Female student of Biology and Integrated science Department of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, the is correlational. A population of 700 students were used, in which 150 were randomly selected…
Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC's acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China.A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews.Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790, 55.2% (n = 988 were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners' hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC's acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629-13.559, knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097-2.323, and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312-2.021. The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%, followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3% said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction.MC's acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future.
Stinson, David W.
This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…
Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Aguiar, Ana Saito Junqueira; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luisa; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida
Few measures are available to examine pornography use constructs, and this can compromise the reliability of statements regarding harmful use of pornography. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a sample of male Brazilian university students. The inventory consists of a 4-factor, 15-item, 5-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the inventory, it was administered to 100 male medical students. An initial model that included all 15 items of the inventory showed some substandard fit indices. Therefore, another model was tested, excluding an item that had loaded onto two different factors. Goodness-of-fit indices were better for the new model. Overall, findings from this study support using the inventory on Portuguese-speaking individuals. With additional replication across populations, other settings, and treatment-seeking patients, the Pornography Consumption Inventory could also potentially be shortened to 14 items.
Sherman, Susan M; Lane, Emily L
The objective of this study is to identify levels of risk awareness for breast, lung and cervical cancer, in a UK student population. A sample of male (N=62) and female (N=58) university students, mean age 21.62 years completed a questionnaire identifying which risk factors they knew for each cancer. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences in risk awareness across gender and cancer types. Risk factor awareness was highest for lung cancer (0.78), mid-range for breast cancer (0.61) and lowest for cervical cancer (0.47). Women had greater risk factor awareness (0.67) than males (0.57) across all three cancers. There is also significant belief in mythic risk factors such as stress (from 14 to 40% across the three cancers). Previous research has demonstrated that risk factor awareness increases with educational status, yet even in a university student population, in which the majority of females would have been offered the HPV vaccination, risk factor awareness for cancers is variable. More health education is needed particularly around the risk factors for cervical cancer.
Muhtarom; Sugiyanti; Utami, R. E.; Indriana, K.
This study revealed the metacognitive activity of male students in impulsive cognitive and reflective cognitive style in solving mathematical problems, especially in the material of plane. One student of impulsive cognitive style and one student of reflective cognitive-style were selected to be the subjects of the study. Data were collected by giving written test of problem solving and interview. Data analysis was done through data reduction, data presentation, data interpretation and conclusion. The results showed that male student of reflective cognitive style was meticulous and careful in solving the problem so as to obtain correct answers, while the impulsive cognitive style student had the characteristics of using a short time in solving the problem, but less careful so that the answers tended to be wrong
Faisal, Rizwan; Shinwari, Laiyla; Hussain, Shahzadi Saima
To compare the academic performance of male and female medical students in Pharmacology examinations. The comparative study was conducted at Rehman Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, from March to August 2015. For evaluating the students' academic performance, male and female students of academic sessions 2013-14 and 2014-15 were divided into 4 groups. Group 1: 80% marks. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 200 medical students enrolled, 102(51%) were male and 98(41%) were female. There was no significant difference in the academic performance in terms of gender in multiple choice questions (p=0.811) and short essay questions (p=0.515). The effect of attendance was also insignificant (p=0.130). Significant difference was found between the academic records of urban male and female students compared to rural students (p=0.038). Boarder students' results were insignificantly different from those of day scholars (p=0.887). There was no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female students.
Kamphorst, Jan C.; Hofman, W.H. Adriaan; Jansen, Ellen P.W.A.; Terlouw, Cees
Background In Dutch engineering education, female students outperform male students. Using an interactionalist framework, this study explores factors that contribute to this gender-based difference. Purpose This study aims to answer two questions: Do female and male students differ in background
Martin R Miller
Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that males tend to suffer higher levels of parasitism than females, the implications of this for the population dynamics of the host population are not yet understood. Here we build on an established 'two-sex' model and investigate how increased susceptibility to infection in males affects the dynamics, under different mating systems. We investigate the effect of pathogenic disease at different case mortalities, under both monogamous and polygynous mating systems. If the case mortality is low, then male-biased parasitism appears similar to unbiased parasitism in terms of its effect on the population dynamics. At higher case mortalities, we identified significant differences between male-biased and unbiased parasitism. A host population may therefore be differentially affected by male-biased and unbiased parasitism. The dynamical outcome is likely to depend on a complex interaction between the host's mating system and demography, and the parasite virulence.
Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany
The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…
Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies on the prevalence of male sexual diseases are currently available due to difficult application of observational studies or andrological disease prevention campaigns on large series of apparently healthy subjects. The medical check-up linked to compulsory military service represented in Italy a valid tool for epidemiological and observational study for 18 year old boys from 1861 to 2004. The stopping of compulsory military service and its related medical check-up could have determined an important social impact in terms of a lower level of attention and care on male genital/sexual diseases. The aim of the present observational study was to check the prevalence of genital/ sexual diseases among young male high-school students and promote an alternative campaign of information among young students. Methods: A prospective observational analytical study on young male students was conducted by 6 urological centres. Genital and sexually transmitted diseases were presented with slides to students in a general assembly. Some students were then counselled and filled out a short questionnaire on their lifestyle. Results: 12,535 students (10,432 males-83.6% followed the presentation. and 4,897 males (46.7% decided to be checked-up by the urologist and out of them 1554 (31.7% presented relevant andrological diseases. Five-hundred students completed the questionnaire concerning their lifestyle. Many of them had not yet experienced condom use during sexual intercourse (27.8%. Drug abuse was reported by 39.6% of subjects and alcohol consumption in 80.8% of them. Conclusions: These data suggest the need for a national information campaign on male sexual disorders to promote sexual health.
Bouillon, Marvin L.; Doran, B. Michael
The performance of female and male students in Accounting Principles (AP) I and II was compared by using multiple regression techniques to assess the incremental explanatory effects of gender. Males significantly outperformed females in AP I, contradicting earlier studies. Similar gender of instructor and student was insignificant. (JOW)
Kuo, Yen-Ruey; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin
This study aims to examine the influence of inquiry-based instruction on eighth-grade male and female students' motivation and engagement in science learning in two public junior high schools in central Taiwan. Mixed-methods methodology was adopted with 60 students (32 males and 28 females) in the experimental group and 56 students (28 males and 28 females) in the control group. The study lasted for one semester and six units using inquiry-based teaching (90-180 min each) were implemented in the experimental group. Questionnaires used for measuring students' motivation and engagement in science learning were administered as pre- and post-tests. In addition, eight to ten male and female students from both experimental and control groups, as well as two instructors were interviewed four times throughout the semester. Quantitative data were analyzed with t test and the interview data were fully transcribed and coded. Results show that male and female students under intervention expected to do more experiments because it improved their understanding. Male and female students under intervention also used more learning strategies. However, males benefited more than females from the intervention in regard to their motivation and engagement in learning science. Males improved more in motivational constructs, recognized the value of learning science, and increased their cognitive, behavioral, and emotional engagement because what they learned applied to real life. In contrast, females had higher exam anxiety and lower cognitive engagement due to mathematics fear, stronger sense of pride in class, and caring too much about the right answers.
Haider, Badeea; Khan, Sumaira; Anwar, Kanwal
There are clear differences in the extent to which people express their emotions. These differences in emotional expressions have long interested researchers and are relevant to several areas of psychology. The research topic is emotional expressions between hostalize male and female in. The sum of 24 students (12 male and 12 female) were selected…
Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff
We examined how self-monitoring (i.e., regulating one's behaviors; Snyder, 1987) relates to Latino male achievement. In Study 1, college students (N = 413) completed self-monitoring items and reported SAT math scores. As hypothesized, self-monitoring was positively correlated with achievement for Latino male students but was unrelated to…
Nili Ahmadabady Zahra
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to comparison mental health, Physical symptoms, Anxiety and sleeping disorders and Disorders in social function among male and female athletes and non-athletes students. Methods: The target population consisted entirely male of female athletes and non-athletes students in University of Guilan. After translate of standard General Health Questionnaires (GHQ, and adjust of some question, questionnaires were evaluated by professors of faculty of physical education and sport sciences. The reliability guided Cronbach Alpha value of (0.83. Among them 90 male athlete and 90 male non-athlete with mean. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: There were significant difference mean scores between in four mental health scales, physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders and impaired social functioning athlete and non-athlete in both groups. Conclusion: Therefore, with fewer psychological problems in an athlete, physical activity can be purpose strategies as appropriate, easy and inexpensive to improve mental health among male and female non- athlete students.
Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi
The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.
Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model
Adhikari, Ramesh; Tamang, Jyotsna
In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on prevalence of premarital sex among college men and to investigate the factors surrounding premarital sexual behavior. A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 573 male students. Association between premarital sex and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. The associations were further explored using multivariate logistic analysis. Despite the religious and cultural restrictions, about two-fifths of survey respondents (39%) reported that they have had premarital sex. The study has also shown that substantial proportions of students indulge in sexual activities as well as risky sexual behavior. Sex with commercial sex workers, multiple sex partners, and inconsistence use of condom with non-regular partner was common among the students. Less than two in five male students (57%) had used condom at the first sexual intercourse.The prevalence of premarital sex varied on different settings. Older students aged 20 and above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with younger students aged 15-19. Men who had liberal attitude towards male virginity at marriage were almost two times more likely to have engaged in premarital sex compared to their counterparts who have conservative attitude towards male virginity at marriage. Moreover, those students who believe in Hindu religion were more than two times (OR = 2.5) more likely to have premarital sex compared with those who
Phillips, Clive; Izmirli, Serdar; Aldavood, Javid; Alonso, Marta; Choe, Bi; Hanlon, Alison; Handziska, Anastasija; Illmann, Gudrun; Keeling, Linda; Kennedy, Mark; Lee, Gwi; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie; Pelagic, Veselinas; Rehn, Therese
Simple Summary We surveyed university students in 11 Eurasian countries for their attitudes to animals, using an internet-based questionnaire to which 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responded from 102 universities. Across countries female students had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, but especially so in more gender empowered countries. One contributing factor appeared to be the greater association of females than males with pets, and a possible outcome was greater female avoidance of meat consumption, especially red meat. Abstract Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of ‘female empowered empathy’ internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much
Sureerut, Rongruang; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Duangmala, Padoongyot
To determine the prevalence of sexual orientation, identify predictors of being homosexual or bisexual (HB), and assess the association of sexual orientation with sexual risk behaviors among university male students in southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted on third year male university students between June 2008 and February 2009 using anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Among 1,101 eligible students, 1,013 (92%) responded The prevalence of heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality among respondents were 90.2%, 6.7%, and 3.1%, respectively giving a prevalence of HB of 9.8%. Significant factors predicting HB included having separated parents. Overall lifetime prevalence of men having sex with men (MSM) was 6.3% (2% in heterosexual males and 46.5% among HB males). HB males were more likely to have multiple sex partners and engage in group sex, and less likely to use condoms than were heterosexual males. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among these male students, especially HB, was high.
Potts, Lawrence Charles
To better understand the influence of social media use on male college students' gender identity and male gendered performance, this research examined existing research on digital identity and social networking sites, male gender identity development, college student development theory, and the effects of living arrangements on college students.…
The majority of research on contraception has focused on manipulating the female reproductive system. Recent studies have identified novel contraceptives for males, including hormonal- and nonhormonal-based therapeutics. Although these new contraceptives are still undergoing clinical trials, their development and potential future use in society necessitate serious consideration of their implications for reproductive health. Through my analysis of the research conducted on male contraception over time and the current therapeutics available, it is clear that male contraception has the potential to shift societal gender dynamics and provide males with greater control over their own reproduction. This article also identifies the implications of these novel contraceptives for marginalized populations, especially men of color and men of lower socioeconomic positions. To overcome barriers to contraception among these populations, public policy efforts are needed in order to motivate the development of programs that facilitate coverage of these new male contraceptives by health plans and to increase their availability to underserved communities. Health care providers will be responsible for educating patients about these novel male contraception options and the need to continue using existing methods (e.g., condoms) in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections. This article analyzes the research conducted on male contraception and identifies the implications of these novel therapeutics for marginalized groups of men in the United States to identify the interventions that will be necessary to help ensure that all men have access to these promising scientific innovations.
Wu, Fang; Su, Chen; Fan, Zhen-guo; Zhu, Zhu; Tao, Jun; Huang, Yi-jun
Background Endurance capacity, assessed by 1000-meter (1000 m) run of male university students, is an indicator of cardiovascular fitness in Chinese students physical fitness surveillance. Although cardiovascular fitness is related to endothelial function closely in patients with cardiovascular diseases, it remains unclear whether endurance capacity correlates with endothelial function, especially with circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs), a new sensitive marker of endothelial dysfunction in young students. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between endurance capacity and endothelial function in male university students. Methods Forty-seven healthy male university students (mean age, 20.1±0.6 years; mean height, 172.4±6.3 cm; and mean weight, 60.0±8.2 kg) were recruited in this study. The measurement procedure of 1000 m run time was followed to Chinese national students Constitutional Health Criterion. Endothelium function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery measured by ultrasonic imaging, and the level of circulating EMPs was measured by flow cytometry. Cardiovascular fitness indicator - maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) - was also measured on a cycle ergometer using a portable gas analyzer. Results 1000 m run time was correlated with VO2max (r = −0.399, p0.05). Conclusion The correlations between endurance capacity or cardiovascular fitness and endothelial function were not found in healthy Chinese male university students. These results suggest that endurance capacity may not reflect endothelial function in healthy young adults with well preserved FMD and low level of circulating CD31+/CD42-EMPs. PMID:25101975
Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…
Compte, Emilio J; Sepúlveda, Ana R; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Blanco, Miriam
Several studies have demonstrated that men express body dissatisfaction differently than women. Although specific instruments that address body dissatisfaction in men have been developed, only a few have been validated in Latin-American male populations. The aim of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the Spanish versions of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS-S) and the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS-S) in an Argentinian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 male students to examine: the factorial structure (confirmatory factor analysis), the internal consistency reliability, and the concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity of both scales. Results replicated the two factor structures for the DMS-S and MBAS-S. Both scales showed excellent levels of internal consistency, and various measures of construct validity indicated that the DMS-S and MBAS-S were acceptable and valid instruments to assess body dissatisfaction in Argentinian males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karasek, Deborah; Goodman, Julia; Gemmill, Alison; Falconi, April; Hartig, Terry; Magganas, Aristotle; Catalano, Ralph
Male twin gestations exhibit higher incidence of fetal morbidity and mortality than singleton gestations. From an evolutionary perspective, the relatively high rates of infant and child mortality among male twins born into threatening environments reduce the fitness of these gestations, making them more vulnerable to fetal loss. Women do not perceive choosing to spontaneously abort gestations although the outcome may result from estimates, made without awareness, of the risks of continuing a pregnancy. Here, we examine whether the non-conscious decisional biology of gestation can be linked to conscious risk aversion. We test this speculation by measuring the association between household surveys in Sweden that gauge financial risk aversion in the population and the frequency of twins among live male births. We used time-series regression methods to estimate our suspected associations and Box-Jenkins modeling to ensure that autocorrelation did not confound the estimation or reduce its efficiency. We found, consistent with theory, that financial risk aversion in the population correlates inversely with the odds of a twin among Swedish males born two months later. The odds of a twin among males fell by approximately 3.5% two months after unexpectedly great risk aversion in the population. This work implies that shocks that affect population risk aversion carry implications for fetal loss in vulnerable twin pregnancies.
Kim, Jeong Soo
Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe and understand experiences of healthy dieting in male college students with obesity. Methods The interview data were collected from nine male students and analyzed by using descriptive phenomenology of Colaizzi. The procedural steps described the phenomenon of interest, collected participants' descriptions of the phenomenon, extracted the meaning of significant statements, organized the meanings into clusters, wrote exhaustive descriptions,...
Emily A Hornett
Full Text Available Male-killing bacteria are widespread in arthropods, and can profoundly alter the reproductive biology of their host species. Here we detail the first case of complete suppression of a male killer. The nymphalid butterfly Hypolimnas bolina is infected with a strain of the bacterium Wolbachia, wBol1, which kills male host embryos in Polynesian populations, but does not do so in many areas of Southeast Asia, where both males and female adults are naturally infected, and wBol1-infected females produce a 1:1 sex ratio. We demonstrate that absence of male killing by wBol1 is associated with dominant zygotic suppression of the action of the male killer. Simulations demonstrate host suppressors of male-killer action can spread very rapidly, and historical data indicating the presence of male killing in Southeast Asia in the very recent past suggests suppressor spread has been a very recent occurrence. Thus, male killer/host interactions are much more dynamic than previously recognised, with rapid and dramatic loss of the phenotype. Our results also indicate that suppression can render male killers completely quiescent, leading to the conclusion that some species that do not currently express a male killer may have done so in the past, and thus that more species have had their biology affected by these parasites than previously believed.
José Fernando Vila Nova de Moraes
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n3p259 Obesity is considered a disease with multiple etiologies. Recent advances in technology have pointed candidate genes that are related to weight gain in several populations. However, in countries with ethnic miscegenation, such as Brazil, studies of this nature with students are still scarce. The aim of the present study was to compare anthropometric variables of Brazilian male students according to the genotypes of the rs9939609 of the FTO gene. In order to do so, 205 participants underwent body mass, height, waist circumference and skinfold thickness measurements. Body mass index (BMI, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage were calculated. Volunteers were characterized as overweight according to the BMI-for-age z-score. Participants were genotyped according to the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene (AA, AT and TT. ANOVA one-way with Bonferroni’s post hoc was performed to compare genotypes and anthropometric variables. Odds Ratio was calculated to reveal increased chances of presenting higher body mass index z-score, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage. Participants homozygous for the A allele presented significantly higher values of BMI-for-age z-score (0.38±1.01 vs. -0.29±1.15, waist circumference (77.15±6.51 vs. 72.85±7.36 cm and waist-to-height ratio (0.44±0.04 vs. 0.42±0.04 when compared to individuals with the TT genotype. The A allele of the rs9939609 of the FTO gene seems to influence in the adiposity of male students.
Buck, Katherine; Littleton, Heather
Although training in obstetrics and gynecology is a key part of medical education, male students receive less extensive experience, due in part to patient refusals. However, there is limited work seeking to reduce patient refusal rates of male students. The current study examined the efficacy of two messages at increasing male medical student acceptance into a well-woman visit. A total of 656 college women participated in a simulation study where they viewed a video of a nurse asking for permission to have a male medical student participate in their well-woman visit. The 30.5% of women who refused student participation (n = 181) were randomly assigned to view a video of the nurse either describing students' medical knowledge and technical skills training (e.g. training in performing pelvic exams) or empathic skills training (e.g. training in communication about sensitive issues). They were again asked if they would be willing to have the student participate. Both messages similarly increased student acceptance with 44.8% of those receiving the empathic skills training message and 48.9% of those who received the medical/technical skills training message accepting student participation, χ(2) (1, N = 181) = 0.3, p = 0.58. Educational messages about medical student training delivered in an engaging fashion by a credible source are a potentially effective tool to increase male student acceptance into sensitive patient encounters. Future work should test these messages in real-world settings as part of a focus on patient education to increase comfort with student participation.
Sherafat, Zahra; Kabiri, Pantea; Soori, Afshin
The current study aimed at investigating the differences between male and female Iranian students in using different learning strategies. The participants of the study included 60 Iranian EFL students (30 male and 30 female) in Islamic Azad University in Larestan branch. The results of this study revealed that the frequency of using different…
A new rice breeding system has been developed, making use of genic male sterility to utilize diverse breeding materials and to promote genetic recombination. In this system, recurrent selection technique and introgressive hybridization were used to increase the frequencies of producing desired genotypes and to improve the population in succession. To promote genetic recombination by the recurrent selection technique, intermating within the population is necessary, and to introduce useful germ plasms by the introgressive hybridization, back crossing with new genetic material is necessary. These can be done efficiently by using the recessive alleles for male sterility, and the representative models for thisF type of breeding were presented. (Kaihara, S.)
Propositions of stereotype threat theory imply that the social consequences of academic distinction in advanced quantitative areas (such as math and the physical sciences) for women may promote the under representation of female students in advanced quantitative academic courses. The hypothesis that female students will be underrepresented in advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses is tested using academic performance and enrollment data for high school students in a "Student/Parent Informed Choice" (open registration) school district in North Carolina. Results show female students to be overrepresented in both advanced verbal/writing intensive (honors and advanced placement English, foreign language, and social science) and advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses compared to their proportion of the student body. More surprisingly, results also indicate female students (compared to male students) to be overrepresented in advanced courses compared to their proportion of high-performing students. Furthermore, as with patterns observed at the district level, additional analysis of enrollment data for the entire state reveals similar results. Taken together, the findings call into question the prevailing presumption that female students continue to be underrepresented in math and physical science courses. Instead, the changing social context within which females and males experience schooling may provide an explanation for the findings.
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of smoking has reduced over a period of time in the developed countries. However, the consumption of tobacco is rapidly increasing in the developing nations which further raises burden of various diseases. The prevalence of consumption of tobacco among the adolescent population is vigorously growing across the world. There are several studies in Saudi Arabia that report the smoking rate and pattern among the secondary school students, but very limited data is available about the prevalence of smoking among the college students. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to assess the prevalence of smoking among the male college students and to evaluate the relationship between the smoking habit and socio-demographic variables. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done in selected colleges in King Khalid University, Abha during August 2016 to December 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic information and about smoking habit among the college students. Results: The study showed 18.7% of prevalence of smoking among the male college students with a positive association between employment and smoking habit. However, no positive association between other socio-demographic variables and smoking. Conclusion: Though the prevalence rate of smoking among the male college students is less but still there is a need to create awareness among the college students and their parents for decreasing the burden of tobacco related diseases.
Ajibade, Phoebe Butler
This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.
Barthold, Julia A; Loveridge, Andrew; Macdonald, David
1. The global population size of African lions is plummeting, and many small fragmented populations face local extinction. Extinction risks are amplified through the common practice of trophy hunting for males, which makes setting sustainable hunting quotas a vital task. 2. Various demographic...... models evaluate consequences of hunting on lion population growth. However, none of the models use unbiased estimates of male age-specific mortality because such estimates do not exist. Until now, estimating mortality from resighting records of marked males has been impossible due to the uncertain fates...... of disappeared individuals: dispersal or death. 3. We develop a new method and infer mortality for male and female lions from two popula- tions that are typical with respect to their experienced levels of human impact. 4. We found that mortality of both sexes differed between the populations and that males had...
Lee, Chung Gun; Park, Seiyeong; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Ji-Won
The most critical step in developing and implementing effective physical activity interventions is to understand the determinants and correlates of physical activity, and it is strongly suggested that such effort should be based on theories. The purpose of this study is to test the direct, indirect, and total effect of social cognitive theory constructs on physical activity among Korean male high-school students. Three-hundred and forty-one 10th-grade male students were recruited from a private single-sex high school located in Seoul, South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to test the expected relationships among the latent variables. The proposed model accounted for 42% of the variance in physical activity. Self-efficacy had the strongest total effect on physical activity. Self-efficacy for being physically active was positively associated with physical activity ( p social cognitive theory is a useful framework to understand physical activity among Korean male adolescents. Physical activity interventions targeting Korean male high-school students should focus on the major sources of efficacy.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Turkish female science teachers' gender-related beliefs and those teachers' corresponding interaction with their male and female students. The data was collected from five different sources: Surveys, interviews, observations, chi square data from the observation phase, and interviews with selected teachers. The data was analyzed using the Ericson interpretive method of socio-cultural theories which provided a framework for understanding the development of teacher beliefs and their interactions with their students. In this study, the survey revealed three types of teachers ranging from traditional, moderate to modern. Moderate teachers exhibited characteristics that were on a continuum between the traditional and modern teachers. Traditional teachers believed that males and females should have certain defined roles. Females should be responsible for taking care of the needs of their children and their husbands. By comparison, modern teachers did not assign specific roles to either males or females. With regard to the role of women in science, traditional teachers believed that female scientists could not be as successful as male scientists. By comparison, modern teachers believed that female scientists could be as successful as male scientists. Modern teachers did indicate that they thought females needed to work harder than males to prove themselves. When it came to the teachers' views and beliefs regarding their female and male students' success in their science classrooms, traditional teachers believed that their male students were brighter than their female students. They also believed that female students excelled only because they worked harder. Modern teachers believed that success is dependent on each student's background and his or her interest in science. Classroom observation indicated that traditional and modern teachers interacted differently with their male and female students
Pedrelli, P.; Collado, A.; Shapero, B. G.; Brill, C.; MacPherson, L.
Objectives Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARP) and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods College students (N = 163; 49.7% female) completed self-report measures on alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, coping motives, and ARPs. Results Structural equation modeling showed that the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs was mediated by coping motives in both females and males. However, frequency of heavy alcohol use mediated the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in females but not in males. Conclusions Different models explain the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in male and female college students. Prevention programs aimed at reducing ARPs should focus on increasing alcohol screening among students with depressive symptoms, teaching coping skills, and emphasizing moderation in alcohol consumption. PMID:27219280
Behar, Rosa; Molinari, Daniela
Muscle dysmorphia or vigorexia is a disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with the idea that he or she is not muscular enough. To assess physical exercise, eating behaviors and the presence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters and medical students. Cross sectional evaluation of 88 male weightlifters aged 27 ± 7 years and 84 male medical students aged 22 ± 1 year was made. Eating behaviors were evaluated using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI). The perception of body image was assessed using the Graduate Hannover Scale (GHS). Prevalence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters was 13.6%. Both groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. Interest in appearance among weightlifters was significantly higher than in students and ranged significantly higher in EAT-40 and EDI (p < 0.001). Other sports were practiced with the same frequency by weightlifters and students. Weightlifters expended more time than students exercising to improve their appearance (p < 0.005). Forty two percent of weightlifters with muscle dysmorphia displayed abuse of anabolics and 67% used other substances to improve their performance (p < 0.005). The presence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters was confirmed. They were dissatisfied with their body image and more concerned with their physical appearance than those without muscle dysmorphia and/or students. Their anabolic abuse rate was high. Our findings were similar to those reported in the international literature.
Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Nabovati, Payam; Shahraki, Fatemeh Azad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Faghihi, Mohammad; Aghamirsalim, Mohamadreza; Doostdar, Asgar; Yekta, Abbasali
To determine the prevalence of accommodative insufficiency (AI) and its relation with age, gender, and refractive errors in a college-age student population in Iran. The present study was conducted cross-sectionally in 2017. All students had optometric tests including measurement of visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, as well as binocular vision and accommodative examinations. Amplitude of accommodation was measured with the Donders' push-up method using the Royal Air Force (RAF) rule. Monocular accommodative facility was measured with ±2.00diopter flipper lenses. The accommodative response was tested using dynamic retinoscopy with the monocular estimation method (MEM). The prevalence of AI in the studied population was 4.07% (95% CI: 2.61-5.52). The rate was 6.04% (95% CI: 3.58-8.50) in females and 2.01% (95% CI: 0.53-3.48) in males, and logistic regression showed a significantly higher odds of AI in females (OR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45, p-value=0.009). The prevalence of AI was 2.59% (95% CI: 0.55-7.56) in the 18-19-year-old age group and 4.08% (95% CI: 0.09-8.07) in the 24-25-year-old group (p-value=0.848). The prevalence of AI among emmetropic, myopic, and hyperopic individuals was 3.74% (95% CI: 1.88-5.61), 4.44% (95% CI: 2.07-6.81), and 5.26% (95% CI: 4.79-16.32), respectively (p-value=0.869). In the multiple regression model, only gender showed significant relationship with AI (Odds ratio=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45; p-values=0.009). The prevalence of AI in the present study is lower than the most prevalence rates reported in previous studies. In the present study, gender and AI showed a strong association, such that AI prevalence was significantly higher in females than males. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Al-Momani, Mohammed Mahmoud
Background The cultural norms of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia do not encourage men to choose nursing as a career. Understanding male nursing students’ experiences of their clinical exposure to the nursing profession throughout their internship might increase their retention. This study explored the experiences of final-year male nursing students as they transitioned to the role of registered nurse. Methods A qualitative descriptive research design with an inductive content-analysis approach was used. The experiences of 22 final-year male nursing students from three public hospitals in a major city of Saudi Arabia were explored. The data were collected using focus-group interviews and documentary analysis in March 2015 and May 2015. Results Content analysis revealed three major themes: the societal and cultural image of male nurses, male students’ engagement in nursing practice, and restructuring the internship programmes’ policies to suit male students’ needs. Conclusion The findings reveal issues that mainly stem from negative social views of nursing as a male profession. Considering the students’ social and cultural needs during their internship programme will facilitate their transition into the role of registered nurse and their retention in the nursing profession. PMID:28951687
Cabrera, Nolan L.
This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…
Inke van der SLUIJS, Peter D. DIJKSTRA, Charlotte M. LINDEYER et al.
Full Text Available Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait. Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow, while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism. Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on. We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference, male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia. We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red. Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire, indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable. We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests. There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires, but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference. Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males, whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias. There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration, possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage, which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism [Current Zoology 59 (2: 221-229, 2013].
Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Mostafa Amr; Sabry Hammad
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).
Frank T Denton
Full Text Available Objective: The paper explores the population effects of male preference stopping rules and of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased birth sex ratios. Methods: The 'laboratory' is a closed, stable population with five age groups and a dynamic process represented by a compact Leslie matrix. The new element is sex-selective abortion. We consider nine stopping rules, one with no male preference, two with male preference but no abortion, and six with male preference and the availability of abortion to achieve a desired number of male births. We calculate the probability distribution over the number of births and number of male births for each rule and work out the effects at the population level if the rule is adopted by all women bearing children. We then assess the impact of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased sex ratios on the population. Results: In the absence of sex-selective abortion, stopping rules generally have no effect on the male/female birth proportions in the population, although they can alter the fertility rate, age distribution, and rate of growth. When sex-selective abortion is introduced the effect on male/female proportions may be considerable, and other effects may also be quite different. The contribution of this paper is the quantification of effects that might have been predictable in general but which require model-based calculations to see how large they can be. As the paper shows, they can in fact be very large: a population in which sex-selective abortion is widely practised can look quite different from what it would otherwise be.
Lo Choitung; Sun Hongyi; Law Kris
Women business ownership contributes to entrepreneurship quality and diversity. However, the new venture creation rate of females lags far behind that of males. How to increase female entrepreneurship by entrepreneurship education is an important topic in the field. It has been reported that students’ entrepreneurial intention is a key to their future entrepreneurial behaviors. This paper aims to empirically compare the entrepreneurial intentions between female and male engineering students w...
Chou, Chien; Wu, Huan-Chueh; Wang, Mei-Hung
From time to time, cases of over-dependence on the Internet have been observed on college campuses. Some students, especially male students, remain connected to the Internet as long as they are awake. In Chinese, the emerging term (chai-nan) is used to describe this kind of young man, meaning "room-bound male," who seldom leaves his…
Ihara, Y; Aoki, K
The theoretical possibility of coevolution of a viability-reducing female physical trait and a male mating preference for that trait by Fisherian sexual selection in monogamous and polygynous populations is demonstrated using two-locus haploid models. It is assumed that there is dichotomous variation in male resources, resource-rich males have a wider choice among females than resource-poor males, and a female has greater reproductive success when mated with a resource-rich male than a resource-poor one. Under these assumptions, we find that sexual selection operates effectively when female reproductive success is strongly dependent on male resource, the proportion of females that mate with resource-rich males is neither small nor large, the degree of polygyny is low, and resources are inherited from father to son. We suggest that some human female physical traits may have evolved by sexual selection through male choice. The evolution of skin color by sexual selection is discussed as an example. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Kolster, Renze; Kaiser, Franciscus
Study success is an important topic for countries concerned with the effectiveness of their higher education system. A closer look at study success outcomes suggests there are noticeable differences between male and female students: in terms of enrolment, study choices, drop‐out rates, retention
Lisa D. Howley
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect that standardized instruction of the male urogenital examination had on the anxiety levels of students and to determine what influence, if any, the gender of the student had on this experience. Methods: One hundred thirty six second year medical students were asked to report their level of anxiety before and after participation in a small group teaching session on the male urogenital examination. We gathered both qualitative and quantitative information to better understand students anxiety surrounding this instruction. Results: Students had significantly lower state-anxiety scores following the instruction than before (F(1, 76=102.353, p=.000, eta2=.574 and female students were more likely to have greater state-anxiety than male students (F=6.952, p=.010, eta2=.084. Ninety-nine percent of students reported that the teaching associates successfully reduced their anxiety. This decrease was attributed predominantly to the personal qualities of the teaching associates and to the format of the instruction. Conclusions: This study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence that the use of male teaching associates to provide standardized instruction on the urogenital exam is effective at reducing students anxiety, particularly with regard to female students. Added standardized instruction may lead to increased confidence, skill, and future compliance with intimate physical exam screening practices
Full Text Available Background. Smoking causes ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lung cancer killing 15,000 Australians every year. Despite extensive publicity of the harmful health effects of smoking, one in six Australian aged 15 years and over smoked daily representing 2.7 million active smokers. Objectives. The research aimed to comprehend how active university student smokers respond to different appeals employed in public service antismoking campaigns in Western Australia. Material and methods. The study examined the Quit Victoria 2006–2008 antismoking campaign using qualitative research method involving four in-depth focus group discussions with a total of twenty-four (N = 24 active male university student smokers in Western Australia between the age group of 18 to 24 years. Results . Male university students became active smokers because of the perceived image of ‘coolness,’ ‘macho,’ media influence and experimentation. Impact on sports performances predominantly encouraged respondents in attempting to quit smoking. Sixteen students (67% felt that graphic warning messages on cigarette packs had no effect on them due to desensitizing effects of repeated messages. Twenty-one participants (87.5% felt that health shock appeal was ineffective in making them quit. Emotional appeals like humor, fear, and health shock were most persuasive in advertising messages which would assist in smoking cessation. Therefore, antismoking campaigns with shock health appeals were ineffective in helping smokers to abdicate smoking. Results suggested employing emotional or combination of rational and emotional appeals in maximizing the effectiveness of antismoking advertisements. Conclusions . The study broadens the scope of devising effective antismoking campaigns and provide insightful implications for public health promoters as well as individualized care providers.
A male student in a California State University-Sacramento psychology lecture on female masturbation has filed a sexual harassment complaint, claiming the lecture violated institutional policy by creating an intimidating, hostile, and offensive learning environment. He felt the lecture was inappropriately graphic and political in intent. (MSE)
El-Ghilany, A.; Amr, M.; Hammad, S.
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (author)
Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa
The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Participants were 327 female (N = 283) and male (N = 44) students aged 18 to 25 years. All participants completed the Polish adaptation of the 15-item questionnaire assessing orthorexia eating behaviours (the ORTHO-15) and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (the MBSRQ). Relationships between scores on the ORTHO-15 and MBSRQ were explored in the 213 students who had high levels of preoccupation with a healthy food intake (68.55% women and 43.18% men, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in the levels of orthorexia behaviours between females and males. In female students with orthorexia nervosa, preoccupation with consuming healthy food was significantly correlated with the MBSRQ subscale scores for overweight preoccupation, appearance orientation, fitness orientation, health orientation, body areas satisfaction and appearance evaluation. Conversely, in male students with orthorexia nervosa there were no correlations between orthorexic behaviours and the MBSRQ subscales. In female students with orthorexia nervosa multivariable linear regression analysis found high body areas (parts) satisfaction, low fitness orientation, low overweight preoccupation and low appearance orientation were independent predictors of greater fixation on eating healthy food. In male students, we found that aspects of body image were not associated with preoccupation with healthy eating. A strong preoccupation with healthy and proper food was not associated with an unhealthy body-self relationship among Polish female student with orthorexia nervosa.
To assess the knowledge of male medical students about Hepatitis-B in their preclinical and clinical years and to investigate the self reported vaccination status of these students. In the year of 2007, 187 male students of Isra University Hyderabad Sindh Pakistan were selected by convenient sampling and surveyed with a self reported questionnaire comprising of questions regarding knowledge about hepatitis B. Data gathered was analyzed by SPSS V. 16. Knowledge between preclinical and clinical students were compared by Pearson's coefficient chi square test, p value < 0.005 was considered significant. Out of 187 students interviewed, 73 (39%) and 114 (61%) were from preclinical and clinical years respectively. Significant difference was found in clinical and preclinical students regarding basic knowledge about hepatitis B. and mode of transmission of disease (P= 0.004) and (P=< 0.001) respectively. Significant difference was found in the knowledge of both preclinical and clinical male medical students. (JPMA 59:808; 2009). (author)
Salari, Nasibeh; Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Abazari, Faroukh
Background Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods of human life. Many healthy or risky behaviors may be formed during this period and continue to the end of life. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the health promotion behaviors of male and female students in high schools. Methods In this descriptive-comparative study, 609 high school students were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. Data were collected using demographic and health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLPII) questionnaires. Results The mean of health promotion behaviors was moderate in female (2.43 ± 0.46) and male (2.61 ± 0.45) students. The highest and lowest means in the male students were respectively the dimensions of spiritual growth and health responsibility. Also, the highest and lowest means in the female students were dimensions of interpersonal relationships as well as physical activity and exercise. The status of male health promotion behaviors was significantly more favorable than that of the female (p = 0.001, t = -4.71). The male students had a better situation than female in terms of all the six dimensions of HPLPII, so there was a significant difference between them in the four dimensions of spiritual growth, stress management, physical activity and health responsibility. There was also a significant relationship between the history of physical and mental illness in the past year and the students' health promotion behaviors (p importance of promoting self-care and educational interventions in the aspects such as physical activity and health responsibility of young people in order to improve the health of the community.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death in the majority of developed, as well as in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine cardiovascular risk factors in student population and to suggest possible measures for prevention. Methods. The study was carried out during 2007-2008 at the School of Medicine, University of Niš. It included 824 students in their final year (220 males, 604 females. Results. There was no significant difference in prevalence of hypertension among the male (1.81% and female students (0%. The prevalence of obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI > 30 kg/m2 was significantly higher (p < 0.001 in the male (7.27% than in the female population (1.32%. Abdominal obesity was also more frequently encountered (p < 0.01 in the male (9.09% than in female population (1.32%. Every fourth student smoked cigarettes with no significant difference between the male and female students. Alcohol consumption was a significantly higher problem (p < 0.001 in the male population (18.18% than in the female one (2.65%. Physical inactivity was more often found (p < 0.001 in the female students (65.56%, than in male ones (36.36%. By the bivariate correlation of cardiovascular risk factors, it was determined that in the male student population systolic blood pressure correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and waist size, whereas age correlated with sistolic blood pressure, waist size and smoking. In the female students sistolic blood pressure correlated with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and waist size; diastolic blood pressure correlated with BMI and physical inactivity; cigarette smoking correlated with alcohol consumption and age. Conclusion. Cardiovascular risk factors are present in the final-year students of the School of Medicine, University of Niš. It is necessary to insist on decreasing obesity prevalence, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and on increasing physical activity
Ra, Jin Suk; Cho, Yoon Hee
This study examined psychosocial factors influencing smoking intention in Korean male middle school students. We used a descriptive cross-sectional design, based on the biopsychosocial model, to analyze data from 309 male adolescents aged 14-16 years in middle school. Of the psychological factors examined, stress and risk-taking tendency were…
Cabrera, Nolan L.
This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…
Kennedy, Patrick; Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Campbell, Matthew R.; Vu, Ninh V.; Hansen, Michael J.
Nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis were introduced throughout western North America in the early 1900s, resulting in widespread self-sustaining populations that are difficult to eradicate and often threaten native salmonid populations. A novel approach for their eradication involves use of YY male (MYY) Brook Trout (created in the hatchery by feminizing XY males and crossing them with normal XY males). If MYY Brook Trout survive after stocking, and reproduce successfully with wild females, in theory this could eventually drive the sex ratio of the wild population to 100% males, at which point the population would not be able to reproduce and would be eradicated. This study represents the first successful development of a FYY and MYY salmonid broodstock, which was produced in four years at relatively low cost. Field trials demonstrated that stocked hatchery MYY Brook Trout survived and produced viable MYY offspring in streams, although reproductive fitness appeared to have been lower than their wild conspecifics. Even if reduced fitness is the norm in both streams and alpine lakes, our population simulations suggest that eradication can be achieved in reasonable time periods under some MYY stocking scenarios, especially when wild Brook Trout are simultaneously suppressed in the population.
Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa
This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…
Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Osler, Merete; Schmidt, Lone
Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6 was significantly higher among men with male factor infertility compared with other men adjusted for potential confounders. This was not found for the two other inflammatory markers. The lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility were 10.2% and 17.9%, respectively. The findings suggest that male factor infertility might be associated with an increased level of interleukin-6.
Lima, Aldo A M; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Soares, Alberto M; Filho, José Q; de Sousa, Francisco; Abreu, Cláudia B; Bindá, Alexandre; Lima, Ila; Quetz, Josiane; Moraes, Milena; Maciel, Bruna; Costa, Hilda; Leite, Alvaro M; Lima, Noélia L; Mota, Francisco S; Di Moura, Alessandra; Scharf, Rebecca; Barrett, Leah; Guerrant, Richard L
The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort in the study's Fortaleza, Brazil, catchment area has a population of approximately 82 300 inhabitants. Most of the households (87%) have access to clean water, 98% have electricity, and 69% have access to improved toilet/sanitation. Most childbirths occur at the hospital, and the under-5 mortality rate is 20 per 1000 live births. The MAL-ED case-control study population, identified through the Institute for the Promotion of Nutrition and Human Development (IPREDE), serves 600 000 inhabitants from areas totaling about 42% of the city of Fortaleza. IPREDE receives referrals from throughout the state of Ceará for infant nutrition, and provides services including teaching activities and the training of graduate students and health professionals, while supporting research projects on child nutrition and health. In this article, we describe the geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and environmental status of the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study populations in Fortaleza, Brazil. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie
Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…
Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Li, Yun Ling
The initial nursing clinical practice is the necessary practicum required for nursing students. Because of the changing learning style, many of them are under great pressure for environmental change and therefore their daily routine is severe affected. Interacting directly with patients in a female-dominated occupation, along with the general gender stereotypes, the impact is especially significant to male nursing students than to female nursing students. The purpose of this preliminary qualitative study is to explore the gendered experiences of male nursing students during their first initial nursing clinical practice. Both focus group interviews and individual interviews are conducted with twenty-two sophomore nursing students from a university of technology in northern Taiwan, with ten male students and twelve female students. Two main themes emerge from the gendered experiences shared by the nursing students: Gender consciousness awakening and thus maintaining masculinity, and male advantage in the learning environments. The results identify the specific gendered experiences of nursing students, providing implications for future nursing education and counseling service. Further, this study may serve to promote an active yet gender-sensitive nursing education for training nursing professionals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The present study has been accomplished in order to examine the prevalence of postural abnormalities of male students. The statistical community was the whole male students in the university. From this community 300 students within the ages range of 18 - 22 were selected randomly as the investigation subjects. Data were obtained by a questionnaire, podoscope, a digital camera (taking photos of the subjects from Anterior, Posterior and lateral views and the software for corrective exercises provided by Iran ministry of education. After that the investigation was finished the abundance percentage was used to express the postural abnormalities percentage of the research subjects. The results show that cervical lordosis and flat foot are the most prevalent abnormalities with18.66 and 17.66 percent respectively, and torticollis and knee hyperextension have less prevalence in investigation subjects. The results show that among all of the participants in the investigation, 140 students (46.66 % have no abnormalities, 160 students (53.34 % have at least one, and 70 students (23.33 % have more than one. From this study it is obvious that the prevalence of the postural abnormalities among the statistical subjects is high. Therefore the need to a serious program concerning the abnormalities, especially ordering corrective exercises and also preparing the way for students to have physical activities seems to be inevitable.
Mental skill levels of South African male student field hockey players in different playing positions. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The positional results were compared by means of effect sizes (expressed as ...
Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Modern technologies have a prominent role in adolescent's daily life. These technologies include specific cultural and moral patterns, which could be highly effective on adolescents. This research aimed at comparing the amount of time spent on computer games and aggressive behavior in male middle school students of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This study had a descriptive design. The study population included all male students of middle school of Tehran, and the sample included 120 male students, of which 60 were dependent on computer games with aggressive behavior and 60 were non-dependent on computer games with normal behavior; the sample was randomly selected from Tehran regions (south, north, west, and east regions with random multi-stage sampling. Data were gathered using questionnaires, including Aggressive Questionnaire (AGQ and a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 10 multiple questions that measure the use or non-use of computer games. Data were analyzed using SPSS-19 statistical software. For data analysis, Pearson correlation and t test were used. Results: The results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between computer gaming and aggressive behavior and also between duration of using computer games and aggressive behaviors (P <0.05. Conclusions: According to the results, it seems that children could be kept safe from the adverse effects of computer games by controlling the duration and the type of the games that they play.
Full Text Available By utilizing classroom management styles, teachers will be able to get rid of possible students’ misconducts and promote a friendly atmosphere which will in effect promote students’ participation in learning activities. Additionally, increased self-esteem, which is an achievement of such utilization, will influence various aspects of students’ future lives. Taking this point into consideration, the present study aimed at determining the efficacy of rule-governed democracy classroom management style on self-esteem of 3rd-grade high-school male students. All 3rd-grade high-school male students of Abdanan city in the academic year 2013 comprised the statistical population to this study. Using convenience sampling, 38 subjects were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The research design was pretest-post-test. Cooper Smith's self-esteem questionnaire was used as the research instrument which was administered to the two groups at the outset. The experimental group was given seven 90-minutes sessions of treatment and twice-a-week. The two groups were asked to fill out the same questionnaire for the post-test stage afterwards. Descriptive statistics, including the analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the utilization of rule-governed democracy classroom management style in the classroom had significantly increased the self-esteem (public-family-social- and scholastic-professional of male students in the post-test (p<0/001.
Kristin L Dunkle
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non
Martin, Suzanne; Warner, Echo L; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Mooney, Ryan; Martel, Laura; Kepka, Deanna
This pilot study aims to improve HPV vaccination for college aged males at a student health center. The first part of the study consisted of a focus group that assessed the barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination among healthcare providers and clinic staff (N = 16). Providers reported missed opportunities for HPV vaccination. For the second part of the study, providers and staff reviewed medical records of patients ages 18-26 with student health insurance and with HPV vaccine at baseline (12/1/2014 to 7/31/2015) and follow-up (12/1/2015 to 7/31/2016). A computer-automated EMR alert was generated in the medical record of eligible male patients (N = 386). Z-scores were estimated for two-sample proportions to measure change in HPV vaccine rates at baseline and follow-up for males and females. HPV vaccine initiation rates increased among males (baseline: 5.2% follow-up: 25.1%, p HPV vaccine initiation rates among insured college-aged males.
Zilanawala, Afshin; Martin, Margary; Noguera, Pedro A.; Mincy, Ronald B.
In this article, we analyze the variation in math achievement trajectories of Black male students to understand the different ways these students successfully or unsuccessfully navigate schools and the school characteristics that are associated with their trajectories. Using longitudinal student-level data from a large urban US city (n = 7,039),…
Chelsen, Paul O.
Internet pornography access among male students at Evangelical Christian colleges presents two dilemmas. First, Internet pornography access is institutionally prohibited based on a Biblical view of sexuality. The second dilemma is that individual students who choose to follow the teaching of Jesus Christ in the context of Evangelical Christian…
Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta
Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bergier, Józef; Bergier, Barbara; Tsos, Anatolii
[b]Introduction. [/b]A large-scale research was performed concerning issues relating to physical activity as an important factor in a healthy lifestyle and involved observing the differences among males and females as future elites of the Ukraine. [b]Objective. [/b]The objective of the research is to assess the physical activity of students from the Ukraine, considering such factors as: gender, leisure time, time spent sitting, sports performed or intended to be performed, and the BMI. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The extended version of the IPAQ, supplemented with 3 original questions by the authors, was applied to a 2,125-strong student group from 12 majors of the University of Luck, Ukraine. [b]Results. [/b]Students from Ukraine portrayed a positive picture of physical activity with significantly higher values in male students of both total activity and its fields, i.e. sports activity and work (studying). The male students performed better in their fitness (condition) self-assessment and the amount of time spent sitting, whereas the female students had better BMI results. Both genders differed considerably in their choice of sport-recreational activities. [b]Conclusions. [/b]Females more than males demonstrated lower indices of participation in physical activity, which did not permit the formulation of a positive assessment of their lifestyle. A positive phenomenon is the normal BMI and trace values of overweight in women, exactly the reverse to males.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.
Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa
Background The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Methods Participants were 327 female (N?=?283) and male (N?=?44) students aged 18 to 25?years. All pa...
wide, and having a positive attitude toward the use of the Internet is a necessary condition for its effective use. Thus, this research aimed at investigating the attitudes of male and female undergraduate students at the Nasarawa State University, ...
Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.
Schwartz, Jana L.; Donovan, Jody; Guido-DiBrito, Florence
This study explores the meaning of social class in the lives of five self-identified Mexican male college students. Participants shared the significant influence social class has on their college experience. Intersections of social class and students' Mexican identity are illuminated throughout the findings. Themes include: social class rules and…
Sugathan, T N; Moody, P M; Bustan, M A; Elgerges, N S
The present study is a detailed evaluation of age at smoking initiation among university male students in Kuwait based on a random sample of 664 students selected from all students during 1993. The Acturial Life Table analysis revealed that almost one tenth of the students initiated cigarette smoking between ages 16 and 17 with the rate of initiation increasing rapidly thereafter and reaching 30% by age 20 and almost 50% by the time they celebrate their 24th birthday. The most important environmental risk factor positively associated for smoking initiation was observed to be the history of smoking among siblings with a relative risk of 1.4. Compared to students of medicine and engineering, the students of other faculties revealed a higher risk in smoking initiation with an RR = 1.77 for sciences and commerce and 1.61 for other faculties (arts, law, education and Islamic studies). The analysis revealed a rising generation trend in cigarette smoking. There is a need for reduction of this trend among young adults in Kuwait and throughout other countries in the region.
Fontenot, Holly B.; Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Charyk, Anna; Sutherland, Melissa A.
Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, including initiation and completion of the vaccine series, and barriers to vaccination in a sample of male college students. Participants: Male students between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported being currently or previously sexually active (N = 735). Methods: A cross-sectional…
Reddick, Rinardo Lamon
There have been many studies that focus on understanding various aspects of human sexuality and how it relates to college students. However, the current research focuses on heterosexual students, leaving a void in the research that focuses on gay male college students. Even more crucially, there is a void in research that focuses on the sexual…
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Li, Ren-Hau; Yang, Cheng-I; Eng, Cheng-Joo
Understanding how male nursing students alleviate life stress during their academic career is conducive to their development as successful nursing professionals. This study was designed to understand the personality traits, social support, and life stresses of male nursing students. The respective influences of personality traits and social support on life stress were also explored. The study used a cross-sectional research design. A college in central Taiwan was targeted as the site for data collection. A total of 158 questionnaires were dispatched, with 145 valid copies returned (valid response rate = 91.7%). Structured questionnaires were designed to collect data on participant demographics, personality traits, social support, and life stress. Statistical methods such as descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis were applied to data analysis. Major findings of this study revealed that (a) in general, the personality traits, social support, and life stress of male nursing students scored in the medium to high range. Participants reported encountering more stress from learning and life goals than from interpersonal stress. (b) Male nursing student demographic variables (e.g., parent [father and mother considered separately] education level) and the personality traits of conscientiousness and family support, respectively, were found to impact significantly on participant life stress perceptions. And (c) the only significant predictors of life stress were support from family and education level of participant fathers and mothers, accounting for about 23.7% of variability. It is suggested that nursing students in each year of their academic career should be exposed to courses geared to reduce the life stress perceptions (especially in the areas of learning and career development) of male nursing students. Increased family support is an effective way to decrease male nursing student life stress. This study could be a
In the past six decades, the Kuwaiti population has been exposed to rapid transformation in the quality of diet intake, daily activities, and career types. This major socioeconomic shift was accompanied by the introduction of both communicable and noncommunicable chronic diseases afflicting people of all ages. This article aims to detect a relationship between sociocultural characteristics-such as physical activity, dietary habits, and smoking-and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 262 male university students in Kuwait; participants were selected by using a convenient nonrandom opportunistic sample. Associated social and health factors were obtained using a closed-ended questionnaire. BMI and blood tests that include clusters of MetS risk components were drawn from participants in primary health care clinics. More than half of the participants were overweight and obese; 74.4% of the participants reported they did not visit a nutritionist; 69.8% said that they are currently not on a diet; 53.4% of the students were nonsmokers; 42.7% reported moderate to very low daily physical activity. The prevalence of MetS components increased among students with older age, employed, and married ( p students needs to be considered by Kuwaiti community members and the government to highlight the risk factors of MetS on individuals' well-being, quality of life, and life expectation.
Sibusiso F. Buthelezi
Full Text Available Background: Male nursing students are faced with more challenges in the clinical setting than their female counterparts. The ways in which male nurses are viewed and received by nursing staff and patients have an impact on how they perceive themselves and their role in the profession. These perceptions of self have a significant impact on their self-esteem. This study was conducted to explore the clinical learning experiences of male nursing students at a university during their placement in clinical settings in the Western Cape Province, and how these experiences impacted on their self-esteem. Objectives: To describe the learning experiences of male nursing students during placement in clinical settings, and how these impact on their self-esteem. Method: A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted. Purposive sampling was used to select participants. Three focus group (FG discussions, consisting of six participants per group, were used to collect data. Data analysis was conducted by means of Coliazzi’s (1978 seven steps method of qualitative analysis. Study findings: The following three major themes were identified: experiences that related to the constraints in the learning environment, the impact on the self-esteem, and the social support of students working in a female-dominated profession. Conclusion: Male nurses should be supported in nursing training, as the rate at which males enter the profession is increasing.
Park, Jeong Mo; Han, Ae Kyung; Cho, Yoon Hee
The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct equivalence of the five general factors (subjective health, eating habits, physical activities, sedentary lifestyle, and sleeping behaviors) and to compare the latent means between male and female middle school students in Incheon, Korea. The 2008 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey data was used for analysis. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test whether the scale has configural, metric, and scalar invariance across gender. Configural invariance, metric invariance, and factor invariance were satisfied for latent means analysis (LMA) between genders. Male and female students were significantly different in LMA of all factors. Male students reported better subjective health, consumed more fast food and carbonated drinks, participated in more physical activities, showed less sedentary behavior, and enjoyed better quality of sleep than female students. Health providers should consider gender differences when they develop and deliver health promotion programs aimed at adolescents. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Conrad, Taina; Paxton, Robert J; Assum, Günter; Ayasse, Manfred
In some insect species, females may base their choice for a suitable mate on male odor. In the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, female choice is based on a male's odor bouquet as well as its thorax vibrations, and its relatedness to the female, a putative form of optimal outbreeding. Interestingly, O. bicornis can be found as two distinct color morphs in Europe, which are thought to represent subspecies and between which we hypothesize that female discrimination may be particularly marked. Here we investigated (i) if these two colors morphs do indeed represent distinct, reproductively differentiated populations, (ii) how odor bouquets of male O. bicornis vary within and between populations, and (iii) whether variation in male odor correlates with genetic distance, which might represent a cue by which females could optimally outbreed. Using GC and GC-MS analysis of male odors and microsatellite analysis of males and females from 9 populations, we show that, in Denmark, an area of subspecies sympatry, the two color morphs at any one site do not differ, either in odor bouquet or in population genetic differentiation. Yet populations across Europe are distinct in their odor profile as well as being genetically differentiated. Odor differences do not, however, mirror genetic differentiation between populations. We hypothesize that populations from Germany, England and Denmark may be under sexual selection through female choice for local odor profiles, which are not related to color morph though which could ultimately lead to population divergence and speciation.
Shahida Rassul Hussein
Full Text Available Background and Objective: periodontal disease conceder as a malty inflammatory disease may be a source of systemic inflammation because oral health is important for appearance and sense of well-being overall health. So cleaning the mouth by brushing and flossing to prevent gum disease is important. The current study was conducted to clarify the knowledge, attitude, and behavior in relation to periodontal health status among male and female students in Erbil city. Materials and Methods: a questionnaire of periodontal health of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior was allocated on 480 (240 males and 240 females school students ran- domly, aged 16–18 year, in Erbil city. Data were collected by means of 23 close-ended questionnaires. Results: 85% of male and 90% of female knew that brushing prevents gingivitis. 55.4% of the male student, 62.1 of female student thought that using dental floss prevent periodontal disease. While (26.7% of male and 22.1% of female would visit a dentist in case of gum pain. (81.3% of male and 97.5 of female thought that regular visits to the dentist necessary (p≤0.0004. Males reported 25% of twice a day tooth brushing while female reported 42.9% of twice a day tooth brushing (p≤0.025. Toothbrush and toothpaste were still the most commonly used oral hygiene aids among male (74.6% and female (91.7% students (p≤0.0015 used tooth brush and tooth paste commonly as oral hygiene aids. Conclusions: present study shows that our students have positive knowledge, attitude and negative behavior to word periodontal health.
Sultan A. Alkaabi; Peter Albion; Petrea Redmond
This paper presents data obtained from focus groups conducted to investigate male students’ experiences in higher education in the United Arab Emirates. Among the issues discussed by students was the impact of social networks addiction on student motivation and this paper focuses on that issue. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 83 English as a Foreign Language male students at four government campuses including United Arab Emirates University at Al Ain Campus, Higher College of Techno...
Kirsch, Daniel J; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie L; Morse, Charles; Ellison, Marsha L; Doerfler, Leonard A; Riba, Michelle B
College students' need for mental health care has increased dramatically, leaving campus counseling and mental health centers struggling to meet the demand. This has led to the investigation and development of extra-center, population-based interventions. Student-to-student support programs are but one example. Students themselves are a plentiful, often-untapped resource that extends the reach of mental health services on campus. Student-to-student programs capitalize on students' natural inclination to assist their peers. A brief review of the prevalence and effects of mental disorders in the college population is provided, followed by a broad overview of the range of peer-to-peer programs that can be available on college campuses. Two innovative programs are highlighted: (1) a hospital- and community-based program, the College Mental Health Program (CMHP) at McLean Hospital, and 2) the Student Support Network (SSN) at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The subsequent section reviews the literature on peer-to-peer programs for students with serious and persistent mental illness for which there is a small but generally positive body of research. This lack of an empirical basis in college mental health leads the authors to argue for development of broad practice-research networks.
Hashim R Fida; Ismail Abdelmoneim
Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions ...
Brown, Susan Wightman
National statistics clearly demonstrate an underrepresentation of minorities in the fields of science and engineering. Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians do not typically choose science or engineering as their college major; therefore, there is a very small representation of these minorities in the science and engineering labor force. The decision not to major in science and engineering may begin as soon as the child can begin to recognize role models in the media. News stories, magazine articles, television programs, teachers, parents, administrators, and other agencies have painted the picture of a scientist or engineer as being dominantly a White male. Schools have continued society's portrayal by using curriculum, textbooks, role models, instructional strategies, and counseling that continues to encourage the White male to succeed in science and engineering, but discourages the minority students, male and female, from succeeding in these fields. In this qualitative study, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, who are majoring in science or engineering, were interviewed using Seidman's in-depth interviewing technique. These students were shadowed in their college science or engineering classes; their high school and college transcripts were analyzed; and, a focus group was brought together at the end of the interviewing process in order to allow interaction between the participants. The goal was to explore the educational journeys of the 22 Hispanic students. What made a difference in the journeys of these 22 students so that they could succeed in majors that have historically discouraged minority students? Seven themes emerged: family support, honors program, challenging and interactive curriculum, college preparation in high school courses, caring and kind teachers, small class size, and small communities. Gender comparison of the educational journeys documents these differences between the females and males: college preparation, mentoring
Thirolf, Kathryn Q.
In an attempt to understand why men participate in study abroad at much lower rates than women, this study examines how male college students at a large research university perceive a university-run global education program, especially in terms of the expected costs and benefits of participating in such programs, and the extent to which gender…
Li, X S; Fang, K; Zhang, M; Du, G P; Wu, S S; Song, Y; Xu, Y Y; Yan, W J; Ge, Y; Ji, Y; Wei, P M
Objective: To analyze the influence of growing experience on non-heterosexual orientation among male college students. Methods: From October to November in 2015, a total of 2 535 male students from 96 classes in 14 colleges/departments were recruited from two colleges that participated in the experimental work of AIDS prevention by cluster random sampling method. A structured questionnaire was administered in this study, including general demographic information, growing experience and Kinsey scale (to evaluate sexual orientation). Out of 2 500 questionnaires distributed in this study, 2 332 effective copies were withdrew, with the effective rate at 93.3%. Chi square test was used to analyze the differences of non-heterosexual orientation among the individuals with different social demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of non-heterosexual orientation. Results: Among the 2 332 individuals, the proportion of self-reported non-heterosexual was 6.2% (144).The proportions of male students who identify as non-heterosexual from freshman to junior year were 5.2%(63/1216),6.9%(65/941),11.7%(13/111) and 4.7%(3/64), respectively (χ(2)=9.06, P= 0.029). Compared with the individuals of very good relationship with parents, those with bad relationship ( OR= 3.3, 95 %CI: 1.7-6.5) and general relationship ( OR= 1.7, 95 %CI: 1.0-2.9) with parents had a higher risk of non-heterosexual orientation, respectively. Those encountered sexual assault had a higher risk of non-heterosexual orientation than those without encountered sexual assault ( OR= 5.9, 95 %CI: 3.2-10.9). Conclusions: This study reported a high proportion of self-reported non-heterosexual among college male students in Nanjing, and highlighted the importance of targeting students with poor parental relationships and who subjected to sexually abused.
Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.
Lee, Ya-Fen; Yang, Yu-O; Tu, Chia-Ling
The impact of general gender stereotypes on nursing is severe and influential, especially with regard to male nursing students working in obstetrics and gynecology wards. This study examined the experience of male nursing students in obstetrics and gynecology wards. We used a phenomenological qualitative research approach and a sample of 10 male nursing students currently studying at a nursing college in central Taiwan. All participants had obstetrics and gynecology ward experience. Individual interviews were transcribed into the procedural record. Colaizzi content analysis analyzed and categorized research data. Based on participants practical experiences in the obstetrics and gynecology ward, the main stages of participants professional development through their internship experience included: (1) Unbalanced self-role recognition; (2) being defined by the gender framework (gender stereotypes); (3) the difference between male doctor and male nurse; (4) learning appropriate communication techniques; (5) mutual and empathetic understanding of the female psychology during childbirth; (6) gaining sources for positive feedback; (7) releasing the shackles of gender and gaining full insight into and comprehension of nursing functions; and (8) given the opportunity to learn. Through ongoing examination and learning, participant internships in the obstetrics and gynecology wards were significant and essential learning experiences that validated their necessity. Nursing schools and internship institutions alike must realize the importance of gender-equality education to the nursing profession. Medical institutions are encouraged to offer equal learning opportunities to male and female nursing students and provide targeted assistance to males to help them master clinical nursing care practices in the obstetrics and gynecology department.
Babu, D S; Marwah, S M; Singh, G
A study of 1500 male students at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India was conducted to establish the prevalence and related social and behavioural aspects of venereal diseases. The prevalence was found to be 3.93 per cent. The majority of the students (86.4 per cent) belonged to the Hindu religion which is based on the caste system. Students from the Vaishya caste were more affected with venereal diseases. The social acceptability of having more than one wife had a definite impact on the incidence of venereal diseases. Students who practised masturbation and homosexuality were also more affected with venereal diseases. Prostitutes were the main source of infection. It was found that 28.8 per cent of these students had been infected on a previous occasion.
Full Text Available In some insect species, females may base their choice for a suitable mate on male odor. In the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, female choice is based on a male's odor bouquet as well as its thorax vibrations, and its relatedness to the female, a putative form of optimal outbreeding. Interestingly, O. bicornis can be found as two distinct color morphs in Europe, which are thought to represent subspecies and between which we hypothesize that female discrimination may be particularly marked. Here we investigated (i if these two colors morphs do indeed represent distinct, reproductively differentiated populations, (ii how odor bouquets of male O. bicornis vary within and between populations, and (iii whether variation in male odor correlates with genetic distance, which might represent a cue by which females could optimally outbreed. Using GC and GC-MS analysis of male odors and microsatellite analysis of males and females from 9 populations, we show that, in Denmark, an area of subspecies sympatry, the two color morphs at any one site do not differ, either in odor bouquet or in population genetic differentiation. Yet populations across Europe are distinct in their odor profile as well as being genetically differentiated. Odor differences do not, however, mirror genetic differentiation between populations. We hypothesize that populations from Germany, England and Denmark may be under sexual selection through female choice for local odor profiles, which are not related to color morph though which could ultimately lead to population divergence and speciation.
Beddoes, Zack; Prusak, Keven; Barney, David; Wilkinson, Carol
The purpose of this study was to determine if the motivational profiles of male junior high weight training students differ across levels of teacher-to-student relatedness. One hundred and sixty six students participated in one of two units of instruction. Contextual motivation was measured using the Sport Motivation Scale II-Physical Education…
Guillaume J M Laugier
Full Text Available Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions.
Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab
The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…
Livingston, Wade G.; Scott, David A.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.
The term "camouflage" implies obscurity and concealment. Male student veterans who return from the military often employ a social camouflage; though some may reveal and discuss their military experience, their overriding objective is to blend in, have a "normal" college experience, and graduate. This creates challenges for housing professionals…
Ezeudu, Florence O.; Chiaha, Gertrude-Theresa Uzoamaka; Anazor, Lynda Chioma; Eze, Justina Uzoamaka; Omeke, Faith Chinwe
The purpose of this study was to do a SWOT analysis and compare performances of male and female students in chemistry. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. Two boys', two girls' and two coeducational schools involving 1319 males and 1831 females, were selected by a stratified, deliberate sampling technique. A…
Simpson, Amber; Che, S. Megan
Utilizing a descriptive phenomenological design, this study examines the lived experiences of seven middle grade students, four females and three males, enrolled in a single-sex mathematics classroom within a coeducational school setting. The intent of the study is to understand, from students themselves, about the experience of single-sex…
Christopher M Stone
Full Text Available The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT. In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.
Boyraz, Güler; Cherry, Megan L; Cherry, Marcus A; Aarstad-Martin, Samantha; Cloud, Cody; Shamp, Lindsey M
The co-occurence of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and risky drinking has been demonstrated in diverse populations, including college students. However, the mechanisms underlying this co-occurrence, as well as the protective factors that may reduce risky drinking among trauma-exposed college students have yet to be fully understood in the literature. The present study builds upon self-regulation theories and previous empirical work to determine whether the effects of PTS and coping flexibility on risky drinking were mediated by delay of gratification among trauma-exposed college students. In addition, the potential moderating effect of gender on these relationships was examined. Participants included 624 trauma-exposed college students (68.4% female) attending a public university in the southeast region of the United States. Data were collected through an online survey. The hypothesized model was examined using a multigroup structural equation modeling approach. As hypothesized, PTS had a significant, positive indirect effect on risky drinking through delay of gratification; however, the effect of PTS on delay of gratification was stronger for males than for females. Results also indicated that the indirect effect of coping flexibility on risky drinking through delay of gratification was significant and negative for males and females. Conclusions/Importance: The findings of this study suggest that delay of gratification might be an important mechanism underlying the co-occurrence of PTS and risky drinking. In addition, our results highlight the potential benefits of coping flexibility for college students coping with PTS.
Hernandez-Giron, C A; Cruz-Valdez, A; Quiterio-Trenado, M; Uribe-Salas, F; Peruga, A; Hernández-Avila, M
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are an important public health problem, due to their medical, social and economic repercussions. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about the sexual behaviour that promotes their spread, in order to improve control and prevention strategies. Our aim was to determine the frequency of male condom use associated with sexual behaviour factors, a history of and knowledge about STDs in a sample of the male population in Mexico City. During 1994 a cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out, using multi-stage sampling with conglomerates, in 1377 men from 15 to 49 years old. The mean age was 34.5 years (SD 7.5 years). Mean age at first sexual relations was 17.7 years (SD 2.8 years). The global proportion of condom use during the last sexual relation was 24.6%; use according to type of female sex partner in the last year was 18.8% with regular partners and 62.5% with occasional partners. The principal predictors of male condom use, identified through statistical modelling, were: younger age (9 years), middle and high socioeconomic level and type of sexual partners (occasional and regular). This population has risk factors for acquiring and transmitting some STDs, such as occasional sexual partners and a history of STDs. Characteristics which are important in relation to male condom use were identified, such as age (younger than 35), education (complete junior high school or more) and type of sexual partners (occasional and regular).
Full Text Available In our culture, consuming of alcohol drinks is generally tolerated. The alcohol drinks is easily available and even represent a particular pattern of behavior. Young populations are at risk for alcohol abuse while most of them are beginning to experiment with alcohol in early adolescence and early creates a habit of drinking. To determine the frequency of alcohol consumption and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students of the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Economics in Kosovska Mitrovica and their association with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of students of Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Economics in Kosovska Mitrovica, in the period from 26th to 30th November 2012. As the survey instrument was used Questionnaire about behavior and health. From the statistical methods were used chi-square and Man-Whitney test, with a significance level of 0.05. In the week preceding the survey alcohol had consumed significantly higher part of students of economics (55.2% than medical students (29.9%. More often alcohol consumed males, older students and students of higher years of study. Most of the students declared that tried alcohol for the first time at home in the presence of their parents (37.6%, alcohol consumption is socially acceptable in the communities in which they live (76.1% and where they study (81.6%, and that they would not be embarrassed when in the company of fellow ordered a drink that is not alcoholic (87%.Nearly one of three medical students and half of students of economics in Kosovska Mitrovica had tried alcohol in the previous week, while the majority concluded that the consumption of alcohol is socially acceptable in the communities in which they live and study.
Pérez, David, II
Discourse about Latino male college students centers on their low enrollment, persistence, and graduation rates. Two asset-based theoretical frameworks were used to understand how 21 Latino males' academic determination was nurtured and sustained by cultural wealth at selective institutions. Although most participants entered college with unclear…
Almutairi, Khalid M
This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.
Whatley, P. Richard; Allen, James; Dana, Richard H.
Examines the relation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-Black, Short Form (RIAS-B) was examined among 50 African American male college students Results indicated RIAS-B scale scores functioned as predictors of MMPI scale scores. Implications of these findings for MMPI-2 research with…
Full Text Available Background Marital satisfaction is a multidimensional concept and depends on many factors including general health. As educated males have an effective role in the productive activities, it is essential to present some appropriate perspectives in the field of their mental health and marital satisfaction. Objectives The current study aimed at investigating the association between mental health and marital satisfaction in married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Methods The study sample consisted of 100 married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences selected through the convenience sampling method. The data were gathered using the ENRICH marital satisfaction inventory and the general health questionnaire, and analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS version 16. Results In 25% of the subjects, scores of physical function was higher than the cutoff point.The anxiety, social function, depression, and general health scores of 30%, 45%, 19%, and 44% of the subjects were higher than the cutoff point, respectively. There was significant association between marital satisfaction of the students and physical symptoms (r = -0.51, anxiety (r = -0.49, social performance (r = -0.34, depression (r = -0.33, and total score of mental health (r = -0.53. Conclusions Prevention and intervention efforts can focus on how mental health problems can trigger interpersonal relationship and vice versa.
Hashim R Fida
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Results: Of the studied group, 258 (37% currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9% and friends who smoked (42.5%. Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%, and only (45.3% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%, especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9% had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6% had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. Conclusion: A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.
Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail
This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Of the studied group, 258 (37%) currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9%) and friends who smoked (42.5%). Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%), and only (45.3%) knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9%) had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6%) had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.
Soueif, M I; El-Sayed, A M; Hannourah, M A; Darweesh, Z A
The paper reports on an epidemiological study of the non-medical use of psychoactive substances by secondary school male students in Greater Cairo. The main aim of the study was to provide factual answers to the questions: (1) How prevalent is drug abuse among male school students? (2) What are the psychoactive substances most commonly used? (3) What sociopsychological variables are meaningfully associated with the use of substances?
Pacoricona Alfaro, Dibia Liz; Ehlinger, Virginie; Spilka, Stanislas; Ross, Jim; Sentenac, Mariane; Godeau, Emmanuelle
Education policies encourage inclusion of students with mild-intellectual disability (mild-ID) in community/school life. However, such policies potentially increase exposure to substance use. This article examines tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French students enrolled in special units for students with disabilities (ULIS) at mainstream junior high schools compared to those of general population of the equivalent age; and explores factors associated with substance use among ULIS students, known to present mostly mild-ID. In 2014, a questionnaire adapted from the international HBSC/WHO study was administered to 700 ULIS students (mean-age 14.2). Comparative data were gathered from 7023 junior high-school students (mean-age 13.6) in the general population. Among students <14 years-old, tobacco and alcohol use rates were similar between ULIS and general population. For students ≥14, alcohol use remained comparable, while tobacco and cannabis use were higher in general population. Among ULIS students, low perceived health/life satisfaction, divorced/separated parents and high perceived academic demands were associated with tobacco use. Bullying, not liking school very much and attending schools outside a deprived area were associated with alcohol use. Having had sexual intercourse and not perceiving one's health as excellent were associated with cannabis use. Having dated was associated with using all three substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.
Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.
Heiderich, Elisabeth; Schildger, Bernd; Lierz, Michael
To evaluate whether single-entry endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons (Columba livia) significantly reduced fertility and would potentially be valuable for control of feral pigeon populations, 252 male feral pigeons were caught in the city of Berne and endoscopically vasectomized. In this procedure, approximately 1 cm of the deferent duct was removed bilaterally. Rapid, uneventful recoveries occurred in 94% (237/252) of the pigeons, whereas 6% (15/252) died because of complications associated with the procedure, consisting of perforation of the ureter (9/15), major hemorrhage (5/15), and respiratory arrest (1/15). Mean anesthesia time was 23±6 minutes. The vasectomized males were habituated to 2 pigeon houses together with fertile females. Another pigeon house with fertile pairs acted as control. All eggs laid were candled weekly to assess fertility. In the 2 pigeon houses with vasectomized males, the mean fertilization rate was 0.9% (5/563), while in the control pigeon house, the rate was 100% (39/39). The results indicate that endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons may be a promising tool for field control of feral pigeon populations, especially in combination with other methods such as pigeon houses.
Hendershot, Richard Lane
The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of males and females at Clovis Community College towards math anxiety and to look for possible factors that could be used to assist in the assignment of students to various math classes. The subjects in the study were fifty male students and fifty female students. Subjects responded to a math…
Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L
The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.
Fentahun, Netsanet; Mamo, Abebe
Youth engage in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family planning. Youth sexual behavior is important not only because of the possible reproductive outcomes, but also because of sexually transmitted infections. The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different between male and female youth due to sexual exposure and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to compare risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male and female preparatory school (grades 11 and 12) students in Jimma Zone. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected preparatory schools of Jimma Zone. A total of 520 students were selected using simple random sampling technique. A structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Both descriptive analysis and binary logistic regressions were performed on the data to understand risky sexual behaviors among students. Twenty-two (25.9%) of male and 25(21.6%) of female students had two or more sexual partners in the last six months. Eighty-three (32.3%), 113(43.5%) male and female students were sexually at risk in the last six months. Only 8(9.4%) of the male and 10(8.6%) of the female students used condom consistently in the last six months. Female students living away from their parents were 3 times more likely to be at risk than students living with their parents (OR 95%CI 3.0(1.48-6.34)). Female students who consumed alcohol were 7 times more likely to be at risk than those who did not consume alcohol (OR 95%CI 7.27(3.36-15.7)). Male students who consumed alcohol were 2.8 times more likely to be at risk than those who did not consumed alcohol (OR 95%CI, 2.81(1.3-6.06)). Male students who chewed khat were 4.6 times more likely to be at risk than students who did not chew khat (OR 95%CI, 4.58(1.95-10.76). Living arrangement, educational status of parents, family connectedness, alcohol consumption and khat-chewing were the major
This study focuses on female and male students who succeed in engineering programmes in Sweden, and why they have success. Data were collected through a questionnaire sent to all engineering students in Sweden registered for their seventh semester during year 2012 and about 30% of the students in the cohort responded on several questions. The…
LaJoie, A Scott; Kerr, Jelani C; Clover, Richard D; Harper, Diane M
The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of male and female college students in Kentucky about HPV associated diseases and vaccines, and to determine which parameters predicted self-reported uptake of HPV vaccination. A self-selected cross-sectional sample of college students completed an evidence-based online survey. Of approximately 1200 potential respondents, 585 completed the survey. The average age was 20.6 (SD 3.15) and 78% were female; 84% of the population had had one or more sexual partners. Concern for HPV vaccine safety and potential need for boosters did not significantly deter vaccine uptake. Likewise, knowledge about HPV associated cancers was not predictive of vaccine uptake. On the other hand, parental influence for vaccination was a strong predictor for vaccine uptake (aOR = 5.32, 2.71-13.03), and free vaccine nearly doubled the likelihood of being vaccinated (aOR 1.90, 1.05-3.41). In addition, the strong preference for the respondent's partner to be HPV vaccinated predicted vaccine uptake (aOR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.31-7.05), but the lack of preference for partner vaccination predicted an unvaccinated self (aOR = 0.50, 0.27-0.93). HPV vaccination has been successful in young adult college students in Kentucky. Young adults prefer their partners to be HPV vaccinated regardless of whether they themselves are vaccinated. Parental influence and free vaccine were positive predictors for vaccine uptake in this population. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Dallas R.
College students' sleep habits are changing dramatically, and related sleep problems are increasing. Reviews the current literature on sleep problems, focusing on the college student population. The unique challenges of college settings are discussed as they apply to understanding sleep problems, and suggestions are made for professionals who work…
Engquist, Katherine D; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan
Although various studies have assessed performance of athletes on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y Balance Test (YBT), no study to date has directly evaluated a comparison of performance between athletes and members of the general population. Thus, to better understand the application of the FMS and the YBT to general college students, this study examined whether or not general college students performed similarly to student-athletes on the FMS (composite and movement pattern scores) and the YBT (composite and reach directions). This study evaluated 167 Division I student-athletes and 103 general college students from the same university on the FMS and the YBT. No difference was found in FMS composite scores between student-athletes and general college students. For FMS movement patterns, female student-athletes scored higher than general college students in the deep squat. No difference was found for men in any FMS movement pattern. Female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in YBT composite scores; no difference was found for men in YBT composite scores. In analysis of YBT reach directions, female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in all reach directions, whereas no difference was found in men. Existing research on the FMS composite score in athletic populations may apply to a general college population for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc. Existing research on the YBT in male athletic populations is expected to apply equally to general college males for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc.
Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines
Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…
Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela
Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…
Nubia Amparo Ruiz Suárez
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evalúate the frequency of Y chromosome structural, numerical, chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, as well as DAZ gene microdeletions in the Y chromosome in a population of infertile males. Genetic abnormalities have been established to date in up to 24% of males having severe abnormalities in their sperm (Dohle et al. 2002; deletion of the DAZ gene family (deleted in azoospermia is the most common cause. It has been found in 6% of the oligozoospermias and in 12% of the azoospermias (Van Landuyt et al. 2000. A population of 20 azoospermic and 10 oligozoospermic males was studied. Five males having normal sperm parameters were used as controls. Each sample was karyotyped (QFQ banding and underwent sY254, sY255 and sY257 molecular amplification. Genetic study revealed alterations in 16.6% of the cases: 6.6% at chromosome level and 10% at molecule level. No chromosomal or molecular gene alterations were detected in control males. The frequencies found lead to a broader population-based study being recommended. They confirmed the need for performing judicious genetic counselling in infertile couples with male factor infertility to avoid or minimise the risks of trans-mitting these abnormalities to offspring and provide better prognosis for assisted reproductive techniques in such patients. Key words: azoospermia; oligozoospermia; microdeletions; ICSI
Tovar, Elizabeth A.
It has been widely recognized that student-athletes, especially in the sports of men's basketball and football, endure stereotyping (Bowen & Levin, 2003; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita, & Jensen, 2007, Baucom & Lantz, 2001). Although stereotypes about male basketball and football student-athletes academic behaviors are expressed by many sectors of the…
Pelfrey, William V., Jr.; Weber, Nicole L.
Research indicates that cyberbullying is occurring among middle and high school student populations at increasing rates. There is limited research, however, on strategies students use to combat cyberbullying, as well as how schools implement policies, intervention tactics, and prevention strategies. This qualitative study aimed to explore, among a…
Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.
This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…
According to orthodox psychoanalytical theory, narcissism and homosexuality are strongly associated. This association played a major role in pathologizing homosexuality. The present study compared self-esteem and two measures of narcissism among 90 homosexual and 109 heterosexual male students, who filled in a demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, which addresses both grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissism. The hypothesis, which is based on the Freudian connection between narcissism and homosexuality, is supported by the results, indicating that the homosexual students score higher in both measures of narcissism and lower on the self-esteem measure, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Intra-psychic, as well as environmental, interpretations of the results are suggested in the discussion.
Gambone, Kirsten; Rowles, Dorothy; Szuchyt, Jamie; Deitrick, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Lu, Barbara Chris; Zohe, Dorothy; Stickney, Deborah; Fields, Susan; Chambliss, Catherine
This study examined the attitudes of male and female college students regarding maternal employment and their own career and family expectations. Perceptions of the benefits and costs associated with maternal employment were assessed through the Beliefs about the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children (BACMEC) questionnaire (E.…
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Since people have different coping styles, the purpose of the present research was to compare the relationship between family communication patterns and self-concept with coping styles among male and female students of Eram Higher Education Institution in Shiraz. Methods: In the present correlation study conducted in 2011 at Eram Higher Education Institution in Shiraz, 229 participants (91 males &119 females were selected by simple random sampling method. Data was collected by using the revised version of family communication patterns questionnaire (RFCP, Koerner & Fitz patrik (2002, Beck's Self-concept Test (CST (1990 and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS Endler & Parker (1990. Data was analyzed using correlation matrix & independent t-test analysis. Results: According to the result, there was significant correlation between family communication patterns and self-concept with coping styles among male and female students. In the female group, task oriented coping and avoidance oriented coping with conversation orientation and emotion oriented coping with conforming orientation showed positive significant correlation. In male group avoidance orientation coping with conversation orientation and emotion oriented coping with conforming orientation showed positive significant correlation. Also, related to self concept variable, results showed female students task oriented coping and avoidance oriented coping had significant correlation with the self concept variable, but the male students avoidance oriented coping had significant correlation with the self concept variable(P<0/05. Also, the result showed significant difference between two male and female students, in emotion oriented coping, so the female group, emotion oriented coping with (51/48 was more than the orientation within the male group with (48/18, (p<0.05. Conclusion: Family communication patterns and the concept are effective on coping styles. Therefore
Huber Laura L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of musculoskeletal injuries that some chiropractic students experienced while in the role of adjustor became increasingly evident and developed into the basis of this study. The main objective of this study was to survey a select student population and identify, by gender, the specific types of musculoskeletal injuries they experienced when learning adjustive techniques in the classroom, and performing them in the clinical setting. Methods A survey was developed to record musculoskeletal injuries that students reported to have sustained while practicing chiropractic adjustment set-ups and while delivering adjustments. The survey was modeled from similar instruments used in the university's clinic as well as those used in professional practice. Stratified sampling was used to obtain participants for the study. Data reported the anatomical areas of injury, adjustive technique utilized, the type of injury received, and the recovery time from sustained injuries. The survey also inquired as to the type and area of any past physical injuries as well as the mechanism(s of injury. Results Data obtained from the study identified injuries of the shoulder, wrist, elbow, neck, low back, and mid-back. The low back was the most common injury site reported by females, and the neck was the most common site reported by males. The reported wrist injuries in both genders were 1% male complaints and 17% female complaints. A total of 13% of female respondents reported shoulder injuries, whereas less than 1% of male respondents indicated similar complaints. Conclusion The data collected from the project indicated that obtaining further information on the subject would be worthwhile, and could provide an integral step toward developing methods of behavior modification in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries.
Krusińska, Beata; Wuenstel, Justyna Weronika; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna
There has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and young adults, especially in men than women. Many adolescents have a sedentary lifestyle and consume more processed, low-fiber foods. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of fiber intake and its selected dietary source consumption in relation to the overweight among Polish male students. This cross-sectional study involved 1,233 male students aged 13.0-24.9 years from northern, eastern and central Poland. The respondents completed a self-administered Block Screening Questionnaire for Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber Intake and measurements of their body mass and height were performed. The overweight and obesity prevalence was assessed using international standards. The most frequently consumed foods by students included: white bread and potatoes, fruit and fruit or vegetable juices. The odds of overweight (including obesity) were lower from 28% (OR=0.72; 95%CI:0.56-0.93) to 31% (OR=0.69; 95%CI:0.50-0.95) with a daily consumption of white bread compared to non-daily consumption of white bread. Consumption ≥4 times/week of prepared vegetables (cooked, preserved or marinated) was associated with 51% lower odds of overweight (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.27-0.97) compared to consumption less than 4 times/week of these foods. The odds of overweight for the level of fiber intake was insignificant. This study provides surprising insights regarding high-fiber and low-fiber food consumption and overweight in Polish male students. A lower odds of overweight was associated with a higher frequency consumption of relatively low in fiber foods as white bread and cooked, preserved or marinated vegetables. Most of the students consumed fiber at an unacceptable level, so a beneficial impact of high-fiber foods on overweight prevalence was not shown.
Ayala, Ricardo A; Holmqvist, Moira T; Messing, Helga B; Browne, Rodrigo F
The evolution of nursing education into an academic curriculum and the growing interest of men in nursing have been significant landmarks in the development of a 'female' occupation. Chilean nursing is considered as the leading example of nursing education in Latin America, demanding a five-year training on a full-time university programme. The consequences of education, however, are assumed as more egalitarian opportunities, disregarding the latent replication of structures that perpetuate inequalities. To comprehend the socialisation of male nursing students and its relation with their masculine identity and the construction of inequalities in nursing education. We draw upon interviews undertaken with beginner and advanced nursing students from a Chilean university. Approval was obtained from the relevant Ethics Committee. The data were organised to allow the development of concepts by using the Grounded Theory approach. The analysis uncovers paradoxical results of nursing education and its ineffectiveness in preventing gender-based inequalities. The interest in empowering nursing politically may lead to favour an increasing number of men entering nursing in ways that facilitate male students' progress. Furthermore, there exist discourses of compassion that feed consideration for male students, engendering in the process the prospect of professional success and the gravitation into strategic positions in the employment market. These are mechanisms that reproduce earlier gender-based inequalities in nursing. In the light of the social reproduction theory, the academisation of Chilean nursing seems to be built upon historical gender asymmetries. Although the interest of men in embracing a career in nursing may have a meaningful resonance with the transformation of contemporary society, this process needs a judicious examination in order to protect academic integrity and, ultimately, prevent the reproduction of those inequalities in question. This analysis offers a
Okafor, Chinwuba Ambrose; Egbon, Osamuyimen
Prior researches on the differences in classroom performance between male and female students show mixed results. While significant differences exist in some studies, others show no differences. Moreover, such studies were done in developed countries. This study aims to contribute to this gender discourse by using a developing country setting. It…
Villarreal, Koreena M.; Wiley, David C.; Housman, Jeff; Martinez-Ramos, Gloria
Objective: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine cultural factors that influence Hispanic male college students' intention to communicate with partners about contraception use. Participants: A sample of 239 self-identified Hispanic participants enrolled in at least 1 college course participated in this study in the spring 2014…
Sultan A. Alkaabi
Full Text Available This paper presents data obtained from focus groups conducted to investigate male students’ experiences in higher education in the United Arab Emirates. Among the issues discussed by students was the impact of social networks addiction on student motivation and this paper focuses on that issue. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 83 English as a Foreign Language male students at four government campuses including United Arab Emirates University at Al Ain Campus, Higher College of Technology at Ras Al-Khaima Campus, and two campuses (Abu Dhabi and Dubai of Zayed University. Students access social network sites for both educational and non-educational aspects. Students spoke about their experiences and how social network addiction influenced their academic motivation to study. The resulting themes from the focus groups show that social network addiction has had an impact on student class performance and in some cases led to class failure. Recommendation for better class management and intervention programs are suggested to policy makers and instructors to foster a better student learning experience.
Garcia, Gina A.; Huerta, Adrian H.; Ramirez, Jenesis J.; Patrón, Oscar E.
As the number of Latino males entering college increases, there is a need to understand their unique leadership experiences. This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to understand what contexts contribute to Latino male undergraduate students' leadership development, capacity, and experiences. Quantitative data were gathered by…
Rebekah J. Maupin
Quantitative data from a study of gender differentiation among accounting students are analyzed to discover if male and female accounting students have different attitudes, orientations, and expectations for career and family. Although some changes toward a more gender-equal population are found, the study results also indicate several potential conflicts which accounting students will have to face as they attempt to combine work and family roles. Both male and female accounting students have...
Ingram, Samantha Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest
Branko Matic; Hrvoje Serdarusic; Maja Vretenar Cobovic
In this paper the authors present the results of their research related to financial involvement and management of personal finances of the student population on the territory of eastern Croatia. The research focused on the reasons for the entrance of student population into the financial system, the amount of their use of credit institutions’ services as well as their motives for choosing a certain credit institution
Kutner, Nancy G.; Brogan, Donna
Undergraduate males, undergraduate females, and graduate student nurses (female) were asked to list all the slang expressions they knew for 17 sex-related stimulus words. Males listed a significantly larger total number of slang expressions than either female group. (Author)
Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza
Background The most important process in childhood and adolescence is learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslexia among primary male school students and the relationship between dyslexia, obesity and overweight. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 1000 male students (first to fifth grade) in primary schools (20 schools) by using the multi-stage random sampling (50 students were selected randomly from each school). Data collection instrument...
Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is a promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. In this study, we determined the efficacy of thiotepa-sterilised males in reducing the target Aedes aegypti populations. Treated male pupae were released weekly into large laboratory cages at a constant ratio of either 5:1 or 2:1 sterile-to-fertile males. A two-to-one release ratio reduced the hatch rate of eggs laid in the cage by approximately a third and reduced the adult catch rate by approximately a quarter, but a 5:1 release drove the population to elimination after 15 weeks of release. These results indicate that thiotepa exposure is an effective means of sterilising Ae. aegypti and males thus treated are able to reduce the reproductive capacity of a stable population under laboratory conditions. Further testing of the method in semi-field enclosures is required to evaluate the mating competitiveness of sterile males when exposed to natural environmental conditions. If proven effective, SIT using thiotepa-sterilised males may be incorporated into an integrated programme of vector control to combat dengue in Cuba.
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth Maurice
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 80 African American male high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including amotivation, academic cheating,…
A. Scott LaJoie
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of male and female college students in Kentucky about HPV associated diseases and vaccines, and to determine which parameters predicted self-reported uptake of HPV vaccination. Materials and methods: A self-selected cross-sectional sample of college students completed an evidence-based online survey. Results: Of approximately 1200 potential respondents, 585 completed the survey. The average age was 20.6 (SD 3.15 and 78% were female; 84% of the population had had one or more sexual partners. Concern for HPV vaccine safety and potential need for boosters did not significantly deter vaccine uptake. Likewise, knowledge about HPV associated cancers was not predictive of vaccine uptake. On the other hand, parental influence for vaccination was a strong predictor for vaccine uptake (aOR = 5.32, 2.71–13.03, and free vaccine nearly doubled the likelihood of being vaccinated (aOR 1.90, 1.05–3.41. In addition, the strong preference for the respondent's partner to be HPV vaccinated predicted vaccine uptake (aOR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.31–7.05, but the lack of preference for partner vaccination predicted an unvaccinated self (aOR = 0.50, 0.27–0.93. Conclusions: HPV vaccination has been successful in young adult college students in Kentucky. Young adults prefer their partners to be HPV vaccinated regardless of whether they themselves are vaccinated. Parental influence and free vaccine were positive predictors for vaccine uptake in this population. Keywords: Knowledge, HPV vaccine, Young adults, Preferences, Safety
This study aims to describe student’s critical thinking skill of grade VIII in solving mathematical problem. A qualitative research was conducted to a male student with high mathematical ability. Student’s critical thinking skill was obtained from a depth task-based interview. The result show that male student’s critical thinking skill of the student as follows. In understanding the problem, the student did categorization, significance decoding, and meaning clarification. In devising a plan he examined his ideas, detected his argument, analyzed his argument and evaluated his argument. During the implementation phase, the skill that appeared were analyzing of the argument and inference skill such as drawing conclusion, deliver alternative thinking, and problem solving skills. At last, in rechecking all the measures, they did self-correcting and self-examination.
Peck, Christopher P.; van Manen, Frank T.; Costello, Cecily M.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Landenburger, Lisa; Roberts, Lori L.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Mace, Richard D.
For several decades, grizzly bear populations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) have increased in numbers and range extent. The GYE population remains isolated and although effective population size has increased since the early 1980s, genetic connectivity between these populations remains a long-term management goal. With only ~110 km distance separating current estimates of occupied range for these populations, the potential for gene flow is likely greater now than it has been for many decades. We sought to delineate potential paths that would provide the opportunity for male-mediated gene flow between the two populations. We first developed step-selection functions to generate conductance layers using ecological, physical, and anthropogenic landscape features associated with non-stationary GPS locations of 124 male grizzly bears (199 bear-years). We then used a randomized shortest path (RSP) algorithm to estimate the average number of net passages for all grid cells in the study region, when moving from an origin to a destination node. Given habitat characteristics that were the basis for the conductance layer, movements follow certain grid cell sequences more than others and the resulting RSP values thus provide a measure of movement potential. Repeating this process for 100 pairs of random origin and destination nodes, we identified paths for three levels of random deviation (θ) from the least-cost path. We observed broad-scale concordance between model predictions for paths originating in the NCDE and those originating in the GYE for all three levels of movement exploration. Model predictions indicated that male grizzly bear movement between the ecosystems could involve a variety of routes, and verified observations of grizzly bears outside occupied range supported this finding. Where landscape features concentrated paths into corridors (e.g., because of anthropogenic influence), they typically
Bose, A P H; Adragna, J B; Balshine, S
In this study, the morphology of sagittal otoliths of the plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus was compared between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive phenotypes (known as 'type I males or guarders' and 'type II males or sneakers'). Sagitta size increased with P. notatus size and changes in shape were also detected with increasing body size. Porichthys notatus sagittae begin as simple rounded structures, but then elongate as they grow and take on a more triangular and complex shape with several prominent notches and indentations along the dorsal and caudal edges. Moreover, the sagittae of the two geographically and genetically distinct populations of P. notatus (northern and southern) differed in shape. Porichthys notatus from the north possessed taller sagittae with deeper caudal indentations compared to P. notatus from the south. Sagitta shape also differed between females and males of the conventional guarder tactic. Furthermore, guarder males had smaller sagittae for their body size than did sneaker males or females. These differences in sagittal otolith morphology are discussed in relation to ecological and life history differences between the sexes and male tactics of this species. This is the first study to investigate teleost otolith morphology from the perspective of alternative reproductive tactics. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Full Text Available Since 1996, the Trotter and Gleser formulae to determine the stature of recovered missing persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina have been used. The purpose of this study is to develop appropriate stature estimation formulae from the length of the femur, tibia and fibula for use in the Bosnia and Herzegovina to help in identifications of the victims. Research was undertaken on 50 male cadavers, of individuals who died between the ages of 23 to 54 years. The cadaver length was measured and the length of the long bones was obtained from X-ray photographs. The length of the cadavers of the individuals who died after age of 45 years was corrected according to Giles' table. This study established that using Trotter and Gleser's formulae underestimate stature of tall people in the current population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Smallest standard error of estimate is observed in the formula that uses the sum of the length of femur and fibula. There are no statistically significant differences between the length of the bones from the left and right sides of the body. Therefore, formulae developed from the average length of bone pairs are recommended for use.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol drinking is frequently related to behavioral problems, which lead to a number of negative consequences. This study was to evaluate the characteristics of male high school students who drink, the drinking patterns among them, and the associations between current drinking and other health risk behaviors which focused on personal safety, violence-related behaviors, suicide and sexual behaviors. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore current alcohol drinking and health-risk behaviors among male high school students in central Thailand. Five thousand one hundred and eighty four male students were classified into 2 groups according to drinking in the previous 30 days (yes = 631, no = 4,553. Data were collected by self-administered, anonymous questionnaire which consisted of 3 parts: socio-demographic factors, health-risk behaviors and alcohol drinking behavior during the past year from December 2007 to February 2008. Results The results showed that the percent of current drinking was 12.17. Most of them were 15-17 years (50.21%. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational level, residence, cohabitants, grade point average (GPA, having a part time job and having family members with alcohol/drug problems were significantly associated with alcohol drinking (p Conclusions An increased risk of health-risk behaviors, including driving vehicles after drinking, violence-related behaviors, sad feelings and attempted suicide, and sexual behaviors was higher among drinking students that led to significant health problems. Effective intervention strategies (such as a campaign mentioning the adverse health effects and social consequences to the risk groups, and encouraging parental and community efforts to prevent drinking among adolescents should be implemented to prevent underage drinking and adverse consequences.
Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula
Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…
Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail
This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.
Hispanic students are a growing and pervasive population within higher education. This position paper examines population characteristics and educational patterns of Hispanic students that underscore failures of the higher education system in serving these students, in addition to institutional issues and cultural values that further complicate…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be
Willett, Christopher S
Two different forces are thought to contribute to the rapid accumulation of hybrid male sterility that has been observed in many inter-specific crosses, namely the faster male and the dominance theories. For male heterogametic taxa, both faster male and dominance would work in the same direction to cause the rapid evolution of male sterility; however, for taxa lacking differentiated sex chromosomes only the faster male theory would explain the rapid evolution of male hybrid sterility. It is currently unknown what causes the faster evolution of male sterility, but increased sexual selection on males and the sensitivity of genes involved in male reproduction are two hypotheses that could explain the observation. Here, patterns of hybrid sterility in crosses of genetically divergent copepod populations are examined to test potential mechanisms of faster male evolution. The study species, Tigriopus californicus, lacks differentiated, hemizygous sex chromosomes and appears to have low levels of divergence caused by sexual selection acting upon males. Hybrid sterility does not accumulate more rapidly in males than females in these crosses suggesting that in this taxon male reproductive genes are not inherently more prone to disruption in hybrids.
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.
Zaitseva, Irina P; Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Berezkina, Elena S; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Skalny, Anatoly V
The primary aim of the current study is to estimate the effect of different physical activity levels on hair trace element content in male and female students. A total of 113 students (59 women and 54 men) of P. G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Yaroslavl, Russia) took part in the current investigation. According to the level of the physical activity, all students were divided into three groups: high, medium, and low physical activity. Essential and toxic metal content (μg/g) in hair samples was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D + NWR213 (Perkin-Elmer, USA). The obtained data show that hair iodine, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and tin levels are not related to physical activity in male and female students. At the same time, increased physical activity is associated with decreased hair copper, vanadium, bismuth, and mercury content in comparison to the low physical activity groups. Students with higher physical activity are also characterized by significantly higher hair cobalt, iron, manganese, selenium, cadmium, lithium, and lead concentrations. Finally, statistical analysis has revealed maximal gender differences in hair trace element content in the high physical activity groups, whereas in the low activity groups, the hair metal concentrations were nearly similar in females and males.
Vermes, Gabor; Mátrai, Ákos; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor
Most of the patients are affected by isolated infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) beyond the polygenic predisposition, the other factors in the multifactorial etiology are largely unknown. The main characteristic of IHPS is the robust male predominance, thus the aim of this study was to analyze birth outcomes in males and females whether they are different or not. The study samples included 241 cases with IHPS, 357 matched, and 38,151 population controls without any defect in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The findings of this case-control study confirmed the well-known strong male excess (85.5%). The mean gestational age was somewhat longer and it is associated with a lower rate of preterm births. Mean birth weight did not show significant differences among the study groups, but the rate of low birthweight was higher in cases with IHPS. However, these differences were found only in males. Thus, intrauterine fetal growth restriction is characteristic only for male cases with IHPS. Our study confirmed the well-known obvious male excess of cases with IHPS, but our findings suggest some differences in birth outcomes of male and female cases. Male cases with IHPS had intrauterine fetal growth restriction while females did not. These data may indicate some differences in the pathogenesis of IHPS in males and females.
Trice, Rodney Nathaniel
This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major
Grossbard, Joel R; Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E
Body dissatisfaction in females, and to a lesser extent males, is associated with low self-esteem, depression, and eating disorders. This research examined gender as a moderator of the association between contingent self-esteem and body image concerns, including weight and muscularity. Participants included 359 (59.1% female) heavy drinking first-year U.S. undergraduate students who completed a survey assessing health-related risk behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine relations among gender, contingent self-esteem, and body image. Females reported higher levels of contingent self-esteem and greater concerns about their weight, although males reported a greater drive for muscularity. The relationship between contingent self-esteem and weight concerns was stronger among females, and for males, greater contingent self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for muscularity.
Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker
Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…
Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail
Background This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal back...
Kongsbak, Ida; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Køpke Nielsen, Brit
one-day lunch meal study was conducted in a FoodScape Laboratory where an Intelligent Buffet was used to register the exact weight of each meal component self-served by each participant. A convenience sample of 65 men was divided to a control group (n= 32) and an intervention group (n= 33). The choice......-served fruit and vegetables and decrease consumption of other meal components among male university students. Such simple choice architecture interventions could be used as a supplement to already existing strategies in the promotion of healthy eating....... due to the complexity of determinants for food choices and more research is therefore needed. This study assessed the of a choice architectural intervention aimed at reducing energy density of meals consumed by male university students, by proportionally increasing their vegetable consumption.A single...
Erfan Soleimani Sefat
Discussion: The findings demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy was significantly effective in improving depression of male students with visual impairment in experimental group. The group training needs to be adopted by medical practitioners on a cohort for validating its effectiveness on a larger scale.
Lee, K Y
This study aims to investigate smoking patterns in high school student and to give student smoker effective information. The sample of 250 male high school students out of two different schools in Tae-Jŏn was questioned from July 10th to 15th, 1995. In analyzing these date, the statistics shows the realities by means of number of students. The results are summarized into 17 items as follows. Regarding the level of smoking, 140 students out of 250 admit that they have ever smoked, 52.1% of smoking students say that the motivation of beginning smoking is mainly curiosity. The survey shows that 22.9% of smoking students feel very good when smoking. It also shows that 30.0% of smoking students began smoking in the first grade of high school. With regard to the volume of smoking per day, 41.4% of smoking students smoke variably, 42.1% drink when smoking, 15.0% spend more than W 70,000 a month. About the question who knows the fact of their smoking, 51.5% answer that their friends know the fact of their smoking. In regard to the reslationship between smoking and school performance, 18.2% of non smoking students make poor grades as compared with 40% of smoking students, 9.3% of smoking students say that they are satisfied with the school life, but 35.7% of them are not satisfied. Regarding the attitude to smoking teachers, 35% of smoking students state that they are affected by them. 69.3% of smoking students say that they will stop smoking, while the remaining 30.7% say that they will keep smoking. The reason of 63.9% to stop smoking is that smoking is bad for the health. The reason of 46.5% to keep smoking is the acquired habit of smoking. 97.2% know the fact that the major element of cigarettes is nicotine and it is very harmful to the health. 40.8% recognize the harmful effect of smoking by TV and radio programs. 97.2% know that smoking could cause lung cancer. From the above results. I propose as follows We should make specific plan to keep smoking by simple
Voordouw Maarten J
Full Text Available Abstract Background For Anopheline mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria, genetic variation in male reproductive success can have important consequences for any control strategy based on the release of transgenic or sterile males. Methods A quantitative genetics approach was used to test whether there was a genetic component to variation in male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae. Swarms of full sibling brothers were mated with a fixed number of females and their reproductive success was measured as (1 proportion of ovipositing females, (2 proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae, (3 proportion of females that produced larvae, (4 number of eggs laid per female, (5 number of larvae per ovipositing female and (6 number of larvae per female. Results The proportion of ovipositing females (trait 1 and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae (trait 2 differed among full sib families, suggesting a genetic basis of mating success. In contrast, the other measures of male reproductive success showed little variation due to the full sib families, as their variation are probably mostly due to differences among females. While age at emergence and wing length of the males were also heritable, they were not associated with reproductive success. Larger females produced more eggs, but males did not prefer such partners. Conclusion The first study to quantify genetic variation for male reproductive success in A. gambiae found that while the initial stages of male reproduction (i.e. the proportion of ovipositing females and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae had a genetic basis, the overall reproductive success (i.e. the mean number of larvae per female did not.
Daalmans, M.T.; Vissia, M.S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002
Kuo, Chi-Mei; Chien, Wu-Hsiung; Shen, Hsi-Che; Hu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yu-Fen; Tung, Tao-Hsin
To quantify the prevalence of and associated factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) among male elderly fishing and agricultural population in Taipei, Taiwan. Subjects (n = 2,766) aged 65 years and over voluntarily admitted to a teaching hospital for a physical checkup were collected in 2010. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate agricultural population.
Background: Medical students represent a population that is at high‑risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, ...
Full Text Available Context and Aims: Anthropometric measurements can easily reflect the nutritional status of an individual. The purpose of this study is to investigate the magnitude of obesity and undernutrition based on body mass index (BMI and direct, derived anthropometric variables, among college students of Kolkata. Subjects and Methods: Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and non-invasive method that reflects body composition. A total of 100 male students aged 18-22 years of different undergraduate colleges of Kolkata have participated in this study. Anthropometric profiles (a total of 24 direct and derived variables including weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences were measured. Results: Results showed 14.68% of the studied population are underweight, 9.25% are overweight, and 0.89% is obese, as per BMI. The present report showed higher prevalence of normal BMI (75.16% in male college students, whereas obesity was almost found to absent among participants. Conclusion: The findings of the present report indicated occurrence of almost normal nutritional status among male undergraduates of Kolkata based on BMI and anthropometric indices
Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Zapor, Heather Zucosky; Zapor, Heather Zuckosky; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L
The prevalence of alcohol use and dating violence are shockingly high among male college students, making this a particularly high-risk group for alcohol-related aggression. Expanding upon previous research, the current study examined the relations between three indicators of alcohol use and three types of dating violence among 204 male college students. We also examined whether hazardous drinkers reported more violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Results demonstrated that alcohol use was related to all types of aggression, and hazardous drinkers are at greater risk of violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Implications for dating violence prevention programs and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Saas, Darcy Rollins
Regularly reported statistics about high and growing student-loan debt levels, combined with increased rates of delinquency and default, have prompted calls to address the student-debt "crisis." For New England, with its highly educated population and large higher education industry, student-loan debt is an important economic policy…
Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D
Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.
Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy
With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…
Moreno, Megan A; Swanson, Michael J; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Linda J
Sexual reference display on a social networking web site (SNS) is associated with self-reported sexual intention; females are more likely to display sexually explicit content on SNSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate male college students' views towards sexual references displayed on publicly available SNSs by females. Focus groups. One large state university. Male college students age 18-23. All tape recorded discussion was fully transcribed, then discussed to determine thematic consensus. A trained male facilitator asked participants about views on sexual references displayed on SNSs by female peers and showed examples of sexual references from female's SNS profiles to facilitate discussion. A total of 28 heterosexual male participants participated in seven focus groups. Nearly all participants reported using Facebook to evaluate potential female partners. Three themes emerged from our data. First, participants reported that displays of sexual references on social networking web sites increased sexual expectations. Second, sexual reference display decreased interest in pursuing a dating relationship. Third, SNS data was acknowledged as imperfect but valuable. Females who display sexual references on publicly available SNS profiles may be influencing potential partners' sexual expectations and dating intentions. Future research should examine females' motivations and beliefs about displaying such references and educate women about the potential impact of these sexual displays. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears
Han, Lin; Jia, Zhaotong; Cao, Chunwei; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Fuqiang; Wang, Lin; Ren, Wei; Sun, Mingxia; Wang, Baoping; Li, Changgui; Chen, Li
Cognitive impairment has been described in elderly subjects with high normal concentrations of serum uric acid. However, it remains unclear if gout confers an increased poorer cognition than those in individuals with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The present study aimed at evaluating cognitive function in patients suffering from gout in an elderly male population, and further investigating the genetic contributions to the risk of cognitive function.This study examined the cognitive function as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in 205 male gout patients and 204 controls. The genetic basis of these cognitive measures was evaluated by genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in 102 male gout patients. Furthermore, 7 loci associated with cognition in GWAS were studied for correlation with gout in 1179 male gout patients and 1848 healthy male controls.Compared with controls, gout patients had significantly lower MoCA scores [22.78 ± 3.01 vs 23.42 ± 2.95, P = .023, adjusted by age, body mass index (BMI), education, and emotional disorder]. GWAS revealed 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associations with MoCA test at a level of conventional genome-wide significance (P gout in further analysis (all P > .05).Elderly male subjects with gout exhibit accelerated decline in cognition performance. Several neurodegenerative disorders risk loci were identified for genetic contributors to cognitive performance in our Chinese elderly male gout population. Larger prospective studies of the cognitive performance and genetic analysis in gout subjects are recommended.
Parvaneh Doodman; Hajar Safari
Background and Objectives: Currently, People worldwide are increasingly turning to spirituality and spiritual issues. Religion and spirituality are considered one of the determinants of happiness in psychology. This study was conducted to investigate the association between spiritual well-being and happiness in male students of Firouzabad County. Methods: Study samples were 200 students in Firouzabad professional schools who were selected by random cluster sampling. Research instruments we...
Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C
This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Panjasaram V. Naidoo
Full Text Available Background: Male circumcision is currently being promoted in South Africa as a HumanImmunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention method. Effective implementation requires thathealthcare providers should believe in the procedure’s efficacy and should possess a positiveattitude. A study was undertaken amongst pharmacy and nursing students with differentobjectives.Objectives: To ascertain students’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding malecircumcision and (HIV prevention.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was undertakenamongst 4th year pharmacy and nursing students studying at a university in KwaZulu-Natal,after obtaining their consent. Data were captured and analysed using SPSS version 15.Results: A response rate of 83.18% and a mean knowledge score of 66.43% with relativelypositive attitudes (62.7 were obtained; 85.4% of the respondents felt that promoting malecircumcision is appropriate, with all Muslim students (n < 11 supporting the promotion ofmale circumcision. Even though all Muslim students supported male circumcision, only 3students were willing to perform the procedure if adequately trained (p < 0.03. The majorityof the female students were unwilling to perform the procedure (p < 0.005. A third of therespondents indicated that male circumcision would both undermine existing protectivebehaviours and strategies as well as increase riskier sexual behaviour. Over 54% of therespondents believed that the South African Health System would be able to cope with themassive male circumcision drive. The majority of the respondents favoured the procedure tobe done at birth. Pain was cited as the most important reason for not wanting to be circumcised.Conclusion: Pharmacy and nursing students have a moderate knowledge of male circumcisionand HIV prevention with relatively positive attitudes. The majority felt that promoting malecircumcision is appropriate and should be encouraged.
Cortright, Ronald N; Lujan, Heidi L; Blumberg, Amanda J; Cox, Julie H; DiCarlo, Stephen E
Our students are naturally curious, with powerful intrinsic motives to understand their world. Accordingly, we, as teachers, must capitalize on this inherently active and curious nature so that learning becomes a lifelong activity where students take initiative for learning, are skilled in learning, and want to learn new things. Achieving this goal requires an understanding of student attitudes, beliefs, characteristics, and motivations. To achieve this goal, we administered the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI) to assess our students' interest and enjoyment, perceived choice, and perceived competence while taking our undergraduate exercise physiology class (46 students; 20 female students and 26 male students). The interest and enjoyment subscale is considered the self-reported measure of intrinsic motivation. The perceived choice and perceived competence concepts are theorized to be positive predictors of both self-reported and behavioral measures of intrinsic motivation. Our results documented a significant increase in course grade with an increase in survey score for the interest and enjoyment subscale of the IMI when female and male students were combined. Specifically, each increase in survey score for the interest and enjoyment subscale of the IMI was associated with a significant (P students. These results have implications for both classroom practice and educational reform policies.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from biological, epidemiological, and controlled intervention studies has demonstrated that male circumcision (MC protects males from HIV infection, and MC is now advocated as a public-health intervention against HIV. MC provides direct protection only to men, but is expected to provide indirect protection to women at risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual transmission. How such indirect protection interacts with the possibility that MC campaigns will lead to behavior changes, however, is not yet well understood. Our objective here is to investigate the link between individual-level effects of MC campaigns and long-term population-level outcomes resulting from disease dynamics, looking at both genders separately, over a broad range of parameters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use simple mathematical models of heterosexual transmission to investigate the potential effects of a circumcision scale-up, combined with possible associated behavioral disinhibition. We examine patterns in expected long-term prevalence using a simple equilibrium model based on transmission factors, and validate our results with ODE-based simulations, focusing on the link between effects on females and those on males.We find that the long-term population-level effects on females and males are not strongly linked: there are many possible ways in which an intervention which reduces prevalence in males might nonetheless increase prevalence in females. CONCLUSIONS: Since an intervention that reduces long-term male prevalence could nonetheless increase long-term female prevalence, MC campaigns should explicitly consider both the short-term and long-term effects of MC interventions on females. Our findings strongly underline the importance of pairing MC programs with education, support programs and HIV testing and counseling, together with other prevention measures.
ZHAO Shuang-jin; ZHANG Meng-chen; JIANG Chun-zhi; YANG Chun-yan; LIU Bing-qiang; CUI Jue
To solve the problem that soybean has narrow genetic base, we constructed a series of male sterile recurrent selection populations, and studied the effects of quality improvement and practical value. An LD-base population, which fits to our ecology type was constructed by 6 years' gene enrichment through the introduction of new genes from 23 local varieties and recurrent selection. The LD-base populations were then improved by making crosses with high protein and high oil genotypes. As a result we obtained a high protein sub-population (db) and a high oil sub-population (gy). For the db sub-population, the protein content is 1.18% higher than the base population, 22.38% of the individuals contain 45% or more of protein, which is 10.99% higher than the base population. For the gy sub-population, oil content is 0.24% higher than the base population. Individuals with oil content of 20% or more are 11.05% higher than the base population. The quantitative characters such as flowering date, mature date, pod habit, and hilum color, etc., all showed wide range of separation, and the segregation ratio approached balance. The c.v. of branch number of ms1 recurrent population (72.8%) is higher than general cross-population (57.3%), and the c.v. of 100 seed weight of ms1 (18.1%) is higher than general cross population (16.5%), the coefficient of variation of plant height, pods per plant, and seeds per pod were not significantly different. It was demonstrated in this paper that the quality character of ms1 male sterile recurrent selection population was improved by adding new genes. And the segregation of other characters widened, making the populations suitable for the objective of soybean breeding. In this paper, we also discussed the breeding method, key technology, and selection effect of soybean ms1 population.
Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.
Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their perspectives on male and female condoms in 10 focus group discussions. All believed that condoms should be used when wanting to prevent conception an...
Martínez Álvarez, Jesús-Román; García Alcón, Rosa; Villarino Marín, Antonio; Marrodán Serrano, M Dolores; Serrano Morago, Lucia
Studying eating habits can aid in the design of specific measures that reduce the negative effects of an unhealthy diet on health. In this context, the aim of the present study was to examine the eating habits and food preferences of students and their level of satisfaction with the catering services of the university. Survey conducted during 2011 using a questionnaire that asked participants abut their sex, age and frequency of use of catering services placed on campus. Participants were also asked about their level of satisfaction with five aspects (hygiene, quality, taste of food, price and convenience of facilities) of the university catering services, what their preferred dishes were and whether they followed a special diet. Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. Nine hundred and sixty-four students (381 males; 583 females). The students used the university food service 2·3 (sd 1·3) times/week. With respect to satisfaction level, 44·1 % gave an average score (3) to the combination of surveyed aspects (hygiene, quality, taste of food, price and comfort of the dining rooms). Regarding food choices, 61·0 % of students preferred pasta dishes, followed by meat (59·1 %) and salads (32·5 %). The least popular dishes were vegetables (16·8 %), fruits (13·6 %), milk products (12·2 %) and legumes (9·8 %). Of the students, 20·1 % followed special diets. The degree of satisfaction with the university meal service was low and the most common choices of dishes and foods among students were far from the guidelines of the Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to extend policies related to diet to this sector of the population and also to the management and food offer of university canteens.
concept and career choice of students in Post-Secondary Institutions in Sokoto State. The sample consisted of 300 students (140 males and 160 females) deliberately selected from the population of three tertiary institutions in Sokoto State.
Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of male foundation phase pre-service students who were among the first cohort to specialise in the foundation phase since the inception of the programme at one South African university. The students reported on their experiences of teaching in a female-dominated field and their views about their preparedness to teach in the field. This qualitative study is interpretive in nature. Using purposive sampling, eighteen students were sampled from a population of twenty. Data was generated through focus group interviews and then analysed and categorised. The patterns across categories showed that the pre-service teachers had faced an unwelcoming environment in the schools at the outset, but that this changed over time. Some parents were negative about male teachers in the foundation phase. However, the pre-service teachers were able to work hard and show that they can work with foundation phase learners. The study concluded that male students who enter foundation phase teacher education programmes need a lot of encouragement to boost their self-confidence and to realise the important role they can play in working with young children in a country where many young learners grow up in fatherless homes.
Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke; Bokmand, Susanne; Haugaard, Karen; Hoejris, Inger; Jylling, Anne-Marie B; Joernsgaard, Hjoerdis; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Oldenburg, Mette H; Qvamme, Gro M; Soee, Katrine; Christiansen, Peer
Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period. The MBCP cohort was defined from three national registers. Data was extracted from medical journals. Data for FBCP is from the DBCG database. Overall survival (OS) was quantified by Kaplan-Meier estimates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on mortality rate among patients relative to the mortality rate in the general population. The association between SMR and risk factors were analyzed in univariate and multivariable Poisson regression models. Separate models for each gender were used for the analyses. We found a marked difference in OS for the two genders. For the total population of MBCP, 5- and 10-year survivals were 55.1% and 31.7%, respectively. For FBCP, the corresponding figures were 76.8% and 59.3%. Median age at diagnosis for FBCP was 61 years and 70 years for MBCP. By applying SMR, the difference in mortality between genders equalized and showed pronounced age-dependency. For males <40 years, SMR was 9.43 and for females 19.56 compared to SMR for males 80 + years (0.95) and females 80 + years (0.89). During the period 1980-2009, the risk of dying gradually decreased for FBCP (p < .0001). The risk 1980-1984 was 35% higher than 2005-2009 (RR 1.35). Although the risk of dying for MBCP was also lowest in 2005-2009, there was no clear tendency (p = .1439). The risk was highest in 1990-1994 (RR =2.48). We found better OS for FBCP than for MBCP. But SMR showed similar mortality rate for the two genders, except for very young FBCP, who had higher SMR. Furthermore, significantly improved survival over time for FBCP was observed, with no clear tendency for MBCP.
Robertson, Kirsten; Forbes, Sarah; Thyne, Maree
Existing literature exemplifies the relationship between alcohol and overt aggression, especially for adult males. Less clear is the relationship between alcohol and aggression among male and female college students, in particular, the nature of this aggression and the co-occurrence of drinking and aggression on the same day (temporal proximity). This study examines the chronic and temporal nature of males' and females' alcohol-related aggression among college students. Two hundred fourteen students completed a web-based 7-day event-level survey measuring alcohol consumption and perpetration of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and relational aggression over 4 weeks, resulting in 4,256 observations (days). The global analysis revealed students who are heavy drinkers are more likely to perpetrate all four forms of aggression, whereas the event-level analysis revealed that specific forms of aggression are associated with drinking at the time, while other forms were not linked to drinking occasions. Cross-tabulation revealed males and females were more likely to use verbal and physical aggression when drinking. For females, drinking was also associated with relational aggression and anger. Despite often being overlooked in research on aggression during emerging adulthood, relational aggression was prevalent. Discrepancies between the global and temporal analysis revealed factors other than alcohol might explain the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and specific forms of aggression. This is one of the first event-level studies to show the temporal relationship between alcohol and relational aggression. The distinctions in the current study, exemplifying the diversity of alcohol-related aggression, are critical for understanding aggressive behavior, potential gender differences, and for developing interventions. The temporal relationship between alcohol and aggression suggests health interventions should target drinking and aggression
To high light the importance of laboratory investigations for students and encourage them to participate in research. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at Islamabad Medical and Dental College Islamabad for a three months period from April 1, 2014 to June 30, 2014. Students with age 18-20 years were chosen by convenience sampling for sample collection. Verbal consent was taken from candidates before sample collection. Packed cell volume (PCV) was measured by using Micro Hematocrit method and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration by Sahli acid haematin method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 106 students, there were 32 males and 74 females. Male participants had significantly greater Hb concentration and PCV as compared to females (p=0.05). Conclusion: Both Hb and PCV were significantly higher in males as compared to females of almost same age. For improving Hb concentration, dietary sources of iron and iron supplements may be used for better health of future generation. (author)
The aim of this was to find out the reason for low performance in West African Examinations Council final examination in Core Mathematics. The exploratory research design was used for the study. A population of two hundred (200) students; 100 females and males in a breakdown of 50 males and 50 females from SHS and 50 males and 50 females from JHS…
Sakellariou, Tass; Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen
The prevalence and nature of electronic forms of bullying (cyberbullying) was investigated among 1,530 primary and secondary school aged male students (Years 6 to 12; 9-18 years, chronologically) in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Findings revealed that victimization via the Internet was the most common form of cyberbullying with 11.5 percent of…
Dázio, Eliza Maria Rezende; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão; Fava, Silvana Maria Coelho Leite
To understand the meanings that male university students assign to the condition of users of alcohol and other drugs. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach, with inductive analysis of the content of semi-structured interviews applied to 20 male university students from a public university in the southeast region of Brazil, grounded on the theoretical-methodological referential of interpretive anthropology and ethnographic method. Data were construed using content inductive analysis for two topics: use of alcohol and/or drugs as an outlet; and use of alcohol and/or other drugs: an alternative for belonging and identity. Male university students share the rules of their sociocultural environment that values the use of alcohol and/or other drugs as a way of dealing with the demands and stress ensuing from the everyday university life, and to build identity and belong to this social context, reinforcing the influence of culture. Compreender os significados atribuídos pelos universitários do sexo masculino à condição de usuários de álcool e outras drogas. Estudo exploratório de abordagem qualitativa, com análise de conteúdo indutiva de entrevistas semiestruturadas de 20 universitários do sexo masculino, matriculados em uma universidade pública da região sudeste do Brasil, fundamentado no referencial teórico-metodológico da Antropologia Interpretativa e do método etnográfico. Os dados foram interpretados com a análise de conteúdo indutiva em dois temas: O uso do álcool e/ou drogas como válvula de escape; O uso do álcool e/ou outras drogas: alternativa para o pertencimento e para a identidade. Os universitários do sexo masculino compartilham normas de seu meio sociocultural, que valorizam o uso de álcool e/ou outras drogas, como uma forma de lidar com as exigências e o estresse da vida universitária, criar uma identidade e ter pertencimento neste contexto social, reforçando a influência da cultura.
Broberg, M.M.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Dieperink, C.
In a brown trout Salmo trutta population, there was a much higher frequency of injuries among mature male parr than among immature or female parr. The quantitative data are discussed in relation to spawning success and overall fitness. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....
Pinto, Joana; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Several studies have advocated a relationship between psychopathological features and sexual compulsivity. Such relationship is often found among individuals seeking help for out of control sexual behavior, suggesting that the association between psychological adjustment and sexual compulsivity may have a significant clinical value. However, a more complete approach to the topic of sexual compulsivity would also include the analysis of nonclinical samples as healthy individuals may be at risk of developing some features of hypersexuality in the future. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stable traits of personality, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students. Furthermore, the potential mediating role of state psychopathology in the relationship between personality traits and sexual compulsivity was tested. Participants completed the following measures: the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory-22. The sample included 152 male college students recruited in a Portuguese university using nonrandom methods. The measures were completed individually and anonymously. Findings on state psychopathology suggested that psychoticism may be one of the key dimensions associated with sexual compulsivity in male students. The personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness were also significant predictors of sexual compulsivity. Findings on the mediating effects suggested that state psychopathology mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and sexual compulsivity but not between Agreeableness and sexual compulsivity. A psychopathological path (encompassing Neuroticism and state psychopathology) and a behavioral path (encompassing Agreeableness features) may be involved in sexual compulsivity as reported by a nonclinical sample of male students. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Adams, Tempestt Richardson
Ensuring students graduate high school ready to enter college or the workforce has become a prime focus within secondary education. High school graduates are often ill-prepared for college-level work and often have to register for remedial courses before they can take standard college level courses (Southern Regional Education Board, 2010). Serving as both a solution to this concern and an alternative to traditional high schools, early college high schools were created to focus on increasing the number of students graduating from high school and enrolling in college. Early college high schools seek to serve students who have traditionally underperformed in school and those who are underrepresented in higher education including students of color, first-generation college students, students from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and English language learners (Barnett, Bucceri, Hindo, Kim, 2013; "Overview & FAQS," 2013). In efforts to learn more about how early colleges are meeting the needs of students, this dissertation examines the experiences, identity construction, and perceptions of Black male students at a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) based early college high school. Using a qualitative case study design, participants were eight Black male upperclassmen enrolled in a STEM early college high school, located on the campus of a four-year university. Data was collected through focus groups and individual interviews and data was analyzed thematically. Findings suggest students in this study have largely positive experiences at their early college high school. Despite some challenges, the early college high school environment helps facilitate scholar identities, and the STEM focus of the school helps students learn more about their strengths and weaknesses. The implications of the research, recommendations for educational stakeholders, and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S
This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Introduction: Today, it is somewhat possible for general Population to use bicycle as a means of transportation or sport. Physical activity is considered as an important strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and other critical metabolic diseases in the different ages of life. Since the Theory of Planned Behavior assesses perceived control beliefs about behaviors, it seems appropriate to study exercise. In the study, the views of male students - as a group which are affective on community norms- about bicycle use were investigated. Method: In this cross-sectional study 250 male students in Yazd University of Medical Sciences responded to a researcher made questionnaire which was designed for assessing their views about bicycle use, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The data were analyzed using SPSS v16. Results: The mean age of participants was 23. 01± 3. 83. Findings revealed that the scale means of the theory constructs were as follows: behavioral intention: 8. 54 ±3. 9, Attitude: 2. 97 ± 15. 2, subjective norm: 12. 1± 2. 9 and perceived behavioral control: 17. 5 ±4. 6. Regression analysis indicated that attitude and subjective norm explained 29. 7% of behavioral intention variations (P<0. 001. Conclusion: According to results which indicated that Attitude and subjective norm had more powerful relationship with and predictive power of behavioral intention about using bicycle it is recommended that cultural activities and interventions may be effective to promote using bicycle among students.
Nieschlag, Eberhard; Kumar, Narender; Sitruk-Ware, Régine
Testosterone is an essential part of all regimens for hormonal male contraception tested to date. Initial efficacy trials revealed that the half-life of the testosterone preparations available at that time was too short to be used for male contraception. The ensuing search for long-acting preparations yielded testosterone buciclate and undecanoate as well as 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT). Following description of the principle of male hormonal contraception and the efficacy trials performed to date, the systematic development of MENT for substitution of male hypogonadism and use in male contraception by the Population Council is reviewed here. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza
The most important process in childhood and adolescence is learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslexia among primary male school students and the relationship between dyslexia, obesity and overweight. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 1000 male students (first to fifth grade) in primary schools (20 schools) by using the multi-stage random sampling (50 students were selected randomly from each school). Data collection instruments were a weighting scale, a meter for evaluation of obesity and overweight and a reading inventory test for dyslexia. The height and weight were measured based on body mass index (BMI). Data were analyzed using SPSS17 by χ² test. 17 and 28 percent of the students were obese and overweight in the first to fifth grades, respectively. On average, the percentage of dyslexia among the unhealthy students was 21 per cent; this rate was 3.5 per cent among the healthy students. In addition, χ² test showed that there was a significant difference between dyslexic and healthy students (P=0.001). The prevalence of dyslexia among students with overweight and obesity in comparison to healthy students is high; then close monitoring will ensure that these problems are minimized.
Haddad, Vanessa L.
Video games have become an integral part of the day to day lives of many people across gender, race, and age in the United States. They have become particularly important in the college student population, with nearly two thirds of all college students playing on a regular basis (Lee, 2003). While much of the scholarly research in this area…
Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L
The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB.
V. B. Berdichevsky; B. A. Berdichevsky
Introduction. The state of men’s health in Russia is a matter of primary importance in light of improving the demographic situation in the country, as according to recent statistical data, there’re 10 % fewer men than women, and men’s lifespan is on average ten years shorter than women’s.The study objective is to study the rate of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in healthy males based on the data from preventive screening of an organized male population.Materials and methods. The res...
Pires Herton Helder Rocha
Full Text Available Triatoma infestans is the triatomine that presents the greatest dispersion area in South America. However, it is not known whether the original characteristics of this insect remained in its long dispersion process. The purpose of this work was to study comparatively the external male genitalia of insects from different populations of T. infestans, two from Brazil (Minas Gerais and Bahia and one from Bolivia (Cochabamba Valley, and to investigate the correlation between the morphological and behavioral variations. Differences were observed in one of the structures of the external genitalia (endosoma process that could be used to characterize the insects from the three populations studied.
Mentzer, Bruce; Black, Ellen Lowrie; Spohn, R. Terry
This study sought to describe the correlation of academic, financial, and social supports to the persistence of a military student population: veterans, active duty and their families. The study also contrasted these relationships with those of nonmilitary students and looked at the results of both groups together to determine how supports…
Patil, Suchitra R; Bharadwaj, Jyoti
There is a growing clinical emphasis for the measurement of BMR and energy expenditure in clinical and research investigation such as obesity, exercise, cancer, under-nutrition, trauma and infections. Hence, there is a motivation towards calculating basal metabolic rate using standard equations. The objective of the present work is to identify an appropriate equation in Indian environment for the estimation of calorie needs and basal metabolic rate using the measured height, weight, age and skin fold parameters of an individual. Basal metabolic rates of adolescent male and female population aged between 17-20 years were estimated using equations proposed by FAO, ICMR, Cunningham, Harris Benedict, Fredrix and Miffin. Calorie needs were calculated using factorial approach which involves the multiplication of basal metabolic rate with appropriate physical activity factor. Basal metabolic rates estimated by FAO, Cunningham, Harris-Benedict, Fredrix and Miffin are reduced by 5%. These reduced basal metabolic rates and calorie needs are compared with that obtained by Cunningham's equation which is considered as accurate equation. Comparison of the basal metabolic rates and calorie needs obtained by Cunningham equation with all equations such as Harris-Benedict, FAO, Fredrix and Miffin after 5% reduction and ICMR equation without reduction indicates that Harris-Benedict, Fredrix, Miffin and FAO equations can be used for male and female adolescent populations for Indian environment. In conclusion, Harris-Benedict equation is an appropriate equation for both male and female adolescent population for Indian environment.
Soliman, Amr S; Chamberlain, Robert M
Global health education and training of biomedical students in international and minority health research is expending through U.S. academic institutions. This study addresses the short- and long-term outcomes of an NCI-funded R25 short-term summer field research training program. This program is designed for MPH and Ph.D. students in cancer epidemiology and related disciplines, in international and minority settings (special populations) in a recent 7-year period. Positive short-term outcome of 73 students was measured as publishing a manuscript from the field research data and having a job in special populations. Positive long-term outcome was measured as having a post-doc position, being in a doctoral program, and/or employment in special populations at least 3 years from finishing the program. Significant factors associated with both short- and long-term success included resourcefulness of the student and compatibility of personalities and interests between the student and the on-campus and off-campus mentors. Short-term-success of students who conducted international filed research was associated with visits of the on-campus mentor to the field site. Short-term success was also associated with extent of mentorship in the field site and with long-term success. Future studies should investigate how field research sites could enhance careers of students, appropriateness of the sites for specific training competencies, and how to maximize the learning experience of students in international and minority research sites.
Johnson, K; LaTour, M S
This study was designed to examine the effects of fear appeals in AIDS prevention messages and to determine whether or not males and females differ in their response to these appeals. MANOVA results from a sample of 179 junior and senior business students at a mid-Atlantic urban university indicate that significant differences in message effects were associated with type of appeal, gender of the respondent, and the interaction between appeal and gender.
Full Text Available Genetic causes of male infertility are hypothesized to involve multiple types of mutations, from single gene defects to complex chromosome rearrangements. Recently, several recurrent X-chromosome microdeletions (located in subtelomeric region of the long arm were reported to be associated with male infertility in Spanish and Italian males. The aim of our study was to test their prevalence and infertility association in population of men from the Czech Republic.107 males with pathological sperm evaluation resulting in nonobstructive infertility were compared to 131 males with normal fecundity. X-chromosome microdeletions were assessed by +/- PCR with three primer pairs for each region Xcnv64 (Xq27.3, Xcnv67 (Xq28 and Xcnv69 (Xq28. The latter microdeletion was further characterized by amplification across the deleted region, dividing the deletion into three types; A, B and C.We detected presence of isolated Xcnv64 deletion in 3 patients and 14 controls, and Xcnv69 in 3 patients and 6 controls (1 and 1 patient vs.4 and 1 control for types A and B respectively. There was one control with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type B deletions, and one patient with combination of Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type C deletions. The frequency of the deletions was thus not higher in patient compared to control group, Xcnv64 was marginally associated with controls (adjusted Fisher´s exact test P = 0.043, Xcnv69 was not associated (P = 0.452. We excluded presence of more extensive rearrangements in two subjects with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 deletions. There was no Xcnv67 deletion in our cohort.In conclusion, the two previously reported X-linked microdeletions (Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 do not seem to confer a significant risk to impaired spermatogenesis in the Czech population. The potential clinical role of the previously reported patient-specific Xcnv67 remains to be determined in a larger study population.
Willette, James M.
The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to understand how male undergraduate students who identify as openly gay experience marginality and mattering at a Jesuit Catholic university. There were 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States as of this writing, each with its own varying approach towards the treatment…
Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
The purpose of the present study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian male nursing students regarding the role of nursing education in developing a professional identity. A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used to collect the data and analyze the perspectives of 14 Iranian male nursing students who were chosen by using a purposive sampling strategy. After the selection of the participants, semistructured interviews were held in order to collect the data. During the data analysis, three main themes emerged: "reality-expectation incompatibility", "being supported by the educational system", and "nursing image rectification". The second theme consisted of two categories: "feeling trusted" and "being defended". This study will be useful to nurse educators and administrators in relation to what constitutes nursing students' professional identity within the Iranian culture and context and how nursing education can play an effective role in developing their professional identity in order to devise strategies to attract male students to the nursing profession and promote their retention after graduation. © 2010 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2010 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan
The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of thinking styles on science achievement and attitudes toward science class among Taiwanese elementary school students and to explore the differences between male and female students in their modes of thinking. Participants included 756 sixth-grade students from 28 classes in four elementary…
Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledge about the sodium fluoride mouthwash solution was good but their attitude wasnegative.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health education program concerning the optimal use of the fluoride mouthwash in dentalcaries prevention is highly recommended. It is suggested that its taste is improved
Buzatto Bruno A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively
Full Text Available Background and Objective. In forensic investigations, mandibular canines provide excellent materials to identify gender since they are more likely to survive disasters. The objective of this study was to investigate gender dimorphism by comparing the mesiodistal width of mandibular permanent canines and intercanine distance in a group of Lebanese population. Methods. Participants consisted of undergraduate students from the School of Dentistry, Lebanese University, for two academic years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Canine widths and intercanine distance were measured by one operator directly on dental casts using a digital caliper. Results. One hundred thirty-three Lebanese dental students (54 males and 69 females aged 18–25 were included in the study. The intercanine distance was significantly greater in males (P value 0.05 and females (P value > 0.05. The mean width of canine was greater than 7.188 mm for males. Conclusion. The parameters measured in the present study are of great help in sex identification in forensic investigations in the Lebanese adult population.
Bouchat, Clarence J.
This article demonstrates geography's role as an integrative discipline and its utility in connecting students to the world around them. A case study links China's demography and its geopolitics to the lives of U.S. students. The relationship of China's population pressures to its resulting economic growth, need for economic resources, and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual offences are a global public health concern. Recent changes in the law in England and Wales have dramatically altered the legal landscape of sexual offences, but sexual assaults where the victim is voluntarily intoxicated by alcohol continue to have low conviction rates. Worldwide, students are high consumers of alcohol. This research aimed to compare male and female students in relation to their knowledge and attitudes about alcohol and sexual activity and to identify factors associated with being the victim of alcohol-related non-consensual sex. Methods 1,110 students completed an online questionnaire. Drinking levels were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Non-consensual sexual experiences were measured using the Sexual Experience Survey. Univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken using chi square and backwards stepwise logistic regression respectively. Results A third of respondents had experienced alcohol-related non-consensual sex. Male and female students differed in the importance they gave to cues in deciding if a person wished to have sex with them and their understanding of the law of consent. 82.2% of women who had experienced alcohol-related non-consensual sex were hazardous drinkers compared to 62.9% who drank at lower levels (P Conclusions Alcohol-related coerced sexual activity is a significant occurrence among students; attitudinal and knowledge differences between males and females may explain this. Educational messages that focus upon what is deemed acceptable sexual behaviour, the law and rape myths are needed but are set against a backdrop where drunkenness is commonplace.
Wally-Dima, Lillian; Mbekomize, Christian J.
This study employs the survey method to investigate the factors that cause academic differences between female and male students at the largest university in Botswana. The population of this research was the students of the last three years of the 4 year Bachelor of Accountancy degree programme at the University of Botswana. Anchored on the prior…
Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.
Bongoy, Batombo M.
This was a hermeneutic-phenomenological study on homeless students' life-world in urban, postsecondary public educational institutions. The sample population comprised 10 male and female Hispanic, Black, and Caucasian homeless student participants enrolled in professional and academic programs in postsecondary public vocational institutions…
Awad S. Alsamghan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND New studies has revealed the consumption of energy drinks as a common, linked with potential risky hyperactivity/inattention behaviour among the adolescent and especially college students. To assess the prevalence of the energy drinks consumption and to evaluate hyperactivity/inattention behaviour symptoms among the adolescent intermediate and high school male and female students in Abha city. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students who were studying in the intermediate and high school. Schools were randomly selected and all students (N=602 participated with consent. Total sample size included 602 students, 50% students from intermediate school and 50% students from high school. The tools used in the present study to collect the information from the students were a structured standardised questionnaire includes the basics characteristic, demographic and consumption of energy drinks related information. RESULTS Prevalence of the energy drinks consumption among students studying in intermediate and high school level was 303 (50.3%. Male 162 (53.3% are more consuming energy drinks than female 141 (46.7%. Students who are studying in high school (56.1% drinking more energy drinks than students (43.9% in higher level. Mean score of SDQ was 21.53±5.414 falling in abnormal category. Mean±SD score of the hyperactivity subscale of the SDQ was 3.76±1.980. Female students 66 (21.9%, p=0.162 are more likely to score hyperactivity subscale compared to male students 52 (17.3% (Table 1. Bivariate logistic regression analysis (Table 2 revealed that there was a significance association found with risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR=2.47, 95% Cl=1.61, 3.78 who consumed energy drinks. Most of the types of energy drinks types were associated with hyperactivity as regression analysis results shown. No association observed with study levels. CONCLUSION Energy drinks
Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 7-12 year old students and to investigate the relationship between flat foot and age and sex. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 945 students (460 girls and 485 boys were examined. The presence of flatfoot and the degree of its severity according to Tachdjian's system of grading for flatfoot was assessed. Results: The data showed that the overall prevalence of flat foot was 74% out of which 23% were mild, 34% were moderate and 17% were severe. The prevalence of flat foot in girl and boy students were 75.2% and 72.6% respectively, but this difference was not significant. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of flat foot and age. Discussion: This study showed that flat foot is a common problem among primary school students and should be addressed by responsible organizations.
Al-Damegh, Saleh A; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Al-Alfi, Mohammed A; Al-Hoqail, Ibrahim A
This study was conducted to examine the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Qassim region, KSA during March 2003. Randomly selected was 14 out of 110 government male secondary schools. In the sample section, care was taken to represent urban and rural communities. In urban areas, 8 schools with the largest number of students were selected. This is in addition to 3 schools, which were the only schools with special education on Islamic, Commercial and Technical programs. In the rural areas the 3 most distant schools were included in the sample. Data were obtained through self-administered questionnaires that contained questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge and attitude towards cigarette smoking. A total of 2203 students responded to the questionnaires with 83% response rate. Of the studied group, 606 (29.8%) were current smokers and among these 83.7% started smoking at the age of 15 years or less. Technical and commercial secondary school students had higher prevalence of the habit of smoking than those in general and Islamic secondary schools. It was found that the more pocket money received by the students, the higher was the prevalence of smoking. The most common reason given for cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) was the influence of friends (63.5%). Family factor, especially the brother's smoking habit (24.8%) was also important. Most of the students knew that smoking is harmful to their own health (89.3%), and to others (73.9%). The association between smoking and lung cancer was 84.3%, 80.9% for chest disease and 78.2% for heart disease, while the relation to other diseases was less known. We conclude that onset of smoking in the young is alarming. This is of immense importance in formulating health education strategies, which should be directed towards pupils, teachers and
Kissa, Jamila; Chemlali, Sihame; El Houari, Bouchra; Amine, Khadija; Khlil, Nadia; Mikou, Salwa; Nadifi, Sellama; Albandar, Jasim M
This study assessed the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and demographics of chronic and aggressive periodontitis in a representative sample drawn from a subpopulation in Morocco. Eight hundred and thirty students representative of 12+ years old attending schools in the Province of Benslimane, Morocco were selected by a multi-phased, probability sampling. Their age was 12-25 years (mean: 16.1 years) and comprised of 50% males and 50% females. Chronic and aggressive periodontitis were determined clinically. A total of 31% and 10.1% of the subjects had ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm attachment loss, respectively; 4.9% had aggressive periodontitis, and 6.4% had chronic periodontitis. Subjects with chronic periodontitis typically had 4-5 mm attachment loss affecting a few molars or premolars. Subjects with aggressive periodontitis had ≥5 mm attachment loss affecting multiple teeth, and 68% and 73% of these subjects had ≥6 mm attachment loss affecting maxillary and mandibular molars respectively. Attachment loss and periodontitis were significantly more prevalent in the 19-25 years group, than the 12-18 years age group. There were no significant differences in disease prevalence by gender or ethnic groups (Arab versus Berber). This young Moroccan population is at high risk of destructive periodontal disease, and further studies are indicated to investigate the biological and environmental factors that may contribute to the increased risk of disease in this population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract This article analyses the differences in basic digital competences of male and female university students on Social Education, Social Work and Pedagogy courses. The study of gender differences in university students’ acquisition of digital competence has considerable didactic and strategic consequences for the development of these skills. The study was carried out at two public universities in Spain (UNED – the National Distance-Learning University, and the Universidad Pablo de Olavide on a sample of 923 students, who responded to a questionnaire entitled “University Students’ Basic Digital Competences 2.0” (COBADI – registered at the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office. The research applied a quantitative methodology based on a Bayesian approach using multinomial joint distribution as prior distribution. The use of Bayes factors also offers advantages with respect to the use of frequentist p-values, like the generation of information on the alternative hypothesis, that the evidence is not dependent on the sample size used. The results show that men have greater perceived competence in digital cartography and online presentations, whereas women prefer to request personal tutorials to resolve doubts about technology and have greater perceived competence in corporate emailing. There is also evidence that the men have greater perceived competence in developing “online presentations” than women do. Regarding to, “Interpersonal competences in the use of ICT at university”, we observed that the female students opted for personal sessions with tutors in greater numbers than the male students did.
This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…
Full Text Available Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T van der Molen,2 Benjamin J de Boer31Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD Residency Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences/National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Stress among dental students can be a significant threat, resulting in physical and/or mental illness, and have a negative effect on students' performance and the professional practice of dentistry. Stress can occur from different sources. The purpose of this study is to test whether the year of study has an effect on the stress levels of dental students.Method: Our study consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES questionnaire. The questionnaires were filled out by male undergraduate dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh City during the 2010–2011 academic year (n = 214.Results: The results show the most common sources of stress: examinations and completing clinical requirements. Moreover, in the five-year lecture-based traditional curriculum, the third year students reported the highest level of stress, whereas the first year reported the lowest level of stress.Conclusion: Third year undergraduate dental students reported the highest level of stress. This stress could be reduced by reviewing and modifying the dental curriculum by allowing students to have contact with patients more gradually, starting from the first year, in addition to adding stress prevention and intervention programs in dental curricula.Keywords: dental, education, students, stress, study year
W. Shi (Wentao); Q. Ayub (Qasim); M. Vermeulen (Mark); R.G. Shao (Rong Guang); S.B. Zuniga (Sofia); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); Y. Xue (Yali); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris)
textabstractWe have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and
Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young
Background: Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. Objectives: We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002–2005) and subsequent male infertility. Methods: We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002–2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20–59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006–2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. Results: During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05–1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. Conclusion: We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. - Highlights: • Noise is widespread and imposes auditory and non-auditory health
Abo El-Fetoh, Nagah M; Alenezi, Naif G; Alshamari, Nasser G; Alenezi, Omar G
Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Small, noninflamed acne lesions may not be more than a slight nuisance, but, in individuals with more severe inflammatory disease, pain, social embarrassment, and both physical and psychological scarring can be life altering. Despite its high prevalence, no previous community-based studies have been conducted in Arar, northern border of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of acne vulgaris, to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of cases, and to determine the aggravating factors and the psychological impact of acne vulgaris in a representative sample of secondary school male students in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage systematic random sampling technique was followed. A total of 400 male students during the academic year 2015-2016 were included in the study. Data were collected by means of personal interview and filling-in a questionnaire. The overall prevalence of acne vulgaris was 53.5%. The mean age of onset was 15.0±1.2 years. Positive family history of acne vulgaris was found in 46.7% of cases. The skin was greasy in 61.7% of cases. Acne site was the face in 67.3%, the back in 4.7%, and both in 28% of the cases. More than half (54.2%) of the cases had first-degree acne. Students mentioned several factors affecting the appearance of acne; 59.8% of cases reported a relation of increased acne appearance with the cleanliness of the skin, 35.5% reported relation with consumption of fatty meals, 24.2% with eating chocolate, 23.3% with consumption of spicy food, 12.1% with excess intake of cola drinks, 31.8% with heavy smoking, and 60.7% reported increased acne appearance in summer months. Acne was highly prevalent among secondary school male students in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several risk factors increased the appearance of acne, including
Yamaguchi, T.; Hatono, T.; Izumi, S.; Nishihara, S.; Kimura, K.; Torigoe, H.; Tanaka, T.; Miyaji, K.; Hara, Y.; Ueda, A.; Shigei, F.
The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We estimated the entire adult male population of C. formicarius at its low-density period on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Pref., Japan. The population of adult males at the high-density period in September was about 5 times larger than that at its low-density period in May, both of which were estimated by Yamamura's method. Using this calculation in combination with an estimate of the maximal population size (4 x 10E6) by Sugimoto et al. in 1994, the total number of male weevils at their low-density period can be assumed to be less than 8 x 10E5
Masoume Pourmohamadreza Tajrishi
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of present study was to determine the effectiveness of conceptual map training method on the achievement of social-economic skill course in male students with intellectual disability. Methods: This study was semi-experimental and 34 male students with intellectual disability who were educating in 3rd grade at pre-professional level in high school selected randomly from Talash Exceptional Center in Tabriz City. Their academic achievement in social-economic skill course were assessed by teacher-made and performance tests. Subjects were assigned in control and experimental groups randomly and equally. Experimental group participated in 8 sessions and were trained by conceptual map method for one month (8 sessions 2 sessions weekly. At the end of eightieth session and one month later, subjects answered to teacher-made and performance tests again. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Results: Findings showed that the conceptual map training method had positive effect on achievement of social-economic skill in students (P<0.01. But, its effectiveness wasn’t persistent after one month in follow-up test. Discussion: Regarding to positive effects of conceptual map training method on meaningful learning, it seems as an effective method for intellectually disabled male students who require deep learning to understand the content of their lessons.
Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Thorpe, Roland J; Griffith, Derek M
Racial disparities in weight-related outcomes among males may be linked to differences in behavioral change efficacy; however, few studies have pursued this line of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which self-efficacy associated with changing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption intake varies by race among male first-year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen males (N = 203) at a medium-sized southern university. Key variables of interest were SSB intake and self-efficacy in reducing consumption of sugared beverages. African American and Whites had similar patterns of SSB intake (10.2 ± 2.8 vs. 10.1 ± 2.6); however, African Americans had lower proportions of individuals who were sure they could substitute sugared beverages with water (42.2% vs. 57.5%, p obesity-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.
and 50 female Caucasian South African healing sciences students and 44 male and 43 female American medical, dental, physiotherapy students were...lesser extent, even the primary differences. The subjects used in the cited research, especially in the cognitive areas, were usually college students ...that may make college students atypical of and noncomparable to Navy enlisted personnel of the same general age. This appears more likely for males
Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura
This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…
del Aguila, Michael A; Leggott, Penelope J; Robertson, Paul B; Porterfield, Denise L; Felber, Gene D
Women make up about 14 percent of general dentists in the United States, and the proportion is projected to exceed 29 percent by 2020. The authors obtained dental benefits claims data from the Washington Dental Service (WDS), Seattle, and used them to examine the practice patterns of 265 women and 1,947 men engaged in general dentistry for at least 26 days in 2001. Practice variables of interest included age, days worked, procedures performed and total income from WDS reimbursements and patient copayments. The number, age and sex of patients treated also were obtained. Using productivity data, the authors also estimated the potential impact of an increase in the percentage of female dentists in the state. The authors found no differences between male and female dentists in the number of procedures per patient, income per patient or income per day of work. Frequency distributions of various services were highly similar for both groups. Multiple regression models showed no influence of dentist's sex on total income. However, the mean and median numbers of days worked were about 10 percent lower for female dentists than for male dentists. This difference was consistent with the finding that female dentists treated approximately 10 percent fewer patients, performed about 10 percent fewer procedures and had a combined income of about 10 percent less than that of male dentists. Practice patterns of male and female dentists generally were equivalent in this WDS population. Female and male dentists provided a similar range of services and earned an equal income per patient treated and per day worked. However, women worked fewer days per year than did men, irrespective of age. If the dental work force and practice patterns remain unchanged otherwise, the total number of patients treated per dentist will decrease slightly as women make up an increasing proportion of dentists.
Jayant Ramchandra Kalkute
Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of personality of adolescents. The age of sexual debut is falling globally. The subject of adolescent sexuality is taboo in most societies. Since 2007 sexual health education program has been banned in six states including Maharashtra and Karnataka. This may lead to misconceptions about sexual heath knowledge and practices among young people. Objective: The aim was to assess the knowledge about sexual health among male students of junior colleges of an urban area and to evaluate the change in their knowledge after imparting sexual health education. Settings and Design: Pre-post-intervention study. Materials and Methods: All 245 male students of 11 th standard of all three educational streams of two junior colleges were included in the study. The data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 18. Results: Science students had "adequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared to arts and commerce students (P = 0.004. Students whose parents were unskilled and semiskilled by occupation had "inadequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared with students whose parents were skilled by occupation (P < 0.05. Education of parents had positive effect on the knowledge about sexual health of students (P = 0.062. In posttest, the knowledge about sexual health of students was found to have increased significantly when compared to pretest. The mean posttest score was 12.61 (standard deviation [SD] 3.12, which was significantly higher than the mean pretest score of 6.34 (SD 3.23 (P < 0.001. Students from nuclear families had "adequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared to students from joint families (P = 0.158 Conclusion: Imparting knowledge about sexual health in adolescent age will be beneficial to the students in avoiding risky sexual behavior. Such educational programs must be given due importance to achieve desirable behavior change among them.
Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.
Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their…
Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori
The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…
This dissertation's purpose was to better understand how messages received through different cultural mediums influences the development of social success skills. Black male students were chosen as the focal participants for this year-long study because they are included among the groups whose social success skills development are thought to…
Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Crisp, Richard J.
This research aimed to establish if the presentation of two positive stereotypes would result in choking under pressure for identified male mathematics students. Seventy-five 16 year old men, who had just commenced their AS-level study, were either made aware of their gender group membership (single positive stereotype), their school group…
Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young
Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002-2005) and subsequent male infertility. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20-59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006-2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teleman, Adele Anna; de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa
Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.
Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Anna C; Kalé, Sudhir; Spence, Mark; Zlatevska, Natalina; Staiger, Petra K; Graffam, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael
Young people are a high risk group for gambling problems and university (college) students fall into that category. Given the high accessibility of gambling in Australia and its association with entertainment, students from overseas countries, particularly those where gambling is restricted or illegal, may be particularly vulnerable. This study examines problem gambling and its correlates among international and domestic university students using a sample of 836 domestic students (286 males; 546 females); and 764 international students (369 males; 396 females) at three Australian universities. Our findings indicate that although most students gamble infrequently, around 5 % of students are problem gamblers, a proportion higher than that in the general adult population. Popular gambling choices include games known to be associated with risk (cards, horse races, sports betting, casino games, and gaming machines) as well as lotto/scratch tickets. Males are more likely to be problem gamblers than females, and almost 10 % of male international students could be classified as problem gamblers. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that male gender, international student status, financial stress, negative affect and frequency of gambling on sports, horses/dogs, table games, casino gaming machines, internet casino games and bingo all significantly predicted problem gambling. Results from this study could inform gambling-education programs in universities as they indicate which groups are more vulnerable and specify which games pose more risk of problem gambling.
Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C, MTR (2756A > G and MTRR (66A > G polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population.
Oginni, Olakunle A; Mosaku, Kolawole S; Mapayi, Boladale M; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Afolabi, Temitope O
Homosexuality is a recognized risk factor for depression in high-income countries; however, there is little research investigating the relationship between depression and sexual orientation in developing countries, especially in Africa. In this first study to investigate psychopathology in sexual minority men in Nigeria, the prevalence rates of depression in Nigerian gay and heterosexual individuals were compared as well as the explanatory power of risk and resilience factors in both groups. Eighty-one gay and 81 heterosexual male university students were, respectively, recruited from the Obafemi Awolowo University. Both groups were assessed for depression and other clinical factors, including alcohol and other substance use, suicidal ideation, and resilience. Gay students were further assessed for sexuality-related variables, including minority stress factors such as internalized homophobia and perceived stigma. The prevalence rates of depression among gay and heterosexual students were, respectively, 16 and 4.9% (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.15-11.82), and this increased likelihood for depression was significantly attenuated by resilience. Clinical factors correlated significantly with depression in both groups, explaining 31% of the variance in depression in gay and heterosexual students, respectively. Sexuality-related variables including internalized homophobia and perceived stigma were further associated with depression in gay students-accounting for a further 14% of the variance of depression in gay students. The findings highlight the importance of minority stress factors in understanding depression among non-heterosexual individuals in a developing country, and the need for further research to investigate the mechanisms of these relationships in such settings.
Polzella, D J
38 male and 55 female college students rated digitized color facsimiles of 40 paintings that varied in artistic period (Renaissance, Rococo, Impressionist, Post-Impressionist, 20th Century) and subject matter (portrait, landscape, still life, behavior depiction) on 12 7-point semantic differential scales, e.g., simple-complex. Women judged the content of Rococo and Impressionist paintings as more pleasing than did men and Impressionist paintings evoked greater feelings of pleasure and relaxation among women than among men. In addition, paintings that depicted behaviors evoked more pleasure and alertness among women than among men. The results were interpreted in terms of underlying differences between men and women in perceptual style and emotional sensitivity.
Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke
OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...
Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de
Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes).
Henning, Marcus A; Krägeloh, Christian U; Hawken, Susan J; Zhao, Yipin; Doherty, Iain
Quality of life is an essential component of learning and has strong links with the practice and study of medicine. There is burgeoning evidence in the research literature to suggest that medical students are experiencing health-related problems such as anxiety, depression, and burnout. The aim of the study was to investigate medical students' perceptions concerning their quality of life. Two hundred seventy-four medical students studying in their early clinical years (response rate = 80%) participated in the present study. Medical students were asked to fill in the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire to elicit information about their quality of life perceptions in relation to their physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Subsequently, their responses were compared with two nonmedical students groups studying at a different university in the same city and an Australian general population norm. The findings were compared using independent group's t tests, confidence intervals, and Cohen's d. The main finding of the study indicated that medical students had similar quality of life perceptions to nonmedical students except in relation to the environment domain. Furthermore, the medical student group scored lower than the general population reference group on the physical health, psychological health, and environment quality of life domains. The results suggest that all university students are expressing concerns related to quality of life, and thus their health might be at risk. The findings in this study provided no evidence to support the notion that medical students experience lower levels of quality of life compared to other university students. When compared to the general population, all student groups examined in this study appeared to be experiencing lower levels of quality of life. This has implications for pastoral support, educationalists, student support personnel, and the
Courtney and Dennis, two African American male students at McDowell High, were arrested at school for throwing water balloons during senior prank week. The principal assigned two police officers to the magnet school to oversee the implementation of a new discipline protocol. However, several members of the school staff were ill-informed about the…
This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the
Ahmad, Muhammad; Mohmand, Humayun; Ahmad, Nabila
Various studies have been conducted in many countries to determine the perception/awareness about plastic surgery. The present study assessed the views of college students about plastic surgery. A questionnaire consisted of nine questions regarding the basic knowledge about plastic surgery was randomly distributed among college students. The students were given 20 minutes to fill out the forms. A total of 250 male and 250 female college students were randomly included in the study. The mean age of the male students was 21.1 years as compared to 20.7 years of female students. The top five conditions named were related to hair (89.8%) followed by face scars (88%). The most common procedure named by the students was liposuction (88.2%) followed by hair transplantation. 80.2% of the students opted not to be a plastic surgeon if given an opportunity to select the profession. 33.8% of the students had seen some kinds of plastic surgery operation. Only 5.6% of the students (3.4% male and 2.2% female) had seen some kinds of plastic surgery procedure. 68% of male students and 48% of female students wished to have a plastic surgery procedure sometime in their lives. Majority of the students (88%) got the information from the internet. The second most common source was magazines (85.2%). Majority of the students (53.4%) had an idea of an invisible scar as a result of having a plastic surgery procedure. Only 22% thought to have no scar. Late Michael Jackson was at the top of the list of celebrities having a plastic surgery procedure (97.8%) followed by Nawaz Shariff (92.4%). Despite the rapid growth of plastic surgery in the last two decades, a large portion of population remains unaware of the spatiality. It is essential to institute programs to educate healthcare consumers and providers about the plastic surgery.
Shaikh, Alauddin; Mallick, Nazrul Islam
Introduction: The aim of this study was to find out the effects of plyometrics training and weight training among university male students.Procedure: 60 male students from the different colleges of the Burdwan University were randomly selected as subjects and their age were 19-25 years served as Weight training Group (WTG), second group served as Plyometric Training Group (PTG) and the third group served as Control Group (CT). Eight weeks weight training and six weeks plyometric training were given for experiment accordingly. The control group was not given any training except of their routine. The selected subjects were measured of their motor ability components, speed, endurance, explosive power and agility. ANCOVA was calculation for statistical treatment.Finding: Plyometric training and weight training groups significantly increase speed, endurance, explosive power and agility.Conclusion: The plyometric training has significantly improved speed, explosive power, muscular endurance and agility. The weight training programme has significantly improved agility, muscular endurance, and explosive power. The plometric training is superior to weight training in improving explosive power, agility and muscular endurance.
Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen
This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Han, Lin; Jia, Zhaotong; Cao, Chunwei; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Fuqiang; Wang, Lin; Ren, Wei; Sun, Mingxia; Wang, Baoping; Li, Changgui; Chen, Li
Abstract Cognitive impairment has been described in elderly subjects with high normal concentrations of serum uric acid. However, it remains unclear if gout confers an increased poorer cognition than those in individuals with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The present study aimed at evaluating cognitive function in patients suffering from gout in an elderly male population, and further investigating the genetic contributions to the risk of cognitive function. This study examined the cognitive function as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in 205 male gout patients and 204 controls. The genetic basis of these cognitive measures was evaluated by genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in 102 male gout patients. Furthermore, 7 loci associated with cognition in GWAS were studied for correlation with gout in 1179 male gout patients and 1848 healthy male controls. Compared with controls, gout patients had significantly lower MoCA scores [22.78 ± 3.01 vs 23.42 ± 2.95, P = .023, adjusted by age, body mass index (BMI), education, and emotional disorder]. GWAS revealed 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associations with MoCA test at a level of conventional genome-wide significance (P gene (Padjusted = 4.2 × 10−9, Padjusted = 4.7 × 10–9) at 14q22. The next best signal was in RELN gene (rs155333, Padjusted = 1.3 × 10–8) at 7q22, while the other variants at rs17458357 (Padjusted = 3.98 × 10–8), rs2572683 (Padjusted = 8.9 × 10–8), rs12555895 (Padjusted = 2.6 × 10–8), and rs3764030 (Padjusted = 9.4 × 10–8) were also statistically significant. The 7 SNPs were not associated with gout in further analysis (all P > .05). Elderly male subjects with gout exhibit accelerated decline in cognition performance. Several neurodegenerative disorders risk loci were identified for genetic contributors to cognitive performance in our
C. Daisy Nambikkai; Dr. A.Veliappan
The present study aims to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and reasoning ability of the higher secondary students. Among the population, 724 samples of higher secondary students were selected randomly from Puducherry region. Findings of the study were i) significant difference is found between male and female higher secondary students in their reasoning ability in science on analogical reasoning, classification as reasoning, eclectic reasoning, deductive reasoning and ...
Full Text Available For maternally transmitted microbes, a female-biased host sex ratio is of reproductive advantage. Here we found a strong female bias in a field population of the green lacewing, Mallada desjardinsi (Insecta; Neuroptera. This bias was attributed to the predominance of individuals harboring a maternally inherited male-killing bacterium that was phylogenetically closely related to the plant-pathogenic Spiroplasma phoeniceum and Spiroplasma kunkelii. Among 35 laboratory-reared broods produced by wild-caught females, 21 broods (60%-all infected with Spiroplasma-consisted of only females (940 individuals. Among 14 broods consisting of both males and females (516 and 635 individuals, respectively, 4 broods were doubly infected with Spiroplasma and Rickettsia, 6 broods were singly infected with Rickettsia, and 3 broods were uninfected (remaining one brood was unknown. Mortality during embryonic and larval development was prominent in all-female broods but not in normal sex ratio broods. Following antibiotic treatment on all-female broods, mortality was significantly reduced and the sex ratio was restored to 1:1. Strong expression and high prevalence of this male-killer is remarkable considering its low density (~10-5-10-4 cells per host mitochondrial gene copy based on quantitative PCR. In addition, a bacterium closely related to Rickettsia bellii was present in 25 of 34 broods (73.5%, irrespective of the sex ratio, with the infection density comparable to other cases of endosymbiosis (~10-2-10-1 cells per mitochondrial gene copy. Higher density of Rickettsia than Spiroplasma was also demonstrated by electron microscopy which visualized both Spiroplasma-like cells and Rickettsia-like cells inside and outside the ovarian cells.
Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc
Introduction Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. Methods A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Results Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Conclusions Findings suggest drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths’ drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. PMID:26256470
This article presents research undertaken among male teachers and it explores their perceptions and experiences of working in early years contexts. It examines prevalent, contrary discourses and their impact on the construction of male teachers' identities. Public discourses in relation to male teachers reveal contradictions ...
Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L
Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.
Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray
A common perception is that police officers hold very negative attitudes about rape victims. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to establish whether police officers do accept stereotypical rape myths at a higher level compared to members of other populations. There were 3 comparison samples, composed of police officers, law students, and psychology students, that completed the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale. Male and female police officers accepted "she lied" myths at a higher level than the student samples. Student samples were found to accept 2 types of rape myths ("she asked for it" and "he didn't meant to") at a higher level compared to police officers. No significant differences were found in the other 4 subfactors. Therefore, the pattern of results suggests that police officers do not adhere to stereotypical myths about rape victims more than do other populations.
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
To explore male students' attitudes towards menstruation. Menstruation is a biological event that is often surrounded by secrecy and social stigma that causes anxiety amongst many young girls. A key element of this is the attitudes of young males towards this reproductive health issue. However, the literature around what young males think and feel about menstruation is limited. Qualitative. A sample of 27 male students aged between 10-12 years participated in five focus groups. Data were then subject to a thematic analysis. Five themes emerged from the data analysis that reflected the boys' feelings, experiences and attitudes towards menstruation: 'A silent topic', 'An unimportant issue', 'Errant information about menstruation'. In addition, according to their experience, participants gradually came to see menstruation from the 'menstrual stereotype' viewpoint. In their social life, they made choices that resulted in gradually regulating their behaviour that affected their 'relationships with girls'. Young boys have misguided knowledge about menstruation and this helps to perpetuate the stigma surrounding this element of reproductive health. Boys also express a desire to learn more but are often restricted in this by home and school. School nurses are the best placed professionals to address this issue. Menstrual education with boys should take a greater prominence than it often does in sexual health education in schools. Such inclusion will provide boys with a balanced and accurate knowledge base and therefore help towards reducing the social stigma around menstruation that is often experienced by young girls. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Cushing, Bruce S; Razzoli, Maria; Murphy, Anne Z; Epperson, Pamela M; Le, Wei-Wei; Hoffman, Gloria E
Estrogen (E) regulates a variety of male sociosexual behaviors. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the distribution of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and the degree of male social behavior. To test this hypothesis, ERalpha immunoreactivity (IR) was compared in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) from Illinois (IL), which are highly social, and Kansas (KN), which are less social. The expression of androgen receptors (AR) in males also was compared between populations. The expression of ERalpha and AR were compared in brains from KN and IL males and females using immunocytochemistry (ICC). There were significant intrapopulational differences, with males expressing less ERalpha-IR than females in the medial preoptic area, ventromedial nucleus, ventrolateral portion of the hypothalamus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). IL males also displayed less ERalpha-IR in the medial amygdala (MeA) than IL females. While IL males expressed significantly less ERalpha-IR in the BST and MeA than KN males, there was no difference in AR-IR. Differences in the pattern of ERalpha-IR between KN and IL males were behaviorally relevant, as low levels of testosterone (T) were more effective in restoring sexual activity in castrated KN males than IL males. The lack of difference in AR combined with lower expression of ERalpha-IR in IL males suggests that behavioral differences in response to T are associated with aromatization of T to E and that reduced sensitivity to E may facilitate prosocial behavior in males.
Abdelalim, Ahmed; Ajaj, Nawras; Al-Tmimy, Abdulrahman; Alyousefi, Maytham; Al-Rashaidan, Sulaiman; Hammoud, Majeda S; Al-Taiar, Abdullah
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between childhood obesity and student academic performance in the classroom setting. A multi-stage cluster random sampling was used to select a representative sample of 1,213 fifth-grade students in male public schools. Height and weight were measured using a standard protocol. Overweight was defined as BMI ≥85th but education was the most important predictor for high academic performance in the classroom setting. There is no association between obesity and academic performance in the classroom setting among boys in Kuwait. With the lack of evidence of a relationship between childhood obesity and academic performance, using high performance as a measure of success in prevention initiatives cannot be justified. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available This study examines undergraduate students’ perceptions of interaction with regards to gender. The study sits within thequantitative paradigm and offers a holistic analysis of student integration in which the complexity of integration was revealedthrough the inter-relations of gender. Two public universities in two big cities were chosen as the sample. These universitieshad common characteristics with regards to faculties, number of students, year of foundation and physical standards. Genderdifferences in integration noted by 3500 students constituted the sample group. The young male and females who comprisedthe sample for this study, which was expected to represent an undergraduate population that might be found at any largepublic university at a developing country. Results showed that students had integration and interaction concerns in general inpublic universities in the sample group. However females were significantly higher on communication related dimensions
Full Text Available Objective: Background: Studies have documented the agenesis of Palmaris longus muscle in different populations but none has included the Ghanaian population. Methods: The study involved 226 subjects (130 females and 96 males who are students of the University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. The presence of the PLM was clinically determined using the Schaeffer’s test. Subjects in which the tendon was not visualized or palpable, two other tests were performed to confirm the absence. Results: The total prevalence of absence of PLM was 3.1%; absence on the left hand was commoner than on the right hand. The frequency of PLM absence was also slightly higher in females than in males representing 1.8% and 1.3% respectively. One female had the PLM absent bilaterally whiles a male subject had a trifid tendon on the right forearm with a bifid on the left. Conclusion: The prevalence of PLM agenesis in the Ghanaian population is lower compared to values coated in standard textbook on surgery. PLM is not diminishing as fast as observed in some population hence it is can be readily used as donor tendon by Ghanaian surgeons.
Morwe, Keamogetse G.; Tshitangano, Takalani
Background Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. Aim This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students’ sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Methods Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. Results This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students’ negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. Conclusion The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students’ sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda. PMID:27542288
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research exploring the correlation between exposure of elementary school students to various types of bulling at school (stealing of personal belongings, violence, coercion, mockery, shunning and their parents' educational level. Special emphasis was put on connections in mother-daughter and father-son dyads were explored. The research is a part TIMSS 2007 International Project covered a representative sample of 2447 8th Grade students (1161 boys and 1286 girls from 36 elementary schools in Serbia. A questionnaire was used to collect the information on assessment of school environment, as well as students' experience of peer victimization. Overall, 48.1% students (in male sub-sample 54.4%; in female sub-sample 42.7% reported being subjected to some kind of bullying in the preceding month. Much more frequently than girls, boys were subjected to theft of personal belongings, coercion and shunning. Correlation is found between educational level of mothers and bullying of their daughters at schools (especially violence, coercion and mockery. While students/daughters of highly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to coercion (forced to do something they did not want to do, daughters of poorly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to shunning. The sub-sample of boys did not indicate any correlation between educational level of fathers and peer victimization in school environment.
Wengaard, Eivind; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde
Background : Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students. Methods : Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm) completed a [Formula: see text] test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations). The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17%) of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue), 224 (67%) appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue) and 56 (17%) appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue). Mean reaction time (RT) and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire. Results : Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher [Formula: see text] was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = -2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011), and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = -2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048). There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli ( F = 1.01, p = 0.397) or of weekly training and stimuli ( F = 0.99, p = 0.405). Conclusion : The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.
Simpson, Steve; Clifford, Christine; Ross, Kaz; Sefton, Neil; Owen, Louise; Blizzard, Leigh; Turner, Richard
Background Evidence suggests a varied level of sexual health literacy (SHL) among university student populations, so we evaluated the SHL among students at the University of Tasmania. Students were invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire during August/September 2013. SHL was assessed using the ARCSHS National Survey of Australian Secondary Students & Sexual Health (ARC) and the Sexual Health Questionnaire (SHS). Predictors of literacy scores were evaluated by linear regression. The study recruited 1786 participants (8.2% of 2013 student population), of similar composition to the general university population. Female sex, older age, sexual education, and sexual experience were significant predictors of SHL. As hypothesised, students in medical/nursing disciplines had the highest SHL. Less expected were the significant differences by birthplace and religious affiliation, many of which persisted on adjustment for confounders. Compared with Australian/New Zealander students, overseas-born students had significantly lower ARC (-3.6%, Patheist-identifying students, those of Buddhist (ARC: -5.4%, P=0.014; SHS: -6.7%, P=0.002), Hindu (ARC: -8.8%, P=0.098; SHS: -12.2%, P=0.027), Muslim (ARC: -16.5%, Preligious affiliation. These findings have applications in orientation and education programs at Australian universities.
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence, the nature, and the possible socio-demographic risk factors involved in the development of common transmissible skin disorders (TSD among the studied population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional consecutive survey was carried out from November 15, 2008 to May 14, 2009 in Al-Ahsa governorate. This study included 1337 male primary school children. Data were collected using the following tools: Socio-demographics and hygienic habits according to pre-established forms and a thorough dermatological examination of all the included children. Results: The prevalence of TSD was 27.15% with a statistically significant difference according to rural/urban locations (33.74% vs. 22.27%. Fungal infections were the leading diseases (9.1% followed by bacterial infections (8.9%, parasitic infestations (4.3%, and viral infections (4.1%. TSD were significantly more frequent in students whose fathers have a primary or preparatory educational status and in the students having the habit to play barefooted. Conclusion: Our study found that TSD was relatively frequent among male primary school students in Al-Ahsa. Our study has several limitations. One major limitation is that female primary school students were excluded from the study. Despite this major limitation, we hope the findings may be useful in planning health care programs for Saudi children with the hope of reducing the prevalence of TSD in the future.
Procter, Paula M; Brixey, Juliana J; Honey, Michelle L L; Todhunter, Fern
The authors have all engaged in using social media with students as a means for collaboration across national and international boundaries for various educational purposes. Following the explosion of big data in health the authors are now moving this concept forward within undergraduate and postgraduate nursing curricula for the development of population health virtual exchanges. Nursing has a global presence and yet it appears as though students have little knowledge of the health and social care needs and provision outside their local environment. This development will allow for explorative exchange amongst students in three countries, enhancing their understanding of their own and the selected international population health needs and solutions through asking and responding to questions amongst the learning community involved. The connection of the students will be recorded for their use in reflection; of particular interest will be the use of information included by the students to answer questions about their locality.
Adele Anna Teleman
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. DISCUSSION: The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. CONCLUSION: The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.
Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.
The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…
Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge
This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…
Riba-Hernández, Pablo; Segura, Jorge Lobo; Muñoz-Valverde, Jenny
Factors related to pollen and resource limitation were evaluated to predict female fruit production in a tropical dioecious tree. Pollen limitation via variation in the male density at local scales is expected to limit female reproduction success in dioecious plants. We modeled the roles of local male density, female crown size, crown illumination, and female flower production on female fruit initiation and mature fruit production in a continuous population (62 ha plot) of a tropical dioecious tree (Virola surinamensis). In addition, we used microsatellites to describe the scale of effective pollen flow, the male effective population size, and the spatial genetic structure within/between progenies and males. The local male density was not related to female fruit initiation or mature fruit production. Female floral production had a positive effect on fruit initiation. The female crown size was positively related to fruit maturation. Seeds from the same female and seeds from different but spatially proximal females were generally half-siblings; however, proximal females showed greater variation. Proximal male-female adult pairs were not significantly more genetically related than distant pairs. The probability of paternity was negatively affected by the distance between seeds and males; most effective pollen dispersal events (∼85%) occurred from males located less than 150 m from females. The number of males siring progenies was greater than the number of males found at local scales. Female fecundity in this continuous population of Virola surinamensis is not limited by the availability of pollen from proximal males. Rather, resource allocation to floral production may ultimately determine female reproductive success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Huy Van Nguyen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, as doctor of medicine is socially considered a special career, both men and women who are enrolled in medical universities often study topics of medicine seriously. However, as culturally expected, women often perform better than men. Because of this, teaching leadership and management skill (LMS to develop academic planning activity (APA for female medical students would also be expected to be more effective than male counterparts. This research aimed to compare by gender the effect of teaching LMS on increasing APA, using propensity score matching (PSM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 male and female medical students in Hanoi Medical University, this study adopted first regression techniques to construct a fit model, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of LMS education. RESULTS: There were several interesting gender differences. First, while for females LMS education had both direct and indirect effects on APA, it had only direct effect on males' APA. Second, after PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups - with and without LMS education, there is statistically a significant difference in APA between male and female students, making a net difference of 11% (p<.01, equivalent to 173 students. The difference in APA between exposed and matched control group in males and females was 9% and 20%, respectively. These estimates of 9.0 and 20.0 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APA by 142 males and 315 females, respectively, in the population. These numbers of APA among male and female students can be explained by LMS education. CONCLUSIONS: Gender appears to be a factor explaining in part academic planning activity.
Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je
[Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.
Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings
CONCLUSION: This study claims that the previously established risk factors which are considered to be associated with infertility might influence less or interfere with male infertility in more subtle ways.
Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.
Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)
Kara, Ahmet; Tekin, Hatice
This research has been carried out to investigate the relation between social media usage of secondary school students and their perceived human values. The population of the research consisted of 1952 students, of which 48% were female and 52% were male, 7th and 8th grade students attending secondary schools in central Adiyaman in 2014-2015…
Gopalakrishnan, S; Ganeshkumar, P; Prakash, M V S; Christopher; Amalraj, V
Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals. A study was conducted to screen the medical students of AIMST University for overweight/obesity using Body Mass Index(BMI) and to determine the prevalence among them. This is an institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 290 medical students using a pre-tested questionnaire and measured their Body Mass Index (BMI). Data obtained was analyzed statistically by calculating proportions. Out of 290 students who participated in the study, 45.2% were males. In the study, 14.8% were found to be overweight (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2); 13.7% of males and 15.7% of females. Pre-obese students (BMI 25-29kg/m2) accounted for 15.9% of the total (males 18.3% and females 13.8%). 5.2% were found to be obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2): males 9.2% and females 1.9%. Also 14.8% were found to be underweight (males 12.2% and females 17.0%). The study group consisted of 63.8% Indian, 32.4% Chinese and 3.8% Malay students. The study reveals that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students of AIMST University is on the high, which is comparable to the findings of earlier studies conducted in Malaysia, reinforcing the need to encourage healthy lifestyle, healthy food habits and a physically active daily routine, among the adolescents and youth of this country.
Full Text Available The literature on Black education has often neglected significant analysis of life in schools and the experience of racism among Black middle-class students in general and Black middle-class males specifically. Moreover, the achievement gap between this population and their White counterparts in many cases is greater than the gap that exists among working-class Blacks and Whites. This study begins to document the aforementioned by illuminating the racial microaggressions experienced by Black middle-class males while in school and how their families’ usage of social and cultural capital deflect the potential negative outcomes of school racism.
Li, Changgui; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Xinfeng; Han, Lin; Chu, Nan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Shiguo
To identify association of IL18-607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphism with susceptibility to gout in Chinese Han male population, We evaluate the genetic contribution of the IL18-607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphism in 202 gout male patients and 493 gout-free control of Chinese Han population by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Our results reveal no significant association between the polymorphisms -607C/A and -137G/C in IL18 with gout. Our study might suggest that -607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphisms in the promoter of IL18 are not associated with susceptibility to gout and thus do not play a major role in the development of gout in the Chinese Han male population.
Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi
Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...
Dorel Dronca; Nicolae Pacala; Lavinia Stef; Ioan Pet; Ioan Bencsik; Marian Bura; Gabi Dumitrescu; Eliza Simiz; Marioara Nicula; Adela Marcu; Liliana Ciochina Petculescu; Mirela Ahmadi
The aim of this paper was to analyze, within a group of 26 males from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed, 13 characters of genetically improved, characters stipulated in, „Selection sheet and body measurements for Romanian shepherds".The animals were registered with the Romanian Mioritic Association Club fromRomania. Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed inCarpathian Mountains. In order to develop a genetic improvement program at this effective of 26 ...
AlMutairi, Abdullahi Naser Mohammad
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using brainstorm strategy in developing creative problem solving skills among male students in Saud Al-Kharji School in Kuwait. The sample of the study consisted of (98) male students. The sample was distributed into two classes, the first represents the experimental group totaling (47)…
Silva, M H; Nascimento, M D S B; Leonardo, F S; Rebêlo, J M M; Pereira, S R F
Entomological surveys in the state of Maranhão have recorded morphologically distinct populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). Some populations have one pair of spots (1S) on the fourth tergite, while others have two pairs (2S) on the third and fourth tergites of males. In the present study we investigated the degree of genetic polymorphism among four populations in the municipalities of Caxias, Codó and Raposa, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. A total of 35 loci were identified, of which 30 were polymorphic. The highest polymorphism was observed with primer OPA 4, which produced 11 different profiles. Genetic diversity was assessed using grouping methods that produced a dendrogram in which the genotypes could be clearly separated into two main clades according to the number of spots on the male abdominal tergites. One cluster contained the populations from Caxias and Codó, and the other was formed by the populations from Raposa and Codó. The results of our RAPD analysis showed a clear separation between the populations with one and two pairs of spots. The epidemiologic significance of this genetic differentiation should be investigated in future studies.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the beliefs of medical university students regarding male circumcision (MC, as well as attitudes and the predictors of its promotion in the case of adults at risk of HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2013–2016 at the Medical University in Szczecin, Poland, among final year Polish/foreign students from Northern Europe, using a standardized questionnaire. Results: There were 539 participants, median age 25 years, 40.8% males, and 66.8% were Polish nationals. The MC rate was 16.7%. Regarding HIV/AIDS knowledge, 66.6% of the students scored more than 75%; and, 34.2% knew that MC reduces the risk of HIV infection. One in eleven respondents (9.1% believed that circumcised men felt more intense sexual pleasure. More than half of the respondents (54.8% declared that they would recommend MC to adult patients at risk for HIV. The belief that circumcised men felt more intense sexual pleasure, and knowledge on MC regarding HIV risk reduction was associated with greater odds of recommending adult MC (OR = 3.35 and OR = 2.13, respectively. Conclusions: Poor knowledge of its benefits and a low willingness to promote the procedure—strongly dependent on personal beliefs—suggest that medical students may need additional training to help them to discuss MC more openly with adult men at risk for HIV infection. Knowledge may be an effective tool when making decisions regarding MC promotion.
Monleón-Moscardó, P J; Rojo-Moreno, J; Monleón-Moscardó, A; García-Merita, M L; Alonso-Fonfría, A; Valdemoro-García, C
In this paper, we try to analyze he possible relationships between gender of the Medical students, their personality and their vocational preferences. A total of 1,482 2nd year medical students from the Valencia University were analyzed. They answered and anonymous survey on their sociodemographic characteristics and their vocational interests. We determined their personality profile with the 16 PF of Cattell. The data obtained were analyzed with the logistic regression techniques. Most of the population analyzed were female (62.7%) with a medium age of 20 years. The Pediatric and Gynecology-Obstetrics specialities were preferred mostly by female students and Orthopedic surgery by male students. The female students had a specific personality traits, they were more (A+), (G+), Boldness (H+), (n+) and (Q3+). While the male students were more (I+), (L+), (M+), Q2(+). Gender has a significant influence on the medical student both in their vocational preferences as well as their personality profile.
Means, Darris R.
Spirituality plays a significant role in the lives of college students (Astin, Astin, & Lindholm, 2011; Bryant, Choi, & Yasuno, 2003; Chickering, 2006; Parks, 2000). However, Black gay males are uniquely positioned with regards to spirituality given how race, gender, and sexual orientation are generally perceived and experienced in the…
Lund, Hannah G; Reider, Brian D; Whiting, Annie B; Prichard, J Roxanne
To characterize sleep patterns and predictors of poor sleep quality in a large population of college students. This study extends the 2006 National Sleep Foundation examination of sleep in early adolescence by examining sleep in older adolescents. One thousand one hundred twenty-five students aged 17 to 24 years from an urban Midwestern university completed a cross-sectional online survey about sleep habits that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Subjective Units of Distress Scale, and questions about academic performance, physical health, and psychoactive drug use. Students reported disturbed sleep; over 60% were categorized as poor-quality sleepers by the PSQI, bedtimes and risetimes were delayed during weekends, and students reported frequently taking prescription, over the counter, and recreational psychoactive drugs to alter sleep/wakefulness. Students classified as poor-quality sleepers reported significantly more problems with physical and psychological health than did good-quality sleepers. Students overwhelmingly stated that emotional and academic stress negatively impacted sleep. Multiple regression analyses revealed that tension and stress accounted for 24% of the variance in the PSQI score, whereas exercise, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and consistency of sleep schedule were not significant predictors of sleep quality. These results demonstrate that insufficient sleep and irregular sleep-wake patterns, which have been extensively documented in younger adolescents, are also present at alarming levels in the college student population. Given the close relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health, intervention programs for sleep disturbance in this population should be considered. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dominic A Edward
Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.
Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang
The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…
Ye, Jun-jie; Ma, Li; Yang, Li-juan; Wang, Jin-huan; Wang, Yue-li; Guo, Hai; Gong, Ning; Nie, Wen-hui; Zhao, Shu-hua
There are many reports on associations between spermatogenesis and partial azoospermia factor c (AZFc) deletions as well as duplications; however, results are conflicting, possibly due to differences in methodology and ethnic background. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of AZFc polymorphisms and male infertility in the Yi ethnic population, residents within Yunnan Province, China. A total of 224 infertile patients and 153 fertile subjects were selected in the Yi ethnic population. The study was performed by sequence-tagged site plus/minus (STS+/-) analysis followed by gene dosage and gene copy definition analysis. Y haplotypes of 215 cases and 115 controls were defined by 12 binary markers using single nucleotide polymorphism on Y chromosome (Y-SNP) multiplex assays based on single base primer extension technology. The distribution of Y haplotypes was not significantly different between the case and control groups. The frequencies of both gr/gr (7.6% vs. 8.5%) and b2/b3 (6.3% vs. 8.5%) deletions do not show significant differences. Similarly, single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis shows no significant difference of gene copy definition between the cases and controls. However, the frequency of partial duplications in the infertile group (4.0%) is significantly higher than that in the control group (0.7%). Further, we found a case with sY1206 deletion which had two CDY1 copies but removed half of DAZ genes. Our results show that male infertility is associated with partial AZFc duplications, but neither gr/gr nor b2/b3 deletions, suggesting that partial AZFc duplications rather than deletions are risk factors for male infertility in Chinese-Yi population.
Kumpula, Esa; Ekstrand, Per
Forensic psychiatric care is largely populated by men--as patients, caregivers, and nurses. Previous research has not focused on the meaning of gender in this context. The aim of this study is to analyse male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and attending to male patients in forensic psychiatric care. Data were collected through interviews with six male nurses. The results consist of five themes. Protection and defence are key aspects of care and male caregivers gain status and authority through their physical strength. This could hamper caring and provide male caregivers with a superior position in the department.
Abbas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh
Full Text Available Objective: the purpose of this study was to study relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students. Method: The statistical population consisted of all students of Guilan University in 2012-2013 academic year, which among them a sample of 200 students were selected by random cluster sampling method and they completed preparation to addiction scale relationship between parent–child scale and attitude and heterosexual orientation before marriage. Findings: Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between addictability in female students and male students with relationship with father, and positive affect, interlace and communication subscales. The relationship between female students’ addictability with relationship with mother and positive affect, hurt and confusion and communication subscales was observed significant negative correlation, also there is a significant negative relationship between male students’ addictability with the relationship with mother. There is significant negative relationship between heterosexual orientations in male students with relation with father, positive affects and interlace. Results of regression analysis showed that relationship with father and relationship with mother can anticipate addict ability in female and male students. Conclusion: If parents cannot establish an appropriate and constructive interaction with their child cause child face with affection and emotional deprivation and this poor emotional and affection deprivation may cause he or she bring to the addict ability and heterosexual orientation.
Full Text Available Some reports have shown that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT is associated with the body mass index (BMI and energy metabolism. Here we explored the association between NNMT gene polymorphisms and obesity. The subjects were recruited from male Chinese Han college student. 289 of them (19 ≤ body fat percentage (BF% were selected as the high body fat group (HBFG, 494 of them (3 ≤ BF% < 13.5 were selected as the low body fat group (LBFG, and then a case-control study (fat versus thin was carried out to explore the association between the NNMT gene polymorphism and the body composition using tagSNPs method. A tagSNP (rs10891644 in NNMT gene was found significantly associated with the body composition (P<0.0026. At this locus, the BF% for the genotype GT, TT, and GG were 14.56±8.35, 13.47±8.11, and 12.42±7.50, respectively, and the differences between the GT and the GG + TT were highly significant (P<0.01; the ORadjusted value of the GT versus (GG + TT was 1.716 (Padjusted=0.002, 95% CI = 1.240–2.235. Therefore, the variation of the tagSNP, rs10891644, is significantly associated with obesity and the GT carriers are the susceptible population.
Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S
Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia.
Cao Moju; Huang Wenchao; Pan Guangtang; Rong Tingzhao; Zhu Yingguo
F 2 fertility segregation population and the sister-cross fertility segregation population, which descended from the male sterile material, were analysed by their plant height of different growing stage between 2 populations of male sterile plants and male fertile plants. The plant height of different fertility plants come to the significance at 0.01 level in different stage through the whole growing period. The differences become more and more large with the development of plants, the maximum difference happens in adult stage. The increasing amount of different stage also shows significance at 0.01 level between two kinds of different fertility plants
than 83 per cent of the male skulls were from young adults 19 - 30 months old, and nearly 83 per cent of the ... Territorial springbok advertising display (Bigalke 1972). 3. ... food, which is utilized by its owner, conspecifics and other herbivores.
This presentation shows the public opinion poll young people on NPP in the Slovakia i.e. comparative research results on Attitude of the Slovak population (1991 - a sample 1104 respondents, and Slovak students 1992 - a sample 291 respondents) to the nuclear energy and NPP; Source of information about NE and NPP, motivation of apprehensions of young people concerning NE; what meaning for young people have the arguments FOR and AGAINST construction of NPP in Slovakia; whom students from Bratislava believe during discussions about NE
Full Text Available Aim of this research is to study the effects of swimming on the lung functions in adult male population of Amritsar. Many exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. The present study was undertaken to study the effects swimming on the lung functions. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs of swimming trainees were compared with those of controls. We evaluated PFTs in 50 healthy subjects who participated in a 3 months of swimming plan. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before the commencement of swimming and at the end of swimming and compared the values so obtained with 50 healthy non- swimmers who were chosen as controls. The controls were the physiotherapy students from Khalsa College Amritsar. Both were in the age group of 18- 20 years. The PFTs were carried out with a computerized spirometer “Med-Spiror”. The various data was collected, compiled, statistically analysed and valid conclusions were drawn. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in swimming trainees after their training period, as compared to their own values obtained before their training period and to those of controls. Regular exercise enhances physical capabilities and physiological responses of the human body and also in the lungs. The cause of improved of various respiratory functions and flow rates after swimming duration was better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during the training period. Key words: Pulmonary; Expiration; Swimming; Pulmonary Function Test
Clinkenbeard, Drew A.
As the demand for a technologically skilled work force grows, experience and skill in computer science have become increasingly valuable for college students. However, the number of students graduating with computer science degrees is not growing proportional to this need. Traditionally several groups are underrepresented in this field, notably women and students of color. This study investigated elements of computer science education that influence academic achievement in beginning computer programming courses. The goal of the study was to identify elements that increase success in computer programming courses. A 38-item questionnaire was developed and administered during the Spring 2016 semester at California State University Fullerton (CSUF). CSUF is an urban public university comprised of about 40,000 students. Data were collected from three beginning programming classes offered at CSUF. In total 411 questionnaires were collected resulting in a response rate of 58.63%. Data for the study were grouped into three broad categories of variables. These included academic and background variables; affective variables; and peer, mentor, and role-model variables. A conceptual model was developed to investigate how these variables might predict final course grade. Data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as linear regression, factor analysis, and path analysis. Ultimately this study found that peer interactions, comfort with computers, computer self-efficacy, self-concept, and perception of achievement were the best predictors of final course grade. In addition, the analyses showed that male students exhibited higher levels of computer self-efficacy and self-concept compared to female students, even when they achieved comparable course grades. Implications and explanations of these findings are explored, and potential policy changes are offered.
Terasaki, Dale J; Gelaye, Bizu; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A
Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE) scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score > or = 15) levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33-2.93) and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14-4.88) outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37-2.40). Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.
Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar
Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.
Carlos M Herrera
Full Text Available Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae. Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.
McDaniel, Susan H.; And Others
Compared verbal response mode use by male students with measures of clients' psychological distress, disturbance, and change. Results indicated more distressed clients used a higher percentage of disclosures and lower percentage of edifications, clients who improved more participated more, no relationship between improvement in psychotherapy and…
Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of college students, the evaluation of high school physics teachers by their students is examined. Confirming earlier work, student evaluations (of both male and female students) exhibit bias with respect to the gender of their teacher. Pedagogical practices that impact student evaluations are explored, but these factors do not change the gender bias effect. We also consider how this evaluative bias is affected by students' career intentions. Grouping students according to their career intentions (e.g. physics majors, engineering majors, and health/medical science majors) shows that physics and engineering majors exhibit this bias to the same extent as the general population, but health/medical science majors exhibit a bias with nearly twice the size as average. The implications of this research for our understanding of physics culture regarding stereotypes and students' gendered expectations of teacher behavior is discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors, defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78 were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62 and Mature (5.60 mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school.
Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert
Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man
López-Uribe, Margarita M; Morreale, Stephen J; Santiago, Christine K; Danforth, Bryan N
Bees are the primary pollinators of flowering plants in almost all ecosystems. Worldwide declines in bee populations have raised awareness about the importance of their ecological role in maintaining ecosystem functioning. The naturally strong philopatric behavior that some bee species show can be detrimental to population viability through increased probability of inbreeding. Furthermore, bee populations found in human-altered landscapes, such as urban areas, can experience lower levels of gene flow and effective population sizes, increasing potential for inbreeding depression in wild bee populations. In this study, we investigated the fine-scale population structure of the solitary bee Colletes inaequalis in an urbanized landscape. First, we developed a predictive spatial model to detect suitable nesting habitat for this ground nesting bee and to inform our field search for nests. We genotyped 18 microsatellites in 548 female individuals collected from nest aggregations throughout the study area. Genetic relatedness estimates revealed that genetic similarity among individuals was slightly greater within nest aggregations than among randomly chosen individuals. However, genetic structure among nest aggregations was low (Nei's GST = 0.011). Reconstruction of parental genotypes revealed greater genetic relatedness among females than among males within nest aggregations, suggesting male-mediated dispersal as a potentially important mechanism of population connectivity and inbreeding avoidance. Size of nesting patch was positively correlated with effective population size, but not with other estimators of genetic diversity. We detected a positive trend between geographic distance and genetic differentiation between nest aggregations. Our landscape genetic models suggest that increased urbanization is likely associated with higher levels of inbreeding. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of density and distribution of suitable nesting patches for enhancing
Margarita M López-Uribe
Full Text Available Bees are the primary pollinators of flowering plants in almost all ecosystems. Worldwide declines in bee populations have raised awareness about the importance of their ecological role in maintaining ecosystem functioning. The naturally strong philopatric behavior that some bee species show can be detrimental to population viability through increased probability of inbreeding. Furthermore, bee populations found in human-altered landscapes, such as urban areas, can experience lower levels of gene flow and effective population sizes, increasing potential for inbreeding depression in wild bee populations. In this study, we investigated the fine-scale population structure of the solitary bee Colletes inaequalis in an urbanized landscape. First, we developed a predictive spatial model to detect suitable nesting habitat for this ground nesting bee and to inform our field search for nests. We genotyped 18 microsatellites in 548 female individuals collected from nest aggregations throughout the study area. Genetic relatedness estimates revealed that genetic similarity among individuals was slightly greater within nest aggregations than among randomly chosen individuals. However, genetic structure among nest aggregations was low (Nei's GST = 0.011. Reconstruction of parental genotypes revealed greater genetic relatedness among females than among males within nest aggregations, suggesting male-mediated dispersal as a potentially important mechanism of population connectivity and inbreeding avoidance. Size of nesting patch was positively correlated with effective population size, but not with other estimators of genetic diversity. We detected a positive trend between geographic distance and genetic differentiation between nest aggregations. Our landscape genetic models suggest that increased urbanization is likely associated with higher levels of inbreeding. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of density and distribution of suitable nesting
Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe
The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.
Warin, Jo; Dempster, Steve
This article looks at the transition to higher education made by a group of male undergraduates. The data were collected though one-to-one interviews with 24 students, who were asked questions designed to elicit data about their positioning in relation to hegemonic masculinities. The evidence presented here supports the view that gender operates…
Full Text Available Objective: Neck pain is a common cause for which people refer to physiotherapy centers. Neck pain may be related to prolonged static posture in head, neck, and shoulder during daily activities and studying. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between Forward head posture (FHP and neck pain in female and male students of different educational levels. Materials & Methods: 1017 students (511 girls, 506 boys from the University of Tehran in undergraduate, graduate and PhD level participated in this correlation study. Selection in departments have been target, however sample, s selection have been random. The mean of age of girls and boys was 23.78±3.74, the weight was 63.24±12.1, and height 162.42±7.14 and boy’s age was 23.74±3.91, weight 57.23±8.87, and height 168.53±9.74.FHP was measured in students by questionnaire, visual analog scale (VAS and by using the Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (HPSCI. Spearman correlation test was administered to analyze the data using SPSS 18 software (P&le0.05. Results: Neck pain was significantly and negatively correlated with FHP in female PhD students (P=0.007, while this relationship between undergraduate, graduate students and male PhD students was not significant (P>0.05. Conclusion: Neck pain is associated with forward head posture in PhD students. Therefore, it is important to address these faulty postures and correct them in treatment sessions. However, due to the progression of student community to higher education level, it is more critical to be aware of the correct of posture position in students.
Shin, Hyon B.
This report highlights school enrollment trends of the population aged 3 and older and the social and economic characteristics of the large and diverse student population, based on data collected in the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Census Bureau in October 2003. (Contains 5 figures and 5 tables.)
Andrykowski, Michael A
Identify the current physical and mental health status and health behaviors of male breast cancer survivors. Using data from the national, population-based, 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, 66 cases of male breast cancer were identified (mean age = 66.2 years, mean time since diagnosis = 12.0 years). Male breast cancer cases were matched with 198 male BRFSS respondents with no history of cancer (control group) on age, education, and minority status. The male breast cancer and control groups were compared on physical and mental health status and health behaviors, using t-test and logistic regression analyses. The male breast cancer group reported poorer physical and mental health than controls. Male breast cancer survivors were significantly (p mental health (Effect Size = 0.49), and physical health (Effect Size = 0.29) were not good. In contrast, the male breast cancer and control groups were similar with regard to current health behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, and health care. The diagnosis and treatment of male breast cancer may be associated with clinically important and long-term deficits in physical and mental health status, deficits which may exceed those evidenced by long-term female breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Feng, Danjun; Zhao, Wenjing; Shen, Shiyu; Chen, Jieru; Li, Lu
The gender-based stereotype of nursing as a female profession has been a large obstacle to men entering the nursing profession. However, there is little quantitative research on the influence of prejudice induced by this stereotype on male nursing students' willingness to be nurses. To examine the effect of perceived prejudice on willingness to be a nurse via the mediating effect of satisfaction with major among Chinese male nursing students. A cross-sectional survey was used. Four hundred and sixty male nursing students who were enrolled either in bachelor's programs in universities or advanced diploma programs in colleges in Jinan, China, were surveyed using questionnaires measuring perceived prejudice, satisfaction with major, and willingness to be a nurse. Structural equation modeling with bias-corrected bootstrapping was employed to determine the influence of perceived prejudice on willingness to be a nurse with major satisfaction as a mediator. Male students who were in an advanced diploma nursing program and those for whom nursing was the first-choice major reported significantly less perceived prejudice, greater satisfaction with major, and greater willingness to be nurses than did those in a bachelor's nursing program and those for whom nursing was not the first-choice major, respectively. Moreover, although perceived prejudice had no significant direct effect on willingness to be a nurse (β=0.07, p>0.05), it did have a strong indirect effect (full mediation) via satisfaction with major (β=-0.59, pnursing students' willingness to be nurses via the full mediating effect of satisfaction with major. Because this obsolete stereotype of nursing as a female occupation gives birth to prejudice against male nursing students, effective measures should be taken to change this stereotype to recruit more men as nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Jeong Mo; Han, Ae Kyung; Cho, Yoon Hee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct equivalence of the five general factors (subjective health, eating habits, physical activities, sedentary lifestyle, and sleeping behaviors) and to compare the latent means between male and female middle school students in Incheon, Korea. Methods: The 2008 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey data was used for analysis. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test whether the scale has configural, metric, and...
M G Inderjit
Full Text Available Background: The cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess and compare tobacco and alcohol usage among male medical and dental students among students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A self-designed questionnaire containing 20 close-ended questions was prepared to collect the required and relevant information pertaining to tobacco and alcohol consumption. The questionnaire was distributed among 400 students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Results: Among the 400 respondents, 48.5% were smokers and 45.75% of students were alcoholics. Among smokers, 55.70% were house surgeon students and 23.07% were 1 st year. Significant difference was found in the percentage of tobacco consumption among medical and dental house surgeon students. The main reason for smoking was examination preparation and workload. Among alcoholics, 51.67% were house surgeon students and 21.9% were 1 st year. The main reason for alcohol consumption was to get relief from tensions. Conclusions: Final year students and house surgeons had more influence of tobacco and alcohol consumption habits when compared to 1 st year students in both dental as well in medical college. Academic demand, work pressure, examination stress, and anxiety were found to be significantly influencing tobacco and alcohol habits among both medical and dental students.
Soueif, M I; Hannourah, M A; Darweesh, Z A; el-Sayed, A M; Yunis, F A; Taha, H S
A standardized questionnaire, with satisfactory retake item reliabilities and well established validities, was administered to a representative sample of female university students (N = 2366), drawn from Cairo and Ein-Shams Universities, both located in Greater Cairo. Results, relevant to demographic and drug related items, are presented. Where meaningful, comparisons are made with previously published corresponding data obtained on male university students. Among the interesting findings are the following: Female students, compared with males, had better educated parents with jobs higher on social prestige hierarchy. But more boys than girls had personal sources of income and, relatively, big amounts of pocket money. Very few girls smoked cigarettes and used natural narcotics. Tranquilizers and hypnotics were taken by, almost, equal percentages of both sexes. But stimulants were consumed by more boys. Girls did not start experimentation with narcotics before the age of 16, whereas boys began such experimentation before reaching 12 years of age. Girls tried alcohol much more than they experimented with any other psychoactive substance. Among girls as well as boys we found a measurable trend for users to be more exposed than nonusers to what we call 'drug culture'. In the case of girls, close relatives have more weight than personal friends as sources of information about drugs. For boys, it is the opposite. Similarities as well as disparities were discussed and implications were emphasized.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A; Larouche, Richard
Previous research has found a link between active school transportation and bullying victimization among school-aged children. However, the link with other school travel modes (such as car, school bus, and public transportation) and bullying victimization is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between school travel mode and report of bullying victimization among Canadian middle and high school students. The sample consisted of 5065 students aged 11-20 years (mean age: 15.2±1.9 years; 56% females) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Students Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Overall, 24.7% of students reported school bullying victimization in the past year. Females (27.2%) were more likely than males (22.3%) to be victims of school bullying (ptravel to (adjusted odd ratio (OR)=1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-2.68) and from (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.70-2.67) school was associated with greater odds of bullying victimization among males, but not females. However, the use of public transportation to get to school was associated with lower odds of bullying victimization compared to active transportation among females only (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.36-0.97). These findings suggest that school travel mode should be considered when considering risks for bullying victimization. Bullying prevention efforts should target school buses to make children's commute a safe and enjoyable experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colby, Sarah; Zhou, Wenjun; Sowers, Morgan F; Shelnutt, Karla; Olfert, Melissa D; Morrell, Jesse; Koenings, Mallory; Kidd, Tandalayo; Horacek, Tanya M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Brown, Onikia; White, Adrienne A; Hoerr, Sharon L; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Kattelmann, Kendra K
The study purpose was to identify clusters of weight-related behaviors by sex in a college student populations. We conducted secondary data analysis from online surveys and physical assessments collected in Project Young Adults Eating and Active for Health (YEAH) with a convenience sample of students on 13 college campuses in the United States. We performed 2-step cluster analysis by sex to identify subgroups with homogeneous characteristics and behaviors. We used 8 derivation variables: healthy eating; eating restraints; external cues; stress; fruit/vegetable intake; calories from fat; calories from sugar-sweetened beverages; and physical activity. Contribution of derivation variables to clusters was analyzed with a MANOVA test. Data from 1594 students were included. Cluster analysis revealed 2-clusters labeled "Healthful Behavior" and "At-risk" for males and females with an additional "Laid Back" cluster for males. "At-risk" clusters had the highest BMI, waist circumference, elevated health risk, and stress and least healthy dietary intake and physical activity. The "Laid Back" cluster had normal weights and the lowest restrained eating, external cues sensitivity, and stress. Identified differences in characteristics and attitudes towards weight-related behaviors between males and females can be used to tailor weight management programs.
Marković Živorad M.
student who is a violence victim in school: 48.1% of male students and 34.6% of female students claim that they would be ready to help students who are suffering violence in a school context without demanding support from other students. c The students of both genders are more ready to help the victims of the violence in school than the victims of the violence outside school: the readiness of helping unknown person who is exposed to violence outside school is 34.1% of male students and 28% of female students. d There are no statistically significant differences between male and female students in the ways of reacting to the violence, although a somewhat larger percent of male students (47.3% than female students (31.8% would react the same to the violence. However, there is also deviation from stereotypes that girls are more inclined to suffer violence than boys since in the researched population there is a datum which shows that a larger percent of male students (14.0% responds to the violence by being silent and suffering then female student where only 9.3% decide to react in such a way. The results of the research showed that the basic hypothesis - Gender of primary school students determines significantly their exposure to different types of school violence and the ways of reaction to violence was not confirmed. The results showed that there is no statistically significant difference between male and female students in their exposure to violence, reaction to violence and their readiness to help the victim of the violence. 1 Special hypothesis - The most frequent way of violence between students in primary schools is verbal violence, and the least present is physical violence - is partly confirmed. It was shown that the most frequent ways of violence between male students in older primary school grades are physical violence, verbal violence and hooliganism and bullying 2 Special hypothesis - Significantly small number of primary school male students was exposed to
Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi
Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.
Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana
The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…
Sigmundová, Dagmar; Chmelík, František; Sigmund, Erik; Feltlová, Dana; Frömel, Karel
The decline of physical activity (PA) in adults as well as children and youth is a worldwide phenomenon. The aim of this study is to analyse the amount of PA in Czech university students’ daily lives. The research on university students was conducted as part of nationwide research on PA in the adult population of the Czech Republic. A total of 906 students at eight selected universities were asked to participate in this study. The response rate was 79.5%. We analysed data from 641 university students: 318 male [mean age 21.63 ± 1.73; mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.50 ± 1.91] and 323 female (mean age 21.08 ± 1.53; mean BMI 21.23 ± 2.20). The students wore Yamax SW-701 pedometers continuously for seven days. With respect to BMI, the recommendation of 10,000 steps per day on an average day was met by 76% of men and 68% of women of normal weight, 67% of male students who were overweight or obese and 85% of female students who were overweight or obese. Of all monitored days, in both females and males, the number of steps taken on Sunday was significantly lower (p students of normal weight, students who were overweight and students who were obese on any of the monitored days. The majority of Czech male university students are of normal weight. Only 9% of students meet the criterion of 10,000 steps every day. Approximately two-thirds of students meet the 10,000 steps daily criterion on four or more days per week. The lowest number of steps is taken on Sundays; this finding supports the need for intervention programmes to enhance PA on weekends. PMID:24251753
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.
Mahmoudfakhe, Hemn; Rahmani, Aref; Nasrollahzade, Soraya
The aim of the present research was to compare parenting styles and mental health among students. The statistical population of the paper included all the female and male third grade high school students in the city of Boukan. The sample was selected through simple random style in access which included 340 people of both sexes. The tools used in this research comprises two: Baumrind parenting style and Goldberg's general health questionnaires. Findings revealed that this research is of a caus...
Li, Ying; Cottrell, Randall R; Wagner, Donald I; Ban, Maosheng
College students are more likely than other student populations to be sexually active. To improve sex education in China among this group, educators must know college students' needs and their preferences for receiving information on sexuality. In 2002, students at a large Chinese university completed surveys about their history of school-based sex education and their other sources of information on sexuality. The survey also explored students' preferences for topics to be included in a college-level sex education course, comfort level with receiving information on these topics and views of effective teaching strategies. Before college, 47% of respondents had received no school-based education on sexual behavior; however, all respondents had taken a class covering reproduction, typically beginning in middle school (78%). Reading material, radio, classroom lecture and parents were more popular sources of information among females than among males; friends, the Internet and personal sexual experience were more frequent sources for males than for females. Higher proportions of males than females favored including sex therapy and masturbation in a hypothetical course. In addition, males felt more comfortable than females discussing 11 of 20 subjects; the two genders indicated similar levels of comfort in talking about the other topics. Males and females differed on how best to convey information on sexuality, with females generally favoring private methods, such as reading. More comprehensive school-based sex education is needed for Chinese youth. When developing and implementing such programs, health educators should consider differences between males' and females' preferred ways for receiving information on sexuality.
González-Jiménez, Emilio; Cañadas, Gustavo R; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo Arturo
The aims of this study were: (i) to ascertain whether the nutritional status of a population of secondary school students had improved after an educational intervention; (ii) to analyze whether students had adopted healthier eating and exercise habits after participating in a health education intervention; (iii) to discover whether the students spent less time on sedentary leisure activities after the intervention. The population of the sample consisted of 138 adolescents, age range was between 14-19 years old: 67 males (48.6%) and 71 females (51.4%). They were students at two public secondary schools in the city of Almería (Spain). In the first phase (15-30 September 2011) of this three-phase study, the nutritional status of the students was assessed by means of anthropometry. In the second phase (1 October 2012-15 June 2012), the students participated in an educational intervention that fomented awareness of the benefits derived from healthy eating habits and physical exercise. In the third and final phase (16-31 June 2012), the effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated. After the intervention, statistically significant differences (p sedentary leisure activities, there was also a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.000) in the number of hours spent watching television for both male and female subjects. The results of this study show the effectiveness of the contents, activities, and duration of this health education intervention to encourage the subjects to modify their dietary and exercise habits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Kann, Laura; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; Kinchen, Steve; McManus, Tim
School-based victimization has short- and long-term implications for the health and academic lives of sexual minority students. This analysis assessed the prevalence and relative risk of school violence and bullying among sexual minority and heterosexual high school students. Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 10 states and 10 large urban school districts that assessed sexual identity and had weighted data in the 2009 and/or 2011 cycle were combined to create two large population-based data sets, one containing state data and one containing district data. Prevalence of physical fighting, being threatened or injured with a weapon, weapon carrying, and being bullied on school property and not going to school because of safety concerns was calculated. Associations between these behaviors and sexual identity were identified. In the state data, sexual minority male students were at greater risk for being threatened or injured with a weapon, not going to school because of safety concerns and being bullied than heterosexual male students. Sexual minority female students were at greater risk than heterosexual female students for all five behaviors. In the district data, with one exception, sexual minority male and female students were at greater risk for all five behaviors than heterosexual students. Sexual minority students still routinely experience more school victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. The implementation of comprehensive, evidence-based programs and policies has the ability to reduce school violence and bullying, especially among sexual minority students. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mahoney, Caroline R; Giles, Grace E; Marriott, Bernadette P; Judelson, Daniel A; Glickman, Ellen L; Geiselman, Paula J; Lieberman, Harris R
Caffeine intake in a convenience sample of U.S. college students (N = 1248) was surveyed at five geographically-dispersed United States (U.S.) universities. Intake from coffee, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, gums, and medications was assessed. Associations between caffeine intake and demographic variables including sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, general health, exercise, weight variables and tobacco use were examined. Reasons for use of caffeine-containing products were assessed. Caffeine, in any form, was consumed by 92% of students in the past year. Mean daily caffeine consumption for all students, including non-consumers, was 159 mg/d with a mean intake of 173 mg/d among caffeine users. Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake in male (120 mg/d) and female (111 mg/d) consumers. Male and female students consumed 53 vs. 30 mg/d of caffeine in energy drinks, respectively, and 28% consumed energy drinks with alcohol on at least one occasion. Students provided multiple reasons for caffeine use including: to feel awake (79%); enjoy the taste (68%); the social aspects of consumption (39%); improve concentration (31%); increase physical energy (27%); improve mood (18%); and alleviate stress (9%). As in the general U.S. population, coffee is the primary source of caffeine intake among the college students surveyed. Energy drinks provide less than half of total daily caffeine intake but more than among the general population. Students, especially women, consume somewhat more caffeine than the general population of individuals aged 19-30 y but less than individuals aged 31-50 y. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Liu, Shiguo; He, Hongmei; Yu, Renchao; Han, Lin; Wang, Can; Cui, Ying; Li, Changgui
Gout is a polygenic auto-inflammatory disease, in which inflammation plays an important role in disease pathogenesis. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-23 promotes inflammation and helps to guide inflammatory cells, while studies have shown that the IL-23R gene is associated with susceptibility to several immune-related diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the IL-23R rs7517847 (G/T) polymorphism is associated with gout in a Chinese Han male population. We recruited 400 patients with gout and 582 gout-free controls. After obtaining blood samples for DNA extraction, genotyping of the rs7517847 polymorphism was performed by fluorescence-based quantitative PCR using TaqMan probes. An association analysis was carried out using the χ(2) test. A genotype-phenotype analysis was also conducted. Both genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs7517847 differed significantly between gout patients and controls (χ(2) = 6.792, df = 2, P = 0.034 by genotype; χ(2) = 4.202, df = 1, P = 0.04 by allele). IL-23R may be associated with gout in a Chinese Han male population, although our findings should be confirmed using larger sample sizes and other independent populations.
Cassel, Stacy Gallese; Hadley Edd, Amy J
Telepractice is the application of telecommunications technology to the delivery of telehealth services via the online connection of clinicians, clients, and patients for assessment, intervention, or consultation. This article describes a pilot project in which speech-language pathology students in a university training program gained experience in working with culturally diverse preschool students using telepractice technology. The preschool students benefited by making gains in communication skills, while the university students acquired competency in the use of telepractice and in working with children whose cultural and linguistic backgrounds were outside of their experience. To assess the training experience, a Likert-scale survey administered to student clinicians revealed a high degree of satisfaction and improved familiarity with the use of telepractice, and an increased comfort level working with multi-cultural populations.
Stacy Gallese Cassel
Full Text Available Telepractice is the application of telecommunications technology to the delivery of telehealth services via the online connection of clinicians, clients, and patients for assessment, intervention, or consultation. This article describes a pilot project in which speech-language pathology students in a university training program gained experience in working with culturally diverse preschool students using telepractice technology. The preschool students benefited by making gains in communication skills, while the university students acquired competency in the use of telepractice and in working with children whose cultural and linguistic backgrounds were outside of their experience. To assess the training experience, a Likert-scale survey administered to student clinicians revealed a high degree of satisfaction and improved familiarity with the use of telepractice, and an increased comfort level working with multi-cultural populations.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze, within a group of 26 males from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed, 13 characters of genetically improved, characters stipulated in, „Selection sheet and body measurements for Romanian shepherds".The animals were registered with the Romanian Mioritic Association Club fromRomania. Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed inCarpathian Mountains. In order to develop a genetic improvement program at this effective of 26 males from Romanian Sheperd Dog breed, found in evidence of Romanian Mioritic Association Club from Romania, should be considered the following conclusions on variance those 13 characters studied in this paper, respectively, the variability was middle for the width of skull and ear and low for the other 11 characters analyzed. Also, this paper highlighted the following reports of the characters analyzed at the males taken in the study: the ratio between the average of length and width skull was 1.005:1, the ratio between the average of length skull and the average of length muzzle was 1.31:1 and between average of the width of skull and the muzzle was 1.82:1. By Comparing between them length, width and depth of muzzle, resulted a ratio of 1.38:1:1.10.
Baydar, Hacer Özge; Hazar, Muhsin; Yildiz, Ozer; Yildiz, Mehtap; Tingaz, Emre Ozan; Gökyürek, Belgin
The objective of this research is to examine and analyze the class management profiles of 3rd and 4th grade students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Departments of universities in Turkey based on gender, grade level and university. The research population comprised 375 students (170 females and 205 males) of Physical Education and Sports…
Meissner, C; Schippert, C; von Versen-Höynck, Frauke
The aims of our study were to analyze university student's knowledge and attitude towards parenthood, female fertility, fertility assessment, and oocyte freezing and to explore associations between these aspects and the participant's sex or degree program they were registered for. The study was designed as an online-based cross-sectional survey. A total of 1144 participants answered 27 questions. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Linear regression models were employed to explore associations between sex or university program and attitude towards parenthood, fertility assessment, and oocyte freezing. Female students and students of non-medical degree programs were more likely to plan to have children earlier than male students or students of medical degree programs. Female sex or medical degree program was associated with an overall better knowledge about women's fertility. The better the participant's knowledge about fertility, the more likely the students would consider assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments as an option to become pregnant when ovarian reserve is low. The majority of students knew the principal of oocyte freezing but would not consider using it. However, in the case of a low ovarian reserve, oocyte freezing would be accepted as an option. Students planned to have children at an age when women's fertility is already declining. Gaps in knowledge about female fertility and the potential of ART were more pronounced in male students and students of non-medical degree programs suggesting an increase of fertility awareness is necessary in these groups to prevent them from infertility and unwanted childlessness.
Andrea Camperio Ciani
Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness, accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.
Han, Xue; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Niya; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Li, Yafei; Lin, Hui; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia
This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing City of China, and to determine the possible associations between phthalate exposure and male reproductive function parameters. We recruited 232 general men through Chongqing Family Planning Research Institute and Reproductive Center of Chongqing. In a single spot urine sample from each man, phthalate metabolites, including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), phthalic acid (PA), and total PA were analyzed using solid phase extraction and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Semen parameters were dichotomized based on World Health Organization reference values. Sperm DNA damage were analyzed using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Reproductive hormones were determined in serum by the radioimmunoassay kit. We observed a weak association between urinary MBP concentration and sperm concentration in Chongqing general population. MBP levels above the median were 1.97 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-4.04) more likely to have sperm concentration below the reference value. There were no other associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive function parameters after adjusted for potential risk factors. Our study suggested that general population in Chongqing area of China exposure to the environmental level of phthalate have weak or without adverse effects on the reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Yamane, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kataoka, Kota; Sakumoto-Kataoka, Masami; Kawabata, Yuya; Omori, Chie; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu
Many cross-sectional studies have reported a relationship between overweight/obesity and eating quickly, but there have been few longitudinal studies to address this relationship in younger populations. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate whether eating quickly was related to being overweight in Japanese university students. Of 1,396 students who underwent a general examination and completed questionnaires at the start of university and before graduation, 1,314 students (676 male and 638 female) of normal body composition [body mass index (BMI) students whose BMIs were ≥ 25 kg m(-2) were defined as overweight. In this study, 38 participants (2.9%) became overweight. In the logistic regression analysis, the risk of being overweight was increased in males [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-5.79; P university students. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Donald A Redelmeier
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases or appendicitis (controls in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009. Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls. A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812, equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.54, p<0.001. The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.56, p<0.001. The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries.
Pietras, Tadeusz; Witusik, Andrzej; Panek, Michał; Zielińska-Wyderkiewicz, Ewa; Kuna, Piotr; Górski, Paweł
The teacher's profession is regarded to be susceptible to professional burnout. Its early markers include high neuroticism and tendency to depressive reactions. The aim of the study was to assess the depression intensity and the occurrence of mood disorders in the population of full-time and extramural course students of pedagogy aged 19-30, as well as the difference in intensity of the measured constructs between men and women. The study was carried out on the group of 223 women and 162 men aged 19-30 studying pedagogy at Piotrków Trybunalski Division of Jan Kochanowski Memorial University in Kielce in the years 2008-2011. The control group consisted of 76 women and 88 men studying economics. Students of full-time and extramural courses were included. All the participants were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory. Depression as a syndrome was diagnosed if the score of 10 of more was obtained. Among female students of pedagogy, 21 out of 223 obtained Beck Depression Inventory scores equal to, or above 10; whereas among female students of economics 1 out of 76 obtained such a result. The relative risk of developing depression (understood as Beck Depression Inventory result of 10 or more) was found to be significantly higher among female pedagogues (OR 7.797; CI 1.0306 to 58.9856) than among female economists. Among male pedagogy students, 2 out of 162 obtained 10 points, or more. It means that the risk of depression in female pedagogues was as much as over eight-fold higher than in male pedagogues (OR 8.3168; CI 1.9215 - 35.9979). The risk of depression in men studying pedagogy was not higher than in men studying economics, who obtained the Beck Depression Inventory scores of 10 or more in 1 case out of 88 (OR 1.1; CI 0.0983 to 12.3032). Considering all pedagogues irrespectively of gender versus all economists, the risk of depression in the group of pedagogues is over five-fold higher than among economists (OR 5.1464; CI 1.1991 to 22.0885). In the whole group of
Monroe, M J; Amundsen, T; Utne-Palm, A C; Mobley, K B
Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests and used microsatellite markers to reconstruct parentage from a subset of offspring from each nest. We hypothesized that mating, reproductive success and sneaking should be more prevalent early in the breeding season when competition for mates among males is predicted to be higher. However, parentage analyses revealed similar values of mating, reproductive success and high frequencies of successful sneaking early (30% of nests) and late (27% of nests) in the season. We also found that multiple females with eggs in the same nest were fertilized by one or more sneaker males, indicating that some males in this population engage in a satellite strategy. We contrast our results to previous work that demonstrates low levels of cuckoldry in a population in Sweden. Our results demonstrate marked stability in both the genetic mating system and male alternative reproductive tactics over the breeding season. However, sneaking rates may vary geographically within a species, likely due to local selection influencing ecological factors encountered at different locations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Full Text Available Objective: Study of prevalence of stuttering in Iranian bilingual societies is essential for determine the effects of linguistic factors in stuttering and therapy demands in these bilingual societies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of stuttering among Javanrud’s bilingual students. Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional, descriptive and analytical study, all of bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools were examined and in order to this purpose, teacher referral method was used for the primary screening of speech disorders at all. Essential information about speech disorders specifically stuttering had been given to teachers before this primary step. Then researcher diagnosed stuttering students based on personal interview, reading, spontaneous speech and description of serial images that tell a story in Kurdish and Persian. Data were analysed by statistical tests such as Chi-square and Logistic Regression. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1/13 percent. Among primary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2/06, 0/87 and 0/5 percent respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1/35 and among girls was 0/88 percent. An overall male/female ratio was 1/5. Prevalence of stuttering in primary, guidance and high school was differ from each other significantly (P<0/001. Prevalence of stuttering in male was higher than female significantly (P=0/034. Conclusion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanrood’s bilingual students was higher than accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1%. Risk of being stuttering in male was higher than female.
Evolutionary psychological theories predict pronounced and universal male-female differences in sexual jealousy. Recent cross-cultural research, using the forced-choice jealousy items pioneered by Buss, et al., 1992, repeatedly found a large sex differential on these self-report measures: men significantly more often than women choose their mate's imagined sexual infidelity to be more distressing or upsetting to them than an imagined emotional infidelity. However, this body of evidence is solely based on undergraduate samples and does not take into account demographic factors. This study examined male-female differences in sexual jealousy in a community sample (N = 335, Eastern Austria). Within a logistic regression model, with other variables controlled for, marital status was a stronger predictor for sexual jealousy than respondents' sex. Contrary to previous research, the sex differential's effect size was only modest. These findings stress the pitfalls of prematurely generalizing evidence from undergraduate samples to the general population and the need for representative population samples in this research area.
Humayun, A.; Shah, A.S.; Sultana, R.
Hypertension, a condition developed as a result of high blood pressure is strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Obesity was noted to be a single best predictor of hypertension incidence, and was regarded as a major controllable contributor to hypertension. Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI. Present study was conducted in Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar to investigate the relation of hypertension with BMI and age. The objective of the present investigation is to establish a relationship between hypertension and BMI in male and female population of Peshawar with consideration of age. Methods: This study was conducted at KMC, Peshawar during 2008-2009. A total of 1006 adult male and female volunteers were the subject of present research and were categorised in terms of their ages. BMI was determined from weight and height; the subjects were grouped as normal, overweight and obese. Hypertension was determined from the measure of blood pressure. Results: The results show a consistence relation between BMI and hypertension within age groups in both male and females. The figures exhibited a relation of age with BMI and hypertension in both males and females subjects. Conclusion: The results showed a higher trend of hypertension with increasing BMI. In young females it was noted that with a shift from normal BMI the incidence of hypertension was very high. (author)
Józef Bergier; Barbara Bergier; Anatolii Tsos
Introduction A large-scale research was performed concerning issues relating to physical activity as an important factor in a healthy lifestyle and involved observing the differences among males and females as future elites of the Ukraine. Objective The objective of the research is to assess the physical activity of students from the Ukraine, considering such factors as: gender, leisure time, time spent sitting, sports performed or intended to be performed, and the BMI. Material...
Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S
Farmers have a low risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be related to a favourable blood lipid profile. In order to study the blood lipid levels and evaluate the effect of other cardiovascular risk factors on the blood lipid profile, this cross-sectional study was made. A total of 1013 farmers and 769 non-farming rural men in nine different Swedish counties were examined, interviewed, and replied to questionnaires. The inter-relationships between different risk factors were analysed using a multivariate linear regression model. The farmers had a significantly more favourable blood lipid profile than the non-farmers although the total cholesterol levels were almost the same for the two groups. In the total study population there were significant positive relationships between total cholesterol level and body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure and smoking. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was positively related to physical workload and alcohol consumption, and negatively related to BMI, waist/hip ratio and smoking. Triglyceride levels showed a positive relationship to BMI, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Differences between farmers and other rural males were seen, especially with respect to the effect of physical activity and psychosocial factors. Among the farmers, a negative correlation between the Karasek-Theorell authority over work index and total cholesterol, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio and triglyceride levels was observed. This study indicated that diet is of minor significance for the blood lipid profile, whereas factors such as physical activity, body weight and the waist/hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perhaps psychosocial working conditions are major independent factors affecting the blood lipid profile most prominently among farmers, but also among non-farming rural men.
Bayat, Mohammad; Shariati, Mahsa; Rajaeirad, Fatemeh; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Davoudmanesh, Zeinab
Facial anthropometric measurement is considered an essential concern of surgeons, orthodontists, artists and forensic scientists. The aim of this study is to investigate facial anthropometric norms of the young Iranian population. The study participants consisted of 200 healthy Iranian students (100 males, 100 females) aged 18-25 years old. Twenty-three liner and four angular measurements were investigated twice by a dentist. Independent-samples t test was used to compare indices between males and females and also between countries. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. It was found that the mean measurements of c'-sn' of both sides, nasolabial angle, trichion-gnathion, tragion-tragion and gnathion-gnathion were statistically greater in Iranian males than in females ( p < 0.05). Comparing Iranian anthropometric norms with North American Whites, Malays, Turkish and African American women demonstrated that there were statistically significant differences in most anthropometric measurements between Iranians and other populations ( p < 0.05). In Iranians, mean measurements of c'-sn' of the right and left sides, nasolabial angle, trichion-gnathion, tragion-tragion and gnathion-gnathion were greater in men than in women. Comparing Iranian males and females with different ethnicities indicated several interracial differences, which should be taken into consideration when dealing with patients or also practitioners originated in this region.
Kumar, G Sathish; Vezhavendhan, N; Vendhan, Priya
Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation that deals with the examination of the system of furrows on the red part of human lips. Like fingerprint, lip print is also unique for every individual. But most of the crime-detecting agencies are unaware of the importance of lip print and it is not commonly attempted in identification of the suspects. The aim of the present study is to determine the predominant lip print pattern among Pondicherry population, India, and also to determine its uniqueness. The study comprised of 60 students (30 males and 30 females), aged from 17 to 25 years, from Pondicherry population, India. A dark-colored lipstick was applied with a single stroke and the students were asked to rub both the lips to spread the applied lipstick, after which a lip print was made on butter paper. The lip print was visualized with magnifying lens. Percentage calculation method was used to identify the predominant lip pattern. One-sample T test was done to identify the statistical significance within the different types of lip pattern with P value print and Type III appears to be the most predominant pattern in males, followed by the Type II, Type IV, Type I and Type V patterns. In females, Type II appears to be the most predominant pattern followed by the Type IV, Type I, Type III and Type V patterns.
Ashkenazi, Liat; Livshiz-Riven, Ilana; Romem, Pnina; Grinstein-Cohen, Orli
The current worldwide nursing shortage remains a challenge for the nursing profession. Encouraging men to become nurses and, thereby, increasing the number of practitioners are crucial factors in facing this challenge. The historiography of nursing presents nursing as "women's work," based on the assumption that it is inherently appropriate for women only. Although men were employed as nurses even before nursing was recognized as a profession, male nurses were always a minority in the field. Over the years, the proportion of male nurses has increased, but they still comprise only 5 to 10% of the nursing workforce in the western world. This study examined men's motives for a career choice of nursing, how male nurses are perceived, and the barriers that they face. The study was conducted among 336 nursing students studying in a co-educational program in various academic tracks at a public, nonsectarian university in the south of Israel. Participants completed the following questionnaires in one study session: sociodemographic questionnaire; Attitudes Towards Men in Nursing Scale; motives for career choice questionnaire; and the questionnaire of the perceptions of the professional status of nursing. Study findings revealed that men tended to choose nursing because of financial constraints significantly more frequently than women (P=.001). Among the participants, there was no significant between-sex difference in the perception nursing as women's work (P=.002) or in perception of male nurses as homosexuals. Results of the study showed that the status of the nursing profession is considered low, and the low status deters men from choosing nursing as a career. The motivation for men's career choice must be understood, and men must be empowered to improve their work conditions and financial remuneration in order to recruit men to the field and to improve the perception of the profession and its public status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poli, Roberto; Agrimi, Emilia
Internet addiction is one of the latest forms of addiction that has attracted the attention of popular media and researchers in these last few years. Several authors think Internet addiction is a separate disorder that merits inclusion in DSM-V. There is considerable controversy about this opinion. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction in a representative sample of high school students attending secondary institutions in the district of Cremona and to assess any difference concerning variables such as gender, age, place of residence and kind of school attended. The Italian version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) has been administered to a sample of 2533 students from different kinds of school. The survey also required social and demographic data. The majority of respondents were classified as normal users of the Internet (n = 2386, 94.19%), with 127 (5.01%) moderately addicted and 20 (0.79%) seriously addicted. Significant differences in gender and in kinds of school were found. No statistical differences were revealed in age and urban or rural conditions. Our study has confirmed the general use of the Internet among youngest people, the emergence of Internet addiction and the male preponderance of this phenomenon.
van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.; van Damme, J.M.M.
Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for male
Fowler, Crystal Nicole
This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…
Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek
Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.
The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population
Paddy K.C. Janssen
Full Text Available Purpose: To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods: We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE. The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF. The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results: The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions: Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT.
The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population
Janssen, Paddy K.C.
Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…
Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Brey, Marybeth; Hansen, Michael J.; Kocovsky, Patrick
Invasive fish species disrupt ecosystems and cause economic damage. Several methods have been discussed to control populations of invasive fish including the release of YY-males. YY-males are fish that have 2 male chromosomes compared to a XY-male. When YY-males mate, they only produce male (XY) offspring. This decreases the female proportion of the population and can, in theory, eradicate local populations by biasing the sex-ratio. YY-males have been used as a population control tool for brook trout in montane streams and lakes in Idaho, USA. The YY-male control method has been discussed for grass carp in Lake Erie, North America. We developed and presented an integral projection model for grass carp to model the use of YY-males as a control method for populations in this lake. Using only the YY-male control method, we found that high levels of YY-males would need to be release annually to control the species. Specifically, these levels were the same order of magnitude as the baseline adult population (e.g., 1000 YY-males needed to be released annual for 20 years to control a baseline adult population of 2500 grass carp). These levels may not be reasonable or obtainable for fisheries managers given the impacts of YY-males on aquatic vegetation and other constraints of natural resource management.
Sparkes, T C; Rush, V; Kopp, D A; Foster, S A
The effects of nuptial colour, parasites and body size on reproductive success were examined in a natural population of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Reproductive males were collected, with the contents of their nests, during the embryo-guarding stage from Lynne Lake (Cook Inlet, Alaska, U.S.A.), and nuptial colour, infection status and body size were recorded. Regression analysis revealed that male body size was the only predictor, of those measured, of reproductive success in nature. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Wood, J. Luke; Newman, Christopher B.
This research focuses on factors predicting faculty-student engagement for Black male collegians. In this study, the authors investigated whether students' perceptions of racial/gender stereotypes had a moderating effect on the determinants of engagement with faculty. The sample population was derived from 16 urban community colleges located…
K. V. S. Hari Kumar
Full Text Available Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 20 years in good health, and their morbidity data were derived from the medical records. We calculated the incidence rates as per person-years (py using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Our analysis includes 51,217 participants (median: age 33 years, range: 17–54 with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. Yearly evaluation of the data gave a cumulative follow-up duration of 613,925 py. The incidence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia was 0.41, 0.23, and 0.12 per 1000 py, respectively. The incidence of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and metabolic bone disorders was 3.9, 8.6, 1.6, 0.81, and 0.97 per 100,000 py, respectively. Conclusion: Our cohort had lower incidence rates of endocrine disorders when compared with the Western population. Long-term epidemiological studies are essential to identify the demographic trends of the endocrine disorders in India.
Cramp, Geoffrey; Stonehouse, Mary; Webb, Rachel; Webb, Rachel; Chaffey-Aupouri, Gina; Wilson, Nigel
The aim of this programme was to find undetected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in students from selected schools in the Tairawhiti region (eastern part of the North Island) of New Zealand. Portable echocardiography was used to scan students in 5 urban and rural schools in Tairawhiti where the population is predominantly Maori. The age range of students in the urban schools was 10-13 years and in the rural schools 5-17 years. Those with abnormal echocardiograms were referred for a paediatric consultation, with hospital-based echocardiography if required for the clarification of diagnoses and further management. A total of 685 students, representing over 95% of the schools' students, consented to having echocardiographic scanning. After repeat hospital based echocardiography for 11 students, a total of 52 scans were regarded as abnormal. In this population definite (n=4) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 11 students a prevalence of 1.61% (95%CIs 0.80-2.85). Possible RHD was found in 19 students. Previously undetected confirmed (n=1) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 8 students a prevalence of 1.17% (95%CIs 0.51-2.29). Congenital heart defects (CHD) were found in 22 students a prevalence of 3.21% (95%CIs 2.02-4.83). Echocardiography was a popular modality and detected a significant burden of previously unknown RHD in this young Maori population who are now receiving penicillin. However, echocardiography detected a greater prevalence of possible RHD for which optimum management is at present uncertain. Echocardiography also detected students with a range of severity of CHD. Screening with echocardiography for RHD would involve a significant use of public health, paediatric and cardiac resources with 7.6% of students and their families requiring clinical consultations and ongoing management of the abnormal echocardiographic results.
Grunspan, Daniel Z; Eddy, Sarah L; Brownell, Sara E; Wiggins, Benjamin L; Crowe, Alison J; Goodreau, Steven M
Women who start college in one of the natural or physical sciences leave in greater proportions than their male peers. The reasons for this difference are complex, and one possible contributing factor is the social environment women experience in the classroom. Using social network analysis, we explore how gender influences the confidence that college-level biology students have in each other's mastery of biology. Results reveal that males are more likely than females to be named by peers as being knowledgeable about the course content. This effect increases as the term progresses, and persists even after controlling for class performance and outspokenness. The bias in nominations is specifically due to males over-nominating their male peers relative to their performance. The over-nomination of male peers is commensurate with an overestimation of male grades by 0.57 points on a 4 point grade scale, indicating a strong male bias among males when assessing their classmates. Females, in contrast, nominated equitably based on student performance rather than gender, suggesting they lacked gender biases in filling out these surveys. These trends persist across eleven surveys taken in three different iterations of the same Biology course. In every class, the most renowned students are always male. This favoring of males by peers could influence student self-confidence, and thus persistence in this STEM discipline.
Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with…
Als, Thomas Damm; TH, Jørgensen; Børglum, Anders
The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are inhabited by a small population, whose origin is thought to date back to the Viking Age. Historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the present population of the Faroe Islands may have a mixture of Scandinavian and British...... a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...
Chen, Jiang-peng; Wang, Hong; Liu, Liang
To study the status of quality of life(QOL) on men who have sex with men (MSM) and it's relationship with social support among university students in Chongqing. Snowball sampling was applied to recruit the subjects on MSM for this study and multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit ordinary male college students. WHOQOL-BREF and SSRS questionnaires were used to collect information from both MSM and ordinary male college students. Scores from the physiological, psychological, social relations and environmental domains for QOL and total QOL were 13.82 ± 2.25, 13.14 ± 2.51, 13.24 ± 2.96, 12.44 ± 2.49 and 13.12 ± 2.16, respectively. Scores for all domains of QOL on MSM were lower than figures from ordinary male college students (P social relations were the main factors that influencing the social support and quality of life in this population, respectively. The improvement of subjective feelings and proper use of social support and targeted interventions among this MSM population should accord to the different demographic characteristics, especially for those who did not have regular sexual partner or in gay circles, and for those who practice passive role during sexual act(as "0"), seemed to be helpful to improve their quality of life.
Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S
The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...
Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z
Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.
Ormaeche, Melvy; Whittembury, Alvaro; Pun, Mónica; Suárez-Ognio, Luis
To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis, and HIV and associated risk factors in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin. A cross-sectional study was performed in six indigenous populations from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Blood samples were obtained and tested for HBV (antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), for syphilis (rapid plasma reagin and microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies), and for HIV (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test). A survey was also performed to identify associated risk factors. One thousand two hundred and fifty-one pregnant women and 778 male partners were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc in pregnant women was 42.06% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.28-44.85%) and in their male partners was 54.09% (95% CI 50.32-57.86%). The seroprevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women was 2.11% (95% CI 0.78-3.44%) and in their male partners was 3.98% (95% CI 1.87-6.08%). The seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 1.60% (95% CI 0.86-2.33%) and in their male partners was 2.44% (95% CI 1.22-3.66%). HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women was 0.16% (95% CI 0.02-0.58%) and in their male partners was 0.29% (95% CI 0.04-1.03%). Sexual risk factors were strongly related to blood markers of syphilis and HBV. Hepatitis B was found to be hyperendemic and strongly related to sexual factors, suggesting an important sexual component in the transmission of the disease in the populations studied. Syphilis was found to have an endemicity in pregnant women above the national level and this may be indicative of high mother-to-child transmission. HIV has started to show its presence in indigenous populations of the Amazon Basin and the results suggest the epidemic is concentrated. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Full Text Available Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya, suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4-6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.
Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin
Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. A prospective survey of women 18-26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, ppreference was repeated for sexual risk factors and past reproductive medical history. Women who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p = 0.015). Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake.
Andsager, Julie L.
Examines perceptions of the credibility of male and female syndicated political columnists. Finds that college students exhibited little prejudice against female versus male bylines in political interpretive columns. Finds a small tendency for male readers to evaluate male bylines higher in stereotypical ways, but female readers do not do this.…
Full Text Available Introduction: The modern society considers facial attractiveness as an important physical attribute. The great variance in soft tissue drape of the human face complicates accurate assessment of the soft tissue profile, and it is a known fact that facial features of different ethnic groups differ significantly. This study was undertaken to establish norms for Himachali ethnic population. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position of 100 normal individuals (50 males, 50 females. The cephalograms were analyzed by Arnett soft tissue cephalometric analysis for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between Himachali males and females in certain key parameters. Males have thicker soft tissue structures and a more acute nasolabial angle than females. Males have longer faces and females have greater interlabial gap and maxillary incisor exposure. Males have more deep-set facial structures than females. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences were found between Himachali males and females in certain key parameters. Differences were also noted between other ethnic groups and Himachali faces.
Full Text Available The use of modern information technology has contributed to the creation of new media and virtual tools that contribute to mass social interaction. The Internet has enabled networking communicator, associating in virtual communities and the creation of parallel communication space. However, despite all the good things they bring with them, new technologies are leading to the emergence of various forms of victimization in the virtual space. The ability to communicate anonymously or through a fictitious identity on the new media platforms created a favorable climate for the operation of the “dark side” of the Internet. Violence on the Internet, known as the cyberbullying is becoming a topic for many researchers mainly focusing on research and description of the phenomenon in adolescent population. The paper aims to examine the theoretical aspects of cyberbullying and to present the existing research, as well as the results of the pilot research work on the social networks behavior of final year students of the Faculty of Culture and Media, conducted by the authors. The paper shows that violence on the Internet exists in this part of the student population.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a social stories intervention on the social skills of male students with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The sample included 30 male students with ASD who were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 15 or a control group (n = 15. The social skills of both groups were assessed pre- and post-test using Stone and colleagues’ Social Skills Scale (which included subscales for understanding/perspective-taking, initiating interactions, responding to interactions, and maintaining interactions. The experimental group participated in 16 sessions of social stories training, while the control group did not. Overall, the results showed that the social stories intervention improved the social skills of the children with ASD in the experimental group compared with the control group. The effects of the social stories intervention were mostly evident in the subscales for understanding/perspective-taking, initiating interactions, and maintaining interactions with others. The social stories intervention had no effect on the subscale assessing ability to respond to others. The study findings emphasize the effectiveness of the social stories intervention in improving the social skills of children with ASD, which may be used by teachers, parents, or professionals who work with such children.
Hayes, Robert E., III
Globalization of the world economy has confirmed the need for citizens to exemplify competitive capacities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Since the 1970s, American higher education has seen increasing numbers of students entering college but has witnessed a decline in the number of students enrolling in STEM programs. African American men fall behind other students in regards to academic performance, persistence, and success throughout primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling. Accordingly, participation of African American men in STEM disciplines is low in comparison to White males and other race groups. Various factors have been identified as contributing to the academic failures of Black men. Poor academic and social preparedness, racial identity issues, institutional climates, negative stereotypes, and fear of success have been cited as potential contributors to the relative invisibility of African American men in STEM disciplines. This study explores the life stories of five African American male scholars in the college of engineering at a predominantly white university. The goal of the qualitative investigation is to help university faculty and administrators understand the institutional, interpersonal, and collective mechanisms influencing the success identities of African American male undergraduates in STEM academic programs. Understanding the lived experiences of this population may help universities innovate stronger supports for men of color in college and broaden the borders for all students interested in STEM careers.
Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H
)] were explored in 322 male university students in suburban Tokyo. The subjects constituted part of a large cross-sectional survey on the reference value of semen quality of Japanese men. Urinary 3-PBA was detectable in 91% of the subjects demonstrating ubiquitous exposure among the general population....... However, there were no associations between urinary 3-PBA and serum hormone levels. This result was inconsistent with those reported in China and the USA for subjects who had similar levels of urinary 3-PBA to the present subjects. One of the possible reasons of the inconsistency might be different...
Jennifer W. Beall
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10 was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students appears warranted.
Natalie April van Breukelen
Full Text Available The convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata has been extensively examined in relation to many behavioral topics, such as courtship, pair-bonding, bi-parental care, and territoriality. Recently, this model species has been utilized in studies on genetics, endocrinology, and neuroanatomy, with an ultimate goal of connecting behavior with its underlying mechanisms. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1 profile the circulating levels of plasma 11KT in the male convict cichlid at multiple points during the reproductive cycle and (2 generally compare the hormonal profiles of the widely used laboratory populations and those of a free-living population in the streams of Costa Rica. The results of the field experiment showed that male convict cichlids had higher levels of circulating 11KT during courtship and lower during the parental care and non-breeding phases. The profile of the laboratory population was similar to the profile of the free-living individuals, with significantly higher levels of 11KT occurring during courtship than during parental care, though the level of 11KT during non-breeding phase was elevated in the laboratory. The high levels of 11KT during courtship and low levels of 11KT during parental care found in both the field and the laboratory is similar to what has been reported in other species of teleosts, and may suggest an important function of 11KT in the expression of courtship behavior and the subsequent onset of parental behaviors in this model species.
Johnson, Diane Wynn
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these
An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p< O.01) . Subjects above the obesity indices cut-off points had significantly higher values of RHR in both standing and supine positions compared to NW individuals (p<0.05). There was a greater reduction in RHR on changing the posture to supine state in OB group. Conclusion: A significantly higher RHR and a greater change in RHR on changing the posture point towards an altered autonomic balance in OB group of young adolescent males. This underscores the need to implement health education program to combat obesity at school and college levels. (author)
Sun, Xinying; Liu, Xiaona; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Peiyu; Chang, Chun
The purposes of this study were to assess sexual behavior and condom use among Chinese college students, and to explore social-environmental and social-cognitive determinants associated with risky sexual behaviors within this population. A survey was conducted among 19,123 Chinese college students recruited through stratified cluster sampling. About 9% of the students reported having had sex (male=13.3%, female=5.0%, OR=2.918), 3.6% had multiple sexual partners (male=5.7%, female=1.6%, OR=3.624), and 0.9% had commercialized sex (male=1.6%, female=0.3%, OR=6.169). Only 24.8% of sexually active students had used a condom for every sexual encounter, and there was no significant difference in condom use between male students and female students. Logistic regression showed that sex (female, OR=0.769), age (older, OR=1.263), exposure to pornographic information (higher, OR=1.751), drinking (intoxication, OR=1.437), and smoking (OR=2.123-5.112) were all determinants of sexual behaviors. Path analysis showed that exposure to pornographic information, level of consumption, and sex education were important social-environmental factors of condom use. Condom use was more common among those who had greater HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward high-risk behavior, self-efficacy, and intent to use a condom. Intentions were the most important and direct factor influencing condom use. The study concluded that college students are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases - including HIV/AIDS infection - through sexual contact. Therefore, future HIV/AIDS prevention and safer sex interventions should focus on self-protection skills and target behavior change.
Martin P Davoren
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS. METHODS: Undergraduate students from one large third level institution were sampled using probability proportional to size sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to students attending lectures in the randomly selected degrees. A total of 2,332 self-completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 51% based on students registered to relevant modules and 84% based on attendance. One-way ANOVAs and multivariate logistic regression were utilised to investigate factors associated with positive mental health and well-being. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly female (62.66%, in first year (46.9% and living in their parents' house (42.4% or in a rented house or flat (40.8%. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and stratified by gender, no significant differences in WEMWBS score were observed by area of study, alcohol, smoking or drug use. WEMWBS scores were higher among male students with low levels of physical activity (p=0.04. Men and women reporting one or more sexual partners (p<0.001 were also more likely to report above average mental health and well-being. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to examine positive mental health and well-being scores in a third level student sample using WEMWBS. The findings suggest that students with a relatively adverse health and lifestyle profile have higher than average mental health and well-being. To confirm these results, this work needs to be replicated across
Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia
Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.
McGill, Monica M.; Settle, Amber; Decker, Adrienne
Our study gathered data to serve as a benchmark of demographics of undergraduate students in game degree programs. Due to the high number of programs that are cross-disciplinary with computer science programs or that are housed in computer science departments, the data is presented in comparison to data from computing students (where available) and the US population. Participants included students studying games at four nationally recognized postsecondary institutions. The results of the study indicate that there is no significant difference between the ratio of men to women studying in computing programs or in game degree programs, with women being severely underrepresented in both. Women, blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and heterosexuals are underrepresented compared to the US population. Those with moderate and conservative political views and with religious affiliations are underrepresented in the game student population. Participants agree that workforce diversity is important and that their programs are adequately diverse, but only one-half of the participants indicated that diversity has been discussed in any of their courses.
Zivin, Kara; Eisenberg, Daniel; Gollust, Sarah E; Golberstein, Ezra
Cross-sectional studies indicate a high prevalence of mental health problems among college students, but there are fewer longitudinal data on these problems and related help-seeking behavior. We conducted a baseline web-based survey of students attending a large public university in fall 2005 and a two-year follow-up survey in fall 2007. We used brief screening instruments to measure symptoms of mental disorders (anxiety, depression, eating disorders), as well as self-injury and suicidal ideation. We estimated the persistence of these mental health problems between the two time points, and determined to what extent students with mental health problems perceived a need for or used mental health services (medication or therapy). We conducted logistic regression analyses examining how baseline predictors were associated with mental health and help-seeking two years later. Over half of students suffered from at least one mental health problem at baseline or follow-up. Among students with at least one mental health problem at baseline, 60% had at least one mental health problem two years later. Among students with a mental health problem at both time points, fewer than half received treatment between those time points. Mental health problems are based on self-report to brief screens, and the sample is from a single university. These findings indicate that mental disorders are prevalent and persistent in a student population. While the majority of students with probable disorders are aware of the need for treatment, most of these students do not receive treatment, even over a two-year period.
Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B
To determine if self-reported sleep duration was associated with weight-control behaviors among US high school students. National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. United States, 2007. US high school students (N = 12,087). Students were asked if they had engaged in several weight-control behaviors during the 30 days before the survey to lose or maintain weight. Self-reported sleep duration categories included very short (≤ 5 h), short (6 or 7 h), referent moderate (8 or 9 h), and long (≥ 10 h). Sex-specific logistic regression analyses with race/ethnicity, grade, and body mass index category as covariates were conducted using SUDAAN to account for complex study design. Approximately half the students reported short sleep duration (51.8% of males and 54.3% of females), whereas very short sleep durations were reported by another 14.8% of males and 16.9% of females. Among males, very short sleepers were significantly (P sleep duration was associated with dieting and three unhealthy weight-control behaviors in this population. If our findings are confirmed, intervention studies should be conducted to examine the effect of educational interventions.
Full Text Available The number of males entering higher education via an enabling pathway is slowly increasing; yet, males still battle with the anti-intellectual attitude that is prevalent in regional areas of Australia. Previous research undertaken by the authors began exploring the factors that inhibited or enhanced the male experience within an enabling course. This paper expands upon this research with a deeper focus on the male experience through personalised accounts derived from individual interviews. Using qualitative methodology and narrative inquiry, the findings provide a deeper understanding of the issues that males of different ages face when creating a new identity as a university student. This paper shares insights into what motivated the male students to enter university via an enabling pathway; the actual personal experiences both positive and negative during this time; and the effect that this commitment to study had on them personally and the people around them. The lens of transformative theory underpins this research through exploring frames of reference that align with the students’ experiences. Portraiture prose shares the individual stories which are analysed and the key findings extrapolated.
David A Reinhard
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log. There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97 = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97 = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.
Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.
Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062
Griffith, James D; Hayworth, Michelle; Adams, Lea T; Mitchell, Sharon; Hart, Christian
The assumed characteristics of individuals in the adult entertainment industry have been used to advocate positions for and against pornography. Although prior studies have investigated perceptions of porn actors, no data on the actual characteristics of this group exist. The present study compared the self-reports of 105 male and 177 female porn actors to the perceptions of 399 college students on childhood sexual abuse (CSA), self-esteem, work and non-work sexual behaviors, and safe sex issues. College students were asked to identify the characteristics associated with either a male or female porn star. College students provided underestimates for both female and male porn actors on self-esteem, age of first intercourse, lifetime number of partners outside of work, ideal experience in a romantic partner, concerns regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), enjoyment of sex, and condom use during a first time sexual encounter, but overestimated earnings. Additional differences among male porn stars included an underestimate of the number of partners at work. For female porn stars, college students underestimated their enjoyment of work, the probability of catching an STD, and having unprotected sex. Although there were no significant differences on perceived rates of childhood abuse of porn actors, the incidence of CSA among the porn actor participants were within the ranges of the general population. The majority of college student stereotypes were not supported regarding the perceptions of porn actors. These findings were discussed within the context of attributing unfounded characteristics of individuals to an entire industry.
Mohamad Reza Havasian and Zohreh Havasian*
Test anxiety, which is one of the main obstacles of education systems at different levels, is one of the most common phenomena among students. Regarding the effect of test anxiety on academic performance, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between test anxiety and parenting in Malekshahi city of Ilam. The present research is a descriptive cross-sectional study and the statistical population includes all male and female students of high school in Maleshahi city. The subject...
Lyu, Nan; Servedio, Maria R; Lloyd, Huw; Sun, Yue-Hua
An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of postpairing male choice, specifically which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such postpairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more effort to providing parental care when mated to preferred (signaling) females, but they are then unable to allocate additional effort to seek EPCs. We find that both male preference and female signaling can evolve in this situation, under certain conditions. First, this evolution requires a relatively large difference in parental investment between males mated to preferred versus nonpreferred females. Second, whether male choice and female signaling alleles become fixed in a population versus cycle in their frequencies depends on the additional fecundity benefits from EPCs that are gained by choosy males. Third, less costly female signals enable both signaling and choice alleles to evolve under more relaxed conditions. Our results also provide a new insight into the evolution of sexual conflict over parental care. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Egry, E Y
This study sought to determine the beliefs of nursing students on human sexuality, their information sources, and persons influencing their opinion. A survey conducted December 1983 to January 1985 targeted female graduating students in Nursing and Obstetrics at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) School of Nursing; its findings were then compared to similar studies conducted among the general population. The findings show that the target population and general population opinions differ little, reflecting fear and prejudice about sexual practices. Also, the professional training of Brazil's nurses failed to include a fundamental understanding of human sexuality. The 42 respondents are characterized as follows: age 21 to 36 years; 95.2% single; 88% childless; 59.5% born in the city of Sao Paulo; 88% born in the state of Sao Paulo; 85.7% with long term residence in urban areas and state capitals; and 92.5% attended 4 years of nursing school at USP. Results showed: 47.6% favored premarital sex; 26.2% espoused premarital virginity for men and 19% for women; roughly 60% disapproved of extramarital relations for both sexes. 75% considered masturbation normal for both sexes; about 90% approved of contraceptive practices for men and women; 90.5% favored family planning; 26% were strictly against abortion; nearly 60% found prostitution unacceptable for both sexes; and homosexuality in both sexes was considered taboo by 42.8%, and acceptable by 14%. The vast majority favored sexual education at all levels. Regarding sources of sexual infomation: books, magazines and encyclopedias comprised 25%; male friends, 10%; girlfriends, 9.4%; boyfriends 8%; and, the University of Sao Paulo School of Nursing, a mere 6.5%. The persons who influenced their opinions were: first, boyfriend (23.7%) followed by mother, girlfriends and male friends; second, girlfriend (28.5%) followed by boyfriend and male friend; third, girlfriend, boyfriend, male friend, and teachers (7.1% each); fourth
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Drug abuse is one of the complicated phenomenons in the human communities that it produces health problems. The effect of applying fear appeal message on attitudes and intention against drug abuse, drug resistance skills, knowledge about side effect of drugs and drug abuse related behaviors among male high school students was studied based on applying extended parallel process model as a theoretical framework. Materials & Methods: Two high schools were chosen from six state high schools as an intervention (n=86 and control (n=97 groups. Educational curriculum, that was designed, based on students’ educational needs, appealed students’ fear and recommended messages developed students' ability for resisting against drugs. Before intervention 5-6 students who were known as a favourite and leader of students, were selected by student’s opinion in each class as students' leaders. The each leader of the group had a coordinator and mediate role between his group and health educators. Henceforth a favourite teacher was chosen by students’ vote for helping health educators and participated in the educational intervention program.Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for intention (t= -4.03, p<0.000 and attitude against drug abuse (t= -6.19, p<0.000, peer resistance skills (t=-0.82, p<0.000, and knowledge (t= -10.88, p<0.000. In addition, it was not found positive urinary rapid immune-chromatography test for opium and marijuana in the intervention group whereas 6.3% in the control groups.Conclusion: This findings suggest that applying fear appeals theories and effective health risk message would be an efficient tool for preventing drug abuse education programs but further studies are needed to define function of EPPM as a effective model for creating social inoculation against drug abuse among non- drug expose adolescents.
Zandy, Shannon L; Pang, Joyce S; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Matthews, Douglas B
College drinking is a global health concern. However, most studies originate from countries with high alcohol consumption. In the United States, college students overpour a standard alcoholic drink, yet it is unclear if this remains true in countries with low alcohol consumption. Additionally, in college, peer influence is the greatest predictor of drinking behavior, yet it is unknown if social norms affect how students pour drinks. This study examined how male college students, in a country with low alcohol consumption, define standard drinks, and if the presence of an unfamiliar peer affects how students pour during a simulated alcohol-pouring task. Male undergraduate students (n = 105) underwent baseline assessments of impulsivity, self-monitoring, religiosity, and drinking characteristics. Participants poured fluid into empty cups of different sizes to equal a standard serving of beer or shot of liquor. There were 2 groups based on gender of experimenter. Within each group, participants were randomly assigned to Alone or Dyad condition. In the Alone condition, students were instructed to pour only for themselves. In the Dyad condition, students were instructed to pour for themselves and the experimenter. The volumes poured by the students were compared with standards used in Singapore and the United States. Collapsed across container size, students overpoured shots by 50% and beer by 100% when compared to the standard drink definition in Singapore. When using a more liberal definition, students overpoured beer by 25%, but did not overpour shots. In the presence of an unfamiliar peer, overpouring decreased by 10% for beer. The current data show that college students, in a country with low alcohol consumption, overestimate standard alcoholic drinks similar to their Western counterparts and use social norms to determine how much to pour for a drink when confronted with an unfamiliar peer. Efforts toward creating internationally recognized standard drink
Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)
Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.
This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…
Full Text Available Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanroud’s schools’ bilingual students. We used teacher referral method for the primary screening of speech disorders. Essential information about speech disorders, specifically stuttering, had been given to teachers before this primary step. The bilingual researcher then diagnosed stuttering students based on DSM-IV criteria through personal interview, text reading, and spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanroud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1.13%. Among elementary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2.06%, 0.87% and 0.5% respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1.35% and 0.88% among girls. An overall male/female ratio was 1.5/1. Prevalence of stuttering in elementary, guidance and high school differed significantly (P=0.000. Prevalence of stuttering in males was significantly higher than females (P=0.034. Discussion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanroud’s bilingual students was higher than the universal accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1% but lower than other studies in bilingual population. The similarities of Kurdish and Farsi languages play an important role in this and are discussed in the paper.
Hantz, Alan M.; Wright, Donald K.
A study was conducted to explore in what ways, if any, male public relations practitioners differ from their female counterparts in their level of social responsibility. Subjects were 105 public relations practitioners (60% female and 40% male) and 215 college students (71% female and 29% male), who completed the Berkowitz-Lutterman SRS Scale. The…
Trad, Megan; Estaville, Lawrence
Skin cancer is the most common cancer, and it often is preventable. The authors sought to evaluate behavior and knowledge regarding skin cancer among students at a Texas university. The authors recruited a diverse group of students in terms of sex, age, and ethnicity to participate in a survey regarding knowledge of skin cancer signs, use of tanning beds, and performance of self-assessment for skin cancer. Participating students could complete surveys in classrooms, at health fairs, or online via Survey Monkey. The authors examined data for the 3 variables in relation to sex, ethnicity, and age. A total of 512 responses were completed. Female students completed 371 (72.46%) surveys, and male students completed 141 (27.54%). The ethnicity of student participants was nearly evenly split among whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. Ethnicity was the most significant factor influencing the knowledge of skin cancer and behaviors to prevent it. Specifically, Hispanic and African American students possessed a lower level of skin cancer awareness. More female students than male students used tanning beds, and although use was self-reported as infrequent, the results imply that 4500 of the university's students might use tanning beds, which is concerning if extrapolated to other university student populations in Texas. Behavioral intervention is critical in reducing students' risk of skin cancer in later years, and university students must acquire knowledge to increase their awareness of skin health and to minimize their risk of developing skin cancer. Radiation therapists are uniquely positioned to share knowledge of skin cancer. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Beutel, M E; Weidner, W; Brähler, E
Sexual dysfunctions have found an increasing attention in recent epidemiological studies of the ageing male. The purpose of this paper is to review the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and risk factors based on community samples. Studies have not only demonstrated a strong age-related incline of erectile dysfunction (ED), but also of ejaculatory and orgasmic disorders (particularly a reduced or absent ejaculation). Despite a declining sexual desire, sexual interest remains present in old age. Lower urinary tract symptoms have been identified as strong risk factors for ED along with cardiovascular, metabolic, psychiatric disorders and lifestyle factors. The wide range of prevalence rate estimates is likely because of different definitions and criteria of sexual dysfunctions. More research is needed on other dysfunctions besides ED and on the partner relationship as a major determinant of sexual activity and satisfaction. The interrelationship between risk factors calls for interdisciplinary prevention and treatment approaches. As disability-free life expectancy keeps increasing, the need to identify, adequately assess and treat male sexual dysfunction as an important impediment to quality of life most likely will become even more pressing.
Goštautas, Antanas; Grigaitė, Bronislava; Klasavičienė, Rima
Self-esteem of college students of Lithuania was examined inadequately. Three researches were made and data of 228 students' answers were analyzed, 170 females and 58 males. It was found out that reduced self-esteem dominates among the female as well as male students. Having made the factorial analysis of the data, five main factors of self-esteem of males and females were found out. The legalized and not legalized drugs are used among males irrespectively of self-esteem. Females with low sel...
Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Rezaeitalab, Fariborz; Soltaneefa, Atefeh; Ghaznavi, Mahsoomeh; Bakhshandeh, Tahereh; Saberi, Soheila
Smoking is the most important preventable cause of death. According to the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) presented by WHO, 25% of smokers smoked their first cigarette before the age of 10; hence, it is of great importance to investigate the effect of smoking of family members and friends on smoking incidence of adolescents. This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of GYTS questionnaire. The studied population consisted of 3000 high school students who were selected randomly. Data was collected by applying the questionnaires which were fulfilled by students anonymously without supervision of school authorities. The results were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 software employing chi-square test. The studied population included 1842 boys (61.4%) and 1158 girls (38.6%) with the mean age of 16.1 years. In terms of smoking habit, 827 students (27.6%) were occasional smokers, 122 students (4.2%) were regular smokers, 518 students (17.3%) used another type of tobacco, and 1533 students (51.1%) were non-smokers. In terms of gender, 77.6% of occasional smokers were males and 22.4% of them were females. At the same time, males and females made up 80.3% and 19.7% of regular smokers, respectively. Also, males and females made up 71.1% and 28.9% of students using another type of tobacco, respectively. In terms of smoker family members and friends, 1860 students (85.6%) of non-smoker students had no smoker in their families and only 313 (14.4%) had at least one smoker in family, while 61.5% of smoker students had at least one smoker family member (p pocket money. This study showed that the incidence of smoking among high school students significantly correlated with the incidence of smoking among their friendsandfamilymembers (p pocket money) has little orno effect on the incidence of smoking among high school students (p value: 0.863).
Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J
Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function.
Aleshia L. Fremgen; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh
It is unlikely all male sage-grouse are detected during lek counts, which could complicate the use of lek counts as an index to population abundance. Understanding factors that influence detection probabilities will allow managers to more accurately estimate the number of males present on leks. We fitted 410 males with global positioning system and very high...
Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney
Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ozbay, Ozden; Ozcan, Yusuf Ziya
In this study, Hirschi's social bonding theory is employed to identify what aspects of the theory can explain male and female delinquency and whether social bonding variables can equally explain male and female delinquency (generalizability problem) in a developing society, Turkey. The data include a two-stage-stratified cluster sample of 1,710 high school students from the central districts of Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The findings suggest that social bonding variables play a more important role for male students than for female students. Furthermore, they indicate that components of the social bonding theory can equally explain both male and female delinquent acts.
Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André
We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sandra Pavičić Žeželj
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of usage and the knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements among medical sciences and nonmedical sciences students from Croatia. The study was conducted based on a questionnaire about dietary supplement usage, knowledge and attitudes. The prevalence of dietary supplement use, among 910 university students was 30.5%. The most-used dietary supplements were vitamins (18.0% in medical sciences students and 9.8% in non-medical sciences students. For all students, the internet (66.1% was the most common source of information, followed by healthcare professionals (33.2%. The most common reason for taking dietary supplements was to maintain good health (26.4%. Use of the internet rather than health professionals as a trusted information source should be revised among this young population. Supplement intake was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (p = 0.016 and physical activity (p = 0.050. Students with normal BMI (61.5% and the most physically active students (37.7% took significantly more dietary supplements. Results of this study could help medicine faculties to improve their curriculum and support the development of public health messages aimed at wise and safe use of dietary supplements.
Full Text Available Gathering information online prior to offline purchase became the com - mon way of using Internet within student population. On the other hand, there are more and more Internet users and online shoppers at all Central European Countries. In the CEE region companies are searching the way how to approach students as a target group via their web sites. The purpose of this research was to explain (1 how student population in Croatia use Internet as a tool for gathering information on products and services and (2 to assess perceived problems and potential of Internet as a retail information source. The paper is based on a primary research – a survey on attitudes of Croatian students towards Internet and online shopping. Results are analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical method. Discussion of the results brings us to conclusions that there are statistically different attitudes among groups according to gender and according previous experience with the on-line shopping. For illustration: (a males and females differ in assortment that they are choosing and buying online, (b male students have a more positive attitude towards online shopping benefits than female students, and (c online shoppers have more positive attitudes towards security issues than non-online shoppers.
Mullola, Sari; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
Student's temperament plays a significant role in teacher's perception of the student's learning style, educational competence (EC), and teachability. Hence, temperament contributes to student's academic achievement and teacher's subjective ratings of school grades. However, little is known about the effect of gender and teacher's age on this association. We examined the effect of teacher's and student's gender and teacher's age on teacher-perceived temperament, EC, and teachability, and whether there is significant same gender or different gender association between teachers and students in this relationship. The participants were population-based sample of 3,212 Finnish adolescents (M= 15.1 years) and 221 subject teachers. Temperament was assessed with Temperament Assessment Battery for Children - Revised and Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey batteries and EC with three subscales covering Cognitive ability, Motivation, and Maturity. Data were analyzed with multi-level modelling. Teachers perceived boys' temperament and EC more negatively than girls'. However, the differences between boys and girls were not as large when perceived by male teachers, as they were when perceived by female teachers. Males perceived boys more positively and more capable in EC and teachability than females. They were also stricter regarding their perceptions of girls' traits. With increasing age, males perceived boys' inhibition as higher and mood lower. Generally, the older the teacher, the more mature he/she perceived the student. Teachers' ratings varied systematically by their gender and age, and by students' gender. This bias may have an effect on school grades and needs be taken into consideration in teacher education. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Tao; Li, Jun-Yan; Wang, Ti; Li, You; Feng, Guo-Yin; Shi, Yong-Yong; He, Lin
Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder are two major psychiatric illnesses that may share specific genetic risk factors to a certain extent. Increasing evidence suggests that the two disorders might be more closely related than previously considered. To investigate whether YWHAE gene plays a significant role in major depressive disorder in Han Chinese population, we recruited 1135 unrelated major depressive disorder patients (485 males, 650 females) and 989 unrelated controls (296 males, 693 females) of Chinese Han origin. Eleven common SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan® technology. In male-group, the allele and genotype frequencies of rs34041110 differed significantly between patients and control (P allele =0.036486, OR[95%CI]: 1.249442(1.013988-1.539571); P genotype =0.045301). Also in this group, allele and genotype frequencies of rs1532976 differed significantly (P allele =0.013242, OR[95%CI]: 1.302007(1.056501-1.604563); genotype: P=0.039152). Haplotype-analyses showed that, in male-group, positive association with major depressive disorder was found for the A-A-C-G haplotype of rs3752826-rs2131431-rs1873827-rs12452627 (χ 2 =20.397, P=6.38E-06, OR[95%CI]: 7.442 [2.691-20.583]), its C-A-C-G haplotype (χ 2 =19.122, P=1.24E-05, OR and 95%CI: 0.402 [0.264-0.612]), its C-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =9.766, P=0.001785, OR[95%CI]: 5.654 [1.664-19.211]). In female-group, positive association was found for the A-A-C-G haplotype of rs3752826-rs2131431-rs1873827-rs12452627 (χ 2 =78.628, P=7.94E-19, OR[95%CI]: 50.043 [11.087-225.876]), its A-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =38.806, P=4.83E-10, OR[95%CI]: 0.053 [0.015-0.192]), the C-A-C-G haplotype (χ 2 =18.930, P=1.37E-05, OR[95%CI]: 0.526 [0.392-0.705]), and the C-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =38.668, P=5.18E-10, OR[95%CI]: 6.130 [3.207-11.716]). Our findings support YWHAE being a risk gene for Major Depressive Disorder in the Han Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.
Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223
Brown, Susan Wightman
Documented by national statistics, female Hispanic students are not eagerly rushing to major in science or engineering. Using Seidman's in-depth interviewing method, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, majoring in science or engineering were interviewed. Besides the themes that emerged with all 22 Hispanic students, there were definite differences between the female and male Hispanic students: role and ethnic identity confusion, greater college preparation, mentoring needed, and the increased participation in enriched additional education programs by the female Hispanic students. Listening to these stories from successful female Hispanic students majoring in science and engineering, educators can make changes in our school learning environments that will encourage and enable more female Hispanic students to choose science or engineering careers.
Chen, Yung-Lung; Liu, Mi-Chi; Tsai, Tsu-Wei; Chen, Yueh-Hua
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, little is known about how Muslims, as a minority group, cope with the challenges associated with engaging their religious practices in a predominantly non-Islamic context. This study aims to investigate how international Muslim science students dealt with the difficulties they faced in their religious practices in a foreign context, and specifically in their research laboratories and in the wider Taiwanese society with its pluralistic spiritual beliefs. Fourteen male Muslim graduate students from Indonesia were recruited to participate in a qualitative interview. In terms of conventional content analysis, their adjustment issues were related to their religious issues, including gender roles both inside and outside of the laboratory, inconvenient practices relating to prayer needs, and eating halal foods and having to face social discrimination off campus. Two types of major adaptation strategies were identified for dealing with such struggles, including religious coping through their Islamic beliefs and bicultural connections. Their major concerns about religious practices (e.g., praying 5 times per day) were resolved by communicating their needs directly with their laboratory classmates and advisors; however, they navigated the gender boundaries in the laboratory both subtly and inwardly through their Islamic beliefs. The practical implications regarding counseling and education are discussed both in a local and a global context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Qin, Jia-Bi; Zhao, Guang-Lu; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yu-Mao; Lan, Li-Na; Yang, Lin; Feng, Tie-Jian
Although it is widely acknowledged that genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of male homosexuality, the causes are not fully understood. To explore the association and interaction of childhood abuse experiences and genetic variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes with the development of male homosexuality. A case-control study of 537 exclusively homosexual men and 583 exclusively heterosexual men was conducted, with data collected from March 2013 to August 2015. Data were analyzed using χ 2 tests and logistic regression models. Sociodemographic characteristics, childhood abuse experiences, and polymorphisms of COMT at rs4680, rs4818, and rs6267 and MTHFR at rs1801133. More frequent occurrence of physical (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.78), emotional (aOR = 2.07), and sexual (aOR = 2.53) abuse during childhood was significantly associated with the development of male homosexuality. The polymorphisms of MTHFR at rs1801133 and COMT at rs4818 also were significantly associated with the development of male homosexuality in the homozygote comparisons (T/T vs C/C at rs1801133, aOR = 1.68; G/G vs C/C at rs4818, aOR = 1.75). In addition, significant interaction effects between childhood abuse experiences and the COMT and MTHFR genetic variants on the development of male homosexuality were found. This is the first time that an association of childhood abuse, COMT and MTHFR genetic variants, and their interactions with development of male homosexuality was exhaustively explored, which could help provide new insight into the etiology of male homosexuality. Because homosexual men are a relatively obscure population, it was impossible to select the study participants by random sampling, which could lead to selection bias. In addition, because this was a case-control study, recall bias was inevitable, and we could not verify causality. Childhood abuse and the COMT and MTHFR genetic
Sandra du Plessis
Full Text Available Background: The professions of speech-language pathology and audiology (SLPA are characterised by occupational gender segregation. Reasons given by men are a lack of awareness of SLPA; a perception of poor salaries; a perception of poor working conditions; a stereotype that the profession is a female occupation; and a perception that working with children is feminine. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of male students in a specific SLPA training programme regarding gender imbalances. The objectives were to describe the influences of gender on the career orientation of students, the factors shaping students’ career choices and the experiences of students during their undergraduate training. Method: This study followed a quantitative descriptive survey design. Thirty-one conveniently sampled male SLPA students, across different years of study, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Participants indicated that they did not believe in the gendered nature of occupations and that SLPA are not ‘female only’ professions. They (65% recorded that they considered salary and career prospects for choosing a career, and 74% specified that they chose SLPA because of a desire to help people. The perception of male students regarding their training appears to be positive as participants are comfortable with the clinical (71% and learning (77% activities. However, barriers were reported and some lecture information may be more obvious or applicable to female students. A need was identified to address the issue of working alone with paediatric clients and pertains to the societal awareness regarding sexual harassment of children, which may impact spontaneity in engagements. Conclusion: The recruitment of male students should be prioritised to better reflect the client population served by the professions. Recommendations include career counselling in rural schools, recruitment campaigns to
Pedišić, Zeljko; Rakovac, Marija; Titze, Sylvia; Jurakić, Danijel; Oja, Pekka
Information on the relationship between domain-specific physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population and specific groups is still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PA in work, transport, domestic and leisure-time domains and HRQoL among university students. PA and HRQoL were assessed in a random stratified sample of 1750 university students using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - long form and 12-item Short Form Health Survey, respectively. The Spearman's rank correlations, adjusted for age, community size, personal monthly budget, body mass index, smoking habits and alcohol intake ranged from -0.11 to 0.18 in female students and -0.29 to 0.19 in male students. Leisure-time, domestic, transport-related PA and total PA were positively related to HRQoL. Inverse correlations with HRQoL were only found for work-related PA in male students. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only leisure-time PA was related to the Physical Summary Component score (β = 0.08 for females and β = 0.10 for males, P leisure-time, transport and domestic PA with HRQoL can potentially be used to support evidence-based promotion of PA in a university setting, and as a hypothesis for future longitudinal studies on such potential causal relationships.
Yadav, Radha; Khanna, Ashu; Singh, Dharmendra
This observational paper endeavours to recognize the connection between spirituality and stress. Four types of indicators are utilized for the estimation of anxiety, vis-à-vis, behavioural indicators, emotional indicators, sleep indicators and personal habits. As per pre-documented theory, if spirituality is high within an individual, then his/her stress will be low and vice versa. In college, the stress of education and scoring grades influences the understudy. Information is gathered through a survey in the light of spirituality index and stress index. Findings prove that the indicators of the stress are more visible in female students. Apart from this, there has been not much substantial study in the area of stress and spirituality among college students. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to discuss the various types of stress and effects of spirituality on the engineering students belonging to the age group of 21-26 years, prioritizing the indicators of stress as per the gender of students. The entire study constituted of a sample group of 200 participants, and for the entire process, correlation analysis was used to find the relative relation between spirituality and stress among girls and boys. T test is used for rejection of the null hypothesis. The article focuses on the current issues that students have been facing in the twenty-first century. Result of the study showed that there is a negative relationship between the spirituality and stress of male and female students. Moreover, the article provides unique contribution to the literature and also offers suggestions for generating new research ideas that can be used to ameliorate the problems that plague individuals and organizations in today's world. This is the first article which covers the spirituality and stress of the engineering student and discusses the impact on young adults, as well as highlighting certain ways to overcome stress and enhance spirituality.
Robbins, R T; Hirschmann, H
Three North Carolina populations of Belonolairnus longicaudatus differed significantly from three Georgia populations in stylet measurements, the c ratio, the distance of the excretory pore from the anterior end for both sexes; the a ratio for females only; and the total body length, tail length, and spicule length for males only. The Georgia nematodes were stouter, and the females possessed sclerotized vaginal pieces. The distal portion of the spicules of North Carolina males had an indentation and hump lacking in those of the Georgia males. The haploid number of chromosomes was eight for males from all populations of B. longicaudatus and a North Carolina population of B. maritimus. Interpopulation matings of the Tarboro, N.C. and Tifton, Ga. populations indicated that the offspring produced were infertile. Morphological differences and reproductive isolation suggest that the North Carolina and the Georgia populations belong to different species.
Steffens, Melanie C; Jonas, Kai J; Denger, Lisa
Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central correlate, next to religiosity and personal contact with lesbians/gay men. In a cross-sectional study, we tested whether these correlates are relevant in Mexico, characterized as an androcentric culture in which both gender-role traditionalism and religiosity are high, using a college-age student sample (N = 63). Because we relied on self-reports, the motivation to appear nonprejudiced was also assessed. We found typical gender differences in attitudes toward gay men. In bivariate tests, anti-gay attitudes were related to male role endorsement, contact with lesbians/gay men, and religiosity. In a multivariate analysis, variance in attitudes was explained by male role endorsement; personal contact or religiosity did not explain additional variance. In a German comparison sample (N = 112), male role endorsement played a smaller role. Variance in anti-gay attitudes in the German sample was also related to personal contact, religiosity, and the motivation to appear nonprejudiced. We discuss the centrality of (male) gender-role endorsement in cultures with high gender-role traditionalism.
Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Zaninello, Roberta; Ortu, Maria Francesca; Fresu, Giovanni; Piras, Daniela Antonella; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Troffa, Chiara; Glorioso, Valeria; Masala, Wanda; Glorioso, Nicola; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson
Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T) insertion(ins)/deletion(del) polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T) in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93]) accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02) and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046). The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03) than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na-reabsorption in the
Victoria L Herrera
Full Text Available Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T insertion(ins/deletion(del polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93] accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02 and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046. The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03 than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na
Ellis, J A; Stebbing, M; Harrap, S B
A number of studies have shown an association between male pattern baldness (MPB) and cardiovascular disease. Few of these studies, however, have examined whether MPB is a novel risk factor, or is associated with abnormalities of established coronary risk factors. We have therefore performed an analysis of MPB and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. A total of 1219 male participants aged 18-70 years from the Victorian Family Heart Study were surveyed using a validated questionnaire for degree and pattern of baldness. Carefully standardized measures of height, weight, blood pressure, pulse rate, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma fibrinogen were made. Subjects were grouped according to the degree and pattern of baldness as: no baldness, frontal baldness and vertex baldness. Bald men were older than non-bald men (P < 0.0001). Age was also associated with increased levels of coronary risk factors (P < 0.0001). When multiple regression was used to adjust for age differences, the levels of coronary risk factors were not significantly different between the bald and non-bald groups. The lack of association between baldness and established coronary risk factors implies that baldness may predispose to coronary heart disease through novel mechanisms yet to be defined.
Fink, John E.; Hummel, Mary L.
This chapter explores the practices of learning communities designed for specific, underserved student populations, highlighting on-campus examples and culminating with a synthesized list of core practices from these "inclusive" learning communities.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a history of conflicts and widespread human rights violation in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the prevalence of interpersonal violence among the population in this region. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that exposure to violence has mental health consequences and violence also has associations with experiences of sexual coercion. AIMS: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of physical and perceived threats of violence among university students in Uganda and to assess the possible relationship between such violence, sexual coercion, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychoticism, respectively. METHOD: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80% that assessed socio-demographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, mental health, experience of violence and sexual coercion, and sexual behaviour factors. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. RESULTS: Of those who responded, 28% reported perceived threats/threats of violence and 10% exposure to actual physical violence over the previous 12 months, with no significant gender differences in exposure history. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with the experience of sexual coercion among both males and females. Sexual coercion and threats/threats of violence were both significantly associated with poor mental health in males and females, but only males showed a strong association between exposure to physical violence and poor mental health. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that in terms of general exposure, both males and females in the study population are equally exposed to sexual coercion and interpersonal violence, and both male and female students show generally similar mental health effects of exposure to such violence. The prevalence of interpersonal violence found in our study population may have long
Holland, Laurel; Matthews, Todd L; Schott, Melinda R
Traditional students are often introduced to unfamiliar subcultures for the first time on the college campus. Recent high school graduates find themselves transitioning from an atmosphere in which homophobia is likely to be tolerated and possibly even expected to an educational setting in which diversity is promoted. Research shows that the college years are influential in the re-socialization of core values, yet very little work focuses on the ideological shifts that may take place in attitudes toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) population. The research presented in this study includes a modified version of LaMar and Kite's Component Measure, which has been broken down into 6 distinctive components of tolerance. In addition to examining religion, gender, and race--factors that have been correlated in past research with differing levels of tolerance toward the LGBT community--this study adds politics, sexual orientation, academic class standing, and college of major--variables that have received little or no attention in this literature. Higher levels of LGBT tolerance are consistently observed across the indexes among women, more liberal Christian traditions, non-Christian faiths, the non-religious, and those who self-identify as LGBT. The distinctive contribution of this study is that students in the College of Arts and Sciences and students further along in their college careers are also more tolerant. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for inter-college curriculum changes that integrate students in all disciplines and students of all classifications.
Abdullah Faruk Kılıç
Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.
Hall, Cathy W.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Brush, Kimberly M.
Participants in this study were student interns and mentors taking part in the 2012, 10- week Langley Aerospace Research Student Scholars (LARSS) summer internship program in Hampton, Virginia. The study examined mentors and student interns' ratings of their preparedness in basic knowledge and skills. The study focused on three primary areas: 1) overall evaluation of knowledge and skills by mentors and interns; 2) male and female interns' perceptions of their own skills in these key areas; and 3) mentors' perceptions of their student interns' knowledge and skills in the same areas by gender. Overall mentors were more positive about their interns' improvement in 12 of 17 areas assessed than were the student interns. There were no significant gender differences in how mentors rated their male and female interns' abilities in these workforce skills, but there were four key areas where female interns rated their own abilities lower than did their male peers: analytical thinking, computational skills, computer skills and technical skills. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Decreasing tendency of daily physical activity can be observed in the population of Debrecen University students. We started a physical education at the University of Debrecen which was called spine gymnastic. At the beginning of the semester we surveyed the health status and the health behaviour of the students focused on physical activity. The elasticity of hip muscles was also measured at the beginning and the end of the semester. After completing a 14-week spine gymnastic course, which included auto stretching and strengthening exercises, we found that all measured hip muscles improved.
Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho
Full Text Available Background The study of male body image has increased substantially, but there are few assessment tools available for this population. The Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS has been widely used among students to research body image disturbances and eating disorders. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested in the Brazilian context.Objectives To explore the psychometric properties (convergent validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure of the Brazilian version of the MBDS.Methods Two-hundred sixty-four undergraduate students were evaluated. Pearson’s correlation was used to test the convergent validity of the MBDS and the Drive for Muscularity Scale, the Swansea Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Eating Attitudes Test-26, and the Commitment to Exercise Scale. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using t-tests for repeated measures and by calculating the coefficient of intraclass correlation. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and Cronbach’s α coefficients were determined. A significance level of 5% was adopted.Results The MBDS had an adequate factor structure, with two factors explaining 52.67% of the total variance. It showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α between 0.90 and 0.92, a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.81, and convergent validity with the drive for muscularity, the psychological commitment to exercise, low self-esteem, and eating disorder risk behaviour measures.Discussion The MBDS appears to be a valid and reliable tool for evaluating Brazilian male body image dissatisfaction.
Radonić, Vedran; Kozmar, Damir; Počanić, Darko; Jerkić, Helena; Bohaček, Ivan; Letilović, Tomislav
To compare the overall and disease-specific mortality of Croatian male athletes who won one or more Olympic medals representing Yugoslavia from 1948 to 1988 or Croatia from 1992 to 2016, and the general Croatian male population standardized by age and time period. All 233 Croatian male Olympic medalists were included in the study. Information on life duration and cause of death for the Olympic medalists who died before January 1, 2017, was acquired from their families and acquaintances. We asked the families and acquaintances to present medical documentation for the deceased. Data about the overall and disease-specific mortality of the Croatian male population standardized by age and time period were obtained from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Overall and disease-specific standard mortality ratios (SMR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare the mortality rates of athletes and general population. Among 233 Olympic medalists, 57 died before the study endpoint. The main causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (33.3%), neoplasms (26.3%), and external causes (17.6%). The overall mortality of the Olympic medalists was significantly lower than that of general population (SMR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94, P=0.013). Regarding specific causes of death, athletes' mortality from cardiovascular diseases was significantly reduced (SMR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38-0.93, P=0.021). Croatian male Olympic medalists benefit from lower overall and cardiovascular mortality rates in comparison to the general Croatian male population.
Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others
A survey of 301 male college students found that occasional sexual dysfunction was frequent in young male adults, and long-lasting adverse familial relationships to attachment figures were more influential in later sexual dysfunction than were childhood sexual abuse experiences. (Author/DB)
Shaari, Ramizu; Hwa, Teoh Eng; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul
While measurement of mouth opening is an important clinica examination in diagnosis and management of oral disease, data on non-Western populations are limited. This study was therefore conducted to determine the range of mouth opening in normal Malaysian male and female adults. A total of 34 dental students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) were chosen randomly and their maximum mouth opening was measured after being asked to open their mouth sufficiently to accommodate three fingers. Measu...
Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam
To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....
George Bedinelli Rossi
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to integrate the theories of Explicit Memory and Interactivity, contributing to the theoretical development of both. We investigated whether the interactivity precedes the explicit consumer memory. Data collection was carried on by sending online questionnaire to 876 undergraduate male students, with a return of 453 valid questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling of the constructs Explicit Memory and Interactivity. The analyzes indicate that interactivity increases explicit consumer memory, filling a theoretical gap of this concept about its effects. Moreover, it is a concept related to the future, not only to the past and to present, as shown by the classical definitions. As for explicit memory, its formation results from the individual's interactions with the environment, which was not explained by classical theories. The results indicated that interactivity and explicit memory are almost independent of each other, having low correlation or almost nil.
Czibor, Eszter; Onderstal, Sander; Sloof, Randolph
The provision of non-pecuniary incentives in education is a topic that has received much scholarly attention lately. Our paper contributes to this discussion by investigating the effectiveness of grade incentives in increasing student performance. We perform a direct comparison of the two most co...
van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Van Damme, J.M.M.
Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for
Isely, J.J.; Grabowski, T.B.
One alternative reproductive tactic involving early-maturing, cryptic males is referred to as "sneaking." Although sneakers tend to be easily detectable upon close inspection, little is known about the proportion of a fish population consisting of sneakers. We examined 15,400 age-1 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a hatchery. Total length (mm), wet weight (g), and sex (sneaker male or unknown) were recorded for each fish. We also individually tagged each sneaker male with soft visual implant alphanumeric (VIalpha) tags that were sequentially numbered and held the fish for 25 d before inspection. Sneakers constituted 2.8% of the hatchery rainbow trout population and were smaller in total length and weight than typical rainbow trout of the same age. Retention of the VIalpha tags in sneakers was 58.9%, significantly lower than has been reported under similar circumstances. We found that sneaker males may contribute substantially to hatchery populations. Reduced tag retention in sneakers may bias studies evaluating the effect of hatchery fish on wild populations. We believe that hatchery-produced sneaker males have the potential to contribute importantly to the genetic composition of wild populations.
Pridemore, William Alex
There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the incidence of high-risk population of medical students with eating disorders in Karachi by using validated self-administered questionnaires. The earlier these disorders are diagnosed and assessed, the better the chances are for enhanced treatment and fuller recovery. Therefore, we intended to undertake a study to find out the frequency of such disorders among medical students of Karachi and design strategies to overcome them. Findings A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 435 medical students of Karachi. Data was collected using 2 self administered questionnaires, the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. Subjects' body mass indexes (BMI were also calculated. The data was sorted and analyzed in SPSS version 16. According to EAT-26, 22.75% individuals were found to be at high-risk of eating disorders, with 87.9% females and 12.1% males. However, according to SCOFF questionnaire, 17% individuals were found to be at high-risk, with 78.4% females and 21.6% males. According to BMI calculation, 9% were severely underweight, 41.4% underweight, 41.1% normal, 7.6% overweight and 0.9% belonged to obese class 1. Conclusions A significant fraction of medical students in Karachi are at high risk of development of eating disorders, females being more prone than males. Strategies should be designed to prevent occurrence of such disorders among medical students that would undoubtedly hamper the availability of dependable medical services in future.