WorldWideScience

Sample records for student loan borrowers

  1. Exit Counseling Guide for Federal Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Student loans, unlike grants and work-study, are borrowed money that must be repaid, with interest, just like car loans and home mortgages. You cannot have these loans canceled because you didn't like the education you received, didn't get a job in your field of study or because you're having financial difficulty. Loans are legal obligations that…

  2. Why Student Loans Are Different: Findings from Six Focus Groups of Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Holt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For all the attention student loans have received in the media and from policymakers in recent years, there is still remarkably little information on why and how borrowers struggle to repay them. Rising college prices and debt levels explain some of the troubles borrowers have with their loans, as does a slow economic recovery that has caused…

  3. Effective Counseling, Empowered Borrowers: An Evidence-Based Policy Agenda for Informed Student Loan Borrowing and Repayment. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2016-01-01

    To manage their loans effectively, U.S. postsecondary student loan borrowers must make a variety of important decisions that require significant knowledge and financial skills and entail considerable risk. Federal law requires colleges to provide student loan counseling to their federal student loan borrowers, but there is significant room for…

  4. Student Loans Driving You Crazy? A Borrower's Guide to Direct Consolidation Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This booklet describes the Direct Consolidation Loan program students can use to combine one or more student loans into a new loan. Things to consider before seeking a consolidation loan are outlined. Direct consolidation loans offer a number of advantages; they are free, result in one lender and one monthly payment, and offer flexible repayment…

  5. A Time to Every Purpose: Understanding and Improving the Borrower Experience with Online Student Loan Entrance Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Legally mandated student loan entrance counseling attempts to prepare first-time borrowers of federal student loans for this challenge; yet, researchers hypothesized that the online modules most borrowers use for this purpose have significant shortcomings. This report (the third in a series of five from TG Research) describes a study in which…

  6. From Passive to Proactive: Understanding and Improving the Borrower Experience with Online Student Loan Exit Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Legally mandated student loan exit counseling attempts to prepare borrowers of federal student loans for the repayment process; yet, researchers hypothesized that the online modules most borrowers use for this purpose have significant shortcomings. This report (the second in a series of five from TG Research) describes a study in which researchers…

  7. Consolidated Student Loans. Borrowers Benefit but Costs to Them and the Government Grow. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In response to the requirements of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, this report addresses the impact of the two-year-old Student Loan Consolidation Program. Principle findings of the investigation concern the higher interst costs to the borrower that are brought about by longer payment plans and the fact that the government's subsidy costs…

  8. Study of the Insurance Premium Charged to Borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touche Ross and Co., Washington, DC.

    Insurance premiums being charged to borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program were studied to determine if the rate exceeded the rate necessary to protect the reserves of the insurer. Attention was directed to whether historical changes in the GSL program have affected insurance premiums. Guaranty agency's sources and uses of funds…

  9. What Are Student Loan Borrowers Thinking? Insights from Focus Groups on College Selection and Student Loan Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carrie L.; O'Neill, Barbara; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Lown, Jean M.; Bowen, Cathy F.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from online focus groups collected from November 2014 to April 2015 to understand college students' decision-making processes when borrowing money to finance their education. Data were collected using an online course management system. Results suggest that (a) students relied heavily on advice from parents, guidance…

  10. Sick of our loans: Student borrowing and the mental health of young adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Gee, Gilbert C; Gentile, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Student loans are increasingly important and commonplace, especially among recent cohorts of young adults in the United States. These loans facilitate the acquisition of human capital in the form of education, but may also lead to stress and worries related to repayment. This study investigated two questions: 1) what is the association between the cumulative amount of student loans borrowed over the course of schooling and psychological functioning when individuals are 25-31 years old; and 2) what is the association between annual student loan borrowing and psychological functioning among currently enrolled college students? We also examined whether these relationships varied by parental wealth, college enrollment history (e.g. 2-year versus 4-year college), and educational attainment (for cumulative student loans only). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Analyses employed multivariate linear regression and within-person fixed-effects models. Student loans were associated with poorer psychological functioning, adjusting for covariates, in both the multivariate linear regression and the within-person fixed effects models. This association varied by level of parental wealth in the multivariate linear regression models only, and did not vary by college enrollment history or educational attainment. The present findings raise novel questions for further research regarding student loan debt and the possible spillover effects on other life circumstances, such as occupational trajectories and health inequities. The study of student loans is even more timely and significant given the ongoing rise in the costs of higher education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Federal Student Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For those needing a loan to attend college, think federal aid first. Federal student loans usually offer borrowers lower interest rates and have more flexible repayment terms and options than private student loans. This brief report answers the following questions about federal aid: (1) What is a federal student loan?; (2) What is a private…

  12. 34 CFR 682.604 - Processing the borrower's loan proceeds and counseling borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing the borrower's loan proceeds and counseling...'s loan proceeds and counseling borrowers. (a) General. (1) This section establishes rules governing a school's processing of a borrower's Stafford or PLUS loan proceeds, and for counseling borrowers...

  13. Student Loan Debt Levels and Their Implications for Borrowers, Society, and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Luke M.; Frank, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Upward mobility is a prized aspect of the American dream based upon the belief that those from humble origins can climb the socioeconomic ladder through education and hard work. Increasingly, postsecondary education is an essential component of that dream. However, many students, particularly those from low to moderate income families, find it…

  14. Entrance Counseling Guide for Direct Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This guide describes the four types of loans offered by the Direct Loan Program[SM]: (1) Direct Subsidized Loans; (2) Direct Unsubsidized Loans; (3) Direct PLUS Loans; and (4) Direct Consolidation Loans. Among the topics covered in the guide are: Use of Your Loan Money, The Master Promissory Note, How Your Loans Will Be Disbursed (Paid Out),…

  15. Studying borrower level risk characteristics of education loan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the granular level risk of education loan using a cross section of data from 5000 borrowers obtained from four major public sector banks in India. The findings suggest that education loan defaults are mainly influenced by security, borrower margin, and repayment periods. The presence of guarantor or co-borrower and collateral significantly reduce default loss rates. The socioeconomic characteristics of borrowers and their regional locations also act as important factors associated with education loan defaults. The results suggest that by segmenting borrowers by probability of default and loss given default in a multidimensional scale, banks can adopt better risk mitigation and pricing strategies to resolve borrower problems.

  16. Automatic for the Borrower: How Repayment Based on Income Can Reduce Loan Defaults and Manage Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Carew, Diana; Fraire, Jacob; Jacks, Kay; James, Kevin; Madzelan, Daniel; Miller, Scott E.; Simmons, Barry; Thompson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    When borrowers default on a federal student loan, it can have catastrophic consequences. Their credit scores drop dramatically, severely curtailing their ability to afford a home or a car, and even limiting their ability to sign up for utilities. The cost of their loan rises as late fees pile up. Moreover, the federal government can garnish…

  17. 25 CFR 103.26 - What must the borrower supply the lender in its loan application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cash flow statements; (i) A detailed list of all proposed collateral for the loan, including asset... amount and offer the proposed loan collateral; and (m) If the borrower is a business entity, resolutions... permitting the borrower to borrow the loan amount and offer the proposed loan collateral. ...

  18. 34 CFR 685.206 - Borrower responsibilities and defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parent borrower, of the student, including any Federal Consolidation Loan or Direct Consolidation Loan... enrollment status, financial assistance, and employment records). (b)(1) The borrower shall promptly notify...

  19. 7 CFR 1717.158 - Mergers with borrowers who prepaid RUS loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mergers with borrowers who prepaid RUS loans. 1717.158 Section 1717.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Mergers and Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.158 Mergers with borrowers...

  20. 34 CFR 682.301 - Eligibility of borrowers for interest benefits on Stafford and Consolidation loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stafford and Consolidation loans. 682.301 Section 682.301 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... borrowers for interest benefits on Stafford and Consolidation loans. (a) General. (1) To qualify for benefits on a Stafford loan, a borrower must demonstrate financial need in accordance with Part F of the...

  1. Student Loan Default and Repayment in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As college costs continue to rise, student loan default and repayment are issues of increasing concern to students and families, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments. Helping students borrow responsibly and manage their debt are vitally important to maintaining college access and affordability and increasing the education…

  2. 7 CFR 1944.425 - Handling and accounting for borrower loan funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Handling and accounting for borrower loan funds. 1944... Grants § 1944.425 Handling and accounting for borrower loan funds. Grantees will be required to...HA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's non-discrimination policies in receiving...

  3. The Smart Approach to Student Loans and Consumer Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    This brochure contains information about student loans for college applicants and students in Missouri. It is a resource to assist borrowers in making smart repayment decisions and in understanding the options to avoid delinquency and default. Things to consider before one borrows, how to increase one's resources, and how to decrease one's…

  4. Are Student Loan Default Rates Linked to Institutional Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Terry T.; McKitrick, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    As more undergraduates have taken out loans to attend college, the number of borrowers who fail to repay their student loans has increased. While previous research has focused on students' likelihood to default, this study employed institutional cohort default rates (CDRs) as an outcome variable. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data…

  5. 7 CFR 1710.102 - Borrower eligibility for different types of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... LOANS AND GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.102 Borrower eligibility for different... grid renewable energy systems. (See 7 CFR part 1712). These guarantees are normally used to finance bulk transmission and generation facilities, but they may also be used to finance distribution and...

  6. 25 CFR 103.34 - What if the lender and borrower decide to change the terms of the loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identity or organizational structure of the borrower. (5) Allow any material change in the use of loan proceeds or the nature of the borrower's business. (6) Release any collateral taken as security for the loan, except items sold in the ordinary course of business and promptly replaced by similar items of...

  7. Fewer Resources, More Debt: Loan Debt Burdens Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine M.; Williams, Krystal L.; Smith, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Student loans have become an increasingly important way for students and their families to pay for college, but for students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), student loan debt is a substantial burden. Students who attend these institutions--many of whom are low-income and first-generation--must borrow at higher rates and,…

  8. Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    or foreign acquisition. English, for instance, is spoken in many countries on all five continents and is, therefore, able to acquire vocabulary from many lan- guages worldwide. This is coupled with the readiness and the ability of the language to acquire new terminology through borrowing, instead of following the puristic ...

  9. The total costs of corporate borrowing in the loan market : dont ignore the fees

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Tobias; Saunders, Anthony; Steffen, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    More than 80% of US syndicated loans contain at least one fee type and contracts typically specify a menu of spread and different types of fees. We test the predictions of existing theories about the main purposes of fees and provide supporting evidence that: (1) fees are used to price options embedded in loan contracts such as the draw-down option for credit lines and the cancellation option in term loans; and (2) fees are used to screen borrowers about the likelihood of exerc...

  10. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  11. 78 FR 59011 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the... Aid announces the interest rates for loans made under the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct...(b)), provides formulas for determining the interest rates charged to borrowers for loans made under...

  12. 77 FR 29988 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford... borrowers in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) and Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL... of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program Deferment Request Forms. OMB Control...

  13. 78 FR 53431 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan... Operating Officer for Federal Student Aid announces the interest rates for the period July 1, 2013, through...(b)), provides formulas for determining the interest rates charged to borrowers for loans made under...

  14. Guaranteed Student Loans: Analysis of Insurance Premiums Charged by Guaranty Agencies. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The insurance premium rates that guaranty agencies charge student borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan program were analyzed by the U.S. General Accounting Office. The Higher Education Amendments of 1986 established a maximum rate (3% of the principal loan amount) that all agencies could charge student borrowers. Comparisons were made of…

  15. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - FSA-2514, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are in Non-Monetary Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Borrowers Who Are in Non-Monetary Default C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of... PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 766—FSA-2514, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are in Non...

  16. Informed or Overwhelmed? A Legislative History of Student Loan Counseling with a Literature Review on the Efficacy of Loan Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepfer, Kasey

    2015-01-01

    This report (the first in a series of five) explores congressional efforts to mitigate that risk and encourage informed borrowing by enacting statutes related to student loan counseling. After introducing the relevant contemporary policy context, it examines how federal rules governing student loan counseling evolved over time to embrace online…

  17. Managing Student Loan Default Risk: Evidence from a Privately Guaranteed Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Application of the statistical techniques of survival analysis and credit scoring to private education loans extended to law students found a pronounced seasoning effect for such loans and the robust predictive power of credit bureau scoring of borrowers. Other predictors of default included school-of-attendance, school's geographic location, and…

  18. Student Borrowing in America: Metrics, Demographics, Default Aversion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterman, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The use of Cohort Default Rate (CDR) as the primary measure of student loan defaults among undergraduates was investigated. The study used data extracted from the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS), quantitative analysis of Likert-scale survey responses from 153 student financial aid professionals on proposed changes to present metrics and…

  19. 12 CFR 617.7410 - When and how does a qualified lender notify a borrower of the right to seek loan restructuring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower of the right to seek loan restructuring? 617.7410 Section 617.7410 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... Mediation Programs § 617.7410 When and how does a qualified lender notify a borrower of the right to seek... been identified as distressed and that the borrower has the right to request a restructuring of the...

  20. Student Loans, Student Financial Aid and Post-Secondary Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Ross

    2002-01-01

    Briefly describes Canada's student loan system, including the typical costs of a year of postsecondary schooling and the levels of financial support available. Reports the results of an empirical analysis showing that borrowing remains at reasonable levels and repayment difficulties are still relatively uncommon. Suggests various reforms,…

  1. Cumulative Student Loan Debt in Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wyche, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand student debt in Minnesota, the Minnesota Office of Higher Education (the Office) gathers information on cumulative student loan debt from Minnesota degree-granting institutions. These data detail the number of students with loans by institution, the cumulative student loan debt incurred at that institution, and the percentage…

  2. Discriminant Analysis of Student Loan Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Edward A.; McGann, Anthony F.

    1977-01-01

    The use of discriminant analysis in identifying potentially "good" versus potentially "bad" student loans is explained. The technique is applied to a sample of 200 student loan applications at the University of Wyoming. (LBH)

  3. Student Loan Default Rates in Minnesota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    While Minnesota undergraduates are more likely to take out student loans, they are substantially less likely than their peers nationally to default on federal student loans. Fifty-four percent of Minnesota undergraduates took out student loans in 2007-2008, compared to 39 percent of undergraduates across the U.S. Minnesota undergraduates were also…

  4. 77 FR 35659 - Request for Information Regarding Complaints From Private Education Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ..., including attachments and other supporting materials, will become part of the public record and subject to... student loans? Among other things, responses can address topics that relate to some or all of following... personally identifiable information. 2. What processes do institutions have in place to respond to complaints...

  5. Lowering Student Loan Default Rates: What One Consortium of Historically Black Institutions Did to Succeed. Education Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin; Smiles, Robin V.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges across the nation are struggling to confront a growing problem in higher education: student debt. As more students borrow more money than ever before, and recent graduates enter the worst job market in a generation, students are increasingly unable to pay back their loans. This report discusses the growing problem of students defaulting…

  6. Beyond Financial Need: Predictors of Student Loans and Student Loan Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Bat, Meghan J.

    2016-01-01

    Although public concern about student loan debt has been increasing, little research has examined predictors of debt beyond financial need or demographic factors. The present study explored the role of several psychological and attitudinal variables in student loan debt among 189 college students. Results indicate that loan initiative and loan…

  7. Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired Lexical Items in Sesotho sa Leboa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mojela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The influence of foreign languages in Sesotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, results in borrowing, which ultimately leads to an increase in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa. The languages influencing developments in the vocabulary of Sesotho sa Leboa include, inter alia, English, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tshivend√a and the Nguni languages. This article aims to give a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the adoption of foreign lexical items in the lemmatization of vocabulary in Sesotho sa Leboa dictionaries. Most puristic inclined academics and intellectuals are reluctant to adopt loan words as a means of developing the Sesotho sa Leboa vocabulary. When confronted with borrowing, the purists usually prefer coinage, using indigenous lexical items to name foreign concepts. This is disadvantageous to the development of the vocabulary of the language because (1 there is no increase in the number of the lexical items in the language since only the meanings of the foreign lexical item are added to existing indigenous lexical items, and (2 in most cases, previously adopted loan words are mistaken for indigenous lexical items and given preference to newly acquired lexical items which have direct and accurate bearing on the meaning of the newly discovered or designed concepts or objects.

    OPSOMMING: Ontlening en leenwoorde: Die lemmatisering van nuutverworwe leksikale items in Sesotho sa Leboa. Die invloed van vreemde tale op Sesotho sa Leboa, of Noord-Sotho, het ontlening tot gevolg, wat uiteindelik lei tot 'n toename in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa. Die tale wat ontwikkelinge in die woordeskat van Sesotho sa Leboa beïnvloed, sluit onder andere Engels, Afrikaans, Xitsonga, Tsivend√a en die Ngunitale in. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n kritiese ontleding van die voordele en nadele van die oorneem van vreemde leksikale items by die lemmatisering van die woordeskat in woordeboeke van Sesotho sa Leboa te

  8. Federal Student Loans: Oversight of Defaulted Loan Rehabilitation Needs Strengthening. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives. GAO-14-426T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrey-Arras, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    As of September 2013 about $94 billion--over 11 percent of federal student loan volume in repayment--was in default. Loan rehabilitation allows borrowers who make nine on-time monthly payments within 10 months to have the default removed from their credit reports. Department of Education (Education) contracts with collection agencies to assist…

  9. Student Loan Debt in Kentucky: An Analysis of Debt Levels and Their Relationship to Earnings for Baccalaureate Degree Holders of Public Universities, 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Student loans can be a good investment in an individual's future, providing financial access to higher education and improved chances of economic success after college. However, avoiding undue financial obligations and maximizing the return on investment require careful planning and prudent borrowing. Estimating whether the student loan debt…

  10. Does the Student-Loan Burden Weigh into the Decision to Start a Family?

    OpenAIRE

    Gicheva, Dora

    2011-01-01

    I examine the relationship between student debt and the timing of marriage. The life-cycle consumption smoothing model implies that student loans should have a very small effect on consumption at any given point in time and should not affect the timing of family formation. I use the Survey of Consumer Finances to show that the amount of student borrowing is negatively related to the probability of marriage, but the strength of this relationship diminishes with age. I use exogenous variations ...

  11. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.

  12. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.Consistent

  13. The Dynamics in Requested and Granted Loan Terms when Bank and Borrower Interact Repeatedly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschenmann, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies how credit constraints develop over bank relationships. I analyze a unique dataset of matched loan application and loan contract information and measure credit constraints as the ratio of requested to granted loan amounts. I find that the most important determinants of receiving

  14. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education: Evidence from High School Seniors, Community College Students, and Adults. CEPA Working Paper No. 16-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Angela; Evans, Brent; Soliz, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Student loans are a crucial aspect of financing a college education for millions of Americans, yet we have surprisingly little empirical evidence concerning individuals' unwillingness to borrow money for educational purposes. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using…

  15. A Trillion-Dollar Question: What Predicts Student Loan Delinquencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Alvaro; Sommer, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    The recent significant increase in student loan delinquencies has generated interest in understanding the key factors predicting the non-performance of these loans. However, despite the large size of the student loan market, existing analyses have been limited by lack of data. This paper studies predictors of student loan delinquencies using a…

  16. 78 FR 45617 - Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., et al. Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL...

  17. Why borrowers pay premiums to larger lenders: Empirical evidence from sovereign syndicated loans

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak, Issam

    2002-01-01

    All other terms being equal (e.g. seniority), syndicated loan contracts provide larger lending compensations (in percentage points) to institutions funding larger amounts. This paper explores empirically the motivation for such a price design on a sample of sovereign syndicated loans in the period 1990-1997. I find strong evidence that a larger premium is associated with higher renegotiation probability and information asymmetries. It hardly has any impact on the number of lenders though. Thi...

  18. Evaluating the Student Loan Fund of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkitvanich, Somkiat; Manasboonphempool, Areeya

    2010-01-01

    The Thai higher education sector has expanded quickly during the past decade, making a transition from an elitist to a mass institution. A driving force behind the expansion was believed to be the Student Loan Fund (SLF), introduced in 1996. During the first 10 years of its operation, the SLF has lent to more than 2.6 million students, with the…

  19. Borrow the Moon: The STFC Lunar Samples and Meteorites Loan Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The Apollo missions brought back 382kg of Moon rock. The financial cost of getting these rocks was historically eye-watering so, understandably, NASA is choosy about who gets to play with them. Many go to scientists for laboratory investigation, but some have been set aside for loan to schools and the public. Luckily, the UK was allowed some,…

  20. 75 FR 17303 - Section 108 Community Development Loan Guarantee Program: Participation of States as Borrowers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... with access to long-term (up to 20-year) fixed-rate loans at relatively low interest rates to finance certain categories of eligible CDBG projects. Historically, section 108 guarantee authority has been... local governments in nonentitlement areas. The July 22, 2009, interim rule implemented the expansion of...

  1. Como reembolsar sus prestamos para estudiantes (Repaying Your Student Loans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This guide, written in Spanish, discusses how to repay student loans. Following a general introduction, the guide discusses the grace period before repayment and repayment requirements. Repayment plans are described for Perkins Loans, Direct Loans, and Federal Family Education Loans. Repayment options are discussed, including consolidation,…

  2. Student Loan Programs. As Federal Costs of Loan Consolidation Rise, Other Options Should be Examined. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In this report GAO recommends that the Secretary of Education assess the advantages of consolidation loans for borrowers and the government in light of program costs and identify options for reducing federal costs. Options could include targeting the program to borrowers at risk of default and extending existing consolidation alternatives to more…

  3. Public Service Loan Forgiveness. NASFAA Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program was established in 2007 to encourage student borrowers to work in the public sector. Qualifying borrowers may have their Direct Loans forgiven after 10 years of full-time service in an eligible job. Currently, qualifying employers include federal, state, or local government agencies and tax-exempt…

  4. Federal Student Loan Amounts and Terms for Loans Issued in 2016-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project on Student Debt, 2016

    2016-01-01

    U.S. citizens or permanent residents, enrolled at least half time in a qualified program at a participating school, not in default on a prior federal student loan, and not previously convicted of a drug offense while receiving federal financial aid are eligible to apply for a student loan. The chart presented in this report summarizes the interest…

  5. 25 CFR 103.36 - What options and remedies does the lender have if the borrower defaults on the loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... result in the borrower curing the default. (b) The lender may make precautionary advances on the borrower... prospects do not significantly deteriorate. Items for which the lender may make precautionary advances include, for example: (1) Hazard, liability, or key man life insurance premiums; (2) Security measures to...

  6. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  7. Engaging Student Borrowers: Results of a Survey of Financial Aid Professionals. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jeff; Fernandez, Chris; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey

    2017-01-01

    The rising cost of attending college creates a financial challenge for most students, many of whom must take out student loans to pursue their education goals. Whether or not they earn a degree, these students will leave school with the burden of managing student debt. How well they manage this complex process may shape their personal finances for…

  8. 7 CFR 1717.653 - Borrowers in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., to be in the financial interest of the government with respect to loan security and/or repayment. If... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Investments, Loans, and Guarantees by Electric Borrowers § 1717.653 Borrowers in default. Any borrower not in...

  9. Legitimate Textual Borrowing: Direct Quotation in L2 Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Using textual analysis and interviews with student writers, this study aims to provide an insight into second language students' use of direct quotations in their MA theses by comparing direct quotations in high-rated and low-rated Master's theses, and by exploring student writers' own motivations to quote directly from sources. The corpus…

  10. 24 CFR 201.23 - Borrower's initial payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gift or a loan from some other source, the borrower must disclose the source of such gift or loan on... lender in the loan file. (b) Manufactured home purchase loans. In the case of a manufactured home purchase loan, the borrower shall make a minimum cash downpayment of at least five percent of the purchase...

  11. 7 CFR 1726.301 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1726.301 Section... Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or loan guarantee under the... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  12. Buy, Borrow, or Steal? Film Access for Film Studies Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Libraries offer a mix of options to serve the film studies curriculum: streaming video, DVDs on Reserve, and streaming DVDs through online classrooms. Some professors screen films and lend DVDs to students. But how do students obtain the films required for their courses? How would they prefer to do so? These are among the questions explored using…

  13. A Brief Look at...the Texas B-On-Time Loan Program. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The Texas B-On-Time (BOT) Loan Program is a unique state aid program intended to increase access to higher education in Texas and encourage on-time graduation. This state student loan may be completely forgiven if the otherwise eligible borrower completes his or her degree on time. The BOT Loan Program was developed in response to low on-time…

  14. Some State Loan Agencies Say They May Stay on the Sidelines This Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite action by Congress and the Bush administration to shore up the student-loan industry, some state-authorized organizations say they may not return to the loan business this year, and others are cutting some of the borrower benefits and services they provide. Nine state loan agencies stopped issuing either new federally backed or new private…

  15. College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…

  16. Strategies to Test for Private Student Loan Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about private student loan discrimination, in contrast to the relatively developed research on discrimination in other credit markets such as mortgages and credit cards. The private student lending market can play a key role in responding to changes in the policy or economic environment, and many students and their families turn to…

  17. effect of the subsidized students' loan on university enrolment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    maintained for all Ghanaian students but they were to pay for room, meals, ... was replaced by the Students Loan Trust Fund ... given amount of investment in human capital is identical for all .... of order one i.e. the first difference must be stationary ..... the Analysis of Long Run Relation- ships. Discussion Paper no. 46, Edin-.

  18. 7 CFR 1724.71 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1724.71 Section... Contract Forms § 1724.71 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  19. Student Loan Forbearance and Its Relationship to Default. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Derek V.

    As the number and volume of student loans increase nationally, lenders and policymakers look more closely at the use of loan forbearance. This paper examines whether forbearance really cuts the risk of loan default by reporting on a study of more than 9,800 Stafford loans in forbearance in December 1996. That research shows that the default rate…

  20. Protecting Colleges and Students: Community College Strategies to Prevent Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…

  1. 7 CFR 1710.50 - Insured loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and... determined pursuant to 7 CFR part 1714, and the borrower may elect to include in the loan documents a...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.51 - Direct loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and... borrowers. (b) Loan documents. Successful applicants will be required to execute and deliver to RUS a...

  3. Options to Change Interest Rates and Other Terms on Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Direct Student Loan Program offers loans to students and their parents to help pay for postsecondary education. Under current law, about $1.4 trillion in new direct loans will be made to students between 2013 and 2023, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects. Analysts and policymakers have raised concerns about various features…

  4. An Initial Econometric Consideration of Supply and Demand in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayus, Barry; Kendis, Kurt

    1982-01-01

    In this econometric model of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (GSLP), supply is related to banks' liquidity and yield curves, all lenders' economic costs and returns, and Student Loan Marketing Association activity. GSLP demand is based on loan costs, family debt position, and net student need for financial aid. (RW)

  5. 42 CFR 57.311 - Cancellation of nursing student loans for disability or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation of nursing student loans for disability or death. 57.311 Section 57.311 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans §...

  6. Changes to the Student Loan Experience: Psychological Predictors and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on the work of scholars who have explored psychological perceptions of the student loan experience. Survey analysis ("N" = 175) revealed a multidimensional model was developed through factor analysis and testing, which revealed four latent variables: "Duress," "Mandatory," "Financial," and…

  7. 7 CFR 765.202 - Borrower responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or other security instruments; and (2) The cost of lien search reports; (d) Pay taxes on property...) Non-compliance with the provisions of loan agreements and documents, other than failure to meet... FLP loans by the borrower; (2) Borrower non-compliance will be considered by the Agency when making...

  8. Development and Validation of Discriminant Analysis Models for Student Loan Defaultees and Non-Defaultees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Greeley; Siera, Steven

    1980-01-01

    Default on guaranteed student loans has been increasing. The use of discriminant analysis as a technique to identify "good" v "bad" student loans based on information available from the loan application is discussed. Research to test the ability of models to such predictions is reported. (Author/MLW)

  9. ENGLISH BORROWINGS IN INDONESIAN NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Fauzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a corpus-based study of English loan words in Bahasa Indonesia used by three foremost newspapers in Indonesia (Kompas, Koran Tempo, and Media Indonesia. There are 19,494 loan tokens of 3,538 loan types extracted from 3,671 texts published online on those media during around three months ranging from 1 April to 24 June 2012. This study compares two basic typologies of borrowing—established and non-established loans. Attestations are looked into in this study proving the evidence that the borrow ability of nouns is higher than otherword categories, linguistic typology of borrowing motivates linguistic adaptation, and word categories give a significant contribution to motivate linguistic adaptation as well. Keywords: sociolinguistics, borrowing, loanwords, morphological integration, linguistic adaptation

  10. Survey and Thought on Graduates’ Repayment Awareness of Student Loan in Agricultural Universities and Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To find out graduates’ repayment awareness of student loan,we conducted a questionnaire survey for those graduates who applied for student loan in Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering.The survey has following results.First,the national student loan plays an important role in assisting poor students in finishing their study.Second,graduates value social function of personal credit.Third,trustworthiness education activities carried out by colleges and universities are effective.Fourth,economic income is a major factor of graduates repaying capital with interest.Fifth,bank’s student loan management system is not perfect.Sixth,the national student loan system remains to be improved.In line with these results,we put forward five countermeasures and suggestions:strengthen the trustworthiness education of students;standardize the credit investigation management of students’ personal credit;establish student information management mechanism;standardize banks’ payment reminder administration behavior;and perfect national student loan system.

  11. Are Millennials with Student Loans Upwardly Mobile?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Students have been amassing ever growing levels of debt to attend college. The situation has raised concerns about whether the debt is high enough that the benefits of borrowing—in terms of students’ future socioeconomic outcomes—are compromised. This Commentary investigates relationships between student debt, mobility, and upward social mobility. The findings suggest that student debts have not become so burdensome that they undo the advantages of higher skills. However, the advantages enjoy...

  12. 7 CFR 1718.103 - Loan contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Loan Contracts With Distribution Borrowers § 1718... security for the loan will be reasonably adequate and that the loan will be repaid according to the terms... other provisions as RUS may require to ensure loan repayment and reasonably adequate loan security. ...

  13. The Challenge of Financing Higher Education and the Role of Student Loans Scheme: An Analysis of the Student Loan Trust Fund (SLTF) in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuahene, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Student loans program is one of the most controversial phenomena in financing higher education in Ghana, but its importance as a cost sharing mechanism is incontestable. This paper describes the challenge of financing higher education in Ghana. It provides a critique of the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) Student Loans Scheme,…

  14. 78 FR 13327 - Request for Information Regarding an Initiative To Promote Student Loan Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... loan balances, with even more in delinquency. Federal student loans frequently provide for income-based... the levels of delinquency and default. \\4\\ Department of the Treasury, Office of Financial Research..., including lenders and loan servicers; Nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (NRSROs...

  15. Credit supply and the rise in college tuition: evidence from the expansion in federal student aid programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lucca, David O.; Nadauld, Taylor D.; Shen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    When students fund their education through loans, changes in student borrowing and tuition are interlinked. Higher tuition costs raise loan demand, but loan supply also affects equilibrium tuition costs - for example, by relaxing students' funding constraints. To resolve this simultaneity problem, we exploit detailed student-level financial data and changes in federal student aid programs to identify the impact of increased student loan funding on tuition. We find that institutions more expos...

  16. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  17. Student Loan Default: Do Characteristics of Four-Year Institutions Contribute to the Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Karen L.; Rogers, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    College student debt and loan default are growing concerns in the United States. For each U.S. institution, the federal government is now reporting a cohort default rate, which is the percent of students who defaulted on their loan, averaged over a three-year period. Previous studies have amply shown that student characteristics are strongly…

  18. Uranium loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    When NUEXCO was organized in 1968, its founders conceived of a business based on uranium loans. The concept was relatively straightforward; those who found themselves with excess supplies of uranium would deposit those excesses in NUEXCO's open-quotes bank,close quotes and those who found themselves temporarily short of uranium could borrow from the bank. The borrower would pay interest based on the quantity of uranium borrowed and the duration of the loan, and the bank would collect the interest, deduct its service fee for arranging the loan, and pay the balance to those whose deposits were borrowed. In fact, the original plan was to call the firm Nuclear Bank Corporation, until it was discovered that using the word open-quotes Bankclose quotes in the name would subject the firm to various US banking regulations. Thus, Nuclear Bank Corporation became Nuclear Exchange Corporation, which was later shortened to NUEXCO. Neither the nuclear fuel market nor NUEXCO's business developed quite as its founders had anticipated. From almost the very beginning, the brokerage of uranium purchases and sales became a more significant activity for NUEXCO than arranging uranium loans. Nevertheless, loan transactions have played an important role in the international nuclear fuel market, requiring the development of special knowledge and commercial techniques

  19. The Exposure of Mortgage Borrowers to Interest Rate Risk, Income Risk and House Price Risk – Evidence from Swiss Loan Application Data

    OpenAIRE

    Guin, Benjamin; Brown, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We study the exposure of mortgage borrowers in Switzerland to interest rate, income and house price risks and examine how the households’ choice of risky mortgages is related to individual interest rate expectations and risk-aversion. Our analysis is based on a unique data set of household mortgage applications from September 2012 until January 2014. Our assessment of risk exposure among mortgage borrowers in Switzerland is highly sensitive to the underlying assumptions on mortgage costs, hou...

  20. 7 CFR 1718.104 - Availability of model loan contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Loan Contracts With Distribution Borrowers § 1718.104 Availability of model loan contract. Single copies of the model loan contract (RUS... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of model loan contract. 1718.104 Section...

  1. 77 FR 42085 - Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... borrower's loans if the borrower receives a disbursement of a new title IV loan or receives a new TEACH... proposed regulations for programs authorized by title IV of the HEA, to obtain public involvement in the...-defaulted Direct Loan, except for a parent Direct PLUS loan or a Direct Consolidation loan that repaid a...

  2. 7 CFR 1717.656 - Exemption of certain borrowers from controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the government with respect to loan security and/or repayment. (Such borrower is eligible to ask... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Investments, Loans, and Guarantees by Electric Borrowers § 1717.656 Exemption of...

  3. Federal Student Loan Interest Rates: History, Subsidies, and Cost. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Occupy Wall Street protests brought countless media reports about unemployed college graduates struggling to repay their student loans and headlines sounding alarms that outstanding student loan debt will soon reach $1 trillion. Even though evidence is mixed on whether today's college graduates leave school with significantly more debt…

  4. What Are the Alternatives to Student Loans in Higher Education Funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Anthony; Wright, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    In a period of student loan scandals and U.S. financial market instability impacting on the cost and availability of student loans, this paper looks at alternative models of higher education funding. In this context, it also considers the level of financial support that the government should provide to higher education.

  5. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  6. 34 CFR 685.304 - Counseling borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling borrowers. 685.304 Section 685.304 Education... Direct Loan Program Schools § 685.304 Counseling borrowers. (a) Entrance counseling. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(8) of this section, a school must ensure that entrance counseling is conducted...

  7. Comparative analysis of informal borrowing behaviour between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tools of analyses were descriptive statistics of mean and percentages and probit model, The result of the Probit model on the variables influencing borrowing behaviour of male-headed households indicated that the coefficients of household size, farm size, purpose of borrowing, loan duration, interest rate and collateral ...

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING SMALLHOLDERS' TRANSACTION COST OF BORROWING FROM THE NIGERIAN AGRICULTURAL AND COOPERATIVE BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Olomola, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    In Nigeria, small-scale farmers are reluctant to borrow from formal institutions because of high transaction costs. This paper examines the components and determinants of borrowing transaction costs and argues that unless the loan administrative strategies are simplified and channels of loan delivery diversified, farmers would continue to find it difficult to use formal loans. Borrowing transaction costs are defined as the administrative expenses and transportation cost incurred by borrowers ...

  9. 7 CFR 1755.27 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1755.27 Section 1755.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.27 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or...

  10. Performance of the Higher Education Students Loans Board in Human Capital Investment from 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Zun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies conducted on the Higher Education Students Loans Board (HESLB) have mostly concentrated on its success, sustainability and effectiveness on loans issuance and repayment. None had focused on its performance towards human capital investment. This study sought to explain and analyze HESLB's performance in human capital investment, which…

  11. 78 FR 53433 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education Loan Program... Federal Student Aid announces the interest rates for the period July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014, for..., 2010. The Chief Operating Officer takes this action to give notice of FFEL Program loan interest rates...

  12. Borrowing Money. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module discusses several borrowing schemes to help students see more clearly the effects of borrowing money on both the lender and the borrower. They include borrowing from personal lenders, from "5-6" operators, and from credit unions. Three exercise sets with answers (one for each borrowing scheme), a short list of references, and…

  13. In Good Standing: "Helping Colleges Manage Student Default Rates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education estimates that 20 percent of community college students default on their student loan obligations (compared with 14.7 percent of all student loan borrowers), and that number is rising. What can community college financial officers do to keep their default numbers low? In this article, Heather Boerner describes the…

  14. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey

    2016-01-01

    Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation (TG) provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This 2016 issue of "State…

  15. Direct Student Loan Program: Management Actions Could Enhance Customer Service. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report suggests to congress that they consider clarifying whether Education may regulate the fees charged to borrowers under the Direct Loan Program. It also suggests that FSA collect information from schools that could be used to make improvements to the Direct Loan Program. (Author)

  16. 24 CFR 510.1 - Multi-family property loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... any partnership which is a borrower on a section 312 loan shall be personally liable for repayment of the section 312 loan. Limited partners shall assume personal liability by co-signing the loan note as... not relieve the partnership or corporate borrower from securing the section 312 loan by a mortgage or...

  17. 7 CFR 1951.264 - Action when borrower fails to cooperate, respond or graduate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Analyzing Credit Needs and Graduation of Borrowers § 1951.264 Action when borrower fails to cooperate, respond or graduate. (a) When borrowers with other than FCP loans fail to: (1) Provide information... appeal the decision. (b) If an FCP borrower fails to cooperate after a lender expresses a willingness to...

  18. Guaranteed Student Loan Amendments of 1976. Ninety-fourth Congress, Second Session. Report No. 94-1232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    A report on the Guaranteed Student Loan Amendments (H.R. 14070) to Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 considers the problems behind and implications of the loan program. Chief among the problems are the default rate, access to loans, the schools as lenders, and the role of the states in administering the program. Changes recommended…

  19. 78 FR 5433 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the... announces the interest rates for the period July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013, for certain loans made... give notice of FFEL Program loan interest rates to the public. DATES: This notice is effective January...

  20. 77 FR 58819 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford... William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program will use this form to request forbearance on their loans when... of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General Forbearance Request. OMB Control...

  1. Financial Management: Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    In a February 1, 2001 letter, you expressed concerns about repayments of federally guaranteed loans by borrowers under the Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program and the effect of the program on the U.S. steel industry...

  2. Guide to Direct Consolidation Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Intended for financial aid counselors, this document provides guidelines to the Federal Direct Consolidation Loan Program for borrowers who are in school, as well as those in repayment, or in default. An introductory section explains the basics of the consolidated loan program, loan categories, and interest rates. Next, standards for borrower…

  3. Information Use and Attention Deferment in College Student Loan Decisions: Evidence from a Debt Letter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev; Harper, Casandra

    2018-01-01

    A prominent concern is that college students are harming their long-term economic prospects by making student loan decisions without full information about the implications of their choices. We designed an experiment to examine students' responses to a debt letter, an increasingly popular strategy to provide easily accessible information about…

  4. 7 CFR 1717.857 - Refinancing of existing secured debt-distribution and power supply borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the proposed loan; (4) The borrower's financial and statistical report, the data in which shall not be... delinquency and the reasons therefor; and a certification, if not previously provided, that the borrower has...

  5. Denying Loan Access: The Student-Level Consequences When Community Colleges Opt out of the Stafford Loan Program. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederspan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which students are able to make adequate repayments on their student loans and avoid default is of special concern for colleges. If too many former students go into default, the college will face sanctions by the federal government and lose eligibility to provide currently enrolled students federal financial aid, such as the Pell…

  6. Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Relationship Between Student Loan Debt and the Transition to First Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Stella; Taylor, Miles G

    2018-02-01

    The present study employs discrete-time hazard regression models to investigate the relationship between student loan debt and the probability of transitioning to either marital or nonmarital first childbirth using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Accounting for nonrandom selection into student loans using propensity scores, our study reveals that the effect of student loan debt on the transition to motherhood differs among white, black, and Hispanic women. Hispanic women holding student loans experience significant declines in the probability of transitioning to both marital and nonmarital motherhood, whereas black women with student loans are significantly more likely to transition to any first childbirth. Indebted white women experience only a decrease in the probability of a marital first birth. The results from this study suggest that student loans will likely play a key role in shaping future demographic patterns and behaviors.

  7. Health-related quality of life of medical students in a Brazilian student loan programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Menezes, Marta Silva; Porto-Silva, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life of medical students participating in a large Brazilian government loan programme for undergraduate students in private schools.A cross-sectional study in a stratified sample of students from a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, evaluated their health-related quality of life by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36).Students supported by the loan programme consistently presented lower mean scores in all SF-36 domains and in the physical and mental component summary scores than those who were not in the programme. Students supported by the loan programme presented systematically lower physical and mental component mean scores, after stratification by age, gender, school year, physical activity, sleepiness, headache, having a car, having a housemaid, living with family, and living in a rented house.The loan programme has enabled less wealthy undergraduate students to attend private medical schools in Brazil. However, this support is insufficient to improve students' health-related quality of life during medical school, as compared with students who do not participate in the programme. Because of a poorer health-related quality of life, students supported by the loan programme deserve special attention from private medical schools.

  8. Strategic loan defaults and coordination : An experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; Vlahu, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper experimentally studies the impact of bank and borrower fundamentals on loan repayment. We find that solvent borrowers are more likely to default strategically when the bank’s expected strength is low, although loan repayment is a Pareto dominant Nash equilibrium. Borrowers are also less

  9. 42 CFR 57.206 - Eligibility and selection of health professions student loan applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS....) applicants, and determine the amount of student loans by considering: (1) The financial resources available... other resources available to the student through the school. For purposes of establishing priority for...

  10. Government-Leading Student Loan Schemes A Comparative Study of Hong Kong and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Jiewei Lu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Having a careful examination of government-leading student loan schemes in China and Hong Kong, we can find a lot of differences and learn something from these two counterparts which are very typical country or area faced by challenges in financing higher education in the context of transition from elitism to mass higher education. This research attempts to make a comparison of government-leading student loan schemes between Hong Kong and China in the new century. Then emphasis is put on the principles or core values namely efficiency, equity and adequacy, and determining their implications presented in student loan schemes in these two counterparts. Finally, the paper arrives at some recommendations for improvements in them.

  11. 34 CFR 674.49 - Bankruptcy of borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.49 Bankruptcy of borrower. (a... determination of dischargeability. (1) The institution must use due diligence and may assert any defense...

  12. Borrowing and Dictionary Compilation: The Case of the Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Keywords: BORROWING, DICTIONARY COMPILATION, INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES,. LEXICON, MORPHEME, VOCABULARY, DEVELOPING LANGUAGES, LOAN WORDS, TER-. MINOLOGY, ETYMOLOGY, LEXICOGRAPHY. Opsomming: Ontlening en woordeboeksamestelling: Die geval van in- heemse Suid-Afrikaanse ...

  13. 75 FR 36426 - Legislative Changes to Nursing Student Loan Program Authorized Under Title VIII of the Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Changes to Nursing Student Loan Program Authorized Under Title VIII of the Public Health Service Act....) 111-148. Section 5202 of the ACA changes the Nursing Student Loan (NSL) program by: (1) Increasing the... degree in nursing. Below are details on how the ACA changes Sections 836(a), 836(b)(1), and 836(b)(3) of...

  14. 75 FR 26706 - Information Collection; Direct Loan Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Direct Loan Making AGENCY... that supports Direct Loan Making programs. The information is used to determine borrower compliance with loan agreements, assist the borrower in achieving business goals, and regular servicing of the...

  15. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  16. 7 CFR 1735.46 - Loan security documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security documents. 1735.46 Section 1735.46... § 1735.46 Loan security documents. (a) Loans are to be repaid according to their terms. RUS generally... subordinations. (b) Loan security documents of borrowers with loans approved after October 6, 1997 will provide...

  17. Bank Systemic Risk-Taking and Loan Pricing : Evidence from Syndicated Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we document evidence of systemic risk taking from syndicated loan pricing. Using U.S. syndicated loan data, we find that the borrower's idiosyncratic risk is positively priced whereas systematic risk is negatively related to loan spreads, controlling for firm, loan and bank specific

  18. DETERMINANTS OF BUSINESS LOAN DEFAULT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation, funding, servicing and monitoring of loans by financial intermediaries has been done without regard to some critical factors which could have averted the likelihood of default. The study aimed at measuring the extent that owner-specific, borrower-specific, loan and lender-specific characteristics could determine the probability of loan default. The study used logistic regression for 224 business customers of a bank in Ghana from its nation-wide branches. The study found that owner’s extra income (ownership characteristics, multiple borrowing, diversion of loan purpose (borrower characteristics, loan price, loan purpose, loan age, repayment plan (loan characteristics and underfunding (lender characteristics significantly determined the probability of business loan default. The overall model predicted up to 78.5% of variations in the likelihood of default. The hierarchy of strong determinants given by their odd ratios were loan purpose (47.9 times, underfunding (19.2 times, diversion of loan purpose (11.7 times multiple borrowing (9.4 times and owner’s extra income (8.2 times. The study can conclude that financial intermediaries should be wary of the credit granting process taking cognisance of ownership, borrower, loan and lender characteristics especially the significant predictors. Combining quantitative and qualitative variables as determinants of default could be considered in future.

  19. Finance Companies and Small Business Borrowers: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, George; Watts, Myles

    1996-01-01

    Finance companies have been perceived as isolated and insignificant lenders, attracting high risk borrowers and charging these borrowers relatively high prices. Using the 1988 National Survey of Small Business Finance, this study examines the relationship between finance companies and other lenders, describes the characteristics of borrowers attracted to finance companies and assesses whether finance companies charge higher loan prices and impose more stringent collateral requirements on thei...

  20. 7 CFR 765.101 - Borrower graduation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reasonable rates and terms. (b) The Agency may require partial or full graduation. (1) In a partial... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower graduation requirements. 765.101 Section 765..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrower Graduation § 765.101...

  1. Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in the transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the firm- and country-level determinants of foreign currency borrowing by small firms, using information on the most recent loan extended to 3101 firms in 25 transition countries between 2002 and 2005. Our results suggest that foreign currency borrowing is much stronger related to

  2. 12 CFR 618.8325 - Disclosure of loan documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other things, the borrower's promise to repay the loaned funds at an agreed-upon rate of interest. (5... borrower affixes his signature or seal and which the qualified lender intends to retain in its files as...

  3. "Borrowing Happiness from the Future": Exploring College Students' Own Experiences on Health-Related Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Yarnal, Careen; Bram, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Combining the theory of emerging adulthood with self-authorship, the authors utilized students' reflection papers (n = 111) to explore their current lifestyles and reasons behind behavioral changes. Decreased physical activity, increased substance use, irregular sleep patterns, and unhealthy dietary habits emerged after students transitioned to…

  4. The Looming Student Loan Default Crisis Is Worse than We Thought. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 2, #34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2018-01-01

    This report analyzes new data on student debt and repayment, released by the U.S. Department of Education in October 2017. Previously available data have been limited to borrowers only, follow students for a relatively short period (3-5 years) after entering repayment, and had only limited information on student characteristics and experiences.…

  5. 13 CFR 120.910 - Borrower contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contributions. 120.910 Section 120.910 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development... percent, if the Project involves the acquisition, construction, conversion, or expansion of a limited or...

  6. 7 CFR 1735.14 - Borrower eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... liability company. [58 FR 66253, Dec. 20, 1993, as amended at 64 FR 50429, Sept. 17, 1999; 65 FR 42619, July... in rural areas as of October 28, 1949; and (3) Cooperative, nonprofit, limited dividend or mutual..., nonprofit, limited dividend, or mutual associations. To be eligible for a loan, a borrower: (1) Must have...

  7. 42 CFR 57.310 - Repayment and collection of nursing student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exercise of due diligence, a school must follow procedures which are at least as extensive and effective as... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment and collection of nursing student loans. 57.310 Section 57.310 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. 7 CFR 1744.207 - Investment not to jeopardize loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment not to jeopardize loan security. 1744.207... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.207 Investment not to jeopardize loan security. A borrower shall...

  9. 13 CFR 120.970 - Servicing of 504 loans and Debentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... more frequent basis and monitoring the status of the Borrower and 504 loan collateral. (c) The CDC is... collateral for the 504 loan, as required. (e) The CDC must timely respond to Borrower requests for loan... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing of 504 loans and...

  10. U.S. Dental School Deans’ Perceptions of the Rising Cost of Dental Education and Borrowing Pressures on Dental Students: Report of Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Dora Elías; Garrison, Gwen E; Feldman, Cecile A; Anderson, Eugene L; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students. The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.

  11. Financial Statements as Monitoring Mechanisms: Evidence from Small Commercial Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Minnis, Michael; Sutherland, Andrew Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Using a data set that records banks’ ongoing requests of information from small commercial borrowers, we examine when banks use financial statements to monitor borrowers after loan origination. We find that banks request financial statements for half the loans and this variation is related to borrower credit risk, relationship length, collateral, and the provision of business tax returns, but in complex ways. The relation between borrower risk and financial statement requests has an inverted ...

  12. 7 CFR 1781.21 - Borrower accounting methods, management, reporting, and audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower accounting methods, management, reporting... DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.21 Borrower accounting methods, management, reporting, and audits. These activities will be handled in accordance with the provisions of...

  13. Student loan burden and its impact on career decisions in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jannett; Song, Eingun; Liu, Michael A; Lee, Patrick K; Truong, Sam

    2017-12-01

    Dermatology departments in the United States face difficulties in recruiting dermatologists to academic positions, raising concerns for the future of dermatology education and research. This preliminary study aimed to explore the impact of student loan burden on career plans in dermatology and to determine if the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program can be used as a recruitment tool for academic positions in dermatology. Results from this electronic survey, which was distributed to dermatology residents and attending physicians, revealed that debt burden may influence career decisions in dermatology. Dermatologists may not be fully educated on loan repayment options. With increased awareness, the PSLF can potentially be used as a recruitment tool for academic positions in dermatology.

  14. Phonological Adaptation of Borrowed Terms in Duramazwi reMimhanzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift Mheta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article analyses the phonological characteristics of Shona musical terms borrowed from English. It discusses the phonological processes that take place when words are borrowed directly or indi-rectly from English. Essentially, the article analyses the adoption and adaptation of Shona loan-words at phonological level. It draws examples from the dictionary of Shona musical terms Duramazwi reMimhanzi (2005. This exploration of loan-word adaptation enhances the understanding of the phonological changes that the musical terms undergo during the borrowing process.

  15. Nursing Student Loan Debt: A Secondary Analysis of the National Student Nurses' Association Annual Survey of New Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeg, Veronica D; Mancino, Diane J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe nursing student loan debt and financial choices from a secondary analysis of the National Student Nurses Association Annual New Graduate Survey. The findings in the secondary analysis show loan debt incurred by nursing students comparable to loan debt reported recently for all new college graduates in general. However, comparing types of programs and types of schools yielded clear variations. More than one-third of new graduates who reported having loans to repay were unemployed; more than one-quarter of those who worked part-time and one-quarter of those who worked full-time to finance their education were unemployed; and almost one-third of students whose parents had paid for their education were unemployed. New graduates from for-profit schools were more likely to report they had accumulated high debt to pay for school than all new graduates combined. Nursing students enter the job market with substantial financial debt that may impact their future. Educators and policymakers need to address these growing concerns to sustain a healthy supply of nurses.

  16. Greek Loans in English and the Teaching of Modern Greek to English Speaking Students (within a Communicative Language Teaching Framework).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzipanayiotidou, A.; And Others

    In constructing a syllabus for the teaching of Modern Greek as a foreign language to English-speaking students, it is suggested that some lexical items be taught from the corpus of Greek loan words in English. These words fall into the following categories: direct loans; words that, in joining English, have acquired a different meaning, which was…

  17. Student Loans and Foreign Schools: Assessing Risks Could Help Education Reduce Program Vulnerability. Report to Congressional Addressees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    Recent events have increased concerns about the potential for fraud in student loan programs related to loans for U.S. residents attending foreign schools. In 2002 the Office of Special Investigations of the General Accounting Office (GAO) created a fictitious foreign school that the Department of Education subsequently certified as eligible to…

  18. Understanding Loan Use and Debt Burden among Low-Income and Minority Students at a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Torres, Maria; McKinney, Lyle; Horn, Catherine; Jones, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a sample of community college students from a diverse, large urban community college system in Texas. To gain a deeper understanding about the effects of background characteristics on student borrowing behaviors and enrollment outcomes, the study employed descriptive statistics and regression techniques to examine two separate…

  19. 7 CFR 3560.72 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.72 Loan closing. (a... all cases, the borrower must: (1) Provide evidence that an Agency-approved accounting system is in... cost of the work performed in connection with the construction contract in accordance with 7 CFR part...

  20. Rules versus discretion in loan rate setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2011-01-01

    Loan rates for seemingly identical borrowers often exhibit substantial dispersion. This paper investigates the determinants of the dispersion in interest rates on loans granted by banks to small and medium sized enterprises. We associate this dispersion with the loan officers’ use of “discretion” in

  1. Student Debt Spans Generations: Characteristics of Parents Who Borrow to Pay for Their Children's College Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Discussions of student debt often overlook the debt parents take on to pay for their children's education. We identify characteristics of parents with child-related educational debt among the late baby boom cohort. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of individuals born between 1957 and 1964. We restrict our sample to parents who had any children aged ≥17 and answered questions on educational debt during midlife (n = 6,562). Craggit models estimated (a) having any child-related educational debt and (b) the amount of debt owed among debtors. Black parents and parents with more education, higher income, and higher net worth were more likely to report child-related educational debt than White parents and parents with no degree, low-income, or negative net worth. Among debtors, high-income parents had more debt than low-income parents. Our findings suggest concerns about the student debt crisis should extend to aging parents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 7 CFR 1717.657 - Investments above the 15 percent level by certain borrowers not exempt under § 1717.656(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant. (d) Distribution and power supply borrowers. If the aggregate of the investments, loans and... investment controls under § 1717.656(a) may not make investments, loans and guarantees in an aggregate amount... (d) of this section.) (c) Power supply borrowers. (1) Power supply borrowers not exempt from RUS...

  3. Uranium loans: Delaying the day of reckoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Spot market volume so far this year, by NUKEM's estimates, comes to just under 11 million lbs. It appears that existing loans are either being extended, or paid back with material borrowed from other sources. Therefore, there has been no significant amount of purchases on the spot market to pay back borrowed uranium. How do we know the loans have not been paid back with spot purchases? For one thing, the amount of uranium loans outstanding has increased. According to our current survey, there may now be as much as 32 million lbs U3O8 equivalent in outstanding loans. At current prices, it's cheaper to borrow than to buy uranium. So borrowers are gambling that prices will remain low for some time, allowing them to delay repayment of the loans. Borrowers then, in essence, are delaying the day of reckoning on these loans. How long they can do so is anyone's guess. As long as uranium is in abundance and utilities remain willing to lend it out, loan activity will likely remain at or near current levels. But when supplies tighten and the market swings in a more positive direction, borrowers may get caught scrambling to repay their loans as quickly as possible

  4. Colleges with High Default Rates on Guaranteed Loans Given 3 Years to Cut Them or Risk Losing Student Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stacy E.; Wilson, Robin

    1987-01-01

    Colleges and universities will be held directly responsible for loan repayments by their former students. Most postsecondary institutions with default rates of more than 20% are for-profit trade schools, community colleges, or historically Black colleges. (MLW)

  5. 7 CFR 766.112 - Additional security for restructured loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional security for restructured loans. 766.112..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs § 766.112 Additional security for restructured loans. (a) If the borrower is delinquent prior to restructuring, the...

  6. Gender and Banking: Are Women Better Loan Officers?

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Beck; Patrick Behr; Andre Guettler

    2013-01-01

    We analyze gender differences associated with loan officer performance. Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania over the period 1996 to 2006, we find that loans screened and monitored by female loan officers show statistically and economically significant lower default rates than loans handled by male loan officers. This effect comes in addition to a lower default rate of female borrowers and cannot be explained by sample selection, overconfidence of male loan officers or exp...

  7. 77 FR 31993 - Loan Workouts and Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ...) instructions for reporting past due status on TDRs, many FICUs maintain separate, manual delinquency... loan delinquency based on restructured contract terms rather than the original loan terms. To that end... loan on nonaccrual status has no impact on the borrower's contractual obligation to the FICU. c...

  8. 78 FR 65767 - Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and... Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, and... Vol. 78 Friday, No. 212 November 1, 2013 Part II Department of Education 34 CFR Parts 668, 674...

  9. Student Loan Debt: Trends Affecting the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in college access and with it, a growing concern about the debt incurred by students. Analysts on all sides suggest a variety of causes and solutions to this very complex problem. This paper presents a collection of informational items that can be seen as both disparate and connected. We can see…

  10. Morphological assimilation of borrowed terminology (on the example of terminological units, borrowed from French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneeva Anna Vitalievna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphological assimilation is an important and mandatory problem as far as the native speaker media will be comfortable using the term of the borrowing language in the flow of speech, without considering the specific grammatical forms, largely determines its subsequent semantic assimilation, its incorporation into a particular terminology system. The analysis clearly shows the place of French borrowings in the morphological system of the Russian language, helps to identify the most significant differences between the structures of the two languages. At the same time it suggests that many French terminology borrowings morphologically assimilated fairly well, there were some groups in the Russian language, which transformed morphologically French elements falling into Russian. This makes borrowings more smooth, and loan word, provided that it actually meets the needs of the language - receptor in the host language adapts quickly and easily absorbed by native speakers

  11. Does PLUS Push? A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between PLUS Loans and Persistence for Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Tracae M.

    2017-01-01

    Given the growth of the PLUS loan program and its increasing importance in facilitating college access for many students, makes it critical to better understand the relationship between this form of federal financial aid and student outcomes. Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS: 12), conducted by the U.S. Department…

  12. 77 FR 45592 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Federal Perkins Loan Program Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... loans for eligible students to pay the costs of a student's attendance at an eligible institution of... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Federal Perkins... technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be considered public...

  13. 42 CFR 60.10 - How much can be borrowed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... school of public health, pharmacy, chiropractic, or a graduate program in health administration, clinical... pursuing a similar curriculum at that school. (b) Non-student borrower. An eligible nonstudent may borrow... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How much can be borrowed? 60.10 Section 60.10...

  14. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…

  15. 24 CFR 1005.105 - What are eligible loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 203.12(b)(2) of this title for FHA mortgage insurance. (f) Lack of access to private financial markets... borrower must certify that the borrower lacks access to private financial markets. Borrower certification... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are eligible loans? 1005.105...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.16 - Other servicing actions on real estate type loan accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Installment on note and other charges—(1) Direct loan accounts. For a borrower with a direct loan, the term... loan accounts. “Loan insurance charge” means a separate insurance charge applying to FO and SW insured... loans evidenced by note forms bearing a form date of January 8, 1959, or later, the insurance charge is...

  17. Is the corporate loan market globally integrated? a pricing puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Mark S. Carey; Gregory P. Nini

    2004-01-01

    We offer evidence that interest rate spreads on syndicated loans to corporate borrowers are economically significantly smaller in Europe than in the U.S., other things equal. Differences in borrower, loan and lender characteristics associated with equilibrium mechanisms suggested in the literature do not appear to explain the phenomenon. Borrowers overwhelmingly issue in their natural home market and bank portfolios display significant home "bias." This may explain why pricing discrepancies a...

  18. Association Between Student Loan Debt on Graduation, Demographic Characteristics and Initial Choice of Practice Setting of Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem A. Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To examine trends in level of student loan indebtedness for groups of pharmacists that were first licensed between 1980 and 2006; (2 To examine if demographic variables are associated with level of student loan indebtedness; (3 To examine the association between student loan debt and choice of practice setting while controlling for demographic variables. Methods: Data for this study were collected from a national random sample of 3,000 pharmacists using a self administered survey. Descriptive statistics were used to examine trends in level of indebtedness. The relationships between level of indebtedness, demographic variables and practice setting choice were examined using Chi-square statistics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of student loan debt and choice of practice setting while controlling for demographic variables. Results: The proportion of licensed pharmacists reporting student loan debt after graduation, and the mean amount of debt incurred increased between 1980 and 2006. Non-white pharmacists incurred debt at a higher proportion compared to white, and they also incurred significantly higher levels of debt. A lower level of indebtedness was associated with choosing independent practice over chain practice. Conclusions: Student loan indebtedness has been increasing over time, especially for non-white pharmacy students. Future research should be done to examine other factors that might influence student debt load, work contributions and choice of practice settings. The affordability of pharmacy education for students of color and how salaries may or may not help off-set these costs also should be examined closely.   Type: Original Research

  19. A cross-disciplinary assessment of student loans debt, financial support for study and career preferences upon graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Craig S; Ling, Christopher; Barrow, Mark; Poole, Phillippa; Henning, Marcus

    2017-07-21

    To explore relationships between student loans debt, financial support and career preferences upon graduation for all healthcare disciplines offered at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland. The Faculty Tracking Project is a longitudinal study which invites students to complete a questionnaire at the beginning and end of their educational programmes, including questions on debt, financial support and career preference. Our analysis comprised three phases: (1) a descriptive analysis of data related to debt and financial support; (2) a principal component analysis in order to find related categories of career choice; and (3) logistic regression models to determine how career preference categories could be explained by either levels of student loans debt or financial support. Data from 2,405 participating students were included. Students in health sciences, nursing and pharmacy typically accrue levels of student loans debt of around $15,000 to $29,999, while optometry students accrue debt around $15,000 higher. Medical students show debt distributed around modes of $0 and $90,000 or more. All students typically access three sources of financial support during study. Career preferences at graduation reduced to four categories for all health disciplines. We found five significant effects, involving students in health sciences, medicine and pharmacy, relating the number of sources of financial support to the four categories of career preference. No significant effects were found related to level of student loans debt. Our results suggest that financial support is a more strongly determining factor in career choices than the level of student loans debt. The four-category framework for student career preferences appears to be a useful model for further research.

  20. 7 CFR 762.110 - Loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of debts over $1,000; (3) Three years financial history; (4) Three years of production history (for... normal course of business) in the applicant or borrower. (ii) The applicant or borrower, a relative of... to obtain a loan), or other principal owners of the lender have substantial business dealings (other...

  1. 7 CFR 1710.112 - Loan feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service cost of the new loan. (3) The economics of the borrower's operations and service area are such... financial and management controls and there are and have been no significant financial or other... assets, is adequate to enable the borrower to meet its financial needs and to provide service consistent...

  2. THE BORROWER CHARACTERISTICS IN HOT EQUITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the characteristics of U.S. corporate borrowers (public debt, private placement, and syndicated loan firms in HOT versus COLD equity markets. My main objective is to see the characteristics of firms that choose debt financing even when the equity market is HOT. HOT equity markets are defined as the top twenty percent of the months in terms of the de-trended number of equity offerings. I find that the HOT equity market borrowers generally have higher market-to-book ratios compared to the COLD market borrowers. Also, in HOT equity markets, the public debt firms (i.e. the corporate bond issuers tend to have fewer tangible assets, the private placement firms tend to be smaller and highly levered, and the syndicated loan firms tend to be smaller, more profitable, and less levered compared to the COLD market firms. When I look at the number of transactions in each market, I find that when the equity market is active (i.e. HOT, the syndicated loan market is even more active. During these periods, the public debt market is also active (although not as much as the equity or the syndicated loan markets. When I look at the sizes of the transactions in each market, I find that the private placements tend to be significantly larger in HOT markets compared to COLD markets. I conclude that while the equity, the public debt, and the syndicated loan markets move together in terms of market activity, the equity market and the private placement markets move together in terms of the size of the transaction.

  3. More money, better performance? The effects of student loans and need-based grants in China's higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Fan; Liao, Xiaowei; Hu, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effect of student loans and need-based grants on financially disadvantaged student academic performance in China's higher education. We used a large sampled data from 101 universities to conduct our study. By employing different matching methods, we found

  4. 78 FR 5431 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the... amended, the Chief Operating Officer for Federal Student Aid announces the interest rates for the period... interest rates to the public. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ian Foss, U.S. Department of Education, 830...

  5. 34 CFR 682.201 - Eligible borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the financial aid administrator determines and documents in the school's file, after review of the family financial information provided by the student and consideration of the student's debt burden, that... FFEL loan, other than a Federal Consolidation Loan, within three years of the date that any previous...

  6. Keeping Score: Direct Student Lending. An Evaluation Prepared for the Iowa College Student Aid Commission and the Iowa Student Loan Liquidity Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, William

    This paper provides recommendations for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a demonstration program designed to assess direct lending as a replacement for the current federal student loan program. It offers a list of principles which the demonstration project should address. Recommendations include: (1) maintenance of student…

  7. Can Student Loans Improve Accessibility to Higher Education and Student Performance? An Impact Study of the Case of SOFES, Mexico. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3425

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Erik; Blom, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Financial aid to students in tertiary education can contribute to human capital accumulation through two channels: increased enrollment and improved student performance. We analyze the quantitative importance of both channels in the context of a student loan program "Sociedad de Fomento a la Educacion, Superior" (SOFES) implemented at…

  8. 25 CFR 103.12 - How does a lender apply for a loan guaranty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the lender's loan guaranty application package, outlining the credit history of the borrower, and... all makers, cosigners and guarantors, maturity dates, payment schedules, uncured delinquencies...

  9. Tranching in the Syndicated Loan Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; McCahery, J.A.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2011-01-01

    We use data comprising over 100,000 loans from 115 countries during 1995-2009 to examine factors that affect the extent of loan tranching, and the range of tranche spreads. The data show five factors that drive them: asymmetric information, borrower risk, transaction costs, the presence of

  10. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section... § 1703.112 Expedited telecommunications loans RUS will expedite consideration and determination of an application submitted by an RUS telecommunications borrower for a loan under the Act or an advance of such...

  11. Loan Market Competition and Bank Risk-Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature (Boyd and De Nicoló, 2005) has argued that competition in the loan market lowers bank risk by reducing the risk-taking incentives of borrowers. We show that the impact of loan market competition on banks is reversed if banks can adjust their loan portfolios. The reason is that when

  12. 7 CFR 772.7 - Leasing minor program loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing minor program loan security. 772.7 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.7 Leasing minor program loan security. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may consent to the borrower leasing all or a portion of security...

  13. 76 FR 5055 - Loan Servicing; Farm Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... suspending interest accrual and offsets, if a borrower has filed a claim of program discrimination that has... claim, including interest accruals and offsets, while the discrimination claim is being resolved. This... 761 Accounting, Loan programs--Agriculture, Rural areas. 7 CFR Part 766 Agriculture, Agricultural...

  14. 13 CFR 120.1881 - How are payments on the Collateral allocated between the SISMBD borrower and repayment of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are payments on the Collateral allocated between the SISMBD borrower and repayment of the SISMBD Loan? Unless otherwise provided in the Loan Agreements for a particular SISMBD Loan, any payment on Collateral... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are payments on the Collateral...

  15. In Debt and in the Dark: It's Time for Better Information on Student Loan Defaults. Charts You Can Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Student college loan default rates have nearly doubled in recent years. The three-year default rate exceeds 13 percent nationally. Tracking and reporting default rates is a crucial means of monitoring how well higher education dollars are spent. Yet, the way default data is gathered, measured, and reported by the federal government clouds…

  16. 78 FR 17647 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the.... Department of Education published in the Federal Register (78 FR 5433) a notice announcing the interest rates... bill rate Margin Total rate First disbursed on or after disbursed interest rate (percent) (percent...

  17. Student Loans in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of the Colombian Performance. Bank Staff Working Paper No. 182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…

  18. 7 CFR 1980.441 - Borrower equity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management history vs. start-up businesses; personal/corporate guarantees offered; contractual relationships... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.441 Borrower...

  19. Deposit competition and loan markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    Less-intense competition for deposits, by mitigating banks’ incentive to take excessive risks, is traditionally believed to lead to lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios and more-stable banks. This paper revisits this proposition in a model with borrower moral hazard in which banks’ NPL ratios

  20. Research on Multiprincipals Selecting Effective Agency Mode in the Student Loan System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective agency mode is the key to solve incentive problems in Chinese student loan system. Principal-agent frameworks are considered in which two principals share one common agent that is performing one single task but each prefers the different aspect of the task. Three models are built and decision mechanisms are given. The studies show that the three modes have different effects. Exclusive dealing mode is not good for long-term effect because sometimes it guides agent ignoring repayment. If effort proportionality coefficient and observability are both unchanged, principals all prefer common agency, but independent contracting mode may be more efficient in reality because not only the total outputs under that mode are larger than those under cooperation one, but also preferring independent contracting mode can stimulate the bank participating in the game.

  1. 12 CFR 617.7415 - How does a qualified lender decide to restructure a loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... restructure a loan? 617.7415 Section 617.7415 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Distressed Loan Restructuring; State Agricultural Loan Mediation Programs § 617.7415 How... the cost to the lender of restructuring the loan is equal to or less than the cost of foreclosure...

  2. Federal Student Loan Programs: Opportunities Exist to Improve Audit Requirements and Oversight Procedures. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-668

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Kay L.

    2010-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008, Pub. L. No. 110-315, mandated GAO (Government Accountability Office) to study the financial and compliance audits and reviews required or conducted for the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program and the Federal Direct Student Loan (DL) program. The Department of Education's (Education) Office of…

  3. The lifetime cost to English students of borrowing to invest in a medical degree: a gender comparison using data from the Office for National Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, Marco G; Vohra, Ravinder S; Carmichael, Fiona; Mangat, Karanjit; Alderson, Derek

    2015-04-21

    To evaluate this impact on male and female English medical graduates by estimating the total time and amount repaid on loans taken out with the UK's Student Loans Company (SLC). UK. 4286 respondents with a medical degree in the Labour Force Surveys administered by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) between 1997 and 2014. Age-salary profiles were generated to estimate the repayment profiles for different levels of initial graduate debt. 2195 female and 2149 male medical graduates were interviewed by the ONS. Those working full-time (73.1% females and 96.1% males) were analysed in greater depth. Following standardisation to 2014 prices, average full-time male graduates earned up to 35% more than females by the age of 55. The initial graduate debt from tuition fees alone amounts to £39,945.69. Owing to interest charges on this debt the average full-time male graduate repays £57,303 over 20 years, while the average female earns less and so repays £61,809 over 26 years. When additional SLC loans are required for maintenance, the initial graduate debt can be as high as £81,916 and, as SLC debt is written off 30 years after graduation, the average female repays £75,786 while the average male repays £110,644. Medical graduates on an average salary are unlikely to repay their SLC debt in full. This is a consequence of higher university fees and as SLC debt is written off 30 years after graduation. This results in the average female graduate repaying more when debt is low, but a lower amount when debt is high compared to male graduates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Mircea I; Kellermann, Arthur L; Hunter, Christine; Curtis, Jerri; Rice, Charles; Wilensky, Gail R

    2017-07-01

    To understand the long-term economic implications of key pathways for financing a medical school education. The authors calculated the net present value (NPV) of cash flow over a 30-year career for a 2013 matriculant associated with (1) self-financing, (2) federally guaranteed loans, (3) the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program, (4) the National Health Service Corps, (5) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program, and (6) matriculation at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. They calculated the NPV for students pursuing one of four specialties in two cities with divergent tax policies. Borrowers were assumed to have a median level of debt ($180,000), and conservative projections of inflation, discount rates, and income growth were employed. Sensitivity analyses examined different discount and income growth rates, alternative repayment strategies, and various lengths of public-sector service by scholarship recipients. For those wealthy enough to pay cash or fortunate enough to secure a no-strings scholarship, self-financing produced the highest NPV in almost every scenario. Borrowers start practice $300,000 to $400,000 behind their peers who secure a national service scholarship, but those who enter a highly paid specialty, such as orthopedic surgery, overtake their national service counterparts 4 to 11 years after residency. Those in lower-paid specialties take much longer. Borrowers who enter primary care never close the gap. Over time, the value of a medical degree offsets the high up-front cost. Debt avoidance confers substantial economic benefits, particularly for students interested in primary care.

  5. "My Madam Is Fine": The Adaptation of English Loans in Chichewa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simango, Silvester Ron

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence from English loans in Chichewa (Bantu), which shows that the recipient language is not a passive participant in the borrowing process: the borrowing language makes various modifications to the loan words to make them fit in the grammatical structure as well as cultural requirements of the recipient language. (Author/VWL)

  6. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  7. 7 CFR 1786.162 - Outstanding loan documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... outstanding notes issued to RUS, and the RUS Mortgage. (b) Nothing in this subpart shall affect any rights of... shall prohibit a borrower from making prepayments of any loans pursuant to the RE Act in accordance with...

  8. Covenant Violations and Dynamic Loan Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudenberg, Felix; Imbierowicz, Björn; Saunders, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic allocation of control rights in private debt contracts of firms. We show that a covenant violation in the prior loan contract implies a stigma for borrowers which results in stricter loan contract terms in subsequent new loan contracts. Our analyses reject...... potentially other explanations such as firm characteristics or agency problems between the lender and firm management, shareholders or public debtholders. After covenant violations in the prior contract, new loans have on average 18 bps higher spreads and include more of those covenant types which also have...

  9. Balancing Passion and Practicality: The Role of Debt and Major on Students' Financial Outcomes. A Report to the 83rd Regular Session of the Texas Legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Micki; Fletcher, Carla; Shook, Melissa; Webster, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    As the cost and importance of education continue to rise, more college students across the U.S. begin their postsecondary education by signing a contract to repay an ever-increasing amount of student loan debt. Conventional wisdom maintains that borrowing for college is an investment in the future that should be deemed "good debt". Data…

  10. The Relationship of Student Loan and Credit Card Debt on Financial Satisfaction of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Oscar; Ferguson, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    The cost of higher education at both public and private institutions is increasing and adversely affecting college students (College Board, 2009; Idemudia & Ferguson, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b). Utilizing an institutional dataset called Financial Survey of Students 2006 compiled at one of the largest public universities in the southwestern…

  11. Borrowing Abroad: The Debtor's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Cooper; Jeffrey Sachs

    1984-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of external borrowing from the perspective of the borrowing country. The first section sketches a formal framework for optimal borrowing by a developing country, as seen from the planner's point of view. The next three sections use this framework for the development of three important limits on external borrowing: the problem of solvency, the problem of liquidity and the problem created by the possibility of repudiation. The fifth section relates external bor...

  12. 77 FR 47374 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program/ Federal Family Loan (FFEL) Program: Deferment... which borrowers in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) and Federal Family Education... considered public records. Title of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program...

  13. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boatman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has suggested that some students may be averse to taking out loans to finance their college education, there is little empirical evidence showing the extent to which loan aversion exists or how it affects different populations of students. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using survey data collected on more than 6,000 individuals, we examine the frequency of loan aversion in three distinct populations. Depending on the measure, between 20 and 40% of high school seniors exhibit loan aversion with lower rates among community college students and adults not in college. Women are less likely to express loan-averse attitudes than men, and Hispanic respondents are more likely to be loan averse than White respondents.

  14. 7 CFR 1735.31 - RUS cost-of-money and RTB loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS cost-of-money and RTB loans. 1735.31 Section 1735... Types of Loans § 1735.31 RUS cost-of-money and RTB loans. (a) RUS makes cost-of-money loans, under... qualify for concurrent RUS cost-of-money and RTB loans on or after November 1, 1993, a borrower must meet...

  15. Student Loans. Direct Loans Could Save Billions in First 5 Years with Proper Implementation. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This paper responds to a congressional request for more information concerning first, the potential cost savings from direct rather than guaranteed student loans and second, the ability of the Department of Education and postsecondary institutions to effectively manage a direct lending program. The report: (1) provides a more complete analysis of…

  16. Federal Student Loans: Impact of Loan Limit Increases on College Prices Is Difficult to Discern. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, college prices have been rising consistently and have continued to rise at a gradual pace after the Stafford loan limit increases were enacted in 2008 and 2009. However, it is difficult to determine if a direct relationship exists between increases in college prices and the Stafford loan limit increases because of the…

  17. Immigration, borrowing constraints and housing market volatility in general equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Onshuus, Helene

    2016-01-01

    A loan-to-value borrowing constraint is a significant restriction on household behavior. All policy intervention seeks to steer agents' behavior away from what individual agents would consider optimal in the absence of restrictions. In the wake of the financial crisis in 2007-09 many regulators have turned to macroprudential tools to manage excessive risk-taking on an economy-wide level. In Norway a strict loan-to-value policy was imposed in June 2015, restricting the amount a household can b...

  18. 24 CFR 573.7 - Loan guarantee agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will require the Borrower to provide collateral security, to an extent and in a form, acceptable to HUD... property with comparable new property; (5) The lender will follow certain claim procedures to be specified... underlying collateral security for the loan; and (7) The lender will act as the fiscal agent for the loan...

  19. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  20. 26 CFR 1.7872-5 - Exempted loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal tax liability of the borrower or the lender. (2) No exemption for tax avoidance loans. If a... principal purposes of so structuring the transaction is the avoidance of Federal tax, then the transaction will be recharacterized as a tax avoidance loan as defined in section 7872(c)(1)(D). (b) List of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.7872-5T - Exempted loans (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal tax liability of the borrower or the lender. (2) No exemption for tax avoidance loans. If a... principal purposes of so structuring the transaction is the avoidance of Federal tax, then the transaction will be recharacterized as a tax avoidance loan as defined in section 7872 (c)(1)(D). (b) List of...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.106 - Uses of loan funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Basic Policies § 1710.106 Uses of loan funds. (a) Funds from loans made or guaranteed by RUS may be used to finance: (1) Distribution facilities. (i) The construction of new distribution facilities... station service, and the borrower is unable to finance the acquisition from other sources. See § 1710.107...

  3. Microcredit Contracts, Risk Diversification and Loan Take-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attanasio, O.; Augsburg, B.; de Haas, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically and empirically the demand for microcredit under different liability arrangements and risk environments. A simple theoretical model shows that the demand for joint-liability loans can exceed that for individual-liability loans when risk-averse borrowers value their long-term

  4. Direct Loan Cash Management and Data Matching (Reconciliation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide for institutions of higher education and other schools receiving funds under the William D. Ford Direct Loan Program details required and recommended procedures for the reconciliation process. The reconciliation process is explained to include cash management (the accounting for Direct Loan funds drawn down and disbursed to borrowers)…

  5. Student Loan Assistance Amendments of 1982. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on S. 2655.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Hearings of the Committee on Education and Labor on the proposed Student Loan Assistance Amendments of 1982 are presented. The bill (S. 2655) is designed to provide increased maximum limitations for student loans under Part B of Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 for certain students who lost benefits under the Social Security Act as a…

  6. 34 CFR 682.206 - Due diligence in making a loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due diligence in making a loan. 682.206 Section 682.206 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Due diligence in making a loan. (a) General. (1) Loan-making duties include determining the borrower's...

  7. 12 CFR 360.2 - Federal Home Loan banks as secured creditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Home Loan banks as secured creditors... OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.2 Federal Home Loan banks as secured... regulations, the receiver of a borrower from a Federal Home Loan Bank shall recognize the priority of any...

  8. 34 CFR 601.11 - Private education loan disclosures and self-certification form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private education loan disclosures and self...-Affiliated Organizations § 601.11 Private education loan disclosures and self-certification form. (a) A... education loan disclosures to the prospective borrower, regardless of whether the covered institution or...

  9. 42 CFR 23.33 - What security must be given for these loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What security must be given for these loans? 23.33... NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.33 What security must be given for these loans? The Secretary may require the borrower to pledge to the Secretary a...

  10. 42 CFR 57.1512 - Length and maturity of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  11. 42 CFR 57.1518 - Modification of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  12. 42 CFR 57.1507 - Limitations applicable to loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  13. Paying for Default: Change over Time in the Share of Federal Financial Aid Sent to Institutions with High Student Loan Default Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Both federal spending on financial aid and student loan default rates have increased over the past decade. These trends have intensified policymakers' concerns that some postsecondary institutions-- particularly in the for-profit sector--maximize revenue derived from federal financial aid without helping students to graduate or find employment.…

  14. 7 CFR 3575.69 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial statements and provide the Agency with a written summary of the lender's analysis and conclusions... analyzing financial statements; verifying the payment of taxes and insurance premiums; and maintaining liens... statements required by the Loan Agreement. The lender must submit the borrower's annual financial statements...

  15. Financial Aid and College Persistence: Do Student Loans Help or Hurt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Serge

    2018-01-01

    Using data from two freshmen cohorts at a public research university (N = 3730), this study examines the relationship between loan aid and second-year enrollment persistence. Applying a counterfactual analytical framework that relies on propensity score (PS) weighting and matching to address selection bias associated with treatment status, the…

  16. Direct Student Loans: Overpayments during the Department of Education's Conversion to a New Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Carlotta C.

    This report addresses concerns that the Department of Education may have erroneously made overpayments of as much as $400 million to schools participating in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (FDLP) during the Department's conversion to a new computerized payment system. The investigation found that because the transition to the new…

  17. Shopping Center Financing: Pricing Loan Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Chinloy; James Musumeci

    1994-01-01

    The financing structure of a shopping center is decomposed into an income security and two put options. These put options are respectively held by the borrower against the lender for default, and by the lender against an insurer or reinsurer. The prices of the put option depend on the loan-to-value ration of the loan and on the risk of the investment. The interest rate charged on the loan is the sum of four components: a riskless rate, lender production costs, and the net price of the put opt...

  18. 42 CFR 57.1510 - Security for loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security for loans. 57.1510 Section 57.1510 Public... Security for loans. Each loan with respect to which a guarantee is made or interest subsidies are paid... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest...

  19. Borrowing brainpower - sharing insecurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Meier, Ninna; Ingerslev, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing is a vital, yet complex skill that must be developed within a doctoral training process. In addition, becoming an academic researcher is a journey of changing sense of self and identity. Through analysis of a group session, we show how the feedback of peers addresses questions...... of structure and writing style along with wider issues of researcher identity. Thus, peer learning is demonstrated as a process of simultaneously building a text and an identity as scholarly researcher. The paper advocates ‘borrowing brainpower’ from peers in order to write better texts and, at the same time......, ‘share insecurities’ during the development of the researcher identity. Based on a distributed notion of peer learning and identity, we point to the need for further research into the everyday activities of doctoral writing groups in order to understand the dynamic relationship between production of text...

  20. Factors Affecting Student Loan Default Rate at Johnson County Community College: A Multivariate Analysis of Student Loan Default and Repayment between Years 2006 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized a quantitative design using archival data from Johnson County Community College (JCCC), located in Johnson County, Kansas, and the Office of Financial Aid for students who graduated, withdrew or dropped out of the college in academic years 2006, 2007 and 2008. Because this study used archival data, we can only show…

  1. A Study of the Impact of Default Management Practices and Other Factors on Student Loan Default Rates in Public Two-Year Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Randell W.

    2013-01-01

    Default management practices and their relationship to the student loan default rate in public two-year community colleges was the focus of this investigation. Five research questions regarding written default management plans, default management practices, process management, accountability, and other factors impacting default guided the study.…

  2. Student Loan Marketing Association Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1991. 102d Congress, 1st Session. Report To Accompany S. 1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document is a favorable report to the U.S. Senate on a bill that provides for the financial security of the Student Loan Marketing Association, an act which amends the Higher Education Act of 1965. The report urges the passage of this bill which sets forth various capital levels that safeguard the government from the possibility of loss…

  3. Better Cash Management Can Reduce the Cost of the National Direct Student Loan Program. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Office of Education has allowed schools participating in the National Direct Student Loan Program to hold more than an annual average of $63 million in federal funds in excess of their 30-day needs. The General Accounting Office estimates that if the Treasury had this money it could save the government interest costs of as much as $4 million,…

  4. 7 CFR 4279.75 - Sale or assignment of guaranteed loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower's immediate families, officers, directors, stockholders, other owners, or a parent, subsidiary or...) or any successor section will not be guaranteed. (a) Single note system. The entire loan is evidenced...

  5. 7 CFR 765.402 - Transfer of security and loan assumption on same rates and terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (3) A corporation, including limited liability company, or cooperative, the transferee must: (i) Have... personal liability for the loan; (d) A new entity buys the borrower entity and continues to operate the...

  6. Child Bilingualism in an Immigrant Society: Implications of Borrowing in the Hebrew 'Language of Games.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Adon, Aaron

    The first waves of immigrants arriving in Palestine were faced with the problem of forming a new culture and creating a new language, actually, reviving Hebrew, an ancient language. The children were faced with creating their own traditions, games, and folklore; in so doing, through straight borrowing, spontaneous translation (loan translation),…

  7. 7 CFR 1724.70 - Standard forms of contracts for borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required to use in the planning, design, and construction of their electric systems. Borrowers are not required to use these guidance contract forms in the absence of an agreement to do so. [63 FR 58284, Oct... construction, procurement, engineering services, and architectural services financed by a loan made or...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4309 - Transfer of title by borrower or maturity by demand or acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (iii) A transfer by devise, descent, or operation of law on the death of a joint tenant or tenant by... option to purchase; (v) A transfer to a relative resulting from the death of a borrower; (vi) A transfer... reinstatement of the loan would adversely affect the dignity of the lien or be otherwise precluded by law. A...

  9. 42 CFR 60.8 - What are the borrower's major rights and responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whole or any portion of the loan at any time without penalty. (9) The lender or holder must allow the... obligation is cancelled in the event of death or total and permanent disability. (11) To assist the borrower... reimbursements or Federal payments for health services under any Federal law in amounts up to the balance of the...

  10. Collaboration between students and teachers to accumulate a collection of anatomical preparations of high quality in order to loan them to students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friker, Jutta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2002 the Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Munich University (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität a project was started to involve students to build up a collection of anatomical preparations. The goal of this plan was to obtain long term preserved preparations for storage in boxes of plastic in order to loan them to students. The question to solve was whether it is possible and efficient to engage students. The cadavers were provided from the section hall. We used only material from animals without clinical symptoms. The students were provided with a list of themes to choose from, or they could submit a proposal. Before starting the preparation, as a first step, the basic material was conserved in a special non-toxic solution, developed at the institute of anatomy. Students could perform the preparations during the semester as well as in semester holidays. Scientific assistants helped the students throughout the project. The period specified to assemble the preparations was one semester plus semester holiday. Over the last two years we have received preparations of different quality. About one third of the preparations were of high quality and suitable for long term preservation. Approximately thirty percent of the students required two semesters to finish their preparations. The remaining preparations had to be rejected because students did not complete their project or the preparations were unsuitable for use. Students are very fascinated with this project. Every semester we accept only half of the applicants due to the overwhelming student interest. In summary, it is shown that the collaboration between the students and teachers can help to expand the learning and teaching tools. Students and teachers benefit from this teamwork. Although some preparations have to be eliminated, the students are able to apply their knowledge while gaining experience with the scalpel and tweeters.

  11. 42 CFR 57.314 - Repayment of loans made after November 17, 1971, for failure to complete a program of study. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.314 Repayment of loans..., medical, or financial difficulties. The Secretary will only repay education loans made after November 17...

  12. The relative efficiency of bank branches in lending and borrowing: An application of data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G van der Westhuizen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of fifty-two branches of a small South African bank was estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA.  A factor responsible for the difference in efficiency between branches might be the difference in managing the asset (loans and the liability (deposit side of the balance sheet.  For this reason, the relative efficiency of the lending and borrowing activities was also estimated and compared to the relative efficiency of the combined (lending and borrowing activities.In the case of the efficiency estimates for loans and deposits, the indications are that the branches were more efficient in managing the liability side (deposits than  in managing the asset side (loans.  This means that purchased funds were not utilised efficiently.

  13. Loans, Logins, and Lasting the Course: Academic Library Use and Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Joseph, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    Activities and services that improve student engagement and retention in the higher education sector are important not only to individual students' success but also to university planning and funding. This paper reports on a study carried out to explore whether use of the library by new university students is associated with continued enrolment.…

  14. LOAN BROKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A loan is probably the most important financial decision we make in life. In a time when lack of time affects us in every way, including financially, we can only appeal to specialists if we want fast, reliable and quality long-term services. „The notion of “creditor” includes all legal entities, branches of credit institution and nonbankingfinancial institutions that operate in Romania and grant or undertake to grant loans in itscommercial of professional activity”. In the case of loans, the "specialist" has been called loan broker. Loan broker is a person trained in intermediating bank loans who offers advice on choosing the best financial solutions for each client. Through partnerships with banks in Romania, the broker has access to their credit products and assist customers in choosing the loan that best suits their financial needs and possibilities. Moreover, the broker will help in preparing loan application to be submitted to the bank and pursue it to its completion. Loan broker can be defined as the person authorized by the bank or non-bank financial institutions to promote their products through direct contact with natural or legal persons wishing to contract a loan, without any of the parties to have exclusivity. There can be defined as an independent bank or non-bank financial institution, as an intermediary between customers and banks. Through its financial advisors , the company helps customers overcome the difficulty of understanding the credit products, difficulties arising from the multitude of factors that compose such a product, especially in the case of a housing loan or mortgage. Each financial institution is doing everything possible through such partnerships to attract the largest possible portfolio of clients, therefore is developing a real network of brokers to be partners for local or national level (depending on the sites coverage of the branches of each institution on one or more types of credit products. The

  15. 42 CFR 57.213a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.213a Section 57... Professions Student Loans § 57.213a Loan cancellation reimbursement. (a) For loans made prior to October 22... credited to this insurance fund), and used only to reimburse the school for the institutional share of any...

  16. 12 CFR 617.7430 - Are institutions required to participate in state agricultural loan mediation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... state agricultural loan mediation programs? 617.7430 Section 617.7430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... Mediation Programs § 617.7430 Are institutions required to participate in state agricultural loan mediation programs? (a) If initiated by a borrower, System institutions must participate in state mediation programs...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.80 - Interest rate changes after loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate changes after loan closing. 1779.80....80 Interest rate changes after loan closing. (a) General. Subject to the restrictions below, the borrower, lender, and holder (if any) may collectively effect a permanent reduction in the interest rate on...

  18. 78 FR 66841 - Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2003...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 230 Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the... the Government of Israel on behalf of the State of Israel. Pursuant to the Emergency Wartime... International Development, may issue loan guarantees applicable to sums borrowed by the Government of Israel on...

  19. 7 CFR 1717.154 - Transitional assistance in connection with new loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and efficiencies to be realized from the merger and the relative importance of loan priority to... at least one of the merging parties is an active borrower. (b) Supplemental financing.(1) RUS generally requires that an applicant for a municipal rate loan obtain a portion of its debt financing from a...

  20. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  1. 7 CFR 1714.55 - Advance of funds from insured loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... equivalent. Funds will not be advanced until the Administrator has received satisfactory evidence that the... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance of funds from insured loans. 1714.55 Section... § 1714.55 Advance of funds from insured loans. The borrower shall request advances of funds as needed...

  2. 76 FR 7148 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Reporting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... otherwise borrow capital. On occasion, RLFs also make loans to finance public infrastructure. As the loans... information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (d) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on respondents, including through the use...

  3. 25 CFR 103.6 - To what extent will BIA guarantee or insure a loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance percentage rate that satisfies the lender's risk management requirements. (d) Absent exceptional... lender has insured under the Program as of the date the lender makes a claim under its insurance coverage... outstanding loans from the same lender to the same borrower; or (2) One loan guaranty under the Program when...

  4. 34 CFR 682.407 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs... the medical professional who provided the medical care; and (C) The individual is unable to work and... payable on a discharge claim is— (i) An amount equal to the sum of the remaining principal balance and...

  5. Managing Bad Loans of Domestic Banks under Modern Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhar Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of their conduct and identifies advantages and shortcomings of their application both for a bank and a borrower. Prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of methods of assessment of bad loans, in particular, development of methodological approaches to identification of assessment of profitability of bad loans as an important element of the system of management of bad loans of a bank.

  6. Delay and probability discounting among payday and title loan recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Colin T; Lawyer, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Payday and title loans are short-term loans associated with significant economic impact. Behavioral theories of impulsive choice may provide insight into behavioral processes that underlie the propensity to take out payday and title loans. Adults between the ages of 18 and 30 recruited from the community completed delay and probability discounting tasks for hypothetical money as well as measures of substance use. Patterns of discounting were characterized using a hyperbolic decay model and area under the curve. Participants who took out a payday and/or title loan in the past (n=41) exhibited more impulsive choice patterns on the delay discounting task than did those who did not (n=255). Substance use mediated this relationship between payday and title loan retention and delay discounting. These findings suggest potentially important relationships between payday/title loan borrowing, substance use, and delay discounting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brazilian Credit Union Member Groups: Borrower-dominated, Saver-dominated or Neutral Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Gama Fully Bressan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models concerning Credit Unions (CUs suggest that the type of CU domination determines the way it allocates the monetary value it generates. A borrower- (saver- dominated CU benefits borrower (saver members at the expenses of saver (borrower members, and a neutral CU equally benefits its member groups.This paper applies direct measure of monetary benefits to each member group (Patin & McNiel, 1991a to testfor the existence of dominated behavior in Brazilian CUs, and is the first to apply panel data regressions to identify the determinants of CUs behavior. We use a unique panel data with 40,664 observations taken from 533 CUs affiliated with the largest Brazilian cooperative network. Results indicate Brazilian CUs are dominated by borrowers, but behave close to neutrality. Panel regression estimates show that common or multiple bond type,size and overdue loans of a CU have no effect on its behavior, the greater the total amount of loans over social capital and adjusted equity over total assets are the more likely a CU is borrower dominated, and the greater the age and current operational expenses over total asset of a CU are the more likely a CU is saver dominated.

  8. International Education Policy Transfer--Borrowing Both Ways: The Hong Kong and England Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Katherine; Crossley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how the impact of international student achievement studies and the recent economic crisis in Europe are influencing the development of educational policy transfer and borrowing, from East to West. This is contrasted with education reform movements in East Asia, which have long legacies of borrowing from so-called…

  9. Education Policy Borrowing in China: Has the West Wind Overpowered the East Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Chua, Catherine S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent education reform in China reflects the global trend of education policy borrowing from Anglophone countries such as the USA. The reform in China essentially advocates shifting from knowledge reproduction and didacticism to knowledge construction by students through a learner-centredness approach. Aware of the trend of borrowing policy from…

  10. Lexical borrowing by Khoekhoegowab from Cape Dutch and Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrid Haacke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article instantiates types of lexical borrowing from Afrikaans and Dutch in Namibian Khoekhoegowab (also known as “Nama”/“Damara”, but occasionally also refers to borrowings in the opposite direction. Where evidence allows, loans are traced back beyond Afrikaans to the era of Cape Dutch and contemporary interethnic contacts. Various categories ranging from adoptions to phonologically integrated loans, hybrids and calques are presented and, where possible, historical inferences are offered. The high degree of translational equivalence between Khoekhoe serial verbs and Afrikaans compound verbs leads to the consideration of some grammatical aspects including replication and relexification. Finally, reference is made to a parallel between Afrikaans and “Khoekhoe Afrikaans” syntax pointed out by den Besten (2013: Afrikaans circumlocutions like ek / sy wat Anna is (Khoekhoe: Anna.ta / Anna.s are literal equivalents of the underlying phrasal structures of Khoekhoe surface nouns #stem.pgn# in first, second or third person, as accounted for by the “desentential hypothesis” (Haacke 2006.  

  11. 13 CFR 120.912 - Borrowed contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subordinate to the liens securing the 504 Loan, and the loan may not be repaid at a faster rate than the 504 Loan unless SBA gives prior written approval. A third party lender may not receive voting rights, stock...

  12. 7 CFR 1962.46 - Deceased borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Deceased borrowers. Immediately on learning of the death of any person liable to the Agency, the County... official as directed by OGC or it will be referred by OGC to the U.S. Attorney for filing if representation... the borrower for their support at the time of the borrower's death, continuation may be approved...

  13. 42 CFR 57.306 - Eligibility and selection of nursing student loan applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicants. 57.306 Section 57.306 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND... financial need if the school determines that the student's resources, as described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of...

  14. 78 FR 65523 - Farm Loan Programs; Clarification and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... ensure borrower success and protect FSA's security interests. There will be no change to 7 CFR 765.302 in... disposition of security, and Conservation Contract requirements. FSA is also streamlining the loan making and... of thousands of family farmers each year in starting and maintaining profitable farm businesses. FSA...

  15. 7 CFR 766.355 - Acceleration of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) General. (1) The Agency accelerates loans in accordance with this section, unless: (i) State law... notification in accordance with subpart C of this part, except for borrowers who fail to graduate in accordance...) Transfer the security to a third party in accordance with part 765, subpart I of this chapter; (3) Sell the...

  16. 42 CFR 60.33 - Making a HEAL loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... available to the lender. Except where the statements are in conflict with information obtained from the applicant's credit history or other information available to the lender, a lender making loans to nonstudent... dates of disbursement and the amount the borrower will need on each such date. In no case may the lender...

  17. 7 CFR 1735.70 - Use of loan funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... telephone organizations. After a merger or consolidation, RUS will consider making loans to the telephone... facilities, income generating potential, any improvement in the financial strength of the borrower as a..., the acquisition price will endanger financial feasibility. If the acquisition price exceeds the amount...

  18. 78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ..., cost-plus, flat-rate, or market based) to price guaranteed loans, provided the rates do not exceed the... (LIBOR) or the 5-year Treasury note rate, unless the lender uses a formal written risk-based pricing... cost in the form of a lower interest rate than the borrower would otherwise receive. Therefore, the FSA...

  19. Foreigners vs. Natives : Bank Lending Technologies and Loan Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Ioannidou, V.; Schäfer, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Do domestic and foreign banks differ in their lending techniques and loan pricing models? Are such differences driven by different clienteles? Using a sample of firms that borrow from both domestic and foreign banks in the same month, we show significant differences in lending techniques

  20. Analysis of Post Loan Disbursement Allocation and Performance of Non-Prime Household Loan in Microfinance Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ndirangu Wachira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The part played by non-prime household loans in improving the lives of many people who cannot afford collateral globally cannot be ignored. Many Microfinance Banks in many economies worldwide have tried to maintain the Grameen Bank Model of granting microloans, mainly non-prime household loans. However, the credit risks associated with this initiative hamper the pace at which the granting of this credit facility is expected to grow. This study intends to explore the relationship between the post loan disbursement allocation and the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The theory associated to this study is the Credit Risk Theory. This theory, which is regarded as credit structural theory, was developed by Merton in 1972. The descriptive survey research design method was applied, and the sample size was 150 respondents. The data-collection tool used was a questionnaire. A logistic regression analysis was conducted for the purpose of predicting non-prime household performance in the Microfinance Banks using training budget, recoveries budget, percentage of training budget, and percentage of recoveries budget as predictors. The Wald test shows that training budget, recoveries budget, and percentage of training budget were good predictors, making a significant contribution to prediction. The percentage of budget on recoveries was not a significant predictor. The Microfinance Banks should enhance the performance of non-prime household loans through capacity building to the borrowers and educate the borrowers on dangers of enforced loan recoveries. The government, through the Central Bank of Kenya, should have a training policy for the Microfinance Banks so that they can enlighten the borrowers on proper financial management to avoid conflicts with borrowers during loan recoveries.

  1. 34 CFR 682.506 - Limitations on maximum loan amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loan is intended less— (i) The student's estimated financial assistance; and (ii) The student's.... (b) The Secretary does not guarantee a Federal Consolidation loan in an amount greater than that required to discharge loans eligible for consolidation under § 682.100(a)(4). (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1075...

  2. THE USE OF ENGLISH-LOAN WORDS IN THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Caciora Simona Veronica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the phenomenon of linguistic borrowings in general and the use of anglicisms in particular, in the contexts of globalization and the progress made in different domains, especially in the Information Technology domain. Borrowing is the phenomenon which undertakes the word transmission process from one language into another among the connected communities. The language that lends is the donor or the borrower language, and the language that borrows is known as the receptor or the borrowing language. Anglicisms are the English-loan words that are present in many European languages. The phenomenon of globalisation is the main topic of several contradictory and polarization discussions and undoubtedly globalisation is necessary and it is a fact in today’s world but the question is: what will be the long-term language consequences? There might be two situations: the consequences may be positive, such as ease of communication and perception, language economics and also negative: not understanding anglicisms resulting in disturbed communication, rejection of anglicisms, loss of semantic diversity of your own language, less and less possibilities of expressing yourself in your own language. We can mention that responsible for the impact of English is the prestige associated with this language. This language is generally held in highest regard by the younger generation of Romanians, who are easily influenced by the television, radio, movies, and other media that are supplied by British and American entertainment, which are considered to be trendy and cool. Each of those resources has influenced the Romanian population on numerous levels, creating new words and phrases in the Romanian language. In order to illustrate and discuss the pertinent or, on the contrary, the unjustified use of English-loan words in the field of Information Technology, the study will focus on a selection of articles published in the electronic Romanian issues

  3. The Third Pillar of the Basel Accord: Evidence of borrower discipline in the Kyrgyz banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Demetrio Tovar-García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We empirically study the asset side of market discipline in the banking system of the Kyrgyz Republic, examining whether borrowers are willing to pay higher interest rates to high-quality banks. Based on dynamic panel models and a dataset with bank information from 23 banks over the period 2010–2012, our findings suggest the presence of market discipline induced by borrowers. In other words, banks with higher capital ratios and liquidity charge higher interest rates on loans. This result has several implications for the banking policy in Kyrgyzstan, where we can recommend to policymakers a disclosure policy following the Third Pillar of Basel III, because not only can the bank's creditors use bank information to penalize the excessive bank risk, but borrowers can also use this information to discipline their banks.

  4. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  5. Student Finances: Borrowing and Other Sources of Funding for Post-Secondary Studies. Information Paper. Volume 6, Number 1, Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Many students find it necessary to draw on more than one source of funding to pay for their post-secondary education. Tuition, direct expenses--textbooks, supplies, equipment--and an increasing need for technology are not the only concerns. For those who had to relocate to study or do not live at home, everyday living expenses become the major…

  6. 42 CFR 417.937 - Loan and loan guarantee provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan and loan guarantee provisions. 417.937 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.937 Loan and loan guarantee provisions. (a) Disbursement of loan proceeds. The principal amount of any loan made or...

  7. 7 CFR 1751.103 - Loan and loan advance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan and loan advance requirements. 1751.103 Section... Telecommunications Modernization Plan § 1751.103 Loan and loan advance requirements. (a) For information about loan... February 13, 1996, RUS will make RUS hardship loans, RUS cost-of-money loans, and RTB loans for facilities...

  8. The methodology of comparative evaluation of ruble and foreign currency loans in the pre-crisis period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamov Aleksey Nikolaevich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author considers a problem of an optimal way of borrowing during the pre-crisis period (deciding between ruble and foreign currency borrowings. It is obvious that during the period of stable economic growth, when currency pair rate (for example, ruble - USA dollar doesn't change significntly, the lower interest rate of foreign currency loans makes them a cheaper way of borrowing. But during a crisis an abrupt growth of currency pair rate can make foreign currency loan a more expensive way of borrowing (as compared to ruble loan. The author suggests a scenario-based method of decision making about an optimal way of borrowing during a pre-crisis period, which affords to calculate a threshold meaning of currency pair rate, after which a foreign currency loan becomes more expensive. Application of the method is illustrated on the example of a situation in a telecommunication sector in Russian Federation during currency crisis of 2014. A detailed analysis if the situation in the sector in the last pre-crisis year (2013 is provided. Structures of debt burdens of the leading companies (Vimpelcom, MTS and Megafon are considered. Percent shares of currency loans, shares of borrowing types and according interest rates are provided. In the conclusion of the article some specific aspects of application of suggested method and potential ways of its improvement are considered.

  9. World corporate loan markets for raising new capital - does distance still matter: Are financial assets priced locally or globally?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinovič Borut

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Though the paper focuses on pricing, as the background I provide some evidence about loan flows across markets in the form of borrowers’ and lenders’ propensity to issue outside their natural home market. The data show that borrowers stay home when they can and that they tend to issue in Europe when they must issue abroad. That is, borrowers domiciled in one of the major markets (Europe, U.S., and Asia almost always issue in that market, whereas borrowers in more remote locations usually issue in the European market. For example, borrowers from Latin America are overwhelmingly issuing in Europe rather than in the U.S. market.

  10. Enhancing Cooperative Loan Scheme Through Automated Loan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Financial transactions through manual system of operation .... Integrated Financial Accounting. The accounting processes for loans are supported within Loans ... principal and interest, and print checks, payment receipts, or ...

  11. 42 CFR 57.214 - Repayment of loans made after November 17, 1971, for failure to complete a program of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.214 Repayment of loans made... complete these studies, taking into account such factors as academic, medical, or financial difficulties...

  12. Clustered Pricing in the Corporate Loan Market: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bajoori, Elnaz; Nandeibam, Shasikanta; Chaudhry, Sajid Mukhtar

    2016-01-01

    Existing theories explaining security price clustering as well as clustering in the retail depositand mortgage markets are incompatible with the clustering in the corporate loan market. Wedevelop a new theoretical argument that the attitude of the lender toward the uncertaintyabout the quality of the borrower leads to the clustering of spreads. Our empirical resultssupport these arguments and we find that clustering increases with the degree of uncertaintybetween the lender and the borrower. ...

  13. 77 FR 43276 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General Forbearance Request SUMMARY: Borrowers who receive loans through the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program will use this form to request forbearance... considered public records. Title of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General...

  14. Testing the tools of development: credit programmes, loan involvement, and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, B A

    1995-07-01

    This study finds that income generation programs should not focus on women's labor as a means of empowerment. Empowerment should be directed to women's direct involvement in selling and accounting in the loan activity and in the techniques of lending agencies that promote empowerment. Borrowers are empowered through market activities and nonmarket strategies such as changing the institutional environment. Local women can be hired as group promoters. When payments are made to a collection post, local women promoters can be protected and travel to remote areas without fear for security. It is argued that goals are reached successfully, when tasks are clearly defined. Empowerment in this study means knowledge of accounting for the borrower's loan activity. It is argued that organizations that choose to make women's empowerment a goal can use this factor to measure program impact. Data for this study are obtained from the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), Grameen Bank (GB), and Save the Children, Bangladesh Field Office (SCF). The general model indicates that the borrower will be empowered in the process of taking out a loan and investing it in an activity. The likelihood that the credit process will lead to empowerment, given the multiple lending options, is tested in a probit model. Explanatory variables include location, borrower's direct contribution of labor to all or part of the activity, a borrower's direct involvement in buying supplies or selling or accounting for the loan, the lending organization (BRAC, GB, or SCF), loan amount, number of years of borrowing, and borrower position as a center or group chair. The results are based on the 826 loans of the 613 female borrowers. Significant features that contributed to borrower's knowledge included, in the order of significance, participation in accounting, selling, and labor. The key factor appeared to be market access. The impact of organization and involvement was maximized among individuals who

  15. How loan interest rate liberalization affects firms'loan maturity structure Evidence from listed manufacturing companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfang Zhou; Jingjing Wang; Jianping Ding

    2014-01-01

    Purpose-After loan interest rate upper limit deregulation in October 2004,the financing environment in China changed dramatically,and the banks were eligible for risk compensation.The purpose of this paper is to focus on the influence of the loan interest rate librealization on firms' loan maturity structure.Design/methodology/approach-Based on Rajan's (1992) model the authors constructed a tradeoff model of how the banks choose long-term and short-term loans scales,and further analyzed banks' loan term decisions under the loan interest rate upper limit deregulation or collateral cases.Then the authors used an unbalanced panel data set of 586 Chinese listed manufacturing companies and 9,376 observations during the period 1996-2011 to testify the theoretical conclusion.Furthermore,the authors studied the effect on firms with different characteristics of ownership or scale.Findings-The results show that the loan interest rate liberalization significantly decreases the private companies' reliance on short-term loans and increases sensitivity to interest rates of stateowned companies' long-term loans.But the results also show that the companies' ownership still plays a key role on the long-term loans availability.When monetary policy tightened,small companies still have to borrow short-term loans for long-term purposes.As the bank industry is still dominated by state-owned banks and the deposit interest rate has upper limits,the effect of the loan interest rate liberalization on easing long-term credit constraints is limited.Originality/value-From a new perspective,the content and findings of this paper contribute to the study of the effect of the interest rate liberalization on China economy.

  16. 34 CFR 682.507 - Due diligence in collecting a loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due diligence in collecting a loan. 682.507 Section 682... Student Loan Programs § 682.507 Due diligence in collecting a loan. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, a lender shall exercise due diligence in the collection of a loan with...

  17. 78 FR 52169 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...; Comment Request; Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loan and Federal Direct Subsidized/ Unsubsidized Stafford/Ford Loan Master Promissory Note AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Federal Student Aid (FSA... Stafford/Ford Loan and Federal Direct Subsidized/Unsubsidized Stafford/Ford Loan Master Promissory Note...

  18. Department of Education's Student Loan Programs: Are Tax Dollars at Risk? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing was held to consider whether the student loan programs of the Department of Education place tax dollars at risk. In his opening remarks, Representative John L. Mica (Florida) pointed out that for nearly 10 years, the U.S. General Accounting Office has labeled these programs as a high risk for fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement. In…

  19. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  20. External and Internal Conditionality of Language Borrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лилия Михайловна Букина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the factors that condition borrowings in language. The exposure of borrowings in the language system is based on precise differentiation of intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors. The theoretical basis for this study were the works of Russian and foreign scientists (Bagana Zh., Breiter M.A., Crystal D., Kryisin L.P., et al who were interested in such diversified phenomena as borrowings, in general, and in particular the reasons for them. Research is being conducted on the basis of the French language, certain illustrative units derived empirically in the process of researching these French websites: http://www.linternaute.com, http://www.elle.fr, http://www.wuzz.fr, http://www.eurosport.fr, etc. Borrowing can occur on all levels of language, but we considered the factors that facilitate borrowing and assimilation in the recipient language of lexical borrowings. The research is aimed at considering points of view of different linguists on the problem of borrowing into the recipient language and revealing similarities and differences in the views of scientists. Notwithstanding the fact that external reasons are acting as stimuli for borrowing, there are many linguistic research works that highlight their importance in the appearance and customization of foreign words in the recipient language. Intralinguistic factors dominate in the process of adopting a foreign word into the vocabulary of another language. Psychological factors play one of the key roles in the appearance of borrowings, as language contact is performed when bilingual speakers who have separate linguistic identities communicate. During the research the following methods were used: continuous sampling method, descriptive and analytical method, method of semantic analysis, method of comparison and contrasting.

  1. How Law and Institutions Shape Financial Contracts: The Case of Bank Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Qian; Philip E. Strahan

    2005-01-01

    We examine empirically how legal origin, creditor rights, property rights, legal formalism, and financial development affect the design of price and non-price terms of bank loans in almost 60 countries. Our results support the law and finance view that private contracts reflect differences in legal protection of creditors and the enforcement of contracts. Loans made to borrowers in countries where creditors can seize collateral in case of default are more likely to be secured, have longer mat...

  2. Concentration in corporate bank loans. What do we learn from European comparisons?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe J. Godlewski; Ydriss Ziane

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the determinants of creditor concentration in the use of bank loans by firms in a European cross-country framework. We analyze the influence of loan and borrower characteristics but also banking market structure and legal enforcement country-specific variables that are expected to influence the financial and strategic decision relative to the number of bank lenders. We find that firms tend to diversify sources of financing by reducing bank c...

  3. Microfinance and Gender: Is There a Glass Ceiling in Loan Size?

    OpenAIRE

    Agier, Isabelle; Szafarz, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Microfinance institutions serve a majority of female borrowers. But do men and women benefit from same credit conditions? This paper investigates this issue by presenting an original model and testing its predictions on an exceptional database including 34,000 loan applications from a Brazilian microfinance institution over an eleven-year period. The model considers a lender that offers standardized loan contracts with a fixed interest rate, which is common practice in microfinance. It demons...

  4. Interlibrary loan and document delivery best practices for operating and managing interlibrary loan services in all libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Hilyer, Lee Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A must-have for librarians and their staffs working at all levels?from beginner to expertInterlibrary Loan and Document Delivery is a how-to guide to organizing an interlibrary loan department, providing extensive content on copyright law, ILL management systems, and human resources. This comprehensive book includes an introduction to ILL operations, governing policies, up-to-date information on borrowing and lending, and considerations for medicals libraries and distance learning. It also includes an extensive listing of resources relevant to today's ILL that serves as a handy des

  5. 7 CFR 3560.309 - Advancement (loan) of funds to a RRH project by the owner, member of the organization, or agent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... income; however, interest must be reasonable. The proposal may be denied if Rural Development financing... the loan will be filed against the property securing the Rural Development loan or against project... by the borrower and Rural Development at the time of the advance and the financial position of the...

  6. “We Routinely Borrow to Survive”: Exploring the Financial Capability of Income-Poor People in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Mahasweta M

    2016-10-01

    A lack of financial capability—financial opportunities and abilities—and poverty are highly interlinked. Over 65 percent of people in India are excluded from any financial services. This article explores income-poor Indians’ experiences with financial capability through a qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from 658 individuals, through focus groups (n = 566) and face-to-face interviews (n = 92). Findings show that 97 percent of respondents had the opportunity to earn an income, and 55 percent earned through financial inclusion programs, but 87 percent of respondents earned less than U.S. $2 a day. Although almost all saved and needed to borrow, 46 percent were eligible for formal savings and only 23 percent for formal loans. Financial abilities or knowledge and skills related to income, savings, and loans were higher among the few who had a stable income or had medium and high income in relation to those who had unstable and low income. Respondents experienced many challenges with their financial capabilities, including borrowing to save, fearing formal loans, and lacking clarity about loan and interest rate; banks miscalculating interest rates; and political parties influencing access to loans. Implications for social policy and social work practice are discussed.

  7. The National Educational Loan Bank: A Proposal for Improving the System of Lending for Higher Education. Working Paper, Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, Kenneth M.

    A National Education Loan Bank (NELB) is proposed as an alternative to existing federal loan programs for education, such as the National Direct Student Loan program and the Guaranteed Student Loan program. The history and structures of these two programs are detailed: financing, costs, insurance arrangements, agencies, volume, and interest rates.…

  8. Environment - Borrow Area for Temporary Levee

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data represents the location of a borrow site for construction materials used in temporary levee building during flood events. The footprint of these areas have...

  9. CRSMP Potential Offshore Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Offshore borrow sites as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore). Later updates to the dataset by the...

  10. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  11. Mutual Word Borrowings between the English and the Spanish Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Rinatovna Ismagilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world witnesses growing popularity of foreign languages learning and their role in the modern society. The article is devoted to the problem of mutual borrowings from English and Spanish languages. The aim of the article is to investigate new tendencies in the English words borrowings, their establishment in the Spanish language and the other way round. The Spanish language is one of the most widespread languages in the world and it is a native language for different nationalities. On the other hand, English has borrowed quite a lot of Spanish words as well. The mutual enrichment of the languages makes the process of language teaching specific and it is important in the modern process of globalization where languages are the main resource of international cooperation. The article contains both theoretical and practical materials dedicated to the investigation of this problem. This article may be useful for a wide range of readers, students, scientists, linguists in the study of modern Spanish and English languages.

  12. 12 CFR 701.21 - Loans to members and lines of credit to members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accounting principles. [49 FR 30685, Aug. 1, 1984] Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting..., regulations and judicial decisions of any state, the District of Columbia, the several territories and... application is kept on file for each borrower supporting the decision to make a loan or establish a line of...

  13. Bridging the gap: The design of bank loan contracts and distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Stephan; Verriest, A.J.M.

    How do the distance constraints faced by lenders in acquiring borrower information affect the design of bank loan contracts? Theoretical studies posit that greater information asymmetry leads to the allocation of stronger ex ante decision rights to the lender (the uninformed party). Consistent with

  14. 7 CFR 1782.13 - Transfer of security and assumption of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... at the same interest rate as on the borrower's note(s) or bond(s). The maturity of the debt... loans have the same interest rate and are for the same purpose. If applicable, 7 CFR part 1780 will... processing. (2) The transfer will not be disadvantageous to the Government as determined by the approval...

  15. 77 FR 21793 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Loan Guarantee for Indian Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Number: 2577-0200. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The information is... service areas. Mortgage lenders approved by HUD provide borrower and lender information to HUD for... Information Collection for Public Comment; Loan Guarantee for Indian Housing AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.230 - Transfer of security and assumption of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reflected in Finance Office records. (2) If the loan is evidenced and secured by a bond, procedures will be... of the borrower's counsel and OGC. The interest rate will be the rate currently reflected in Finance... Public Law 103-354 office), and will be added to the basic fee. (ii) Transfer fees will be deposited in...

  17. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower for the cost of premiums and fees incurred in purchasing the insurance. (h) Determination fees—(1...) Use of prescribed form of notice. A member bank will be considered to be in compliance with the... us for further information. ___ The community in which the property securing the loan is located...

  18. 45 CFR 1336.64 - Development of goals and strategies: Responsibilities of the Loan Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for providing borrowers with the needed management assistance; (4) Marketing Strategy: to generate... availability of business capital; (4) Local resources for economic development and their availability; and (5... strategies developed by the Revolving Loan Fund must include the following: (1) Business Targeting Strategy...

  19. Lending to Small Businesses : The Role of Loan Maturity in Adressing Information Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Molina, H.; Penas, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate what determines the maturity of loans to small, informationally opaque businesses.We find that longer maturities are associated with collateral pledges, better financial condition, good credit history, and less informational opacity of the borrower.However, we do not find a positive

  20. 24 CFR 573.5 - Underwriting standards and availability of loan guarantee assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acceptable financial risk under HUD's generally applicable loan underwriting standards based on the following: (1) The Borrower's ability to pay debt service; and (2) The value of the collateral assigned or... insufficient to make the guarantee an acceptable financial risk, or if the proposed interest rates or fees are...

  1. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  2. Relevance of financial information in quick loans negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cruz Rambaud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most loan transactions are contracted by using the exponential discounting as the underlying standard economic model to value this type of financial operations. In a framework of absence of fees to be paid by the borrower, the interest rate of the exponential discount function is, moreover, the true interest rate of the operation. Nevertheless, there exist a set of circumstances which make this identity false. Among others, these characteristics are: the use of linear discount as the underlying discount function, splitting time when using a nominal interest rate, and the existence of fees in a loan at 0% interest rate. All these cases will be analyzed in this paper in the context of the so-called quick loans.

  3. Corporate fraud and bank loans:Evidence from china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunsen; Chen; Song; Zhu; Yutao; Wang

    2011-01-01

    Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank,as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment By focusing on Chinese firms’borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud,we find that firms’bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower,but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms.In addition,loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before,but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts.In addition,we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the"performance-bank loan"relationship.Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing,which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.

  4. In Sickness and in Debt: Do Mounting Medical Bills Predict Payday Loan Debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Trey; Lim, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    Cash-strapped families sometimes turn to small, short-term loans with exorbitant fees—payday loans—to cope with mounting medical bills. Given that about three-fourths of payday loan customers are repeat borrowers, consumer advocates and policymakers have increasingly raised voices of concern about the use of payday loans to finance various household expenses, including, among other things, medical bills. The present study hypothesized that increases in medical debt are associated with increases in payday loan debt among a sample of Chapter 7 bankruptcy filers. The results of a multivariate tobit regression analysis showed that medical debt was associated with increased payday loan debt, controlling for various types of debt and other socioeconomic variables. This article concludes with implications of the results for social work policy- and direct-practice.

  5. Securitization, loan modification and the supply of subprime mortgage credit in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Theunissen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a continuous time, contingent claims model of mortgage valuation with strategic behavior to show that mortgages that are securitized are characterized by significantly higher loan to value ratios than mortgages held on the balance sheet of the originator, if securitized mortgages cannot be renegotiated. Insofar as securitization inhibits loan modification, it serves as a credible threat to the borrower that default will provoke foreclosure. This enhances the value of the lender’s claim on the loan collateral, the home, and she is willing to lend more per dollar of collateral value. An important implication of the analysis is that the higher loan to value ratio for the securitized mortgage does not imply that the securitized mortgage is characterized by looser underwriting standards than the mortgage held on balance sheet. Higher loan to value ratios for securitized mortgages do not necessarily constitute evidence that securitization encourages risky lending.

  6. Ownership Networks Effects on Secured Borrowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Constanza; Cizek, Pavel; Leon Rincon, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The secured borrowing based on sell/buy-backs agreements is studied, specifically considering both: quantity and price. The empirical evidence presented in this paper suggests that, after controlling for specific individual characteristics, group-specific effects (defined by belonging or not to a

  7. Borrowing constraints, multiple equilibria and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.

    2007-01-01

    The appealing feature of Kiyotaki and Moore's Financial Accelerator model (Kiyotaki and Moore, 1997, 2002) is the linkage of asset price changes and borrowing constraints. This framework therefore is the natural vehicle to explore the net worth channel of the monetary transmission mechanism. In the

  8. 19 Additive and Substitutive Borrowing against Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reflexes mean 'to forge' and/or 'black-smith' (Ibid, 49). The Theory of Semantic Narrowing and Broadening in the. Realm of Lexical Borrowing ..... should be noticed that the traditional label referred to a hole on the whole of a traditional house ...

  9. Formation of the mechanism for credit asessment of borrowers in conditions of economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vygovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the state of the credit portfolio of banks in the conditions of instability of the environment and the development of the credit rating of the borrower as a mechanism to prevent the direction of growth of bad debts. The research of the state and dynamics loan portfolio has revealed its sharp deterioration in recent years due to the instability of the external macro environment. The need to reduce the volume of bad debts requires the formation of an adequate mechanism for the borrower's credit rating. Under the mechanism defined in the article the subject-object interaction and providing subsystems have aimed at making management decisions about credit and credit determination capabilities of the enterprise. The authors propose the composition of such a mechanism from the position of a system approach with the subject-object allocation and providing subsystems. As a part of providing credit subsystems the article has allocated a methodological, methodical, information, personnel and organizational support. The article has formed the basic methodological principles of credit rating, namely a comprehensive assessment; the accuracy of the assessment; the progressiveness of the assessment; an objective assessment; professionalism; reality evaluation. Using the proposed credit assessment the mechanism in practice will enhance the effectiveness of the credit relationship between the bank and the borrower. Keywords: credit portfolio; mechanism; creditworthiness assessment; economic instability.

  10. Calculating the Probability of Returning a Loan with Binary Probability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Vasilev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give a new approach in calculating the probability of returning a loan. A lot of factors affect the value of the probability. In this article by using statistical and econometric models some influencing factors are proved. The main approach is concerned with applying probit and logit models in loan management institutions. A new aspect of the credit risk analysis is given. Calculating the probability of returning a loan is a difficult task. We assume that specific data fields concerning the contract (month of signing, year of signing, given sum and data fields concerning the borrower of the loan (month of birth, year of birth (age, gender, region, where he/she lives may be independent variables in a binary logistics model with a dependent variable “the probability of returning a loan”. It is proved that the month of signing a contract, the year of signing a contract, the gender and the age of the loan owner do not affect the probability of returning a loan. It is proved that the probability of returning a loan depends on the sum of contract, the remoteness of the loan owner and the month of birth. The probability of returning a loan increases with the increase of the given sum, decreases with the proximity of the customer, increases for people born in the beginning of the year and decreases for people born at the end of the year.

  11. Lexical Modernization in Nepali: A Study of Borrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jayaraj

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the controversy among Nepali language specialists over the sources of lexical borrowing in Nepali. Lexical items currently are borrowed from both English and Sanskrit, and also Hindi/Urdu, Persian and Arabic. After reviewing Nepali history and language, the question of borrowing from different sources within different domains of…

  12. 12 CFR 615.5250 - Disclosure requirements for borrower stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure requirements for borrower stock. 615... Disclosure requirements for borrower stock. (a) For sales of borrower stock, which for this subpart means... an at-risk investment and not a compensating balance; (ii) That the equity is retireable only at the...

  13. The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Commercial Borrower Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karceski, J.; Ongena, S.; Smith, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the impact of bank merger announcements on borrowers' stock prices for publicly-traded Norwegian firms.In addition, we analyze how bank mergers influence borrower relationship termination behavior and relate the propensity to terminate to borrower abnormal returns.We obtain four main

  14. 12 CFR 615.5030 - Borrowings from commercial banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowings from commercial banks. 615.5030... commercial banks. (a) Each System bank board, by resolution, shall authorize all commercial bank borrowings by that System bank. (b) The Financial Assistance Corporation may borrow from commercial banks with...

  15. Analysis of Third Party Loan Guarantee and Performance of Non-Prime Household Loans in Microfinance Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ndirangu Wachira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Household loans remain the engine to productivity and economic growth globally. Non-prime household loan is essential, because it enables the borrowers with no collateral to access credit from Microfinance Banks. The survival and sustainability of non-prime household loans globally is therefore significant. Credit risk however remains the main deterrent of the soundness of Microfinance Banks. This leads to the poor performance of microfinance institutions in many economies in the world. Several countries globally are making inroad in reducing the credit risks, which lead to the poor performance of Microfinance Banks. It is still unknown why the credit risk affects the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks domiciled in Kenya. The reason for conducting this study is to determine the level at which the third party loan guarantee and the performance of non-prime household loans relate to the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. Particularly, this study is to determine how the amount secured by guarantee, recoveries from guarantors, percentage of loan secured, and percentage recoveries from guarantors relate to the performance of nonprime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The population was 516 senior management employees of the banks. The researcher conducted a multiple regression analysis for determining the relationship between the amount secured by guarantee—recoveries from guarantors, percentage granted, and percentage recoveries—and the performance of non-prime household loans. The R and R2 were used for determining the strength of the relationship and the coefficient of determination at 0.05 level of significance of variables. The result of this study reveals that there exists a strong relationship between the dependent and independent variables, thereby contradicting the null hypothesis, which states that the relationship does not exist. The percentage of the recoveries from the guarantors over the

  16. Recognition of English and German Borrowings in the Russian Language (Based on Lexical Borrowings in the Field of Economics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrapova, Alsu; Alendeeva, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of a study of the influence of English and German on the Russian language during the English learning based on lexical borrowings in the field of economics. This paper discusses the use and recognition of borrowings from the English and German languages by Russian native speakers. The use of lexical borrowings from…

  17. The Parent Loan Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

  18. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiong Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer (CFO gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between 2009 and 2012 indicate that (1 female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms; (2 female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and (3 banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  19. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xixiong; Xu; Yaoqin; Li; Mengmeng; Chang

    2016-01-01

    Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer(CFO) gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between2009 and 2012 indicate that(1) female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms;(2) female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and(3) banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  20. Philippines: Population: USAID loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Philippines and the United States Agency for International Development signed an agreement on Christmas Day for a US $5.7 million loan and a US $6 million grant for the country's population program. The loan, which matures in 40 years, carries a 2% interest per year for the first 10 years, and 3% thereafter. A 10-year grace period is provided. The US $11.7 million loan and grant package is the first part of USAID's pledge of US $26.9 million in loan and US $29.8 million in grants for the population project. The agreement was signed by Finance Minister Cesar Virata and USAID director Anthony Schwarzwalder. The total loan package of US $57.7 million will be given in the next 5 years.

  1. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1514 Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements. For each application for a...

  2. 76 FR 78827 - Loan Guaranty Revised Loan Modification Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 36 RIN 2900-AN78 Loan Guaranty Revised Loan... amends a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Loan Guaranty regulation related to modification of guaranteed housing loans in default. Specifically, changes are made to requirements related to maximum...

  3. 75 FR 66699 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Loan Programs Loan Making Activities; Correction AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains a correction to the proposed rule titled ``Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities'' that was published September 23, 2010. The Farm Service Agency (FSA) is...

  4. Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Brown; Steven Ongena; Pinar Yesin

    2009-01-01

    We examine the firm- and country-level determinants of the currency denomination of small business loans. We first model the choice of loan currency in a framework which features a trade-off between lower cost of debt and the risk of firm-level distress costs, and also incorporates the impact of information asymmetry between banks and firms. When foreign currency funds come at a lower interest rate, all foreign currency earners as well as those local currency earners with high revenues and lo...

  5. 24 CFR 232.615 - Eligible borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fire safety equipment. Until the termination of all obligations of the Commissioner under an insurance... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED LIVING...

  6. On rising medical student debt: in for a penny, in for a pound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, D G; Szenas, P L; Schuchert, M K

    1996-10-01

    Using national databases of the Association of American Medical Colleges, the authors have examined reasons for the rising indebtedness of U.S. medical students, looking across the past decade at the influence of tuition and fees (tuition-fees) alone and the total costs of attending school, the effects of the changing demographics of medical school enrollments and lengthened graduation times, the relationship between the availability of school-funded scholarships and the amount of student loan disbursements, the pattern of student financial aid, and the reliance on borrowing to cover the costs of medical education. In constant dollars, the average indebtedness of students graduating from public schools increased 59.2% between 1985 and 1995, and that for graduates of private schools increased 64.2%. The fraction of graduates bringing debt with them when they entered medical school declined from 42.1% in 1985 to 33.6% in 1995. Premedical debt as a fraction of total debt declined at public schools from 9% in 1985 to 7% in 1995, and at private schools from 7.8% in 1985 to 5.9% in 1995. For public schools, tuition-fees increased 60.1% between 1985 and 1995, and average medical school debt increased 60.9%; for private schools, tuition-fees increased 30.1% over that period, while average medical school debt increased 66.2%. On average, public school graduates accrued debt greater than their four-year tuition-fee payments, while the average debt accrued by private school graduates was less than tuition-fee amounts. In 1995, graduates of public schools had debt accumulations representing 62% of the average total cost of attendance (tuition, fees, books, supplies, equipment, and living expenses), and the indebtedness of private school graduates was 55% of the average total cost, findings suggesting that total costs were the stronger driver of the amounts borrowed. On a national scale, the influences on medical school debt of longer graduation times, the growing number of

  7. Corporate fraud and bank loans: Evidence from china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsen Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank, as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment. By focusing on Chinese firms’ borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud, we find that firms’ bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower, but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms. In addition, loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before, but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts. In addition, we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the “performance-bank loan” relationship. Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing, which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.

  8. Loan Defaults in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H Baltagi; Panicos O Demetriades

    2011-01-01

    African financial deepening is beset by a high rate of loan defaults, which encourages banks to hold liquid assets instead of lending. We put forward a novel theoretical model that captures the salient features of African credit markets which shows that equilibrium with high loan defaults and low lending can arise when contract enforcement institutions are weak, investment opportunities are relatively scarce and information imperfections abound. We provide evidence using a panel of 110 banks ...

  9. Slavic borrowings in modern Turkish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Slavic borrowings in standard Turkish language Material for this paper was excerpted from the Dictionary of Turkish Standard Language (TDK Turküe Sozluk. Excerpted data which count just about 100 words were treated within lexical-semantic groups, also with pointing to certain inconsistencies in the lexicographic treatment: some words are not marked as Slavic (e.g. kumpir, som, pogrom; after some lexemes wrong etymon is stated (e.g. kopek and some of them are left without an etymon (e.g. bocuk, gocuk.

  10. Financial Statement Audit: U.S. Department of Education, Federal Direct Student Loan Program for the Year Ended September 30, 1994. Audit Control Number 17-48320.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (ED), Washington, DC.

    An independent audit was done of the principal financial statements of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program of the Department of Education for the year ending September 30, 1994. In planning and performing the review the auditors considered the internal control structure of the program in order to determine auditing procedures. The…

  11. Bad Loans and Loan Write-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    福田, 慎一; 鯉渕, 賢

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate who bears the burden when writing off bad loans in Japan. Traditionally, Japanese main banks bore large burdens in saving their customers. We still find that some main banks bear a large burden in saving their customers. However, in most cases, main banks became very reluctant to bear large burdens when bailing out their customers. In the transition from the bank-based system to a market-based system, traditional implicit rules are collapsing dramatically. We sug...

  12. CRSMP Potential Coastal and Upland Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Upland debris basins and coastal borrow sites as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore). Later updates...

  13. Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aptekar Saveliy S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

  14. Using social impact borrowing to expand preschool through third grade programs in urban public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

    Budget constraints and difficulty raising taxes limit school districts from expanding education programming even when research shows that additional expenditures would generate economic benefits that are greater than costs. Recently, coalitions of private investors, philanthropists, education practitioners, and government finance analysts have emerged to create opportunities to expand education services that promise high rates of social net benefits without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. These collaborators have a strong interest in obtaining careful estimates of educational program effectiveness. We describe the use of social-impact borrowing to increase access to the Child-Parent Center preschool-through-third-grade intervention for at-risk students in the Chicago Public School District. The partners include the city, school district, investors, nonprofit organizations, and a university. The key to the feasibility of social-impact borrowing is the ability to document that early intervention can reduce the need for later special-education services. With the help of private investors and nonprofit organizations, it is possible for public school districts to finance services with funds from private sources and use future cost savings to repay this debt. We discuss how social-impact borrowing is being used in Chicago and in Salt Lake County as the nation's first two instances of using pay-for-performance social-impact borrowing to support early education.

  15. Europe vs. the U.S. A New Look at the Syndicated Loan Pricing Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Burietz, Aurore; Oosterlinck, Kim; Szafarz, Ariane

    2017-01-01

    According to the syndicated loan pricing puzzle (Carey and Nini, Journal of Finance, 2007) interest rates charged to corporate borrowers are lower in Europe than in the U.S. Our investigation suggests that controlling for region-specific credit ratings makes the Europe-U.S. gap insignificant, and solves the puzzle. We speculate that the puzzle originates from the lack of uniformity of accounting standards.

  16. Lending to Small Businesses : The Role of Loan Maturity in Adressing Information Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Molina, H.; Penas, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate what determines the maturity of loans to small, informationally opaque businesses.We find that longer maturities are associated with collateral pledges, better financial condition, good credit history, and less informational opacity of the borrower.However, we do not find a positive association between stronger firm-creditor relationships (which can attenuate these information asymmetries) and longer maturities.The evidence suggests that creditors use shorter maturities to indu...

  17. A Public Choice Approach to the Unequal Treatment of Securities Market Participants and Home Borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Macey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contrasts the protections provided to participants in U.S. securities markets with the protections provided to participants in the U.S. mortgage markets. Participants in securities markets purchase and sell equity and debt securities. Participants in the mortgage markets borrow money to buy homes, using those homes as collateral for the mortgage loans they receive. Even after Dodd-Frank, participants in securities markets are afforded significantly higher levels of protection than participants in mortgage markets. The doctrine of suitability is a prime example of this inequity. Exploring possible explanations for this odd asymmetry of treatment, I conclude that interest group politics is to blame for the anomaly.

  18. Valuation of the Prepayment Option of a Perpetual Corporate Loan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothee Papin

    2013-01-01

    margin of the loan is defined by the credit quality of the borrower and the liquidity cost that reflects the funding cost of the bank. Two frameworks are discussed: firstly a loan margin without liquidity cost and secondly a multiregime framework with a liquidity cost dependent on the regime. The prepayment option needs specific attention as the payoff itself is an implicit function of the parameters of the problem and of the dynamics. In the unique regime case, we establish quasianalytic formulas for the payoff of the option; in both cases we give a verification result that allows for the computation of the price of the option. Numerical results that implement the findings are also presented and are completely consistent with the theory; it is seen that when liquidity parameters are very different (i.e., when a liquidity crisis occurs in the high liquidity cost regime, the exercise domain may entirely disappear, meaning that it is not optimal for the borrower to prepay during such a liquidity crisis. The method allows for quantification and interpretation of these findings.

  19. 12 CFR 618.8320 - Data regarding borrowers and loan applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in a consumer report from a consumer reporting agency shall be advised as required in section 615(a...; and reports of inspectors, fieldmen, investigators, and appraisers. (b) The requirements of paragraph... organization for its confidential use in contemplation of the extension of credit or to a consumer reporting...

  20. 13 CFR 120.707 - What conditions apply to loans by Intermediaries to Microloan borrowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonprofit child care business. Proceeds from Microloans may be used only for working capital and acquisition of materials, supplies, furniture, fixtures, and equipment. SBA does not review Microloans for...

  1. Interlibrary loan in primary access libraries: challenging the traditional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudden, R F; Coldren, S; Condon, J E; Katsh, S; Reiter, C M; Roth, P L

    2000-10-01

    Primary access libraries serve as the foundation of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) interlibrary loan (ILL) hierarchy, yet few published reports directly address the important role these libraries play in the ILL system. This may reflect the traditional view that small, primary access libraries are largely users of ILL, rather than important contributors to the effectiveness and efficiency of the national ILL system. This study was undertaken to test several commonly held beliefs regarding ILL system use by primary access libraries. Three hypotheses were developed. HI: Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries comply with the recommended ILL guideline of adhering to a hierarchical structure, emphasizing local borrowing. H2: The closures of two Colorado Council of Medical Librarians (CCML) primary access libraries in 1996 resulted in twenty-three Colorado primary access libraries' borrowing more from their state resource library in 1997. H3: The number of subscriptions held by Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries is positively correlated with the number of items they loan and negatively correlated with the number of items they borrow. The hypotheses were tested using the 1992 and 1997 DOCLINE and OCLC data of fifty-four health sciences libraries, including fifty primary access libraries, two state resource libraries, and two general academic libraries in Colorado and Wyoming. The ILL data were obtained electronically and analyzed using Microsoft Word 98, Microsoft Excel 98, and JMP 3.2.2. CCML primary access libraries comply with the recommended guideline to emphasize local borrowing by supplying each other with the majority of their ILLs, instead of overburdening libraries located at higher levels in the ILL hierarchy (H1). The closures of two CCML primary access libraries appear to have affected the entire ILL system, resulting in a greater volume of ILL activity for the state resource library and other DOCLINE libraries higher

  2. 7 CFR 1724.20 - Borrowers' requirements-architectural services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Architectural Services § 1724.20 Borrowers' requirements—architectural services... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowers' requirements-architectural services. 1724...

  3. Compelling Untruths: Content Borrowing and Vivid False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R.; Arnal, Jack D.; Leding, Juliana K.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory…

  4. Lexical Borrowing from Chinese Languages in Malaysian English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imm, Tan Siew

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how contact between English and Chinese has resulted in the incorporation of Chinese borrowings into the lexicon of Malaysian English (ME). Using a corpus-based approach, this study analyses a comprehensive range of borrowed features extracted from the Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus (MEN Corpus). Based on the contexts of…

  5. 7 CFR 766.104 - Borrower eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... economic conditions such as low commodity prices; (iv) Damage or destruction of property essential to the farming operation; or (v) Loss of, or reduction in, the borrower or spouse's essential non-farm income. (2) The borrower does not have non-essential assets for which the net recovery value is sufficient to...

  6. Lexical Borrowings in the ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirusanku, Jantmary; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the use of lexical borrowings in ten teaching materials used by the English as Second Language (ESL) teachers in the ESL classrooms in the National Secondary Schools in the Klang district in Selangor, Malaysia. It also discusses the general and pedagogical implications involved in using lexical borrowings. This paper…

  7. 41 CFR 109-1.5104 - Borrowing of personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property, consideration shall be given to suitability, condition, value, extent and nature of use... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Borrowing of personal...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5104 Borrowing of personal...

  8. 7 CFR 1806.28 - Borrowers required to escrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insufficient funds to pay the flood insurance premium when due, the County Supervisor will request the borrower to pay an amount equal to the difference between the premium due and the escrow balance in a lump sum within 30 days after notification. If the borrower fails to remit the amount requested, the amount will...

  9. 7 CFR 2201.19 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 2201.19 Section 2201.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.19 Loan terms. (a) All Loans...

  10. 5 CFR 1655.14 - Loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 1655.14 Section 1655.14 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.14 Loan payments. (a) Loan payments must be made through payroll deduction in accordance with the loan agreement. Once loan...

  11. 7 CFR 1436.7 - Loan term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan term. 1436.7 Section 1436.7 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FARM STORAGE FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.7 Loan term. (a) For eligible facility loan commodities other than sugar, the term of the loan will be 7...

  12. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 400.202 Section 400.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed...

  13. 7 CFR 764.401 - Loan decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan decision. 764.401 Section 764.401 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.401 Loan decision. (a) Loan approval. (1) The Agency will approve a loan only if it determines that: (i) The applicant's farm operating...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.407 - Loan documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan documents. 1710.407 Section 1710.407 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Application Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.407 Loan documents. Following approval of a loan, RUS will forward...

  15. 13 CFR 500.204 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 500.204 Section 500.204 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.204 Loan terms. (a) All loans guaranteed under the...

  16. 13 CFR 400.204 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 400.204 Section 400.204 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.204 Loan terms. (a) All loans guaranteed under the Program shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.406 - Loan approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan approval. 1710.406 Section 1710.406 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Application Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.406 Loan approval. (a) A loan is approved when the Administrator...

  18. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of loan...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.113 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 1710.113 Section 1710.113 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.113 Loan security. (a) RUS makes loans only if, in the judgment of the...

  20. 7 CFR 1735.22 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 1735.22 Section 1735.22 Agriculture... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.22 Loan security. (a) RUS makes loans only if, in the judgment of the Administrator, the...

  1. 7 CFR 762.121 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan purposes. 762.121 Section 762.121 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.121 Loan purposes. (a) Operating Loan purposes. (1) Loan... the need to refinance; (viii) Payment of loan closing costs; (ix) Payment of costs associated with...

  2. 7 CFR 1738.22 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 1738.22 Section 1738.22 Agriculture... RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1738.22 Loan security. (a) RUS makes loans only if, in the judgment of the Administrator, the security therefore is...

  3. 7 CFR 1737.92 - Loan documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan documents. 1737.92 Section 1737.92 Agriculture... PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Final Loan Approval Procedures § 1737.92 Loan documents. Following approval of the loan, RUS shall forward the...

  4. A note on migration with borrowing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Levine, P

    1994-12-01

    "This note examines an important conflict between the theory and evidence on migration in LDCs. While the Harris-Todaro class of models explain the phenomenon of migration mainly by expected income differential between the economically advanced and the backward regions, the actual evidence in some cases suggests that migration could actually rise following a rise in income in backward areas. We resolve this puzzle by analysing migration in the context of the existence of imperfect credit markets in LDCs. We show that under certain plausible conditions, the rate of migration from the rural to the urban areas may actually rise when rural wages rise, as they ease the constraints on borrowing by potential migrants." excerpt

  5. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  6. Ambiguity and risk measures in the lab and students’ real-life borrowing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairley, Kim; Weitzel, Utz

    This study analyzes the external validity of experimentally elicited ambiguity aversion, likelihood insensitivity and risk aversion on real-life decision-making in the field of student loans. Our main finding is that ambiguity aversion, likelihood insensitivity and risk aversion are not related to

  7. Short-term lending: Payday loans as risk factors for anxiety, inflammation and poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Kuzawa, Christopher W; McDade, Thomas W

    2018-08-01

    While research now consistently links consumer financial debt with adverse emotional health outcomes, specific forms of debt and their impact on measures of physical health are underexplored. This gap in knowledge is significant because different forms of loans and debt may have different experiential qualities. In this paper, we focus on a type of unsecured debt - short-term/payday loan borrowing - that has risen dramatically in recent decades in the United States and is characterized by predatory, discriminatory, and poorly regulated lending practices. Using data from a study of debt and health among adults in Boston, MA (n=286), we test whether short-term borrowing is associated with a range of emotional and physical health indicators. We find that short-term loans are associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein levels, and self-reported symptoms of physical health, sexual health, and anxiety, after controlling for several socio-demographic covariates. We discuss these findings within the contexts of regulatory shortcomings, psychosocial stress, and racial and economic credit disparities. We suggest that within the broader context of financial debt and health, short-term loans should be considered a specific risk to population health.

  8. Mortgage lenders and loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a short historical overview of the different types of lenders that are active in the origination of residential mortgage loans. First, a distinction is made between depository and nondepository lenders. Second, there are two major types of depository lenders: commercial banks,

  9. Colleges Scramble to Help Students Find New Lenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    Recent turbulence in the student-loan business has colleges scrambling to find new loan providers. Financial-aid offices at affected colleges are working hard to get the word out to students. Changes in the loan market have hit community colleges particularly hard because their students tend to have smaller loans and higher default rates than…

  10. Small individual loans and mental health: a randomized controlled trial among South African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Hamad, Rita; Karlan, Dean; Ozer, Emily J; Zinman, Jonathan

    2008-12-16

    In the developing world, access to small, individual loans has been variously hailed as a poverty-alleviation tool - in the context of "microcredit" - but has also been criticized as "usury" and harmful to vulnerable borrowers. Prior studies have assessed effects of access to credit on traditional economic outcomes for poor borrowers, but effects on mental health have been largely ignored. Applicants who had previously been rejected (n = 257) for a loan (200% annual percentage rate - APR) from a lender in South Africa were randomly assigned to a "second-look" that encouraged loan officers to approve their applications. This randomized encouragement resulted in 53% of applicants receiving a loan they otherwise would not have received. All subjects were assessed 6-12 months later with questions about demographics, socio-economic status, and two indicators of mental health: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were calculated using multinomial probit regressions. Randomization into receiving a "second look" for access to credit increased perceived stress in the combined sample of women and men; the findings were stronger among men. Credit access was associated with reduced depressive symptoms in men, but not women. Our findings suggest that a mechanism used to reduce the economic stress of extremely poor individuals can have mixed effects on their experiences of psychological stress and depressive symptomatology. Our data support the notion that mental health should be included as a measure of success (or failure) when examining potential tools for poverty alleviation. Further longitudinal research is needed in South Africa and other settings to understand how borrowing at high interest rates affects gender roles and daily life activities. CCT: ISRCTN 10734925.

  11. Lexical Borrowings in Spanish: Function, Length, Genealogy and Chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, William T.

    1986-01-01

    A study reveals that lexical borrowing in Spanish, from a variety of languages including Latin, French, Italian, Greek, Arabic, Provencal, and Catalan, accounts for 41 percent of the basic Spanish vocabulary, with variation in source according to historical period. (MSE)

  12. 24 CFR 201.22 - Credit requirements for borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumer credit report stating the credit accounts and payment history of the borrower and of any co-maker... months or more. (c) Evidence of delinquency, default or misrepresentation. Except with the prior approval...

  13. 7 CFR 1610.4 - Loan applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.4 Loan applications. No application for a loan will be considered for approval by the Bank... of the applicant for a Bank loan and the amount thereof. Loan application forms are available from...

  14. 24 CFR 201.41 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan servicing. 201.41 Section 201... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan Administration § 201.41 Loan servicing. (a) Generally...

  15. 49 CFR 260.9 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan terms. 260.9 Section 260.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS GOVERNING LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES UNDER THE RAILROAD REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.9 Loan terms. The maximum repayment period for direct loans and guaranteed...

  16. 7 CFR 770.5 - Loan limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan limitations. 770.5 Section 770.5 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.5 Loan limitations. (a) Loan funds may not be... title. (b) The amount of loan funds used to acquire land may not exceed the market value of the land...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.370 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan servicing. 1980.370 Section 1980.370 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.370 Loan servicing. RHS encourages Lenders to... sufficient servicing and counseling to meet the objectives of the loan. Loan servicing should be approached...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.101 - Loan rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan rates. 1435.101 Section 1435.101 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Sugar Loan Program § 1435.101 Loan rates. (a) The national average loan rate for raw cane sugar produced from domestically grown sugarcane is: 18...

  19. 7 CFR 771.5 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan purposes. 771.5 Section 771.5 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.5 Loan purposes. (a) Loan funds may be used..., travel and office operations; (3) Salaries and benefits. (b) Loan funds may not be used to pay expenses...

  20. 7 CFR 774.22 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 774.22 Section 774.22 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.22 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant must meet all conditions specified by the loan approval official in the notification of loan...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.310 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan purposes. 1980.310 Section 1980.310 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.310 Loan purposes. The purpose of a loan guaranteed... applicant as a primary residence. The loan may be to purchase a new dwelling or an existing dwelling. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1779.69 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan servicing. 1779.69 Section 1779.69 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.69 Loan servicing. (a) Lender responsibilities. The lender is responsible for servicing the entire loan in accordance with the lender's loan...

  3. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.10 Loan amounts. (a) Property...

  4. 7 CFR 771.13 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 771.13 Section 771.13 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.13 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant must meet all conditions specified by the loan approval official in the notification of loan approval...

  5. 5 CFR 1655.21 - Loan fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan fee. 1655.21 Section 1655.21 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.21 Loan fee. The TSP will charge a participant a $50.00 loan fee when it disburses the loan and will deduct the fee from the...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.61 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 3560.61 Section 3560.61 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.61 Loan security... collateral. (2) The amount of the loan against the collateral does not exceed its estimated security value...

  7. Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Different Borrowing and Lending Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Yiping; Ma, Hui

    2011-01-01

    As we know, borrowing and lending risk-free assets arise extensively in the theory and practice of finance. However, little study has ever investigated them in fuzzy portfolio problem. In this paper, the returns of each assets are assumed to be fuzzy variables, then following the mean-variance approach, a new possibilistic portfolio selection model with different interest rates for borrowing and lending is proposed, in which the possibilistic semiabsolute deviation of the return is used to...

  8. Financial resources for development. Capital markets in developing countries: a study on borrowing by developing countries in the emerging capital markets of the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashashibi, H S

    1980-10-01

    Private transfers of capital from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to developing countries are intended to complement private transfers from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) by tapping the emerging capital markets in the Middle East. Developing countries will be able to diversify their borrowing and gain additional financing. The long-term investment of oil-producing countries will benefit and the pressures on the banking institutions to recycle funds will lessen. Middle East capital markets include international loans and international bonds. The history of the Kuwaiti dinar (KD) bond market, with its advantages for both investors and borrowers, illustrates the successful development of a capital market. Financial intermediation needs to be improved, however, if the Middle East is to become efficient enough to compete with the Euromarkets. Efficiency will require different measures and should reflect strengthening relationships among Middle East nations. (DCK)

  9. An Analysis of Federal LandBank Borrowers

    OpenAIRE

    Ibendahl, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses Federal LandBank Data to examine loan characteristics and farm financial characteristics. Given that farm financial characteristics and loan interest rates can change, this paper examines if current farm financial characteristics can predict the current loan interest rate. In addition, this paper tests to see if farm profitability can be predicted using two debt financial characteristics. Results indicate that interest rates and profitability are not very predicatable based on...

  10. Reexamining the Empirical Relation between Loan Risk and Collateral : The Role of the Economic Characteristics of Collateral

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, A.N.; Frame, W.S.; Ioannidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper offers a possible explanation for the conflicting results in the literature concerning the empirical relation between collateral and loan risk. We posit that certain economic characteristics of collateral may be associated with the empirical dominance of different risk-collateral channels implied by economic theory, namely the “lender selection,” “borrower selection,” “risk-shifting,” and “loss mitigation” channels. Each of these four channels has different predictions re...

  11. Lending booms, reserves, and the sustainability of short-term debt - inferences from the pricing of syndicated bank loans

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry; Mody, Ashoka

    1999-01-01

    Academics pay little attention to international bank lending, focusing instead on rapidly growing market segments such as the international bond market and derivative credit instruments. The authors argue for paying more attention to international bank lending. Why? Three reasons. First, the syndicated bank loan is one of the workhorses of international capital markets. Second, international bank lending is especially important for private-sector borrowers, whose participation in internationa...

  12. Reexamining the empirical relation between loan risk and collateral:the roles of collateral liquidity and types

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Allen N.; Frame, W. Scott; Ioannidou, Vasso

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a possible explanation for the conflicting results in the literature concerning the empirical relation between collateral and loan risk. We posit that differences in collateral characteristics, such as liquidity, may be associated with the empirical dominance of different risk-collateral relations implied by economic theory. Using credit registry data and a novel identification strategy to control for borrower and lender selection effects allows us to differentiate between t...

  13. Race and Subprime Loan Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Ruben; Owyang, Michael; Ghent, Andra

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether race and ethnicity influenced subprime loan pricing during 2005, the peak of the subprime mortgage expansion. We combine loan-level data on the performance of non-prime securitized mortgages with individual- and neighborhood-level data on racial and ethnic characteristics for metropolitan areas in California and Florida. Using a model of rate determination that accounts for predicted loan performance, we evaluate the presence of disparate impact and dispar...

  14. 27 CFR 6.61 - Guaranteeing loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Guaranteeing Loans § 6.61 Guaranteeing loans. The act by an industry member of guaranteeing any loan or the repayment of any financial...

  15. 24 CFR 200.25 - Supplemental loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... loans. A loan, advance of credit or purchase of an obligation representing a loan or advance of credit...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.612 - Loan limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.612 Loan limits. The maximum loan amount will be 100 percent of the allowable total development costs of on-farm labor housing and...

  17. Impact Of Microcredit Programs On Higher Income Borrowers: Evidence From Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sayma Rahman; Rafiqul Bhuyan Rafiq; Mohammad A. Momen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of microcredit on economic indicators of borrowers in Bangladesh and compare if the impact is same across borrowers having different income levels. Our estimation results show that the microcredit programs are effective in generating higher income and assets for borrowers in general. However, the impact is not found to be uniform across income levels of borrowers. Higher income borrowers seem to be better off compared to the middle and lower income bor...

  18. 76 FR 6555 - Loan Guaranty Revised Loan Modification Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... loan; and advances required to preserve the lien position, such as homeowner association fees, special... delinquent interest, advances, or other amounts due; extending the repayment terms; changing the interest... encountered two sets of circumstances that have caused difficulty in easily modifying loans to assist veterans...

  19. SAIL: automating interlibrary loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, E M

    1994-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) initiated the System for Automated Interlibrary Loan (SAIL) pilot project to study the feasibility of using imaging technology linked to the DOCLINE system to deliver copies of journal articles. During the project, NLM converted a small number of print journal issues to electronic form, linking the captured articles to the MEDLINE citation unique identifier. DOCLINE requests for these journals that could not be filled by network libraries were routed to SAIL. Nearly 23,000 articles from sixty-four journals recently selected for indexing in Index Medicus were scanned to convert them to electronic images. During fiscal year 1992, 4,586 scanned articles were used to fill 10,444 interlibrary loan (ILL) requests, and more than half of these were used only once. Eighty percent of all the articles were not requested at all. The total cost per article delivered was $10.76, substantially more than it costs to process a photocopy request. Because conversion costs were the major component of the total SAIL cost, and most of the articles captured for the project were not requested, this model was not cost-effective. Data on SAIL journal article use was compared with all ILL requests filled by NLM for the same period. Eighty-eight percent of all articles requested from NLM were requested only once. The results of the SAIL project demonstrated that converting journal articles to electronic images and storing them in anticipation of repeated requests would not meet NLM's objective to improve interlibrary loan. PMID:8004020

  20. Non performing loans: Obstacles within financial and economy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Ranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of company depend on the adequate selection of financial resources and optimization of financial structure. In other words, the success of a company is determined by the choice of high-quality financial sources and their maturity adjustment. In developed economic and developed financial systems, companies have a wide range of financial sources: emissions of shares, bonds, emissions of other long-term and short-term securities, borrowing from the bank and alternative sources of financing. However, the developing countries and undeveloped countries addressed to financial resources of investors and loans from banking institutions. In this context, it is necessary to build a stable banking system, which will support the strategic development of the company and provide daily liquidity of companies.

  1. Performance of Loan Repayment Determinants in Ethiopian Micro Finance - An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Abdul Majeeb PASHA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro finance involves the provision of micro-credit, savings, and other services to the poor that are excluded by the commercial banks for collateral and other reasons. Microfinance is relatively new to Ethiopia and came to existence during 1994-95. Out of which Sidama Micro Finance Institution (SMFI is one among 31Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs to serve needy people in Ethiopia. Based on this researchers’ intended to study major socio- economic factors and loan related factors that determines loan repayment performance of borrowers in SMFI. In fact, the identifying and analyzing such determining factors of loan repayment rate is vital in the achievement of profitability and sustainability of MFIs. In this connection, researchers’ collected data from primary and secondary resources and analyzed by using Binary logistic model is used. Through the study 14 determinants’ are selected for evaluation, out of which 9 variables are significant and remaining insignificant are found. Based on the analysis, researchers are recommended that proper training should be provided, reasonable amount of loan which should be useful to their business. Further, more age people and well business experience people can able to repay their loan amount` timely to micro finance institution.

  2. Using collateral to secure loans

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2006-01-01

    In “Using Collateral to Secure Loans,” Yaron Leitner asks: Why is collateral used to secure some loans, but not others? And why does collateral potentially involve more risk? He considers these questions, looking at some of the explanations for using collateral, focusing on its benefits and drawbacks.

  3. Credit Derivatives and Loan Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norden, L.; Wagner, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the new markets for credit default swaps (CDS) and the pricing of syndicated loans to U.S. corporates. We find that changes in CDS spreads have a significantly positive coefficient and explain about 25% of subsequent monthly changes in aggregate loan

  4. The customers borrowing behavior during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina LUCA (BRĂTUCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis determined the transition of the Romanian banking system from excess of liquidity to deficit, namely from an aggressive lending activity to a significant reduction of credit growth rate. In our country, the high indebtedness rate, especially in foreign currencies, is the main vulnerable spot of the population sector. The main objective of this paperwork is to analyze factors that influence the customers in their decision to borrow in foreign currencies or in Ron. In this matter, it was used a regional econometric model for panel data in order to see Romania’s customers borrowing preferences and to analyze if the crises have changed their behavior.

  5. Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Different Borrowing and Lending Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2011-01-01

    the returns of each assets are assumed to be fuzzy variables, then following the mean-variance approach, a new possibilistic portfolio selection model with different interest rates for borrowing and lending is proposed, in which the possibilistic semiabsolute deviation of the return is used to measure investment risk. The conventional probabilistic mean variance model can be transformed to a linear programming problem under possibility distributions. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modeling idea and the impact of borrowing and lending on optimal decision making.

  6. Scared away? Discouraged borrowers and Capital market information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Hain, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    of discouraged borrowers. Implications Implications entail missed opportunities for firms, which in turn is likely to have deterrent effects on overall investments and economic growth. Financial institutions will miss out on business opportunities but will also have difficulties in fine-tuning their credit......We do the first study on discouraged borrowers in Denmark to firstly investigate the extent of this phenome-non in Denmark. Secondly, we test if characteristics of firms (age, size, innovativeness, industry) impact their likelihood of being discouraged from entering the capital markets. Thirdly...

  7. 75 FR 53007 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S...'s GO Loan Pilot until September 30, 2011. Due to the scope and magnitude of the devastation to... streamlined and centralized loan processing available through the GO Loan Pilot to small businesses in the...

  8. 78 FR 64294 - Loan Guaranty: Mandatory Electronic Delivery of Loan Files for Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Mandatory Electronic Delivery of Loan Files for... Affairs (VA) Loan Guaranty Service (LGY) announces a new policy with regard to lender submission of VA- guaranteed closed loan files for review. Currently, lenders can submit loan files selected for review by LGY...

  9. 76 FR 27986 - Funding for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan Programs AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION... or guaranteed loan applications for the Conservation Loan (CL) Program because of lack of program... provisions to the existing direct and guaranteed loan regulations found in 7 CFR parts 761, 762, 764, 765...

  10. 77 FR 13530 - Funding for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Funding for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan... Service Agency (FSA) now has funding for and is accepting guaranteed loan applications for the Conservation Loan (CL) Program. Due to a lack of program funding for direct CLs, direct loan applications are...

  11. 7 CFR 1735.73 - Loan design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan design. 1735.73 Section 1735.73 Agriculture... Funds § 1735.73 Loan design. When loan funds are requested for an acquisition, details of the proposed acquisition shall be included in the Loan Design. See 7 CFR part 1737. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.481 - Insured loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.481 Insured loans. Applications...) Constructing and equipping industrial plants for lease to private businesses (not including loans for operating... concurrence prior to approval. B. Applications from private parties for insured loans will not be encouraged...

  13. 7 CFR 773.7 - Loan uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.7 Loan uses. Loan funds may be used for any of the following purposes related to the production or marketing of apples: (a) Payment of costs associated with..., processing or marketing purposes; or (h) Payment of loan closing costs. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1822.274 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 1822.274 Section 1822.274 Agriculture... SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS PRIMARILY FOR REAL ESTATE PURPOSES RURAL HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Housing Site Loan Policies...

  15. 24 CFR 573.4 - Loan term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan term. 573.4 Section 573.4 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... COMMUNITY FACILITIES LOAN GUARANTEE RECOVERY FUND § 573.4 Loan term. The term of the loan to be guaranteed...

  16. 44 CFR 206.371 - Loan program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan program. 206.371 Section... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Community Disaster Loans § 206.371 Loan... Special Community Disaster Loan to any local government which has suffered a substantial loss of tax and...

  17. 7 CFR 1776.16 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan servicing. 1776.16 Section 1776.16 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Loans § 1776.16 Loan servicing. (a) If RUS determines that HWWS loans may be serviced by CSC, then the grant recipient will enter into an agreement with...

  18. 5 CFR 1620.35 - Loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 1620.35 Section 1620.35... Nonappropriated Fund Employees § 1620.35 Loan payments. NAF instrumentalities must deduct and transmit TSP loan... CFR part 1655 and Board procedures. Loan payments may not be deducted and transmitted for employees...

  19. 24 CFR 1007.35 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan terms. 1007.35 Section 1007.35... LOAN GUARANTEES FOR NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING § 1007.35 Loan terms. To be eligible for guarantee under this part, the loan shall: (a) Be made for a term not exceeding 30 years; (b) Bear interest (exclusive...

  20. 14 CFR 1300.15 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 1300.15 Section 1300.15... DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures § 1300.15 Loan terms. (a) A loan guaranteed under the program shall be due and payable in full no later than...

  1. 75 FR 14331 - Disaster Assistance Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 123 RIN 3245-AF98 Disaster Assistance Loan Program...-term disaster loans to homeowners, renters, businesses, and non-profit organizations that have been... to disaster victims by raising the statutory loan limit for loans to businesses, increasing the...

  2. 44 CFR 206.361 - Loan program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan program. 206.361 Section... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Community Disaster Loans § 206.361 Loan... Community Disaster Loan to any local government which has suffered a substantial loss of tax and other...

  3. 5 CFR 1655.12 - Loan agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan agreement. 1655.12 Section 1655.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.12 Loan agreement. (a) Upon determining that a loan application meets the requirements of this part, the TSP record keeper...

  4. 7 CFR 771.15 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan servicing. 771.15 Section 771.15 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.15 Loan servicing. (a) Advances. FSA may make... advances. (b) Payments. Payments will be made to FSA as set forth in loan agreements and debt instruments...

  5. 77 FR 59346 - Payday-Alternative Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE08 Payday-Alternative Loans AGENCY...: The NCUA Board (Board) is currently reviewing its regulation governing payday-alternative loans (PAL... to offer PAL loans, previously referred to as short- term, small amount loans, as an alternative to...

  6. 31 CFR 25.400 - Loan provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SALES LOANS MADE BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY AND FOREIGN MILITARY SALES LOANS MADE BY THE FEDERAL FINANCING BANK AND GUARANTEED BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY Form of Private Loan § 25... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan provisions. 25.400 Section 25...

  7. 7 CFR 1434.18 - Loan repayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... repayment rate for marketing assistance loans for honey under this part will be in effect on a short-term... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.18 Loan repayments. (a) A honey producer may repay a nonrecourse marketing assistance...

  8. 7 CFR 764.402 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.402 Loan closing. (a) Signature... information for the Agency to reconfirm approval and proceed with loan closing. (3) The Agency or closing... account will be used according to subpart B of part 761 of this chapter when these processes are not...

  9. 7 CFR 1703.141 - Approved purposes for loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program § 1703.141... the project, including vehicles utilizing distance learning and telemedicine technology to deliver...) Providing links between teachers and students or medical professionals who are located at the same facility...

  10. 76 FR 58021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Professions Student Loan (HPSL) Program and Nursing Student Loan (NSL) Program Administrative Requirements... Loan (HPSL) Program and Nursing Student Loan (NSL) Program contain a number of reporting and... borrowers are aware of rights and responsibilities, know the history and status of each loan account in...

  11. 77 FR 76414 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Federal Direct Loan Program AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION: Final regulations; correction... Loan (Perkins Loan) Program; the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program; and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program, including the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) Program...

  12. Corporate boards and bank loan contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and nonprice loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants, and performance-pricing provisions) are more favorable, and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, audit committee structure, and other board characteristics influence bank loan prices. However, they do not consistently affect all nonprice loan terms except for a...

  13. A new Loan-Stock Financial Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Morozovsky, Alexander; Narasimhan, Rajan; Kholodenko, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    A new financial instrument (a new kind of a loan) is introduced. The loan-stock instrument (LSI) combines fixed rate instruments (loans, etc.) with other financial instruments that have higher volatilities and returns (stocks, mutual funds, currencies, derivatives, options, etc.). This new loan depends on the value of underlying security (for example, stock) in such a way that when underlying security increases, the value of loan decreases and backwards. The procedure to create a risk free po...

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MEASURES TO REDUCE COSTS OF REGIONAL LOANS SERVICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Arkadyevitch Galanskiy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses major problems of current concern connected with controlling direct obligations of Russian regions (the model of debt servicing cost parameter optimization has been worked out, and their key solutions. The methods offered to analyze debts and manage them are applicable to any Russian Federation regions characterized by budget deficit and forced to cover it using borrowed funds. The important leverage found and their impacts on sub-federal debt servicing cost are also treated in the article.Objective: to identify the direction and impact degree of various parameters on the cost of sub-federal loans.Methodology: there were used general scientific methods: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, systematic approach.Results: main parameters that influence the cost of sub-federal loans servicing and allow its most effective reduction have been identified.

  15. 7 CFR 1980.420 - Loan guarantee limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... factors involved, including but not limited to: (1) Borrower's management. The borrower's management, and when appropriate, equity capital, history of operation, marketing plan, raw material requirements, and...

  16. Constraints on morphological borrowing: evidence from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.; Hekking, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the borrowing of morphology from Spanish by three unrelated and typologically diffferent American-Indian languages: Quechua, Guarani and Otomi. On the basis of three corpora of spontaneous speech produced by a sizeable number of informants, we will suggest that there are

  17. Analysis of borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained from the Bank of Agriculture (BOA), Calabar. Descriptive statistics such as percentage count, mean and tables were employed in the analysis. It was discovered that BOA in ...

  18. Transaction Cost Of Borrowing Among Small Scale Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined transaction cost of borrowing among small scale farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 109 randomly selected small scale farmers in the study area. Data analysis was by frequency, percentage and mean. It was found that farmers mostly ...

  19. 24 CFR 891.740 - Responsibilities of Borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contracting for services are provided in § 891.600(c). (d) Submission of financial and operating statements...) Marketing. (1) The Borrower must commence and continue diligent marketing activities not later than 90 days... homeless in the same housing market. (2) Marketing must be done in accordance with the HUD-approved...

  20. Adaptive dynamic capacity borrowing in road-covering mobile networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ule, A.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Li, W.; Pan, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces adaptive dynamic capacity borrowing strategies for wireless networks covering a road. In a F/TDMA-based model, road traffic prediction models are used to characterise the movement of hot spots, such as traffic jams, and subsequently to predict the teletraffic load offered to

  1. 34 CFR 674.42 - Contact with the borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... debt is owed and the name and address of the official or servicing agent to whom communications should... person, by audiovisual presentation, or by interactive electronic means. The institution must ensure that... law, and litigation; (viii) Emphasize that the borrower is obligated to repay the full amount of the...

  2. 42 CFR 60.15 - Other charges to the borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fails to pay all of a required installment payment or fails to provide written evidence that verifies eligibility for the deferment of the payment within 30 days after the payment's due date, the lender or holder will require that the borrower pay a late charge. A late charge must be equal to 5 percent of the...

  3. Cultural borrowing - Serbian jogurt between the east and the west

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Snežana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analysis of the cultural borrowing process of the Turkish word yoğurt ‘yogurt’ in Serbian. The study begins with the analysis of the Serbian lexical material from the 19th century, when the word jogurt was marked as an exclusively foreign word. The comparison with the present status of the meaning and usage of the word jogurt in contemporary Serbian, in which the word is part of the standard language, shows two different layers of the borrowing process: the Ottoman Turkish period and the Non-Turkish one. The most recent, Post-Ottoman borrowing layer is illustrated by the usage of jogurt as an element of a proverb that is a calque from the Turk. Sutten ağzı yanan yoğurdu (veya ayranı ufleyerek yer (veya icer “who gets burned by milk, blows into yogurt as well”. Aiming to present a complex process of this cultural borrowing, the data from Serbian is compared to the relevant data from other Balkan and European languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007: Etimološka istraživanja srpskog jezika i izrada Etimološkog rečnika srpskog jezika i br. 178009: Lingvistička istraživanja savremenog srpskog književnog jezika i izrada Rečnika srpskohrvatskog književnog i narodnog jezika SANU

  4. 34 CFR 674.34 - Deferment of repayment-Federal Perkins loans, NDSLs and Defense loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., except for a residency program in dentistry. (3) The institution of higher education at which the... or state public assistance program, such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Supplemental... is determined by counting the borrower, the borrower's spouse, and the borrower's children, including...

  5. 12 CFR 617.7130 - What initial disclosures must a qualified lender make to a borrower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lender make to a borrower? 617.7130 Section 617.7130 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... must a qualified lender make to a borrower? (a) Required disclosures—in general. A qualified lender... certificates that borrowers are required to purchase are at risk and may only be retired at the discretion of...

  6. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerns about credit quality, undue concentrations in the bank's portfolio of residential real estate, small business, or small farm loans, or concerns about the bank's overall credit risk management systems...

  7. Credit reporting, relationship banking, and loan repayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Shirzad Kebria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on loan repayment in one of Iranian banks named Sepah Bank over the period 2012-2013. The study selects a sample of 290 bank’s customers who received loans and, using logistic regression technique, tries to find whether or not qualitative as well as quantitative characteristics of loan receivers influence on repayment of loans. The results indicate that history of outstanding debt as well as customers’ past experiences with banks had meaningful relationships with having bad credit and non-payment of loans. In our survey, having a bad credit in the past had positive relationship with non-payment of loans but long-term customers had negative relationship with non-payment of loans. In addition, working capital turnover ratio, cash ratio, total liabilities, current assets and loan value had significant impact on non-repayment of the loan facilities.

  8. The role and importance of the enterprise`s borrowed capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombrovska Sofiіa Oleksiyivna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents scientific views of researches regarding the definition of “borrowed capital”. The basic functions of borrowed capital have been submitted, its classification on various grounds is highlighted. The article describes the features of borrowed capital, its advantages and disadvantages, considers management system of borrowed capital and problems of domestic enterprises in modern conditions of economic relations. The author proposed the main directions of the management improving of borrowed capital. The information will be useful for specialists in the field of financial management.

  9. Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised Credit ... bank as regard to loan supervision was scored low as a result of low rate of loan recovery, ... strategy to recover outstanding debts and reduce interest charge on loans.

  10. The role of building societies on the market of hypothec loaning: world experience and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellada Georgiyevna Pilavova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of international experience in modeling residential mortgage, the need to develop savings and loan institutions is justified - banks of building savings - as an institution to meet mass demand of the general population of Russia on the improvement of living conditions. In particular, the history of mortgage lending in Asia and Europe is described in details. Particular attention is paid to the models of the Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland and Germany. The percentage volume of housing loans to GDP in transition and developed countries is compared. The reasons for the backlog of Poland and the Czech Republic from more developed countries are investigated. It is concluded that exactly the building society was the starting point for the rapid evolution of housing finance in different countries. The advantageous features of this institution as reducing credit risk through specialization, providing a source of long-term money and effective tool for the selection of reliable borrowers to the banking sector, as well as beneficial effects on the economic culture of borrowers are indicated.

  11. The Borrowers: Researching the cognitive aspects of translation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the interdisciplinary interaction of research on the cognitive aspects of translation. Examples of influence from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, reading and writing research and language technology are given, with examples from specific sub-disciplines within each one. The breadth of borrowing by researchers in cognitive translatology is made apparent, but the minimal influence of cognitive translatology on the respective disciplines themselves i...

  12. Geotechnical aspects of rock borrow for large breakwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, I.; Fischer, J.A.; Urlich, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    The state of the art is described of investigations to secure rock borrow for the breakwaters proposed to protect offshore nuclear power plants. Considerations relating to the geological, geotechnical, and design suitability of rock are discussed within the framework of economics, and the environmental impact of quarrying and transporting rock to potential sites on the East and Gulf coasts of the U.S. is examined. The methodology outlined has application to the construction of all large rockfill breakwaters

  13. Does SDDS Subscription Reduce Borrowing Costs for Emerging Market Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    John Cady

    2005-01-01

    Does macroeconomic data transparency-as signaled by subscription to the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS)-help reduce borrowing costs in international capital markets? This question is examined using data on new issues of sovereign foreign-currency-denominated (U.S. dollar, yen, and euro) bonds for several emerging market economies. Panel econometric estimates indicate that spreads on new bond issues declined on average by close to 20 percent, or by an average of about 55 basis...

  14. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  15. 76 FR 60960 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the extension of SBA's GO Loan Pilot, with modifications, until December 31... processing available through the GO Loan Pilot to small businesses in the eligible parishes/counties through...

  16. 76 FR 30246 - Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC62 Loan Policies and Operations; Loan... Administration (FCA or we) issues this final rule to amend its regulations on loan policies and operations. This... purchase from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) loans to farmers, ranchers, producers or...

  17. 75 FR 56487 - Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...-AC62 Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION... authority to purchase from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation loans to farmers, ranchers, producers... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation loans to farmers, ranchers, producers or harvesters of aquatic...

  18. Survey on the Assessment of the Current Actual Expenses Incurred by Students on the Meals and Accommodation within and around the Campuses: The Case of Tanzania Higher Education Students' Loans Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyahende, Veronica R.; Bangu, Asangye N.; Chakaza, Benedicto C.

    2015-01-01

    This Survey analyses the current actual expenses incurred by students on the meals and accommodation within and around the campuses. The study was geared towards achieving the following objectives: (i) to examine the current cost incurred by a students for meals In Campus, (ii) to examine the current cost incurred by a students for accommodation…

  19. Spelling Lessons for Gifted Language Arts Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Janet C.; Gipe, Joan P.

    1993-01-01

    These strategies for teaching spelling to gifted students focus on student choice of words, personal dictionaries, cloze passages, categorizing or word sorting, words borrowed from other languages, word etymology, multiple meaning words, and onomatopoetic words. (JDD)

  20. Promoting renewables through soft loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcks, C.

    1999-01-01

    The DtA, founded in 1950s, is a federal institution owned by the German government. It assists the government to implement its economic, environmental and social policy. Financial assistance is being granted mainly through soft loans. Such loans are a flexible instrument, permitting to partially correct prices without severely distorting market forces. They assure total financing while spreading the subsidy over the entire period of the engagement. This avoids windfall opportunities often related to direct subsidies. Investors, therefore, have an intrinsic motivation to only submit sound and profitable projects. (orig./RHM)

  1. 12 CFR 617.7105 - When must a qualified lender disclose the effective interest rate to a borrower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effective interest rate to a borrower? 617.7105 Section 617.7105 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Disclosure of Effective Interest Rates § 617.7105 When must a qualified lender disclose the effective interest rate to a borrower? (a) Disclosure to prospective borrowers...

  2. 7 CFR 771.14 - Loan monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan monitoring. 771.14 Section 771.14 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.14 Loan monitoring. (a) Annual and periodic... any potential problems or concerns. (b) Performance monitoring. At any time FSA determines it...

  3. 29 CFR 4043.67 - Loan default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan default. 4043.67 Section 4043.67 Labor Regulations... CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Advance Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.67 Loan default. (a) Reportable event and information required. Advance notice is required for a loan default, as described in...

  4. 11 CFR 100.82 - Bank loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.82 Section 100.82 Federal... Contributions § 100.82 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. A loan of money to a political committee or a candidate by a State bank, a federally chartered depository institution (including a national bank) or a...

  5. 11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.142 Section 100.142 Federal... Expenditures § 100.142 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. Repayment of a loan of money to a candidate or a political committee by a State bank, a federally chartered depository institution (including a national bank...

  6. 7 CFR 761.8 - Loan Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan Limitations. 761.8 Section 761.8 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.8 Loan Limitations. (a) Dollar... cannot exceed any of the following at the time of loan closing or assumption of indebtedness. If the...

  7. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-14] Cooperative Share Loan... comments on the subject proposal. New guidance for cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.104 - Loan maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quality and quantity as collateral to satisfy the processor's loan indebtedness to CCC. CCC shall not assume any loss in quantity or quality of the loan collateral. (2) The processor is responsible for... and in-process sugar pledged as loan collateral need not be stored identity preserved. (4) When the...

  9. 7 CFR 1951.885 - Loan classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... classifications is of obvious importance. However, the function of the Substandard classification is to indicate... seasoned loan, a loan must: (1) Have a remaining principal loan balance of two-thirds or less of the... intermediary's operation or an imbalanced position in the balance sheet which has not reached a point that...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.63 - Loan limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.63 Loan limits. (a... Agency will analyze Federal Government and other assistance provided to any MFH project to establish the... differently in a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the state agency that allocates low-income...

  11. Interlibrary Loan Communications Subsystem: Users Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., Dublin, OH.

    The OCLC Interlibrary Loan (ILL) Communications Subsystem provides participating libraries with on-line control of ILL transactions. This user manual includes a glossary of terms related to the procedures in using the system. Sections describe computer entry, searching, loan request form, loan response form, ILL procedures, the special message…

  12. Reflections on Asia: Borrowing Lessons from the Humanities in Social Science Coursework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Sanborn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available What lessons can political science classes borrow from the humanities? This paper presents the results of a multi-year study on teaching about Asia as part of a general education program. Given the challenges of meeting common learning outcomes while also teaching discipline-specific lessons, political science courses often underperformed in assessments when compared to benchmark expectations. While our initial conclusion—that a greater focus on multimodal assignments would promote deeper learning and reflection—proved unfounded, explicitly emphasizing students’ reflection on their own process of democratic engagement, in comparison to that of their counterparts in Asia, did seem to address the shortcomings of the previous approaches by giving students context and guidance in their understanding of how democracy works at home and abroad. Data from reflective essays, collected over two years, provide evidence for this finding.

  13. English Borrowing in Thai as Reflected in Thai Journalistic Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapper, James

    A study investigated patterns of English loan words in various domains of journalistic discourse in Thai print media, to gain insight into economic, political, and social relationships of the languages and the role of English as a global language. Thai was chosen because Thailand was not subject to colonialism by Europeans and because some…

  14. Gerbrand Bredero wants to borrow a painting: proleptic negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    2013-01-01

    In a letter to Badens, his painting teacher, Gerbrand Bredero asks for the loan of a painting to make a copy of it. The act of writing (a letter) requires a proactive role in managing the reader’s reactions. In what at first sight may look like a simple, insignificant and most of all polite letter,

  15. Information Asymmetry and Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    We model the choice of loan currency in a framework which features a trade-off between lower cost of debt and the risk of firm-level distress costs. Under perfect information foreign currency funds come at a lower interest rate, all foreign currency earners as well as those local currency earners

  16. Microcomputers: An Interlibrary Loan Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A.

    1984-01-01

    Description of a microcomputer-based system for local processing of interlibrary loan (ILL) requests developed at Environmental Protection Agency library discusses database management systems, hardware, databases, and command files. Subsequent changes resulting from system's implementation at East Carolina University Health Sciences Library are…

  17. Bank Consolidation and Consumer Loan Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Kahn; George Pennacchi; Ben Sopranzetti

    2001-01-01

    The recent wave of bank mergers has raised concern with its effect on competition. This paper examines the influence of concentration and merger activity on consumer loan interest rates. It uses Bank Rate Monitor, Inc. survey data on loan rates quoted weekly by large commercial banks in ten major U.S. cities during the 1989 to 1997 period. The pricing behavior of banks is analyzed for two types of loans: new automobile loans and unsecured personal loans. Market concentration is found to have ...

  18. Scrapping of student bursaries confirmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2016-07-27

    Student bursaries for nurses will be scrapped from next year, the government has confirmed. Undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in England will now face tuition fees and student loans from August 2017.

  19. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Model Form of Loan Contract for Electric Distribution Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Real Property Acquisition. Section 5.11. “Buy American” Requirements. Section 5.12. Power Requirements..., to the extent the Uniform Act is applicable to such acquisition. Section 5.11. “Buy American... any portion of its business or assets (including, without limitation, any portion of its franchise or...

  20. Transmission of Bank Liquidity Shocks in Loan and Deposit Markets: The Role of Interbank Borrowing and Market Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Hryckiewicz, A.; Kowalewski, O.; Tumer Alkan, G.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the international transmission of liquidity shocks from multinational bank holding companies to their subsidiaries during the financial crisis of 2008. Our results demonstrate that a subsidiary's reduction in lending is strongly related to its parent bank's lending via the interbank