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Sample records for student gender differences

  1. Gender Differences in International Students' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun

    2009-01-01

    As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…

  2. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  3. Gender Difference as a Factor in Teachers' Perceptions of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawat, Richard S.; Jarvis, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of students as influenced by differences in student gender are examined. Elementary school teachers' perceptions of students were assessed by their rating children in their classes on various dimensions. Results showed student ability/achievement are more potent in teacher perceptions than gender. (Author/GK)

  4. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  5. Unpacking Gender Differences in Students' Perceived Experiences in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-11-01

    Prior research has shown, at our institution: 1) males outperform females on conceptual assessments (a gender gap), 2) the gender gap persists despite the use of research-based reforms, and 3) the gender gap is correlated with students' physics and mathematics background and prior attitudes and beliefs [Kost, et al. PRST-PER, 5, 010101]. Our follow-up work begins to explore how males and females experience the introductory course differently and how these differences relate to the gender gap. We gave a survey to students in the introductory course in which we investigated students' physics identity and self-efficacy. We find there are significant gender differences in each of these three areas, and further find that these measures are weakly correlated with student conceptual performance, and moderately correlated with course grade.

  6. Gender Differences in Students' Perceptions of School Guidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in relation to students' perceptions of school guidance and counselling (G&C) services in Mberengwa district, Zimbabwe. The convergent parallel design was used in the study. A total of 114 students (68 males and 76 females) randomly selected students ...

  7. Gender Differences in Decisions on Student Disciplinary Behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by selected Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels which may be due to composition of disciplinary panels, perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and behaviour expectations of students on the basis of ...

  8. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SOCIAL SKILLS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    Matias García Terán; Gabriela A Cabanillas; Valeria E Morán; Fabián O Olaz

    2014-01-01

    Different authors claim that the differences found in the social skills repertoire of men and women could be explained by gender orientation. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are gender differences in social skills in university students from Córdoba (Argentina). The  Social Skills Questionnaire for College Students (SSQ-C) (Morán, Olaz & Del Prette, in preparation) was applied to a sample of 1076 university students of both sexes, aged between 18 and 25 years old, from 56 u...

  9. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  10. Exploring gender differences in attitudes of university students towards entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Dabić, M; Daim, T; Bayraktaroglu, E; Novak, I; Basic, M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions as measured by perceived feasibility and perceived desirability, and to explore gender differences in perceptions of entrepreneurship education needs - in terms of programmes, activities or projects - to succeed in an entrepreneurial career from the university students’ point of view. Design/Methodology/Approach - Using data gathered from 3420 university students in more than 10 countries, an...

  11. Gender differences in students' utilization of electronic information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined gender differences among students in the utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri. One objective,with corresponding hypotheses guided the study. The survey research method was used. The population for the study comprised 13,995 (thirteen thousand, ...

  12. Gender Differences in Library Literacy among Medical Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, the reasons for visiting the library were mainly to read their notes (121), do assignment (149), and borrow books (111) and prepare for exams during examinations (137).Conclusively, the findings of this study has shown that gender differences exist in library utilization among medical students of CoM, AAU, Ekpoma, ...

  13. Gender differences in anaerobic power in Nigerian students | Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine gender differences in anaerobic power of undergraduate physical education students. An attempt was also made to assess the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and indices of anaerobic power: peak power (PP), Mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) ...

  14. Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alberto Molina

    Full Text Available The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.

  15. Lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students: Differences by gender

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    María Araceli Álvarez Gasca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in college students as well as differences between men and women are analyzed. 970 students (67.4% women, 32.6% men were randomly selected and assessed on lifestyle (EV, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome(SM. Results showed 4.63% with SM and 36.65% with obesity, women predominated. Predominant EV was good and better in men than women, highest frequency of SM was in bad EV. Relationship between gender, obesity, and SM was significant for the studied population. Differences were found between men and women.

  16. Gender difference in academic planning activity among medical students.

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    Huy Van Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, as doctor of medicine is socially considered a special career, both men and women who are enrolled in medical universities often study topics of medicine seriously. However, as culturally expected, women often perform better than men. Because of this, teaching leadership and management skill (LMS to develop academic planning activity (APA for female medical students would also be expected to be more effective than male counterparts. This research aimed to compare by gender the effect of teaching LMS on increasing APA, using propensity score matching (PSM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 male and female medical students in Hanoi Medical University, this study adopted first regression techniques to construct a fit model, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of LMS education. RESULTS: There were several interesting gender differences. First, while for females LMS education had both direct and indirect effects on APA, it had only direct effect on males' APA. Second, after PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups - with and without LMS education, there is statistically a significant difference in APA between male and female students, making a net difference of 11% (p<.01, equivalent to 173 students. The difference in APA between exposed and matched control group in males and females was 9% and 20%, respectively. These estimates of 9.0 and 20.0 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APA by 142 males and 315 females, respectively, in the population. These numbers of APA among male and female students can be explained by LMS education. CONCLUSIONS: Gender appears to be a factor explaining in part academic planning activity.

  17. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SOCIAL SKILLS IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF ARGENTINA

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    Matias García Terán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different authors claim that the differences found in the social skills repertoire of men and women could be explained by gender orientation. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are gender differences in social skills in university students from Córdoba (Argentina. The  Social Skills Questionnaire for College Students (SSQ-C (Morán, Olaz & Del Prette, in preparation was applied to a sample of 1076 university students of both sexes, aged between 18 and 25 years old, from 56 undergraduate programs  distributed on five public and private universities of the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was conducted to analyze the existence of differences between men and women. We found differences in favour of men in social skills for affective and sexual approach, and in favour of women in conversational skills, refusal assertiveness and empathic skills and expression of positive feelings; there were no differences in social skills for academic and workplace settings. The results and their possible practical implications are discussed.

  18. Mathematical literacy skills of students' in term of gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailiyah, Siti

    2017-08-01

    Good mathematical literacy skills will hopefully help maximize the tasks and role of the prospective teacher in activities. Mathematical literacy focus on students' ability to analyze, justify, and communicate ideas effectively, formulate, solve and interpret mathematical problems in a variety of forms and situations. The purpose of this study is to describe the mathematical literacy skills of the prospective teacher in term of gender differences. This research used a qualitative approach with a case study. Subjects of this study were taken from two male students and two female students of the mathematics education prospective teacher who have followed Community Service Program (CSP) in literacy. Data were collected through methods think a loud and interviews. Four prospective teachers were asked to fill mathematical literacy test and video taken during solving this test. Students are required to convey loud what he was thinking when solving problems. After students get the solution, researchers grouped the students' answers and results think aloud. Furthermore, the data are grouped and analyzed according to indicators of mathematical literacy skills. Male students have good of each indicator in mathematical literacy skills (the first indicator to the sixth indicator). Female students have good of mathematical literacy skills (the first indicator, the second indicator, the third indicator, the fourth indicator and the sixth indicator), except for the fifth indicators that are enough.

  19. Gender Differences in Computer Ethics among Business Administration Students

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    Ali ACILAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the various benefits and advantages that computers and the Internet offer, these technologies have become an essential part of our daily life. The dependence on these technologies has been continuously and rapidly increasing. Computers and the Internet use also has become an important part for instructional purposes in academic environments. Even though the pervasive use of computers and the Internet has many benefits for almost everyone, but it has also increased the use of these technologies for illegal purposes or unethical activities such as spamming, making illegal copies of software, violations of privacy, hacking and computer viruses. The main purpose of this study is to explore gender differences in computer ethics among Business Administration students and examine their attitudes towards ethical use of computers. Results from 248 students in the Department of Business Administration at a public university in Turkey reveal that significant differences exist between male and female students’ attitudes towards ethical use of computers

  20. June, 2015 Gender Differences in Students' Utilization of Electronic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of new technologies on gender in ... information technology. ... reported computer inexperience for female ... computer literacy among medical students ..... use the Internet. Washington, D. C:pew internet and American. Life project.

  1. Gender differences in motives and career choice of medical students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Emmerik, H. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Insight in the choices of medical students concerning their future career is an actual issue, since the population is changing towards a majority of female students. We focus here on insight in the effect of gender and life-stage on students’ preferences concerning a medical specialty,

  2. Gender Differences in High School Students' Interests in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Medine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the interests of high school students in Physics and variable of how the influential factors on their interests depending on gender. The research sample included 154 (F:78 M:76) high school students. A structured interview form was used as the data collection tool in the study. The research data were…

  3. Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Desmond

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors.

  4. Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

  5. Gender differences in perception of romance in Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yin

    Full Text Available Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes.

  6. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Student-Teachers' Commitment to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Ikupa; Admiraal, Wilfried F.; Berry, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Low commitment to teaching amongst teachers is a problem facing the teaching profession in many countries. Gender might be an important factor in explaining what kinds of prospective teachers are attracted to teaching. This empirical study examined the relationship between student-teachers' gender, gender roles and commitment to teaching within…

  7. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  8. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  9. Correlates of gratitude disposition in middle school students: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-hyun; Yu, Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gratitude disposition is positively associated with happiness. The purpose of this study was to identify influencing factors on gratitude disposition by gender differences in middle school students. Cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires were administered to participants (n=372) aged between 13 ∼ 15 years in Seoul and Chungnam Province in Korea. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18.0 statistical program, and frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis were used in the research. The mean score of family abuse of boys was significantly higher than girls' score (t=3.016, p=0.003). In subscales of development assets, empowerment (t=2.264, p=0.024), boundaries and expectation (t=2.476, p=0.014), and commitment to learning (t=1.971, p=0.049) were significantly higher in boys. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 0.334, CI 0.130∼0.862), peer relationship (OR 2.280, CI 1.124∼4.623), social support (OR 2.584, CI 1.176∼5.676), positive identity (OR 3.138, CI 1.256∼7.840) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for boys, while school violence (OR 0.050, CI 0.003∼0.907) and positive identity (OR 2.937, CI 1.313∼6.567) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for girls. This study suggests that it is important to protect adolescents from family abuse and school violence, furthermore, developmental assets should be developed to increase to gratitude disposition.

  10. Causes of Gender Differences in Accounting Performance: Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wally-Dima, Lillian; Mbekomize, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the survey method to investigate the factors that cause academic differences between female and male students at the largest university in Botswana. The population of this research was the students of the last three years of the 4 year Bachelor of Accountancy degree programme at the University of Botswana. Anchored on the prior…

  11. Prevalence of Depression among Undergraduate Students: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghaedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most typical disease affecting many different factors of humanity. University students may be at increased risk of depression owing to the pressure and stress they encounter. Therefore, the purpose of this study is comparing the level of depression among male and female athletes and non-athletes undergraduate student of private university in Esfahan, Iran. The participants in this research are composed of 400 male and female athletes as well as no-athletes Iranian undergraduate students. The Beck depression test (BDI was employed to measure the degree of depression. T-test was used to evaluate the distinction between athletes and non-athletes at P≤0.05. The ANOVA was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between level of depression among non-athletes and athletes. The result showed that the prevalence rate of depression among non-athlete male undergraduate students is significantly higher than that of athlete male students. The results also presented that level of depression among female students is much more frequent compared to males. This can be due to the fatigue and lack of energy that are more frequent among female in comparison to the male students. Physical activity was negatively related to the level of depression by severity among male and female undergraduate students. However, there is no distinct relationship between physical activity and level of depression according to the age of athlete and nonathlete male and female undergraduate students. This study has essential implications for clinical psychology due to the relationship between physical activity and prevalence of depression.

  12. Gender Differences in Public Relations Students' Career Attitudes: A Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Betty; Waugh, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Explores students' perceptions of gender issues in public relations. Finds that there were no statistically significant differences in male and female students' desires to perform managerial activities, but there were statistically significant differences in several areas (i.e. female students expect to earn less money starting out and to be…

  13. Ethical Perceptions among Hispanic Students: Differences by Major and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Raymond, Jr.; Moyes, Glen D.; Cortes, Angelica C.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined ethical perceptions of Hispanic students by analyzing differences between (a) accounting and nonaccounting business majors and (b) women and men. The authors used the following five constructs: justice, relativism, egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology. Their study incorporated 12 moral characteristics into…

  14. Student Engagement at a Large Suburban Community College: Gender and Race Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontam, Varalakshmi; Gabriel, George

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that there are individual differences in academic achievement associated with gender and race. Research also suggests that student engagement is an important determinant of student outcomes/achievement. The present study explored student engagement at an extra-large community college. It specifically investigated possible…

  15. Gender Differences on Attitudes and Participation in an Extracurricular Gymnastics Course among Greek University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosis, Dimitrios; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.; Siatras, Theophanis A.; Proios, Miltiadis; Proios, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to test the effectiveness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict Greek university students' voluntary participation in an extracurricular gymnastics course, and (b) to evaluate gender differences. Two hundred sixty-three (127 female, 136 male) students participated in the study. Students' attitudes,…

  16. Gender Differences in the Relationships among Parenting Styles and College Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L.; Kirtley, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Levels of student depression may increase as stress increases; parenting styles may be one indirect source of stress. The authors examined the role of parenting style in relationship to student stress, anxiety, and depression, with focused attention on gender differences. Participants: Participants were 290 undergraduate students (58%…

  17. Gender Differences in Pay Histories and Views on Pay Entitlement among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Serge; Curtis, James

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether gender differences in recent pay experience influence entitlement views by providing different standards for female and male students' judgments of their entitlements. Responses from 309 undergraduate students reveal that income gaps in the full-time working world extended to their own recent work experiences and that these past…

  18. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptomatology and Working Memory in College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…

  19. Gender Differences in Students' Physical Science Motivation: Are Teachers' Implicit Cognitions Another Piece of the Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Almut E.

    2017-01-01

    Implicit stereotypes associating science with male might play a role in the development of gender differences in students' motivations for physical science. Particularly, the stereotypes of influential adults may induce students' regulatory foci and subsequently their motivational beliefs. Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study…

  20. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Ethical Perceptions in Barbados: Differences by Gender, Academic Major and Religiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Philmore; Persaud, Nadini

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there were differences in students' ethical perceptions based on gender, academic major and religiosity. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered survey was conducted of 132 students at a university in Barbados, to determine ethical perceptions on five moral constructs: justice,…

  1. Gender Differences in the Psychosomatic Reactions of Students Subjected to Examination Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala-Anderson, Joanna; Wallace, Louise M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The study investigated pre-examination anxiety and emotional control strategies as possible mediators of gender differences in self reported intensity and type of psychosomatic reactions to examination stress. Method: Sample comprised 150 male and 150 female high school senior students and university students who voluntarily…

  2. Gender Differences in Popularity and Engagement in Sport Activities among Students

    OpenAIRE

    Matej Majerič

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana concerning the popularity of sports and participation in different types and modes of sport activities. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N=1390). A questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013). In this study, two variables were analysed: the popularity of different sport activities, and different typ...

  3. Gender Differences In Students Ethical Impressions Of Questionable Marketing Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Bernardi; Christopher R. Shepherd; Jillian L. Woodworth

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we test the theory that female business majors are more sensitive than male business majors to the ethical issues in advertising promotions. We also examine whether or not business majors are as sensitive as liberal arts majors. Our sample is made up of 218 students from the Northeast area of the US. To measure ethical sensitivity in marketing situations, the participants responded to six scenarios developed from actual news data. The results indicate that female students and f...

  4. Gender differences in student attitudes towards sexual appeals in print advertising

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    Philippa Klug

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexuality is a widely used appeal in advertising today. The aim of this research was to establish whether or not this form of advertising connects with South African students and whether gender differences existed. A triangulated research design with data collected in focus groups, was used. The findings generally indicated negative attitudes towards sexual appeals in advertising. The main difference in gender responses was that males responded more negatively to adverts that contained male models as opposed to female models, whereas, women responded in similar ways regardless of the gender of the model.

  5. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Gender differences and prevalence in a Pakistani medical student population

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    Vaqar Talha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of concern and symptoms of BDD. Methods The medical students enrolled in a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan filled out a self-report questionnaire which assessed clinical features of BDD. BDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Out of the 156 students, 57.1% were female. A total of 78.8% of the students reported dissatisfaction with some aspect of their appearance and 5.8% met the DSM-IV criteria for BDD. The male to female ratio for BDD was 1.7. Regarding gender differences in body foci of concern, the top three reported foci of concern in male students were head hair (34.3%, being fat (32.8%, skin (14.9% and nose(14.9%, whereas in females they were being fat (40.4%, skin (24.7% and teeth (18%. Females were significantly more concerned about being fat (p = 0.005. Male students were significantly more concerned about being thin (p = 0.01 and about head hair (p = 0.012. Conclusion BDD is fairly common in our medical student population, with a higher prevalence in males. Important gender differences in BDD symptomatology and reported body foci of concern were identified which reflected the influence of media on body image perception. The impact of cultural factors on the prevalence as well as gender differences in BDD symptomatology was also established.

  6. Gender differences in teachers' perceptions of students' temperament, educational competence, and teachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullola, Sari; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2012-06-01

    Student's temperament plays a significant role in teacher's perception of the student's learning style, educational competence (EC), and teachability. Hence, temperament contributes to student's academic achievement and teacher's subjective ratings of school grades. However, little is known about the effect of gender and teacher's age on this association. We examined the effect of teacher's and student's gender and teacher's age on teacher-perceived temperament, EC, and teachability, and whether there is significant same gender or different gender association between teachers and students in this relationship. The participants were population-based sample of 3,212 Finnish adolescents (M= 15.1 years) and 221 subject teachers. Temperament was assessed with Temperament Assessment Battery for Children - Revised and Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey batteries and EC with three subscales covering Cognitive ability, Motivation, and Maturity. Data were analyzed with multi-level modelling. Teachers perceived boys' temperament and EC more negatively than girls'. However, the differences between boys and girls were not as large when perceived by male teachers, as they were when perceived by female teachers. Males perceived boys more positively and more capable in EC and teachability than females. They were also stricter regarding their perceptions of girls' traits. With increasing age, males perceived boys' inhibition as higher and mood lower. Generally, the older the teacher, the more mature he/she perceived the student. Teachers' ratings varied systematically by their gender and age, and by students' gender. This bias may have an effect on school grades and needs be taken into consideration in teacher education. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Developing a magnetism conceptual survey and assessing gender differences in student understanding of magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey of magnetism. We also discuss the use of the survey to investigate gender differences in students' difficulties with concepts related to magnetism. We find that while there was no gender difference on the pre-test. However, female students performed significantly worse than male students when the survey was given as a post-test in traditionally taught calculus-based introductory physics courses with similar results in both the regular and honors versions of the course. In the algebra-based courses, the performance of female and male students has no statistical difference on the pre-test or the post-test.

  8. Exploring Student Perceptions, Learning Outcome and Gender Differences in a Flipped Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, So-Chen; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hsiao, Chia-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom approach has recently gained prominence in education. However, a review of previous studies shows that the relationship associated with gender difference, student perceptions and learning outcomes has still remained unexplored, and there has been little discussion regarding flipped classroom environment. To fill this gap,…

  9. Spatial Ability Mediates the Gender Difference in Middle School Students' Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in gender differences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In "Study 1" (N = 113), the findings showed that mental…

  10. Should Gender Differences Be Considered When Assessing Student Satisfaction in the Online Learning Environment for Millennials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Heather Lea; Parahoo, Sanjai; Santally, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The majority of today's students in online higher education are millennials and have grown up using technology. Therefore, there is a need to determine if their expectations from online learning are different from previous contextual studies and whether or not these vary across gender. This study used a mixed method approach, using focus groups,…

  11. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  12. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students' Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Tsai, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for…

  13. Gender Differences in Physical Activity and Related Beliefs among Hispanic College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi; Bridges, Amber

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in physical activity (PA) and social-cognitive theory (SCT) variables among Hispanics. Students (N = 298) completed measures assessing levels of PA and variables derived from SCT. Men reported greater PA than women. Men also reported having greater self-efficacy for PA, greater perceived ability to set…

  14. Gender difference in the use of library among students of colleges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined gender difference in the use of library among students of College s of Education Warri, Agbor, and Mosogar in Delta State of Nigeria. The survey research design was employed for this study. The population of the study consisted o f 264 actual library users of the Colleges of Education. The entire ...

  15. Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: gender differences in prevalence and correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; van de Bongardt, D.; Hawk, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397

  16. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Gender differences in the relationships among parenting styles and college student mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L; Kirtley, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Levels of student depression may increase as stress increases; parenting styles may be one indirect source of stress. The authors examined the role of parenting style in relationship to student stress, anxiety, and depression, with focused attention on gender differences. Participants were 290 undergraduate students (58% female, mean age = 19). Cross-sectional design. Participants completed surveys containing measures of parenting styles, college stress, anxiety, and depression. Anxiety and stress acted as mediators between some maternal parenting styles and female student depression. No mediational relationships were found for male student ratings. Daughters may be more susceptible to the influences of maternal parenting styles, which can either prepare or fail to prepare them for management and avoidance of stressors that are encountered during the college transition. College counseling centers and student affairs personnel may wish to focus attention on the instruction of self-management and problem-solving skills for incoming students.

  18. Gender Differences in Popularity and Engagement in Sport Activities among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Majerič

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana concerning the popularity of sports and participation in different types and modes of sport activities. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N=1390. A questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013. In this study, two variables were analysed: the popularity of different sport activities, and different types and modes of sport activities. The data of the variables were analysed with SPSS for Windows. The basic statistical parameters for both variables were calculated. To calculate the gender differences, a t-test for independent samples and a Mann-Whitney U test were run. An analysis of the popularity of different sport activities showed that gender differences were statistically significant in jogging (p=0.000, walking (p=0.000, football (p=0.000, basketball (p=0.000, fitness (p=0.001, aerobics (p=0.002, and dance activities (p=0.009. Analysis of the types and modes of sport activities among students showed that 63.90% of male students and 68.10% of female students were engaged in unorganized types of sport. Gender differences were found to be statistically significant in two types of sport activities: engaged organized in clubs–competitive out of faculty (p=0.000 and engaged in sport organized at the faculty–competitive (p=0.000. Our findings and conclusions provide useful guidance for the closer and wider professional public.

  19. Differences conception prospective students teacher about limit of function based gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    Gender is one of the interesting topics and has continuity to be explored in mathematics education research. The purpose of this study to explore difference on conceptions of students teaching program by gender. It specialized on conception of understanding, representating, and mental images about limit function. This research conducting qualitative explorative method approach. The subject consisted of one man and one woman from the group of highly skilled student and has gone through semester V. Based on data that had been analyzed proved that male student has an understanding about limit function shared by explaining this material using illustrations, while female student explained it through verbal explanation. Due to representating aspect, it revealed that both of male and female students have similarity such as using verbal explanation, graphs, symbols, and tables to representating about limit function. Analyzing Mental image aspect, researcher got that male student using word "to converge" to explained about limit function, while female student using word "to approach". So, there are differences conceptions about limit function between male and female student.

  20. Gender Differences in Pathways to Compulsive Buying in Chinese College Students in Hong Kong and Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Terence H W; Tang, Catherine S; Wu, Anise; Yan, Elsie

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The addictive nature of compulsive buying implies that mood disturbances, stress, and cognitive biases that underlie compulsive buying might operate in ways similar in both genders. In the current study, we aimed to test hypothetical pathways of mood compensation and irrational cognitions, which may explain compulsive buying tendencies. We also examined potential gender differences in these pathways. Methods Two-hundred and thirty-two male (age: M = 20.30, SD = 1.74) and 373 female Chinese college students (age: M = 19.97, SD = 1.74) in Hong Kong and Macau completed measures assessing compulsive buying, psychological distress, avoidance coping, materialism, and buying-related cognitions. Mediation analyses via a structural equation modeling approach explained by Cheung (2007, 2009) were conducted, with gender as a grouping variable. Results There was a gender difference in the mood compensation pathway; avoidance coping partially mediated the link between psychological distress and compulsive buying severity in females only. On the other hand, the irrational cognitive pathway, in which irrational buying-related cognitions fully mediated the link between materialism and compulsive buying severity, was supported for both genders. There was no gender difference in the extent of mediation within the irrational cognitive pathway, and the mediation effect within the irrational cognitive pathway was larger than that within the mood compensation pathway for both genders. Conclusions Mood compensation processes in compulsive buying might be female specific, and secondary to irrational cognitions, which were gender invariant. Gender-dependent mechanisms and irrational cognitions should be emphasized in compulsive buying treatment.

  1. Gender Differences in Pathways to Compulsive Buying in Chinese College Students in Hong Kong and Macau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Terence H. W.; Tang, Catherine S.; Wu, Anise; Yan, Elsie

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The addictive nature of compulsive buying implies that mood disturbances, stress, and cognitive biases that underlie compulsive buying might operate in ways similar in both genders. In the current study, we aimed to test hypothetical pathways of mood compensation and irrational cognitions, which may explain compulsive buying tendencies. We also examined potential gender differences in these pathways. Methods Two-hundred and thirty-two male (age: M = 20.30, SD = 1.74) and 373 female Chinese college students (age: M = 19.97, SD = 1.74) in Hong Kong and Macau completed measures assessing compulsive buying, psychological distress, avoidance coping, materialism, and buying-related cognitions. Mediation analyses via a structural equation modeling approach explained by Cheung (2007, 2009) were conducted, with gender as a grouping variable. Results There was a gender difference in the mood compensation pathway; avoidance coping partially mediated the link between psychological distress and compulsive buying severity in females only. On the other hand, the irrational cognitive pathway, in which irrational buying-related cognitions fully mediated the link between materialism and compulsive buying severity, was supported for both genders. There was no gender difference in the extent of mediation within the irrational cognitive pathway, and the mediation effect within the irrational cognitive pathway was larger than that within the mood compensation pathway for both genders. Conclusions Mood compensation processes in compulsive buying might be female specific, and secondary to irrational cognitions, which were gender invariant. Gender-dependent mechanisms and irrational cognitions should be emphasized in compulsive buying treatment. PMID:27156378

  2. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (pgender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  3. Gender differences and similarities in medical students' experiences of mistreatment by various groups of perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Heidi; Tauber, Gloria; Komlenac, Nikola; Hochleitner, Margarethe

    2017-08-14

    Mistreatment of medical students during medical education is a widespread concern. Studies have shown that medical students report the most mistreatment compared to students of other study programs and that the prevalence of mistreatment peaks during clinical training. For this reason, a study was conducted to assess prevalence of mistreatment among medical students committed by various groups of people. The focus was to identify whether gender was associated with the experience of mistreatment. Additionally, students' perception of university climate for reporting sexual harassment was assessed. In the study 88 medical students (45 women, 43 men) participated. A modified version of the Questionnaire on Student Abuse was used to assess students' experience of various types of mistreatment and associated distress during medical education. To explore factors that could be associated with this experience the organizational climate for reporting sexual harassment was assessed with the Psychological Climate for Sexual Harassment. The most often cited perpetrators of mistreatment were strangers (79.5%), friends (75.0%) and university staff (68.2%). Strangers mostly committed psychological mistreatment and sexual harassment, whereas friends additionally engaged in physical mistreatment of medical students. The most common form of mistreatment conducted by university staff was humiliation of students. These kinds of psychological mistreatment were reported to be distressing (43%). Gender differences were found in the prevalence of mistreatment. Women experienced more sexual harassment and humiliation than did men. On the other hand, men experienced more physical mistreatment than did women. Women reported experiencing more distress from mistreatment experiences than did men and also more often reported being mistreated by university staff than did men. Women perceived a greater risk in reporting sexual harassment to the organization than did men. Mistreatment of female and

  4. Empathy differences by gender and specialty preference in medical students: a study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mariana A; Grosseman, Suely; Morelli, Thiago C; Giuliano, Isabela C B; Erdmann, Thomas R

    2016-05-21

    We have conducted this study to assess medical students' empathy and to examine empathy differences by students' socio-demographic characteristics, including gender, and specialty preference. We have conducted a cross-sectional and descriptive research. Among 595 medical students registered at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (Brazil) in 2012, we have selected a sample of 320 enrolled in the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, and in the last semester of the course. The response rate obtained was 70.6% (n=226). Data was collected by using a self-report questionnaire, and the variables analyzed included course semester, socio-demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, household monthly income and parents level of education), students' specialty preference, and empathy assessed by the Jefferson Scale of Empathy. We have used descriptive statistics, 95% Confidence Interval for percentages, Student's t-test, and Analysis of Variance to analyze the data. Mean empathy among students was (M=119.7, SD=9.9), with no difference by according to semester (F=1.5, p=.2). Empathy means were higher among females (M=118.3, SD=10.6) than among males (M=121.0, SD=9.3, t=-2.1, p=.032). Students who preferred a people-oriented specialty obtained significantly higher mean scores (M=121.5, SD=8.1) in comparison to students who preferred technology-oriented specialties (M=118.0, SD=11.3, t=2.4, p=.02). Our study has found consistently high scores of empathy among medical students enrolled in all levels of training at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, and higher empathy among women and students who intend to pursue a people-oriented specialty. Conclusions on higher empathy among medical students require further study.

  5. Gender differences in stressors and reactions to stressors among Jordanian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H

    2012-01-01

    Stress among university students has been a topic of interest for researchers and teachers for many years because it affects not only their academic performance but also their physiological and psychological health. Male and female students perceive and react to stressors differently due to their differences in appraising stressful situations. The aims of this study were to examine differences in the perception of stressors and reactions to stressors between male and female Jordanian university students, and to identify the best predictors of stressors among them. Descriptive cross-sectional design was employed. The Student-Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stressors and reactions to stressors of 465 male and 485 female Jordanian university students recruited through stratified random sampling. There were statistical differences between male and female students regarding their perception and reactions to stressors. Female students reported a higher perception of stressors in frustrations, conflict, pressures and changes, as well as emotional reactions to stressors. Male students reported higher behavioural and cognitive reactions to stressors than female students. Participation in stress workshops, perception of general health, and perception of stress level in general were found to predict stressors among male students, while mother's educational level, perception of general health, and perception of stress level in general were found to predict stressors among female students. This study showed that gender differences in perception of stressors and reactions to stressors are similar to previous studies conducted all over the world. Interventions can be developed to help students better cope with stress. Conducting specific stress-training programmes for male and female students will help in reducing stress levels.

  6. Gender differences in learning styles and academic performance of medical students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhat, Ayesha; Salem, Raneem Osama; Al Hamdan, Nasser; Ashour, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Teachers at medical school are often faced with challenges of improving student satisfaction with the learning environment. On the other hand, education in the medical field is very competitive and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Students adapt specific learning styles to keep pace with the information delivered to them in their institutions. The aim of this study is to know the differences in learning styles between male and female students, and the effect it has on academic performance. The VARK Questionnaire version 7.0 (Visual, Aural, Read/Write and Kinesthetic) was administered to the fourth year and fifth year medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine at King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia for determining the preferred learning methods of students participating in this study. The learning styles were then compared to cumulative grade point average (GPA) obtained by the students. The dominant learning style preference of students was multimodal. Among students who preferred unimodal preference, aural and kinesthetic preference was predominant for males and females. Moreover, Females had more diverse preferences than male students. Multimodal learners have higher cumulative GPAs when compared with the unimodal learners. This study revealed variation in learning style preferences among genders, and its implications on academic performance of medical students.

  7. Gender differences in self-esteem and happiness among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik, S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines gender differences in the self esteem and happiness of university students. A sample of 120 students (60 males and 60 females was drawn from the various departments of university of Sargodha within the age range of 18-26 years. Convenience sampling technique was used. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1985 and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills and Argyle, 2001 were individually administered to the participants. The results suggested that the male students reported significantly higher level of self esteem as compared to the female university students (t = 3.78, df = 117, ***p .05. Furthermore, significant positive relationship was found between happiness and self esteem of students (r = .22*. These findings have implications for helping teachers and parents.

  8. Gender differences in health habits and in motivation for a healthy lifestyle among Swedish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bothmer, Margareta I K; Fridlund, Bengt

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences in students' health habits and motivation for a healthy lifestyle. The sample of students comprised a probability systematic stratified sample from each department at a small university in the south-west of Sweden (n = 479). A questionnaire created for this study was used for data collection. Self-rated health was measured by number of health complaints, where good health was defined as having less than three health complaints during the last month. A healthy lifestyle index was computed on habits related to smoking, alcohol consumption, food habits, physical activity and stress. Female students had healthier habits related to alcohol consumption and nutrition but were more stressed. Male students showed a high level of overweight and obesity and were less interested in nutrition advice and health enhancing activities. The gender differences are discussed in relation to the impact of stress on female students' health, and the risk for male students in having unhealthy nutritional habits in combination with being physically inactive and drinking too much alcohol.

  9. Gender differences in metabolic risk factor prevalence in a South African student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carine; Essop, M Faadiel

    2009-01-01

    We determined selected risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and assessed the metabolic risk status (using IDF criteria) of third-year physiology students at Stellenbosch University (88 males and 178 females). Outcome measures included anthropometry [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio], blood pressure (BP), resting pulse rate, and fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, students completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A number of gender-based differences were found, with male students displaying a greater incidence of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: 6% of males versus 3% of females displayed a cluster of three risk factors. Twenty-five per cent of female students (but only 14% of males) exhibited waist circumferences above the accepted range, which was positively correlated, for males and females, with both systolic and diastolic BP, and in females only, also with total cholesterol levels. Male students on average exercised more than their female counterparts, but also exhibited poorer eating habits. Average blood triglyceride levels for both male and female students exceeded the accepted threshold (1.85 +/- 1.62 mmol/l and 2.15 +/- 1.79 mmol/l, respectively). We concluded that metabolic risk factors were evident in a much younger population than commonly expected. Moreover, the gender-specific differences observed may impact on future risk assessment and preventative measures adopted.

  10. Gender differences related to the health and lifestyle patterns of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Janse van Rensburg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the transitions from adolescence to adulthood is the admission of students to a university setting. Accompanying this transition is a new-found independence which results in university students having more autonomy over their lifestyles and behaviours. The assumption in this setting is that many students are likely to engage in unhealthy and risky lifestyle behaviours which include alcohol abuse, tobacco use, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary practices which may adversely affect their health in the long-term. In South Africa, research with regard to health and lifestyle patterns amongst both male and female young adults remains limited. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether male and female students differed in relation to their health and lifestyles, as well as the related consequences thereof. A convenience sampling technique was used, where questionnaires were administered to 400 students at three university campuses in the Gauteng province of South Africa. An exploratory data analysis for health factors was used in order to retrieve relevant factors from a factor and regression analysis. Differences in gender were tested by using cross-tabulation for descriptive statistics and Chi-square analysis. The study found no statistically-significant differences between genders relating to the three emerging health factors, namely Gastrointestinal, Upper Respiratory Infections and Total Health Problems. However, descriptive statistics of lifestyle habits revealed that more female students exercised, smoked and binged on food than their male counterparts. It was also found that female students reported a higher incidence of stress than male students. It was concluded that university students do indeed engage in behaviours and lifestyles that place them at risk for serious health problems.

  11. Gender and Information Literacy: Evaluation of Gender Differences in a Student Survey of Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Arthur; Dalal, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Information literacy studies have shown that college students use a variety of information sources to perform research and commonly choose Internet sources over traditional library sources. Studies have also shown that students do not appear to understand the information quality issues concerning Internet information sources and may lack the…

  12. Gender differences in specialty preference and mismatch with real needs in Japanese medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Tadanari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shortage of doctors and maldistribution among specialties are of great concern in the Japanese health care system. This study investigated specialty preference in medical students of one university, and examined gender differences and compared their preference with real needs. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire including specialty preference in all students of one medical university. Preference was assessed by the five-level probability of their future choice: 1 = very low, 2 = low, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, and 5 = very high. The proportion of 4 or 5 was calculated as the preference rate. The real needs (magnitude of doctor shortage in the prefecture were drawn from two different surveys. The relationship between the sex-specific preference rate by specialty and real needs was assessed by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results Internal medicine showed the highest preference rate, followed by general surgery, pediatrics, and emergency medicine. There was no significant correlation between the preference rates of men and women (r = 0.27, p = 0.34. The preference rates for general surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and emergency medicine were significantly higher in men than in women, while those of obstetrics & gynecology, pediatrics, and dermatology were significantly higher in women. The magnitude of doctor shortage by specialty from two surveys were significantly correlated with the total preference rate and men's preference rate (r = 0.54 to 0.74, but not with women's preference rate (r = 0.06 and 0.32. Conclusions This study elucidated not only gender differences in specialty preference but also the relationship to real needs. Critical gender differences and mismatch with real needs were found in women. In addition to traditional gender roles and insufficient support for women's participation in Japan, gender differences and mismatch influence the current and future maldistribution of

  13. Gender Differences in Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2000-01-01

    We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay...

  14. Middle School Students' Science Self-Efficacy and Its Sources: Examination of Gender Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıran, Dekant; Sungur, Semra

    2012-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate middle school students' science self-efficacy as well as its sources and outcomes as a function of gender. Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal) in addition to being inviting with self and inviting with others were examined as sources of self-efficacy, while cognitive and metacognitive strategy use was examined as an outcome of self-efficacy. A total of 1,932 students participated in the study and were administered self-report instruments. Results showed that the relationship between science self-efficacy and its proposed sources does not change as a function of gender. All proposed sources, except for vicarious experience, were found to be significantly related to students' scientific self-efficacy. Moreover, girls were found to experience significantly more emotional arousal and to send positive messages to others more than boys. On the other hand, no gender difference was found concerning science self-efficacy and strategy use. The findings also revealed a positive association between science self-efficacy and strategy use. Overall, findings supported Bandura's conception of self-efficacy and suggested invitations as additional sources of self-efficacy.

  15. Problematic internet use among high school students: Prevalence, associated factors and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Brambilla, Romeo; Priotto, Bruna; Angelino, Remo; Cuomo, GianLuca; Diecidue, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among high school students and to identify factors associated with PIU underlining gender differences. The students filled a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographic characteristics and patterns of Internet use. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with PIU in the overall sample and by gender. Twenty-five schools and 2022 students participated in the survey. Prevalence of PIU was 14.2% among males and 10.1% among females. Males 15-year-olds and females 14-year-olds had the highest PIU prevalence that progressively lowered with age among females. Only 13.5% of pupils declared parents controlled their Internet use. The sensation of feeling lonely, the frequency of use, the number of hours of connection, and visiting pornographic websites were associated with the risk of PIU in both genders. Attending vocational schools, the activities of chatting and file downloading, and the location of use at Internet point among males, and younger age among females were associated with PIU, whilst information searching was protective among females. PIU could become a public health problem in the next years. The physical and mental health consequences should be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in body image development among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we used longitudinal methods to examine body image development during the early part of college. Students (N=390; 54% female) who identified as African American (32%), Latino/a American (27%), and European American (41%) completed surveys during their first, second, and third semesters at college. There were overall gender and racial/ethnic differences in all three aspects of body image, and both stability and change in body image development. Female students' appearance evaluation became more positive, whereas male students' appearance evaluation showed no significant change. Individuals' body areas satisfaction increased over time, but remained stable when controlling for BMI. Appearance orientation did not change, and there were no racial/ethnic differences in body image development. Experiences in the college environment may play a role in these trends. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reasons and features of occurrence of excess body weight at students taking into account gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Iushkovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the definition of reasons and features of occurrence of excess body weight at students taking into account the gender differences, which are connected with irrational lifestyle, violation of food behavior, insufficient physical activity. Material & Methods: students of 1–4 courses of Odessa national medical university, 26 girls and 22 boys, with the excess body weight and obesity aged from 18 to 24 years for the research were selected. Results: reliable differences in adipopexis type, percent of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also indexes “waist-hip” at the respondents, connected with the article, are found. Conclusions: modification of lifestyle, wrong food behavior, selection of physical activity, has to be carried out taking into account the type of adipopexis and sex of students.

  18. Gender differences in depression scores of Iranian and german medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Ahmadi, Nahid; Soltani, Fereshteh; Bayat, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate gender differences in depression scores of Iranian and German medical students. Two hundred Iranian medical students (100 men and 100 women) and 200 German medical students (100 men and 100 women) were selected randomly and completed the English form of the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Analysis gave a mean rating of 10.7 ± 6.6 for Iranian men and 10.9 ± 7.81 for Iranian women (NS). Also, 5 ± 4.9 for German men and 5.6 ± 5.0 for German women (NS). On Item 2, which asked whether the person was pessimistic 33% of Iranian men and 30% of Iranian women indicated that they were pessimistic (NS). Also, 21% of German men and 20% of German women indicated that they were pessimistic (NS). On Item 9, which asked about suicidal tendencies, 9% of Iranian men and 13% of Iranian women reported as having suicidal tendencies (NS). Also, 13% of German men and 21% of German women reported as having self-harming thoughts (NS). The present study showed no gender differences in Iranian and German medical students' scores on the BDI.

  19. Differences in students' mathematics engagement between gender and between rural and urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Salim, Nur Raidah; Sulaiman, Tajularipin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore secondary school students' mathematics engagement focusing on the cognitive, affective and behavioural engagement domains. A total of 387 students (186 male and 201 female) from the urban and rural secondary schools in Pahang, Malaysia, were randomly selected. There were 158 students from the urban schools and 229 students from the rural schools. Descriptive analyses for mathematics engagement domains revealed behavioural engagement had the highest mean (M = 3.74, SD = .63), followed by cognitive engagement (M = 3.56, SD = .43) and affective engagement (M = 3.48, SD = .47). The mean for students' overall mathematics engagement was 3.56 (SD = .46). Further analyses showed there were significant differences in each of the engagement domains in mathematics learning (affective, cognitive and behavioural), where students in the urban schools showed significantly better in the mean scores for affective, cognitive, behavioural domains and the overall mathematics engagement as compared to the students in the rural schools. Similar findings also showed there were significant differences in the overall mathematics engagement mean between the genders. The findings indicated girls were significantly better than boys in all (affective, cognitive and behavioural) of the engagement domains in mathematics learning. It was also shown girls had higher overall mathematics engagement mean as compared to boys. However, the study also indicated the overall students' mathematics engagement was at a moderate level. Besides, the rural school students did not show high mathematics engagement as compared to the urban school students. Further analyses showed girls significantly had better mathematics engagement as compared to boys. Hence, it is recommended that in order to optimize students' mathematics engagement, they should be actively engaged in more participative learning activities in mathematics classrooms. Focus should be given to rural schools

  20. Self-Concept of Students in Higher Education: Are There Differences by Faculty and Gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie-Davies, C. M.; Lee, K.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies examine student self-concept during compulsory schooling but few have explored the self-concept of students in higher educational settings. The current study examined self-concept by faculty and gender among higher education students in New Zealand. Participants were 929 undergraduate students from a large New Zealand university. The…

  1. Love attitudes styles amongst college students. Differences by sex-gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Santero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing love attitudes styles amongst the youth at Universidad de Sevilla and reviews differences in such attitudes by sex-gender system. To do so, a descriptive and interdisciplinary study was conducted using a contextualized adaptation of the Love Attitudes Style Scale (Hendrick et al. 1998. This validated data collection tool, referred to as ‘ReLAS,’ was applied to 447 students from the said Spanish university (267 women and 180 men. Our findings indicate that, overall, the subjects possess an idealized, romanticized view of love, whereby factors such as sexuality, passion and attraction play a secondary if significantly nuanced role, as emerged when looking into sex-based differences that are attributable to gender roles.

  2. Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: gender differences in prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Bongardt, Daphne van de; Hawk, Skyler T

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397 university students (M(age) = 20.3 years) completed related questionnaires. Intrapersonal behaviors (i.e., sexual fantasizing, solitary masturbation, and viewing pornography) were generally reported more frequently than interpersonal behaviors (i.e., petting, oral sex, and intercourse). Gender differences were most evident for intrapersonal sexual behaviors, all of which were reported more frequently by men. Men reported significantly more heterosexual intercourse than women but not petting or oral sex. Several correlates (i.e., age, educational aspiration, family income, urbanity, relationship experience, and Internet use) were significant predictors of various intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors. Gender significantly moderated these correlations in three cases: Family income was a stronger negative predictor of intercourse for women, romantic relationship history was a stronger positive predictor of intercourse for men, and Internet use was a stronger positive predictor of sexual fantasizing for men. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexuality education and sexual health policies and practices in contemporary China.

  3. Gender differences and the definition of success: male and female veterinary students' career and work performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.

  4. Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

    The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are

  5. Gender differences in scientific performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Jacobsen, Rasmus Højbjerg; Wallin, Johan A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare PhD students' performance with respect to gender using a number of matching methods. The data consists of fine-grained information about PhD-students at the Institute of Clinical Research at the University of Southern Denmark. Men and women are matched...... of gender differences in productivity and citation impact....

  6. Distress in response to emotional and sexual infidelity: evidence of evolved gender differences in Spanish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana Maria; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Zubeidat, Ihab

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied gender differences in response to hypothetical infidelity in Spanish students. Using a forced-choice methodology, the authors asked a sample of 266 participants to indicate which kind of infidelity would be more distressing: emotional or sexual. Men were significantly more distressed by sexual infidelity than were women, and women were significantly more distressed by emotional infidelity than were men. Results supported the hypothesis that particular infidelity types, which resemble adaptive problems that human beings faced in the past, contribute to the psychology of jealousy. The results are consistent with previous cross-cultural research.

  7. Communication skills of medical students during the OSCE: Gender-specific differences in a longitudinal trend study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Joachim; Smolka, Robert; Simoes, Elisabeth; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian; Holderried, Friederike; Wosnik, Annette; Doherty, Anne M; Menzel, Karina; Herrmann-Werner, Anne

    2017-05-02

    Communication skills are essential in a patient-centred health service and therefore in medical teaching. Although significant differences in communication behaviour of male and female students are known, gender differences in the performance of students are still under-reported. The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences in communication skills of medical students in the context of an OSCE exam (OSCE = Objective Structured Clinical Examination). In a longitudinal trend study based on seven semester-cohorts, it was analysed if there are gender differences in medical students' communication skills. The students (self-perception) and standardized patients (SP) (external perception) were asked to rate the communication skills using uniform questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed by using frequency analyses and t-tests in SPSS 21. Across all ratings in the self- and the external perception, there was a significant gender difference in favour of female students performing better in the dimensions of empathy, structure, verbal expression and non-verbal expression. The results of male students deteriorated across all dimensions in the external perception between 2011 and 2014. It is important to consider if gender-specific teaching should be developed, considering the reported differences between female and male students.

  8. Gender differences in first-year dental students' motivation to attend dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbecz, Mark; Ross, Judith A

    2002-08-01

    Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed.

  9. Gender differences related to the health and lifestyle patterns of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Janse van Rensburg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the transitions from adolescence to adulthood is the admission of students to a university setting. Accompanying this transition is a new-found independence which results in university students having more autonomy over their lifestyles and behaviours. The assumption in this setting is that many students are likely to engage in unhealthy and risky lifestyle behaviours which include alcohol abuse, tobacco use, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary practices which may adversely affect their health in the long-term. In South Africa, research with regard to health and lifestyle patterns amongst both male and female young adults remains limited. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether male and female students differed in relation to their health and lifestyles, as well as the related consequences thereof. A convenience sampling technique was used, where questionnaires were administered to 400 students at three university campuses in the Gauteng province of South Africa. An exploratory data analysis for health factors was used in order to retrieve relevant factors from a factor and regression analysis. Differences in gender were tested by using cross-tabulation for descriptive statistics and Chi-square analysis. The study found no statistically-significant differences between genders relating to the three emerging health factors, namely Gastrointestinal, Upper Respiratory Infections and Total Health Problems. However, descriptive statistics of lifestyle habits revealed that more female students exercised, smoked and binged on food than their male counterparts. It was also found that female students reported a higher incidence of stress than male students. It was concluded that university students do indeed engage in behaviours and lifestyles that place them at risk for serious health problems. In die oorgang van adolessensie na jong volwassene, bevind studente hulself binne ’n universiteitsomgewing. Gepaartgaande

  10. Social networking experiences on Facebook: A survey of gender differences amongst students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Wiese

    2014-11-01

    Research purpose: The study examined students’ access to social network sites and compared male and female students’ usage of Facebook with regards to time commitment, privacy concerns, and the creation and/or maintenance of relationships. Motivation: The study adds to the existing academic literature on this topic by providing a South African perspective. Research design, approach and method: Two-hundred self-administered questionnaires were distributed using convenience sampling. The statistical analysis that was used included Mann-Whitney U-test, t-test and ANOVA analysis. Main findings: Students connect to social networking sites everyday primarily via their mobile phones. Female students reported spending more time on Facebook whilst at the same time expressing more concern for their privacy. Moreover, students were found to use Facebook to maintain existing offline friendships more so than creating new relationships. Managerial implications: Social networking sites such as Facebook play an important role in students’ everyday interpersonal communication. Practically, Facebook provides lecturers, parents and businesses the opportunity to communicate with students in a fast and cost-effective way. Therefore, insight into the variables studied could help marketers and Social Network Site operators to manage privacy concerns in order to effectively target, advertise and communicate with students. Contribution: Although past research has concentrated on the study of Facebook in terms of privacy and members’ uses little research has been conducted on gender differences in this regard, more so within a South African context. Furthermore demographic variables such as gender influence motives and behaviour, as such making the analysis demographics essential.

  11. Distortions and gender-related differences in the perception of mechanical engineering in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Piera, Pere Joan; Gutiérrez-Colón Plana, Mar; Paleo Cageao, Paloma; de la Flor López, Silvia; Ferrando Piera, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    The reason for this study was the low interest that high school students, particularly females, show for the subject of mechanical engineering (ME). We assumed that this problem was partly due to: (a) lack of understanding of the tasks involved in ME, and (b) a distorted and negative perception of the professional environment and working conditions. To assess these two assumptions, two measurement instruments (tasks and perceptions) were developed and administered in a sample of 496 high school students. A multiple-group design was used and data was analyzed by using an extended item response theory model. In general terms, the results agreed with our expectations. However, no significant gender differences were found. The implications of the results for future improvements are discussed.

  12. Problematic Internet Use in University Students: associated factors and differences of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Villa, Tania; Alguacil Ojeda, Juan; Almaraz Gómez, Ana; Cancela Carral, José María; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; García-Martín, Miguel; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Llorca, Javier; Molina, Antonio José; Ortíz Moncada, Rocío; Valero-Juan, Luiz Félix; Martín, Vicente

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to make a descriptive analysis of Problematic Internet Use in college students, evaluating the possible association with health problems and addictive behaviors, as well as gender differences in user types. A total of 2,780 students participated in the study between 2011 and 2014, 29% of them being males (age 20.8 ± 5.1 years) and 71% females (age 20.3 ± 4.4 years). The prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) assessed by the Internet Addiction Test was 6.08%. Being under 21 years of age and studying for degrees in subjects other than the health sciences were associated factors with a higher frequency of this problem, no differences by gender or type of address were found. The results show a significant association with some health problems (migraines, back pain, excess weight or obesity, insufficient rest), psychological aspects (risk of eating disorders, risk of mental disorder, depression), family problems and discrimination; with no associations with substance use (alcohol, cannabis or tobacco) being found. Concerning the time of Internet use, weekly hours were significantly higher in women than in men, both the total time as for leisure. The analysis of the profile use in problematic users revealed that males are related to aspects of entertainment such as games or shopping online and females are related to aspects of socialization, such as chats and social networks.

  13. Lifestyle and Health among Spanish University Students: Differences by Gender and Academic Discipline

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    Vicente Martín

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the need to analyze health behaviour from a gender perspective is as imminent as ever, particularly at university, where the number of women who register is on the rise and has exceeded the number of male students worldwide. We carried out a prevalence study aimed at analyzing Spanish university students’ lifestyles and identify differences according to gender and academic discipline. Of 3,646 eligible subjects doing university courses related to health (Group A, education (Group B and other professions (Group C, 985 (27.0% participated in the study. Information was elicited about their physical activity level, disturbed eating attitudes, consumption of alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances. Prevalence and Odds Ratios (OR were calculated according to sex and kind of academic discipline. The obtained data confirmed that only 27.4% of the students were considered as sufficiently active, while 14.9% of them suffered from disturbed eating attitudes (DEA. Women were particularly less active (OR 0.46 (0.32–0.66; p < 0.0001, and more sedentary than men (OR 1.40 (1.00–1.97; p = 0.03. Binge drinking was more frequent in female than in male students (OR 1.79 (1.29–2.47; p = 0.0004. A third of the analyzed sample admitted that they had used illegal substances, while a lower consumption prevalence was found in women (OR 0.53 (0.40–0.71; p < 0.0001. The studied population was not very active (27.4%, especially women (OR = 0.45. Therefore, it seems that Spanish university students lead an unhealthy lifestyle, a situation which seems more conspicuous amongst females.

  14. Gender Differences In Giving Directions: A Case Study Of English Literature Students At Binus University

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    Tjoo Hong Sing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have said that there are differences in the ways people give direction between males and females, especially in spatial task (cardinal directions, topography, mileage, building, right/left markers (e.g., Lawton, 2001; Dabbs et al., 1998. Here, the thesis investigates what differences occur between both genders in giving direction. The respondents are 25 females and 25 males of fifth semester Binus University students majoring in English Literature. The respondents answered with a certain route from Binus’s Anggrek Campus to Senayan City. The study was conducted by qualitative and quantitative method. From the data analysis, the writer discovered that gender does affect in selecting the key words in explaining direction it is found that there were differences in choosing key words in giving direction between females and males. The difference is women use more than twice spatial references than men do. In terms of verbal abilities, it was confirmed that female use longer explanation. However, in other aspects such as serial orientation and maintenance words, the result is inconclusive. 

  15. Diversity in Primary Teacher Education Gender Differences in Student Factors and Curriculum Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdink, Gerda; Bergen, Theo; Dekkers, Hetty

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can gender-specific student factors be identified in relation to the initial teacher education curriculum that leads to the…

  16. The Effect of Varied Gender Groupings on Argumentation Skills among Middle School Students in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui; Van Dyke, Margot; Smith, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the effect of varied gender groupings on argumentation skills among middle school students in Taiwan and the United States in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented computer-assisted application (GOCAA). A total of 43 students comprised the treatment condition…

  17. Women Students in Engineering in Mexico: Exploring Responses to Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villa, Carmen; González y González, Elsa M.

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of women students in engineering in Mexico is still low compared to the percentage of women enrolled in higher education institutions in the country, which has achieved parity with male enrollment. It is thus important to understand how gender can shape the experiences of female college students in engineering programs, which was…

  18. Diversity in Primary Teacher Education : Gender differences in Student Factors and Curriculum perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Geerdink; H. Dekkers; T. Bergen

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can gender-specific student factors be identified in relation to the initial

  19. Gender Differences in First-Year College Students' Academic Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, António M.; Alfonso, Sonia; Araújo, Alexandra M.; Deaño, Manuel; Costa, Alexandra R.; Conde, Ângeles; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2018-01-01

    Based on a multidimensional definition of academic expectations (AEs), the authors examine students' AE component scores across countries and genders. Two samples (343 Portuguese and 358 Spanish students) completed the Academic Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) six months after enrolling in their universities. Factorial invariance was ensured across…

  20. College Students' Academic Motivation: Differences by Gender, Class, and Source of Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael; McKnight, Kelly R.; Lei, Ting

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe college students' (n = 856) gender, year in school and source of tuition funding in relation to their academic motivation. The design was cross-sectional and used cluster sampling. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as amotivation. Three…

  1. Diversity in primary teacher education gender differences in student factors and curriculum perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.; Bergen, T.C.M.; Dekkers, Hetty

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can gender-specific student factors be identified in relation to the initial

  2. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.

  3. Is There Gender Difference between Learning Disabled Students' Performances in Mathematical Activities? (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Karimi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that mathematics disorder is a learning disorder. Children with this disorder have math skills is much lower than mean for their age, intelligence, and education. The disorder affects the child's success at school. It is thought that up to 7% of children have this disorder. It affects boys and girls equally. It is also caused dyscalculia. The cause of this disorder is not known. Like other learning disorders, it occurs more in some families. Mathematics disorder may also be the result of damage in certain parts of the brain. It also has led to a weak understanding of mathematical concepts and increased realization of mathematics. In this study, it is tried that studied gender difference between learning disabled students' performances in mathematical activities. Findings indicated that there is not meaningful difference between genders. Since this research was case study, it seems that this difference will be indicated in vast studies. Then it suggests that have to do more study in this field for its causes.

  4. Gender Differences in Osteoporosis Health Beliefs and Knowledge and Their Relation to Vigorous Physical Activity in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…

  5. Changes in Students' Explanations for Gender Differences after Taking a Psychology of Women Class: More Constructionist and Less Essentialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Janice D.; Fischer, Ann R.; Kahn, Arnold S.; Groden, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    We explored how students' endorsements of essential (biological and personality) and constructed (socialization and contextual) explanations for gender differences changed from the start to the end of Psychology of Women (POW) classes along with their feminist attitudes. Results from surveys of 120 POW students from three universities indicated…

  6. Gender Difference in Students' Academic Performance in Colleges of Education in Borno State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Umar; wali S. B., Yagana; Ali, Hajja Kaltum; Bularafa, Mohammed Waziri

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the differences between students' gender and academic achievement in Colleges of Education in Borno State. The study set one research objective, one research question and tested one research hypothesis. the population of this study include all the NCE students from three NCE awarding institutions in the state that were…

  7. Gender Differences in the High School and Affective Experiences of Introductory College Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2008-10-01

    The disparity in persistence between males and females studying physics has been a topic of concern to physics educators for decades. Overall, while female students perform as well as or better than male students, they continue to lag considerably in terms of persistence. The most significant drop in females studying physics occurs between high school and college.2 Since most female physicists report that they became attracted to physics and decided to study it further while in high school, according to the International Study of Women in Physics,3 it is problematic that high school is also the stage at which females begin to opt out at much higher rates than males. Although half of the students taking one year of physics in high school are female, females are less likely than males to take a second or Advanced Placement (AP) physics course.4 In addition, the percentage of females taking the first physics course in college usually falls between 30% and 40%. In other words, although you may see gender parity in a first high school physics course, this parity does not usually persist to the next level of physics course. In addition, even if there is parity in a high school physics course, it does not mean that males and females experience the course in the same way. It is this difference in experience that may help to explain the drop in persistence of females.

  8. Middle School Students' Science Self-Efficacy and Its Sources: Examination of Gender Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Dekant; Sungur, Semra

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate middle school students' science self-efficacy as well as its sources and outcomes as a function of gender. Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal) in addition to being inviting with self and…

  9. Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in University Students' Perception of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinajero, Carolina; Martínez-López, Zeltia; Rodríguez, Mª Soledad; Guisande, Mª Adelina; Páramo, Mª Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Perceived social support has been shown to be one of the most important protective factors for emerging adult students during their transition to university. However, the relationships between perceived social support and dimensions of gender and family background, which have been shown to affect adjustment to college life, remain unexplored. The…

  10. Gender Differences in Deviance and Health Risk Behaviors Among Young-Adults Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Bonny-Noach, Hagit

    2018-01-02

    Deviant and health risk behaviors among young-adults are associated with many adverse outcomes. This study aims to evaluate a broad variety of behaviors by gender differences and their contribution to predicting cannabis use in undergraduate students. This research is based on a structured, self-reported anonymous questionnaire distributed to 1,432 young adult undergraduate students at an Israeli University, 533 males and 899 females (mean age 27.4; SD 6.01). The findings demonstrate a significant proportion of sampled young adults reported to be involved in deviant and health risk behaviors and that all risky behaviors were more frequently significant in males than in females. Among drivers 72% reported speeding, 60% reported failure to keep distance, 44% reported being involved at a car accident as a driver, 40% reported not stopping at a stop sign, and quarter reported driving after drinking alcohol. These findings also expand how certain risk behaviors contribute to predicting cannabis use. The relatively high prevalence of some of these risky behaviors among normative young adults suggests that risky behaviors are considered as normative behavior for this group, especially among man, and therefore, policymakers need to consider prevention and harm reduction interventions relevant to this risk group.

  11. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  12. Gender differences in leadership amongst first-year medical students in the small-group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Nancy L; Vermillion, Michelle; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the extent of gender bias in the volunteerism of small-group leaders amongst first-year medical students, and whether bias could be eliminated with special instructions to the students. The gender of leaders in small-group sessions in a real academic setting was monitored under two conditions: control conditions, in which basic instructions were provided to participants, and intervention conditions, in which the same basic instructions were provided plus a brief "pep talk" on the importance of experiencing a leadership role in a safe environment. During the small-group sessions, an observer noted the gender and names of group leaders for later analysis. After a class debriefing, a subset of leaders and nonleaders from both the control and intervention groups were invited to be interviewed about their perceptions of the small-group experience. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed for analysis. In 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, disproportionately fewer women than men volunteered to become small-group leaders under control conditions. This gender bias was eliminated under intervention conditions. The interviews illustrated how a subtle change in instructions helped some female students take on a leadership role. Gender bias in leadership in the small-group setting amongst medical students-even when women make up half of the class-may persist without targeted intervention. The authors suggest that frequent and consistent intervention during medical school could be an important factor in encouraging women to identify themselves as leaders, promoting confidence to consider leadership roles in medicine.

  13. Exploring Gender Difference in Motivation, Engagement and Enrolment Behaviour of Senior Secondary Physics Students in New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina

    2015-02-01

    Although substantial gender differences in motivation, engagement and enrolment behaviour are frequently reported in the international physics education literature, the majority of studies focus on students who intend to choose physics for their future study. The present multi-occasional study examines the gender difference in motivation, engagement and enrolment behaviour among senior secondary students from New South Wales schools who have already chosen to study physics. It examines whether the differences reflect differences of degree in these dimensions, or differences of kind for these students. Fine-grained analyses at module-specific level of the senior secondary physics curriculum indicated that the differences do not represent differences of kind. That is, girls' and boys' perceptions of the key facets of motivation, sustained engagement and choice intentions in relation to physics seemed to be qualitatively the same. However, there were differences in the degree to which boys and girls are motivated, although the pattern was inconsistent across the four modules of the senior secondary physics curriculum. Girls' motivation, engagement and sustained enrolment plans in relation to physics were found equal to or higher than boys' at various time points through the course. These findings highlight the need to change the existing gender-biased stereotype that students perceive physics as a male domain and that subjective motivation, engagement and enrolment plans will always report higher measures for males. The results have implications for intervention strategies aimed at sustaining student motivation in physics. The potential implications of the findings for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  14. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  15. Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, Cynthia M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2008-01-01

    Large nationally representative samples of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian American, and American Indian students were used in this study to examine current patterns and recent trends in racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline from 1991 to 2005. Findings revealed that Black, Hispanic, and American Indian youth are slightly more…

  16. The Effects of Spiritual/Religious Engagement on College Students' Affective Outcomes: Differences by Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, Liz A.; Smedley, Cynthia Toms; Fisher, Dan; Wallace, Elizabeth; Young, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the general and differential effects of spiritual/religious engagement on affective college outcomes (i.e., leadership skills, interpersonal skills, social satisfaction, sense of belonging, and psychological well-being) across different gender and racial groups among undergraduate students at research universities. The study…

  17. Exploring Gender Differences in the Relationship between HIV/STD Testing and Condom Use among Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Jean Breny; Mugno, Raymond; Bulmer, Sandra M.; Danvers, Karina; Vancour, Michele L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are increasing among university students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between condom use and (1) HIV/STD testing behaviors, (2) STD treatment behaviors and, (3) alcohol use behaviors. Methods: A survey was…

  18. The Effect of Mind Mapping on EFL Students' Idea Development in Argumentative Writing across Gender Differences and Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, Ary Setya Budhi; Latief, Mohammad Adnan; Sulistyo, Gunadi Harry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of mind mapping as a strategy in generating ideas before writing on the EFL students' idea development in argumentative writing as perceived from their gender differences and learning styles. By conducting an experimental investigation at university level in Indonesia, two existing TOEFL classes…

  19. A Study On Gender-based Differences In Apology Strategies Of English Department Students In Campus Setting

    OpenAIRE

    AYUBADIAH, FITRAHNANDA

    2014-01-01

    Key words: speech act, apology strategies, gender This study is aimed to find out the apology strategies used by students ofEnglish Department Universitas Brawijaya. There were two problems of thestudy: (1) what are the types of apology strategies used by male and femalestudents of English Department Universitas Brawijaya and (2) what are the factors that facilitate the differences of apology strategies used by male and female students of English Department Universitas Brawijaya.This study us...

  20. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Chi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels, higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. Key words: Chinese university students, same-sex attraction and behavior, gender differences

  1. "Boy Crisis" or "Girl Risk"? The Gender Difference in Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behavior Among Middle-School Students in China and its Relationship to Gender Role Conflict and Violent Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Xin, Moye

    2018-03-01

    We attempted to test if there were gender differences in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors among Chinese middle-school students, and analyze the impact of gender role conflict and violent experiences on these behaviors among middle-school students of different genders. Based on the survey data from seven middle schools in Xi'an region of China, the gender difference in NSSI behaviors and its associated factors were analyzed in this study. There was no significant gender difference in NSSI behaviors among middle-school students; however, female middle-school students were more likely to experience gender role conflicts while male students were more likely to experience all kinds of violence earlier. Gender role conflicts and violent experiences can explain the prevalence of NSSI behaviors by gender, to some extent. The hypothesis on gender patterns of "boy crisis" or "girl risk" on NSSI prevalence was not verified; however, a "girl risk" for gender role conflicts and a "boy crisis" in violent experiences were found. The gender role conflicts were significantly associated with NSSI prevalence among middle-school students to some extent; however, this relationship was adjusted by variables of violent experiences. The different variables of violent experiences were the important predictors of NSSI prevalence among male and female middle-school students with specific contents varying across genders.

  2. Gender-related differences in reasoning skills and learning interests of junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Michal

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender-related differences in the relationship between the development of formal reasoning skills and learning interests during the early adolescent stage. For this purpose, 249 students, from seventh to ninth grade, were assessed for their level of mastery of formal reasoning skills by a test based on videotaped simple experiments. Learning interests were assessed by a written response to an open question. Results showed that adolescent boys develop patterns of formal reasoning before their girl classmates. In addition, boys tend to prefer science and technology subjects, while girls tend to prefer language, social studies, and humanities. Analysis of interactions showed that boys' tendency toward science and technology is positively correlated to their age and development of formal reasoning, while girls' tendency to the above subjects is positively related to their development of formal reasoning capacity, but inversely related to their age. Possible explanations to the above-described findings and suggestions for instructional modes that may increase girls' interest in science and technology are discussed.

  3. Ethnic Differences in Sexual Attitudes of U.S. College Students: Gender, Acculturation, and Religiosity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrold, Tierney K.

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative roles of acculturation and religiosity on ethnic differences in sexual attitudes have not been often empirically explored. The present study assessed differences in sexual attitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures, as well as religiosity, within each ethnic group. A total of 1,415 college students (67% Euro-American, 16% Hispanic, 17% Asian; 32% men, 68% women) completed questionnaires which assessed attitudes towards homosexuality, gender role traditionality, casual sex, and extramarital sex. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative sexual attitudes than did their Hispanic and Euro-American peers. Hispanics reported sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For both Hispanic and Asians, higher acculturation predicted sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For Asian, Hispanic, and Euro-American women, there was a significant interaction between intrinsic religiosity and spirituality such that the relationship between conservativism of sexual attitudes and intrinsic religiosity was stronger at higher levels of spirituality. In Euro-Americans and Asians, intrinsic religiosity and religious fundamentalism strongly predicted conservative sexual attitudes; while still significant, these relationships were not as pronounced in the Hispanic sample, implying an ethnic-by-religious effect. Novel to this study, acculturation did not mediate the relationship between religiosity and sexual attitudes, indicating that ethnic differences in religiosity effects were distinct from acculturation. PMID:18839302

  4. The Importance of Sport in Students’ Lives and the Frequency of Sport Participation Among Students - Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Majerič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana in the importance of sport in their lives and the frequency of sport participation. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N = 1390; a questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013. In this study, two variables were analysed: the importance of sport in students’ lives and the frequency of sport participation; the data were analysed with SPSS for Windows. The basic statistical parameters for both variables were calculated. To calculate the gender differences, a t-test for independent samples and the Mann-Whitney U test were run. For the variable ‘importance of sport in students’ lives’, 61.95% of male and 53.20% of female respondents reported that sport is important and very important in their lives. The gender differences were small but statistically significant (p=0.013. For the variable ‘frequency of participation in sport activity’, 79.61% of male and 77.10% of female respondents reported that they were sport active every day, 4 to 6 times a week or 2 to 3 times a week. The gender differences in this variable were also statistically significant (p=0.000. Our findings and conclusions provide useful guidance to the closer and wider professional public who organize sport programmes for students.

  5. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  6. Video gaming and gender differences in digital and printed reading performance among 15-year-olds students in 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Video games are a favorite leisure-time activity among teenagers worldwide. This study examines cross-national gender differences in reading achievement and video gaming and whether video gaming explains gender differences in reading achievement and differences in performance between paper-based and computer-based reading. We use data from a representative sample of 145,953 students from 26 countries who sat the PISA 2012 assessments and provided self-reports on use of video games. Although boys tend to have poorer results in both the computer-based and the paper-based reading assessments, boys' under achievement is smaller when the assessment is delivered on computer than when it is delivered on paper. Boys underperformance compared to girls in the two reading assessments is particularly pronounced among low-achieving students. Among both boys and girls moderate use of single-player games is associated with a performance advantage. However, frequent engagement with collaborative online games is generally associated with a steep reduction in achievement, particularly in the paper-based test and particularly among low-achieving students. Excessive gaming may hinder academic achievement, but moderate gaming can promote positive student outcomes. In many countries video gaming explains the difference in the gender gap in reading between the paper-based and the computer-based assessments. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Attribution and Motivation: Gender, Ethnicity, and Religion Differences among Indonesian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutantoputri, Novita W.; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study explores the possibilities of gender, ethnicity, and religion differences on attributions (locus of control, stability, personal and external control), motivational goals (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance, and work avoidance), self-efficacy, intelligence beliefs, religiosity, racial/ethnic identity, and academic…

  8. Gender difference in preference of specialty as a career choice among Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-11-10

    In Japan, the absolute deficiency of doctors and maldistribution of doctors by specialty is a significant problem in the Japanese health care system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to specialty preference in career choice among Japanese medical students. A total of 368 medical students completed the survey giving an 88.2 % response rate. The subjects comprised 141 women aged 21 ± 3 (range, 18-34) years and 227 men aged 22 ± 4 (range, 18-44) years. Binary Logistic regression analysis was performed using specialty preferences as the criterion variable and the factors in brackets as six motivational variables (e.g., Factor 1: educational experience; Factor 2: job security; Factor 3: advice from others; Factor 4: work-life balance; Factor 5: technical and research specialty; and Factor 6: personal reasons). Women significantly preferred pediatrics, obstetrics & gynecology, and psychology than the men. Men significantly preferred surgery and orthopedics than the women. For both genders, a high odds ratio (OR) of "technical & research specialty" and a low OR for "personal reasons" were associated with preference for surgery. "Technical & research specialty" was positively associated with preference for special internal medicine and negatively for pediatrics. "Work-life balance" was positively associated with preference for psychology and negatively for emergency medicine. Among the women only, "technical & research specialty" was negatively associated with preference for general medicine/family medicine and obstetrics & gynecology, and "job security" was positively associated for general medicine/family medicine and negatively for psychology. Among men only, "educational experience" and "personal reasons" were positively, and "job security" was negatively associated with preference for pediatrics. For both genders, "work-life balance" was positively associated with preference for controllable lifestyle specialties. We

  9. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  10. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results.

  11. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Ph...

  12. Gender differences in heterosexual college students' conceptualizations and indicators of sexual consent: implications for contemporary sexual assault prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.

  13. Gender Effects in Assessment of Economic Knowledge and Understanding: Differences among Undergraduate Business and Economics Students in Germany, Japan, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Happ, Roland; Walstad, William B.; Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Gender effects in large-scale assessments have become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Yet few studies have linked differences in assessment results of male and female students in higher education to construct-relevant features of the target construct. This paper examines gender effects on students' economic…

  14. Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, John M.; Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, Cynthia M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2008-01-01

    The present study uses large nationally representative samples of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian American, and American Indian students to examine current patterns and recent trends (1991 to 2005) in racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline. We found that Black, Hispanic, and American Indian youth are slightly more likely than White and Asian American youth to be sent to the office and substantially (two to five times) more likely to be suspended or expelled. Although school...

  15. Gender difference in preference of specialty as a career choice among Japanese medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, the absolute deficiency of doctors and maldistribution of doctors by specialty is a significant problem in the Japanese health care system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to specialty preference in career choice among Japanese medical students. Methods A total of 368 medical students completed the survey giving an 88.2 % response rate. The subjects comprised 141 women aged 21 ± 3 (range, 18–34 years and 227 men aged 22 ± 4 (range, 18–44 years. Binary Logistic regression analysis was performed using specialty preferences as the criterion variable and the factors in brackets as six motivational variables (e.g., Factor 1: educational experience; Factor 2: job security; Factor 3: advice from others; Factor 4: work-life balance; Factor 5: technical and research specialty; and Factor 6: personal reasons. Results Women significantly preferred pediatrics, obstetrics & gynecology, and psychology than the men. Men significantly preferred surgery and orthopedics than the women. For both genders, a high odds ratio (OR of “technical & research specialty” and a low OR for “personal reasons” were associated with preference for surgery. “Technical & research specialty” was positively associated with preference for special internal medicine and negatively for pediatrics. “Work-life balance” was positively associated with preference for psychology and negatively for emergency medicine. Among the women only, “technical & research specialty” was negatively associated with preference for general medicine/family medicine and obstetrics & gynecology, and “job security” was positively associated for general medicine/family medicine and negatively for psychology. Among men only, “educational experience” and “personal reasons” were positively, and “job security” was negatively associated with preference for pediatrics. For both genders,

  16. The Importance of Sport in Students’ Lives and the Frequency of Sport Participation Among Students - Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Matej Majerič

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana in the importance of sport in their lives and the frequency of sport participation. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N = 1390); a questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013). In this study, two variables were analysed: the importance of sport in students’ lives and the frequency of sport participati...

  17. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese university students' attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years) indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels), higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China.

  18. Physical and relational aggression as predictors of drug use: gender differences among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skara, Silvana; Pokhrel, Pallav; Weiner, Michelle D; Sun, Ping; Dent, Clyde W; Sussman, Steve

    2008-12-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal relationships between physical and relational aggression and later drug use, as moderated by gender. Self-reported data were gathered from 2064 high school students at pretest and 1-year post-test to test the hypotheses that (1) males would engage in more physical aggression than females, whereas females would engage in more relational aggression than males; and (2) physical aggression would be a stronger drug use predictor for males and relational aggression a stronger predictor for females. Results indicated that males reported engaging in more physical aggression than females at baseline; however, females and males reported engaging in similar rates of relational aggression. After controlling for relational aggression, baseline drug use, and demographic variables, physical aggression at baseline was found to predict alcohol use 1-year later for males but not for females. After controlling for physical aggression, baseline drug use, and demographic variables, relational aggression was found to predict cigarette use and marijuana use for females but not for males. However, relational aggression was found to predict later alcohol and hard drug equally across gender. These findings suggest that both physical and relational aggression are predictive of subsequent drug use and have important implications for violence and drug use prevention intervention efforts.

  19. Menarche and menstruation through the eyes of pubescent students in eastern Taiwan: implications in sociocultural influence and gender differences issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2013-03-01

    Menstruation is a significant part of women's lives. It has been studied from many perspectives to draw various conclusions about biological and physiological development, gender differences, and sociocultural environments. The purpose of this study was to explore how male and female pubescent students perceive and interpret menarche and menstruation and how their perceptions reflect gender differences and the sociocultural environment in eastern Taiwan. This was an exploratory qualitative study that employed focus group interviews. Data were collected from 20 girls and 27 boys, aged 10-12 years, who were recruited from two elementary schools. Participants engaged in 19 focus group discussions, which lasted 45-60 minutes each. Discussion transcripts were collected, encoded, categorized, and analyzed using the Atlas V 5.0 software. The central theme in menarche and menstruation experiences among pubescent students in eastern Taiwan can be summarized as, "Struggling to grow up amidst contradictions," an attitude that reflects gender divisions and sociocultural representations and practices. Generally, participants' views on menstruation fell within five subthemes: "Ambiguous," "Disregarded," "Dirty," "Personal," and "Transitional." These themes were analyzed within the contexts of society, school, and family. In line with previous research, this study shows the need for more individual reproductive health consultations, reliable sex education, and well-planned health policies to assist pubescent students manage menstruation. In addition, this study suggests that the subjugation of girls and women remains a critical issue that must be addressed and challenged.

  20. Gender differences in dental students' professional expectations and attitudes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça Kfouri, M; Moysés, S T; Gabardo, M C L; Moysés, S J

    2017-09-22

    Introduction With the significant increase of women in dentistry, the profile of the dental professional has been altered.Aim To investigate the discourses of future dental surgeons, of both genders, from public and private universities of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, to detect whether gender profile differences can influence training and intended future practice.Methods The problem is approached using a qualitative design, with the strategy of collective interviews in focus groups followed by a discourse analysis.Results Women choose dentistry mainly because they like working with people and want to have formal employment in the future. Male discourses show a desire for professional status, worthy business prospects, and the flexibility of being self-employed. The analysis of the university education process revealed that men desire learning that is more technical, besides knowledge on business management, whereas women still complain of current prejudices in the personal relationships that exist with teaching staff and colleagues.Conclusion The teaching process, based on the technique-driven biomedical model, has not reached an ideal standard for the female gender in terms of training, which would be a model based on empathy and good relationships with human beings.

  1. Gender difference in academic performance of nursing students in a Malaysian university college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Chik, W Z; Salamonson, Y; Everett, B; Ramjan, L M; Attwood, N; Weaver, R; Saad, Z; Davidson, P M

    2012-09-01

    To examine differences in academic performance between male and female nursing students, and to identify whether professional identity and language usage were explanatory factors of academic performance. Although the numbers of men entering the nursing profession are increasing, societal stereotypes and the lack of male role models in nursing may have a negative impact on motivation, and hence, academic performance. A total of 147 students who were enrolled in an undergraduate nursing programme in Peninsula Malaysia were surveyed in January 2011. In addition to demographic and academic data, three instruments were administered to measure language acculturation and professional identity. The mean age of participants was 20.0 (SD: 1.5) years with 81% being female. Almost all students spoke the Malay language at home. Although there were no differences between male and female nursing students in relation to professional identity (P=0.496), male nursing students reported a lower mean English language usage score (9.9 vs. 10.9, P=0.011) and a higher mean Malay language usage score (20.4 vs. 18.8, P=0.017). Males were also found to have lower academic performance than female students, as measured by grade point average (GPA) (2.7 vs. 3.2, Pgender was the only significant predictor of academic performance (β=-0.44, P<0.001). Males represent less than 10% of the nursing workforce in developed countries, with some developing countries experiencing even lower participation rates. Promoting academic support of male nursing students may assist in increasing the number of male registered nurses in the nursing workforce. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  3. College Students' Experiences and Perceptions of Harassment on Campus: An Exploration of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Rankin, Susan R.

    2006-01-01

    Using a campus climate assessment instrument developed by Rankin (1998), we surveyed students (N = 7,347) from 10 campuses to explore the different experiences with harassment and campus climates reported by men and women. Both men and women reported experiencing harassment, although women experienced harassment at statistically significantly…

  4. Differentiating the Sources of Taiwanese High School Students' Multidimensional Science Learning Self-Efficacy: An Examination of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate Taiwanese high school students' multi-dimensional self-efficacy and its sources in the domain of science. Two instruments, Sources of Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SSLSE) and Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE), were used. By means of correlation and regression analyses, the relationships between students' science learning self-efficacy and the sources of their science learning self-efficacy were examined. The findings revealed that the four sources of the students' self-efficacy were found to play significant roles in their science learning self-efficacy. By and large, Mastery Experience and Vicarious Experience were found to be the two salient influencing sources. Several gender differences were also revealed. For example, the female students regarded Social Persuasion as the most influential source in the "Science Communication" dimension, while the male students considered Vicarious Experience as the main efficacy source. Physiological and Affective States, in particular, was a crucial antecedent of the female students' various SLSE dimensions, including "Conceptual Understanding," "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills," and "Science Communication." In addition, the variations between male and female students' responses to both instruments were also unraveled. The results suggest that, first, the male students perceived themselves as having more mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion than their female counterparts. Meanwhile, the female students experienced more negative emotional arousal than the male students. Additionally, the male students were more self-efficacious than the females in the five SLSE dimensions of "Conceptual Understanding," "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills," "Practical Work," "Everyday Application," and "Science Communication."

  5. Differentiating the Sources of Taiwanese High School Students' Multidimensional Science Learning Self-Efficacy: An Examination of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2018-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate Taiwanese high school students' multi-dimensional self-efficacy and its sources in the domain of science. Two instruments, Sources of Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SSLSE) and Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE), were used. By means of correlation and regression analyses, the relationships between students' science learning self-efficacy and the sources of their science learning self-efficacy were examined. The findings revealed that the four sources of the students' self-efficacy were found to play significant roles in their science learning self-efficacy. By and large, Mastery Experience and Vicarious Experience were found to be the two salient influencing sources. Several gender differences were also revealed. For example, the female students regarded Social Persuasion as the most influential source in the "Science Communication" dimension, while the male students considered Vicarious Experience as the main efficacy source. Physiological and Affective States, in particular, was a crucial antecedent of the female students' various SLSE dimensions, including "Conceptual Understanding," "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills," and "Science Communication." In addition, the variations between male and female students' responses to both instruments were also unraveled. The results suggest that, first, the male students perceived themselves as having more mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion than their female counterparts. Meanwhile, the female students experienced more negative emotional arousal than the male students. Additionally, the male students were more self-efficacious than the females in the five SLSE dimensions of "Conceptual Understanding," "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills," "Practical Work," "Everyday Application," and "Science Communication."

  6. Masturbation Experiences of Swedish Senior High School Students: Gender Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemeyer, Wiebke; Janssen, Erick; Wiltfang, Jens; Elmerstig, Eva

    Research about masturbation tends to be limited to the assessment of masturbation incidence and frequency. Consequently, little is known about what people experience connected to masturbation. This might be one reason why theoretical approaches that specifically address the persistent gender gap in masturbation frequency are lacking. The aim of the current study was to explore several aspects of masturbation in young men and women, and to examine possible associations with their social backgrounds and sexual histories. Data from 1,566 women and 1,452 men (ages 18 to 22) from 52 Swedish senior high schools were analyzed. Comparisons between men and women were made regarding incidence of and age at first masturbation, the use of objects (e.g., sex toys), fantasies, and sexual functioning during masturbation, as well as about their attitudes toward masturbation and sexual fantasies. Cluster analysis was carried out to identify similarities between and differences within the gender groups. While overall more men than women reported experience with several of the investigated aspects, cluster analyses revealed that a large proportion of men and women reported similar experiences and that fewer experiences are not necessarily associated with negative attitudes toward masturbation. Implications of these findings are discussed in consideration of particular social backgrounds.

  7. Motivational component profiles in university students learning histology: a comparative study between genders and different health science curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martín-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Sola, Tomás; Alaminos, Miguel

    2014-03-10

    The students' motivation to learn basic sciences in health science curricula is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different components of motivation (intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy and extrinsic -career and grade- motivation) on learning human histology in health science curricula and their relationship with the final performance of the students in histology. Glynn Science Motivation Questionnaire II was used to compare students' motivation components to learn histology in 367 first-year male and female undergraduate students enrolled in medical, dentistry and pharmacy degree programs. For intrinsic motivation, career motivation and self-efficacy, the highest values corresponded to medical students, whereas dentistry students showed the highest values for self-determination and grade motivation. Genders differences were found for career motivation in medicine, self-efficacy in dentistry, and intrinsic motivation, self-determination and grade motivation in pharmacy. Career motivation and self-efficacy components correlated with final performance in histology of the students corresponding to the three curricula. Our results show that the overall motivational profile for learning histology differs among medical, dentistry and pharmacy students. This finding is potentially useful to foster their learning process, because if they are metacognitively aware of their motivation they will be better equipped to self-regulate their science-learning behavior in histology. This information could be useful for instructors and education policy makers to enhance curricula not only on the cognitive component of learning but also to integrate students' levels and types of motivation into the processes of planning, delivery and evaluation of medical education.

  8. Association between joint hypermobility and anxiety in Brazilian university students: gender-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, S B; Osório, F L; Louzada-Junior, P; Moraes, D; Crippa, J A S; Martín-Santos, R

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety disorders may be associated with several non-psychiatric disorders. Current literature has been investigating the association between anxiety and joint hypermobility (JHM), with special interest in non-articular symptoms that may be related to autonomic dysfunction. This study investigated the association between anxiety and JHM in a sample of Brazilian university students. Data were cross-sectionally collected in two Brazilian universities (N=2600). Participants completed three validated self-rating anxiety scales: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the brief-version of SPIN (Mini-SPIN). They also answered the self-rating screening questionnaire for JHM: the Five-part Questionnaire for Identifying Hypermobility. Hypermobile women showed significantly higher scores in all the anxiety scales, when compared with men: BAI total score (t=3.77; panxiety and JHM in women, showing specific gender-related features in this field. It also directs attention to non-articular symptoms that may be enrolled in this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Gender differences in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  10. Differences in perceptions of managerial roles by gender among southern business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J O; Schellenberger, R E

    1991-12-01

    Perception of the roles necessary for managerial success based on the 10 verbal descriptors of the Mintzberg roles were gathered from 128 business students at a southern U.S. university. The objective was to assess whether these 72 men and 56 women viewed the importance of the roles differently. Ratings were collected on the 10 roles for each of four different types of managers. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, chi-squared analysis, and Spearman rank-order correlation. No differences were observed in the perception of men and women in these roles or of their relative importance.

  11. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale eSalameh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. Results : Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely, vegetarian/low calorie diet (mainly plant food while avoiding ‘western’ food, composite dishes, and bread; mixed diet (high consumption of plant food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food, and finally the westernized diet (high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes. We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa=1.69; p<0.001, while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa=1.51; p<0.001, seemingly in private universities (p=0.053. Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (P<0.05. Conclusion: Male university students, despite having a higher BMI, reported a higher consumption of food according to a westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed among university youth in Lebanon to address their

  12. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  13. Gender Difference in Internet Use and Internet Problems among Quebec High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Magali; Brunelle, Natacha; Tremblay, Joel; Leclerc, Danielle; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Khazaal, Yasser; Légaré, Andrée-Anne; Rousseau, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal

    2016-10-01

    There are presently no data available concerning Internet addiction (IA) problems among adolescents in Canada and the province of Quebec. The goal of this study is thus to document and compare the influence of gender on Internet use and addiction. The study data were collected from a larger research project on gambling among adolescents. Activities conducted online (applications used and time spent) as well as answers to the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) were collected from 3938 adolescents from grades 9 to 11. The two most often employed cut-off points for the IAT in the literature were documented: (40-69 and 70+) and (50+). Boys spent significantly more time on the Internet than did girls. A greater proportion of the girls made intense use of social networks, whereas a greater proportion of the boys made intense use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online games, and adult sites. The proportion of adolescents with a potential IA problem varied according to the cut-off employed. When the cut-off was set at 70+, 1.3% of the adolescents were considered to have an IA, while 41.7% were seen to be at risk. At a 50+ cut-off, 18% of the adolescents were considered to have a problem. There was no significant difference between the genders concerning the proportion of adolescents considered to be at risk or presenting IA problems. Finally, analysis of the percentile ranks would seem to show that a cut-off of 50+ better describes the category of young people at risk. The results of this study make it possible to document Internet use and IA in a large number of Quebec adolescents. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. The Effects of Epistemic Beliefs in Science and Gender Difference on University Students' Science-Text Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Huang, Rui-Ting; Tsai, I-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore not only the effects of epistemic beliefs in science on science-text reading but also the gender differences in epistemic beliefs and the reading process. The interactions between gender and epistemic beliefs during reading were also explored. A total of 25 university students, 13 male and 12…

  15. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results. PMID:25938115

  16. Gender and Regional Differences in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Lingling; Zhou, Chunfang; Zhang, Song

    2016-01-01

    in Mainland China and 703 students in Taiwan. Based on data analysis, we find common characteristics, gender differences, and regional differences in the creativity of female postgraduate students. The female students in both regions are less confident in their abilities in scientific research and innovative...

  17. Modelling of Factors Influencing Gender Difference in Mathematics Achievement Using TIMSS 2011 Data for Singaporean Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Seok

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed gender difference in mathematics achievement to various sociocultural influences. Singapore is a country of higher gender equality as represented in the Global Gender Gap Index and Singaporean girls perform as well or higher than boys in international mathematics assessments. This study develops a conceptual model…

  18. Motivational component profiles in university students learning histology: a comparative study between genders and different health science curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The students’ motivation to learn basic sciences in health science curricula is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different components of motivation (intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy and extrinsic -career and grade- motivation) on learning human histology in health science curricula and their relationship with the final performance of the students in histology. Methods Glynn Science Motivation Questionnaire II was used to compare students’ motivation components to learn histology in 367 first-year male and female undergraduate students enrolled in medical, dentistry and pharmacy degree programs. Results For intrinsic motivation, career motivation and self-efficacy, the highest values corresponded to medical students, whereas dentistry students showed the highest values for self-determination and grade motivation. Genders differences were found for career motivation in medicine, self-efficacy in dentistry, and intrinsic motivation, self-determination and grade motivation in pharmacy. Career motivation and self-efficacy components correlated with final performance in histology of the students corresponding to the three curricula. Conclusions Our results show that the overall motivational profile for learning histology differs among medical, dentistry and pharmacy students. This finding is potentially useful to foster their learning process, because if they are metacognitively aware of their motivation they will be better equipped to self-regulate their science-learning behavior in histology. This information could be useful for instructors and education policy makers to enhance curricula not only on the cognitive component of learning but also to integrate students’ levels and types of motivation into the processes of planning, delivery and evaluation of medical education. PMID:24612878

  19. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  20. Gender Differences in School-Family Conflict and School-Family Enrichment in Nontraditional Portuguese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cláudia; van Rhijn, Tricia; Coimbra, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, higher education institutions have made efforts to attract people who are either in the labor market or unemployed to the educational system. Accordingly, the participation of nontraditional students in postsecondary education has been increasing over the years in Portugal, including working students and working student parents.…

  1. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  2. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  3. [Laughter: gender differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender Differences in the High School and Affective Experiences of Introductory College Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The disparity in persistence between males and females studying physics has been a topic of concern to physics educators for decades. Overall, while female students perform as well as or better than male students, they continue to lag considerably in terms of persistence. The most significant drop in females studying physics occurs between high…

  5. Diversity in primary teacher education gender differences in student factors and curriculum perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.M.T.; Bergen, T.C.M.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands only a small number of male students opt for primary school teaching and a relatively large percentage of them leave without graduating. A small-scale research project was set up to explore the question: Can genderspecific student factors be identified in relation to the initial

  6. Gender-related differences in student achievements in primary teacher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.; Bergen, T.C.M.; Dekkers, H.

    2007-01-01

    It was primarily the feminisation of primary education that spurred the research project reported on here. Feminisation is not only caused by the small percentage of male students opting for primary teacher training but also due to the relatively large percentage of male students in a teacher

  7. Gender Differences in Perception of Contraception Alternatives by Never-Married College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robert J.; Gold, Robert S.

    A study examined the perceptions of college students regarding 10 contraceptive methods, including the condom, douche, oral contraceptive, withdrawal, diaphragm, female sterilization, spermicidal foam, rhythm, male sterilization, and intrauterine device. A total of 285 females and 316 males responded to a questionnaire which had students rank each…

  8. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  9. Gender Differences in the Relationships Among Major Depressive Disorder, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Mental Health Treatment Engagement Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.

  10. Gender Differences in Body Image Perception among Northern Malaysian Tertiary Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Lee-Min; Say, Yee-How

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study examined the association of socio-cultural and psychological factors with body shape concern, perception and body weight perception among tertiary students of Northern Malaysia. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR and KTAR), Perak campuses, between August 2011 and January 2012. Methodology: A total of 1003 students were recruited (M = 431, F = 572; mean age 19.96 ± 1.51) and their body image...

  11. Gender difference in preference of specialty as a career choice among Japanese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Japan, the absolute deficiency of doctors and maldistribution of doctors by specialty is a significant problem in the Japanese health care system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to specialty preference in career choice among Japanese medical students. Methods A total of 368 medical students completed the survey giving an 88.2 % response rate. The subjects comprised 141 women aged 21 ± 3 (range, 18–34) years and 227 men aged 22 ± 4 ...

  12. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

  13. Measurement Invariance in Careers Research: Using IRT to Study Gender Differences in Medical Students' Specialization Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Tara S.; Thompson, Lori Foster; Meade, Adam W.; Newton, Dale A.; Grayson, Martha S.

    2008-01-01

    The current study demonstrates the use of item response theory (IRT) to conduct measurement invariance analyses in careers research. A self-report survey was used to assess the importance 1,363 fourth-year medical students placed on opportunities to provide comprehensive patient care when choosing a career specialty. IRT analyses supported…

  14. Beliefs versus Lived Experience: Gender Differences in Catholic College Students' Attitudes Concerning Premarital Sex and Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.; Pichler, Shaun

    2008-01-01

    In April 2003, the researchers conducted a survey of undergraduate students living in residence halls at Loyola University Chicago. The survey contained twenty statements on issues currently discussed in the religious circles, especially the Catholic Church. The majority of both Catholic males and Catholic females disagreed with the statements,…

  15. Gender Differences in Factors Pertaining to Math Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Math anxiety has been seen as one of the biggest obstacles to student success in mathematics. The nature of this condition, as well as its relationships with numerous predictors, has been investigated for decades. However, there is still a significant lack of agreement among the findings of these research studies. The current study examines gender…

  16. Examining the Social Influence on College Students for Playing Online Game: Gender Differences and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Jenn; Chiu, Jun-Zhi; Chen, Yi-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Online games represent a burgeoning market sector of increasing economic importance. However, most previous studies have focused on the utilitarian perspectives of the technology. In other words, there is limited the investigation to social influence on college students' attitude. The aims of this study is to understand the effect of social…

  17. Emotional intelligence and social skills on self-efficacy in Secondary Education students. Are there gender differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavera, Carlos; Usán, Pablo; Jarie, Laurane

    2017-10-01

    Self-efficacy affects our students' academic results, which may be related to people's social skills and emotional intelligence. This study included 1402 (50.71% males) Secondary Education Spanish students (12-17 years), and analysed the relation of self-efficacy with emotional intelligence and social skills. It showed how these constructs were related, and how the self-efficacy perceived by students varied according to their social skills and emotional intelligence. Gender did not influence self-efficacy, social skills and emotional intelligence. These variables showed similar correlation indices in females and males. Self-efficacy was related with social skills and emotional intelligence in Secondary Education students, but this relation was not gender-sensitive. More studies and research are needed to study and describe these variables according to gender from other perspectives. One proposal is to investigate the association between gender identity and self-efficacy and social skills and emotional intelligence to better understand how these constructs participate in adolescent development. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender and Racial Differences: Development of Sixth Grade Students' Geometric Spatial Visualization within an Earth/Space Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christa; Wilhelm, Jennifer Anne; Lamar, Mary; Cole, Merryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sixth-grade middle-level students' geometric spatial development by gender and race within and between control and experimental groups at two middle schools as they participated in an Earth/Space unit. The control group utilized a regular Earth/Space curriculum and the experimental group used a National Aeronautics and…

  19. Ethnic and Gender Differences in First-Year College Students' Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, and Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, Gabrielle Maria; Winsler, Adam; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Critical ethnic and gender gaps exist in college retention and graduation rates. Early achievement motivation may play an important role in student persistence. A sample of undergraduates completed surveys tapping motivation at the beginning (n = 591) and end (n = 232) of their first semester in college. African American and Caucasian students…

  20. Gender Differences in University EFL Students' Language Proficiency Corresponding to Self-Rated Attention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hsin-Yi; Kelsen, Brent A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines university students' self-reported inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and their relation to performance on a high-stakes English proficiency test while taking gender into consideration. Method: Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity attributes were assessed using the Adult Attention…

  1. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-01-01

    This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised ...

  2. Engineering, technology and science disciplines and gender difference: a case study among Indian students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvalath, Reena

    2018-01-01

    It is proposed to examine the argument that females cannot perform better in engineering and science fields because of their poor mathematical or logical reasoning. The major reason for the reduced number of females in the above fields in India is the socio-cultural aversion towards females choosing the field and restriction in providing higher education for them by their parents. The present study shows that the females who get the opportunity to study engineering and science perform equal to or better than their male counterparts. An analysis of CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average) of 2631 students who have completed their engineering or science programme in one of the top engineering colleges in India for five years shows that female academic performance is equal to or better than that of males. Mathematical, logical, verbal and mechanical reasoning are tested while calculating CGPA.

  3. Gender, negative life events and coping on different stages of depression severity: A cross-sectional study among Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Jun; Niu, Geng-Feng; You, Zhi-Qi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Tang, Yun

    2017-02-01

    The effects of gender, negative life events, and coping on depression have been well-documented. But depression is a heterogeneous syndrome of which the severity ranged from mild depression to major depression. This study aimed to investigate the specific effects of gender, negative life events, and coping on different stages of depression severity. A total of 5989 students (aged 16-25 years, M=20.85, SD=0.58), recruited from six universities in the central region of China using the stratified cluster sampling method, completed Life Events Questionnaire, Coping Response Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ. Among the participants, 708 (11.8%) students presented different severity levels of depression. Gender, negative life events, positive coping, and negative coping all had significant effects on depression. That is, the possibility of being depressed was significantly higher in female university students, or students who had more negative life events, more negative coping, or positive coping. In terms of the different stages of depression severity, all these factors had significant effects on the stage from non- depression to mild depression; only gender, negative life events and positive coping had significant effects on the stage from mild depression to moderate depression; only gender had a significant effect on the stage from moderate depression to major depression. The causal role of these factors on different stages of depression severity could not be inferred. Moreover, the participants were from a non-clinical population. The effects of gender, negative life events and coping varied in different stages of depression severity. The effects of life events and coping styles became insignificant with the increasing severity of depression, whereas the effect of gender remained significant. The results could provide guidance for the prevention, intervention, and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Differences in body dissatisfaction, weight-management practices and food choices of high-school students in the Bangkok metropolitan region by gender and school type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongwatpol, Pitipa; Gates, Gail E

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to compare body dissatisfaction, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices by gender and school type. A questionnaire was used to obtain height, weight, body image perception using Stunkard's figure rating scale, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices. Nine single- and mixed-gender schools located in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. Students in 10th-12th grade, aged 15-18 years (n 2082). Only 18% of females and 21% of males did not indicate body dissatisfaction. About 66% of females selected a thinner ideal figure than their current figure. Among males, 44% wanted a thinner figure, but 35% wanted a bigger figure. However, univariate analysis found differences by school type but not gender in the degree of body dissatisfaction; students in single-gender schools had more body dissatisfaction. Females reported using more weight-management practices but less physical activity, while males reported healthier food choices. Participants in single-gender schools had healthier food choices compared with those in mixed-gender schools. Adolescents who were at increased risk of a greater degree of body dissatisfaction were females, attended single-gender schools, had lower household income, higher BMI and less physical activity. Most participants reported being dissatisfied with their current body shape, but the type and level of dissatisfaction and use of weight-management practices differed by gender and type of school. These findings suggest that programmes to combat body dissatisfaction should address different risk factors in males and females attending single- and mixed-gender schools.

  5. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Self-Concept and Gender Differences on Students' Academic Performance in Borno State Colleges of Education: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Umar; Bello, S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…

  6. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Gender inequality and gender differences in authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J

    2012-10-01

    Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.

  8. The comparisons of gender differences in playfulness, humor and creativity of postgraduate students between Mainland China and Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Lingling; Zhang, Song; Zhou, Chunfang

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study influences from regional cultural differences and gender differences on fostering creativity in postgraduate level education between Mainland China and Taiwan. From the departure of viewing creativity as a socio-cultural conception, playfulness and humor are focused as two...

  9. Gender differences in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E

    1991-01-01

    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  10. Gender Differences in Ethnic Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Enno Masurel; Peter Nijkamp

    2003-01-01

    Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While the earliest studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies have focused on gender-based differences in entrepreneurship from a new perspective, referred to as the “integrated perspective”, which is rooted in psychological and sociological theories. Thi...

  11. Gender and Student Achievement in English Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Machin; Sandra McNally

    2006-01-01

    The widening gap between the average educational achievement of boys and girls has been the subject of much discussion. This gap is especially controversial for students taking national exams at the end of their compulsory education. However, the gender gap is also apparent at earlier and at later stages of education. In this paper, we analyse changes over time in the gender achievement gap at the different stages of compulsory education. We first use a combination of data sources to paint a ...

  12. Self-Regulation of Learning and Academic Delay of Gratification: Gender and Ethnic Differences among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2007-01-01

    Self-regulated learners engage in self-generated thoughts, actions, and feelings while pursuing academic goals. The most successful learners use appropriate learning strategies and maintain high levels of motivation. Few studies on the self-regulation of learning have examined individual differences such as gender and ethnicity among college…

  13. Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Career Commitment: Gender and Ethnic Differences among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of responses from 165 undergraduates on the Career Decision Making Self Efficacy Scale revealed high internal consistency for the instrument and moderate correlation between it and the Career Commitment Scale. No gender or ethnic differences were found in this correlation. Blacks scored significantly higher than whites on both measures.…

  14. Gender Differences in Solving Mathematics Problems among Two-Year College Students in a Developmental Algebra Class and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann K.

    A study was conducted at the University of Maine at Orono (UMO) to examine gender differences with respect to mathematical problem-solving ability, visual spatial ability, abstract reasoning ability, field independence/dependence, independent learning style, and developmental problem-solving ability (i.e., formal reasoning ability). Subjects…

  15. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Borm, George F.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eshuis, Silvia; Booij, Jan; Dluzen, Dean E.; Horstink, Martin W. I. M.

    Objective: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists ( disease duration Results: Age at onset

  16. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, C.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Borm, G.F.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Leenders, K.L.; Eshuis, S.; Booij, J.; Dluzen, D.E.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We

  17. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Borm, George F.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eshuis, Silvia; Booij, Jan; Dluzen, Dean E.; Horstink, Martin W. I. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We

  18. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...

  19. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)

    2015-01-01

    Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation...

  20. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  1. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  2. Gender differences in cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-07-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil [Child Neuropsychological Assessment] (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solis, 2007), were analyzed. The sample included 788 monolingual children (350 boys, 438 girls) ages 5 to 16 years from Mexico and Colombia. Gender differences were observed in oral language (language expression and language comprehension), spatial abilities (recognition of pictures seen from different angles), and visual (Object Integration Test) and tactile perceptual tasks, with boys outperforming girls in most cases, except for the tactile tasks. Gender accounted for only a very small percentage of the variance (1%-3%). Gender x Age interactions were observed for the tactile tasks only. It was concluded that gender differences during cognitive development are minimal, appear in only a small number of tests, and account for only a low percentage of the score variance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Questioning Behavior of Students in the Inquiry Chemistry Laboratory: Differences between Sectors and Genders in the Israeli Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Rap, Shelley; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi

    2015-01-01

    The present research is part of a longitude research study regarding the questioning behavior of students in the inquiry chemistry laboratory in Israel. We found that students who were involved in learning chemistry by the inquiry method ask more and higher-level questions. However, throughout the years, we have observed that differences between…

  4. Sex differences, gender and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-02

    This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Gender differences and pain medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jen; Holdcroft, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Subtle genetic and psychological variations are increasingly recognized to contribute to pain and analgesic efficacy and safety. The influence of sex on this relationship remains poorly understood, particularly in humans. The issue is complicated by the overlay of gender onto physical sex, and its associated stereotypes and expectations. Women appear to use more pain-relieving medications than men; however, it remains unclear whether these observations represent true differences in analgesic usage patterns, or reporting bias. Differences in analgesic efficacy relating to body composition, metabolism and hormonal profiles have been demonstrated. Psychological and social elements of gender have also been associated with altered pain experiences and analgesic use profiles, albeit with significant individual variations. Intra-group differences may ultimately prove more important than sex differences. Further research may unravel the various threads linking gender and sex effects on analgesia with the aim of individualizing analgesia to optimize pain relief.

  6. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  7. Gender Differences in Ethnic Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While earlier studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies

  8. Does Gender Impact Business Students' Perceptions of Teaching Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Leon; Lavin, Angeline; Davies, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While there are certainly differences of opinion regarding teaching effectiveness, the goal of this study is to investigate whether there is consistency or differences in opinion based on the gender of the student doing the evaluation of the instructor or the gender of the instructor being evaluated. This paper summarizes the gender-based findings…

  9. Motivational component profiles in university students learning histology: a comparative study between genders and different health science curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; López-Núñez, Juan Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martín-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Sola, Tomás; Alaminos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The students' motivation to learn basic sciences in health science curricula is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different components of motivation (intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy and extrinsic -career and grade-motivation) on learning human histology in health science curricula and their relationship with the final performance of the students in histology. Methods: Glynn Science Motivation Questionnaire ...

  10. Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    2004-01-01

    Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…

  11. Gender differences in adolescents’ lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Hernando

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes gender differences observed in different aspects of adolescent lifestyles, such as physical activities and sports, involvement in extracurricular activities, use of ICT’s, time spent with friends and time spent studying, substance use, and sleep-related routines. Bearing this in mind, we analyzed differences by year and gender in a sample of 2400 adolescents, 55.5 percent girls and 44.5 percent of boys, aged between 12 and 17 (mean age =14.73 and SD = 1.24 in 20 schools from Andalusia. The results from correlation analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey test confirm significant correlations between most variables making up lifestyle, most of them positive except those related to substance use (most correlations were negative. We also found significant gender differences in lifestyles: 10 out of the 15 variables analyzed have significant gender differences. A significant negative correlation with age was found in a number of variables making up healthy lifestyles, such as the practice of sport and physical activity, participation in extracurricular activities and sleep.

  12. Gender Differences and Consumer Behavior of Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraljević Radojka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Millennial generation is considered the largest and best educated and therefore presents challenges to marketers. This paper aims to examine the gender differences in consumer behaviour of students - generation y. The study identifies gender differences in purchase behaviour, loyalty, price sensitivity and shopping habits. The empirical analysis is based on data obtained from a student survey (N=118; M=40, 68%, F=59, 32%. The data were analysed using chi-square test. Our findings suggest that women are more sensitive to price than men. They also belong more to the loyalty programs and use more loyalty awards schemes. Although the millennial generation has the reputation for being digital our study shows that they actually like visiting the stores instead of shopping online although the statistically significant difference is not found.

  13. Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Propensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); M. Minniti (Maria); C. Schade (Christian)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUsing data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident

  14. Gender differences in entrepreneurial propensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koellinger, P.; Minniti, M.; Schade, C.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident in their

  15. Gender Differences in Disciplinary Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nixaliz

    This study explored differences in disciplinary approaches of male and female teachers toward male and female children, examining the connection between educator's gender and method of disciplining urban, elementary school aged children. Participants were 20 New York State certified and licensed teachers in two elementary schools. Teacher surveys…

  16. Gender differences on tests of crystallized intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Muglia Wechsler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether performance on tests of crystallized intelligence is affected by gender and to ascertain whether differential item parameters could account for the gender disparities. The sample comprised 1.191 individuals (55% women between the ages of 16 and 77 years old (M=22; SD=9.5. The participants were primarily college students (58.3% living in four Brazilian states. Four verbal tests measuring crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms and verbal analogies were constructed and administered in a group setting. An analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in the overall performance between men and women. However, a differential item functioning analysis indicated significant differences on 8.7% of the items, which indicates the existence of gender bias. Because bias can limit women’s access to social opportunities, the results obtained indicate the importance of reducing item bias in cognitive measures to ensure the accuracy of test results

  17. Gender Differences Regarding Peer Influence and Attitude toward Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…

  18. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.

  19. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  20. Gender differences in factors associated with smartphone addiction: a cross-sectional study among medical college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baifeng; Liu, Fei; Ding, Shushu; Ying, Xia; Wang, Lele; Wen, Yufeng

    2017-10-10

    Smartphones are becoming increasingly indispensable in everyday life for most undergraduates in China, and this has been associated with problematic use or addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of smartphone addiction and the associated factors in male and female undergraduates. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 and included 1441 undergraduate students at Wannan Medical College, China. The Smartphone Addiction Scale short version (SAS-SV) was used to assess smartphone addiction among the students, using accepted cut-offs. Participants' demographic, smartphone usage, and psycho-behavioral data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to seek associations between smartphone addiction and independent variables among the males and females, separately. The prevalence of smartphone addiction among participants was 29.8% (30.3% in males and 29.3% in females). Factors associated with smartphone addiction in male students were use of game apps, anxiety, and poor sleep quality. Significant factors for female undergraduates were use of multimedia applications, use of social networking services, depression, anxiety, and poor sleep quality. Smartphone addiction was common among the medical college students investigated. This study identified associations between smartphone usage, psycho-behavioral factors, and smartphone addiction, and the associations differed between males and females. These results suggest the need for interventions to reduce smartphone addiction among undergraduate students.

  1. Dynamics of indexes of swimming and physical preparedness of students of marine type in the process of physical education and sport taking into account gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganchar A.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - to find out the dynamics of indexes of swimming and physical preparedness of students of marine type in the process of physical education and sport taking into account gender differences. 90 students took part in an experiment. Technology of pedagogical control is developed and the estimation of results of forming of skills of swimming is grounded. It is set that forming of skills of swimming for students takes a place under influence of basic physical qualities. Directions of development of physical qualities are rotined on the basis of the dominant motive modes. The most effective motive mode is recommended: systematic on 1-2 of teaching visit obligatory (32 hours and optional (32 hours educational employments.

  2. Gender differences in economic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Ergun, Selim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experimental economics literature on gender differences concerning four salient subjects: risk aversion, trust, deception and leadership. We review both experiments conducted in a laboratory and field experiments. We summarize very briefly the main characteristics of the experiments we review and point out the main results related to gender differences. The vast majority of the articles we have revised document gender differences in behavior; differences which could be explained by sex-role stereotypes which could be formed even in early stages of life and/or hormonal differences such as the female hormone oxytocin or estrogen.

    Este artículo revisa la literatura en el área de economía experimental sobre las diferencias de género en cuatro temas destacados: aversión al riesgo, confianza, engaño y liderazgo. Se revisan tanto experimentos realizados en laboratorios como experimentos de campo. Resumimos brevemente las principales características de los experimentos que consideramos y señalamos los principales resultados relacionados con las diferencias de género. La gran mayoría de los artículos que hemos revisado documentan diferencias de género en el comportamiento. Estas diferencias podrían explicarse por los estereotipos de roles sexuales que podrían formarse incluso en edades tempranas y / o diferencias hormonales como la hormona femenina oxitocina, o el estrógeno.

  3. Gender differences in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaromi Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines gender differences in different types of social networks. One of the main concepts relevant for studying gender differences is homophily, which refers to the tendency of people to interact more with similar individuals. In this paper homophily is analysed within the structural perspective which explains that the structures of our networks depend primarily on opportunities for social interactions, i.e. the composition and dynamics of the social context in which these interactions are embedded. Homophily is evident among males and females as early as in childhood, only to be even more prominent in school and adult years. Sex segregation is probably the most evident in the organisational context, where it has detrimental effects on women's careers, as women are generally underrepresented in positions of power and authority. Research in the last two decades pointed to the facts: 1 that men and women have very different types of organisational networks, 2 that successful men and women adopt different strategies to reach similar career objectives and acquire similar resources, and 3 that organisations also need to be actively involved in solving these gender-related issues.

  4. Television Viewing and Its Associations with Overweight, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Insufficient Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among U.S. High School Students: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Kann, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Examined race, ethnic, and gender specific differences in the association between television viewing and high school students' overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Data from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that most students' television viewing exceeded recommended levels, many students were…

  5. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice: Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Bjoern; Burgard, Claudia; Mitze, Timo

    This paper investigates the effects of tuition fees on the university enrollment and location decision of high school graduates in Germany. After a Federal Constitutional Court decision in 2005, 7 out of 16 German federal states introduced tuition fees for higher education. In the empirical...... analysis, we use the variation over time and across regions in this institutional change in order to isolate the causal effect of tuition fees on student enrollment and migration. Controlling for a range of regional- and university-specific effects, our results from Difference-in-Differences estimations...... show that there is generally no effect of tuition fees on internal enrollment rates. However, we find a redirecting effect on first-year students' migratory behavior as indicated by a significant drop in the gross in-migration rates in fee-charging states. Further, our results point at a stronger...

  6. Gender differences in alcohol-related non-consensual sex; cross-sectional analysis of a student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunby Clare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual offences are a global public health concern. Recent changes in the law in England and Wales have dramatically altered the legal landscape of sexual offences, but sexual assaults where the victim is voluntarily intoxicated by alcohol continue to have low conviction rates. Worldwide, students are high consumers of alcohol. This research aimed to compare male and female students in relation to their knowledge and attitudes about alcohol and sexual activity and to identify factors associated with being the victim of alcohol-related non-consensual sex. Methods 1,110 students completed an online questionnaire. Drinking levels were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Non-consensual sexual experiences were measured using the Sexual Experience Survey. Univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken using chi square and backwards stepwise logistic regression respectively. Results A third of respondents had experienced alcohol-related non-consensual sex. Male and female students differed in the importance they gave to cues in deciding if a person wished to have sex with them and their understanding of the law of consent. 82.2% of women who had experienced alcohol-related non-consensual sex were hazardous drinkers compared to 62.9% who drank at lower levels (P Conclusions Alcohol-related coerced sexual activity is a significant occurrence among students; attitudinal and knowledge differences between males and females may explain this. Educational messages that focus upon what is deemed acceptable sexual behaviour, the law and rape myths are needed but are set against a backdrop where drunkenness is commonplace.

  7. Gender Differences in Students’ Attitude towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiani, D.; Maulida, A. S.; Fadhillah, N.; Sihite, D. Y.

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the students’ attitude towards science and the effect of gender on students’ attitude. A total of 77 secondary school students participated in this study that were selected randomly in cluster, from various schools of Bandung, Indonesia. The attitude questionnaire consisted of 23 items related to four dimensions: enjoyment, self-confidence, value and motivation. Data collected by questionnaire were converted into interval scale using Method of Successive Interval (MSI) and further analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The use of MSI for analyzing the questionnaire data is still fairly new. Results showed that students’ positive attitude towards science was at medium level and there was no significant difference in attitude towards science between the female and male students. The study is of great significance to science teachers in order not to be gender biased when teaching science learning.

  8. Body dissatisfaction differences and similarities among people with eating disorders, people with gender dysphoria and university students

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito Alcón, María Frenzi; Rodríguez Molina, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Reconocimiento-No comercial-SinObraDerivada To subjects with gender dysphoria, body image is an important aspect of their condition. These individuals at times report high body dissatisfaction, similar to individuals with an eating disorder. In total, 61 subjects with gender dysphoria, 30 subjects with an eating disorder, and 40 healthy subjects were evaluated. We parted from the hypothesis that gender dysphoria subjects present more body dissatisfaction than the control group, but less t...

  9. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Gender Differences in College Students' Perceptions of Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…

  11. Gender Constructions and Legitimacy among University Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    serious difficulties in being accepted in a group and thus to complete their education. Second, I found that the negative categories were attributed to the students due to their gender. In Denmark we are very concerned of eliminating inequality and creating equal possibilities according to race, social...... background and gender. Thus, we tend to believe that gender play no role at all for the possibilities of university students to complete their education at a high level. Contrary to this assumption, my studies show that students used gender stereotypies to select and limit fellow students....

  12. Gender Constructions and Legitimacy among University Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    -social had serious difficulties in being accepted in a group and thus to complete their education. Second, I found that the negative categories were attributed to the students due to their gender. In Denmark we are very concerned of eliminating inequality and creating equal possibilities according to race......, social background and gender. Thus, we tend to believe that gender play no role at all for the possibilities of university students to complete their education at a high level. Contrary to this assumption, my studies show that students used gender stereotypies to select and limit fellow students....

  13. Prevalence of asthma symptoms based on the european community respiratory health survey questionnaire and FENO in university students: gender differences in symptoms and FENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizuka Tamotsu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO is used as a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. FENO is increased in patients with asthma. The relationship between subjective asthma symptoms and airway inflammation is an important issue. We expected that the subjective asthma symptoms in women might be different from those in men. Therefore, we investigated the gender differences of asthma symptoms and FENO in a survey of asthma prevalence in university students. Methods The information about asthma symptoms was obtained from answers to the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaire, and FENO was measured by an offline method in 640 students who were informed of this study and consented to participate. Results The prevalence of asthma symptoms on the basis of data obtained from 584 students (266 men and 318 women, ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, was analyzed. Wheeze, chest tightness, an attack of shortness of breath, or an attack of cough within the last year was observed in 13.2% of 584 students. When 38.0 ppb was used as the cut-off value of FENO to make the diagnosis of asthma, the sensitivity was 86.8% and the specificity was 74.0%. FENO was ≥ 38.0 ppb in 32.7% of students. FENO was higher in men than in women. The prevalence of asthma symptoms estimated by considering FENO was 7.2%; the prevalence was greater in men (9.4% than women (5.3%. A FENO ≥ 38.0 ppb was common in students who reported wheeze, but not in students, especially women, who reported cough attacks. Conclusions The prevalence of asthma symptoms in university students age 18 to 24 years in Japan was estimated to be 7.2% on the basis of FENO levels as well as subjective symptoms. Gender differences were observed in both FENO levels and asthma symptoms reflecting the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Trial registration number UMIN000003244

  14. Gender, school and academic year differences among Spanish university students at high-risk for developing an eating disorder: An epidemiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrobles Jose A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the university population at high-risk of developing an eating disorder and the prevalence of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours amongst groups at risk; gender, school or academic year differences were also explored. Methods A cross-sectional study based on self-report was used to screen university students at high-risk for an eating disorder. The sample size was of 2551 university students enrolled in 13 schools between the ages of 18 and 26 years. The instruments included: a social-demographic questionnaire, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R, and the Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. The sample design is a non-proportional stratified sample by academic year and school. The prevalence rate was estimated controlling academic year and school. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate adjusted associations between gender, school and academic year. Results Female students presented unhealthy weight-control behaviours as dieting, laxatives use or self-induced vomiting to lose weight than males. A total of 6% of the females had a BMI of 17.5 or less or 2.5% had amenorrhea for 3 or more months. In contrast, a higher proportion of males (11.6% reported binge eating behaviour. The prevalence rate of students at high-risk for an eating disorder was 14.9% (11.6–18 for males and 20.8% (18.7–22.8 for females, according to an overall cut-off point on the EDI questionnaire. Prevalence rates presented statistically significant differences by gender (p Conclusion The prevalence of eating disorder risk in university students is high and is associated with unhealthy weight-control practices, similar results have been found in previous studies using cut-off points in questionnaires. These results may be taken into account to encourage early detection and a greater awareness for seeking treatment in order

  15. Differences from gender about the impact of Eating Behaviour Disorder on personality factors of students at secondary level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GARROTE ROJAS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to know the obsession for the thinness or incessant search of the thinness, as essential characteristic of eating Disorders, verify if significant differences exist according to the sex, to analyze the trend of students to have thoughts or to give them heavy meals –or gluttonies– uncontrollable, and verify the degree of dissatisfaction with the general form of their body or with the parts of the same one that more worried those who suffer eating Disorders (stomach, hips, thighs, buttocks, etc. For it, we have used an eclectic methodology. The samples of students who have done the test EPQ-J is 700. The students analyzed in the sample show lacks in some areas at the personal level that they exhibit to suffer an eating Disorders. There would be necessary to underline that, with regard to the «emocionalidad», 7.73% of the men and 9.63% of the women prove to be anxious, worried, with fast changes of humor, frequently depressed, they sleep badly, etc., obtaining their representation, at the age of 13. There has been verified that, 12.26% of the males and 6.85% of the women are unsatisfied with their own body.

  16. Effect of streaming by gender on student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related differences in cerebral organization. In: Wilting MA 85 Patterson AC (eds). Sex related difference in cognitive functioning. New York: Academic Press. Changeiywo JM 2000. Students' images of science in Kenya: A comparison of gender.

  17. The perceptions of students on gender equality | Nkosi | Gender and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is about the perceptions of University of Venda students regarding gender equality. South Africa has made significant strides in relation to gender mainstreaming. In addition to the constitution, there are many policies that have been developed and adopted to ensure fair and equal treatment of women. However ...

  18. Gender differences in risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Harris

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Across many real-world domains, men engage in more risky behaviors than do women. To examine some of the beliefs and preferences that underlie this difference, 657 participants assessed their likelihood of engaging in various risky activities relating to four different domains (gambling, health, recreation, and social, and reported their perceptions of (1 probability of negative outcomes, (2 severity of potential negative outcomes, and (3 enjoyment expected from the risky activities. Women's greater perceived likelihood of negative outcomes and lesser expectation of enjoyment partially mediated their lower propensity toward risky choices in gambling, recreation, and health domains. Perceptions of severity of potential outcomes was a partial mediator in the gambling and health domains. The genders did not differ in their propensity towards taking social risks. A fifth domain of activities associated with high potential payoffs and fixed minor costs was also assessed. In contrast to other domains, women reported being more likely to engage in behaviors in this domain. This gender difference was partially mediated by women's more optimistic judgments of the probability of good outcomes and of

  19. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  20. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice – Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Burgard, Claudia; Mitze, Timo

    This paper investigates the effects of tuition fees on the university enrollment and location decision of high school graduates in Germany. After a Federal Constitutional Court decision in 2005, 7 out of 16 German federal states introduced tuition fees for higher education. In the empirical...... analysis, we use the variation over time and across regions in this institutional change in order to isolate the causal effect of tuition fees on student enrollment and migration. Controlling for a range of regional- and university-specific effects, our results from Difference-in-Differences estimations...... show that there is generally no effect of tuition fees on internal enrollment rates. However, we find a redirecting effect on first-year students‘ migratory behavior as indicated by a signicant drop in the gross in-migration rates in fee-charging states. Further, our results point at a stronger...

  1. Student and Professor Gender Effects in Introductory Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, M. Ryan; Johnson, Marianne F.; Kuennen, Eric W.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have yielded highly mixed results as to differences in male and female student performance in statistics courses; the role that professors play in these differences is even less clear. In this paper, we consider the impact of professor and student gender on student performance in an introductory business statistics course taught by…

  2. Gender differences in suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Valerie J; Davis, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Gender differences in suicide completion rates have been attributed to the differences in lethality of suicide methods chosen by men and women, but few empirical studies have investigated factors other than demographic characteristics that might explain this differential. Data from the 621 suicides in Summit County, Ohio during 1997-2006 were disaggregated by gender to compare known correlates of suicide risk on three methods of suicide-firearm, hanging and drug poisoning. Compared to women, men who completed suicide with firearms were more likely to be married and committed the act at home. Unmarried men were likelier to hang themselves than married men, but unmarried women were less likely to hang themselves than married women. Men with a history of depression were more likely to suicide by hanging, but women with depression were half as likely to hang themselves compared to the women without a history of depression. Men with a history of substance abuse were more likely to suicide by poisoning than men without such history, but substance abuse history had no influence on women's use of poisoning to suicide. For both sexes, the odds of suicide by poisoning were significantly higher for those on psychiatric medications.

  3. Gender Gaps in High School Students' Homework Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth; Holt, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in human capital investments made outside of the traditional school day suggest that males and females consume, respond to, and form habits relating to education differently. We document robust, statistically significant one-hour weekly gender gaps in secondary students' non-school study time using time diary data from the…

  4. YOU AND I ARE DIFFERENT, BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE YOU BETTER. A STUDY ON GENDER STEREOTYPES AMONG STUDENTS OF MIDDLE SCHOOL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Raquel Baltazar-Rangel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest for knowing about the ways boys, girls and teenagers are solving their differences in the school context has grown considerably in the last lustrum. Overcoat when the preoccupation for giving an answer to the bullying behaviors is centered in the gender category. However, there are some behaviors that, without being considerate atypical, are creating a type of relations that conceal a way of violence and strengthen the traditional stereotypes. With the encourage for contributing in the construction of knowledge and alternatives, i propose to show what are the ideas that possess the student in the last grade of high school about the behaviors, attitudes, the activities and the gender geography and how they determine the agreements for living together. I ́m interested in bring out those behaviors from their familiar scope and that, from their first childhood until their adolescence, they have been reproducing in the daily life as they are part of the institutionalized practices. Furthermore, beginning with the idea that the primary apprenticeships endow the human of experiences that determine his interaction with other humans. From the information collected with the direct and participant observation into the classrooms, in the school halls, in the development of some activities and with the information from some interviews, i recognized some factors which intervene in: 1 the sort of relations that they establish based on their gender and; 2 the way that they take possession of the school spaces to reproduce some control practices, domination and power based on this social construction. This is understandable at least among the student in high school if we consider that most of them behave themselves on base to the stereotypes learned in the familiar scope and only some of them have begun a reflective process detonating their agency capacity to modify their next reality in the school context.

  5. [Gender differences in workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, P; Punzi, Silvia; Carissimi, Emanuela; Gilioli, R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the attention that international Agencies give to the gender issue in situations of workplace bullying, few investigations have been performed on this topic. The aim of the study is describe the gender differences in victims of workplace bullying observed in an Italian survey. A total of 243 subjects (124 males and 119 females) were examined at the Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" (University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation); they were selected among patients who met the criteria for being considered victims of negative actions at work leading to workplace bullying. Data regarding the person, workplace and the workplace bullying situation were collected by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Analysis of the data, compared with those of IS-TAT 2002, showed a higher prevalence of females subjected to negative actions at work. In women, the risk of being subjected to negative actions leading to workplace bullying was shown to increase in the 34-44 age range and to decrease in higher age ranges; in men the risk remained elevated also after 55 years of age. In general, women were victims of negative actions regarding personal values related to emotional-relational factors, while men were attacked on their work performance. Sexual harassment, may mark the onset of other types of psychological harassment or can be one of its components.

  6. Gender Differences in the Influence of Early Perceived Parental Support on Student Mathematics and Science Achievement and STEM Career Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    The lack of females entering STEM careers is well documented. Reasons for the gender gaps at all stages of the educational pipeline include both internal factors such as self-concept and external factors such as the influence of parents, media, and educators. Using latent growth curve analysis and nationally representative longitudinal survey…

  7. Gender differences in abnormal personality traits of middle school students%中学生人格偏常性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昱辰; 陈图农

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解中学生人格偏常发生率以及性别差异,对中学生正常人格特质和人格偏常特质进行调查研究,并分析两者之间的关系。方法采用人格障碍诊断问卷(PDQ-4)和大五人格问卷简版(CBF-PI-B)对扬州、常州和合肥地区3所中学1350名高一年级学生展开调查。结果①中学生10种人格障碍的阳性发生率为3.6%~41.1%,最高为强迫型是41.1%,最低为反社会型是3.6%;某些人格障碍分型阳性发生率存在性别差异。②大五人格5个维度中,在神经质、宜人性和开放性维度上存在显著性别差异。③大五人格特质与PDQ-4中人格障碍各分型之间具有显著相关性。结论中学生存在一定比例的人格偏常问题,男女存在差异。中学生大五人格5个维度与PDQ-4中各人格障碍分型之间具有一定的相关性。%Objective:By the investigation of normal and abnormal personality traits of middle school students, we sought to analyze the relationship of them, and to explore the incidence of abnormal personality and gender differences. Methods:The big five personality inventory short version (CBF-PI-B) and personality diagnostic questionnaire version fourth (PDQ-4) had been used to investigate the 1 350 students of middle school students from three different schools in Nanjing, Hefei and Changzhou. Results:(1) Among middle school students, the positive rates of 10 personality disorder subtypes ranged from 3.6% (antisocial) to 41.1%(ocd).There were gender differences of incidence in some personality disorder dimensions. (2) According to the results from the big five personality inventory,significant gender differences were existed in the personality traits of agreeableness, neuroticism and openness. (3) There was a significant correlation between the big five personality traits and personality deviance dimension PDQ-4. Conclusion: The present study suggested that there existed considerable mental health

  8. Race and Gender Differences in Cognitive Laterality: Implications for Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

    Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…

  9. Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Goal Orientation in Mexican High-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Cuervo, Angel Alberto; Sánchez Escobedo, Pedro Antonio; Valadez-Sierra, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as…

  10. Differences in gender performance on competitive physics selection tests

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Wilson; David Low; Matthew Verdon; Alix Verdon

    2016-01-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally ...

  11. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  12. Gender and Patterns of Sexual Risk Taking in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppen, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Determined the role gender plays in influencing the prevalence and patterns of sexual risk taking. Responses from 245 undergraduate students show gender differences in risk-taking patterns. For females, potentially risky behavior in the partner domain was negatively related to risky behavior in the sexual practice domain, whereas for males, the…

  13. Gender and legitimacy in student project groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    also found that some of the positive and negative characteristics were linked to the students due to their gender. Through the argument that female students talk too much or are having difficulty in coping with criticism, male students refused to cooperate with the female students. Conversely, the male...... students, who were few in the educations I studied, were quite in demand. For me it was very surprising to find these stereotypical perceptions and reasoning among young people in contemporary (and quite progressive) Danish educations. And the question is what it means for the students’ possibilities...... of completing their education. In my presentation I will unfold and discuss the ways in which the students attributed and disclaimed legitimacy to each other qua gender and thus how gender was linked to the relationship between inclusion and exclusion in the student project groups....

  14. Comparison of gender stereotypes with gender differences across generations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina

    43 2008, 3-4 (2008), s. 709-709 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /XXIX/. 21.07.2008-25.07.2008, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : gender differences * gender stereotypes * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Young people's leisure time: Gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Videnović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, topics relating to young peoples leisure time have become increasingly more present in academic literature. Among the numerous studies that delve into this subject, results point towards a relationship between the way teenagers spend their leisure time and their gender. In this study we wanted to answer the question if gender differences were evident in the way secondary school students in Serbia spent their leisure time. This problem was not looked into in more detail among secondary school students in Serbia. We conducted a survey on a sample of 922 secondary school teenagers from the 1st to 4th grade(ages 15–19 from nine Serbian towns. Research in this field commonly uses the rating scale. In this paper we have constructed an instrument that represents a methodological innovation in approaching a particular set of problems. It was a questionnaire. The task was to name all the activities they participated in, and the time frame in which the activities took place, over the course of one weekday and the Saturday of the previous week. The activities which best differentiate these two groups of surveyed teenagers are: sports, studying, computer use, spending time at friends’ homes and grooming. We did not discover differences in participating in creative activities while foreign studies show that such activities are more typical for girls.

  16. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  17. Gender Differences in the Use and Benefit of Advanced Learning Technologies for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ivon; Burleson, Winslow; Tai, Minghui; Muldner, Kasia; Woolf, Beverly Park

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender's learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students' style…

  18. Gender Differences in Forestalling Anti-Social Behaviours among Student Fitness Aspirants and Recreationists in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunbor, A. O.; Agwubike, E. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research was quadrupled. It investigated the prevalence of anti-social behaviours in campuses of Nigerian universities. Several student fitness aspirants and recreationists perceived examination malpractices (85%), stealing (83%), armed robbery (81%), prostitution (82%), drunkenness (80%), smoking (79%), hard drug consumption…

  19. Gender differences in factors associated with smartphone addiction: a cross-sectional study among medical college students

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baifeng; Liu, Fei; Ding, Shushu; Ying, Xia; Wang, Lele; Wen, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Background Smartphones are becoming increasingly indispensable in everyday life for most undergraduates in China, and this has been associated with problematic use or addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of smartphone addiction and the associated factors in male and female undergraduates. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 and included 1441 undergraduate students at Wannan Medical College, China. The Smartphone Addiction Scale short v...

  20. Students' Perceptions of Socialisation and Gender Role in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommsdorff, Gisela; Iwawaki, Saburo

    1989-01-01

    Investigated differences in perceptions of socialization and gender roles in 175 Japanese and 120 German university students. Japanese students reported more parental acceptance and control than German students. Japanese students had more traditional gender-role orientations than German students. (RJC)

  1. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  2. Political Efficacy in Adolescence: Development, Gender Differences, and Outcome Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…

  3. Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender difFerences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology ai

  4. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  5. Explaining gender differences in competitiveness: Gender-task stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Große, Niels Daniel; Riener, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Gender-specific patterns of self-selection into competitive and cooperative environments may have multiple reasons. One of the most prominent explanations to this point is, that there are inherent differences between men and women when it comes to preferences regarding competition. We take a different point of view and claim that gender-task stereotypes are able to explain a large part of the under-representation of women in tournament like environments. We conduct an experiment with a quanti...

  6. Personality and gender differences in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, David P; Long, Audrey E; McPhearson, Allante; O'Brien, Kirby; Remmert, Brooke; Shah, Seema H

    2017-12-01

    Men's and women's personalities appear to differ in several respects. Social role theories of development assume gender differences result primarily from perceived gender roles, gender socialization and sociostructural power differentials. As a consequence, social role theorists expect gender differences in personality to be smaller in cultures with more gender egalitarianism. Several large cross-cultural studies have generated sufficient data for evaluating these global personality predictions. Empirically, evidence suggests gender differences in most aspects of personality-Big Five traits, Dark Triad traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being, depression and values-are conspicuously larger in cultures with more egalitarian gender roles, gender socialization and sociopolitical gender equity. Similar patterns are evident when examining objectively measured attributes such as tested cognitive abilities and physical traits such as height and blood pressure. Social role theory appears inadequate for explaining some of the observed cultural variations in men's and women's personalities. Evolutionary theories regarding ecologically-evoked gender differences are described that may prove more useful in explaining global variation in human personality. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Exploring gender differences in the EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Constanza Durán

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students' conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students' interactio...

  8. Prevalence of Past-Year Sexual Assault Victimization Among Undergraduate Students: Exploring Differences by and Intersections of Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Mair, Christina; Miller, Elizabeth; Blosnich, John R; Matthews, Derrick D; McCauley, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    A critical step in developing sexual assault prevention and treatment is identifying groups at high risk for sexual assault. We explored the independent and interaction effects of sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity on past-year sexual assault among college students. From 2011 to 2013, 71,421 undergraduate students from 120 US post-secondary education institutions completed cross-sectional surveys. We fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine differences in past-year sexual assault. Compared to cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) men, cisgender women (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.29, 2.68) and transgender people (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI 2.68, 5.76) had higher odds of sexual assault. Among cisgender people, gays/lesbians had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals for men (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.81, 4.35) but not for women (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.87, 1.46). People unsure of their sexual identity had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals, but effects were larger among cisgender men (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.10, 4.08) than cisgender women (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.40, 2.02). Bisexuals had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals with similar magnitude among cisgender men (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.37, 4.27) and women (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI 2.05, 2.60). Among transgender people, Blacks had higher odds of sexual assault than Whites (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI 1.09, 62.82). Predicted probabilities of sexual assault ranged from 2.6 (API cisgender men) to 57.7% (Black transgender people). Epidemiologic research and interventions should consider intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity to better tailor sexual assault prevention and treatment for college students.

  9. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  10. Students' gender bias in teaching evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narissra Punyanunt-Carter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate if there is gender bias in student evaluations. Researchers administered a modified version of the teacher evaluation forms to 58 students (male=30; female=28 in a basic introductory communications class. Half the class was instructed to fill out the survey about a male professor, and the other half a female professor. Researchers broke down the evaluation results question by question in order to give a detailed account of the findings. Results revealed that there is certainly some gender bias at work when students evaluate their instructors. It was also found that gender bias does not significantly affect the evaluations. The results align with other findings in the available literature, which point to some sort of pattern regarding gender bias in evaluations, but it still seems to be inconsequential.  DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i3.234

  11. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  12. Gender differences in the acquisition of surgical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amir; Subhi, Yousif; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Females are less attracted than males to surgical specialties, which may be due to differences in the acquisition of skills. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that investigate gender differences in the acquisition of surgical skills. METHODS: We performed...... a comprehensive database search using relevant search phrases and MeSH terms. We included studies that investigated the role of gender in the acquisition of surgical skills. RESULTS: Our search yielded 247 studies, 18 of which were found to be eligible and were therefore included. These studies included a total...... of 2,106 study participants. The studies were qualitatively synthesized in five categories (studies on medical students, studies on both medical students and residents, studies on residents, studies on gender differences in needed physical strength, and studies on other gender-related training...

  13. Gendered Teacher–Student Interactions in English Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Hassaskhah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Being and becoming is the ultimate objective of any educational enterprise, including language teaching. However, research results indicate seemingly unjustified differences between how females and males are treated by EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers. The overall aim of this study is to illustrate, analyze, and discuss aspects of gender bias and gender awareness in teacher–student interaction in the Iranian college context. To this end, teacher–student interactions of 20 English teachers and 500 students were investigated from the perspective of gender theory. The data were obtained via classroom observations, a seating chart and the audio-recording of all classroom interactions during the study. The findings, obtained from the quantitative descriptive statistics and chi-square methods, as well as the qualitative analysis by way of open and selective coding, uncovered that there were significant differences in the quantity and quality of the interaction for females and males in almost all categories of interaction. The study also revealed teachers’ perception of “gender,” the problems they associate with gender, and the attitudes they have to gender issues. Apparently, while positive incentives are able to facilitate learner growth, the presence of any negative barrier such as gender bias is likely to hinder development. This has implications for teachers, and faculty members who favor healthy and gender-neutral educational climate.

  14. Challenging experiences: gender differences in task choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Fischer, A.H.; van Ginkel, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine: gender differences in the choice to perform challenging tasks, gender differences in the actual performance of challenging tasks, and the impact of challenging experiences on supervisors' evaluations of individuals' potential for career advancement.

  15. Why the Boys Are Missing: Using Social Capital to Explain Gender Differences in College Enrollment for Public High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevan, Sarah; Weinberg, Sharon L.; Middleton, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1960, over 60 % of bachelor degrees were awarded to men. However, the rate of women's college completion has steadily risen and, by 2004, women received nearly 60 % of bachelor degrees. Drawing on the theoretical contributions of James Coleman, this paper examines the ability of social capital to explain observed differences in college…

  16. Loneliness Smartphone Users in Term of Gender Differences in Class XI Students of SMA N 9 Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Triwidodo, Yuli; Dewi, Endah Kumala

    2012-01-01

    Lonely teenager who access the smartphone is an individual's attempt to cope with their anxiety by accessing the Internet, especially social media to connect with others who are far away through smarphone that individuals have the result they ignore direct communication or face-to-face with people who are near the individual. It could be said that they are not lonely online but offline they feel lonely. This study aims to describe differences lonely teenager who access social media via smartp...

  17. Gender-based performance differences in an introductory physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark Lee

    Cognitive research has indicated that the difference between males and females is negligible. Paradoxically, in traditionally-taught college level introductory physics courses, males have outperformed females. UC Davis' Physics 7A (the first class of a three-quarter Introduction to Physics sequence for Life-Science students), however, counters this trend since females perform similarly to males. The gender-based performance difference within the other two quarters (Physics 7B & 7C) of the radically restructured, active-learning physics sequence still echo the traditionally-taught courses. In one experiment, I modified the laboratory activity instructions of the Physics 7C course to encourage further group interaction. These modifications did not affect the gender-based performance difference. In a later experiment, I compared students' performance on different forms of assessment for certain physics concepts during the Physics 7C course. Over 500 students took weekly quizzes at different times. The students were given different quiz questions on the same topics. Several quiz questions seemed to favor males while others were more gender equitable. I highlighted comparisons between a few pairs of questions that assessed students' understanding of the same physical concept. Males tended to perform better in responding to questions that seemed to require spatial visualization. Questions that required greater understanding of the physical concept or scientific model were more gender neutral.

  18. Gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, C; Etches, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.

  19. Differences in gender performance on competitive physics selection tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ tests are

  20. Differences in gender performance on competitive physics selection tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI, is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ

  1. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  2. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  3. Gender differences in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...

  4. Gender differences in bronchiectasis: a real issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Vidaillac

    2018-06-01

    To summarise the existing knowledge base of gender-related differences in CF and non-CF bronchiectasis. To highlight key areas of importance in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of bronchiectasis that is amenable to clinical and/or pharmacological intervention to narrow the existing “gender gap”.

  5. Gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This exploratory study investigated gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety. A sample of 231 students (138 females and 93 males) from four different schools participated in the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Factor analysis was carried out to test for construct validity.

  6. Gender and Regional Differences in Creativity: A Comparative Study on Playfulness and Humor in Postgraduate Students between Mainland China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lingling; Zhou, Chunfang; Zhang, Song

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to study both similarities and differences in female students' creativity between Mainland China and Taiwan. As two main aspects influencing creativity, playfulness and humor are especially focused on in this comparative study. Empirical data were collected from 831 students in Mainland China and 703 students in Taiwan. Based on…

  7. Gender and culture differences in emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Agneta H; Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Manstead, Antony S R

    2004-03-01

    In this article, the authors report a secondary analysis on a cross-cultural dataset on gender differences in 6 emotions, collected in 37 countries all over the world. The aim was to test the universality of the gender-specific pattern found in studies with Western respondents, namely that men report more powerful emotions (e.g., anger), whereas women report more powerless emotions (e.g., sadness, fear). The authors expected the strength of these gender differences to depend on women's status and roles in their respective countries, as operationalized by the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM; United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report 2002). Overall, the gender-specific pattern of women reporting to experience and express more powerless emotions and men more powerful emotions was replicated, and only some interactions with the GEM were found.

  8. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined

  9. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla; Prakriti Sinha; Rajiv Sharan; Yashi Binay; Vijay Verma; Suprakash Chaudhury

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children v...

  10. Experimental Study of Gender Effects on Language Use in College Students' Email to Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Daugherty, Timothy K.; Bartkoski, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have arisen regarding gender bias in electronic communication on college campuses. In an experiment designed to test language use in different gender contexts, participants were asked to compose an email to a professor whose gender had been experimentally manipulated. Female students, but not male students, displayed lower…

  11. Age, Gender and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Asian American College Students and Their Parents Using Different BMI Cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Hui; Chen, Ying Chang; Ka Chung, Angela; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Tam, Chick F.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to determine if the WHO global BMI (kg/m[squared]) cutoffs for determining overweight and obesity in the general populations are appropriate for Asian populations and to consider whether population-specific cutoffs would be warranted. A nonrandomized biased sampling of 227 Asian Americans were composed of 149 college students,…

  12. Gender Differences in ADHD Subtype Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Bennett, Kellie S.; McStephen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ("ADHD") symptom comorbidity with "oppositional defiant disorder", "conduct disorder", "separation anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", speech therapy, and remedial reading in children. Method: From…

  13. Evaluating gender similarities and differences using metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan; Teeter, Sabrina R

    2015-01-01

    Despite the common lay assumption that males and females are profoundly different, Hyde (2005) used data from 46 meta-analyses to demonstrate that males and females are highly similar. Nonetheless, the gender similarities hypothesis has remained controversial. Since Hyde's provocative report, there has been an explosion of meta-analytic interest in psychological gender differences. We utilized this enormous collection of 106 meta-analyses and 386 individual meta-analytic effects to reevaluate the gender similarities hypothesis. Furthermore, we employed a novel data-analytic approach called metasynthesis (Zell & Krizan, 2014) to estimate the average difference between males and females and to explore moderators of gender differences. The average, absolute difference between males and females across domains was relatively small (d = 0.21, SD = 0.14), with the majority of effects being either small (46%) or very small (39%). Magnitude of differences fluctuated somewhat as a function of the psychological domain (e.g., cognitive variables, social and personality variables, well-being), but remained largely constant across age, culture, and generations. These findings provide compelling support for the gender similarities hypothesis, but also underscore conditions under which gender differences are most pronounced. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Students' gender bias in teaching evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Carter, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate if there is gender bias in student evaluations. Researchers administered a modified version of the teacher evaluation forms to 58 students (male=30; female=28) in a basic introductory communications class. Half the class was instructed to fill out the survey about a male professor, and the other half a female professor. Researchers broke down the evaluation results question by question in order to give a detailed account of the findings. Results revea...

  15. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Prakriti; Sharan, Rajiv; Binay, Yashi; Verma, Vijay; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version). The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female) with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11%) students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents 'Democratic' and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  16. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version. Results: The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11% students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents ′Democratic′ and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. Conclusions: The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  17. Gender Differences in Type 2 Diabetes Risk Perception, Attitude, and Protective Health Behaviors: A Study of Overweight and Obese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O.; Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Popoola, Olufemi A.; Crosslin, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has dramatically increased in the past decade and has resulted in higher rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among adolescents. Purpose: To examine whether there are gender differences in T2DM risk perception, attitude toward T2DM protective behaviors, physical activity, and…

  18. Differences in Gender Performance on Competitive Physics Selection Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics,which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the…

  19. Modelling gender differences in Egyptian adolescents' perception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated gender differences in Egyptian adolescents' perception of parental involvement practices when controlling for the effect of adolescents' prior academic achievement and level of educational aspiration. Subjects of this study included 187 first-year students enrolled in four high schools in El-Minia city in ...

  20. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  1. Differences among Age, Gender and School Factors in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...

  2. Gender Differences in Interest and Knowledge Acquisition: The United States, Taiwan, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Margaret; Schweingruber, Heidi; Stevenson, Harold W.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between interest and knowledge among 11th graders from cultures differing in strength of gender-role stereotypes and endorsement of effort- versus interest-based learning. Data on Japanese, Taiwanese, and U.S. students indicated that gender more strongly related to Asian students' than U.S. students' scores. There…

  3. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  4. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai; Hijattulah Abdul Jabbar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant...

  5. Gender differences in spatial cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial abilities, such as wayfinding and memorizing object locations, seem to be equally important for every individual. Yet both common belief and scientific literature claim that men and women differ in these abilities. Whereas ‘spatial ability’ used to be considered as a unitary capacity, on

  6. Gender differences in nurse practitioner salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; El-Banna, Majeda M; Briggs, Linda A; Park, Jeongyoung

    2017-11-01

    While male nurses have been shown to earn considerably more than female nurses, there is less evidence on gender disparities in salary among nurse practitioners (NPs). This study examines whether the gender gap in NP salaries persists after controlling for differences in work setting and demographic factors. We analyzed the relationship between gender and salary (2011 pretax earnings) among 6591 NPs working as NPs at least 35 h per week, using the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. We first conducted bivariate regression analyses examining the relationship between gender and earnings, and then developed a multivariate model that controlled for individual differences in demographic and work characteristics. Male NPs earned $12,859 more than female NPs, after adjusting for individual differences in demographics and work characteristics. The gender gap was $7405 for recent NP graduates, and grew over time. Male NPs earned significantly more than female NPs across all clinical specialty areas. The gender disparities in NP salaries documented here regardless of professional seniority or clinical area should spark healthcare organizations to conduct pay equity assessments of their employees' salaries to identify and ameliorate pay inequality. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  8. Measuring Race and Gender Differences in Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Campus Climate and Intentions to Leave College: An Analysis in Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2013-01-01

    Student perceptions of campus climate environments and intentions to leave college were examined for 391 participants. Differences by race were found for perceptions of the campus climate being cold and uncaring and for expectations to encounter racism in college. Perceptions of campus climate were related to African American students' intent to…

  9. Teacher Feedback and Interactions in Physical Education: Effects of Student Gender and Physical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Virginie; Cogerino, Genevieve; Fairclough, Stuart; Bois, Julien; Davis, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Previous research conducted in both classroom and physical education (PE) settings has examined the impact of student gender on teacher-student interactions. The purpose of this study was to extend this line of research by analysing the influence of student gender and different types of physical activity on the frequency and nature of teacher…

  10. Colleges Confront a Gender Gap in Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    For decades, women have enrolled in college in greater numbers than men, and, by many measures, have outperformed them in the classroom. But in recent years, as social scientists and student-affairs offices have focused on other differences between the genders, they have documented patterns that could explain how engagement influences student…

  11. Demanding life situations in university students: gender aspect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Millová, Katarína; Blatný, Marek; Kohoutek, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 12-19 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : coping strategies * demanding life situations * gender differences Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.spao.eu/archive/2008/spao2008_demanding_life_situations_in_university_students.pdf

  12. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.

  13. Gender aspects of status in teenage student groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachkova, Marianna E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical male and female roles and relationships can be observed at different social levels: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal. In adolescence, increased development of gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender roles appears at all levels. Since the leading activity at this age is interpersonal communication, research into gender characteristics and their influence on relations in the student group is one of the most important tasks of modern psychology. One hundred and forty teenagers in grades 6-8 from secondary schools in Moscow, aged of 12–14, were involved in the research. Special social-psychological techniques were applied for assessment of status relations (sociometry, referentometry, methodology for defining the informal intragroup power structure and gender characteristics (Bem Sex Role Inventory in classical and modified versions, as well as correlation and cluster analyses. We found that representations about the group leader contained clear masculine features. We underline the discrepancy between the qualities attributed to the image of the leader and the qualities of the actual group leaders. Thus, the image of the leader includes predominantly masculine characteristics, while actual high-status group members describe themselves with both feminine and gender-neutral features. Finally gender-typed behavior and masculine traits are more typical of low-status teenagers.

  14. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  15. Gender Differences in Career Helping Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewater, Barbara B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored differences regarding way in which 27 male and 27 female college faculty members described relationships with "career helpers" by analysis of interview transcripts. Qualitative analysis of interviews indicated gender differences on themes of sense of professional self as related to career helpers and nature of assistance received from…

  16. [Behavioral gender differences in school relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo Zegarra, Silvia; González Barrón, Remedios; Mateu Marqués, Carmen; Ferrero Berlanga, Javier; Martorell Pallás, Carmen

    2009-08-01

    Adolescents take on different social roles mediated by gender, which affect the development of their identity and the expression of school violence. The purpose of this work is to study the behavioral differences in bullying depending on gender. The sample (N=641) is aged between 12 and 16 years old. Personal variables are assessed by self-reports, and relational variables by sociometric measures. Results indicate a large incidence of bullying, peer rejection, and school maladjustment among boys. Girls report more relational aggressions, acceptance and social skills, but also higher personal maladjustment. Female victims are rejected the most. Gender differences seem more relevant in relational variables, suggesting the special importance of the relational context in bullying.

  17. Gender and age differences in expressing disruptive behavior during class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekić Jasmina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.

  18. Exploring gender differences in the EFL classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Constanza Durán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students` conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students` interactions and interviews on the teacher’s and students` discourse. The analysis of the data revealed that in fact there are imbalances in relation to boys` and girls` participation during interaction, made manifest by verbal and nonverbal attitudes. There is also sound evidence of girls’ low self esteem in response to the lack of value and respect granted to their opinions by their male peers. Stereotypes are part of teachers’ and students’ conceptions regarding gender and thus they are maintained to a great extent. The teacher’s attitude in the classroom with respect to boys and girls also appeared to show inequality that favoured boys. The girls showed evidence of awareness of the teacher’s conscious or unconscious indifference towards them, which seemed to affect their autonomy and confidence as English language learners.

  19. Gender differences among older heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Grella, Christine E

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to explore the following question: Are there gender differences among older individuals with a history of heroin addiction with regard to social and family relationships and health problems? Eight gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 38 (19 women, 19 men) older (50+ years) individuals with long-term histories of heroin dependence. Four groups were conducted in a methadone maintenance (MM) clinic and four groups were derived from the Los Angeles community. Modest gender differences were observed, but mainly in the focus-group dynamics. Women typically described the impact of their addiction on their families, while men typically described their surprise at still being alive. Hepatitis C was the primary health concern in all groups; mental health issues were also discussed. Remarkable gender differences were not apparent in the qualitative experiences of these participants. Instead, we found overriding similarities related to the interactive effects of drug use and aging. Longitudinal studies of this population as they age and interact with the health-care system and other social systems will help to untangle the complicated relationship between aging, drug addiction, gender, and health.

  20. Gender differences in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, K T; Randall, C L

    1999-06-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender

  1. Gender differences following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmvang, L.; Mickley, H.

    2008-01-01

    PCI is effective for reducing symptoms in patients with stable angina pectoris but does not improve prognosis. In earlier trials PCI has been associated with more procedure related complications in women than men, but this difference between genders has been less pronounced in more recent studies....... In acute coronary syndromes there is no evidence of gender differences regarding the benefit of primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, several trials of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction indicate that women do not have the similar benefit...

  2. Taiwanese adolescents' gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yang, Kyeongra; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation among Taiwanese adolescents. This study was a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional comparison study conducted in Taiwan. A total of 287 female and 269 male students at a junior high school participated in the study. The results showed that almost all the students had heard about menstruation and most of them had received menstrual information at school. However, their knowledge about menstruation was not accurate. Moreover, the male students expressed more negative attitudes towards menstruation than the female students. Taboos were heard by most students and, although many female students doubted the reality of the taboos they had heard, they observed them anyway. The study calls for an evaluation of sex education and suggests more open discussions about menstruation among young people in those education sessions. In addition, school nurses and obstetrical/gynecological nurses should be involved more in adolescents' sexual education.

  3. A study on gender differences influencing on online buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirnima Negahdari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the diffusion of the Internet as a retail and distribution channel has undergone a great growth. This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of gender differences on online buying. The study explored gender differences among 13 factors concerning the internet buyer. With regard to factors and consistent with Hypothesis and sub hypothesis, differences were detected across genders using t-student tests and the findings were in alignment with the ANOVA test. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 randomly people who resided in Iran. The analysis show that merchandising, security and company items gained more scores for men than women in online shopping.

  4. Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender

  5. Do gender differences matter to workplace bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Hsieh, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying has become an omnipresent problem in most organizations. Gender differences have recently received increasing attention in the workplace bullying domain. Integrating social dominance theory with gender role theory, this study explores whether male minority and supervisor gender are related to the incidence of workplace bullying. Data from 501 public servants employed in the tax administration institute of Taiwan was collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using hierarchical regression. Male minority reported more workplace bullying than did the female majority. Subordinates working with male supervisors had more exposure to bullying than those working with female supervisors. However, male supervisors did not exacerbate the relationship between male minority and workplace bullying, while females exposure to workplace bullying was attenuated when working with male supervisors. These findings confirm the important role of gender differences when predicting bullying at work and support the view that gender is not merely an individual antecedent of bullying, but rather acts as a social factor to influence the incidence of workplace bullying.

  6. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

    2011-09-06

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  7. Gender Performance Gaps: Quasi-Experimental Evidence on the Role of Gender Differences in Sleep Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Lusher, Lester; Yasenov, Vasil

    2016-01-01

    Sleep studies suggest that girls go to sleep earlier, are more active in the morning, and cope with sleep deprivation better than boys. We provide the first causal evidence on how gender differences in sleep cycles can help explain the gender performance gap. We exploit over 240,000 assignment-level grades from a quasi-experiment with a community of middle and high schools where students' schedules alternated between morning and afternoon start times each month. Relative to girls, we find tha...

  8. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  9. Gender Differences and Leadership: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    cost to future development of theory , strategy, and operations? This study analyzed gender differences in leadership as inferred from current research... management is basically a left brained logical approach toward controlling things: leadership is more a right brained, intuitive visionary approach towards...attribute frequently discussed in management and leadership literature. 13 Other research, however, indicates women do score a little higher on other

  10. Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

  11. Gender differences in symptoms of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures......OBJECTIVES: We examined the gender-specific symptom prevalences in hypothyroidism and in healthy controls and explored the extent to which symptoms indicative of thyroid status may be different in women and men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism (n...

  12. Gender, abilities, cognitive style and students' achievement in cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in mathematics and native language and to analyze students' achievement in cooperative learning according to their gender, abilities and cognitive style. Three hundred and seventy three (170 in the experimental and 203 in the control group fifth grade students from nine different primary schools participated in the study. In experimental group, cooperative learning was introduced in one quarter of the hours dedicated to mathematics and Slovene language during the school year. Control group received the traditional way of teaching in both courses. The results were analyzed with ANOVA. Positive effects of cooperative learning were found in both courses. Results in cooperative learning group were further analyzed according to students' gender, abilities and cognitive style. No significant interaction between students' achievement and their gender or abilities were found. Statistically significant interactions between students' cognitive style and achievement were found in both courses. Field-dependent students benefited most from cooperative learning.

  13. Gender differences in MR muscle tractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Minami, Manabu; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kono, Tatsuo; Sonobe, Jyunichi; Kujiraoka, Yuka

    2010-01-01

    Tractography of skeletal muscle can clearly reveal the 3-dimensional course of muscle fibers, and the procedure has great potential and could open new fields for diagnostic imaging. Studying this technique for clinical application, we noticed differences in the number of visualized tracts among volunteers and among muscles in the same volunteer. To comprehend why the number of visualized tracts varied so that we could acquire consistently high quality tractography of muscle fiber, we started to examine whether differences in individual parameters affected tractography visualization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender- and age-specific differences that differentiate the muscles by gender and age in MR tractography of skeletal muscle fiber. We divided 33 healthy volunteers by gender and age among 3 groups, A (13 younger men, aged 20 to 36 years), B (11 younger women, 25 to 39 years), and C (9 older men, 50 to 69), and we obtained from each volunteer tractographs of 8 fibers, including the bilateral gastrocnemius medialis (GCM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GCL), soleus (SOL), and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles. We classified the fibers into 5 grades depending on the extent of visualized tracts and used Mann-Whitney U-test to compare scores by gender (Group A versus B) and age (Group A versus C). Muscle tracts were significantly better visualized in women than men (median total visual score, 34 versus 24, P<0.05). In particular, the SOL muscles showed better visualization in the right (4.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05) and left (3.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05). Difference by age was not significant. The GCL was the highest scored muscle in all groups. Our results suggest that group differences, especially by gender, affected visualization of tractography of muscle fiber of the calf. (author)

  14. A study of the effects of gender and different instructional media (computer-assisted instruction tutorials vs. textbook) on student attitudes and achievement in a team-taught integrated science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, Julie Anne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different instructional media (computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial vs. traditional textbook) on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores in a team-taught integrated science course, ENS 1001, "The Whole Earth Course," which was offered at Florida Institute of Technology during the Fall 2000 term. The effect of gender on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores was also investigated. This study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group experimental research design with a sample of 30 students (12 males and 18 females). Students had registered for weekly lab sessions that accompanied the course and had been randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The treatment group used a CAI tutorial for completing homework assignments and the control group used the required textbook for completing homework assignments. The Attitude toward Science and Computers Questionnaire and Achievement Test were the two instruments administered during this study to measure students' attitudes and achievement score changes. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), using hierarchical multiple regression/correlation (MRC), was employed to determine: (1) treatment versus control group attitude and achievement differences; and (2) male versus female attitude and achievement differences. The differences between the treatment group's and control group's homework averages were determined by t test analyses. The overall MANCOVA model was found to be significant at p factor set independent variables separately resulted in gender being the only variable that significantly contributed in explaining the variability in a dependent variable, attitudes toward science and computers. T test analyses of the homework averages showed no significant differences. Contradictory to the findings of this study, anecdotal information from personal communication, course

  15. Gender differences in math and science choices and preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhadrawi, Amamah A.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discover how the myth of gender differences in STEM inform the lived experiences of male and female 12th graders in one high school in Northwest Ohio. Over the years, the observed gender gap favoring males over females in STEM ability has closed, and female students have even surpassed males in some measures. The fact that girls have met and exceeded boys in many measures of STEM ability over time suggests that the historical disparity was the result of social or psychological, and not biological, differences. Even though schools have changed throughout the years to accommodate and encourage female students in STEM, there is still a persistent disparity in participation at the highest levels of STEM in education and in careers. Males still outnumber females in the more mathematical and technical sciences, such as computer science and engineering. This study applied feminist socialization theory and phenomenology as its theoretical framework. The biggest themes that informed student"s choices and preferences were as follows: intended choices follow family influence, myth persists in subtle ways, teenagers have a limited future view, and the chicken and the egg issues of personal interests versus social influence. There are clearly more factors that contribute to this gender socialization, which may be a combination of socioeconomic status and the influence of family.

  16. Obesity attenuates gender differences in cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin; Tabák, Adam G; Zethelius, Björn; Yudkin, John S; Söderberg, Stefan; Laatikainen, Tiina; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dankner, Rachel; Jousilahti, Pekka; Onat, Altan; Nilsson, Peter M; Satman, Ilhan; Vaccaro, Olga; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Qiao, Qing

    2014-10-19

    To estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in relation to obesity and gender. Data from 11 prospective cohorts from four European countries including 23 629 men and 21 965 women, aged 24 to 99 years, with a median follow-up of 7.9 years were analyzed. Hazards ratios (HR) for CVD mortality in relation to baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models with age as the timescale. Men had higher CVD mortality than women in all four BMI categories (obesity defined by WC, WHR or WHtR. The gender difference was slightly smaller in obese than in non-obese individuals; but the interaction was statistically significant only between gender and WC (p = 0.02), and WHtR (p = 0.01). None of the interaction terms was significant among non-diabetic individuals. Men had higher CVD mortality than women across categories of anthropometric measures of obesity. The gender difference was attenuated in obese individuals, which warrants further investigation.

  17. [Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality

  18. Gender differences: are there differences even in Pediatrics and Neonatology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tandoi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The approach to research on gender differences in an evolutionary context has always been complex. Many factors, from those initially linked to preliminary considerations about the differences between the sexes in different historical and cultural moments have often influenced studies of this type. Gender Medicine, consolidated in the United States as a research field since the 1980s, studies the way in which membership in gender, male or female, affects the development and impact of disease and response to therapy. We can say that this is a new, transverse dimension of Medicine that assesses gender differences in physiology and pathophysiology of many clinical diseases, with the aim of reaching treatment decisions based on evidence in both men and women. In an historical moment focused on the individualization/personalization of care, among the objectives that modern health care has been given, there is this research aimed at identifying as early as possible gender-related diseases with the aim of identifying causes and possible methods of intervention. It leads to defining a kind of Medicine, a recent branch of biomedical science, that focuses on recognizing and analyzing the differences arising from the belonging to a gender, male or female, from several aspects: organic, functional, psychological, pharmacological, social and cultural. A gender approach to Medicine can reduce the level of error in medical practice, promote therapeutic appropriateness, improve and customize therapies and generate savings for healthcare systems. These effects have been demonstrated for adults and need to be confirmed during infancy and childhood. The purpose of this discipline is to innovate and guarantee everyone, man or woman, newborn and children, the best possible treatment based on scientific evidence.

  19. Gender differences in risk behaviour: does nurture matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L.; Nolen, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Women and men may differ in their propensity to choose a risky outcome because of innate preferences or because pressure to conform to gender-stereotypes encourages girls and boys to modify their innate preferences. Single-sex environments are likely to modify students' risk-taking preferences in economically important ways. To test this, we designed a controlled experiment in which subjects were given an opportunity to choose a risky outcome - a real-stakes gamble with a higher expected mone...

  20. Gender Differences in Website Design: Implications for Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Moss; Rod W Gunn

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Where the website production aesthetic is concerned, it finds evidence of statistically significant differences on 13 of the 23 factors against which sixty student websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests, conducted with 67 subjects...

  1. Gender Roles in Transition: Career and Family Expectations of Accounting Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah J. Maupin

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative data from a study of gender differentiation among accounting students are analyzed to discover if male and female accounting students have different attitudes, orientations, and expectations for career and family. Although some changes toward a more gender-equal population are found, the study results also indicate several potential conflicts which accounting students will have to face as they attempt to combine work and family roles. Both male and female accounting students have...

  2. Family Change and Gender Differences: Implications for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.

    1988-01-01

    Examines theories of gender differences. Discusses alpha bias, exaggeration of gender opposition, as characteristic of psychodynamic and sex role theories; and beta bias, denial of gender differences, as evident in systems theories. Calls for new model of gender differences which recognizes asymmetry in women's and men's roles and…

  3. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  4. IRIS, Gender, and Student Achievement at University of Genova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfa, Antonella; Freddano, Michela

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the gender effects on student achievement at University of Genova and it is a part of the research performed by the University of Genova called "Benchmarks interfaculty students: Development of a gender perspective to find strategies to understand what leads students to success in their studies", financed by the…

  5. Gender Differences in Childhood Lyme Neuroborreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Tveitnes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many neurological diseases show differences between genders. We studied gender differences in childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB in an endemic area of Lyme borreliosis in Norway. Methods. In a population based study, all children (<14 years of age with symptoms suspicious of LNB, including all children with acute facial nerve palsy, were evaluated for LNB by medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, and lumbar puncture. LNB was diagnosed according to international criteria. Results. 142 children were diagnosed with LNB during 2001–2009. Facial nerve palsy was more common in girls (86% than in boys (62% p<0.001, but headache and/or neck stiffness as the only symptom was more common in boys (30% than in girls (10% p=0.003. The girls were younger than boys and had a shorter duration of symptoms, but boys had a higher level of pleocytosis than girls. In a multivariate analysis, both gender and having headache and neck stiffness were associated with a higher level of pleocytosis. Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation.

  6. Self-Regulation Strategies in Achievement Settings: Culture and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurman, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Investigated culture and gender differences in a self-regulation task. College students in Singapore and Israel completed anagram-solving task that let them select levels of difficulty to maximize achievement. There were cultural differences in attained scores. Women preferred significantly easier tasks, though there was no gender difference in…

  7. A Componential Analysis of Gender Differences in Scientific Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nazlı Ozdemir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an investigation was carried out to explore if there were any gender differences in scientific creativity and its components. Par-ticipants included 704 sixth grade students who applied to the Education Programs for Talented Students (EPTS at Anadolu University in the City of Eskişehir in Turkey. Of the total sam-ple, 345 were female and 359 were male. Stu-dents’ scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT. It measures fluency, flexibility and creativity and hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation. The analysis showed that male students scored significantly higher on fluency and creativity and hypothesis genera-tion components of scientific creativity. Alt-hough male students had higher scores on flex-ibility, hypothesis testing and evidence evalua-tion components too, the differences between the groups were not significant. The findings shows that gender differences in scientific crea-tivity in childhood and adolescence might re-sult from differences in some particular pro-cesses.

  8. Gender, Age, Social differences and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana

    2017-04-01

    Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.

  9. Features of gender identity among schoolchildren of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Y. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . Gender identity manifestations in schoolchildren were investigated. Material . The study involved schoolchildren of 3 -11th forms of the secondary schools (206 – boys, 213 - girls. For the research of age peculiarities in psychological gender, a questioner worked out by Sundry Bam which consists of 60 statements was used. Results . A number of aspects of self description which have different psychological characteristics in boys and girls were analysed. A peculiarity of gender identity in schoolchildren, which was identified by the overall number of respondents in whom the androgens personality type was identified, was singled out. Out of 206 boys – 90% have an androgens index, as for the girls – 69.5% refer to androgens personality type. The presence of feminine character qualities in boys and masculine – in girls was found out, which proves maximal development of feminine and masculine in one person. This will help social adaptation of schoolchildren. Conclusions . Physical education has enormous potential emotional and physical impact on the formation of gender identity of students and their notions of femininity and masculinity. This can directly affect the formation of life value orientations students in general, including the formation of values in the sphere of physical culture.

  10. [Gender differences in the use of tumour markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campoy, E E; Mérida-De la Torre, F J; Martos-Crespo, F; Plebani, M

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the factors that can influence the use of health resources. The use of tumour markers is widespread, due to the importance of these in monitoring cancer development. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of gender on the use of tumour markers, and to investigate whether there are differences in their use. A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study, with a 2-year follow-up, was conducted in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Padua. An analysis was performed on 23,059 analytical requests for tumour markers. A descriptive and frequency analysis was performed on all variables. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi squared, Student t and Mann-Whitney U to test for significance. The number of requests for women (1.5) was lower than men (1.6). In patients with tumour pathology, the number of requests was higher than in patients without tumour disease. In the analysis by disease and gender, the difference remained significant. As regards the number of tumour markers per request, the difference between genders was also significant: 2.13 in males versus 2.85 in women. Similar results were obtained when requests for tumour markers linked to gender-related diseases were eliminated. There are differences in the use of tumour markers by gender with the number of requests for male patients being higher than for females. However, the number of tumour markers per request is greater in women than in men. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Exaggerating Accessible Differences: When Gender Stereotypes Overestimate Actual Group Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Tal; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men. We confirmed that the most accessible stereotype content involves attributes perceived to differ between groups (pretest), and that these stereotypes contain some accuracy but significantly exaggerate actual gender differences (Experiment 1). We observe less exaggeration when judging less accessible stereotype content (Experiment 2), or when judging individual men and women (Experiment 3). Considering the accessibility of specific stereotype content may explain when stereotypes exaggerate actual group differences and when they do not.

  12. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-08-01

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  13. Gender differences in medical students’ motives and career choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiligers Phil JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association. 58% of these students responded (N = 2397. Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%. For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation. Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a

  14. Assessing implicit gender bias in Medical Student Performance Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Rick D; Solow, Catherine M; Ferguson, Kristi J; Cohen, Michael B

    2010-09-01

    For medical schools, the increasing presence of women makes it especially important that potential sources of gender bias be identified and removed from student evaluation methods. Our study looked for patterns of gender bias in adjective data used to inform our Medical Student Performance Evaluations (MSPEs). Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to model the latent structure of the adjectives attributed to students (n = 657) and to test for systematic scoring errors by gender. Gender bias was evident in two areas: (a) women were more likely than comparable men to be described as ''compassionate,'' ''sensitive,'' and ''enthusiastic'' and (b) men were more likely than comparable women to be seen as ''quick learners.'' The gender gap in ''quick learner'' attribution grows with increasing student proficiency; men's rate of increase is over twice that of women's. Technical and nontechnical approaches for ameliorating the impact of gender bias on student recommendations are suggested.

  15. Sexual Self-Descriptions and Gender Stereotypes in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Fernández Liporace

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents partial results from a study carried out to analyze the way young college students self-describe their sexual behavior in relation with sex. Data show significant differences in certain adjectives, linked with traditional roles assigned to women and men in sexual relationships; an additional comparison with results about gender sterotypes reported by Williams & Best (1994 is made. A survey on sociodemographic data and a list of 70 adjectives that describe sexual behaviors were administered to a sample of 248 college students from Buenos Aires city and its suburban area.

  16. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.

  17. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2010-01-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p motivator for both men and women (p <0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322

  18. GENDER DIFFERENCES AND BIASES IN THE WORKPLACE

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Srivastava*1 & Dr. Shweta S. Kulshrestha2

    2018-01-01

    Gender equality in the workplace has been a major concern for almost all the organizations and countries. Even in most developed countries we cannot find complete gender equality in true sense. This paper aims to discuss whether there is gender biasness in organizations or not? Gender biasness is considered as a major constraint towards the development process in any of the country and thus we have made an attempt to determine the root causes for gender gap that persists in our society. A...

  19. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Moll

    Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  20. Gender differences in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Suk Kyung; Chu, Hui Jung; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Ji Hee; Kim, Nuri; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to examine gender differences in attitudes toward professional psychological help-seeking behavior and how gender differences could be affected by other cultural factor such as race. Participants: The authors selected studies that involved undergraduate and graduate students as samples, making the total number of…

  2. Considering Gender and Student Leadership Through the Lens of Intersectionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillapaugh, Daniel; Mitchell, Donald; Soria, Krista M

    2017-06-01

    This chapter explores the concept of intersectionality and its applicability to student leadership development as well as recommendations on how intersectionality can provide transformative learning for students of all gender identities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. Gender differences in brain networks supporting empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J; Shah, N Jon; Fink, Gereon R; Piefke, Martina

    2008-08-01

    Females frequently score higher on standard tests of empathy, social sensitivity, and emotion recognition than do males. It remains to be clarified, however, whether these gender differences are associated with gender specific neural mechanisms of emotional social cognition. We investigated gender differences in an emotion attribution task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either focused on their own emotional response to emotion expressing faces (SELF-task) or evaluated the emotional state expressed by the faces (OTHER-task). Behaviorally, females rated SELF-related emotions significantly stronger than males. Across the sexes, SELF- and OTHER-related processing of facial expressions activated a network of medial and lateral prefrontal, temporal, and parietal brain regions involved in emotional perspective taking. During SELF-related processing, females recruited the right inferior frontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus stronger than males. In contrast, there was increased neural activity in the left temporoparietal junction in males (relative to females). When performing the OTHER-task, females showed increased activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while there were no differential activations in males. The data suggest that females recruit areas containing mirror neurons to a higher degree than males during both SELF- and OTHER-related processing in empathic face-to-face interactions. This may underlie facilitated emotional "contagion" in females. Together with the observation that males differentially rely on the left temporoparietal junction (an area mediating the distinction between the SELF and OTHERS) the data suggest that females and males rely on different strategies when assessing their own emotions in response to other people.

  4. Gender through Their Lenses: A Film of Students' Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol D.; Seitz, Mark James

    2014-01-01

    Students in a Sociology of Gender class were each required to provide five digital photos of something they have seen in their worlds that represents beliefs or behaviors related to gender. The photos were organized into themes related to assigned readings on gender and work, family, sexuality, health, education, and more. A short film using their…

  5. Gender and Doctoral Studies: The Perceptions of Ph.D. Students in an American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Helmke, Laura Andrews; Ulku-Steiner, Beril

    2006-01-01

    Twenty students enrolled in Ph.D. programmes were interviewed to examine the role of gender in their academic experiences. Gender was examined in three ways: gender of the student, gender of the student's faculty supervisor and gender make-up of the faculty within the student's department or academic unit. All students reported the importance of…

  6. Peer harassment at primary school: gender and school grade differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Martín Seoane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.

  7. Gender differences in Finnish homicide offence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Putkonen, Hanna; Lindberg, Nina; Holi, Matti; Rovamo, Tuija; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-04-15

    Approximately 10% of the homicides in Finland are committed by females. This study was designed to compare offence circumstances and crime scene behaviour among female and male homicide offenders. The forensic examination reports and crime reports of all female offenders prosecuted for a homicide between 1995 and 2004 were collected and content analysed (n=91). A sample of male offenders was selected for a comparison group. In addition to several bivariate analyses, two multidimensional scaling analyses were conducted to identify the underlying structure of the offence characteristics-related variables in male and female offenders. The results showed that family members were the victims of female offenders more frequently than of male offenders. Child victims were almost always killed by females. No significant difference emerged between the gender groups in the proportion of victims being former intimate partners. The results also showed that different offence characteristics relate to offender gender and type of victim. In male offenders, covering the body relates to moving and hiding an acquaintance victim's body, while in females it relates to emotional detachment and family member victim. For females, post-offence behaviours that relate to seek for help and regret were more frequent than for males. There were only marginal differences in the use of violence between females and males.

  8. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.

  9. Sex, gender roles and sexual attitudes in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vega, Elena; Rico, Rosana; Fernández, Paula

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies usually refer to a greater repertoire of sexual behav-iors and a higher level of erotophilia in men than in women. The main goal of this work is to relate sex, gender roles and sexual attitudes to sexual behavior. 411 un-dergraduate students (218 women and 193 men) at theof University of Oviedo (Spain) completed the following instruments: the Bem Sex Roles Inventory to operationalize the variable gender, the Sexual Inventory which reflects sexual behaviors, and the Sexual Opinion Survey about sexual attitudes. 27% of the sample was typified as an-drogynous. There are were no differences in attitudes, either by sex (p= .50) or by gen-der (p= .77). Sexual behaviors depended on the degree of erotophilia (p= .000). the results suggest that, although regarding sex, the fact that women’s erotophilic attitudes have increased their erotophilic attitudes, although they refer to more conventional sexual behaviors than mens’s attitudes. With regard to gender, a tendency towards androgyny is observed, androgynous women and men report positive attitudes towards sexuality. Gender could act as a mediator of sexual behavior through the attitudinal component.

  10. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  11. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE RECOGNITION OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS FELIPE PARDO-VÉLEZ

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the recognition of facial expressions of anger, happiness and sadness wereresearched in students 18-25 years of age. A reaction time procedure was used, and the percentage ofcorrect answers when recognizing was also measured. Though the work hypothesis expected genderdifferences in facial expression recognition, results suggest that these differences are not significant at alevel of 0.05%. Statistical analysis shows a greater easiness (at a non-significant level for women torecognize happiness expressions, and for men to recognize anger expressions. The implications ofthese data are discussed, and possible extensions of this investigation in terms of sample size andcollege major of the participants.

  12. Condutas de saúde entre universitários: diferenças entre gêneros Health-related behavior in a sample of Brazilian college students: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Colares

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou diferenças entre os gêneros nas condutas de saúde de universitários em final de curso. A amostra foi composta de 382 estudantes de universidades públicas do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, com idade entre 20 e 29 anos. Os dados foram coletados mediante a aplicação do questionário National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, validado previamente para o português. Foram utilizadas técnicas de estatística descritiva e inferencial. Para análise de associação foram utilizados teste qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher. Os resultados foram considerados significantes para p This study investigated whether undergraduate students' health-risk behaviors differed according to gender. The sample consisted of 382 subjects, aged 20-29 years, from public universities in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Data were collected using the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, previously validated in Portuguese. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used. Associations were analyzed with the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. In general, females engaged in the following risk behaviors less frequently than males: alcohol consumption (p = 0.005, smoking (p = 0.002, experimenting with marijuana (p = 0.002, consumption of inhalants (p < 0.001, steroid use (p = 0.003, carrying weapons (p = 0.001, and involvement in physical fights (p = 0.014. Meanwhile, female students displayed more concern about losing or maintaining weight, although they exercised less frequently than males. The findings thus showed statistically different health behaviors between genders. In conclusion, different approaches need to be used for the two genders.

  13. [Subjectivity of nursing college students' awareness of gender equality: an application of Q-methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun Jeong

    2012-06-01

    This study was done to identify the awareness of gender equality among nursing college students, and to provide basic data for educational solutions and desirable directions. A Q-methodology which provides a method of analyzing the subjectivity of each item was used. 34 selected Q-statements from each of 20 women nursing college students were classified into a shape of normal distribution using 9-point scale. Subjectivity on the equality among genders was analyzed by the pc-QUANL program. Four types of awareness of gender equality in nursing college students were identified. The name for type I was 'pursuit of androgyny', for type II, 'difference-recognition', for type III, 'human-relationship emphasis', and for type IV, 'social-system emphasis'. The results of this study indicate that different approaches to educational programs on gender equality are recommended for nursing college students based on the four types of gender equality awareness.

  14. School Experiences of Transgender and Gender Diverse Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Smith, Elizabeth; Ward, Roz; Dixon, Jennifer; Hillier, Lynne; Mitchell, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increase in global and local policy protections on the basis of gender identity and expression in education and a recent spate of coverage of transgender students on Australian television and news media. This paper explores the school experiences of Australian transgender and gender diverse students, with…

  15. Gender Discrepancies and Victimization of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…

  16. Effect of Cognitive Style and Gender on JSS Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and gender on student's academic achievement in social studies. It was designed to obtain empirical evidence of effects of cognitive style and gender as well as the interaction effects of cognitive style on student's academic achievement in social studies. The subjects of the ...

  17. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  18. Gender differences among recidivist trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Rita O; Cureton, Elizabeth L; Dozier, Kristopher C; Victorino, Gregory P

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences among trauma recidivist patients are not well-understood. We hypothesized that males are more likely to be repeatedly involved in the trauma system and have a shorter time to recurrence between repeat episodes of injury compared with females. A retrospective analysis of trauma patients treated at an urban university-based trauma center was performed. Variables including gender, race, insurance status, age, mechanism of injury, outcomes, and injury secondary to domestic violence were compared. Differences were compared using χ(2) tests and log-rank (Mantel-Cox) Kaplan-Meier cumulative event curves. We identified 689 trauma recidivist patients (4.0% of all trauma visits) over a 10-y period. Compared to single-visit patients, recidivist patients were more likely to be male (87% versus 73%), uninsured (78% versus 66%), and have injuries secondary to assaults (54% versus 37%) (P trauma visit was shorter for females compared with males (23 ± 2.5 versus 30 ± 1.2 mo, P trauma than were male recidivists (69% versus 43%, P trauma patients have a much shorter time to recurrence for a second traumatic injury than do males. Female recidivists have a high likelihood of assault-associated injuries and domestic violence. Trauma centers should screen for domestic violence among trauma patients to aid in preventing further repeat episodes of injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender Differences in Dementia Spousal Caregiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Maria Pöysti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.

  20. The Debate Continues: Are There Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning as Defined by Kohlberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruess, Brian J.; Pearson, Frances C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines changes in moral reasoning among college students and seeks to determine whether there are gender differences in the process. Women scored higher than men on both Principled moral reasoning and Davison's moral index and graduating students scored higher than first-year students on Davison's moral index. Discusses whether Kohlberg's theory…

  1. Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students - results from a questionaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS. The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables. Results There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome. Conclusions There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where

  2. Gender Differences in Sexual Behaviors in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunyoung; Kang, Youngmi

    The purposes of this study were to identify whether there are gender differences in sexual behaviors among Korean adolescents and to explore the factors that influence safe sex practices across both sexes. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationally representative data obtained from the 2014 Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Sample consisted of 3,210 adolescents who had experience of sexual intercourse. The dependent variable in this study was practicing safe sex. The independent variables included a range of individual, family, and school factors. Female adolescents were less likely to practice safe sex (i.e., always using a condom). Individual (smoking, no drinking before sexual intercourse), family (living with parents, higher allowance per week) and school factors (non-coeducational school students, had received school-based sex education) were significant predictors of practicing safe sex in males. In contrast, family (lower economic status) and school factors (middle school students) predicted practicing safe sex among female adolescents. We demonstrated that gender plays an important role in the sexual behavior of adolescents. The findings of this study indicate a need to design and implement gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender differences in mathematics achievement in Beijing: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijuan; Zhang, Yongmei; Liu, Hongyun; Hao, Yi

    2017-12-19

    The topic of gender differences in mathematical performance has received considerable attention in the fields of education, sociology, economics and psychology. We analysed gender differences based on data from the Beijing Assessment of Educational Quality in China. A large data set of Grade 5 and Grade 8 students who took the mathematical test from 2008 to 2013 (n = 73,318) were analysed. Meta-analysis was used in this research. The findings were as follows. (1) No gender differences in mathematical achievement exist among students in Grade 5, relatively small gender differences exist in Grade 8, females scored higher than males, and variance of male students is larger than that of females in both Grade 5 and Grade 8. (2) Except for statistics and probability, gender differences in other domains in Grade 8 are significantly higher than those in Grade 5, and female students outperform males. (3) The ratio of students of both gender in Grade 5 and Grade 8 at the 95-100% percentile level shows no significant differences. However, the ratio of male students is significantly higher than that of females at the 0-5% percentile level. (4) In Grade 5, the extent to which females outperformed males in low SES group is larger than that in higher SES groups, and in Grade 8, the magnitude of gender differences in urban schools is smaller than that in rural schools. There is a small gender difference among the 8th graders, with the male disadvantage at the bottom of the distribution. And gender differences also vary across school locations. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  5. Self-esteem and optimism in rural youth: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda

    2010-01-01

    To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.

  6. Gender Differences in Website Design: Implications for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Moss

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Where the website production aesthetic is concerned, it finds evidence of statistically significant differences on 13 of the 23 factors against which sixty student websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests, conducted with 67 subjects, revealed preferences to be in tune with production aesthetics such that men had a statistically significant tendency to prefer home pages produced by men, and women those produced by women. This latter tendency was higher than the former. The finding of gendered differences in website production and preference aesthetics has important implications for teaching and assessment. Teachers selecting or assessing websites, whether commercial or produced by pupils and students, need to be mindful of the aesthetic employed in those websites. When selecting websites for educational purposes, a match should be made between the website and end-user preferences. Assessment of students' work should ideally be mindful of the potential for positive bias on the part of the assessor in the direction of work displaying their own favoured aesthetic.

  7. Cyberbullying among University Students: Gendered Experiences, Impacts, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Faucher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an emerging issue in the context of higher education as information and communication technologies (ICT increasingly become part of daily life in university. This paper presents findings from 1925 student surveys from four Canadian universities. The overall findings are broken down to determine gender similarities and differences that exist between male and female respondents’ backgrounds, ICT usage, experiences with cyberbullying, opinions about the issue, and solutions to the problem. We also examine the continuities between these findings and those of earlier studies on cyberbullying among younger students. Our findings also suggest that gender differences, which do emerge, provide some support for each of the three theoretical frameworks considered for understanding this issue, that is, relational aggression, cognitive-affective deficits, and power and control. However, none of these three models offers a full explanation on its own. The study thus provides information about cyberbullying behaviour at the university level, which has the potential to inform the development of more appropriate policies and intervention programs/solutions to address the gendered nature of this behaviour.

  8. Gender differences in the electrocardiogram screening of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessem, Bram B; de Bruijn, Matthijs M C; Nieuwland, Wybe W

    2017-02-01

    Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the cardiovascular screening of young athletes. Observational cross-sectional study. In 2013 and 2014 all the ECGs from the cardiovascular screenings performed at University Sports Medical Centre in Groningen of the student athletes who wanted to participate in a college sports program were collected. The ECG characteristics were scored using computer-based measurements and the Seattle ECG criteria. The study population included 1436 athletes, of which 72% were male. Male athletes were older (19.3 years vs. 18.6 years), participated in sports more frequently (4.0/week vs. 3.8/week) and spent more hours per week practising sports (6.4h/week vs. 5.8h/week) than female athletes. Male athletes had significantly higher PR intervals (149ms vs. 141ms), lead voltages and QRS duration (98ms vs. 88ms). Female athletes had significantly higher resting heart rates (69/min vs. 64/min) and QTc intervals (407ms vs. 400ms). Male athletes also had significantly higher amounts of sinus bradycardia (38.3% vs. 23.0%), incomplete RBBB (15.0% vs. 3.7%), early repolarisation (4.5% vs. 1.0%) and isolated QRS voltage criteria for LVH (26.3% vs. 4.6%). All P-values were ≤0.001. ECGs of young athletes demonstrate gender-related differences. These differences could be considered in their cardiovascular screening. For the Seattle ECG criteria we advise additional research into the clinical implications of using gender-based cut-off values for the QRS duration in the intraventricular conduction delay criterion. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paradox of Student Gender: A Case Study of Economic Education from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Qiao, Fangbin; Li, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    In many Chinese universities and colleges, female students outperform male students in social science subjects. This paper presents a case study, which examines gender difference in economic education in a Chinese university. We look at a sample of students from the Chinese university and find that holding constant observed student…

  10. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.

  11. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition. PMID:27802294

  12. Gender differences in algebraic thinking ability to solve mathematics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, W.; Darhim; Herman, T.; Turmudi

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to conduct a gender study on students' algebraic thinking ability in solving a mathematics problem, polyhedron concept, for grade VIII. This research used a qualitative method. The data was collected using: test and interview methods. The subjects in this study were eight male and female students with different level of abilities. It was found that the algebraic thinking skills of male students reached high group of five categories. They were superior in terms of reasoning and quick understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of high-achieving group of female students also met five categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were more diligent, tenacious and thorough in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of male students in medium category only satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were sufficient in terms of reasoning and understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability group of female students in medium group also satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were fairly diligent, tenacious and meticulous on working on the problems.

  13. Gender differences in brain activation on a mental rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2012-10-01

    Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process.

  14. Students' perceptions of socialisation and gender role in Japan and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela; Iwawaki, Saburo

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigates differences in students' perceptions of socialisation and gender roles in Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany. N = 64 male and 111 female Japanese and N = 61 male and 59 female German students completed paper-and-pencil tests, Group comparisons showed significant differences with respect to perceptions of socialisation and gender-role orientation, Japanese adolescents reported more parental acceptance and control than German adolescents, Japanese mothers w...

  15. Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Modena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an “ideal” natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision. A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 (p ≤ 0.05, with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671; the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202. The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p ≤ 0.03 in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs (90 vs. 94, p ≤ 0.05, atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p ≤ 0.05, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p ≤ 0.05, panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p ≤ 0.03, aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p ≤ 0.05, TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p ≤ 0.05, and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.03. The gender analysis of 2010 showed no difference

  16. Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Maria Grazia; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Giubertoni, Elisa; Mauro, Erminio; Martinotti, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an "ideal" natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED) of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 ( International Classification of Diseases , ninth revision). A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 ( p  ≤ 0.05), with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671); the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202). The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p  ≤ 0.03) in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) (90 vs. 94, p  ≤ 0.05), atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p  ≤ 0.05), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p  ≤ 0.05), panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p  ≤ 0.03), aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p  ≤ 0.05), TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p  ≤ 0.05), and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p  ≤ 0.03). The gender analysis of 2010 showed no

  17. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  18. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  19. Exploring gender differences in patenting in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons

    2013-01-01

    The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...

  20. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-01-01

    and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total...... variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key......The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using...

  1. The effect of gender and leisure preference on transformational leadership behaviour of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekinci Nurullah Emir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate transformational leadership behaviors of high school students according to their leisure preference and gender. Randomly chosen 391 high school students from Kutahya voluntarily took part in the study. In the study Transformational Leadership Scale was used as data gathering tool and after evaluation of dispersion of the data Two-way Analysis of Variance was used as a hypothesis test. As a result, this study showed that transformational leadership behavior differs according to gender and also both leisure preference and gender have an effect on transformational leadership behavior of high school students.

  2. Cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation: relation to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hoin; Yoon, K Lira; Joormann, Jutta; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, studies have shown that the use of specific emotion regulation strategies contributes to an increased risk for depression. Past research, however, has overlooked potential cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation. The present study examined the relation between the use of emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms among college students in two different cultures (n=380 in Seoul, Korea; n=384 in Miami, USA). Koreans, compared with American students, reported more frequent use of brooding, whereas Americans reported more anger suppression than Koreans. Women were more likely than men to use both types of rumination (i.e., reflective pondering and brooding) and anger suppression in both countries, but these gender differences disappeared once levels of depressive symptoms were controlled for. In addition, the association between the use of reappraisal and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the Korean compared to the US sample. In contrast, the association between anger suppression and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the American compared to the Korean sample. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotion regulation.

  3. Gender Differences in Child Aggression: Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Gender differences in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Mònica; Sàez-Francás, Naia; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Aliste, Luisa; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic condition that predominantly affects women. To date, there are few epidemiologic studies on CFS in men. The objective of the study was to assess whether there are gender-related differences in CFS, and to define a clinical phenotype in men. A prospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted including CFS patients at the time of diagnosis. Sociodemographic data, clinical variables, comorbid phenomena, fatigue, pain, anxiety/depression, and health quality of life, were assessed in the CFS population. A comparative study was also conducted between genders. The study included 1309 CFS patients, of which 119 (9.1%) were men. The mean age and symptoms onset were lower in men than women. The subjects included 30% single men vs. 15% single women, and 32% of men had specialist work vs. 20% of women. The most common triggering factor was an infection. Widespread pain, muscle spasms, dizziness, sexual dysfunction, Raynaud's phenomenon, morning stiffness, migratory arthralgias, drug and metals allergy, and facial oedema were less frequent in men. Fibromyalgia was present in 29% of men vs. 58% in women. The scores on physical function, physical role, and overall physical health of the SF-36 were higher in men. The sensory and affective dimensions of pain were lower in men. The clinical phenotype of the men with CFS was young, single, skilled worker, and infection as the main triggering agent. Men had less pain and less muscle and immune symptoms, fewer comorbid phenomena, and a better quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender Differences and Mathematics Achievement of Rural Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the mathematics achievement of rural male and female students in Cross River State, Nigeria; ...

  6. Use of Digital Game Based Learning and Gamification in Secondary School Science: The Effect on Student Engagement, Learning and Gender Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amna; Ahmad, Farzana Hayat; Malik, Muhammad Muddassir

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the impact of a game based learning (GBL) application using computer technologies on student engagement in secondary school science classrooms. The literature reveals that conventional Science teaching techniques (teacher-centered lecture and teaching), which foster rote learning among students, are one of the major…

  7. Accounting for the Gender Gaps in Student Performance in Reading and Mathematics: Evidence from 31 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2008-01-01

    In most countries, girls perform better than boys in reading but worse in mathematics. However, there is much variation between countries. Explanations for the gender gaps include the organisation of the school system, students' expectations and macro-societal factors. The purpose of this paper is to account for gender differences in both reading…

  8. Gender Gap or Program Gap? Students' Negotiations of Study Practice in a Course in Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013.…

  9. Sexual Self-Disclosure and Gender Consciousness of Undergraduate Students of Obafemi Awolowo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatosin, S. A.; Adediwura, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated gender consciousness and sexual self-disclosure of undergraduate students attending counseling sessions as well as gender difference in sexual self disclosure. Sixty (60) consenting undergraduates who had attended counseling session for sexual concerns in the last three months preceding this study period were used for the…

  10. Exploring Physical Activity by Ethnicity and Gender in College Students Using Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip; Rhodes, Ryan; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Courneya, Kerry S.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention;The psychological determinants of physical activity (PA) among college students may vary by ethnicity and gender, but few studies have considered these characteristics. This study tested constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) by ethnicity and gender to explain differences in PA. A total of 231 Blacks (70% female) and 218 White…

  11. Gender gap or program gap? Students' negotiations of study practice in a course in electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013. Dynamics behind this gap were explored through interpretative discourse analysis on interviews of 21 students who had recently passed the course. A recurring pattern was identified in the interviews. Students described studying electromagnetism as either studying to pass or studying to learn. Their choice of practice was influenced by the significance recognized in the course, which primarily was discussed in relation to program affiliation. Students stressed that perceived differences, in their study context, were larger between students affiliated with different programs than between male and female students on the same program. This was supported by quantitative analysis of course grades in relation to study programs, where the grade difference between female and male students on the same program in most cases were not statistically significant. The gender gap in grades for the whole course was related to different achievements on different programs. Programs further from the discipline of physics had lower mean grades and also enrolled a larger fraction of female students. Society-wide gender differences in interest and study choice are reflected in the grades on this single course. These results displace the achievement gap from the level of individuals to that of programs, and the gender gap from a difference in achievement to a difference in study choice. We discuss the implications of this shift of perspective in relation to gender differences for both research and teaching.

  12. Medical students' perceptions of racial diversity and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, May; Coulehan, John L

    2006-07-01

    To assess attitudes of medical students toward issues of racial diversity and gender equality and to ascertain changes in these attitudes during the pre-clinical curriculum. Attitudes toward multiculturalism and gender equality were assessed using a 43-item questionnaire. The survey was completed by incoming Year 1 students in 2000 and 2001, and was completed again in 2002 by the students who had entered in 2000. Mean scores were analysed at baseline by gender, ethnic group and political affiliation using analysis of variance. The paired scores of the first and follow-up surveys of the 2000 entering class were compared using paired t-tests. Upon entry into medical school, women, minority group students and Democrats scored significantly higher on the cultural sensitivity scale than their comparison groups. No significant changes were seen overall in the matched data. However, minority groups showed a significant increase in scores, while Republicans and white men experienced a non-significant decline. In addition, incoming students judged cultural competency education to be important. The perceived need to increase the numbers of minority group doctors varied by gender, ethnic group and political affiliation. Among incoming medical students, perceptions of racial diversity and gender equality vary along ethnic, gender and political lines. Additionally, pre-clinical education was associated with increased cultural sensitivity by minority group students, but not by others. These findings demonstrate the continuing need for diversity in medical school and for medical students to recognise and address their personal and group biases.

  13. Gender differences in perception of workplace sexual harassment among future professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amitav; Sharma, Bhavana

    2011-01-01

    Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach's α coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (Psexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment.

  14. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  15. Encountering Gender in Student Life at UDSM: Chrester Tells Her ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article tells the life history of a young female student, Chrester, as she enjoyed her life while encountering gender contradictions throughout her student life during 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s at the University of Dar es Salaam. The narration covers the age of naiveté as well as her mature age as a senior student.

  16. Empirical evidence for gender differences in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELIK Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer attitude surveys classified as leading economic indicators aim at extracting information from respondents regarding their perceptions of economic outlook. A typical consumer confidence index includes questions designed to measure the changes in the past-current and current-future pairs of economic outlook perceptions of the participants as well as a question that examines the consumer’s view on the current stage of economic activity. These surveys use equal amount of male and female participants. This paper checks the existence of perceptional difference of genders using CNBC-e consumer confidence index for Turkey. First, we calculate monthly consumer confidence indices for men and women for January 2003 – March 2011. Then, employing this data set, we use the recently developed frequency domain analysis of Breitung and Candelon (2006 and wavelet comovement analysis of Rua (2010 to assess whether these indices follow similar patterns before and after the recent global crisis in time and frequency domain. Our results show that women consistently diverge from men and seem to be on the pessimistic side-due probably to lower levels of wealth in terms of expectation formation. Moreover, this difference is increasing when purchasing durable goods is considered.

  17. Gender differences in the learning and teaching of surgery: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Carmen M; Josephson, Anna

    2014-06-15

    To explore evidence concerning gender differences in teaching and learning in surgery to guide future initiatives. This systematic review was conducted searching in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. All studies related to gender differences in surgical education, teaching or learning of surgery at an undergraduate level were included. Data was extracted and critically appraised. Gender differences in learning, teaching, skills acquisition, perceptions and attitudes, interest on surgery, personality and factors influencing interest in surgical careers were differentiated. There is an underrepresentation of women in surgical academia, due to lack of role models and gender awareness. It is not clear whether or not gender itself is a factor that affects the learning of surgical tasks. Female students pursuing a surgical career had experienced sexual harassment and gender discrimination that can have an effect on the professional identity formation and specialty choice. There are differences in personality among female and male students interested in surgery. Gender is a determining factor to choose surgery, with a consistent lower proportion of women compared interested in pursuing a surgical career. Mentoring and personality fit are important in medical student's specialty selection. Female students are more likely to be discouraged from pursuing a surgical career by a lack of female role models. Bias against women in surgery still exists. There is a lack of studies that investigate the role of women in the teaching of surgery.

  18. Cyberbullying experience and gender differences among adolescents in different educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and the relationships among being cyberbullied, their responses, and their coping strategies. The sample consisted of 149 students with learning disabilities (LD) attending general education classes, 116 students with comorbid LD attending special education classes, and 242 typically achieving students. All the students, studying in middle and high schools, completed a self-report cyberbullying questionnaire. Findings indicate that although no significant differences emerged in the amount of surfing hours and students' expertise in the use of the Internet, students attending special education classes are more likely to be cybervictims and cyberperpetrators; girls are more likely to be cybervictims, whereas boys are more likely to be cyberperpetrators. These results contribute to our understanding of students' involvement in cyberbullying and can serve as a basis for developing preventive programs as well as intervention programs for students and for educational school teams. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  19. Gender and Poverty : A Life Cycle Approach to the Analysis of the Differences in Gender Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lokshin, Michael; Mroz, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    The authors study complex interactions between gender and poverty in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina. The goal of their analysis is to uncover how a spectrum of gender differentials at different parts of the life cycle varies across income groups. Using the data from the 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Standards Measurement Study, the authors find strong gender-poverty interaction in the...

  20. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  1. Gender differences in verbal learning in older participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, E.; Rahardjo, T.B.; Brayne, C.; Henderson, W.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in cognitive function may diminish with age. We investigated gender and gender-by-age interactions in relation to verbal learning. Cross-sectional data were available from seven cohorts. Meta-analyses indicated that overall verbal learning favored women. Performance declined with

  2. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics.

  3. Gender Difference in Prejudice Toward Redheads

    OpenAIRE

    Climenhage, L. James

    2014-01-01

    Many stereotypes about persons with red hair are both gender-specific and derogatory. These stereotypes often stand in stark contrast to gender-role stereotypes for men and for women. In three studies, the current research considered if prejudice directed at redheads is, in part, a result of bias against gender-atypical people. In Study 1, participants read about a bullying incident in which the victim was a boy or girl with red hair or another hair colour. Redheads, in general, were seen as ...

  4. Gender identity as a display of mutual influence of gender differences and inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    E. K. Skiba

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the different theoretical approaches to clarifying the causes of inequality of gender identities. The opinion of scientists, following the theory of sex roles who think that gendered people acquire their gender identity from their birth and go with it to the outside world, in order to fill in a gender-neutral social institutions is considered. The article highlights the main tenets of the theory differentiating socialization that explain male dominance as a result of gend...

  5. Personality traits by gender in Spanish College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernández Rouco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in personality, optimism and stress coping were analysed in a group of Spanish college students.  Specific characteristics in these variables would be found, which will propose specific interventions. Three hundred and seventeen college students, 51 men and 266 women completed several personality questionnaires: The shorter version of  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R, the Coping Strategies Inventory  (CSI, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R, the Neo Five-Factor Inventory (NEO FFI, the Transparent Bipolar Inventory and the Berkeley Personality Profile. Statistically significant gender differences in social avoidance of coping skills scale and neuroticism of Eysenck Scale and Bipolar Inventory were founded. Men showed highest social avoidance and neuroticism based on Eysenck scale and no differences in other dimensions evaluated were showed. Finally, men tend to use avoidant coping, whereas neuroticism results are not consistent.

  6. Investigation of students' experiences of gendered cultures in engineering workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Sally A.; Gardner, Anne; Figueroa, Eugenia; Bennett, Dawn

    2018-05-01

    Women remain severely under-represented in engineering in Australia as in all Western countries. This limits the pool of talent, standpoints and approaches within the profession. Furthermore, this under-representation equates to restriction of the benefits of being an engineer mainly to men. Gendered workplace experiences have been found to contribute to women leaving the profession. In this study we explore students' experiences of gendered cultures in engineering workplaces, using interviews with a purposive sample of 13 students (4 male) recruited following a previous survey. Although the overall experience of workplace learning is positive for many students, male and female engineering students reported experiences consistent with masculine cultures. Educators and employers must proactively lead improvements to the culture in engineering workplaces, prepare students for gendered workplaces and support students to reflect during and after workplace experiences. The experiences presented here could be adapted to enhance inclusivity training.

  7. Effect of Gender on Students' Emotion with Gender-Related Public Self-Consciousness as a Moderator in Mixed-Gender Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Minkwon; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether gender-related public self-consciousness moderates the relationship between students' gender and emotions in mixed-gender physical education classes. The Positive and Negative Affect Scales and the Gender-related Public Self-Consciousness Scale were administered to 380 middle-school students in South Korea.…

  8. Gender differences on bioavailability of ofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Z.U.; Naseer, R.

    2008-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones are currently enjoying extensive worldwide clinical applications because of their good bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile. Investigation into several aspects of the pharmacokinetic of all clinically relevant fluoroquinolones, have been carried out notably in Europe, USA and Japan. In view of the geonetical (geographical influences on genetics-pharmacogenetics) differences, it is important that for the optimal therapeutic outcome, biodisposition studies on drugs are better conducted in the population and environments where wide and extensive use of the drug is anticipated. The Objectives of study were to see the pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy young male and female volunteers. This comparative study was conducted King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan, from July 2005 to December 2005. In Pakistan where the use of antibiotics is more frequent by the general practitioners it is important to elucidate certain dose parameters it is also noticed that side effects are more in females than males so present study is conducted to calculate any differences in bioavailability on the basis of sex. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin were determined in each of the clinically health eight young girls and boys (mean age 23.9 and 25.1 years, respectively) following a single oral dose of 400 mg tablet. The method adopted was microbiological assay. The blood samples collected at predetermined time intervals after drug administration revealed almost twice as high concentration of the drug in plasma of the girls than that in the boys. The pharmacokinetic parameters revealed significantly (p<0.01) higher values for area under curve (AUC) and Cmax, and lower total body clearance (TBC) and volume of distribution in the girls than in the boys. The gender differences in pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that the dose adjustment should be considered in male and female. (author)

  9. College Students' Experiences with, and Willingness to Use, Different Types of Telemental Health Resources: Do Gender, Depression/Anxiety, or Stress Levels Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscos, Tammy; Carpenter, Maria; Drouin, Michelle; Roebuck, Amelia; Kerrigan, Connie; Mirro, Michael

    2018-04-16

    Telemental health (TMH) resources are plentiful; however, we know little about college students' opinions about such resources. We aimed to examine students' previous use of and willingness to use several types of TMH resources. Students (N = 662) from two U.S. Midwestern colleges participated. Using an online survey in spring 2017, we measured students' depression, anxiety, stress, and suicidal thoughts, preferences for care options during distress, and use and interest in anonymous chats with trained nonprofessionals, online therapy, and self-help resources. Overall, 10.1-13.8% had experience with these TMH resources; however, 24.6-40.1% expressed willingness to try them. At-risk students, especially those higher in depression/anxiety scores, showed greater use of and willingness to use some applications. Counseling centers might consider endorsing TMH resources as potential pathways to care. TMH resources might help broaden reach with minimal cost, reduce mental health help-seeking barriers, and provide support to at-risk populations.

  10. Gender-Related Differences in Atherosclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mathur, P.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Romeo, F.; Mehta, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-327 ISSN 0920-3206 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : atherosclerosis * gender Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.189, year: 2015

  11. Legal clinic gender sensitive method for law students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.

  12. Gender disparity in internet utilisation habits of medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that there still exists gender inequality in internet utilization by students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It recommends paradigm shift in teaching, information dissemination patterns and policy implementation to accomplish the desired change. Keywords: Internet, Utilization, Habits, Gender, Disparity, Digital, Divide.

  13. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  14. Ageism and Gender among Social Work and Criminal Justice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduate social work and criminal justice students completed 1 of 4 vignettes that were identical with the exception of the age and gender of the vignette's subject. In each vignette, the subject interacted with an opposite-sex 24-year-old waiter or waitress. Following each vignette, respondents answered 20 items relating to the age, gender,…

  15. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy

    2016-06-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.

  16. The Influence of Social Media Use on Male College Students' Gender Identity and Gendered Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Lawrence Charles

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of social media use on male college students' gender identity and male gendered performance, this research examined existing research on digital identity and social networking sites, male gender identity development, college student development theory, and the effects of living arrangements on college students.…

  17. An Examination of Student- and Across-Level Mediation Mechanisms Accounting for Gender Differences in Reading Performance: A Multilevel Analysis of Reading Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Soi-kei; Cheung, Kwok-cheung; Soh, Kaycheng; Sit, Pou-seong; Ieong, Man-kai

    2017-01-01

    Enjoyment of reading, diversity of reading and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies are cognitive and affective variables pertaining to three facets of reading engagement for students to read happily, widely and skilfully. These have been found to be related to effectiveness in reading instruction. They together form a focus for this…

  18. Gender and School-Level Differences in Students' Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Levels When Taught Basketball through the Tactical Games Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Megan L.; Song, Yang; Robertson, David; Brown, Renee; Smith, Lindsey R.

    2016-01-01

    The Tactical Games Model (TGM) prefaces the cognitive components of physical education (PE), which has implications for physical activity (PA) accumulation. PA recommendations suggest students reach 50% moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, this criterion does not indicate the contribution from vigorous physical activity (VPA).…

  19. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  20. Gender differences in the electrocardiogram screening of athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessem, Bram; de Bruijn, Matthijs C.; Nieuwland, Wybe

    Objectives: Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the

  1. Gender Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have found male students to have more confidence in using technology for learning than do female students. Males tend to have more positive attitudes about the use of technology for learning than do females. According to the Women's Foundation (2006), few studies examined gender relevant research in Hong Kong. It also appears that no…

  2. Perceived Severity of Cyberbullying Behaviour: Differences between Genders, Grades and Participant Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ming; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new scale to examine primary and secondary school students' perceptions of the severity of cyberbullying behaviours, and to explore further whether differences exist in the means of gender, grade and participant role. A total of 707 primary and secondary school students (M = 14.7) in Taiwan participated in this study.…

  3. Differences in Universal-Diverse Orientation by Race-Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, Daniel B.; Sedlacek, William E.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the roles of race-ethnicity and gender in university student orientation toward diversity. Differences in orientation toward diversity were found between men and women as well as among racial-ethnic groups (Asian/Asian American, African American, Latino, Anglo-American). Anglo-American students' scores were significantly…

  4. Gender Differences among Patients with a Single Depressive Episode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on gender differences in depression have usually included a mixture of patients with first-episode, chronic and recurrent depression. Consequently, the results might be confounded by the history of depression among participants. The present study evaluated gender differences......, personality traits and disorders, stressful life events, family history, and treatment response. RESULTS: Female patients showed a higher level of neuroticism and more residual anxiety symptoms after treatment of the depression. There were no gender differences in severity of depression, psychiatric co...

  5. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy

    2016-01-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender...

  6. Gender Differences in Quits and Absenteeism in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuelin

    2007-01-01

    Female workers are traditionally viewed as more likely to quit, to be absent and to take more days of absence than male workers, and this gender difference is widely used as an important explanation for the gender wage gap and other labour market differences between men and women. This study documents the gender differences in quits and absenteeism in Canada and attempts to assess whether the traditional view is still valid today. The study found that Canadian women's quitting behaviour chang...

  7. Gender differences in child aggression : Relations with gender-differentiated parenting and parents’ gender stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, J. J.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Van der Pol, L.D.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents’ physical control, moderated by parents’ gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role

  8. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.

  9. Gender identity as a display of mutual influence of gender differences and inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Skiba

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the different theoretical approaches to clarifying the causes of inequality of gender identities. The opinion of scientists, following the theory of sex roles who think that gendered people acquire their gender identity from their birth and go with it to the outside world, in order to fill in a gender-neutral social institutions is considered. The article highlights the main tenets of the theory differentiating socialization that explain male dominance as a result of gender differences. We also investigate the vision of this problem by the representatives of the social construction theory, according to which gender is constructed at the same time both by a means of socialization of the entire system and the system of social roles of gender that circulate through all institutions of society and by the individual. As a result of analysis the article shows that the theory of gender roles, as well as differentiating socialization theory believe that a man and a woman are completely different beings, thus establishing and legitimizing dichotomy and hierarchy, while the social-constructionist approach argues that differences within a group of men, as well as within the group of women are greater and stronger than between men and women as a groups. The analysis defines that if the theory of sex roles and socialization theory differentiating believe that gender inequality is an inevitable consequence of gender difference and the difference is the cause of inequality, the social constructionist approach argues that gender inequality is not a natural state, and that the gender difference is the cornerstone which is the basis of justification and legitimization of gender inequalities in social institutions.

  10. Gender differences in Assessments of Party Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more....... Female party leaders are assessed more positively by female voters than male voters both in regard to general party leader sympathy and assessment of specific characteristics, whereas it is not the case that male party leaders are assessed more positively by male voters than female voters. The impact...

  11. Gender differences in emotional responses: a psychophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marta; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2012-02-28

    Gender differences in emotional responses have been investigated in two groups of students, 22 males and 21 females. Participants watched a set of sixty emotional standardized slides divided into pleasant, neutral and unpleasant, while Startle reflex, Evoked Potentials, Heart Rate, facial EMG and Skin Conductance were recorded. Startle reflex amplitude, an index modulated by amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex and sensitive to aversive emotional stimuli, was overall larger in women. In addition, startle emotion modulation was greater in women with respect to men. Slow Evoked Potentials (400-800 ms), a measure representing the cognitive component of the emotional response, revealed gender differences in the left prefrontal site, with women showing greater positivity to unpleasant compared with pleasant slides while men had greater positivity to pleasant vs. neutral slides. Women, compared with men, perceived all slides as less pleasant and reported greater arousal to unpleasant condition. Results are in line with known functional brain differences, at level of limbic and paralimbic structures, between men and women, and point to biologically grounded greater sensitivity and vulnerability of women to adverse/stressful events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Different paths: gender, immigration and political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-correa, M

    1998-01-01

    "Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." excerpt

  13. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  14. Gender differences in leadership in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R; Cramer, C

    2000-03-01

    The leadership characteristics and behaviors of men and women differ. As increasing numbers of women enter positions of leadership, understanding of these differences can increase the quality and productiveness of relationships in the workplace. This article describes the evolution of women in leadership, gender differences in leadership style, and the way gender may affect behaviors in the workplace.

  15. Gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lydia K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States to investigate the effect gender and religiosity has on volunteer behavior in later life. This study looks specifically at the gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life. Accounting for gender and religious differences, more specifically, this study examines the assumption that older women are more likely to volunteer in later life as opposed to men, and that gender is a better predictor than being religious for the likelihood of occupying a volunteer role in later life. This study poses questions about the differences in gender and religiosity associated with volunteering in later life; the results indicate there is more work to be done as we conduct research that is clearer about how volunteerism and religiosity are measured in relation to gender, and the overall impact these differences have for older women and their respective communities.

  16. Gender, status and 'powerless' speech: interactions of students and lecturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, R G

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated whether the use of 'powerless' speech was affected by role status, speaker's gender and gender of another participant. Fifty-two university lecturers and 156 students participated. Students were paired with a lecturer or student of the same or opposite sex. The findings placed a question mark over the link between powerless speech and individuals of low role status. Moreover, against hypothesis, speaker's gender and gender of partner did not affect the use of qualifiers or fillers, although they affected the use of tag questions and some types of hesitation. A qualitative analysis was also conducted which suggested that the powerless features were, in fact, multi-functional with respect to power. In addition, the importance of a variety of interactional techniques, such as credibility techniques, in the creation or negotiation of relational power was documented. As a whole, these findings highlight problems with the concept of 'powerless' speech, at least with respect to relational power.

  17. Racial and Gender Differences in Faculty Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Robert; And Others

    The overall study examined job satisfaction among tenured college faculty. This paper compares responses from minority (about 6%) and female (about 18%) faculty with the overall responses (N=1135). Overall, 91% reported being satisfied with their careers with 82% saying they would choose the career again. Race and gender were not related…

  18. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…

  19. Gender Differences in Antithrombotic Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Michał; Huisman, Menno V; Rothman, Kenneth J

    2018-01-01

    was -0.5% (95% CI, -1.8%, 0.8%). VKAs were prescribed to 32.8% and 31.9% (NOACs 46.8% and 48.3%) of women and men, respectively. No confounder for the association between gender and anticoagulant prescription was identified. Between-gender differences in anticoagulant use (lower use in women compared......AIMS: Data on gender differences in oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation are conflicting, largely limited to regional reports and Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) use. We aimed to analyze gender-specific anticoagulant prescription patterns early following...... atrial fibrillation (difference in prevalence of anticoagulant use...

  20. The Interaction Effects of Gender and Grade Level on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chua Kah; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study reports the effects of gender and grade level on secondary students' attitude towards chemistry lessons. For this purpose, the Attitude towards Chemistry Lessons Scale (ATCLS) was administered to 446 secondary school students between 16-19 years old. The ATCLS consists of four different subscales: liking for chemistry…

  1. The Intersection of Gender and Race: Exploring Chemical Engineering Students' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Allison; Verdín, Dina; Kirn, Adam; Satterfield, Derrick

    2018-01-01

    We surveyed 342 first-year engineering students at four U.S. institutions interested in a chemical engineering career about their feelings of belonging in engineering, motivation, and STEM identities. We compared these students by both gender and race/ethnicity on these attitudinal factors. We found several significant differences in…

  2. Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on Gender and Academic Achievement among Yemeni University EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Yassin, Amr Abdullatif; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in terms of anxiety among Yemeni university EFL learners. It also aimed to investigate the correlation between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students. The participants of this study were 155 students chosen from the population through stratified random sampling. The…

  3. Scientific careers and gender differences. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gouthier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, much effort has been devoted to explore the causes of the decline in number of university matriculations of science students and to identify gender differences in career choice. Yet, the problem extends to the fulfillment of career plans: given their professional expectations and their attitudes when choosing a career, girls are much less likely to pursue scientific careers such as engineering or physics. Evidence of this is provided by the social research carried out within the framework of the GAPP project (Gender Awareness Participation Process. The Gapp project is intended to investigate differences between girls and boys in their perception of science careers and to propose a range of innovative and concrete participatory activities involving scientists, engineers and professionals from the public and private S&T sectors. In this letter, we report a synthesis of the results of the social research conducted as first step of the project: exploring how the perceptions of science professions affect interest, motivation and subject choice at school, at the university and consequently in their career.

  4. Student Self-Efficacy and Gender-Personality Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the self-efficacy levels and self-efficacy strength for male and female students in a course in Principle of Economics. The groups of male and female students may be mutually heterogeneous when it comes to personality types in a business school (Fallan & Opstad, 2014). This study does not treat the gender groups as…

  5. The Influence of Gender on Junior Secondary School Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is on the influence of gender on junior secondary school student's attitude towards mathematics in Ovia North East local government area of Edo state. The descriptive survey design was employed for the study. The population of the study comprised of all the JSS3 students, a total of Three Thousand Six Hundred ...

  6. The Influence of Gender on Junior Secondary School Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    ... to the Students' perception of Mathematics as a difficult subject (Iloputaife & Nworgu, 2003) ... low standard of science education in Nigeria of which Mathematics is a key part. ... Studies on students' attitude towards the teaching of mathematics are ... Ordinarily, gender is and English word for classifying nouns into male,.

  7. The contribution of gender to students' academic performances | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work used the ex post facto to design and deepen our understanding of the relationship between gender and students academic performances in social studies. The sample comprised 330 JSS III students (130 male and 200 female) drawn from 50 out of 73 schools in Calabar Educational Zone. Two instruments were ...

  8. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  9. Influence of Gender, Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling on Students' Enjoyment and Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)…

  10. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Earle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.

  11. Gender Differences in Alcohol Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.; Prytula, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a study of the outcomes of a school-based alcohol abuse prevention initiative. The initiative was focused on identifying, developing, disseminating, and evaluating information for high school students based on the school community needs. Student learning outcomes were measured using pre- and post-tests…

  12. Differences in Study Motivation within and between Genders: An Examination by Gender Typicality among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2018-01-01

    Despite boys' educational underachievement, gender differences in study motivation have received little research attention. Guided by self-determination theory and the identity-based motivation model, this study investigates differences in study motivation between boys and girls, as well as within each gender. To adequately consider these…

  13. Web 2.0 usage among New Zealand learners: Findings on gender difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wei

    Full Text Available In this paper, gender differences in Web 2.0 usage by postgraduate students in New Zealand are presented. 84 postgraduate students drawn from two different convenience samples were surveyed to discover the extent to which they used and were familiar with Web 2.0 applications. According to Cuadrado-García, Ruiz-Molina and Montoro-Pons (2010, p. 367, \\"men and women differ in their interaction with technology\\". In this study, gender differences in the use of different Web 2.0 applications and technologies have been considered. Whilst findings from this study are limited by the way in which the populations were sampled, the sample size and having a majority of international students with English as a second language, it is interesting to note that there were only minor differences between the ways in which male and female postgraduate students use Web 2.0 applications.

  14. Gender differences in variability patterns of forward bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....

  15. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

  16. Gender Differences in Mental Simulation during Sentence and Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; van der Schoot, Menno

    2017-01-01

    Text comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory retrieval, the present study explores whether gender differences exist…

  17. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  18. Gender differences in macroprolactinomas: a single centre experience

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Shruti; Lila, Anurag R; Patt, Hiren; Yerawar, Chaitanya; Goroshi, Manjunath; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S

    2015-01-01

    Macroprolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary tumours. Hypotheses proposed to explain predominance of large tumours in males are: i) diagnostic delay, as hyperprolactinaemia remains under recognised in males and ii) gender-specific difference in tumour proliferation indices. Our study objectives are to compare gender differences in clinical, biochemical, radiological features, management outcomes and cabergoline responsiveness in macroprolactinomas. Drug resistance was defined a...

  19. Are gender differences important for the clinical effects of antidepressants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Steyerberg, Ewout Willem; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in antidepressant treatment response, side effects, dropout rates, and plasma concentrations were examined in patients with major and predominantly melancholic depression. METHOD: The study included a subgroup of 292 inpatients (96 men, 196 women) from three Danish...... and multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical evaluations. RESULTS: Both genders had similar remission rates (Hamilton depression scale score .... The plasma concentrations of clomipramine were significantly higher for female than for male patients. No gender differences were found in posttreatment Hamilton depression scale scores, nor did the therapeutic effects of treatment depend on gender. Rates of dropout and side effects were similar for men...

  20. Cultural differences and board gender diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco , Amélia; Francoeur , Claude; Réal , Isabelle; Laffarga , Joaquina; Ruiz-Barbadillo , Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    International audience; As evidence of the continuing interest raised by "board gender diversity", major studies (Catalyst, 2008; World Economic Forum, 2010; European Board Diversity Analysis, 2010) were recently carried out and have all led to reports confirming the imbalance of women on boards and the need to address this issue. Moreover, our analysis of these reports indicates that the low proportion of women observed on corporate boards varies across countries, which raises the question a...

  1. "No, Gender doesn't make a Difference...?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    and research strategies – for example following specific negotiations to a conclusion - provide insight into the production of gender in discourse and practice at the work place level. Thus, the article argues that reflexivity and methodological plurality are important when studying gender in work...... and parental leave in the work place, the article explores some of the challenges and complexities involved when researching gender as a social category of difference, which produces inequalities in organizations. Furthermore, the article demonstrates and discusses how applying and combining different methods......This article focuses on methodological challenges and strategies with regard to studying gender in organizations. Work organizations are often thought, theorized and talked about as gender-neutral arenas and, therefore, gender is often seen as irrelevant and of no importance in modern work...

  2. Sex and gender differences in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Sugarman, Dawn E; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2017-11-10

    The gender gap in substance use disorders (SUDs), characterized by greater prevalence in men, is narrowing, highlighting the importance of understanding sex and gender differences in SUD etiology and maintenance. In this critical review, we provide an overview of sex/gender differences in the biology, epidemiology and treatment of SUDs. Biological sex differences are evident across an array of systems, including brain structure and function, endocrine function, and metabolic function. Gender (i.e., environmentally and socioculturally defined roles for men and women) also contributes to the initiation and course of substance use and SUDs. Adverse medical, psychiatric, and functional consequences associated with SUDs are often more severe in women. However, men and women do not substantively differ with respect to SUD treatment outcomes. Although several trends are beginning to emerge in the literature, findings on sex and gender differences in SUDs are complicated by the interacting contributions of biological and environmental factors. Future research is needed to further elucidate sex and gender differences, especially focusing on hormonal factors in SUD course and treatment outcomes; research translating findings between animal and human models; and gender differences in understudied populations, such as those with co-occurring psychiatric disorders and gender-specific populations, such as pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Are new medical students' specialty preferences gendered? Related motivational factors at a Dutch medical school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren-Alers, M.L.G. van; Esch, M. van der; Verdonk, P.; Johansson, E.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know

  4. Undergraduate engineering student experiences: Comparing sex, gender and switcher status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergen, Brenda Sue

    This dissertation explores undergraduate engineering experiences, comparing men with women and switchers with non-switchers. Factors related to a chilly academic climate and gender-role socialization are hypothesized to contribute to variations in men's and women's academic experiences and persistence rates. Both quantitative and qualitative data are utilized in an effort to triangulate the findings. Secondary survey data, acquired as result of a 1992 Academic Environment Survey, were utilized to test the hypothesis that sex is the most important predictor (i.e., demographic variable) of perceptions of academic climate. Regression analyses show that sex by itself is not always a significant determinant. However, when sex and college (engineering vs. other) are combined into dummy variables, they are statistically significant in models where sex was not significant alone. This finding indicates that looking at sex differences alone may be too simplistic. Thirty personal interviews were conducted with a random stratified sample of undergraduate students from the 1993 engineering cohort. The interview data indicate that differences in childhood socialization are important. With regard to persistence, differences in socialization are greater for switchers vs. non-switchers than men vs. women. Thus, gender-role socialization does not appear to play as prominent a role in women's persistence as past literature would indicate. This may be due to the self-selection process that occurs among women who choose to pursue engineering. Other aspects of childhood socialization such as parents' level of educational and occupation, students' high school academic preparation and knowledge of what to expect of college classes appear to be more important. In addition, there is evidence that, for women, male siblings play an important role in socialization. There is also evidence that women engineering students at Midwestern University face a chilly academic climate. The factors which

  5. Girls and Mathematics--A "Hopeless" Issue? A Control-Value Approach to Gender Differences in Emotions towards Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed gender differences in achievement emotions in the domain of mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000, 2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that there are gender differences in mathematics emotions due to the students' different levels of control and value beliefs in mathematics, even when controlling…

  6. Teachers’ perceptions on gender differences in sexuality education in Portuguese schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Vilaça

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that according teachers’ perceptions, boys and girls actively use the material on sexuality education (SE, as well as the aspects of school life, as symbolic resources to construct their gender identity and their power relationships. In this sense, an investigation where a semi-structured interview was applied to a purposeful sample of teachers who were teaching between the 7th and 12th years, and who had already developed projects or activities of SE (N=87 will be presented, to focus on, among other aspects, their perceptions regarding issues related to gender that affect the responses of students in sexuality education, aiming at understanding their perceptions on: i gender differences in students’ reactions to themes/problems of SE; and ii the nature of the gender interactions during SE. According to the discourse of most teachers, during SE, boys tried to demonstrate their masculinity by presenting themselves differently to girls and distancing themselves from all matters related to women's sexuality, devaluating and distancing themselves from all that is feminine which sometimes involved belittling and insulting the girls. However, the girls reacted positively because SE maintains and supports their sense of gender identity and gender codes that are prescribed for them by society. Therefore, these results show that it is essential to work in teacher training on the relationship between gender, sexuality and power in order to empower teachers to reflect critically on students' reactions to promote gender equity.

  7. Does Gender Difference Impact Investment Decisions? Evidence from Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Syed Ahsan; Khan, Khaliquzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Humans are believed to be rational decision makers and documentary evidence proves a significant heterogeneity across individuals when it comes to investment decision making and risk bearing. The study is an attempt to explore and understand the heterogeneity of investment decision when it comes to gender behavior with focus on women. The aim of this research is to explore role of gender in investment decision making and to identify the points of difference between the two genders with respec...

  8. A meta-analysis on gender differences in negotiation outcomes and their moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazei, Jens; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Freund, Philipp Alexander; Stuhlmacher, Alice F; Bilke, Lena; Hertel, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates gender differences in economic negotiation outcomes. As suggested by role congruity theory, we assume that the behaviors that increase economic negotiation outcomes are more congruent with the male as compared with the female gender role, thereby presenting challenges for women's negotiation performance and reducing their outcomes. Importantly, this main effect is predicted to be moderated by person-based, situation-based, and task-based influences that make effective negotiation behavior more congruent with the female gender role, which should in turn reduce or even reverse gender differences in negotiation outcomes. Using a multilevel modeling approach, this meta-analysis includes 123 effect sizes (overall N = 10,888, including undergraduate and graduate students as well as businesspeople). Studies were included when they enabled the calculation of an effect size reflecting gender differences in achieved economic negotiation outcomes. As predicted, men achieved better economic outcomes than women on average, but gender differences strongly depended on the context: Moderator analysis revealed that gender differences favoring men were reduced when negotiators had negotiation experience, when they received information about the bargaining range, and when they negotiated on behalf of another individual. Moreover, gender differences were reversed under conditions of the lowest predicted role incongruity for women. In conclusion, gender differences in negotiations are contextually bound and can be subject to change. Future research is needed that investigates the underlying mechanisms of new moderators revealed in the current research (e.g., experience). Implications for theoretical explanations of gender differences in negotiation outcomes, for gender inequalities in the workplace, and for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. An Examination of the Opinions of the University Students About Feminism and Gender Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül UNUTKAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination adversely affected women in all areas of social life, especially in the fields of education, work, marriage and family life. Feminism has emerged to draw attention to the these impacts of gender discrimination and to reduce it's negative consequences. Social transformation is necessary to ensure gender justice. One of the important steps for achieving this transformation is to educate the youth and increase their awareness. This study was conducted with the aim to determine Dumlupinar University, School of Health students' opinions on feminism and gender roles. The population of this study consists of 1293 students. Sample is comprised of 846 students who accepted to enrolled in the study. Data have been collected with using a questionnaire and assessed with percentiles, Kruskal-Walls and Mann-Whitney U-Tests. 43.3% of students defined feminism as “a style of thought that advocates women are more superior than men” and 31.9% of them as “a style of thought that advocates the equity of social opportunity”. It was identified that male students have more traditional opinions on gender roles related to work, social, marriage and family life. This study has revealed that male students have more conventional opinions in the fields of in working and married life, while the male and female students have egalatirian opinions in the propositions about social life and family life. Besides, the results of the study have revealed that opinions of students on gender roles related to work, social, marriage and family life exhibit statistically significant differences among the departments for all of the statements given. It was observed that midwifery students have more egalitarian views. Also, it was determined that upper class students have more egalitarian opinions. As a result of our study, it has been seen that university students still have a traditional perspective on social gender roles. According to the results of the

  10. [Sex and gender: Two different scientific domains to be clarified].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.

  11. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  12. Do Sex Differences Define Gender-Related Individual Differences within the Sexes? Evidence from Three Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…

  13. Relationship between gender and university students' academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was based on the impact of gender on academic performance ON Arts-related subjects, a case study of Nasarawa State University, Keffi, using a sample of 160 participants derived from Art-based faculties. A questionnaire was used as the prime instrument to correlate the participant's responses to their ...

  14. Exploring gender differences on general and specific computer self-efficacy in mobile learning adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yukun; Xiong, Tao; Hu, Zhongyi; Kibelloh, Mboni

    2014-01-01

    Reasons for contradictory findings regarding the gender moderate effect on computer self-efficacy in the adoption of e-learning/mobile learning are limited. Recognizing the multilevel nature of the computer self-efficacy (CSE), this study attempts to explore gender differences in the adoption of mobile learning, by extending the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with general and specific CSE. Data collected from 137 university students were tested against the research model using the structur...

  15. Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: a social role theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F

    1997-12-01

    This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction.

  16. Gender Differences in Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giosia, Paolo; Giorgini, Paolo; Stamerra, Cosimo Andrea; Petrarca, Marco; Ferri, Claudio; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2018-02-14

    This review aims to examine gender differences in both the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension and to explore gender peculiarities on the effects of antihypertensive agents in decreasing BP and CV events. Men and women differ in prevalence, awareness, and control rate of hypertension in an age-dependent manner. Studies suggest that sex hormones changes play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Estrogens influence the vascular system inducing vasodilatation, inhibiting vascular remodeling processes, and modulating the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and the sympathetic system. This leads to a protective effect on arterial stiffness during reproductive age that is dramatically reversed after menopause. Data on the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy between genders are conflicting, and the underrepresentation of aged women in large clinical trials could influence the results. Therefore, further clinical research is needed to uncover potential gender differences in hypertension to promote the development of a gender-oriented approach to antihypertensive treatment.

  17. Can we continue to ignore gender differences in performance on simulation trainers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Chad M; Kelly, Jason P; Forse, R Armour; Turaga, Kiran K

    2011-05-01

    There are differences between the genders in their innate performances on simulation trainers, which may impair accurate assessment of psychomotor skills. The performance of fourth-year students with no exposure to the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer compared based on gender, and other psychomotor skills. Our study included 16 male and 16 female students. After adjusting for choice of medical specialty (Pvideo game use (P=.6), and experience in the operating room (P=.4), female sex was an independent factor for worse performance (P=.04) in multivariate models. Women took more time than men (P<.01) and made more errors (29 versus 25 on 3 reps, P<.01). Among medical students with no previous exposure to laparoscopic trainers, female students perform worse than male students after adjusting for confounding factors. This difference must be recognized by training programs while using simulators for training and evaluation.

  18. Sexual Violence on Campus: Differences Across Gender and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Paquette, Geneviève; Bergeron, Manon; Dion, Jacinthe; Daigneault, Isabelle; Hébert, Martine; Ricci, Sandrine

    2018-06-01

    Sexual violence is a pervasive problem on university campuses. Although previous work has documented greater vulnerability for sexual violence among sexual and gender minority students, little is known about contextual variation in vulnerability to this kind of violence. The goals of the current study were (1) to identify vulnerability among sexual and gender minority students with regard to sexual violence, and (2) to explore if the context of this violence differs across sexual and gender minority status. Undergraduate students (ages 18-24) from six francophone universities in Quebec, Canada (N = 4,264) completed online questionnaires regarding their experience of sexual violence, as well as the context of these acts (e.g., the gender of the perpetrator, the status of the perpetrator, and the location of the violence). They also provided information regarding their sexual and gender minority status. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to assess for variation in experiencing sexual violence across sexual and gender minority status. Transgender/nonbinary students generally reported higher levels of sexual violence than their cisgender peers, while variation occurred with regard to vulnerability across sexual identity subgroups. Few differences in context were observed across sexual minority identity. Transgender/nonbinary students were significantly more likely to report sexual violence in athletic contexts and during volunteering activities compared to their cisgender peers. Findings highlight the higher levels of vulnerability for sexual violence among gender minority and some sexual minority university students. They also point to the contexts in which such violence occurs, suggesting specific strategies for prevention. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…

  20. Gender and Race Differences in the Perceptions of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydell, Eric J.; Nelson, Eileen S.

    1998-01-01

    Examines influence of gender and race on perception of sexual harassment and on recommended punitive measures by college judicial boards for potential harasser. Significant gender-based differences were found in perception of an ambiguous sexual-harassment situation, with men tending to attribute greater responsibility to victim than did women.…