Kimball, Ezekiel W.
Recent literature suggests a problematic connection between theory and practice in higher education scholarship generally and the study of student learning and development specifically (e.g. Bensimon, 2007; Kezar, 2000; Love, 2012). Much of this disconnect stems from a lack of differentiation between various types of theory used in student affairs…
Owen, Julie E.
Theories of student learning and development are particularly important in leadership education because they make prescriptions about how people can adopt increasingly complex ways of being, knowing, and doing--essential forms of development for leadership learning. Increasingly, there is a call for leadership educators to adopt interdisciplinary…
Johnson, Matthew R.
This article presents the results of a study designed to understand the development of college students' civic identity--that is, an identity encompassing their knowledge, attitudes, values, and actions regarding civic engagement. Grounded theory was used to examine the experiences and attitudes of 19 college seniors who manifested strong civic…
Jorm, Christine; Nisbet, Gillian; Roberts, Chris; Gordon, Christopher; Gentilcore, Stacey; Chen, Timothy F
More and better interprofessional practice is predicated to be necessary to deliver good care to the patients of the future. However, universities struggle to create authentic learning activities that enable students to experience the dynamic interprofessional interactions common in healthcare and that can accommodate large interprofessional student cohorts. We investigated a large-scale mandatory interprofessional learning (IPL) activity for health professional students designed to promote social learning. A mixed methods research approach determined feasibility, acceptability and the extent to which student IPL outcomes were met. We developed an IPL activity founded in complexity theory to prepare students for future practice by engaging them in a self-directed (self-organised) learning activity with a diverse team, whose assessable products would be emergent creations. Complicated but authentic clinical cases (n = 12) were developed to challenge student teams (n = 5 or 6). Assessment consisted of a written management plan (academically marked) and a five-minute video (peer marked) designed to assess creative collaboration as well as provide evidence of integrated collective knowledge; the cohesive patient-centred management plan. All students (including the disciplines of diagnostic radiology, exercise physiology, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy and speech pathology), completed all tasks successfully. Of the 26 % of students who completed the evaluation survey, 70 % agreed or strongly agreed that the IPL activity was worthwhile, and 87 % agreed or strongly agreed that their case study was relevant. Thematic analysis found overarching themes of engagement and collaboration-in-action suggesting that the IPL activity enabled students to achieve the intended learning objectives. Students recognised the contribution of others and described negotiation, collaboration and creation of new collective knowledge after working
Mehdi Abdollah-Zadeh Rafi
Conclusion: Theory of mind development of mental retarded students varies based on that type of task being used to assess. In total, the claim of Theory-Theory approach, that says theory of mind development is on the basis of necessary processes, could be accepted. Also those theories which are based on cultural-social approaches calming that experience with other people causes development of mind understanding need to be more examined.
Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…
Torres, Vasti; LePeau, Lucy A.
This article focuses on past and present research studies that examined the creation of developmental theories to help understand how students develop while in college. The implications of this manuscript include understanding how the diversity of today's student body influences practice, considering the appropriate knowledge base needed to…
This article examines the psychological theoretical foundations of college student development theory and the theoretical assumptions of this framework. A complimentary, sociological perspective and the theoretical assumptions of this approach are offered. The potential limitations of the overuse of each perspective are considered. The conclusion…
This article discusses my (recursive) process of theory building and the relationship between research, teaching, and theory development for graduate students. It shows how graduate students can reshape their conceptual frameworks not only through course work, but also through researching classes they teach. Specifically, while analyzing the…
Kumar, Swapna; Antonenko, Pavlo
From an instrumental view, conceptual frameworks that are carefully assembled from existing literature in Educational Technology and related disciplines can help students structure all aspects of inquiry. In this article we detail how the development of a conceptual framework that connects theory, practice and method is scaffolded and facilitated…
Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.
Provides insight into first-year undergraduate persistence by using behavioral measures--based on Alexander Astin's theory of involvement--to further understanding of Tinto's theory of student departure. Findings support the use of an integrated model in which student behaviors and perceptions interact to influence the development of academic and…
Abbas Ali Yazdani
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate theory of mind development (TOM with regard to mental retarded students (MRS and its relationship with verbal and non-verbal abilities, and number of siblings. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional, for all male mental retarded students, age of 8 to 14 years (about 59 individuals which were from the city Torbat-e Heidarieh, Iran. Unexpected-content task (UCT and 38-items test were used for measuring TOM. Also, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children Revised (WISC-R was used to examine the verbal and non-verbal abilities. Information of siblings was established in an interview with the parents, also by looking at the students’ ID cards. In order to analyze data, ANOVA, Scheffe, Pearson correlation coefficient and chi- square were carried out. Results: First and second level theory of mind development with regard to intellectually disable students were ascending to 12 years age (p0.05. Conclusion: Altogether, the things “theory theory” and “modular” approaches state might be acceptable. Those theories which are based on sociocultural approaches expressing experiment of communication underlies mind understanding development must be more examined.
Walter, Janet G.; Barros, Tara
In this paper, we explore the development of two grounded theories. One theory is mathematical and grounded in the work of university calculus students' collaborative development of mathematical methods for finding the volume of a solid of revolution, in response to mathematical necessity in problem solving, without prior instruction on solution…
Kodama, Corinne M.; Maramba, Dina C.
This chapter addresses the applicability of student development theories in light of empirical research on Asian American college students through a twofold approach: (a) revisiting the relevance of Kodama, McEwen, Liang, and Lee's (2001, 2002) theoretical work on Asian American student development; and (b) using Jones' and Stewart's (2016)…
Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta
Danish academic regulations emphasize a dynamic theory- practice relation in the nursing education. The nursing program is based upon the close collaboration and development of the scholastic and clinical spheres. Attempts to improve patient safety emphasize the critical role that the systematic...... reporting of clinical errors can play. This is not only a national but also an international priority as millions of patients worldwide suffer injury or death due to unsafe care. A project in co-operation with clinical practice and University College Sealand’s research and development department attempts...... to optimize the theory-practice connection while developing students’ competencies with respect to the reporting of clinical errors. Quantitative data from the involved students and clinical advisors is collected in order to measure the effect of the intervention. Student knowledge, awareness and experiences...
The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to create a student leadership development model specific to secondary students in a private Christian Hawaiian school system. The paradigm that guided this study was Kouzes and Posner's (2012) transformational leadership theory as it provides a framework of leaders equipping, encouraging,…
Abdul Hameed Panhwar
Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on Vygotskian theory of Socio-cultural learning and constructivist approach to teaching and learning and attempts to relate the socio-cultural theory to constructivism. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the ways socio-cultural theory helps to develop language pedagogies. Critical analysis of the literature on the socio-cultural theory suggests that the theory has potential for forming new context-oriented language teaching-learning pedagogies which can help teachers in maximising the effectiveness of their teaching and their student’s learning. The review further suggests that the language pedagogies and activities developed from the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky may not only improve students’ language skills, but it also has potential to develop students’ cognition. Since theory promotes more and more communication of students with each other through scaffolding, that is, the Zone of Proximal development (ZPD in Vygotsky’s language. Thus, the theory directly points towards the promotion of student-centred learning by establishing learner autonomy. Keywords: socio-cultural theory, language, constructivism, pedagogies, students
Full Text Available Starting from psychological needs that are considered basic within self-determination theory (autonomy, competence and relatedness, the importance of encouraging students' autonomy in school context is particularly emphasised. Appreciation of students' autonomy has a stimulating effect on school achievement, conceptual understanding, creativity development, strengthening of self-esteem, and students adapt better to school system and demonstrate a larger degree of internalisation of school rules and intrinsic motivation. Teachers' behavioural style largely determines the degree of students' autonomy in school life and work. Self-determination theory implies the necessity of agreement between the developmental need for autonomy in children and the level of adult control and distinguishes between two styles of interpersonal behavior of teachers: (a those who offer support to students' autonomy by their behavior and (b those that are predominantly inclined to control students' behavior. This paper also points out to different strategies that can be applied by teachers in working with students in school, which also contribute to the development of students' autonomy. What is especially encouraging is the fact that it is possible to learn and to develop 'appreciation of students' autonomy' as teacher's interpersonal style.
Liff, Roy; Rovio-Johansson, Airi
This paper investigates undergraduate students' application of theory in their analysis of problems presented in authentic leadership cases. Taking a phenomenographic research approach, the paper identifies two levels at which students understand "theory": Level 1-Theory as knowledge acquired from books; Level 2-Theory as support for…
Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A
In the field of intelligence research, it has been shown that some people conceive intelligence as a fixed trait that cannot be changed (entity beliefs), whereas others conceive it as a malleable trait that can be developed (incremental beliefs). What about writing? Do people hold similar implicit theories about the nature of their writing ability? Furthermore, are these beliefs likely to influence students' response to a writing intervention? We aimed to develop a scale to measure students' implicit theories of writing (pilot study) and to test whether these beliefs influence strategy-instruction effectiveness (intervention study). In the pilot and intervention studies participated, respectively, 128 and 192 students (Grades 5-6). Based on existing instruments that measure self-theories of intelligence, we developed the Implicit Theories of Writing (ITW) scale that was tested with the pilot sample. In the intervention study, 109 students received planning instruction based on the self-regulated strategy development model, whereas 83 students received standard writing instruction. Students were evaluated before, in the middle, and after instruction. ITW's validity was supported by piloting results and their successful cross-validation in the intervention study. In this, intervention students wrote longer and better texts than control students. Moreover, latent growth curve modelling showed that the more the intervention students conceived writing as a malleable skill, the more the quality of their texts improved. This research is of educational relevance because it provides a measure to evaluate students' implicit theories of writing and shows their impact on response to intervention. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Three sixteen-year-old students from the International School of Geneva, La Chataigneraie have spent a week finding out about the life of a theoretical physicist at CERN. Student Peter Bishop at the blackboard with Robert Fleischer of Theory Division. Peter Bishop, Sam Schoenholz and Alexander Hultin spent the time with the Theory Unit of the Physics department. The visit was at the suggestion of the students themselves, who are required to undertake work experience at an organization, gaining insights into professional life, as part of their studies. After an introduction to CERN at Microcosm, each student had the opportunity to learn about physics at a level well beyond their current academic training. They were mentored by theoretical physicists who introduced them to the basics of particle physics, discussing physics in general as well as topics such as predicting the mass of the Higgs boson and cosmology. A visit to CMS, guided by Ariane Frey, proved very impressive, but the working conditions of physi...
Full Text Available Physical education is considered to be a favorable context for accomplishment of important educational outcomes and promotion of physical activity in children and youth. The real scope of physical education instruction largely depends on student motivation. Self-determination theory, as a specific macrotheory of motivation, offers a rewarding framework for understanding student motivation in physical education instruction. The paper presents the basic tenets of self-determination theory, the most important studies in the domain of physical education and didactic and methodical implications. Two mini-theories within the self-determination theory are analyzed in more detail, the cognitive evaluation theory and the organismic integration theory. Empirical verification of the theoretical tenets indicates the existence of typical motivational profiles of students in physical education instruction, the basic psychological needs as mediators of influence of social and interpersonal factors on student motivation, followed by the importance of motivational climate, students' goal orientations and teaching style for self-determination of students' behavior in physical education instruction. Didactic and methodical implications refer to the need for developing a more flexible curriculum of physical education, encouraging a motivational climate, task-focused goal orientations, and, especially, encouraging the perceived moving competence of the student.
Students Union, University Administration and Political Development of Nations. ... African Research Review ... resting on the reciprocal determinism of the social learning theory, that students union makes university administration smooth.
Piedmont, Silke; Robra, Bernt-Peter
The aim of this article is to compare students of human medicine (HM) with students specialising in the MINT disciplines (mathematics, computer science, natural sciences and engineering), the humanities and social sciences as well as law and economic sciences with regard to their expectations of their university study and career and the areas of competence where they feel they have been supported by their education. We present in detail issues particularly relevant to prospective physicians, which are discussed with the main focus on the "theoretical and practical orientation of medical education". We used the database in the Public Use File of the "11th Student Survey", a written survey of randomly selected students studying at 25 German tertiary institutions during the 2009/2010 winter term, which was supplied by the Tertiary Education Research working group at the University of Constance. Data on 7536 students was included, of which 488 (6.5%) were prospective physicians. Human medicine students have a clear career aim and want to complete their education quickly. They have a far above-average interest in working with and for people. About one student in two is interested in a career in science or research (53% in each case - close to the average for all subjects). Compared with the other disciplines, HM students are most likely to consider their university education to have practical and research relevance and are most likely to feel prepared for their profession. Yet over half of all students (Ø 53.3%; HM 54.5%) do not consider their education to have fostered their research skills. MINT students in particular are better able to enhance their skills through independent experimentation, while theory and practice are more likely to be communicated academically in the regular teaching of human medicine. Accordingly, the HM students feel less well supported in some areas of competence required for their later work than students in other disciplines, in developing
Park, Eun Jung
The nature of matter based upon atomic theory is a principal concept in science; hence, how to teach and how to learn about atoms is an important subject for science education. To this end, this study explored student perceptions of atomic structure and how students learn about this concept by analyzing student mental models of atomic structure. Changes in student mental models serve as a valuable resource for comprehending student conceptual development. Data was collected from students who were taking the introductory chemistry course. Responses to course examinations, pre- and post-questionnaires, and pre- and post-interviews were used to analyze student mental models of atomic structure. First, this study reveals that conceptual development can be achieved, either by elevating mental models toward higher levels of understanding or by developing a single mental model. This study reinforces the importance of higher-order thinking skills to enable students to relate concepts in order to construct a target model of atomic structure. Second, Bohr's orbital structure seems to have had a strong influence on student perceptions of atomic structure. With regard to this finding, this study suggests that it is instructionally important to teach the concept of "orbitals" related to "quantum theory." Third, there were relatively few students who had developed understanding at the level of the target model, which required student understanding of the basic ideas of quantum theory. This study suggests that the understanding of atomic structure based on the idea of quantum theory is both important and difficult. Fourth, this study included different student assessments comprised of course examinations, questionnaires, and interviews. Each assessment can be used to gather information to map out student mental models. Fifth, in the comparison of the pre- and post-interview responses, this study showed that high achieving students moved toward more improved models or to advanced
Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted
In this paper we explore recent developments in activity theoretical HCI with the purpose of preparing designers for action. The paper discusses two projects where students engaged in iterative design applying fundamental principles from Activity Theory. They had been introduced to these principles...
Roberts, Foster; Thomas, Christopher H.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Ammeter, Anthony; Garner, Bart; Johnson, Paul; Popoola, Ifeoluwa
In this article, we develop an "integrated moral conviction theory of student cheating" by integrating moral conviction with (a) the dual-process model of Hunt-Vitell's theory that gives primacy to individual ethical philosophies when moral judgments are made and (b) the social cognitive conceptualization that gives primacy to moral…
Sievert, Anne; Chaiklin, Seth
, in a principled way, to select subject-matter content for a course for nursing students on theory of science and research methodology. At the same time, the practical organisation of the project was motivated by a practice-developing research perspective. The purpose of the presentation is to illustrate how...... the idea of practice-developing research was realised in this concrete project. A short introduction is first given to explain the practical situation that motivated the need and interest to select subject matter for teaching. Then, the main part of the presentation explains the considerations involved...... developed. On the basis of this presentation, it should be possible to get a concrete image of one form for practice-developing research. The presentation concludes with a discussion that problematises the sense in which general knowledge about development of nursing school teaching practice has been...
Lalić-Vučetić Nataša; Đerić Ivana; Đević Rajka
Starting from psychological needs that are considered basic within self-determination theory (autonomy, competence and relatedness), the importance of encouraging students' autonomy in school context is particularly emphasised. Appreciation of students' autonomy has a stimulating effect on school achievement, conceptual understanding, creativity development, strengthening of self-esteem, and students adapt better to school system and demonstrate a larger degree of internalisation of school ru...
Bennet, Maria; Moriarty, Beverley
This article draws on previous research by the authors and others as well as lifelong learning theory to argue the case for providing pre-service teachers with deep and meaningful experiences over time that help them to build their personal capacity for developing knowledge and dispositions to work with Australian Aboriginal students, their…
students in other disciplines, in developing independence, problem-solving ability, critical ability and capacity for teamwork for example. Conclusion: The high expectations held by human medicine students of being prepared for practical work with/on people are met to an above-average degree according to their assessments of the “practical relevance” and “career preparation” offered by their medical education. However the perceived development of skills in theory and practice does not respond sufficiently well to the demands of the complex, responsible profession they aspire to. Medical students should be better supported in developing both practical and academic independence.
Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad
This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…
Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura
This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…
Anri, Y.; Maknun, J.; Chandra, D. T.
The purpose of this research conducted to find out student understanding profile about gas kinetic theory. Particularly, on ideal gas law material, ideal gas equations and kinetic energy of ideal gas. This research was conducted on student of class XII in one of the schools in Bandung. This research is a descriptive research. The data of this research collected by using test instrument which was the essay that has been developed by the researcher based on Bloom’s Taxonomy revised. Based on the analysis result to student answer, this research discovered that whole student has low understanding in the material of gas kinetic theory. This low understanding caused of the misconception of the student, student attitude on physic subjects, and teacher teaching method who are less helpful in obtaining clear pictures in material being taught.
Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond to what they think
Kvols, Anja Madsen; Kim, Won-Chung; Christensen, Dorthe Ansine
of the teacher education and will aim at strengthening students' motivation for choosing self-initiated activities. The motivation should for example be based on students´ perception of relevance and quality of their own initiatives and the possibility of guidance in self-selected activities. This paper...... the possibility of developing educational theories for the teachers’ education in an effort to develop independence as a study skill. Keywords: studieaktivitetsmodellen, selvstændige studieaktiviteter, kortlægning af studieaktiviteter...
Higgs, Leonie G.
This paper investigates the views of Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) students' of the theoretical component in one of the modules in their teacher education programme. In this module students are exposed to the following theoretical frameworks: Empiricism, Critical Rationalism, Feminism, Critical Theory, African Philosophy and…
Dinmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Peyrovi, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda
Introduction: Professional socialization is a critical aspect of nursing students' development, which begins with entry into the nursing program and continues when their professional practice begins. The aim of this study was to explore the socialization of Iranian BSN students in the nursing profession. Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach utilizing Straussian version of the grounded theory (1998) method was used. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 participants chosen from two large nursing schools in an urban area through purposive and theoretical sampling. The data were analyzed, using the constant comparative method. Results: Five main categories and eleven subcategories emerged and integrated around one core category. Professional metamorphosis as the core variable was a complex and interrelated process (consisting of three stages: dependence, disintegration, and integration) with dynamic, ongoing, and personal features influenced by professional and extra-professional context. The students assumed a passive role in the initial of their studies. However, during the last year of the educational program, they gradually involved actively in dealing with own personal and professional issues. Conclusion: This study introduced "professional metamorphosis of BSN students" as a substantive grounded theory in the socio-cultural context of the health care system in Iran. During this process, students move from outsider personal position to insider professional position. The nurse educators and administrators may develop effective educational interventions to promote professional socialization of students with an understanding of the promoting and driving forces influencing socialization.
Von Esch, Kerry Soo; Kavanagh, Sarah Schneider
Preparing classroom teachers to teach English Learner (EL) students continues to challenge teacher educators. This article argues for EL teaching work to be situated within theories of professional learning that focus on developing teachers who can flexibly and innovatively integrate EL instructional practice into content area teaching. We propose…
Floerchinger, Debra S.
One of the developmental challenges that a college student may have to face is the death of a significant other, friend, spouse, relative, child, or parent. This article reviews the literature on the potential effects of bereavement on a college student with respect to Erik Erikson's stage six of psychosocial development (intimacy versus…
Reason, Robert D.; Kimball, Ezekiel W.
In this article, we synthesize existing theory-to-practice approaches within the student affairs literature to arrive at a new model that incorporates formal and informal theory, institutional context, and reflective practice. The new model arrives at a balance between the rigor necessary for scholarly theory development and the adaptability…
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…
Simi, Demi; Matusitz, Jonathan
This paper examines the behavioral patterns of Native American college students in U.S. higher education. Attachment theory is the theoretical framework used in this analysis. Developed by Bowlby ("Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger," 1973), attachment theory postulates that behaviors can be predicted based on one's…
Full Text Available Even though the cliché ‘theory is practice’ registers in most communication for development debates, available evidence seems to suggest there is a growing chasm between the theory and practice of communication for development. This discussion argues that, with the increasing demand by governments and organisations for communication for development specialists, universities and training providers should rethink their graduate curricula. As course content, teaching methodologies and theoretical paradigms are revisited, trainers need to grill students on how the contestation of power is central to the application of communication in development. This paper advances two arguments. The first is that communication for development training has to begin listening to the innovative thinking that is shaping practice on the ground if the curriculum is to stay relevant. The second is that such programmes have forge strong linkages with development studies departments to ensure that students are well-grounded in development theory and practice.
Kimball, Ezekiel; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Vargas, Nadia
In an action-based grounded theory project, the authors collected data from 31 student affairs professionals. During seven focus groups, practitioners described feeling unknowledgeable about disability law, accommodations, and diagnoses. However, they drew upon their core values and transferrable skills to support individual students. Participants…
Academic advisors need to be knowledgeable of the ways students learn. To aid advisors in their exploration of learning theories, I provide an overview of the attribution theory of learning, including recent applications of the theory to research in college student learning. An understanding of this theory may help advisors understand student…
Sessa, Valerie I; Alonso, Nicole; Farago, Pamela; Schettino, Gaynell; Tacchi, Kelcie; Bragger, Jennifer D
This chapter describes theory and research demonstrating that the experiences students have within student organizations, and the people with whom they interact within those organizations, are powerful triggers for leader learning and development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
This study explores the extent to which a teacher elicited students' mathematical reasoning through the use of challenging tasks and the role her knowledge played in doing so. I characterised the teacher's knowledge in terms of a local theory of instruction, a form of pedagogical content knowledge that involves an empirically tested set of conjectures situated within a mathematical domain. Video data were collected and analysed and used to stimulate the teacher's reflection on her enactments of an instructional sequence. The teacher, chosen for how she consistently elicited student reasoning, showed evidence of possessing a local theory in that she articulated the ways student thinking developed over time, the processes by which that thinking developed, and the resources that facilitated the development of student thinking. Her knowledge informed how she revised and enacted challenging tasks in ways that elicited and refined student thinking around integer addition and subtraction. Furthermore, her knowledge and practices emphasised the progressive formalisation of students' ideas as a key learning process. A key implication of this study is that teachers are able to develop robust knowledge from enacting challenging tasks, knowledge that organises how they elicit and refine student reasoning from those tasks.
Lee, Chung Gun; Park, Seiyeong; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Ji-Won
The most critical step in developing and implementing effective physical activity interventions is to understand the determinants and correlates of physical activity, and it is strongly suggested that such effort should be based on theories. The purpose of this study is to test the direct, indirect, and total effect of social cognitive theory constructs on physical activity among Korean male high-school students. Three-hundred and forty-one 10th-grade male students were recruited from a private single-sex high school located in Seoul, South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to test the expected relationships among the latent variables. The proposed model accounted for 42% of the variance in physical activity. Self-efficacy had the strongest total effect on physical activity. Self-efficacy for being physically active was positively associated with physical activity ( p social cognitive theory is a useful framework to understand physical activity among Korean male adolescents. Physical activity interventions targeting Korean male high-school students should focus on the major sources of efficacy.
Bonell, C P; Fletcher, A; Jamal, F; Wells, H; Harden, A; Murphy, S; Thomas, J
Public-health interventions informed by theory can be more effective but complex interventions often use insufficiently complex theories. We systematically reviewed theories of how school environments influence health. We included 37 reports drawing on 24 theories. Narrative synthesis summarised and categorised theories. We then produced an integrated theory of school environment influences on student health. This integrated theory could inform complex interventions such as health promoting schools programmes. Using systematic reviews to develop theories of change might be useful for other types of 'complex' public-health interventions addressing risks at the individual and community levels. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Herring, James E.
This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…
Moore, Lori L.; Grabsch, Dustin K.; Rotter, Craig
This study sought to examine student motives for participating in a residential leadership learning community for incoming freshmen using McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory (McClelland, 1958, 1961). Eighty-nine students began the program in the Fall 2009 semester and were administered a single, researcher-developed instrument. Responses to…
Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.
All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…
A model derived from information processing theory is described, which helps to explain the complex verbal learning of students and suggests implications for lecturing techniques. Other factors affecting learning, which are not covered by the model, are discussed in relationship to it: student's intellectual development and effects of individual…
Oonk, W.; Verloop, N.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.
This study concentrated on the theory–practice problem in mathematics teacher education. We examined 13 student teachers’ use of theory when they reflected on teaching practice in a class specifically designed to optimize the chance for theory use. We developed a Reflection Analysis Instrument with
Berger, Joseph B.; Braxton, John M.
A study used theory elaboration to help revise Tinto's interactionalist theory of individual student departure from college to include the effects of organizational attributes on student withdrawal. Results provide strong support for including concepts from organizational theory and suggest future research should use theory elaboration to look for…
Harris, Laura L.
Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…
Brunstad, Anne; Hjälmhult, Esther
The labor ward is an important and challenging learning area for midwifery students. It is there the students learn in authentic complex situations, in intimate situations, with potential risk for the life and health of mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern expressed by midwifery students in labor wards and how they handled this concern. A longitudinal study based on grounded theory methodology was used. The participants were 10 postgraduate midwifery students, from a University College in Norway. Data were gathered and analyzed throughout the 2-year postgraduate program, in the students first, third and fourth semesters. Every student was interviewed three times in a total of 15 single and three focus-group sessions. The grounded theory of "building relationships" explains how students dealt with their main concern: "how to gain access to learning experiences". This theory consisted of three strategies; a) controlling vulnerability, b) cultivating trust and c) obtaining acceptance. Clarifying discussions involving midwives and students may facilitate the process of building relationships and contribute to confident learning. Students appreciate it when the midwives initiate discussions about acute situations and state that a novice may perceive labor and childbirth as more frightening than an experienced midwife would. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Müllensiefen, Daniel; Harrison, Peter; Caprini, Francesco; Fancourt, Amy
Musical abilities and active engagement with music have been shown to be positively associated with many cognitive abilities as well as social skills and academic performance in secondary school students. While there is evidence from intervention studies that musical training can be a cause of these positive relationships, recent findings in the literature have suggested that other factors, such as genetics, family background or personality traits, might also be contributing factors. In addition, there is mounting evidence that self-concepts and beliefs can affect academic performance independently of intellectual ability. Students who believe that intelligence is malleable are more likely to attribute poor academic performances to effort rather than ability, and are more likely to take remedial action to improve their performance. However, it is currently not known whether student's beliefs about the nature of musical talent also influence the development of musical abilities in a similar fashion. Therefore, this study introduces a short self-report measure termed "Musical Self-Theories and Goals," closely modeled on validated measures for self-theories in academic scenarios. Using this measure the study investigates whether musical self-theories are related to students' musical development as indexed by their concurrent musical activities and their performance on a battery of listening tests. We use data from a cross-sectional sample of 313 secondary school students to construct a network model describing the relationships between self-theories and academic as well as musical outcome measures, while also assessing potential effects of intelligence and the Big Five personality dimensions. Results from the network model indicate that self-theories of intelligence and musicality are closely related. In addition, both kinds of self-theories are connected to the students' academic achievement through the personality dimension conscientiousness and academic effort
Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.
An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…
A role-playing intervention was developed and implemented in a fifth grade classroom. The goal of the intervention was to address serious problems that researchers have connected to dysfunctional collaborative interactions. These problems include an inability to: engage in important aspects of argumentation and communication, monitor and regulate group processes, and ensure equity in participation. To this end, a comprehensive theory of collaboration was presented to students through the use of four sociocognitive roles: mediation manager, collaboration manager, communication manager, and productivity manager. Each role came with a written guide that included specific goals and strategies related to the role. Metacognitive activities, including planning and reflection, were also used during class sessions to support students' understanding and role-use. Each of the students in the class was assigned one of the roles to manage during a two part collaborative science project. Students took quizzes on the roles and provided verbal and written feedback about their role-use and metacognitive activities. Students from one of the video-recorded groups were also interviewed after the intervention. Analyses of data from video sessions, quizzes, and interviews supported three important findings: (1) students were able to learn goals, and strategies for all of the roles, even though they only managed a single role, (2) students demonstrated the ability to take the information they learned and put it into practice, and (3) when students employed the roles while their group was working, members of the group accepted the role-use. These findings related to the learning and utilization of the roles are important because they: (1) imply that the intervention was successful at developing students' knowledge of the theory of collaboration that the roles represented, (2) indicate that students used this knowledge to monitor and regulate behaviors in an authentic context, and (3
Himes, Hilleary A.
Discussions on academic advising theory have centered on application from many disciplines; however, academic advising is unlike any other field, and therefore, theories from other disciplines do not correspond with all of the unique goals of advising: assisting students in understanding the meaning of higher education, supporting students in…
Lan, Yu-Feng; Hung, Chun-Ling; Hsu, Hung-Ju
The purpose of this paper is to develop different guided writing strategies based on media richness theory and further evaluate the effects of these writing strategies on younger students' writing attitudes in terms of motivation, enjoyment and anxiety. A total of 66 sixth-grade elementary students with an average age of twelve were invited to…
Kodama, Corinne M.; Huynh, Jill
Academic and career development for Asian American students is complicated by cultural influences, interdependence with family, and racial stereotyping. This chapter highlights research, theory, and practice to help educators rethink traditional advising approaches to more appropriately work with Asian American students as they navigate their…
Sinclair, Anne; And Others
Researchers administered surveys to college zoology students prior to, and immediately following a study of evolutionary theory, to assess their understanding and acceptance of evidence supporting the theory. Results showed students had many misconceptions about the theory. Their beliefs interfered with their ability to objectively view scientific…
Reyes, A T; Kearney, C A; Isla, K; Bryant, R
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Resilience is an ability and a process that allows an individual to develop positive adaptation despite challenges and adversities. Many military veterans returning to college after their military service have difficulty transitioning to civilian life. Although some research exists that explores factors related to the resilience of college student veterans, limited theoretical descriptions exist that explain how student veterans construct resilience, and how resilience is enacted and enhanced in their academic and personal (non-academic) lives. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The resilience of student veterans involves a complex process of transitioning from military to civilian life and an iterative journey between positive adaptation and transient perturbations. Student veterans' resilience is a result of integrating and resolving various aspects of their academic and personal challenges. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses can apply this grounded theory as a practical framework for equipping student veterans with effective strategies to develop and enhance resilience. Nurses can employ a holistic approach of care in their interactions with military veterans and student veterans that includes fostering psychological resilience, helping to manage their multiple non-academic responsibilities and supporting their academic success. Introduction Adjusting to college life is one of the most difficult experiences in a military veteran's transition to civilian life. Many military veterans returning to college not only encounter academic challenges, but also deal with physical and psychiatric disabilities, loss of military camaraderie and social disconnect. These often negatively affect their personal and academic lives. Hence, it is important to explore resilience to best support student veterans as they transition from military to civilian life. Aim The aim of this study was to explore how student veterans
This study examined the recreational reading attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of college students. The theory of reasoned action provided the framework for the investigation and prediction of the students' intentions and behaviors. Two hundred and one students completed questionnaires developed according to the guidelines for the construction…
Vaccaro, Annemarie; Kimball, Ezekiel W.; Moore, Adam; Newman, Barbara M.; Troiano, Peter F.
This article presents findings and a model from a constructivist grounded theory study about purpose development for college students with disabilities. The 59 participants, drawn from 4 different higher education institutions, self-identified as having 1 or more of a variety of disabilities. Students engaged in imagination, exploration, and…
Deegan, William L.; And Others
Japanese management theory was studied to identify specific models for consideration by student personnel administrators. The report is organized into three sections: major components of Japanese management theory, potential implications for student personnel administration, and three models, based on components of Japanese management theory, for…
DeShields, Oscar W., Jr.; Kara, Ali; Kaynak, Erdener
Purpose: This paper focuses on the determinants of student satisfaction and retention in a college or university that are assumed to impact students' college experience. Design/methodology/approach: Using empirical data and Herzberg's two-factor theory, a modified version of the questionnaire developed by Keaveney and Young was administered to…
This study investigates the applicability of Holland's career development theory in cross-cultural settings by examining vocational interests of Chinese college students and the relationship between those interests and their career choices. One hundred sixty five Chinese college students complete a Chinese version of the Self-Directed Search and a…
Carvalho, Diana Paula de Souza Rego Pinto; Vitor, Allyne Fortes; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira; Ferreira, Marcos Antonio
Reflections on some assumptions of the theory of Communicative Action and the development of Critical Thinking in the context of training students in undergraduate nursing courses. The perspective is based on concepts of Jürgen Habermas, as a possibility for the development of critical thinking among the students of these courses. Communication is therefore understood as inherent in the training of nurses in a continuous, dynamic, dialogical process, with interventions that are related to the context of the students and that have meaning for them, in order to contribute to the promotion of Critical Thinking.
Thrasher, Robert G.; Andrew, Damon P. S.; Mahony, Daniel F.
Shaffer and Hall (1997) have estimated college student gambling to be three times as high as their adult counterparts. Despite a considerable amount of research on gambling, researchers have struggled to develop a universal theory that explains gambling behavior. This study explored the potential of Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) Theory of Reasoned…
Meadows, Jodi J.
Gifted students in transition to college may be at risk for underachievement, difficult transition, or even attrition. Giftedness by itself is not always sufficient for academic success in college. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to construct a theory regarding the process of transition to college for high-achieving gifted high…
Full Text Available Objective: The development of theory of mind is considered as one aspect of social cognition by researchers and have attracted their attention in recent years. The purpose was to determine the effect of theory of mind training on social skills in male students with intellectual disability in Meshkinshahr City. Materials & Methods: In present experimental study, pretest-posttest design with control group were used. All intellectually disabled male students (aged 8-12 years old who educating in Meshkinshahr (43 individuals answered to theory of mind tests. Students who could not pass the tests (39 individuals selected as a sample and their teachers completed Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS Gresham & Elliot, 1990 for them. They assigned randomly to experimental and control groups. Experimental group participated in 8 training sessions (for 2 weeks, 30 minutes per session. After last session, theory of mind tests and SSRS administered for all subjects again. Data were assesed with analysis of covariance. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that experimental group performed better than control group in social skills index, cooperation and self-control components significantly (P=0.001. But, two groups were not significantly different in assertion component. Conclusion: theory of mind training leads to improvement in social skills and its components of intellectually disabled students and will guarantee their success on these areas in adulthood.
Smith, Michael E.; Zsidisin, George A.; Adams, Laural L.
The emphasis in recent research on the responsibility of college and university business instructors to prepare students for future employment underscores a need to refine the evaluation of student performance. In this article, an agency theory framework is used to understand the trade-offs that may be involved in the selection of various…
Joseph, Sundari; Juwah, Charles
Constructive alignment theory has been used to underpin the development of curricula in higher education for some time (Biggs and Tang, 2007), however, its use to inform and determine skills curricula in nursing is less well documented. This paper explores the use of constructive alignment theory within a study of undergraduate student nurses undertaking clinical skill acquisition in the final year of a BSc (Hons) Nursing course. Students were followed up as newly qualified nurses (NQN) (n = 58) to ascertain the impact of skill acquisition in this way. Comparisons were made with newly qualified nurses who did not participate in a constructively aligned curriculum. This mixed methods study reported skill identification within the immediate post-registration period and evaluated the constructively aligned curriculum as having positive benefits for NQNs in terms of confidence to practice. This was supported by preceptors' views. The study recommends two process models for nursing skills curriculum development and reports that constructive alignment is a useful theoretical framework for nurse educators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deane, William H; Fain, James A
With the increased life expectancy, older adults will interact with multiple health care providers to manage acute and chronic conditions. These interactions include nursing students who use various health care settings to meet the clinical practicum requirements of their programs. Nursing faculty are charged with facilitating students' learning throughout the program from basic human needs, to holistic communication, to advanced medical surgical concepts. Despite educating students on holistic communication, there remains a lack of a reliable framework to undertake the task of teaching holistic communication skills. Nursing students preparing to function as licensed practitioners need to develop appropriate knowledge to holistically care for older adults. The purpose of this article is to examine Hildegard Peplau's interpersonal relations theory as a framework to assist nursing students to understand holistic communication skills during their encounters with older adults. Peplau's theory provides nursing a useful set of three interlocking and oftentimes overlapping working phases for nurses' interaction with patients in the form of the nurse-patient relationship. Nursing education could adopt the three phases of Peplau's interpersonal relations theory to educate students on holistically communicating with older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wilkinson, Denise M; Smallidge, Dianne; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori
Health care education requires students to connect classroom learning with patient care. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygiene students' perceptions of teaching tools, activities and teaching methods useful in closing the gap between theory and practice as students transition from classroom learning into the clinical phase of their training. This was an exploratory qualitative study design examining retrospective data from journal postings of a convenience sample of dental hygiene students (n=85). Open-ended questions related to patient care were given to junior and senior students to respond in a reflective journaling activity. A systematic approach was used to establish themes. Junior students predicted hands-on experiences (51%), critical thinking exercises (42%) and visual aids (27%) would be the most supportive in helping them connect theory to practice. Senior students identified critical thinking exercises (44%) and visual aids (44%) as the most beneficial in connecting classroom learning to patient care. Seniors also identified barriers preventing them from connecting theory to patient care. Barriers most often cited were not being able to see firsthand what is in the text (56%) and being unsure that what was seen during clinical practice was the same as what was taught (28%). Students recognized the benefits of critical thinking and problem solving skills after having experienced patient care and were most concerned with performance abilities prior to patient care experiences. This information will be useful in developing curricula to enhance critical thinking and problem solving skills. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Factor, Elisa Monette R; Matienzo, Evangeline T; de Guzman, Allan B
Previous studies suggest that theory-practice gap has remained to be a formidable task and a challenge to the nursing profession. While efforts to understand the nature and dynamics of theory-practice gap have been undertaken across the globe, a dearth in literature exists in the context of a developing country like the Philippines. Seemingly, no research has ventured yet to explore the theory-practice gap experiences of Filipino student nurses. Hence, the major intent of this qualitative investigation is to describe and capture how theory-practice gap is viewed by a select group of senior nursing students (n=10) in a comprehensive university in the Philippines. From the thickness and richness of the descriptions of the field text gathered in this study, an interesting conceptualization labeled as the Theory-Practice Gap Deficit Triad which consists of (a) structural, (b) pedagogical, and (c) relational deficits was emerged. Interestingly, the said model describes a clear intersection of the various concerns and dilemmas encountered by student nurses in their clinical exposures. Findings of this paper are valuable inputs to nursing educators, practitioners, and administrators in initiating realignment efforts geared toward developing nurses whose knowledge, skills and attitudes are responsive to the ever changing professional practice landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Juliet; Jinks, Annette; Jack, Barbara
Clinical practice is where student nurses are socialised into a professional role and acquire the distinct behaviour, attitudes and values of the nursing profession. Getting it right at the outset can maximise the development of a professional identity and the transmission of robust value systems. To explore the impact of the first clinical placement on the professional socialisation of adult undergraduate student nurses in the United Kingdom. Data of a longitudinal qualitative nature were collected and analysed using grounded theory. First year student nurses in hospital ward placements comprising a rural District General Hospital and a large inner city Hospital kept daily unstructured diaries for six weeks. A total of 26 undergraduate adult student nurses were purposefully sampled between 2008 and 2010 before undertaking their initial clinical placement. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory and the key question asked of the diarists 'tell me what it is like to be a first year nurse on a first placement' was theoretically adjusted during constant comparison and as the theory emerged. Ethical approval and consent was obtained. The theory of finessing incivility comprises a conceptual framework depicting how student nurses deal with professional incivility during their initial clinical placement and sustain a student identity. Being disillusioned with their role as worker rather than learner yields a sense of 'status dislocation'. Despite needing professional benevolence, they remain altruistic and seek recompense from significant others to negotiate for learning opportunities and relocate their student status. Despite the stressful transition into clinical practice rather than 'fit in', the student nurses want to belong as learners. His or her own resilience to learn nursing and be a professional student maintains their resolve, their altruism and strengthens their existing values to be benevolent towards an indifferent profession. This behaviour
Lockman, Jennifer D; Servaty-Seib, Heather L
There is a lack of empirically supported theories explaining suicidal ideation and few theories describe how suicidal ideation can be prevented in the context of normative human development. Rogers (2001) proposed an existential constructivist theory of suicide (ECTS) wherein existential distress and the inability to reconstruct meaning from adverse life events contribute to suicidal ideation. The ECTS includes a distinct focus on meaning reconstruction from adverse life events, which is congruent with existing research on college students and developmental frameworks used by counseling psychologists. Thus, in the present study, we tested the predictions of the ECTS in a college student sample. We collected data online from 195 college students (i.e., ages 18-25) attending a large, Midwestern university and analyzed the data using structural equation modeling. Findings provided partial support for the original ECTS. Post hoc analyses of an alternate ECTS model indicated that existential distress mediated the negative association between meaning reconstruction and suicidal ideation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani
This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.
Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Mann, Karen V; Custers, Eugene; Ten Cate, Olle
Educational psychology indicates that learning processes can be mapped on three dimensions: cognitive (what to learn), affective or motivational (why learn), and metacognitive regulation (how to learn). In a truly student-centered medical curriculum, all three dimensions should guide curriculum developers in constructing learning environments. The authors explored whether student motivation has guided medical education curriculum developments. The authors reviewed the literature on motivation theory related to education and on medical education curriculum development to identify major developments. Using the Learning-Oriented Teaching model as a framework, they evaluated the extent to which motivation theory has guided medical education curriculum developers. Major developments in the field of motivation theory indicate that motivation drives learning and influences students' academic performance, that gender differences exist in motivational mechanisms, and that the focus has shifted from quantity of motivation to quality of motivation and its determinants, and how they stimulate academic motivation. Major developments in medical curricula include the introduction of standardized and regulated medical education as well as problem-based, learner-centered, integrated teaching, outcome-based, and community-based approaches. These curricular changes have been based more on improving students' cognitive processing of content or metacognitive regulation than on stimulating motivation. Motivational processes may be a substantially undervalued factor in curriculum development. Building curricula to specifically stimulate motivation in students may powerfully influence the outcomes of curricula. The elements essential for stimulating intrinsic motivation in students, including autonomy support, adequate feedback, and emotional support, appear lacking as a primary aim in many curricular plans.
Yanti, M.; Ihsan, N.; Subaer
Learning media is the one of the most factor in supporting successfully in the learning process. The purpose of this interactive media is preparing students to improve skills in laboratory practice without need for assistance and are not bound by time and place. The subject of this study was 30 students grade XI IPA SMAN 2 Takalar. This paper discuss about the development of learning media based in theory of gas kinetic. This media designed to assist students in learning independently. This media made using four software, they are Microsoft word, Snagit Editor, Macromedia Flash Player and Lectora. This media are interactive, dynamic and could support the users desires to learn and understand course of gas theory. The development produce followed the four D models. Consisted of definition phase, design phase, development phase and disseminate phase. The results showed 1) the media were valid and reliable, 2) learning tools as well as hardcopy and softcopy which links to website 3) activity learners above 80% and 4) according to the test results, the concept of comprehension of student was improved than before given interactive media.
Phelps, Julia D.
This article examines selected approaches to student teacher supervision within the context of contingency theory. These include authentic supervision, developmental supervision, and supervision based on the student's level of maturity. (MT)
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…
Botwe, Benard O; Arthur, Lawrence; Tenkorang, Michael K K; Anim-Sampong, Samuel
It is important that theory is synchronous with clinical practices that students engage in. Lack of congruence between theory and practice presents serious problems to students. This study was therefore conducted to determine if there was a theory-practice gap in chest radiography during clinical rotations, and any associated causes and effects on radiography students. A descriptive survey design was used to conduct this study from 2 February to 27 July 2014. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of open- and close-ended questions was used to purposively collect data from 26 radiography students in Ghana who had completed theory lessons in chest radiography and had either completed or were undertaking clinical rotations in chest radiography. Twenty-five (96%) respondents indicated the presence of theory-practice gap in chest radiography during clinical rotations, where differences between theory and clinical practice were observed. Lack of working materials 16 (62%), heavy workload 14 (54%), equipment breakdowns 14 (54%) and supervisory factors 11 (43%) were identified as the causes. Many students (81%) experienced diverse adverse effects such as confusion 10 (38%), poor performance during clinical examinations 6 (23%) and entire loss of interest in the professional training 1 (4%) of this dichotomy. Dichotomy between theory and practice found in chest radiography has diverse adverse effects on students. Regular feedback on the quality of clinical practice received by students should be encouraged to determine the existence of any gaps between theory and practice in order to promote effective clinical rotation programmes in radiography. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.
Observers and critics of the medical profession, both within and without, urge that more attention be paid to the moral sensibilities, the characters, of medical students. Passing on particular moral values and actions to physicians has always been an essential core of medical training, and this call for renewal is not new in modern medicine. Some of the structures and characteristics of modern medical education, however, often work directly against the professionalism that the education espouses. For example, medical students are socialized into a hierarchy that has broad implications for relations among health care professionals, other health care workers, and patients, and academic medicine has not promoted and taught critical reflection about the values and consequences of this hierarchy. Further, behind the formal curriculum lies the "hidden curriculum" of values that are unconsciously or half-consciously passed on from the faculty and older trainees. Two resources for thinking anew about professional development for medical students are feminist standpoint theory and critical multicultural theory, each of which raises important and fundamental questions about defining the role of medicine in society and the role of the physician in medicine. The author discusses these two theories and their implications for medical education, showing how they can be used to move discussions of professional development into analysis of the widespread social consequences of how a society organizes its health care and into critical reflection on the nature of medical knowledge.
Hughes, Amber N.; Gibbons, Melinda M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the career development of underprepared college students using relational career theory. Specifically, the constructs of family influence, locus of control, and career decision-making self-efficacy were explored as they relate to perceived success in college. Significant correlations between external locus…
Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.
Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…
McManic, Janet A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of motivation to achieve while participating in general level high school biology classes. In a national poll of teacher's attitudes, student's motivation was a top concern of teachers (Elam, 1989). The student's perceptions of motivation are important to understand if improvements and advancements in motivation are to be implemented in the science classroom. This qualitative study was conducted in an urban high school that is located in a major metropolitan area in the southeast of the United States. The student body of 1100 is composed of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian students. The focus question of the study was: What are students' perceptions of their motivation in biology class? From general level biology classes, purposeful sampling narrowed the participants to fifteen students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants having varying measurements of motivation on the Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom (Harter, 1980). The interviews were recorded and transcribed. After transcription, the interviews were coded by the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The coded data of students' responses were analyzed and compared to current theories of motivation. The current theories are the social-cognitive model (Bandura, 1977), attribution theory (Weiner, 1979), basic needs theory (Maslow, 1954) and choice theory (Glasser, 1986). The results of this study support the social cognitive model of motivation (Bandura, 1977) through the description of family structure and its relationship to motivation (Gonzalez, 2002). The study upheld previous research in that extrinsic orientation was shown to be prevalent in older students (Harter, 1981; Anderman & Maehr, 1994). In addition, the students' responses disclosed the difficulties encountered in studying biology. Students expressed the opinion that biology terms are
Murphy, Michael P. A.
Building on prior research into active learning pedagogy in political science, I discuss the development of a new active learning strategy called the "thesis-building carousel," designed for use in political theory tutorials. This use of active learning pedagogy in a graduate student-led political theory tutorial represents the overlap…
Yaghmaei, Minoo; Yazdani, Shahram; Ahmady, Soleiman
The aim of this study was to show the interaction between the society, applicants and medical schools in terms of medical student selection. In this study, the trends to implement social factors in the selection process were highlighted. These social factors were explored through functionalism and conflict theories, each focusing on different categories of social factors. While functionalist theorists pay attention to diversity in the selection process, conflict theorists highlight the importance of socio-economic class. Although both theories believe in sorting, their different views are reflected in their sorting strategies. Both theories emphasize the importance of the person-society relationship in motivation to enter university. Furthermore, the impacts of social goals on the selection policies are derived from both theories. Theories in the sociology of education offer an approach to student selection that acknowledges and supports complexity, plurality of approaches and innovative means of selection. Medical student selection does not solely focus on the individual assessment and qualification, but it focuses on a social and collective process, which includes all the influences and interactions between the medical schools and the society. Sociological perspective of medical student selection proposes a model that envelops the individual and the society. In this model, the selection methods should meet the criteria of merit at the individual level, while the selection policies should aim at the society goals at the institutional level.
Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid
One of the key strategies in students? learning is being affected by models. Understanding the role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore Iranian nursing students and instructors? experiences about role modeling process. Data was analyzed by Glaserian?s Grounded Theory methodology through semi-structured interviews with 7 faculty members, 2 nursing students; the three focus group discussions ...
Background: Although past studies of service-learning focus on assessing student growth, few studies address how to support students in applying theory to their service-learning experiences. Yet, the task of applying theory is a central component of critical reflections within the social sciences in higher education and often causes anxiety among…
Arreciado Marañón, Antonia; Isla Pera, Ma Pilar
The problem of nurses' professional identity continues to be seen in the disjunction between theoretical training and clinical placements. Moreover, it is not known how nursing students perceive these contradictions or how this discrepancy influences the construction of professional identity. To gain insight into nursing students' perception of their theoretical and practical training and how this training influences the process of constructing their professional identity. Qualitative, ethnographic study. Third-year nursing students at the l'Escola Universitària d'Infermeria Vall d'Hebron de Barcelona. Participant observation was conducted in the hospital setting and primary care. Discussion groups were held. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. The study adhered to the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Students believed that both theoretical and practical trainings were indispensable. Nevertheless, clinical placements were considered essential to confer sense to the theory and to shape their identity, as they helped student nurses to experience their future professional reality and to compare it with what they had been taught in theoretical and academic classes. The role of the clinical placement mentor was essential. With regard to theory, the skills developed in problem-based learning gave novice nurses' confidence to approach the problems of daily practice and new situations. Equally, this approach taught them to reflect on what they did and what they were taught and this ability was transferred to the clinical setting. For students, both strategies (theory and practice) are vital to nursing education and the construction of a professional identity, although pride of place is given to clinical placements and mentors. The skills developed with problem-based learning favor active and reflective learning and are transferred to learning in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All
This paper considers the two-year-long process of redesigning Art Theory: Modernism, the initial core art theory course at The University of Newcastle in Australia, with the aim of increasing the academic engagement of first year fine art students. First year students are particularly vulnerable to dropping out if they feel disengaged from the…
Winston, K.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.
BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that a programme that draws on a blend of theories makes a positive difference to outcomes for students who fail and repeat their first semester at medical school. Exploration of student and teacher perspectives revealed that remediation of struggling medical students can be achieved through a cognitive apprenticeship within a small community of inquiry. This community needs expert teachers capable of performing a unique combination of roles (facilitator, n...
Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke
The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…
Upton, Matthew G.; Egan, Toby Marshall
The established limitations of career development (CD) theory and human resource development (HRD) theory building are addressed by expanding the framing of these issues to multilevel contexts. Multilevel theory building is an approach most effectively aligned with HRD literature and CD and HRD practice realities. An innovative approach multilevel…
Иван Васильевич Детушев
Full Text Available This article discusses the use of the program «MathCAD» in teaching students of economic specialties of mathematics. It is shown that the use of this software product contributes to the effective development of methods for solving problems of the theory of probability.
Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.
This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes
Robert E. Zdor
Full Text Available One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.
Full Text Available We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics students fail to build reasoning chains from fundamental principles even though they possess the required knowledge and skills to do so. Instead, they often rely on a variety of intuitive reasoning strategies. In this study, we developed and employed a methodology that allowed for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding and reasoning approaches through the use of sequences of related questions. We have shown that the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning can be used to account for, in a mechanistic fashion, the observed inconsistencies in student responses. In particular, we found that students tended to apply their correct ideas in a selective manner that supported a specific and likely anticipated conclusion while neglecting to employ the same ideas to refute an erroneous intuitive conclusion. The observed reasoning patterns were consistent with the heuristic-analytic theory, according to which reasoners develop a “first-impression” mental model and then construct an argument in support of the answer suggested by this model. We discuss implications for instruction and argue that efforts to improve student metacognition, which serves to regulate the interaction between intuitive and analytical reasoning, is likely to lead to improved student reasoning.
Osipow, Samuel H.
These seven theories of career development are examined in previous chapters: (1) Roe's personality theory, (2) Holland's career typology theory, (3) the Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herma Theory, (4) psychoanalytic conceptions, (5) Super's developmental self-concept theory, (6) other personality theories, and (7) social systems theories.…
The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive health literacy assessment tool for young adult college students. Participants were 144 undergraduate students. Two hundred and twenty-nine questions were developed, which were based on concepts identified by the US Department of Health and Human Services, the World Health Organization, and health communication scholars. Four health education experts reviewed this pool of items and helped select 87 questions for testing. Students completed an online assessment consisting of these 87 questions in June and October of 2012. Item response theory and goodness-of-fit values were used to help eliminate nonperforming questions. Fifty-one questions were selected based on good item response theory discrimination parameter values. The instrument has 51 questions that look promising for measuring health literacy in college students, but needs additional testing with a larger student population to see how these questions continue to perform.
Larsen, Douglas P; Wesevich, Austin; Lichtenfeld, Jana; Artino, Antony R; Brydges, Ryan; Varpio, Lara
Learning goal programmes are often created to help students develop self-regulated learning skills; however, these programmes do not necessarily consider the social contexts surrounding learning goals or how they fit into daily educational practice. We investigated a high-frequency learning goal programme in which students generated and shared weekly learning goals with their clinical teams in core Year 3 clerkships. Our study explores: (i) how learning goals were incorporated into the clinical work, and (ii) the factors that influenced the use of students' learning goals in work-based learning. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 students and 14 supervisors (attending physicians and residents) sampled from all participating core clerkships. Interviews were coded for emerging themes. Using cultural historical activity theory and knotworking as theoretical lenses, we developed a model of the factors that influenced students' learning goal usage in a work-based learning context. Students and supervisors often faced the challenge of reconciling contradictions that arose when the desired outcomes of student skill development, grading and patient care were not aligned. Learning goals could function as tools for developing new ways of acting that overcame those contradictions by facilitating collaborative effort between students and their supervisors. However, for new collaborations to take place, both students and supervisors had to engage with the goals, and the necessary patients needed to be present. When any one part of the system did not converge around the learning goals, the impact of the learning goals programme was limited. Learning goals are potentially powerful tools to mediate interactions between students, supervisors and patients, and to reconcile contradictions in work-based learning environments. Learning goals provide a means to develop not only learners, but also learning systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the
Scharf, Fred; Bell, Jim
Responses of 25 Northern Ireland business students who undertook client-sponsored projects in local businesses reported increased proficiency in conducting research, improved competence in export management, development of soft skills, and better ability to apply theory to practice. (SK)
Crosslin, Matt; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Bennette, Phyllis; Black, James William, III
This paper details a proposed doctoral student connections program that is based on sociocultural theory. It is designed to assist new students with starting their educational journey. This program is designed to leverage social interactions, peer mentorship, personal reflection, purposeful planning, and existing resources to assist students in…
Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students. This article explores the benefits of moving from a Theory X to a more Theory Y style of teaching. Copyright © 2004 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Full Text Available The paper stresses that in the field of pedagogic theory it is necessary to develop an interpretational framework for analysing basic pedagogic processes based on the assumptions of critical pedagogy and the theory of self-determination. Analyzed were the definitions of the idea of autonomy and control in the works of Michael Apple, John Dewey, Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, and Alfie Kohn. The starting standpoints that control, limitations and requirements are constitutive elements of education and that autonomy is the result of internalized control are argued. The student's autonomy is not linked exclusively with their engagement in the activities accompanied with pleasant feelings. Even an extrinsically motivated student feels that he is behaving autonomously in the cases of internalization and integration of the value of such behaviour when he internalizes classroom rules and teaching requirements as his own values and regulators of his own behaviour. Among the conclusions it is stated that the teacher expecting a certain behaviour and participation in the activities which his students do not perceive as helpful or important, will tend to support the feeling of autonomous acting in the students by making an effort to explain to them the value of such behaviour or potentional personal benefit it can bring them.
Hong, Huang-Yao; Chen, Fei-Ching; Chai, Ching Sing; Chan, Wen-Ching
This study investigated the effects of engaging students to collectively learn and work with knowledge in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment called Knowledge Forum on their views about knowledge building theory and practice. Participants were 24 teacher-education students who took a required course titled "Integrating Theory…
Saidy, Christina; Hannah, Mark; Sura, Tom
This article uses theories of technical communication and archives to advance a pedagogy that includes archival production in the technical communication classroom. By developing and maintaining local classroom archives, students directly engage in valuable processes of appraisal, selection, collaboration, and retention. The anticipated outcomes…
Perceptions of Usefulness: Using the Holland Code Theory, Multiple Intelligences Theory, and Role Model Identification to Determine a Career Niche in the Fashion Industry for First-Quarter Fashion Students
Green, Crystal D.
This action research study investigated the perceptions that student participants had on the development of a career exploration model and a career exploration project. The Holland code theory was the primary assessment used for this research study, in addition to the Multiple Intelligences theory and the identification of a role model for the…
Mahfood, Denise Marcia
The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.
Cheng, Hsiu-Hua; Yang, Heng-Li
For information systems development project student teams, learning how to improve software development processes is an important training. Software process improvement is an outcome of a number of creative behaviours. Social cognitive theory states that the efficacy of judgment influences behaviours. This study explores the impact of three types…
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.
Pearce, Michael; Evans, Darrell
The development of new technologies has provided medical education with the ability to enhance the student learning experience and meet the needs of changing curricula. Students quickly adapt to using multimedia learning resources, but these need to be well designed, learner-centred and interactive for students to become significantly engaged. One way to ensure that students become committed users and that resources become distinct elements of the learning cycle is to involve students in resource design and production. Such an approach enables resources to accommodate student needs and preferences, but also provides opportunities for them to develop their own teaching and training skills. The aim of the medical student research project was to design and produce an electronic resource that was focused on a particular anatomical region. The views of other medical students were used to decide what features were suitable for inclusion and the resulting package contained basic principles and clinical relevance, and used a variety of approaches such as images of cadaveric material, living anatomy movies and quizzes. The completed package was assessed using a survey matrix and found to compare well with commercially available products. Given the ever-diversifying arena of multimedia instruction and the ability of students to be fully conversant with technology, this project demonstrates that students are ideal participants and creators of multimedia resources. It is hoped that such an approach will help to further develop the skill base of students, but will also provide an avenue of developing packages that are student user friendly, and that are focused towards particular curricula requirements. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Mainardes, Emerson; Alves, Helena; Raposo, Mario
In accordance with the importance of the student stakeholder to universities, the objective of this research project was to evaluate student satisfaction at Portuguese public universities as regards their self-expressed core expectations. The research was based both on stakeholder theory itself and on previous studies of university stakeholders.…
Kaiser, M. K.; Mccloskey, M.; Proffitt, D. R.
College students and children between the ages of 4 and 12 were asked to draw the path a ball would take upon exiting a curved tube. As in previous studies, many subjects erroneously predicted curvilinear paths. However, a clear U-shaped curve was evident in the data: Preschoolers and kindergartners performed as well as college students, whereas school-aged children were more likely to make erroneous predictions. A second study suggested that the youngest children's correct responses could not be attributed to response biases or drawing abilities. This developmental trend is interpreted to mean that the school-aged children are developing intuitive theories of motion that include erroneous principles. The results are related to the 'growth errors' found in other cognitive domains and to the historical development of formal theories of motion.
Laschinger, Heather K.; Boss, Marvin K.
The personal and environmental factors related to undergraduate and post-RN nursing students' attitudes toward theory-based nursing from Kolb's experiential learning theory perspective were investigated. Learning style and environmental press perceptions were found to be related to attitudes toward theory-based nursing. (Author/MLW)
van der Lans, Rikkert M.; van de Grift, Wim J. C. M.; van Veen, Klaas
This study reports on the development of a teacher evaluation instrument, based on students' observations, which exhibits cumulative ordering in terms of the complexity of teaching acts. The study integrates theory on teacher development with theory on teacher effectiveness and applies a cross-validation procedure to verify whether teaching acts…
Although elementary number theory topics are closely linked to foundational topics in number and operations and are prevalent in elementary and middle grades mathematics curricula, little is currently known about how students and teachers make sense of them. This study investigated pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of…
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.
String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line
Adams, Sharrika D.; Hazelwood, Sherry; Hayden, Bruce
Case management is a functional area in higher education and student affairs that emerged after the mass shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007. Although new to higher education, case management emerged from established social work practice. This article compares social work theory and case management standards with a new case management model for…
Sorebo, Oystein; Haehre, Reidar
The purpose of this study is to explain students' perceived relevance of playing an educational game as a means for development of discipline competence. Based on self-determination theory and the concept of personal interest, we propose that: Satisfying students' basic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness when playing educational games…
Jones, Laura Estella
The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…
In this article we present the prototype of a workshop on naive set theory designed for high school students in or around the seventh year of primary education. Our concept is based on two events which the author organized in 2006 and 2010 for students of elementary school and high school, respectively. The article also includes a practice report…
Huerta, Margarita; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.
We present the development and validation of a science notebook rubric intended to measure the academic language and conceptual understanding of non-mainstream students, specifically fifth-grade male and female economically disadvantaged Hispanic English language learner (ELL) and African-American or Hispanic native English-speaking students. The science notebook rubric is based on two main constructs: academic language and conceptual understanding. The constructs are grounded in second-language acquisition theory and theories of writing and conceptual understanding. We established content validity and calculated reliability measures using G theory and percent agreement (for comparison) with a sample of approximately 144 unique science notebook entries and 432 data points. Results reveal sufficient reliability estimates, indicating that the instrument is promising for use in future research studies including science notebooks in classrooms with populations of economically disadvantaged Hispanic ELL and African-American or Hispanic native English-speaking students.
Atherley, Anique E; Hambleton, Ian R; Unwin, Nigel; George, Colette; Lashley, Paula M; Taylor, Charles G
Transitions in medical education are emotionally and socially dynamic; this may affect learning. Students transitioning from preclinical to clinical training may experience negative consequences. Less is understood about students' experiences during transitions within clinical training and influential factors. The authors used organizational socialization theory to explore a transition within the clinical years. Final-year medical students experienced a nine-week internal medicine clerkship; willing students participated. Students (n = 101; 97 %) completed a questionnaire with open-ended questions at the beginning and end of the clerkship and participated in six consecutive focus groups, until data saturation occurred (n = 37). Data were thematically analyzed. Socialization was challenging. Many students experienced difficulty developing relationships with team members. Students with a positive attitude experienced a smoother transition. Many students were uncertain of their roles, concerned about the workload and desired guidance to meet clerkship demands. This transition resulted in varied outcomes from enjoyment, increased confidence and student development through to disinterest. Transitions within clinical training are complex. Faculty should focus on adequate socialization in a new clerkship as this may facilitate a smoother transition. This may necessitate orientations, staff training, and formal student support. Further research is needed on the impact of these recommendations on learning and well-being.
May Carl R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study of implementation processes. This paper describes the process by which it was built. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, we developed a theory. We derived a set of empirical generalizations from analysis of data collected in qualitative studies of healthcare work and organization. We developed an applied theoretical model through analysis of empirical generalizations. Finally, we built a formal theory through a process of extension and implication analysis of the applied theoretical model. Results Each phase of theory development showed that the constructs of the theory did not conflict with each other, had explanatory power, and possessed sufficient robustness for formal testing. As the theory developed, its scope expanded from a set of observed regularities in data with procedural explanations, to an applied theoretical model, to a formal middle-range theory. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through procedures that were properly sceptical and critical, and which were opened to review at each stage of development. The theory has been shown to merit formal testing.
Moos, Daniel C.; Pitton, Debra
Cognitive load theory (CLT) can explain the challenges faced by student teachers. This study, guided by the CLT, included 26 pre-service teachers. Participants completed a cognitive load self-report questionnaire and were interviewed at two points during their student teaching. Results revealed that student teachers decreased mental effort related…
Explores whether student subjects' implicit leadership theories are generalizable to professional subjects. Samples consisted of 220 undergraduates and 152 government employees in New Zealand. Finds the mean importance ratings were similar for the 2 samples, except students placed greater importance on factors beyond individual control. (DB)
Reyes, Andrew Thomas; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Forchuk, Cheryl; Babenko-Mould, Yolanda
The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' understanding and enactment of resilience. Stress is considered to be a major factor affecting the health, well-being and academic performance of nursing students. Resilience has been extensively researched as a process that allows individuals to successfully adapt to adversity and develop positive outcomes as a result. However, relatively little is known about the resilience of nursing students. A constructivist, grounded theory qualitative design was used for this study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with 38 nursing students enrolled in a four-year, integrated baccalaureate nursing degree programme at a university in Ontario, Canada. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from January to April 2012 using a semi-structured interview guide. The basic social process of 'pushing through' emerged as nursing students' understanding and enactment of resilience. Participants employed this process to withstand challenges in their academic lives. This process was comprised of three main phases: 'stepping into', 'staying the course' and 'acknowledging'. 'Pushing through' also included a transient 'disengaging' process where students were temporarily unable to push through their adversities. The process of 'pushing through' was based on a progressive trajectory, which implied that nursing students enacted the process to make progress in their academic lives and to attain goals. Study findings provide important evidence for understanding the phenomenon of resilience as a dynamic, contextual process that can be learnt and developed, rather than a static trait or personality characteristic. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The learning outcome was for students with an arts background to become familiar with the key concepts of natural science philosophy. These would then be of use in assessing empirical data, theory and designing experiments to test concepts. The students were able to remain engaged with the course...
Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer
Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…
Understanding how deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) international students transition to post-secondary institutions is important for ensuring their academic and personal success. In this grounded theory study, five Saudi Arabian students who are DHH and enrolled at Gallaudet University were interviewed about their transition experience. Participants…
The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…
Impelluso, Thomas J.
A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…
Supratman; Ratnaningsih, N.; Ryane, S.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the development of knowledge of ordinary students to be like gifted students in the classroom based on Piaget's theory. In exposing it, students are given an open problem of classical analogy. Researchers explore students who conjecture via analogical reasoning in problem solving. Of the 32 students, through the method of think out loud and the interview was completed: 25 students conjecture via analogical reasoning. Of the 25 students, all of them have almost the same character in problem solving/knowledge construction. For that, a student is taken to analyze the thinking process while solving the problem/construction of knowledge based on Piaget's theory. Based on Piaget's theory in the development of the same knowledge, gifted students and ordinary students have similar structures in final equilibrium. They begin processing: assimilation and accommodation of problem, strategies, and relationships.
Full Text Available Law students internationally suffer from a high level of psychological distress compared with the general and student populations, and anecdotal evidence suggests that students developing skills without adequate support experience significant stress and anxiety. This article considers an initiative at one Australian law school to develop a degree-wide structured online skills development programme as a means to both improve student skills acquisition and reduce student stress. The project implements, through the use of learning technology, the principles proposed by McKinney for making small changes to law school teaching, informed by self-efficacy theory, which can have powerful results.
De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Haerens, Leen; Aelterman, Nathalie
Responding to the declining trend in reading motivation in and beyond the elementary school years, the authors aimed to enhance late-elementary school students' autonomous reading motivation. Toward this end, the authors evaluated the influence of a teacher professional development grounded in self-determination theory on fifth-grade students' (n…
Vaccaro, Annemarie; Newmand, Barbara M.
This article reports findings from a constructionist grounded theory study with 51 first-year college students. We explored student definitions and development of a sense of belonging during their first year of college. Belonging for all participants was shaped by 3 themes: environmental perceptions, involvement, and relationships. Yet, there were…
Hove, Tad A.
Self-determination theory (SDT) posits a framework for human motivation, highlighting an individual's interactions and perceptions of his or her environment. Research incorporating a SDT framework has identified antecedents of psychological need satisfaction (PNS) in human motivation. Individual motivation broadens levels of social interactions as…
Cha, Eun Seok; Doswell, Willa M; Kim, Kevin H; Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Patrick, Thelma E
To reduce risky adolescent sexual behavior, education programs must be tailored to specific cultures and stage of adolescence. This study describes the self-reported sexual behavior of Korean college students and examines the efficiency of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) in explaining intention of engaging in premarital sex in order to provide insights for a potential sex education program designed to reduce risky sexual behavior. A cross-sectional, correlational design using an exploratory survey method was used. Participants were recruited from a university in Korea with a flyer posted at the entrance of the student health service center, and self-referral in 2004. Male and female unmarried college students aged 18 to 25 were included. Foreign students and students with visible physical problems were excluded. Three hundred and twenty of 550 students returned the questionnaire packets. Final data analysis included 298 students after deleting incomplete data. Participants completed six questionnaires: (1) Background and Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, including items related to perceived risk of sexual behavior, (2) Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale, and four scales related to TpB construct: (3) modified Premarital Sexual Attitude Scale, (4) Referent group Approval of Sex Behavior Scale, (5) Sexual Abstinence Efficacy Scale and (6) modified version of Doswell's Intention of Sexual Behavior Scale. Premarital sexual attitude, abstinence self-efficacy and referent group norms were significant predictors of intention of premarital sex for male students with a large effect, but only attitude and norms predicted intention of premarital sex for female students. The TpB may be an effective theory to guide the development of theory-driven sexual abstinence interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior for Korean males, while the Theory of Reasoned Action may be an effective theory for Korean females.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...
The time has now come when graph theory should be part of the education of every serious student of mathematics and computer science, both for its own sake and to enhance the appreciation of mathematics as a whole. This book is an in-depth account of graph theory, written with such a student in mind; it reflects the current state of the subject and emphasizes connections with other branches of pure mathematics. The volume grew out of the author's earlier book, Graph Theory -- An Introductory Course, but its length is well over twice that of its predecessor, allowing it to reveal many exciting new developments in the subject. Recognizing that graph theory is one of several courses competing for the attention of a student, the book contains extensive descriptive passages designed to convey the flavor of the subject and to arouse interest. In addition to a modern treatment of the classical areas of graph theory such as coloring, matching, extremal theory, and algebraic graph theory, the book presents a detailed ...
Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E
There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to student engagement in active learning. We propose using a theoretical lens of expectancy value theory to understand student resistance to active learning. In this study, we examined student perceptions of active learning after participating in 40 hours of active learning. We used the principal components of expectancy value theory to probe student experience in active learning: student perceived self-efficacy in active learning, value of active learning, and potential cost of participating in active learning. We found that students showed positive changes in the components of expectancy value theory and reported high levels of engagement in active learning, which provide proof of concept that expectancy value theory can be used to boost student perceptions of active learning and their engagement in active learning classrooms. From these findings, we have built a theoretical framework of expectancy value theory applied to active learning.
Ali Ata Alkhaldi
Full Text Available Materials development assists the teachers to understand and apply language learning theories and achieve professional development (Tomlinson, 2001 which this research has shown. This research aims to find out to what extent theories match the actual practice of materials and to help ‘theorists’ reflect upon language theories which are implicitly or explicitly embedded in the materials. It also aims to reveal the teachers’ and learners’ contributions in determining the practical theories. The sample of this research was purposive, that is, it was selected for a specific purpose to collect qualitative data and cover as wide a range as possible. The researcher interviewed thirty Jordanian teachers and students using qualitative research methods. The findings revealed some key principles donated by the participants, for example, 1 the materials should provide the learners with a variety of useful samples of discourse to enable them to use the language communicatively and meaningfully; 2 the materials should encourage the teachers’ and learners’ creativity; 3 the materials should take into account the teachers’ and learners’ preferences; and 4 the materials should take into consideration the specific and sensitive cultural aspects. Insightful implications and recommendations were suggested for future research.
Özenç, Emine Gül; Dogan, M. Cihangir
This study aims to perform a validity-reliability test by developing the Functional Literacy Experience Scale based upon Ecological Theory (FLESBUET) for primary education students. The study group includes 209 fifth grade students at Sabri Taskin Primary School in the Kartal District of Istanbul, Turkey during the 2010-2011 academic year.…
Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Kuo, Chin Fang; Shui, Shang-Hsueh
Self-handicapping is a maladaptive behavior which undermines students' achievements, but the antecedents of self-handicapping are not well studied in physical education. The aim was to examine the relations of implicit theory of abilities and self-handicapping in physical education. 264 college students, whose mean age was 20.3 yr. (SD = 1.7), completed the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire-2 and Self-handicapping Scale for Sport. Analysis indicated entity beliefs positively predicted reduced effort and making excuses. Also, incremental beliefs negatively predicted reduced effort. Results are discussed in terms of implicit theory of ability and self-handicapping. Directions for research and implications are stated.
Balaji, M. S.; Chakrabarti, Diganta
The present study contributes to the understanding of the effectiveness of online discussion forum in student learning. A conceptual model based on "theory of online learning" and "media richness theory" was proposed and empirically tested. We extend the current understanding of media richness theory to suggest that use of…
Mattimore-Knudson, Russell S.
Utilizing a minimum of technical terminology, this eight-chapter monograph introduces beginning psychology students to the basic concepts of Piaget's theory of mental development and to its application by parents and teachers. As an aid to learning, each of the concepts discussed is illustrated by black-and-white drawings which can be reproduced…
Delagran, Louise; Vihstadt, Corrie; Evans, Roni
Online educational interventions to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) are a promising mechanism for overcoming some of the barriers to incorporating research into practice. However, attention must be paid to aligning strategies with adult learning theories to achieve optimal outcomes. We describe the development of a series of short self-study modules, each covering a small set of learning objectives. Our approach, informed by design-based research (DBR), involved 6 phases: analysis, design, design evaluation, redesign, development/implementation, and evaluation. Participants were faculty and students in 3 health programs at a complementary and integrative educational institution. We chose a reusable learning object approach that allowed us to apply 4 main learning theories: events of instruction, cognitive load, dual processing, and ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction). A formative design evaluation suggested that the identified theories and instructional approaches were likely to facilitate learning and motivation. Summative evaluation was based on a student survey (N=116) that addressed how these theories supported learning. Results suggest that, overall, the selected theories helped students learn. The DBR approach allowed us to evaluate the specific intervention and theories for general applicability. This process also helped us define and document the intervention at a level of detail that covers almost all the proposed Guideline for Reporting Evidence-based practice Educational intervention and Teaching (GREET) items. This thorough description will facilitate the interpretation of future research and implementation of the intervention. Our approach can also serve as a model for others considering online EBP intervention development.
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of experienced individual online students at a community college in Texas in order to generate a substantive theory of community college student perceptions of online instructor presence. This qualitative study used Active Interviewing and followed a Straussian grounded-theory design to…
N. K. Tchapayev
Full Text Available The paper deals with the theoretical analysis of practical training as one of the two main forms of vocational training. Industrial practice is regarded as poly-systematic, alternative existence of students entering the adults’ world, the means for developing students’ functional responsibility and subjective world outlook, etc. The paper overcomes the existing utilitarian one-sided approach to the place and value of practice, its impact on the specialist’s professional development and opportunities for professional growth being explored. Regarding the practical training as psycho-pedagogical and educational phenomenon, the authors developed the theoretical and methodological bases for its designing and conducting in vocational schools. The research conclu- sions contain some heuristic innovative potential facilitating both the foundation of independent theory of practical training and organization of practice oriented training in vocational schools.
West, Eva; Wallin, Anita
Learning abstract concepts such as sound often involves an ontological shift because to conceptualize sound transmission as a process of motion demands abandoning sound transmission as a transfer of matter. Thus, for students to be able to grasp and use a generalized model of sound transmission poses great challenges for them. This study involved 199 students aged 10-14. Their views about sound transmission were investigated before and after teaching by comparing their written answers about sound transfer in different media. The teaching was built on a research-based teaching-learning sequence (TLS), which was developed within a framework of design research. The analysis involved interpreting students' underlying theories of sound transmission, including the different conceptual categories that were found in their answers. The results indicated a shift in students' understandings from the use of a theory of matter before the intervention to embracing a theory of process afterwards. The described pattern was found in all groups of students irrespective of age. Thus, teaching about sound and sound transmission is fruitful already at the ages of 10-11. However, the older the students, the more advanced is their understanding of the process of motion. In conclusion, the use of a TLS about sound, hearing and auditory health promotes students' conceptualization of sound transmission as a process in all grades. The results also imply some crucial points in teaching and learning about the scientific content of sound.
Cheng, Eddie W. L.; Chu, Samuel K. W.; Ma, Carol S. M.
With the emergence of web technologies, students can conduct their group projects via virtual platforms, which enable online collaboration. However, students' lack of intention to use web technologies for conducting group work has recently been highlighted. Based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper developed and examined an…
Klinge Nielsen, Louise
In my qualitative ph.d.-project about teacher-student-relations I have observed and videorecorded four fifth grade, sixth grade and seventh grade teachers at two different schools. I have followed each teacher for 3 weeks and interviewed them several times along with 50 of their pupils. The aim o...... and the student-interviews will bring a deeper understanding of the significance of the teacher’s ability to support the students’ basic needs – for their self-asteem and for their motivation to learn....... the pupils' academic and human development.) The statements of the 50 pupils show that what is most important to them in the relationship to the teacher, is the experience of being significant. According to Self Determination Theory people have 3 psychological needs – for autonomy, competence...
In my qualitative ph.d.-project about teacher-student-relations I have observed and videorecorded four fifth grade, sixth grade and seventh grade teachers at two different schools. I have followed each teacher for 3 weeks and interviewed them several times along with 50 of their pupils. The aim o...... and the student-interviews will bring a deeper understanding of the significance of the teacher’s ability to support the students’ basic needs – for their self-asteem and for their motivation to learn....... the pupils' academic and human development.) The statements of the 50 pupils show that what is most important to them in the relationship to the teacher, is the experience of being significant. According to Self Determination Theory people have 3 psychological needs – for autonomy, competence...
Dvorak, Abbey L; Hernandez-Ruiz, Eugenia; Jang, Sekyung; Kim, Borin; Joseph, Megan; Wells, Kori E
Music therapy students negotiate a complex relationship with music and its use in clinical work throughout their education and training. This distinct, pervasive, and evolving relationship suggests a developmental process unique to music therapy. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to create a theoretical model of music therapy students' developmental process, beginning with a study within one large Midwestern university. Participants (N = 15) were music therapy students who completed one 60-minute intensive interview, followed by a 20-minute member check meeting. Recorded interviews were transcribed, analyzed, and coded using open and axial coding. The theoretical model that emerged was a six-step sequential developmental progression that included the following themes: (a) Personal Connection, (b) Turning Point, (c) Adjusting Relationship with Music, (d) Growth and Development, (e) Evolution, and (f) Empowerment. The first three steps are linear; development continues in a cyclical process among the last three steps. As the cycle continues, music therapy students continue to grow and develop their skills, leading to increased empowerment, and more specifically, increased self-efficacy and competence. Further exploration of the model is needed to inform educators' and other key stakeholders' understanding of student needs and concerns as they progress through music therapy degree programs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Li, Ping; Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Yuchi; Xiong, Qing; Nie, Ruihong; Fang, Xiaoyi
School engagement plays a prominent role in promoting academic accomplishments. In contrast to the relative wealth of research that examined the impact of students' school engagement on their academic achievement, considerably less research has investigated the effect of high school students' prior achievement on their school engagement. The present study examined the relationship between prior achievement and school engagement among Chinese high school students. Based on the Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation, we further examined the moderating effect of students' theories of intelligence (TOIs) on this relationship. A total of 4036 (2066 girls) students from five public high school enrolled in grades 10 reported their high school entrance exam achievement in Chinese, Math and English, school engagement, and TOIs. Results showed that (a) students' prior achievement predicted their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, respectively, and (b) the association between prior achievement and behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement is strong for students with an incremental theory but not for those with an entity theory in the emotional and cognitive engagement. These findings suggest that prior achievement and incremental theory were implicated in relation to adolescents' school engagement. Implications and future research directions were discussed.
Jing, Ting Jing; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Aralas, Dalia
This study investigates the effect of utilizing Variation Theory Based Strategy on students' algebraic achievement and motivation in learning algebra. The study used quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group research design and involved 56 Form Two (Secondary Two) students in two classes (28 in experimental group, 28 in control group) in Malaysia The first class of students went through algebra class taught with Variation Theory Based Strategy (VTBS) while the second class of students experienced conventional teaching strategy. The instruments used for the study were a 24-item Algebra Test and 36-item Instructional Materials Motivation Survey. Result from analysis of Covariance indicated that experimental group students achieved significantly better test scores than control group. Result of Multivariate Analysis of Variance also shows evidences of significant effect of VTBS on experimental students' overall motivation in all the five subscales; attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. These results suggested the utilization of VTBS would improve students' learning in algebra.
Bluteau, Patricia; Clouder, Lynn; Cureton, Debra
This article relates the findings of a discourse analysis of an online asynchronous interprofessional learning initiative involving two UK universities. The impact of the initiative is traced over three intensive periods of online interaction, each of several-weeks duration occurring over a three-year period, through an analysis of a random sample of discussion forum threads. The corpus of rich data drawn from the forums is interpreted using ecological systems theory, which highlights the complexity of interaction of individual, social and cultural elements. Ecological systems theory adopts a life course approach to understand how development occurs through processes of progressively more complex reciprocal interaction between people and their environment. This lens provides a novel approach for analysis and interpretation of findings with respect to the impact of pre-registration interprofessional education and the interaction between the individual and their social and cultural contexts as they progress through 3/4 years of their programmes. Development is mapped over time (the chronosystem) to highlight the complexity of interaction across microsystems (individual), mesosystems (curriculum and institutional/care settings), exosystems (community/wider local context), and macrosystems (national context and culture). This article illustrates the intricacies of students' interprofessional development over time and the interactive effects of social ecological components in terms of professional knowledge and understanding, wider appreciation of health and social care culture and identity work. The implications for contemporary pre-registration interprofessional education and the usefulness and applicability of ecological systems theory for future research and development are considered.
Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L
Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A. R. Danesh kazemi; A. R. Davari; M. Momeni Sarvestani
Introduction: In order to codify a better curriculum and develop the quality of education, continuous monitoring dental students' education during their study is necessary. This study was conducted on the course scores of dental students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences from 1991 till 2012 on the theory and practical restoration courses. The correlation between these scores was investigated. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which was performed retrospectively on all ...
White, Susan W; Elias, Rebecca; Capriola-Hall, Nicole N; Smith, Isaac C; Conner, Caitlin M; Asselin, Susan B; Howlin, Patricia; Getzel, Elizabeth E; Mazefsky, Carla A
Empirically based, consumer-informed programming to support students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) transitioning to college is needed. Informed by theory and research, the Stepped Transition in Education Program for Students with ASD (STEPS) was developed to address this need. The first level (Step 1) supports high school students and the second level (Step 2) is for postsecondary students with ASD. Herein, we review the extant research on transition supports for emerging adults with ASD and describe the development of STEPS, including its theoretical basis and how it was informed by consumer input. The impact of STEPS on promotion of successful transition into college and positive outcomes for students during higher education is currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.
Winston P. Nagan
Full Text Available In the light of the countless hours invested in the development of the Sustainable Development Goals—the set of targets and indicators relating to future international human and sustainable development, which replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs at the end of 2015 —by hundreds of the world’s top minds, in addition to more than twenty-five years of analysis associated with the development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the MDGs, international lawyers and economists may wonder whether there is room for a new theory of sustainable development. It might seem counterintuitive to presume that new light might be shed on this vastly over-analyzed concept. However, the goal of this article is indeed to bring a new understanding to this important idea by assaying the current dominant legal theory of neo-liberalism and the radical inequality it promotes, and unpacking processes and identifying insights from advanced legal theory for the development of a new theory of sustainable development, with a primary focus on counteracting radical inequality.
Quinlan, Catherine Louise
This dissertation study is a conglomerate of the fields of Science Education and Applied Cognitive Psychology. The goal of this study is to determine what organizational features and knowledge representation patterns high school students exhibit over time for issues pertinent to science and society. Participants are thirteen tenth grade students in a diverse suburban-urban classroom in a northeastern state. Students' think alouds are recorded, pre-, post-, and late-post treatment. Treatment consists of instruction in three Science, Technology, and Society (STS) biology issues, namely the human genome project, nutrition and health, and stem cell research. Coding and analyses are performed using Marshall's knowledge representations---identification knowledge, elaboration knowledge, planning knowledge, and execution knowledge, as well as qualitative research analysis methods. Schema theory, information processing theory, and other applied cognitive theory provide a framework in which to understand and explain students' schema descriptions and progressions over time. The results show that students display five organizational features in their identification and elaboration knowledge. Students also fall into one of four categories according to if they display prior schema or no prior schema, and their orientation "for" or "against," some of the issues. Students with prior schema and orientation "against" display the most robust schema descriptions and schema progressions. Those with no prior schemas and orientation "against" show very modest schema progressions best characterized by their keyword searches. This study shows the importance in considering not only students' integrated schemas but also their individual schemes. A role for the use of a more schema-based instruction that scaffolds student learning is implicated.
Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A
This paper is a report of a qualitative study of students' experiences of cooperative learning in the clinical setting. Although cooperative learning is often used successfully in the classroom, it has not been documented in the clinical setting with sophomore nursing students being paired with other sophomore nursing students. Using a grounded theory methodology a sample of 64 participants (32 student nurse dyads, eight clinical groups, in two different acute care institutions) were observed on their first day in the clinical setting while working as cooperative partners. Interviews were also conducted with students, patients and staff preceptors. Data were collected in the fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009 and the spring of 2010 using semi-structured interviews and reflective surveys. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. A holistic clinical education theory for student nurses was identified from the data. This theory includes a reciprocal relationship among five categories relevant to a community of learning: supportive clinical experience; improved transition into practice; enhanced socialization into the profession; increased accountability and responsibility; and emergence of self-confidence as a beginning student nurse. The use of student dyads creates a supportive learning environment while students were able to meet the clinical learning objectives. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting creates a community of learning while instilling very early in the education process the importance of teamwork. This approach to clinical instruction eases the transition from the classroom to the clinical learning environment, and improves patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ben Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Mahajna, Marlen; Mahajna, Sara
Medication errors are common among nursing students. Nonetheless, these errors are often underreported. To examine factors related to nursing students' intention to report medication errors, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, and to examine whether the theory is useful in predicting students' intention to report errors. This study has a descriptive cross-sectional design. Study population was recruited in a university and a large nursing school in central and northern Israel. A convenience sample of 250 nursing students took part in the study. The students completed a self-report questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The findings indicate that students' intention to report medication errors was high. The Theory of Planned Behavior constructs explained 38% of variance in students' intention to report medication errors. The constructs of behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were found as affecting this intention, while the most significant factor was behavioral beliefs. The findings also reveal that students' fear of the reaction to disclosure of the error from superiors and colleagues may impede them from reporting the error. Understanding factors related to reporting medication errors is crucial to designing interventions that foster error reporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, Barbara Y.; Shimoda, Todd A.; Frederiksen, John R.
Part II of the Special Issue on Authoring Systems for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (editors: Tom Murray and Stephen Blessing); To develop lifelong learning skills, we argue that students need to learn how to learn via inquiry and understand the sociocognitive and metacognitive processes that are involved. We illustrate how software could play a central role in enabling students to develop such expertise. Our hypothesis is that sociocognitive systems, such as those needed for collaborative inq...
True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)
Nurwijayanti, A.; Budiyono; Fitriana, L.
Geometry ability is the aspect which underlay students to solve the geometry problems. However, some studies suggests the difficulty students when learning geometry. This leads to the ability of the geometri students difficult to develop. There are five the geometry ability based the Hoffer’s theory, namely visual, verbal, drawing, logical, and applied. These five aspects are basic geometry ability to be mastered by Junior High School students level. This study aimed to describe the students’ geometry ability according to the Hoffer’s theory. The participants of this study are six students from 9th grade in State Junior High School 1 Jaten at Karanganyar that consisted of three categories, namely higher ability, moderate ability, and lower ability students. The data collection methods used are geometry test and in-depth interview and than analyzed using triangulation. The result of the study showed that the ability of those three categories is different. Each of the students' geometry ability can be described as follows. (1) On visual skill, higher ability and moderate ability students could mention the elements of the geometrical shapes correctly based on its shapes obtained. However, lower ability students were unable to mention it specifically; (2) On verbal skill, moderate ability students were able to link the relationship among shapes based on the characteristics correctly, despite that the higher ability and lower ability seemed to have difficulty; (3) On drawing skill, higher ability students could construct the shapes based on the relationship among shapes well, but moderate ability and lower ability students continually faced difficulty; (4) On logical skill, both higher ability, and moderate ability students were able to determine the formula of a particular geometrical shape based on the relationship among the elements of the shape well, while the lower ability students were unable to; (5) On applied skill, higher ability, and moderate ability
Gette, Cody R.; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Heron, Paula R. L.
A growing body of scholarly work indicates that student performance on physics problems stems from many factors, including relevant conceptual understanding. However, in contexts in which significant conceptual difficulties have been documented via research, it can be difficult to pinpoint and isolate such factors because students' written and interview responses rarely reveal the full richness of their conscious and, perhaps more importantly, subconscious reasoning paths. In this investigation, informed by dual-process theories of reasoning and decision making as well as the theoretical construct of accessibility, we conducted a series of experiments in order to gain greater insight into the factors impacting student performance on the "five-block problem," which has been used in the literature to probe student thinking about buoyancy. In particular, we examined both the impact of problem design (including salient features and cueing) and the impact of targeted instruction focused on density-based arguments for sinking and floating and on neutral buoyancy. The investigation found that instructional modifications designed to remove the strong intuitive appeal of the first-available response led to significantly improved performance, without improving student conceptual understanding of the requisite buoyancy concepts. As such, our findings represent an important first step in identifying systematic strategies for using theories from cognitive science to guide the development and refinement of research-based instructional materials.
Croy, Suzanne R
The purpose of this paper is to explore group work assessment underpinned by constructive alignment theory to develop a new assessment pedagogy. A review was undertaken of an existing module 'Mental Health Nursing 1', with student nurses participating in the BSc (Hons) Nursing Programme. Constructive alignment theory requires teachers to adopt a deep approach to learning where module learning outcomes are aligned with the teaching environment and modes of assessment. As the module progressed, reviewing the Mental Health Nursing 1 module became an excellent opportunity to begin to understand how constructive alignment theory can inform a group work assessment pedagogy. Working using a constructively aligned assessment process became a valuable learning experience for the module leader whilst at the same time revealed a gap in the research around the impact of constructively aligned teaching and group work assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Massey, Jennifer; Sulak, Tracey; Sriram, Rishi
This paper explores the extent to which the leadership knowledge, skills, and abilities of upper-year student leaders on one private, United States college campus developed as a consequence of their education and experience as an extended orientation leader. Findings reveal that compared to leadership education in the classroom, leadership…
Barnhardt, Bradford; Ginns, Paul
This article orients a recently proposed alienation-based framework for student learning theory (SLT) to the empirical basis of the approaches to learning perspective. The proposed framework makes new macro-level interpretations of an established micro-level theory, across three levels of interpretation: (1) a context-free psychological state…
Mokhtari Nouri, Jamileh; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid
One of the key strategies in students' learning is being affected by models. Understanding the role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore Iranian nursing students and instructors' experiences about role modeling process. Data was analyzed by Glaserian's Grounded Theory methodology through semi-structured interviews with 7 faculty members, 2 nursing students; the three focus group discussions with 20 nursing students based on purposive and theoretical sampling was done for explaining role modeling process from four nursing faculties in Tehran. Through basic coding, an effort to comprehensive growth and excellence was made with the basic social process consisting the core category and through selective coding three phases were identified as: realizing and exposure to inadequate human and professional growth, facilitating human and professional growth and evolution. The role modeling process is taking place unconscious, involuntary, dynamic and with positive progressive process in order to facilitate overall growth in nursing student. Accordingly, the design and implementation of the designed model can be used to make this unconscious to conscious, active and voluntarily processes a process to help education administrators of nursing colleges and supra organization to prevent threats to human and professional in nursing students' education and promote nursing students' growth.
Full Text Available In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. This evolution is based on empirical studies, theory-informed conceptual development and the creation of conceptual cohesion. The theoretical development has involved a dialectic approach aiming at a theoretical synthesis based on antagonistic theories. The result of this research process was a multi-grounded business process theory. Multi-grounded means that the theory is empirically, internally and theoretically founded. This business process theory can be used as an aid for business modellers to direct attention towards relevant aspects when business process determination is performed.
Fuchs, László; Goldsmith, Brendan; Strüngmann, Lutz
This volume focuses on group theory and model theory with a particular emphasis on the interplay of the two areas. The survey papers provide an overview of the developments across group, module, and model theory while the research papers present the most recent study in those same areas. With introductory sections that make the topics easily accessible to students, the papers in this volume will appeal to beginning graduate students and experienced researchers alike. As a whole, this book offers a cross-section view of the areas in group, module, and model theory, covering topics such as DP-minimal groups, Abelian groups, countable 1-transitive trees, and module approximations. The papers in this book are the proceedings of the conference “New Pathways between Group Theory and Model Theory,” which took place February 1-4, 2016, in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany, in honor of the editors’ colleague Rüdiger Göbel. This publication is dedicated to Professor Göbel, who passed away in 2014. He was one of th...
Ozay Kose, Esra
Evolution has not being well addressed in schools partly because it is a controversial topic in religious views. In the present study, it is explored to what extent Turkish secondary school biology teachers and students accommodate the theory of biological evolution with their religious beliefs. Two-hundred fifty secondary school students and…
The main objective of this study was to examine the validity and usefulness of the person-environment correspondence theory with instructional technology students in Turkey. The participants included 211 students and three teachers. Results revealed that instructional technology students value achievement most and that they believe that entering a…
Liversage, Lindi; Naudé, Luzelle; Botha, Anja
In this study, black South African first-generation students' experiences related to identity development during their first year at a higher education institution were explored. Chickering and Reisser's [1993. "Education and Identity." 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass] seven-vector identity development theory served as overarching…
Kahn, Peter; Qualter, Anne; Young, Richard
Theories of learning typically downplay the interplay between social structure and student agency. In this article, we adapt a causal hypothesis from realist social theory and draw on wider perspectives from critical realism to account for the development of capacity to engage in reflection on professional practice in academic roles. We thereby…
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene
Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…
Laschinger, Heather K. Spence
Kolb's experiential learning theory was used as a framework to study 179 generic baccalaureate students' perceptions of the different types of learning environments and adaptive competencies. Clinical experience and preceptorships contributed more to competency development than did nursing or nonnursing classes. (JOW)
Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine
Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.
In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of the "Multiple Intelligence Theory" on the retention and achievement of the students according to Bloom Taxonomy. This study is a research as an experimental model. Research in academic year of 2008/2009 in Foca Izmir Lesbos Reha Country High School 9 Class is conducted on students.…
Aertsen, Tamara; Jaspaert, Koen; Van Gorp, Baldwin
In this article, an educational project is described that was formulated with the aim to give master's students in business communication the opportunity to experience how theory could be applied to shape practice. A 4-week project was developed in which students were urged to use communication theory and linguistic theory to manage the…
Sessa, Valerie I.; Ploskonka, Jillian; Alvarez, Elphys L.; Dourdis, Steven; Dixon, Christopher; Bragger, Jennifer D.
The purpose of our research was to use Day, Harrison, and Halpin's, (2009) theory of leadership development as a premise to investigate how students' constructive development is related to their leader identity development and understanding of leadership. Baxter Magolda's Model of Epistemological Reflection (MER, 1988, 2001) was used to understand…
Dupont, Jean-Philippe; Carlier, Ghislain; Gerard, Philippe; Delens, Cecile
The aim of this study is to test a model of motivation based on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2002) and which explores the place of "teacher-student" negotiation. Cross-sectional data were gathered from 549 secondary school students (317 male, 232 female) who answered a questionnaire which included measurements of perceived…
Miele, Anthony M.
The purpose of this study was to determine how the study of number theory might affect high school students' metacognitive functioning, mathematical curiosity, and/or attitudes towards mathematics. The study utilized questionnaire and/or interview responses of seven high school students from New York City and 33 high school students from Dalian,…
Center for Army Leadership Technical Report 2006-2 Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development Christina Curnow...2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W91QF4-05-F-0026 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development 5c...ABSTRACT This report describes the development and implementation of an application of advanced learning theories to leadership development. A
I Made Arnawa
Full Text Available This study is a quasi-experimental nonrandomized pretest-posttest control group design. The experiment group is treated by APOS theory instruction (APOS,that implements four characteristics of APOS theory, (1 mathematical knowledge was constructed through mental construction: actions, processes, objects, and organizing these in schemas, (2 using computer, (3 using cooperative learning groups, and (4 using ACE teaching cycle (activities, class discussion, and exercise. The control group is treated by conventional/traditional mathematics instruction (TRAD. The main purpose of this study is to analyze about achievement in proof. 180 students from two different universities (two classes at the Department of Mathematics UNAND and two classes atthe Department of Mathematics Education UNP PADANG were engaged as the research subjects. Based on the result of data analysis, the main result of this study is that the proof ability of students' in the APOS group is significantly better than student in TRAD group, so it is strongly suggested to apply APOS theory in Abstract Algebra course.
Full Text Available Background: The main aim of this research was to assess the differences of visual memory in deaf and normal students according to plasticity of cortical brain.Materials and Methods: This is an ex-post factor research. Benton visual test was performed by two different ways on 46 students of primary school. (22 deaf and 24 normal students. The t-student was used to analysis the data. Results: The visual memory in deaf students was significantly higher than the similar normal students (not deaf.While the action of visual memory in deaf girls was risen in comparison to normal girls in both ways, the deaf boys presented the better action in just one way of the two performances of Benton visual memory test.Conclusion: The action of plasticity of brain shows that the brain of an adult is dynamic and there are some changes in it. This brain plasticity has not limited to sensory somatic systems. Therefore according to plasticity of cortical brain theory, the deaf students due to the defect of hearing have increased the visual the visual inputs which developed the procedural visual memory.
Sickinger, Pamela H.
Within the framework of social cognitive career theory, social cognitive career variables, demographic variables, and the contextual variable, parent support, were examined to determine their predictive value for eighth-grade students' career exploration behavior. Results suggest that the social cognitive career variable, intentions/goals,…
Mikael Lind; Goran Goldkuhl
In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. Th...
Zhao, Qi; Li, Weidong
According to theory, students' implicit theories of ability can affect their motivation and engagement in physical education (PE). Limited research has been conducted to examine the relationships between implicit theories of ability and motivation and engagement among K-12 students in PE. Our study examined the relationship between implicit…
This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…
Charlito P. Cadag
Full Text Available he study assessed the effectiveness of student services and their influen ce on student development in the four campuses of Central Bicol State University of Agriculture (CBSUA, SY 2013 - 2014. Descriptive, evaluative, comparative and correlational methods of research were employed. Respondents were administrators, faculty membe rs and student leaders. Data were gathered through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and ocular inspection and were treated statistically using weighted mean, ranking, one - way ANOVA, Pearson R correlation analysis and DMRT. Findings revealed t hat the four campuses of CBSUA were ”very effective” in managing the different student services. The social, cultural, political and intellectual aspects of students in the four campuses of CBSUA were “highly developed” through the various student services provided. Student services such as sports development, library, student organizations, arts and culture development, guidance and counseling, scholarship and financial assistance, campus ministry and health services did not vary among campuses.
Touchette, Timothy M.
This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on helicopter parents, and their relation to student development theory. A secondary examination of approximately 1800 randomized results from the 2007 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) was tested using the following statistical tests: Mann-Whitney Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test,…
Burch, Gerald F.; Heller, Nathan A.; Burch, Jana J.; Freed, Rusty; Steed, Steve A.
Student engagement is considered to be among the better predictors of learning, yet there is growing concern that there is no consensus on the conceptual foundation. The authors propose a conceptualization of student engagement grounded in A. W. Astin's (1984) Student Involvement Theory and W. A. Kahn's (1990) employee engagement research where…
Weeks, Keith W; Higginson, Ray; Clochesy, John M; Coben, Diana
This paper evaluates nursing students' transition through schemata construction and competence development in medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS). We advance a grounded theory from interview data that reflects the experiences and perceptions of two groups of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students: eight students exposed to a prototype authentic MDC-PS environment and didactic transmission methods of education and 15 final year students exposed to the safeMedicate authentic MDC-PS environment. We advance a theory of how classroom-based 'chalk and talk' didactic transmission environments offered multiple barriers to accurate MDC-PS schemata construction among novice students. While conversely it was universally perceived by all students that authentic learning and assessment environments enabled MDC-PS schemata construction through facilitating: 'seeing' the authentic features of medication dosage problems; context-based and situational learning; learning within a scaffolded environment that supported construction of cognitive links between the concrete world of clinical MDC-PS and the abstract world of mathematics; and confidence-building in their cognitive and functional competence ability. Drawing on the principle of veni, vidi, duci (I came, I saw, I calculated), we combined the two sets of evaluations to offer a grounded theoretical basis for schemata construction and competence development within this critical domain of professional practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akin, Ayça; Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Evcan, Sinem Sezer
The purpose of the current study is to develop a mathematics self-report inventory (MSRI) to measure Turkish elementary students' mathematics expectancy beliefs and task values based on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. In Study-1 (n = 1,315), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability analysis are used to evaluate the…
Smith, Morgan R; Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Saras
Student satisfaction is a quality measure of increasing importance in undergraduate programs, including nursing programs. To date theories of student satisfaction have focused primarily on students' perceptions of the educational environment rather than their perceptions of learning. Understanding how students determine satisfaction with learning is necessary to facilitate student learning across a range of educational contexts and meet the expectations of diverse stakeholders. To understand undergraduate nursing students' satisfaction with learning. Constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to identify how nursing students determined satisfaction with learning. Two large, multi-campus, nursing schools in Australia. Seventeen demographically diverse undergraduate nursing students studying different stages of a three year program participated in the study. Twenty nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Students were invited to describe situations where they had been satisfied or dissatisfied with their learning. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. Students are satisfied with learning when they shape a valued learning journey that accommodates social contexts of self, university and nursing workplace. The theory has three phases. Phase 1 - orienting self to valued learning in the pedagogical landscape; phase 2 - engaging with valued learning experiences across diverse pedagogical terrain; and phase 3 - recognising valued achievement along the way. When students experience a valued learning journey they are satisfied with their learning. Student satisfaction with learning is unique to the individual, changes over time and maybe transient or sustained, mild or intense. Finding from the research indicate areas where nurse academics may facilitate satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs while mindful of the expectations of other stakeholders such as the university, nurse registering authorities
Najimi, Arash; Ghaffari, Mohtasham
To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on social cognitive theory on increasing consumption of fruit and vegetable among Grade 4 students. The randomised study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, during 2011 and comprised 138 students, who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Data was collected at the beginning and three months after the intervention. A self-administered questionnaire based on constructs of social cognitive theory and food consumption was used. Theory-based nutrition education was imparted on the intervention group. Data was analysed using SPSS 15 and appropriate statistical tests. The intervention group had 68 (49.27%) subjects, while there were 70 (50.72%) controls. After the intervention, mean scores of behavioural capability (p social support (p = 0.03), and observational learning (p = 0.002) had significantly improved in the intervention group. Nutritional behaviour also showed significant improvement on mean daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the intervention group (p social cognitive theory led to increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables among students, which confirmed the efficiency of social cognitive theory for such interventions.
Belokurov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.
The Theory of Particle Interactions introduces students and physicists to the chronological development, concepts, main methods, and results of modern quantum field theory -- the most fundamental, abstract, and mathematical branch of theoretical physics. Belokurov and Shirkov, two prominent Soviet theoretical physicists, carefully describe the many facets of modern quantum theory including: renormalization theory and renormalization group; gauge theories and spontaneous symmetry breaking; the electroweak interaction theory and quantum chromodynamics; the schemes of the unification of the fundamental interactions; and super-symmetry and super-strings. The authors use a minimum of mathematical concepts and equations in describing the historical development, the current status, and the role of quantum field theory in modern theoretical physics. Because readers will be able to comprehend the main concepts of modern quantum theory without having to master its rather difficult apparatus, The Theory of Particle Interactions is ideal for those who seek a conceptual understanding of the subject. Students, physicists, mathematicians, and theoreticians involved in astrophysics, cosmology, and nuclear physics, as well as those interested in the philosophy and history of natural sciences will find The Theory of Particle Interactions invaluable and an important addition to their reading list
This clear and well-developed approach to axiomatic set theory is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers, rational and real numbers, and other subjects. 1960 edition.
Mª Luz Rodríguez Palmero; Javier Marrero Acosta; Marco Antonio Moreira
Following a discussion of Johnson-Laird's mental models theory, we report a study regarding high school students mental representations of cell, understood as mental models. Research findings suggest the appropriatedness of such a theory as a framework to interpret students' representations.
Cody R. Gette
Full Text Available A growing body of scholarly work indicates that student performance on physics problems stems from many factors, including relevant conceptual understanding. However, in contexts in which significant conceptual difficulties have been documented via research, it can be difficult to pinpoint and isolate such factors because students’ written and interview responses rarely reveal the full richness of their conscious and, perhaps more importantly, subconscious reasoning paths. In this investigation, informed by dual-process theories of reasoning and decision making as well as the theoretical construct of accessibility, we conducted a series of experiments in order to gain greater insight into the factors impacting student performance on the “five-block problem,” which has been used in the literature to probe student thinking about buoyancy. In particular, we examined both the impact of problem design (including salient features and cueing and the impact of targeted instruction focused on density-based arguments for sinking and floating and on neutral buoyancy. The investigation found that instructional modifications designed to remove the strong intuitive appeal of the first-available response led to significantly improved performance, without improving student conceptual understanding of the requisite buoyancy concepts. As such, our findings represent an important first step in identifying systematic strategies for using theories from cognitive science to guide the development and refinement of research-based instructional materials.
In this article, a multi-sited ethnographic study was taken as a point of departure for exploring how Nordic music teachers, who work in multicultural environments, understand the development of their students' musical agency. The study was based on theories developed within general sociology and the sociology of music, as well as in previous…
Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.
Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…
Chan, Joanne C Y; Sit, Emily N M; Lau, W M
Conflict management is an essential skill that nursing students need to master as conflict is unavoidable in clinical settings. Examining nursing students' conflict management styles and the associating factors can inform nurse educators on how to equip nursing students for effective conflict management. This study aimed at examining undergraduate nursing students conflict management styles in managing conflict with their supervisors in clinical placement. The associations of emotional intelligence and implicit theories of personality with conflict management styles were also investigated. This is a cross-sectional quantitative survey. This study took place at a nursing school at a university in Hong Kong. 568 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Students completed a questionnaire which consisted of demographics, Measure of Implicit Theories of Personality, The Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II) and received a HKD 20 book coupon as compensation. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, reliability analyses, t-tests, correlational and linear regression analyses. For managing conflict with clinical supervisors, students used obliging and integrating most frequently whereas used dominating least. Emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of all five conflict management styles. The higher the emotional intelligence, the more students used integrating, obliging, compromising and dominating. The lower the emotional intelligence, the more students used avoiding. There was a significant association between implicit theories of personality and compromising. The less malleable students perceived personality to be, the more they used compromising. Emotional intelligence was significantly associated with all five conflict management styles while implicit theories of personality were significantly associated with compromising style only. Efforts of nurse educators to
Wintre, Maxine G.; Gates, Shawn K. E.; Pancer, W. Mark; Pratt, Michael S.; Polivy, Janet; Birnie-Lefcovitch, S.; Adams, Gerald
A new scale, the Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale (SPUSS), was developed for research on the transition to university. The scale was based on concepts derived from Baumrind's (1971) theory of parenting styles. Data were obtained from two separate cohorts of freshmen (n=759 and 397) attending six Canadian universities of…
George Maher Iskander
Full Text Available As e-learning tend to get more and more significant for all kind of universities, researchers and consultants are becoming aware of the fact that a high technology approach and Blackboard do not guarantee successful teaching and learning. Thus, a move to pedagogy-based theories can be observed within the field of e-learning. This study describes the procedure of the development of an empirically-based psychometrically-sound instrument to measure instructional model for e-learning system at Middle East universities. In order to accelerate the acceptance of e-learning and implementation of institution-wide adoption of e-learning, it is important to understand students' perceptions with instructional model for e- learning. The 19-item scale developed shows a high probability of differentiating between positive and negative perceptions and the methods which can be used for embedding the traditional learning theories into e-learning.
Park, Heejung; Twenge, Jean M; Greenfield, Patricia M
The Great Recession's influence on American undergraduate students' values was examined, testing Greenfield's and Kasser's theories concerning value development during economic downturns. Study 1 utilised aggregate-level data to investigate (a) population-level value changes between the pre-recession (2004-2006: n = 824,603) and recession freshman cohort (2008-2010: n = 662,262) and (b) overall associations of population-level values with national economic climates over long-term periods by correlating unemployment rates and concurrent aggregate-level values across 1966-2015 (n = 10 million). Study 2 examined individual-level longitudinal value development from freshman to senior year, and whether the developmental trajectories differed between those who completed undergraduate education before the Great Recession (freshmen in 2002, n = 12,792) versus those who encountered the Great Recession during undergraduate years (freshmen in 2006, n = 13,358). Results suggest American undergraduate students' increased communitarianism (supporting Greenfield) and materialism (supporting Kasser) during the Great Recession. The recession also appears to have slowed university students' development of positive self-views. Results contribute to the limited literature on the Great Recession's influence on young people's values. They also offer theoretical and practical implications, as values of this privileged group of young adults are important shapers of societal values, decisions, and policies. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Kang, Jiyeon; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ran
This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of incivility among nursing students. Sixteen nursing students who had experienced incivility during their clinical placement were invited for one-on-one interviews until the point of theoretical saturation. The grounded theory approach of Corbin and Strauss was adopted to analyze transcribed interview contents. Incivility occurred in the context of a hierarchical organizational culture, due to nursing students' position as outsiders, non-systematic clinical education, and poor nursing work environment. The experience of incivility was identified as "being mistreated as a marginal person," and nursing students responded to this phenomenon in the following three steps: reality shock, passive action, and submissive acceptance. This process caused students to lose self-esteem and undergo role conflict. Furthermore, nursing students' experience of incivility could eventually lead to workplace bullying in nurses. The results of this study suggest that nursing students' experience of incivility can be a process that threatens their identity. It is necessary to develop educational programs and provide appropriate counseling services so that nursing students can actively cope with the incivility. In addition, institutional plans are needed to ensure safe and supportive clinical learning environments. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.
Full Text Available Students accepting evolution are likely to rely on science as cognitive authority (i.e. science textbooks and science teachers. In contrast, those not accepting are likely to rely on religion as cognitive authority (i.e. religious texts and religious leaders. A thematic analysis based on existing quantitative and qualitative studies has been carried out in order to propose a theoretical framework for a range of reasons contributing to students' acceptance and rejection of evolutionary theory. This article urges that instruction of evolution is more than the matter of delivering scientific contents. It also deals with personal worldviews influenced by different forms of cognitive authority. It is therefore important to put more emphasis on developing students’ learning skills to critically evaluate which source of information is scientifically appropriate, with full respect to religious belief of individuals.
Both, J [University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology (United States)
Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an
Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an interactive
This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...
Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.
Mentoring programs are evolving as common practice in athletic departments across national collegiate athletic association member institutions in the USA as means to address sociocultural issues faced by their student-athletes and to enhance their holistic development. There is a dearth of research exploring mentoring in the contexts of…
Ericsson, Jonas; Husmark, Teodor; Mathiesen, Christoffer; Sepahvand, Benjamin; Borck, Øyvind; Gunnarsson, Linda; Lydmark, Pär; Schröder, Elsebeth
To increase public awareness of theoretical materials physics, a small group of high school students is invited to participate actively in a current research projects at Chalmers University of Technology. The Chalmers research group explores methods for filtrating hazardous and otherwise unwanted molecules from drinking water, for example by adsorption in active carbon filters. In this project, the students use graphene as an idealized model for active carbon, and estimate the energy of adsorption of the methylbenzene toluene on graphene with the help of the atomic-scale calculational method density functional theory. In this process the students develop an insight into applied quantum physics, a topic usually not taught at this educational level, and gain some experience with a couple of state-of-the-art calculational tools in materials research.
de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio
Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to the development of a Moodle-based online Emergency Medicine course, inspired by real clinical cases. Three consecutive classes (2013-2015) of sixth-year medical students (n = 304) participated in the course, during a curricular and essentially practical emergency rotation. "Virtual Rounds" provided weekly virtual patients in narrative format and meaningful schemata to chief complaints, in order to simulate real rounds at Emergency Unit. Additional activities such as Extreme Decisions, Emergency Quiz and Electrocardiographic challenge offered different views of emergency care. Authors assessed student´s participation and its correlation with their academic performance. A survey evaluated students´ opinions. Students graduating in 2015 answered an online questionnaire to investigate cognitive load and motivation. Each student produced 1965 pageviews and spent 72 hours logged on. Although Clinical Emergency rotation has two months long, students accessed the online course during an average of 5.3 months. Virtual Rounds was the most accessed activity, and there was positive correlations between the number of hours logged on the platform and final grades on Emergency Medicine. Over 90% of students felt an improvement in their clinical reasoning and considered themselves better prepared for rendering Emergency care. Considering a Likert scale from 1 (minimum load) to 7 (maximum load), the scores for total cognitive load were 4.79±2.2 for Virtual Rounds and 5.56±1.96 for real medical rounds(pcognitive and motivational conceptual frameworks, seems to be a strong tool to engage students in learning. It may support them to manage the cognitive challenges involved in clinical care and
Ko, Wen-Hwa; Chen, Chieh-Ying
This research focuses on the research and development competence and school-to-work transition on occupation selection for hospitality students with the use of social cognitive career theory. The positive attitude construct is the most identifiable for the research and development competences. For the school-to-work constructs, the most…
Engineering Surveying: Theory and Examination Problems for Students, Volume 1, Third Edition discusses topics concerning engineering surveying techniques and instrumentations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover several concerns in engineering survey. Chapter 1 discusses the basic concepts of surveying. Chapter 2 deals with simple and precise leveling, while Chapter 3 covers earthworks. The book also talks about the theodolite and its applications, and then discusses optical distance measurement. Curves, underground and hydrographic surveying, and aspects of dimensional control
This introduction to the ideas and techniques of quantum field theory presents the material as simply as possible and is designed for graduate research students. After a brief survey of particle physics, the quantum theory of scalar and spinor fields and then of gauge fields, is developed. The emphasis throughout is on functional methods, which have played a large part in modern field theory. The book concludes with a bridge survey of ''topological'' objects in field theory and assumes a knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity
Jones, Anne; Sheppard, Lorraine
The aim of this research was to determine if self-efficacy can be correlated with prior academic achievement and whether self-efficacy can be an outcome measure of education. A self-efficacy instrument was developed and administered to physiotherapy students following completion of their pre-clinical theory experience. The questionnaire results…
Lee, Jounghee; Jeong, Soyeon; Ko, Gyeongah; Park, Hyunshin; Ko, Youngsook
The purpose of this study was to develop an educational model regarding food safety and nutrition. In particular, we aimed to develop educational materials, such as middle- and high-school textbooks, a teacher's guidebook, and school posters, by applying social cognitive theory. To develop a food safety and nutrition education program, we took into account diverse factors influencing an individual's behavior, such as personal, behavioral, and environmental factors, based on social cognitive theory. We also conducted a pilot study of the educational materials targeting middle-school students (n = 26), high-school students (n = 24), and dietitians (n = 13) regarding comprehension level, content, design, and quality by employing the 5-point Likert scale in May 2016. The food safety and nutrition education program covered six themes: (1) caffeine; (2) food additives; (3) foodborne illness; (4) nutrition and meal planning; (5) obesity and eating disorders; and (6) nutrition labeling. Each class activity was created to improve self-efficacy by setting one's own goal and to increase self-control by monitoring one's dietary intake. We also considered environmental factors by creating school posters and leaflets to educate teachers and parents. The overall evaluation score for the textbook was 4.0 points among middle- and high-school students, and 4.5 points among dietitians. This study provides a useful program model that could serve as a guide to develop educational materials for nutrition-related subjects in the curriculum. This program model was created to increase awareness of nutrition problems and self-efficacy. This program also helped to improve nutrition management skills and to promote a healthy eating environment in middle- and high-school students.
Vartiainen, Tero; Siponen, Mikko
It is widely agreed that ethics teaching should have an important role in Information Systems (IS) teaching. Yet, there are no studies exploring how students apply theories of ethics in their decision-making. This is unfortunate, because teaching ethics is of little practical use if the students do not utilise the acquired knowledge in practice.…
Schatt, Matthew D.
The purpose of this study was to explore high school band students' perspectives of instrumental music practice from within the attribution theory paradigm and to attempt to elucidate the secondary student's attitudes toward practice. High school band students from three Midwestern school districts (N = 218) completed a survey that was used to…
Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody
There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we
Mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais
This is a secondary stage of theory of economic development. This research study is covering the secondary phase of development which rules the tactical plans of the main strategy. In this stage, the social and economical demands varies from country to country and we have developed the theory according to the Pakistani economic conditions. It requires great a lot of technical and strategic analysis to chose the accurate plans accordingly.
Rosch, David M.; Anthony, Michael D.
Building leadership capacity in college students is both an art and a science. Knowledge of college student development and specifically college leadership development, as well as research in leadership theory and practices, can help college leadership educators become more effective. International Leadership Association (ILA) Guiding Questions…
Lemos, M. S.; Queiros, C.; Teixeira, P. M.; Menezes, I.
The authors describe the development and validation of a multidimensional instrument of students' evaluation of university teaching (the Pedagogical Questionnaire of the University of Porto). The goal was to develop an instrument based on a sound psychometric analysis and simultaneously supported by the learning theory. Based on the data from 4875…
Taylor, Kenneth J.
This study examined the identity development for a sample of 90 African American undergraduate engineering male and female students attending an HBCU. Using the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which is based on Chickering and Reisser's identity development theory, differences in identity development were examined with respect to gender, academic classification, and grade point average. Previous research has shown the need to look beyond academic factors to understand and influence the persistence of African American engineering students. Non-cognitive factors, including identity development have proven to be influential in predicting persistence, especially for African American engineering students. Results from the analysis revealed significant means for academic classification and five of the dependent variables to include career planning peer relations, emotional autonomy, educational involvement, and establishing and clarifying purpose. Post hoc analysis confirmed significant differences for four of those dependent variables. However, the analysis failed to confirm statistical significant differences in peer relations due to academic classification. The significant decline in the mean scores for development in these four areas, as students progressed from sophomore to senior year revealed strong implications for the need to provide programming and guidance for those students. Institutions of higher education should provide more attention to the non-cognitive areas of development as a means of understanding identity development and working toward creating support systems for students.
Jane Mills; Ann Bonner; Karen Francis
Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. T...
Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har
This paper utilizes a critical post-pragmatist epistemological lens in tandem with an extended case analysis to explore how student affairs professionals process truth claims related to student experience. Findings from the study, which include the limited usage of formal theory and the iterative reconstruction of informal theory, are used to…
Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen
This article applies two well-known management and leadership models-Theory X and Theory Y, and Situational Leadership-to dental education. Theory X and Theory Y explain how assumptions may shape the behaviors of dental educators and lead to the development of "cop" and "coach" teaching styles. The Situational Leadership Model helps the educator to identify the teaching behaviors that are appropriate in a given situation to assist students as they move from beginner to advanced status. Together, these models provide a conceptual reference to assist in the understanding of the behaviors of both students and faculty and remind us to apply discretion in the education of our students. The implications of these models for assessing and enhancing the educational environment in dental school are discussed.
Liskey, Brian K.
This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in
Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the role of adult learning theories in the development of corporate training in the USA. Considering that corporate education is part of the adult education system in this country, the author examines theories of organizational learning in the context of adult learning. The results of the study have revealed that adult education in the US is based on dif erent learning theories which should be viewed from the perspective of several main orientations: behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, developmental theories, social learning, constructivism, which have dif erent philosophical background and, accordingly, different understanding of the nature and methodology of adult learning. Based on the results of the study it has been concluded that theories of organizational learning which explain motivation of students, their needs and goals, cognitive processes and other aspects of the learning in organizations and have had the main influence on the development of corporate education in the United States should be viewed in the context of the above-mentioned basic orientations to learning, too. From the methodological perspective, the research was based on interdisciplinary and systemic approaches. Thus, we used a set of interrelated research methods: comparative, structural, systemic-functional analyses, comparison and synthesis.
Abdurrahman, Abdulmajeed; Faridani, Jacqueline; Gassem, Mahmoud
We present a systematic treatment of the HS Field theory of the open bosonic string and discuss its relationship to other full string field theories of the open bosonic string such as Witten's theory and the CVS theory. In the development of the HS field theory we encounter infinite dimensional matrices arising from the change of representation between the two theories, i.e., the HS field theory and the full string field theory. We give a general procedure of how to invert these gigantic matrices. The inversion of these matrices involves the computation of many infinite sums. We give the values of these sums and state their generalizations arising from considering higher order vertices (i.e., more than three strings) in string field theory. Moreover, we give a general procedure, on how to evaluate the generalized sums, that can be extended to many generic sums of similar properties. We also discuss the conformal operator connecting the HS field theory to that of the CVS string field theory.
Kim, Ju-Lee; Zhu, Chen-Bo
This book contains selected papers based on talks given at the "Representation Theory, Number Theory, and Invariant Theory" conference held at Yale University from June 1 to June 5, 2015. The meeting and this resulting volume are in honor of Professor Roger Howe, on the occasion of his 70th birthday, whose work and insights have been deeply influential in the development of these fields. The speakers who contributed to this work include Roger Howe's doctoral students, Roger Howe himself, and other world renowned mathematicians. Topics covered include automorphic forms, invariant theory, representation theory of reductive groups over local fields, and related subjects.
Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader
The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…
Sutter, Nate; Paulson, Sharon
The current study examined whether it is possible to increase college students' intention to earn a four-year degree with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Three research questions were examined: (1) Can the TPB predict traditional undergraduates' graduation intention? (2) Does graduation intention differ by traditional students' year of…
Rad, Mostafa; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ildarabadi, Eshagh
Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. The present study aims at discovering teachers and students' experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students' incivility. The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Dekker, Sanne; Jolles, Jelle
This study evaluated a new teaching module about "Brain and Learning" using a controlled design. The module was implemented in high school biology classes and comprised three lessons: (1) brain processes underlying learning; (2) neuropsychological development during adolescence; and (3) lifestyle factors that influence learning performance. Participants were 32 biology teachers who were interested in "Brain and Learning" and 1241 students in grades 8-9. Teachers' knowledge and students' beliefs about learning potential were examined using online questionnaires. Results indicated that before intervention, biology teachers were significantly less familiar with how the brain functions and develops than with its structure and with basic neuroscientific concepts (46 vs. 75% correct answers). After intervention, teachers' knowledge of "Brain and Learning" had significantly increased (64%), and more students believed that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory). This emphasizes the potential value of a short teaching module, both for improving biology teachers' insights into "Brain and Learning," and for changing students' beliefs about intelligence.
Jordi Nebot, Lluïsa; Pàmies-Vilà, Rosa; Català Calderon, Pau; Puig-Ortiz, Joan
This article examines new tutoring evaluation methods to be adopted in the course, Machine Theory, in the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya). These new methods have been developed in order to facilitate teaching staff work and include students in the evaluation process.…
Hunter, William John Forbes
This thesis describes an action research investigation of improvements to instruction in General Chemistry at Purdue University. Specifically, the study was conducted to guide continuous reform of curriculum materials delivered via the World Wide Web by involving students, instructors, and curriculum designers. The theoretical framework for this study was based upon constructivist learning theory and knowledge claims were developed using an inductive analysis procedure. This results of this study are assertions made in three domains: learning chemistry content via the World Wide Web, learning about learning via the World Wide Web, and learning about participation in an action research project. In the chemistry content domain, students were able to learn chemical concepts that utilized 3-dimensional visualizations, but not textual and graphical information delivered via the Web. In the learning via the Web domain, the use of feedback, the placement of supplementary aids, navigation, and the perception of conceptual novelty were all important to students' use of the Web. In the participation in action research domain, students learned about the complexity of curriculum. development, and valued their empowerment as part of the process.
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to discover the factors that contribute to the success or failure of college algebra for students taking college algebra by distance education Internet, and then generate a theory of success or failure of the group of College Algebra Internet students at one Utah college. Qualitative data were collected and analyzed on students’ perceptions and perspectives of a College Algebra Internet course that they took during the spring or summer 2006 semest...
Nila Mareta Murdiyani
Full Text Available Subtraction has two meanings and each meaning leads to the different strategies. The meaning of “taking away something” suggests a direct subtraction, while the meaning of “determining the difference between two numbers” is more likely to be modeled as indirect addition. Many prior researches found that the second meaning and second strategy rarely appeared in the mathematical textbooks and teacher explanations, including in Indonesia. Therefore, this study was conducted to contribute to the development of a local instruction theory for subtraction by designing instructional activities that can facilitate first grade of primary school students to develop a model in solving two digit numbers subtraction. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate approach for achieving the research aim and Realistic Mathematics Education (RME was used as a guide to design the lesson. This study involved 6 students in the pilot experiment, 31 students in the teaching experiment, and a first grade teacher of SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this study shows that the beads string could bridge students from the contextual problems (taking ginger candies and making grains bracelets to the use of the empty number line. It also shows that the empty number line could promote students to use different strategies (direct subtraction, indirect addition, and indirect subtraction in solving subtraction problems. Based on these findings, it is recommended to apply RME in the teaching learning process to make it more meaningful for students. Keywords: Subtraction, Design Research, Realistic Mathematics Education, The Beads String, The Empty Number Line DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.567.95-112
Johns, Christopher D.
A collision of concepts often occurs within the science classrooms of Christian schools. Students are faced with the task of accommodating biblical teachings with science theories that are not only incompatible but often directly conflicting. Teachers in the Christian school must choose to what extent and how this conflicting information will be addressed. Students must manage the tension caused by this conflict and then determine their own belief systems. High-stakes achievement testing also plays a role in the curriculum and instruction of science in the Christian school as well as public schools. Science literacy, a lifelong pursuit of understanding of the physical world, can be a victim of instructional strategies aimed at promoting student success on a specific test covering a specific set of facts instead of a comprehensive plan developed for individual-specific growth. This study was designed to gain an understanding of science literacy development of the middle school student in the Christian school. This was accomplished by comparing the individual component scores of the science Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus achievement test for a 3-year period of 5 Christian schools in Indiana to the overall state averages. Armed with this information, the study, in its second phase, included interviews of the 7th-grade science teachers of the included schools. The goal of the interviews was to provide meaning and substance to the score comparisons. The purpose of the study was to understand how the students in Christian schools compared to the overall population of students in areas of science that may conflict with their Biblical beliefs. Additionally, this study was developed to understand how the science teachers in Christian schools managed the conflict that develops between the Bible and theories of science. Findings from this study showed that students in Christian schools continue to score higher than the overall population of students
Powell, Shameka N.
Numerous findings and theories have been used to make sense of African Americans students' educational successes and experiences. Along those lines, the purpose of this study is to generate a theoretical framework of sponsorship that is grounded in Black students' educational experiences. Sponsorship is taken to be the process through which agents…
Uzun, N. Bilge; Aktas, Mehtap; Asiret, Semih; Yormaz, Seha
The goal of this study is to determine the reliability of the performance points of dentistry students regarding communication skills and to examine the scoring reliability by generalizability theory in balanced random and fixed facet (mixed design) data, considering also the interactions of student, rater and duty. The study group of the research…
Ramos-Villarreal, Joseph; Holland, Glenda
The study was conducted to add to the knowledge base and further the understanding of Emotional Intelligence and leadership theory. Freshmen business students enrolled in BUAD 1201: Principles of Business Administration and graduating senior business students enrolled in MGMT 4325: Decision Making and Business Policy class provided the data for…
upon which to discuss the potential for reengineering the traditional role of the teacher/learning designer as the only supplier and the students as the receivers of digital learning designs in higher education. The discussion applies the actor-network theory and socio-material perspectives...... on education in order to enhance the meta-perspective of traditional teacher and student roles.......Abstract This paper reports on a project in which communication and digital media students collaborated with visual arts teacher students and their teacher trainer to develop visual digital designs for learning that involved Augmented Reality (AR) technology. The project exemplified a design...
Kendziora, Kimberly; Osher, David
This article contributes to the broader discussion of promotion, prevention, and intervention in child and adolescent mental health by describing implementation and early outcomes of an 8-school district demonstration project aimed at making the promotion of social and emotional learning a systemic part of school districts' practice. Eight districts are 2-3 years in to their participation in the 6-year project. The districts are large, are predominantly urban, and serve many students who are at disadvantage. The evaluation involved collection of qualitative data to measure the degree to which the districts realized the goals established in the initiative's theory of action, as well as school climate data, extant student records, and surveys of students' social and emotional competence. To date, results show that districts have followed highly individual pathways toward integrating social and emotional learning systemically, and all have made progress over time. Although school-level implementation remains at moderate levels, 2 districts in which we could examine school climate showed gains from preinitiative years. Four of 6 measured districts showed improvement in social and emotional competence for students in Grade 3, and achievement and discipline showed overall improvements across all districts. Overall findings show that implementation of the initiative's theory of action by school districts is feasible, even in times of budgetary stress and leadership turnover. This establishes the potential for school districts to serve as a lever of change in the promotion of students' social and emotional development and mental wellness.
Molloy, K C
The basics of group theory and its applications to themes such as the analysis of vibrational spectra and molecular orbital theory are essential knowledge for the undergraduate student of inorganic chemistry. The second edition of Group Theory for Chemists uses diagrams and problem-solving to help students test and improve their understanding, including a new section on the application of group theory to electronic spectroscopy.Part one covers the essentials of symmetry and group theory, including symmetry, point groups and representations. Part two deals with the application of group theory t
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was assessed the effect of educational program for preventing of ecstasy abuse among college students in Hamadan based on Theory of Reason Action (TRA. Method: A quasi-experimental study carried out in college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. Data-gathering tools consisted of a two-part questionnaire: Knowledge of ecstasy abuse consequences and one scale for measuring TRA variables. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at before and two months after intervention. Results: The results showed that among constructs of the theory of reason action, subjective norms were better predictor of ecstasy abuse. There were significant differences between the scores of reason action constructs namely: attitude against drug abuse, subjective norms and intention of ecstasy abuse with consideration of group (witness and experimental. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on Theory of Reasoned Action is effective in improving of attitude, subjective norm and behavioral intention of students. Therefore it is highly recommended that TRA education can be use for preventing of drug abuse education programs.
George, James M.; McIver, F. Thomas
A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)
Heeneman, Sylvia; de Grave, Willem
In medical education, students need to acquire skills to self-direct(ed) learning (SDL), to enable their development into self-directing and reflective professionals. This study addressed the mentor perspective on how processes in the mentor-student interaction influenced development of SDL. n = 22 mentors of a graduate-entry medical school with a problem-based curriculum and longitudinal mentoring system were interviewed (n = 1 recording failed). Using activity theory (AT) as a theoretical framework, thematic analysis was applied to the interview data to identify important themes. Four themes emerged: centered around the role of the portfolio, guiding of students' SDL in the context of assessment procedures, mentor-role boundaries and longitudinal development of skills by both the mentor and mentee. Application of AT showed that in the interactions between themes tensions or supportive factors could emerge for activities in the mentoring process. The mentors' perspective on coaching and development of reflection and SDL of medical students yielded important insights into factors that can hinder or support students' SDL, during a longitudinal mentor-student interaction. Coaching skills of the mentor, the interaction with a portfolio and the context of a mentor community are important factors in a longitudinal mentor-student interaction that can translate to students' SDL skills.
Full Text Available This study provides a framework to implement the theory of multiple intelligences (MI in the identification of high-ability students in secondary education. The internal structure of three scales to assess students' MI (students, parents and teachers' ratings was analyzed in a sample of 566 students nominated as gifted by their teachers. Participants aged 11 to 16 years (M = 14.85, SD = 1.08. The results indicated differentiated intellectual profiles depending on the informant estimating students' MI. This study provided evidence for two components that allow us to analyze the cognitive competence of high-ability students beyond the areas commonly assessed at school: an academic component composed by the linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, and visual-spatial intelligences; and a non-academic component statistically loaded by the bodily-kinesthetic, musical and social intelligences. Convergence of the two components in the three scales was evidenced; and correlations between these components and students' objective performance on a psychometric intelligence test were found to be low. Finally, the utility of the MI scales to identify high-ability students in secondary education is discussed.
Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James
Theory development is an intentional process by which marriage and family counselors may bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory building process includes inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, qualitative and quantitative approaches to knowledge development, and diffusion of innovations. Grounded theory provides an…
This grounded theory study explored secondary teachers’ perspectives on their relationships with their adolescent students: the kinds of relationships they want to create, why they believe such relationships are important, and what obstacles they perceive to their construction. Teachers who felt they were able to create positive, effective relationships with their students tended to work in mini-school programs, to practice a kind of “authoritative” teaching similar to Baumrind’s (1978; 1991...
Tiekstra, Marlous; Minnaert, Alexander
Implicit theories of intelligence play a role in teacher's actions. Adaptive instruction in and out of the classroom is important to optimize learning processes, especially in the case of at-risk students. This study explored to what extent implicit theories of intelligence play a role in the
In 1963, the first author introduced a course in set theory at the Uni versity of Illinois whose main objectives were to cover G6del's work on the consistency of the axiom of choice (AC) and the generalized con tinuum hypothesis (GCH), and Cohen's work on the independence of AC and the GCH. Notes taken in 1963 by the second author were the taught by him in 1966, revised extensively, and are presented here as an introduction to axiomatic set theory. Texts in set theory frequently develop the subject rapidly moving from key result to key result and suppressing many details. Advocates of the fast development claim at least two advantages. First, key results are highlighted, and second, the student who wishes to master the sub ject is compelled to develop the details on his own. However, an in structor using a "fast development" text must devote much class time to assisting his students in their efforts to bridge gaps in the text. We have chosen instead a development that is quite detailed and complete. F...
Starkey, Traci J
As the demographics of the United States change, nursing will need to become more ethnically diverse in order to provide culturally responsive healthcare. Enrollment of English as Second Language nursing students is increasing; however, these students often encounter academic difficulties. The increase in English as Second Language nursing students in the classroom and clinical setting has posed challenges for nurse faculty. To explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. A grounded theory method based on the philosophical underpinnings of symbolic interactionism and pragmatism was used to explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The study took place at various schools of nursing in the Southeast Florida area. Educators teaching in an associate, baccalaureate, and/or graduate nursing program at an accredited school of nursing. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to collect data from nurse faculty. Data segments from interviews were coded, categorized, and analyzed. Theoretical sampling and a focus group interview were used to validate the concepts, themes, and categories identified during the individual interviews. A substantive level theory was developed. The core category that developed was conscientization. The three dominant categories that emerged from the data were overcoming, coming to know, and facilitating. The theoretical framework of conscientization provided an explanation of the social processes involved in teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The theoretical framework developed from this study can be used to increase the effectiveness of teaching English as Second Language nursing students, improve their chances of success, and enhance diversity in the nursing profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I
More empirical work is needed to examine the dimensionality of personal epistemology and relations between those dimensions and motivational and strategic components of self-regulated learning. In particular, there is great need to investigate personal epistemology and its relation to self-regulated learning across cultures and academic contexts. Because the demarcation between personal epistemology and implicit theories of intelligence has been questioned, dimensions of personal epistemology should also be studied in relation to implicit theories of intelligence. The primary aim was to examine the dimensionality of personal epistemology and the relation between those dimensions and implicit theories of intelligence in the cultural context of Norwegian postsecondary education. A secondary aim was to examine the relative contribution of epistemological beliefs and theories of intelligence to motivational and strategic components of self-regulated learning in different academic contexts within that culture. The first sample included 178 business administration students in a traditional transmission-oriented instructional context; the second, 108 student teachers in an innovative pedagogical context. The dimensionality of the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire was examined through factor analyses, and the resulting dimensions were examined in relation to implicit theories of intelligence. We performed multiple regression analyses, separately for the two academic contexts, to try to predict motivational (i.e. self-efficacy beliefs, mastery goal orientation, and interest) and strategic (i.e. self-regulatory strategy use) components of self-regulated learning with epistemological beliefs and implicit theories of intelligence. Considerable cross-cultural generalizability was found for the dimensionality of personal epistemology. Moreover, the dimensions of personal epistemology seemed to represent constructs separate from the construct of implicit theories of
Tiago de Araujo Guerra Grangeia
Full Text Available Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to the development of a Moodle-based online Emergency Medicine course, inspired by real clinical cases.Three consecutive classes (2013-2015 of sixth-year medical students (n = 304 participated in the course, during a curricular and essentially practical emergency rotation. "Virtual Rounds" provided weekly virtual patients in narrative format and meaningful schemata to chief complaints, in order to simulate real rounds at Emergency Unit. Additional activities such as Extreme Decisions, Emergency Quiz and Electrocardiographic challenge offered different views of emergency care. Authors assessed student´s participation and its correlation with their academic performance. A survey evaluated students´ opinions. Students graduating in 2015 answered an online questionnaire to investigate cognitive load and motivation.Each student produced 1965 pageviews and spent 72 hours logged on. Although Clinical Emergency rotation has two months long, students accessed the online course during an average of 5.3 months. Virtual Rounds was the most accessed activity, and there was positive correlations between the number of hours logged on the platform and final grades on Emergency Medicine. Over 90% of students felt an improvement in their clinical reasoning and considered themselves better prepared for rendering Emergency care. Considering a Likert scale from 1 (minimum load to 7 (maximum load, the scores for total cognitive load were 4.79±2.2 for Virtual Rounds and 5.56±1.96 for real medical rounds(p<0,01.A real-world inspired online course, based on cognitive and motivational conceptual frameworks, seems to be a strong tool to engage students in learning. It may support them to
Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment
A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about da...
Full Text Available In this paper is a detailed analysis of the basics in the theory of economic development during the period from mid last century until today. It states the most significant theories, points out their ranges, offers a critical review regarding their treatment of development, especially regional, rural and local one. It observes those theories according to different classifications existing in scientific literature, primarily the ascend theory, stagnation theory, balanced economic growth theory; then, short-term and long-term development and growth theories; traditional and endogenous theories; economic growth stages theory emphasized after the WWII; structural changes theory; dependency theory, neo-classic counter-revolution theory and endogenous theory as a new growth theory. The analysis becomes wider with a study on development in regional economy theories and rural studies and it systematizes the classification of those theories according to regional economy academics. Distancing ourselves from any particular division as the most suitable and acceptable one, the theories are treated separately and in an historic context, in order to encircle the time framework which from modern theories, dealing with local level development difficulties, resulted. It asserts The Community-led Rural Development Theory, often referred to as the Community Development Theory, or marked as Bottom-up Partnership Approach. The analysis of development theories asserts that mixed exogenous - endogenous approach to development links the rural/local development to the globalization process mostly due to fast technology changes of the IT and communication sectors.
Rodriguez, Sarah L.; Lehman, Kathleen
This theoretical paper explores the need for enhanced, intersectional computing identity theory for the purpose of developing a diverse group of computer scientists for the future. Greater theoretical understanding of the identity formation process specifically for computing is needed in order to understand how students come to understand themselves as computer scientists. To ensure that the next generation of computer scientists is diverse, this paper presents a case for examining identity development intersectionally, understanding the ways in which women and underrepresented students may have difficulty identifying as computer scientists and be systematically oppressed in their pursuit of computer science careers. Through a review of the available scholarship, this paper suggests that creating greater theoretical understanding of the computing identity development process will inform the way in which educational stakeholders consider computer science practices and policies.
Lahti, Richard Dennis, II
Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and
Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane
This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.
Full Text Available The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote metacognitive listening development. Two theories were used to guide the online video-SDG learning activity: a student question-generation method and a metacognitive listening training model in a second language (L2. The study investigated how college students in the online video-SDG activity enhanced the use of listening strategies by developing metacognitive listening skills. With emphasis on the metacognitive instructional process, students could promote their listening comprehension of advertisement videos (AVs. Forty-eight students were recruited to participate in the study. Through data collected from the online learning platform, questionnaires, a focus-group interview, and pre- and post- achievement tests, the results revealed that the online video-SDG learning activity could effectively engage students in reflecting upon their perceptions of specific problems countered, listening strategy usages, and strategic knowledge exploited in the metacognitive instructional process. The importance of employing cost-effective online video-SGD learning activities is worthy of consideration in developing students’ metacognitive listening knowledge for enhancing EFL listening strategy instruction.
Holzwarth, Natalie [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Thonhauser, Timo [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Salam, Akbar [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (United States)
ES12: The 24th Annual Workshop on Recent Developments in Electronic Structure Theory was held June 5-8, 2012 at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, NC 27109. The program consisted of 24 oral presentations, 70 posters, and 2 panel discussions. The attendance of the Workshop was comparable to or larger than previous workshops and participation was impressively diverse. The 136 participants came from all over the world and included undergraduate students, graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and senior scientists. The general assessment of the Workshop was extremely positive in terms of the high level of scientific presentations and discussions, and in terms of the schedule, accommodations, and affordability of the meeting.
The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and detailed guide to
Many contemporary theories of social development are similar and/or share complementary constructs. Yet, there have been relatively few efforts toward theoretical integration. The present chapter represents a call for increased theory bridging. The problem of theoretical fragmentation in psychology is reviewed. Seven highlighted reasons for this predicament include differences between behavioral sciences and other sciences, theoretical paradigms as social identities, the uniqueness assumption, information overload, field fixation, linguistic fragmentation, and few incentives for theoretical integration. Afterward, the feasibility of theoretical synthesis is considered. Finally, some possible directions are proposed for theoretical integration among five contemporary theories of social and gender development: social cognitive theory, expectancy-value theory, cognitive-developmental theory, gender schema theory, and self-categorization theory.
This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.
Applying theory to practice in student affairs is dominated by the assumption that formal theory is directly applied to practice. Among the problems with this assumption is that many practitioners believe they must choose between their lived experiences and formal theory, and that graduate students are taught that their experience "does not…
Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.
The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k
Bennett, Lula M.
To test the similarity of student and instructor perceptions of the learning approaches used by particular instructors in the classroom, teachers and students (n=138) of ten social science classes at Valencia Community College (Florida) responded to a questionnaire. Items tested the instructors' application of the learning theories of Pavlov,…
Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard
This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…
Currie, D H; Wickramasinghe, A
Although the field of "women and development" emerged as an aftermath of the UN Decade for Women, development planners have treated gender and development as interrelated but analytically distinct by simply tacking the category "women" onto established frameworks or considering women the social "contexts" of development projects. This paper challenges this tendency with a consideration of how the global process of development is conditioned by and constitutive of gender roles and relations in specific cultural contexts. The paper presents a framework for a distinctly feminist political economy of development that moves development theory from its present impasse caused by challenges to the Marxism that has dominated critical development theory. This post-impasse framework poses Marx's theory of exploitation against the experiences of women garment workers in Free Trade Zones in Sri Lanka to illustrate how industrial development through free market channels is necessarily, not merely coincidentally, gendered. Therefore, the framework reveals the importance of engendering development theory itself. The paper opens with an introduction and continues with an exploration of the current theoretical impasse and post-impasse theory. The paper continues with a discussion of standpoint epistemology as the basis for women-centered research, a description of the research on the impact of factory employment on women from rural villages, a consideration of women's proletarianization in terms of the rise of the "new world order," a feminist reading of Marx's theory of exploitation from the standpoint of the garment workers, and an acknowledgement of the challenge posed by this application of standpoint methodology to the study of development to the current rejection by some Western feminists of universalizing categories such as "gender" and "women."
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Full Text Available An algorithm for evaluating of students quality education, which eliminates the disadvantages of the five point scale is discussed in the article. The theory of indistinct sets is the base of the constructed algorithm.
Unterbruner, U.; Hilberg, S.; Schiffl, I.
Groundwater is a crucial topic in education for sustainable development. Nevertheless, international studies with students of different ages have shown that the basic hydrogeological concept of groundwater defined as water within porous and permeable rocks is not an established everyday notion. Building upon international research a multimedia learning program ("Between the raincloud and the tap") was developed. Insights from the fields of conceptual change research, multimedia research, and the Model of Educational Reconstruction were specifically implemented. Two studies were conducted with Austrian pupils (7th grade) and teacher training students from the fields of biology and geography in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the learning program. Using a quasi-experimental research design, the participants' conceptions and knowledge regarding groundwater were determined in a pre- and post-test. The pupils and students greatly profited from independently working through the learning software. Their knowledge of groundwater increased significantly compared to the control group and there was a highly significant increase in the number of scientifically correct notions of groundwater. The acceptance of the program was also generally very high. The results speak for the fact that theory-guided multimedia learning programs can play an important role in the transfer of research results into the classroom, particularly in science education.
National Career Development Association, 2015
Covers career development theory, models, and techniques and how to apply them; understand the steps in the career development process and why career choice and development theory is important as well as limitations. Presents the assumptions that underlie four different types of theories; trait and factor, learning, developmental, and transition…
A short review of the early developments due largely to K. A Brueckner is given. Special emphasis is given to insertions in hole and particle lines, dispersion-effects and healings, and how the quantitative effects of these are related to the nature of the force. The importance of higher-order insertions in hole and particle lines and its relation to the force is also emphasized. This is important in a quantitative comparison of BBG theory with variational theory. The inceased healing-distance due to the tensor force is also pointed out. This gives convergence problems. Experiment may leave room for a nuclear force with weaker tensor force than mostly used. (Auth.)
The amount of guidance supplied by educators to students in allied health programs is a factor in student learning. According to the cognitive load theory of learning, without adequate instructional support, novice learners will be overwhelmed and unable to store information, while unnecessary guidance supplied to advanced students will cause extraneous cognitive load on the working memory system. Adjusting instructional guidance for students according to their level of expertise to minimize extraneous cognitive load and optimize working memory storage capacity will enhance learning effectiveness. Novice students presented with complex subject matter require significant guidance during the initial stages, using strategies such as worked examples. As students comprehend information, instructional guidance needs to gradually fade to avoid elevated extraneous cognitive load from the expertise reversal effect. An instructional strategy that utilizes a systemic (fixed) or adjustable (adaptive) tapering of guidance to students in allied health programs depending on their expertise will optimize learning capability.
The purpose of this study was to apply Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior to examine college students' intentions to engage in contingent employment. Data were collected from 845 students in 8 colleges and universities in Taiwan. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that both attitude and subjective norms were…
Full Text Available School engagement plays a prominent role in promoting academic accomplishments. In contrast to the relative wealth of research that examined the impact of students’ school engagement on their academic achievement, considerably less research has investigated the effect of high school students’ prior achievement on their school engagement. The present study examined the relationship between prior achievement and school engagement among Chinese high school students. Based on the Dweck’s social-cognitive theory of motivation, we further examined the moderating effect of students’ theories of intelligence (TOIs on this relationship. A total of 4036 (2066 girls students from five public high school enrolled in grades 10 reported their high school entrance exam achievement in Chinese, Math and English, school engagement, and TOIs. Results showed that (a students’ prior achievement predicted their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, respectively, and (b the association between prior achievement and behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement is strong for students with an incremental theory but not for those with an entity theory in the emotional and cognitive engagement. These findings suggest that prior achievement and incremental theory were implicated in relation to adolescents’ school engagement. Implications and future research directions were discussed.
Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including at...
Tucci, Stacey L.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Lederberg, Amy R.
Data from a growing number of research studies indicate that children with hearing loss are delayed in Theory of Mind (ToM) development when compared to their typically developing, hearing peers. While other researchers have studied the developmental trajectories of ToM in school-age students who are deaf, a limited number have addressed the need…
Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C
Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment.
Brainerd, C J; Reyna, Valerie F
Fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) emphasizes the use of core theoretical principles, such as the verbatim-gist distinction, to predict new findings about cognitive development that are counterintuitive from the perspective of other theories or of common-sense. To the extent that such predictions are confirmed, the range of phenomena that are explained expands without increasing the complexity of the theory's assumptions. We examine research on recent examples of such predictions during four epochs of cognitive development: childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and late adulthood. During the first two, the featured predictions are surprising developmental reversals in false memory (childhood) and in risky decision making (adolescence). During young adulthood, FTT predicts that a retrieval operation that figures centrally in dual-process theories of memory, recollection, is bivariate rather than univariate. During the late adulthood, FTT identifies a retrieval operation, reconstruction, that has been omitted from current theories of normal memory declines in aging and pathological declines in dementia. The theory predicts that reconstruction is a major factor in such declines and that it is able to forecast future dementia.
Price, Deborah; Tschannen, Dana; Caylor, Shandra
New strategies are emerging to promote structure and increase learning in the clinical setting. Nursing faculty designed a mechanism by which integrative learning and situated coaching could occur more readily in the clinical setting. The Clinical Goals Initiative was implemented for sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students in their clinical practicums. Students developed weekly goals reflecting three domains of professional nursing practice. Goals were shared with faculty and staff nurse mentors at the beginning of the clinical day to help guide students and mentors with planning for learning experiences. After 6 weeks, faculty and students were surveyed to evaluate project effectiveness. Faculty indicated that goal development facilitated clinical learning by providing more student engagement, direction, and focus. Students reported that goal development allowed them to optimize clinical learning opportunities and track their growth and progress. Faculty and students indicated the goals promoted student self-learning, autonomy, and student communication with nurse mentors and faculty. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…
MSc. Bardhok Bashota
Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on
This book traces the evolution of the ideas that eventually resulted in the elementary quantum theory in 1925/26. Further, it discusses the essential differences between the fundamental equations of Quantum Theory derived by Born and Jordan, logically comprising Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Optics, and the traditional view of the development of Quantum Mechanics. Drawing on original publications and letters written by the main protagonists of that time, it shows that Einstein’s contributions from 1905 to 1924 laid the essential foundations for the development of Quantum Theory. Einstein introduced quantization of the radiation field; Born added quantized mechanical behavior. In addition, Born recognized that Quantum Mechanics necessarily required Quantum Optics; his radical concept of truly discontinuous and statistical quantum transitions (“quantum leaps”) was directly based on Einstein’s physical concepts.
McCoy, Dorian L.; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle
This multisite case study explored the role of summer institutes in preparing Students of Color for doctoral programs. Bourdieu's social reproduction theory, particularly the concept of habitus, was employed as a theoretical framework to investigate how the participants further developed habitus (their dispositions, identities, and perspectives)…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (β = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Madjar, Nir; Bachner, Yaacov G; Kushnir, Talma
Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute
Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…
Full Text Available A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about data collection and analysis. Implications for future research directions and policy and practice in the field of special and alternative education are discussed.
Eni Astuti Ni Putu
Full Text Available This writing aimed at (1 describing the importance of teacher to review instructional management at elementary school based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory; and (2 describing teacher’s instructional behavior in managing instructional at elementary school reviewed from Piaget’s cognitive development theory. In general, Piaget’ cognitive development theory divides children’ cognitive development into four stages. In the elementary school ages of 7 to 11 or 12 years old, Piaget classified the cognitive development into concrete operational marked by the use of clear and logic rules. The children implement logic thinking on concrete object, yet abstract or hypothetical. Although the intelligence of this step has been advanced, the way of thinking of the children is still limited because still based on concrete object. Therefore, teacher should comprehend the importance of concrete operational instructional at elementary school so the children could maximally achieve the learning goal in accordance to their thinking level that they acquire. The suggestion that can be proposed is that the teacher should synergize the characteristics of elementary school students in concrete operational stage with the instructional readiness in the steps of planning, implementation and evaluation.
Suliman, Muhammad Imran; Imran, Faiqa; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin; Rahim, Ikram Ur; Shafiq, Anser; Qayum, Iftikhar
Combining cognitive skills teaching related to the techniques leads to better understanding in a skill training course; but still there a substantial disagreement in curriculum on such combinations. This study aims to help guide the designers in making the outline of instructional plan for a Clinical Skills Module (CSM) for the undergraduates. Objectives were to assess performance of students on a clinical skill after training by two different models of (hands-on only or with cognitive skills) instructions and explore their perception on the employment of educational strategies through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) through a Sequential mixed method study design: (1) Quantitative (Pre- and post-assessments and comparing their results (2) Qualitative (Exploration of perspectives through constructivist approach using qualitative phenomenological design) The study was conducted during the month of September, 2015 at Rabigh Medical College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. Students entering fourth year were randomized to two groups to participate in pre-post OSCE using global rating scale and their scores were compared. The examiners were kept blinded to the randomization of students undergoing two separate training methods. The test group (group A) was trained for both procedural as well as cognitive skills whereas the control group (Group-B) was trained only with hands-on practice. Later their perception about the addition of cognitive skills to improve of procedural skills was explored through focus group discussions. The recorded audio tapes of FGDs were transcribed and analysed thematically. Triangulation of themes and trends was achieved by relating the content analysis to the relevant frequency of quotes. Auditing of the data verification was done by all the authors separately.. A total of 42 students completed both pre- and post-tests. As a result, student performance in OSCE significantly increased from pre- to post-test (pdisadvantages of combining theory
Drewes, Andrea; Henderson, Joseph; Mouza, Chrystalla
Climate change is one of the most pressing challenges facing society, and climate change educational models are emerging in response. This study investigates the implementation and enactment of a climate change professional development (PD) model for science educators and its impact on student learning. Using an intrinsic case study methodology, we focused analytic attention on how one teacher made particular pedagogical and content decisions, and the implications for student's conceptual learning. Using anthropological theories of conceptual travel, we traced salient ideas through instructional delivery and into student reasoning. Analysis showed that students gained an increased understanding of the enhanced greenhouse effect and the implications of human activity on this enhanced effect at statistically significant levels and with moderate effect sizes. However, students demonstrated a limited, though non-significant gain on the likely effects of climate change. Student reasoning on the tangible actions to deal with these problems also remained underdeveloped, reflecting omissions in both PD and teacher enactment. We discuss implications for the emerging field of climate change education.
Tagoe, Michael Ayitey; Abakah, Ellen
The use of mobile technologies in the classroom is transforming teaching and learning in higher institutions. This study investigated University of Ghana Distance Education students' perceptions toward mobile learning. The paper using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explained how students' beliefs influenced students' intention to adopt…
Reviews the nine-stage Perry Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development, detailing three major student orientations--dualism, multiplicity, and commitments in relativism. Suggests techniques developmental educators can use to communicate with, support, and challenge students to promote intellectual development. Underscores the importance of…
Biederman, Daniel K.
Demonstrates how a simple portfolio problem expressed explicitly as an expected utility maximization problem can be used to instruct students in portfolio theory. Discusses risk aversion, decision making under uncertainty, and the limitations of the traditional mean variance approach. Suggests students may develop a greater appreciation of general…
Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough
In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Lisa D. Young
Full Text Available Abstract. The design of computer-based learning environments has undergone a paradigm shift; moving students away from instruction that was considered to promote technical rationality grounded in objectivism, to the application of computers to create cognitive tools utilized in constructivist environments. The goal of the resulting computer-based learning environment design principles is to have students learn with technology, rather than from technology. This paper reviews the general constructivist theory that has guided the development of these environments, and offers suggestions for the adaptation of modest, generic guidelines, not mandated principles, that can be flexibly applied and allow for the expression of true constructivist ideals in online learning environments.
Cerezo Espinosa, Cristina; Nieto Caballero, Sergio; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; Castejón-Mochón, José Francisco; Segura Melgarejo, Francisca; Sánchez Martínez, Carmen María; López López, Carmen Amalia; Pardo Ríos, Manuel
To compare secondary students' learning of basic life support (BLS) theory and the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) through face-to-face classroom instruction versus educational video instruction. A total of 2225 secondary students from 15 schools were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 instructional groups: 1) face-to-face instruction with no audiovisual support, 2) face-to-face instruction with audiovisual support, 3) audiovisual instruction without face-to-face instruction, 4) audiovisual instruction with face-to-face instruction, and 5) a control group that received no instruction. The students took a test of BLS and AED theory before instruction, immediately after instruction, and 2 months later. The median (interquartile range) scores overall were 2.33 (2.17) at baseline, 5.33 (4.66) immediately after instruction (Paudiovisual instruction for learning BLS and AED theory were found in secondary school students either immediately after instruction or 2 months later.
Brown, S G
Political socialization theory explains how an individual develops a political belief system. As the health care system undergoes dramatic changes, nursing faculty should use political socialization theory to enhance the education of student nurses. A political thread can be woven through the nursing curricula, and students can be socialized to the political role. The new generation of nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity. Political socialization theory can guide nursing faculty as knowledge of the political system and political skills are incorporated into nursing curricula.
Bianchi, Monica; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Catania, Gianluca; Zanini, Milko Patrick; Timmins, Fiona; Carnevale, Franco; Sasso, Loredana
This article presents a qualitative research protocol to explore and understand the interprofessional collaboration (IPC) preparation process implemented by clinical tutors and students of different professions involved in interprofessional education (IPE). Many studies have shown that IPE initiatives improve students' understanding of the roles and responsibilities of other professionals. This improves students' attitudes towards other professions, facilitating mutual respect, and IPC. However, there is limited information about how students are prepared to work collaboratively within interprofessional teams. This is a constructivist grounded theory (GT) study, which will involve data collection through in-depth semi-structured interviews (to 9-15 students and 6-9 clinical tutors), participant observations, and the analysis of documentation. After analysing, coding, integrating, and comparing the data if necessary, a second round of interviews could be conducted to explore any particularly interesting aspects or clarify any issues. This will then be followed by focused and theoretical coding. Qualitative data analysis will be conducted with the support of NVivo 10 software (Victoria, Australia). A better conceptual understanding will help to understand if IPE experiences have contributed to the acquisition of competencies considered important for IPC, and if they have facilitated the development of teamwork attitudes.
Full Text Available The aim is to study the effectiveness of different physical training for the relatively healthy students. The study involved 1004 students. The directions of development of the students' positive personal qualities. Found that the positive development of personality of students observed mostly on the first and third year than in the second. Could not find significant differences between the growth estimates of development of personality traits of students in classes in the sample program and the program specializations. Found that the rate of development of students' personality traits minor: the average growth estimates for core positive personal qualities for 3 years does not exceed 10% of the maximum possible level. Recommended in the classroom more emphasis on developing positive personality traits. It is shown that special attention should be paid to the development of emotional stability of students and their tolerance towards other people.
Rismani, Shalaleh; Ratto, Matt; Machiel Van der Loos, H F
Identifying the appropriate needs for biomedical device design is challenging, especially for less structured environments. The paper proposes an alternate need-finding method based on Cultural Historical Activity Theory and expanded to explicitly examine the role of devices within a socioeconomic system. This is compared to a conventional need-finding technique in a preliminary study with engineering student teams. The initial results show that the Activity Theory-based technique allows teams to gain deeper insights into their needs space.
de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio
BACKGROUND: Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to
Objective: To test the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in college students who have not previously received the A/H1N1 vaccine. Participants: Undergraduate communication students at a metropolitan southern university. Methods: In January-March 2010, students from voluntarily participating communication classes completed a…
Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship.
Full Text Available Grounded on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000 and achievement goals theory (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1989, this study via structural equation modelling, predicted intention to continue in sport from goal orientations and motivations among athlete students. 268 athlete students (Mage = 21.9, in Iranian universities completed a multi-section questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM offered an overall support for the proposed model. The results showed that there are positive relationships between intention to continue in sport and both orientations as well as both motivations. A task-involving orientation emerged as a positive predictor of the autonomous motivation, while an ego-involving orientation was a positive predictor controlled motivation as well as autonomous motivation. The results also support positive paths between autonomous motivation and future intention to participate in sport. Autonomous motivation also was a positive mediator in relationship between task orientation and the intentions. As a conclusion, the implications of the task-involving orientation are discussabled in the light of its importance for the quality and potential maintenance of sport involvement among athlete students.
Keshtidar, Mohammad; Behzadnia, Behzad
Grounded on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000) and achievement goals theory (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1989), this study via structural equation modelling, predicted intention to continue in sport from goal orientations and motivations among athlete students. 268 athlete students (Mage = 21.9), in Iranian universities completed a multi-section questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) offered an overall support for the proposed model. The results showed that there are positive relationships between intention to continue in sport and both orientations as well as both motivations. A task-involving orientation emerged as a positive predictor of the autonomous motivation, while an ego-involving orientation was a positive predictor controlled motivation as well as autonomous motivation. The results also support positive paths between autonomous motivation and future intention to participate in sport. Autonomous motivation also was a positive mediator in relationship between task orientation and the intentions. As a conclusion, the implications of the task-involving orientation are discussabled in the light of its importance for the quality and potential maintenance of sport involvement among athlete students.
Wilson, Gordon Ned
The purpose of this study was to describe the leadership development process of former student leaders at Snow College. More specifically, the study focused on understanding how, when, and where leadership development took place in their "lived experience" within the student government at Snow College (Van Manen, 1998). Examining the lived…
The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…
This monograph aims to provide an advanced account of some aspects of dynamical systems in the framework of general topology, and is intended for use by interested graduate students and working mathematicians. Although some of the topics discussed are relatively new, others are not: this book is not a collection of research papers, but a textbook to present recent developments of the theory that could be the foundations for future developments. This book contains a new theory developed by the authors to deal with problems occurring in diffentiable dynamics that are within the scope of general topology. To follow it, the book provides an adequate foundation for topological theory of dynamical systems, and contains tools which are sufficiently powerful throughout the book. Graduate students (and some undergraduates) with sufficient knowledge of basic general topology, basic topological dynamics, and basic algebraic topology will find little difficulty in reading this book.
journal of. July 2009 physics pp. 3–60. Developments in high energy theory .... and operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), this ma- ......  S Dodelson, Modern cosmology (Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2003).
In an effort to provide physical education instruction for handicapped students, Leeward Community College implemented, on a pilot basis, a non-credit course in KI-Aikido, an oriental martial art which combines theory and exercise toward the goal of controlling the body through the power of the mind. The course, offered to both handicapped and…
Erde, E L
Persons concerned with medical education sometimes argued that medical students need no formal education in ethics. They contended that if admissions were restricted to persons of good character and those students were exposed to good role models, the ethics of medicine would take care of itself. However, no one seems to give much philosophic attention to the ideas of model or role model. In this essay, I undertake such an analysis and add an analysis of role. I show the weakness in relying on role models exclusively and draw implications from these for appeals to virtue theory. Furthermore, I indicate some of the problems about how virtue theory is invoked as the ethical theory that would most closely be associated to the role model rhetoric and consider some of the problems with virtue theory. Although Socrates was interested in the character of the (young) persons with whom he spoke, Socratic education is much more than what role modeling and virtue theory endorse. It-that is, philosophy-is invaluable for ethics education.
Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.
Temperament dimensions influence children’s approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children’s social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3) – lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity – predict children’s more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind. PMID:21499499
This study sought to develop a self-report instrument to be used in the assessment of the project competences of college students engaged in online project-based learning. Three scales of the KIPSSE instrument developed for this study, namely, the knowledge integration, project skills, and self-efficacy scales, were based on related theories and…
Full Text Available Value–belief–norm (VBN theory provides a valuable framework for identifying the social-psychological determinants of various types of pro-environmental behavior. However, limited empirical study has tested the applicability of VBN theory in the western minority areas of China. Given Mongolian college students’ crucial role in promoting the sustainable development of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR of China, this study investigates how VBN clusters of variables, namely, values, the new environmental paradigm (NEP and pro-environmental personal norms (PPN, influence Mongolian college students’ self-reported public-sphere pro-environmental behavior (PSPB. The subjects were 1034 Mongolian college students from three large public universities in Hohhot. A structural equation model (SEM and bootstrapping analyses revealed that: (1 altruistic values have a significant positive influence on PSPB, egoistic values negatively influence PSPB, and biospheric values have no significant influence on PSPB; (2 egoistic values negatively predict NEP and biospheric values positively predict NEP, whereas altruistic values have no direct impact on NEP; (3 NEP has a positive influence on PPN; (4 PPN has a significant positive impact on PSPB; and (5 biospheric and egoistic values have an indirect effect on PSPB through NEP and PPN. The findings provided evidence for the cross-cultural applicability of VBN theory in a Mongolian college student sample. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and recommended directions for future research were suggested.
This highly pedagogical textbook for graduate students in particle, theoretical and mathematical physics, explores advanced topics of quantum field theory. Clearly divided into two parts; the first focuses on instantons with a detailed exposition of instantons in quantum mechanics, supersymmetric quantum mechanics, the large order behavior of perturbation theory, and Yang-Mills theories, before moving on to examine the large N expansion in quantum field theory. The organised presentation style, in addition to detailed mathematical derivations, worked examples and applications throughout, enables students to gain practical experience with the tools necessary to start research. The author includes recent developments on the large order behaviour of perturbation theory and on large N instantons, and updates existing treatments of classic topics, to ensure that this is a practical and contemporary guide for students developing their understanding of the intricacies of quantum field theory.
Castellani, Elena; Colomo, Filippo; Di Vecchia, Paolo
String theory is currently the best candidate for a unified theory of all forces and all forms of matter in nature. As such, it has become a focal point for physical and philosophical discussions. This unique book explores the history of the theory's early stages of development, as told by its main protagonists. The book journeys from the first version of the theory (the so-called dual resonance model) in the late sixties, as an attempt to describe the physics of strong interactions outside the framework of quantum field theory, to its reinterpretation around the mid-seventies as a quantum theory of gravity unified with the other forces, and its successive developments up to the superstring revolution in 1984. Providing important background information to current debates on the theory, this book is essential reading for students and researchers in physics, as well as historians and philosophers of science.
di Vecchia, Paolo; Cappelli, Andrea; Colomo, Filippo
tring theory is currently the best candidate for a unified theory of all forces and all forms of matter in nature. As such, it has become a focal point for physical and philosophical discussions. This unique book explores the history of the theory's early stages of development, as told by its main...... protagonists. The book journeys from the first version of the theory (the so-called dual resonance model) in the late sixties, as an attempt to describe the physics of strong interactions outside the framework of quantum field theory, to its reinterpretation around the mid-seventies as a quantum theory...... of gravity unified with the other forces, and its successive developments up to the superstring revolution in 1984. Providing important background information to current debates on the theory, this book is essential reading for students and researchers in physics, as well as historians and philosophers...
Ione M. Baibich
Full Text Available A simple, four-step method for better introducing undergraduate students to the fundamentals of molecular orbital (MO theory of the polyatomic molecules H2O, NH3, BH3 and SiH4 using group theory is reported. These molecules serve to illustrate the concept of ligand group orbitals (LGOs and subsequent construction of MO energy diagrams on the basis of molecular symmetry requirements.
Rogers, Brenda T.
E. Deci's cognitive evaluation theory, which suggests that external rewards undermine intrinsic interest in an activity, is applied to the decline of instrinsic motivation in gifted students. Implications for feedback, rewards, and teacher role are noted. (CL)
Karoubi, M.; Kuku, A.O.; Pedrini, C.
The School and Conference on Algebraic K-theory which took place at ICTP July 8-26, 2002 was a follow-up to the earlier one in 1997, and like its predecessor, the 2002 meeting endeavoured to emphasise the multidisciplinary aspects of the subject. However, one special feature of the 2002 School and Conference is that the whole activity was dedicated to H. Bass, one of the founders of Algebraic K-theory, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. The School during the first two weeks, July 8 to 19 was devoted to expository lectures meant to explore and highlight connections between K-theory and several other areas of mathematics - Algebraic Topology, Number theory, Algebraic Geometry, Representation theory, and Non-commutative Geometry. This volume, constituting the Proceedings of the School, is dedicated to H. Bass. The Proceedings of the Conference during the last week July 22 - 26, which will appear in Special issues of K-theory, is also dedicated to H. Bass. The opening contribution by M. Karoubi to this volume consists of a comprehensive survey of developments in K-theory in the last forty-five years, and covers a very broad spectrum of the subject, including Topological K-theory, Atiyah-Singer index theorem, K-theory of Banach algebras, Higher Algebraic K-theory, Cyclic Homology etc. J. Berrick's contribution on 'Algebraic K-theory and Algebraic Topology' treats the various topological constructions of Algebraic K-theory together with the underlying homotopy theory. Topics covered include the plus construction together with its various ramifications and applications, Topological Hochschild and Cyclic Homology as well as K-theory of the ring of integers. The contributions by M. Kolster titled 'K-theory and Arithmetics' includes such topics as values of zeta functions and relations to K-theory, K-theory of integers in number fields and associated conjectures, Etale cohomology, Iwasawa theory etc. A.O. Kuku's contributions on 'K-theory and Representation theory
Karoubi, M [Univ. Paris (France); Kuku, A O [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Pedrini, C [Univ. Genova (Italy)
The School and Conference on Algebraic K-theory which took place at ICTP July 8-26, 2002 was a follow-up to the earlier one in 1997, and like its predecessor, the 2002 meeting endeavoured to emphasise the multidisciplinary aspects of the subject. However, one special feature of the 2002 School and Conference is that the whole activity was dedicated to H. Bass, one of the founders of Algebraic K-theory, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. The School during the first two weeks, July 8 to 19 was devoted to expository lectures meant to explore and highlight connections between K-theory and several other areas of mathematics - Algebraic Topology, Number theory, Algebraic Geometry, Representation theory, and Non-commutative Geometry. This volume, constituting the Proceedings of the School, is dedicated to H. Bass. The Proceedings of the Conference during the last week July 22 - 26, which will appear in Special issues of K-theory, is also dedicated to H. Bass. The opening contribution by M. Karoubi to this volume consists of a comprehensive survey of developments in K-theory in the last forty-five years, and covers a very broad spectrum of the subject, including Topological K-theory, Atiyah-Singer index theorem, K-theory of Banach algebras, Higher Algebraic K-theory, Cyclic Homology etc. J. Berrick's contribution on 'Algebraic K-theory and Algebraic Topology' treats the various topological constructions of Algebraic K-theory together with the underlying homotopy theory. Topics covered include the plus construction together with its various ramifications and applications, Topological Hochschild and Cyclic Homology as well as K-theory of the ring of integers. The contributions by M. Kolster titled 'K-theory and Arithmetics' includes such topics as values of zeta functions and relations to K-theory, K-theory of integers in number fields and associated conjectures, Etale cohomology, Iwasawa theory etc. A.O. Kuku's contributions on 'K-theory and Representation theory
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John
Testing narrative engagement theory, this study examines student engagement and teachers’ spontaneous narratives told in a narrative-based drug prevention curriculum. The study describes the extent to which teachers share their own narratives in a narrative-based curriculum, identifies dominant narrative elements, forms and functions, and assesses the relationships among teacher narratives, overall lesson narrative quality, and student engagement. One hundred videotaped lessons of the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum were coded and the results supported the claim that increased narrative quality of a prevention lesson would be associated with increased student engagement. The quality of narrativity, however, varied widely. Implications of these results for narrative-based prevention interventions and narrative pedagogy are discussed. PMID:26690668
Doyle, Rose Marie
Planning an international practice experience for nursing students is a challenging, but rewarding, opportunity. Kwantlen University College faculty members' experience of planning for 8 Bachelor of Science in Nursing students to study abroad was no exception. Faculty members' and students' interest prompted a request for a placement in Nepal. The faculty members involved in the planning were dedicated to using a process that would enable them to remain true to the program philosophy and theoretical underpinnings throughout the entire experience, from the planning phase to the follow-up presentation. Using Wheatley's theory, the students and faculty members reexamined their personal leadership styles to ensure they remained relationship focused, rather than task focused. Wheatley maintained that because the potentiality lies in building strong relationships, it is important to support the creative power that lies in those involved in a project. This article describes new science leadership and relates it to the planning phase for the practice experience in Nepal. Then, reflections on how the philosophy of the program may have influenced the experience are shared. Finally, critical reflection on using this theory in nursing education is presented.
Schwartz, Matthew D
Providing a comprehensive introduction to quantum field theory, this textbook covers the development of particle physics from its foundations to the discovery of the Higgs boson. Its combination of clear physical explanations, with direct connections to experimental data, and mathematical rigor make the subject accessible to students with a wide variety of backgrounds and interests. Assuming only an undergraduate-level understanding of quantum mechanics, the book steadily develops the Standard Model and state-of-the-art calculation techniques. It includes multiple derivations of many important results, with modern methods such as effective field theory and the renormalization group playing a prominent role. Numerous worked examples and end-of-chapter problems enable students to reproduce classic results and to master quantum field theory as it is used today. Based on a course taught by the author over many years, this book is ideal for an introductory to advanced quantum field theory sequence or for independe...
Victoroff, Kristin Z; Schneider, Keith; Perry, Crystal
Effective leaders are needed to move the dental profession forward, building on past accomplishments, meeting new challenges, and leading innovation and change. There is a lack of research findings regarding students' perceptions of the importance of leadership abilities and/or their interest in developing leadership skills during their dental school experience. The purpose of this study was to explore dental students' perceptions related to leadership development. A forty-seven-question, self-administered, paper and pencil survey was administered to all students enrolled in the D.M.D. program at one Midwestern dental school. The response rate was 83 percent (225/272). The majority of students agreed that it is important for dentists to have leadership skills and that leadership skills can be learned. Most reported that they expect to assume a leadership role in their dental practices (97 percent), to participate in volunteerism in dentistry (85 percent), and to participate in non-dentistry-related leadership roles in the community (72 percent). Over one-third (37 percent) anticipate participating in leadership roles in dental associations, 28 percent in academic dentistry, and 14 percent in military dentistry. Approximately two-thirds of respondents agreed (42 percent) or strongly agreed (24 percent) that they would be interested in participating in a leadership development program if one were offered at their school. Students reported interest in improving their confidence, assertiveness, ability to communicate effectively (including public speaking), ability to listen to others, organizational skills, and ability to influence others. The results of this study suggest that many dental students are interested in developing leadership skills. Insights from this study can inform the design of leadership development programs.
Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.
Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to
A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…
Kasuga, Shoko; Ushiba, Junichi
Humans have a flexible motor ability to adapt their movements to changes in the internal/external environment. For example, using arm-reaching tasks, a number of studies experimentally showed that participants adapt to a novel visuomotor environment. These results helped develop computational models of motor learning implemented in the central nervous system. Despite the importance of such experimental paradigms for exploring the mechanisms of motor learning, because of the cost and preparation time, most students are unable to participate in such experiments. Therefore, in the current study, to help students better understand motor learning theories, we developed a simple finger-reaching experimental system using commonly used laptop PC components with an open-source programming language (Processing Motor Learning Toolkit: PMLT). We found that compared to a commercially available robotic arm-reaching device, our PMLT accomplished similar learning goals (difference in the error reduction between the devices, P = 0.10). In addition, consistent with previous reports from visuomotor learning studies, the participants showed after-effects indicating an adaptation of the motor learning system. The results suggest that PMLT can serve as a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise of motor learning theories with minimal time and cost for instructors.
Bowen, Alec S.; Reid, Daniel R.; Koretsky, Milo D.
In this project, we explore the use of threshold concept theory as a design basis for development of Interactive Virtual Laboratories in thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is a difficult subject for chemical and biological engineering students to master. One reason for the difficulty is the diverse and challenging set of threshold concepts that they…
Drewes, A.; Henderson, J.; Mouza, C.
Climate change is one of the most pressing challenges facing society, and climate change educational models are emerging in response. This study investigates the implementation and enactment of a climate change professional development model for science educators and its impact on student learning. Using an intrinsic case study methodology, we focused analytic attention on how one teacher made specific curricular, pedagogical, and content decisions, and the implications of those decisions for student's conceptual learning.The research presented here reports on the instructional design, pedagogical enactment, and subsequent effects on student learning of a climate change professional development (PD) model in the United States. Using anthropological theories of conceptual travel, we traced salient ideas from the PD through instructional delivery and into the evidence of student reasoning. We sought to address the following research questions: 1) How did a middle school teacher integrate climate change concepts into her science curriculum following PD participation? and 2) How did climate change instruction influence student understanding of key climate change constructs?From observation of the classroom instruction, we determined that the teacher effectively integrated new climate change information into her pre-existing schema. Additionally, through retrospective analysis of the PD, we found the design of the PD foregrounded the causes, mechanisms and likely effects of anthropogenic climate change at the expense of mitigation and adaptation strategies, and this differentially shaped how climate change was taught in the teacher's classroom. Analysis of student reasoning evidence showed that students gained an increased understanding of the enhanced greenhouse effect and the implications of human activity on this enhanced effect at statistically significant levels and with moderate effect sizes. However, students demonstrated a limited, though non-significant gain on
Emerson Wagner MAINARDES
Full Text Available In accordance with the importance that the student stakeholder represents to universities, the objective of this research project was to identify and classify the leading expectations of students at public universities. In order to achieve this, the study adopted both the premises of Stakeholder Theory and the approaches of earlier studies on the management of university stakeholders. This empirical study began with an exploratory study of students, at one university, to identify their expectations this resulting in a list of a total of twenty-five confirmed expectations. This provided the basis for the subsequent quantitative study involving students attending eleven Portuguese public universities. Through recourse to an online questionnaire, we obtained 1,669 correctly completed surveys that provided the input for data analysis deploying descriptive statistical processes and multiple linear regressions. Our findings show that the most important student expectations are the academic level of demand, the university’s connections with the employment market, student personal self-fulfillment and the prevailing university environment. According to students, these expectations should gain priority attention by university managers, once they consider them the most relevant aspects to the relationship between the student and the university.
Cross, Tracy L.
After presenting an overview of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the theory is applied to the development of gifted children. The psychosocial crisis experienced by children when they are infants, toddlers, preschoolers, elementary-aged, and during adolescence are examined, along with ways parents and teachers can help at each…
Stonewater, Jerry K.; And Others
Perry's theory of intellectual and ethical development of college students is briefly reviewed. This theory was based on work with Harvard University students, and addresses dualism, multiplicity, and relativism. In the first stage, a student sees the world in right-wrong, black-white terms, with no room in the thinking process for conditional or…
Rissa Prima Kurniawati
Multimedia is media that combine two or more elements are composed of text, graphics, images, photographs, audio, video, and animation are integrated. In multimedia-assisted learning, students are given the opportunity to learn not only of learning resources such as teachers, but give the opportunity to students to develop better cognitive, creative, and innovative. Cognitive Load Theory is a theory that was introduced as a teaching theory based on the knowledge of human cognitive architectur...
Kurniawati, Rissa Prima
Multimedia is media that combine two or more elements are composed of text, graphics, images, photographs, audio, video, and animation are integrated. In multimedia-assisted learning, students are given the opportunity to learn not only of learning resources such as teachers, but give the opportunity to students to develop better cognitive, creative, and innovative. Cognitive Load Theory is a theory that was introduced as a teaching theory based on the knowledge of human cognitive architectur...
Hatlevik, Ida Katrine Riksaasen
This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of nursing students' acquired reflective skills, practical skills and theoretical knowledge on their perception of coherence between theory and practice. Reflection is considered a key factor in bridging the gap between theory and practice. However, it is not evident whether reflective skills are primarily generic in nature or whether they develop from a theoretical knowledge base or the acquisition of practical skills. This study is a secondary analysis of existing data. The data are part of a student survey that was conducted among third-year nursing students in Norway during the spring of 2007. A total of 446 nursing students participated in this study and the response rate was 71%. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed. The results indicate that students' perception of coherence between theory and practice during initial nursing education is directly influenced by reflective skills and theoretical knowledge. The results also reveal that reflective skills have mediating effects and that practical skills have a fully mediated and theoretical knowledge a partially mediated influence on students' perception of coherence. The findings imply that helping students perceive coherence between theory and practice in nursing education, developing students' reflective skills and strengthening the theoretical components of the initial nursing education programme might be beneficial. The results suggest that reflective thinking is not merely a generic skill but rather a skill that depends on the acquisition of relevant professional knowledge and experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret
This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…
Toscano, L; Stella, S; Milotti, E
Graph theory plays many important roles in modern physics and in many different contexts, spanning diverse topics such as the description of scale-free networks and the structure of the universe as a complex directed graph in causal set theory. Graph theory is also ideally suited to describe many concepts in computer science. Therefore it is increasingly important for physics students to master the basic concepts of graph theory. Here we describe a student project where we develop a computational approach to electric circuit solving which is based on graph theoretic concepts. This highly multidisciplinary approach combines abstract mathematics, linear algebra, the physics of circuits, and computer programming to reach the ambitious goal of implementing automated circuit solving. (paper)
This article traces Piaget's theory of child development from its philosophic foundations in Kantian organization and then describes in sequence Piaget's four stages. (A follow-up article on Piaget and educational practice will appear in a later issue.) (JA)
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Plauschinn, Erik
Based on class-tested notes, this text offers an introduction to Conformal Field Theory with a special emphasis on computational techniques of relevance for String Theory. It introduces Conformal Field Theory at a basic level, Kac-Moody algebras, one-loop partition functions, Superconformal Field Theories, Gepner Models and Boundary Conformal Field Theory. Eventually, the concept of orientifold constructions is explained in detail for the example of the bosonic string. In providing many detailed CFT calculations, this book is ideal for students and scientists intending to become acquainted with CFT techniques relevant for string theory but also for students and non-specialists from related fields. (orig.)
Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.
Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.
Self, D J; Schrader, D E; Baldwin, D C; Wolinsky, F D
Medicine endorses a code of ethics and encourages a high moral character among doctors. This study examines the influence of medical education on the moral reasoning and development of medical students. Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview was given to a sample of 20 medical students (41.7% of students in that class). The students were tested at the beginning and at the end of their medical course to determine whether their moral reasoning scores had increased to the same extent as other people who extend their formal education. It was found that normally expected increases in moral reasoning scores did not occur over the 4 years of medical education for these students, suggesting that their educational experience somehow inhibited their moral reasoning ability rather than facilitating it. With a range of moral reasoning scores between 315 and 482, the finding of a mean increase from first year to fourth year of 18.5 points was not statistically significant at the P Kohlberg's cognitive moral development theory, some interpretations and explanations are given for the findings of the study.
Rahayu, Y. S.; Pratiwi, R.; Indana, S.
This research aims to describe development of Biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student, at the same time to facilitate thinking skills of students in senior high school are equipped with Assesment Sheets. The worksheets development refers to cycle which includes phase analysis (analysis), planning (planning), design (design), development (development), implementation (implementation), evaluation and revision (evaluation and revision). Phase evaluation and revision is an ongoing activity conducted in each phase of the development cycle. That is, after the evaluation of the results of these activities and make revisions at any phase, then continue to the next phase. Based on the test results for grade X, XI, and XII in St. Agnes Surabaya high school, obtained some important findings. The findings are as follows. (1) Developed biology student worksheets could be used to facilitate thinking ability of students in particular skills integrated process that includes components to formulate the problem, formulate hypotheses, determine the study variables, formulate an operational definition of variables, determine the steps in the research, planning data tables, organizing Data in the form of tables/charts, drawing conclusions, (2) Developed biology student worksheets could also facilitate the development of social interaction of students such as working together, listening/respect the opinions of others, assembling equipment and materials, discuss and share information and facilitate the upgrading of skills hands-on student activity. (3) Developed biology worksheets basically could be implemented with the guidance of the teacher step by step, especially for students who have never used a similar worksheet. Guidance at the beginning of this need, especially for worksheets that require special skills or understanding of specific concepts as a prerequisite, such as using a microscope, determine the heart rate, understand the mechanism of
Arikan, Elif Esra; Ozkan, Ayten; Ozkan, E. Mehmet
The aim of this study is to analyze the mistakes that have been made in the group theory underlying the algebra mathematics. The 100 students taking algebra math 1 class and studying at the 2nd grade at a state university in Istanbul participated in this study. The related findings were prepared as a classical exam of 6 questions which have been…
The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural ...
Meticulous and complete, this presentation of Galois' theory of algebraic equations is geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The theories of both Lagrange and Galois are developed in logical rather than historical form. And they are given a more thorough exposition than is customary. For this reason, and also because the author concentrates on concrete applications of algebraic theory, Algebraic Equations is an excellent supplementary text, offering students a concrete introduction to the abstract principles of Galois theory. Of further value are the many numerical ex
S. V. Lisafiev
Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.
Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.
This review article presents the evolution of development theory during the XX century, the measurement of poverty, the concept and the indices of multidimensional poverty. A special focus concerns the complex linkages between income inequality, poverty and institutions during the growth process of developing countries.
Strage, A A
While researchers have begun to specify how features of students' immediate learning environments affect the development and use of self-regulation skills, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of the family context in fostering or impeding the development of these skills. This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on attachment theory (Ainsworth et al., 1978; Bowlby, 1982) and Baumrind's parenting styles typology (Baumrind, 1967, 1991) for examining the relationship between family context variables and the development of self-regulation skills. It also presents initial findings from a study of the parental practices and values associated with academic self-regulation in college students. A sample of 465 students completed the 104-item Student Attitudes and Perceptions Survey, which consists of 4 personal profile scales, 7 family background scales, 2 course characteristics scales, and 2 study habits scales. Perceptions of parents as authoritative and of family as emotionally close were found to be predictive of (1) general confidence and positive sense of self, (2) positive goal-orientation at school, (3) general concern about preparation for the future, and (4) positive adjustment to college. These family profiles were also predictive of (1) students' rating their introductory psychology course as interesting and supportive, (2) favorable ratings of their time and effort management and note-taking skills, and (3) strong agreement with a series of items reflecting components of self-regulated learning. Perceptions of parents as authoritarian and of family as nagging or enmeshed were also predictive of concern about preparation for the future. These family profiles were generally predictive of students' rating their introductory psychology course as difficult, and of time and effort management difficulties. The patterns linking family background profiles with course perceptions, study habits, and individual indices of self-regulated learning
Miller, Robert D.
This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools
Tavares, Gustavo Medina; Bobrowski, Vera Lucia
The integrative role that Evolutionary theory plays within Biology is recognised by most scientific authors, as well as in governmental education policies, including Brazilian policies. However, teaching and learning evolution seems problematic in many countries, and Brazil is among those. Many factors may affect teachers' and students' perceptions towards evolution, and studies can help to reveal those factors. We used a conceptual questionnaire, the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument, and a Knowledge test to assess (1) the level of acceptance and understanding of 23 undergraduate Biology students nearing the end of their course, (2) other factors that could affect these levels, including course structure, and (3) the most difficult topics regarding evolutionary biology. The results of this study showed that the students, on average, had a 'Very High Acceptance' (89.91) and a 'Very Low Knowledge' (59.42%) of Evolutionary theory, and also indicated a moderate positive correlation between the two (r = 0.66, p = .001). The most difficult topics were related to the definition of evolution and dating techniques. We believe that the present study provides evidence for policymakers to reformulate current school and university curricula in order to improve the teachers' acceptance and understanding of evolution and other biological concepts, consequently, helping students reduce their misconceptions related to evolutionary biology.
Zanchetta, Margareth; Schwind, Jasna; Aksenchuk, Kateryna; Gorospe, Franklin F; Santiago, Lira
A Canadian nursing student-led knowledge dissemination project on health promotion for social development was implemented with local professionals and communities in Brazil. (a) to identify how student-interns contrasted Canadian and Brazilian cultural and social realities within a primary healthcare context from a social development perspective; (b) to examine how philosophical underpinnings, including social critical theory and notions of social justice, guided student-interns in acknowledging inequalities in primary healthcare in Brazil; and (c) to participate in the debate on the contribution of Canadian nursing students to the global movement for social development. A qualitative appraisal of short-term outcomes of an international internship in the cities of Birigui & Araçatuba (São Paulo-Brazil). Four Canadian fourth-year undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a metropolitan university program. Recruitment was through an email invitation to the student-interns, who accepted, and signed informed consent forms. Their participation was unpaid and voluntary. One-time individual interviews were conducted at the end of their internships. Transcriptions of the audio-recorded interviews were coded using the qualitative software program ATLAS ti 6.0. The findings were analyzed using thematic analysis. Student-interns' learning unfolded from making associations among concepts, new ideas, and their previous experiences, leading to a personal transformation through which they established new conceptual and personal connections. The two main themes revealed by the thematic analysis were dichotomizing realities, that is, acknowledging the existence of "two sides of each situation," and discovering an unexpected reciprocity between global and urban health. Furthermore, the student-interns achieved personal and professional empowerment. The knowledge gained from the international experience helped the student-interns learn how to collaborate with Brazilian society
Abraham, Jane L.
Theories of learning affect how cognition is viewed, and this subsequently leads to the style of pedagogical practice that is used in education. Traditionally, educators have relied on a variety of theories on which to base pedagogy. Behavioral learning theories influenced the teaching/learning process for over 50 years. In the 1960s, the information processing approach brought the mind back into the learning process. The current emphasis on constructivism integrates the views of Piaget, Vygotsky, and cognitive psychology. Additionally, recent scientific advances have allowed researchers to shift attention to biological processes in cognition. The problem is that these theories do not provide an integrated approach to understanding principles responsible for differences among students in cognitive development and learning ability. Dynamical systems theory offers a unifying theoretical framework to explain the wider context in which learning takes place and the processes involved in individual learning. This paper describes how principles of Dynamic Systems Theory can be applied to cognitive processes of students, the classroom community, motivation to learn, and the teaching/learning dynamic giving educational psychologists a framework for research and pedagogy.
Burguillo, Juan C.
This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…
Hanifi, Nasrin; Parvizy, Soroor; Joolaee, Soodabeh
This study explored how nursing students can be kept motivated throughout their clinical education. Motivation is a key issue in nursing clinical education for student retention. The study was conducted using grounded theory methods, which are appropriate when studying process in a social context. Sixteen students and four instructors, who were purposefully selected, participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Students' motivational journey occurred in three steps: (i) social condition; (ii) encountering the clinical education challenges; and (iii) looking for an escape from nursing, or simply tolerating nursing. Struggling with professional identity emerged as the core variable. Iran's social context and many other conditions in the clinical education setting affect students' motivation. Identifying motivational process might assist educational authorities in offering solutions to promote motivation among students. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Xiao, Jing; Qiu, Yu; He, Yini; Cui, Lixia; Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Yao, Shuqiao
The current study tested the cognitive vulnerability–stress component of hopelessness theory using a ‘weakest link’ approach (e.g. an individual is as cognitively vulnerable to depression as his or her most depressogenic attributional style makes him or her) in a sample of Chinese university students. Participants included 520 students in Changsha. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures assessing weakest link, depressive symptoms and occurrence of negative events once a month for 6 months. Results from hierarchical linear modelling analyses showed that higher levels of weakest link scores were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of negative events. Higher weakest link level was associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms over time. These results provide support for the applicability of the ‘weakest link’ approach to the hopelessness theory to Chinese university students. PMID:24639362
Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Satiennam, W.; Trinh, Tu Anh
A helmet can reduce head accident severity. The aim of this research study was to study the intention for helmet use of students who ride motorcycles in Vietnam, by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Questionnaires developed by several traffic psychology modules, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Traffic Locus of Control (T-LOC), and Health Belief Model (HBM), were distributed to students at Ton Thang University and University of Architecture, Ho Chi Minh City. SEM was used to explain helmet use behaviour. The results indicate that TPB, T-LOC and HBM could explain the variance in helmet use behaviour. However, TPB can explain behaviour (helmet use intention) better than T-LOC and HBM. The outcome of this study is useful for the agencies responsible to improve motorcycle safety.
Presley, Adrien; Damron-Martinez, Datha; Zhang, Lin
Study abroad experiences are becoming increasingly common with business students. In this study, we build upon previous research into the motivations of students to study abroad by using Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical basis for identifying the factors which might influence their intention to study abroad. A survey administered…
Li, Wen-Ching Winnie
Coding theory draws on a remarkable selection of mathematical topics, both pure and applied. The various contributions in this volume introduce coding theory and its most recent developments and applications, emphasizing both mathematical and engineering perspectives on the subject. This volume covers four important areas in coding theory: algebraic geometry codes, graph-based codes, space-time codes, and quantum codes. Both students and seasoned researchers will benefit from the extensive and self-contained discussions of the development and recent progress in these areas.
Baltazar, Ramon; Maybee, Bryan; Santos, Michael R.
This paper uses Excel to enhance the pedagogy of capital structure theory for corporate finance instructors and students. We provide a lesson plan that utilizes Excel spreadsheets and graphs to develop understanding of the theory. The theory is introduced in three scenarios that utilize Modigliani & Miller's Propositions and…
de Villiers, Jill G.; de Villiers, Peter A.
Various arguments are reviewed about the claim that language development is critically connected to the development of theory of mind. The different theories of how language could help in this process of development are explored. A brief account is provided of the controversy over the capacities of infants to read others' false beliefs. Then the…
Christie, Christina A.
Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…
Designed for graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mathematics, optimization, and economics, this self-contained volume presents theory, methods, and applications in mathematical analysis and approximation theory. Specific topics include: approximation of functions by linear positive operators with applications to computer aided geometric design, numerical analysis, optimization theory, and solutions of differential equations. Recent and significant developments in approximation theory, special functions and q-calculus along with their applications to mathematics, engineering, and social sciences are discussed and analyzed. Each chapter enriches the understanding of current research problems and theories in pure and applied research.
Nasrin, Hanifi; Soroor, Parvizy; Soodabeh, Joolaee
Nurses are the first role models for students in clinical settings. They can have a significant role on students' motivation. The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding of nursing students and instructors concerning the role of nurses in motivating nursing students through clinical education. The sampling was first started purposefully and continued with theoretical sampling. The study collected qualitative data through semistructured and interactive interviews with 16 nursing students and 4 nursing instructors. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory approach. One important pattern emerged in this study was the "concerns of becoming a nurse," which itself consisted of three categories: "nurses clinical competency," "nurses as full-scale mirror of the future," and "Monitoring and modeling through clinical education" (as the core variable). The findings showed that the nurses' manners of performance as well as the profession's prospect have a fundamental role in the process of formation of motivation through clinical education. Students find an insight into the nursing profession by substituting themselves in the place of a nurse, and as result, are or are not motivated towards the clinical education.
Cassidy, Christine; Steenbeek, Audrey; Langille, Donald; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Curran, Janet
University students are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections and suffering other negative health outcomes. Sexual health services offer preventive and treatment interventions that aim to reduce these infections and associated health consequences. However, university students often delay or avoid seeking sexual health services. An in-depth understanding of the factors that influence student use of sexual health services is needed to underpin effective sexual health interventions. In this study, we aim to design a behavior change intervention to address university undergraduate students' use of sexual health services at two universities in Nova Scotia, Canada. This mixed methods study consists of three phases that follow a systematic approach to intervention design outlined in the Behaviour Change Wheel. In Phase 1, we examine patterns of sexual health service use among university students in Nova Scotia, Canada, using an existing dataset. In Phase 2, we identify the perceived barriers and enablers to students' use of sexual health services. This will include focus groups with university undergraduate students, health care providers, and university administrators using a semistructured guide, informed by the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour Model and Theoretical Domains Framework. In Phase 3, we identify behavior change techniques and intervention components to develop a theory-based intervention to improve students' use of sexual health services. This study will be completed in March 2018. Results from each phase and the finalized intervention design will be reported in 2018. Previous intervention research to improve university students' use of sexual health services lacks a theoretical assessment of barriers. This study will employ a mixed methods research design to examine university students' use of sexual health service and apply behavior change theory to design a theory- and evidence-based sexual health service intervention. Our
Qiu, Junping; Yang, Siluo; Dong, Ke
This book provides an accessible introduction to the history, theory and techniques of informetrics. Divided into 14 chapters, it develops the content system of informetrics from the theory, methods and applications; systematically analyzes the six basic laws and the theory basis of informetrics and presents quantitative analysis methods such as citation analysis and computer-aided analysis. It also discusses applications in information resource management, information and library science, science of science, scientific evaluation and the forecast field. Lastly, it describes a new development in informetrics- webometrics. Providing a comprehensive overview of the complex issues in today's environment, this book is a valuable resource for all researchers, students and practitioners in library and information science.
Heydar Rahmati Asl; Kambiz Ahmadi Angali; Marzieh Araban
The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four mo...
Siegler, Robert; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues
Understanding of numerical development is growing rapidly, but the volume and diversity of findings can make it difficult to perceive any coherence in the process. The integrative theory of numerical development posits that a coherent theme is present, however--progressive broadening of the set of numbers whose magnitudes can be accurately…
The construction and development of unified gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions is reviewed. The Weinberg and Lee contributions to this study are mainly considered as personal recollections
Due to unsatisfactory number of researches investigating ELT post-graduate programs, and perceptions of academics and students in these programs regarding mediation theory of Feuerstein, this study attempted to investigate the aspects of this theory in doctorate and master programs in ELT department of a state university. Methodologically, this…
Aldrich, Rosalie S
Suicide among college students is an issue of serious concern. College peers may effectively intervene with at-risk persons due to their regular contact and close personal relationships with others in this population of significantly enhanced risk. The current study was designed to investigate whether the theory of planned behavior constructs predicted intention to intervene when a college peer is suicidal. Undergraduate students (n = 367) completed an on-line questionnaire; they answered questions about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control regarding suicide and suicide intervention, as well as their intention to intervene when someone is suicidal. The data were analyzed using multiple regression. The statistical significance of this cross-sectional study indicates that the theory of planned behavior constructs predicts self-reported intention to intervene with a suicidal individual. Theory of planned behavior is an effective framework for understanding peers' intention to intervene with a suicidal individual.
Starting from Poincare's Lorentz-invariant theory of gravity formulated in 1906, development of Einstein's general theory of relativity during 1906-1916 is discussed. Three stages in this development are recognised. In the first stage during 1907-1914, Einstein tried to extend the relativity principle of uniform motion to the frames in non-uniform motion. For this purpose, he introduced the principle of equivalence which made it possible to calculate the effect of homogeneous gravitational field on arbitrary physical processes. During the second stage comprising years 1912-1914 overlapping the first stage, Einstein and Grossmann were struggling to translate physical postulates into the language of the absolute differential calculus. In the period 1915-1916, Einstein formulated the field equations of general relativity. While discussing these developmental stages, theories of gravitation formulated by Abraham, Nordstroem and Mie are also discussed. (M.G.B.)
Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita
To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine's framework as it relates to students' professional development. On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Students' comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine--attention, representation, and affiliation--and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students' lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view.
Andrews, George E
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
A topical meeting on recent developments in field theory was organized by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics from 21 to 23 November 1977. The publication is a compilation of the abstracts of lecture given. The mayor themes of the meeting were the problem of confinement, the quantization of Yang-Mills theories and the topological aspects of field theories in flat and curved spaces
The research has shown a model of learning activities that can be used to stimulate reflective abstraction in students. Reflective abstraction as a method of constructing knowledge in the Action-Process-Object-Schema theory, and is expected to occur when students are in learning activities, will be able to encourage students to make the process of…
Madike, Victor N.
Inadequate student-teacher interactions in undergraduate courses have been linked to poor student performance. Researchers have noted that students' perceptions of student-teacher relationships may be an important factor related to student performance. The administration of a Mid-Atlantic community college prioritized increasing undergraduate biology student performance. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' biology achievement and their perceptions of interpersonal teaching behaviors and student-teacher interactions in introductory biology courses. Leary's theory on interpersonal communication and the systems communication theory of Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson served as the theoretical foundation. The Wubbel's Likert-scale questionnaire on student-teacher interactions was administered to 318 undergraduate biology students. Non-parametric Spearman's rank correlations revealed a significant direct correlation between students' grades and their perceptions of teachers' interpersonal teaching behaviors. The relationship between student achievement and students' perceptions of student-teacher interactions prompted the recommendation for additional study on the importance of student-teacher interactions in undergraduate programs. A recommendation for local practice included faculty development on strategies for improving student-teacher interactions. The study's implications for positive social change include increased understanding for administrators and instructors on the importance of teacher-student interactions at the community college level.
Following on from the successful first (1984) and revised (1993) editions, this extended and revised text is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for final year physics students and for postgraduate students beginning research in theoretical and experimental particle physics. The three main objectives of the book are to: Explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory To make the reader proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams To introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play a central role in elementary particle physic
Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Painter, Michelle; Shelley, Gillian F; Jones, Peter B; Perez, Jesus
The longer psychotic disorders are untreated the worse their prognosis. Increasing the awareness of early psychosis by professionals who come into regular contact with young people is one strategy that could reduce treatment delay. As teachers engage with students on a daily basis, their role could be exploited to increase awareness of the early signs of psychosis. This study employed the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify and measure factors that influence identification of students at high-risk (HR) of developing psychosis in 16+ educational institutions. An elicitation phase revealed beliefs underlying teachers' motivations to detect HR students and informed the construction of a preliminary 114-item questionnaire incorporating all constructs outlined in the TPB. To define the determinants of teachers' intention to identify HR students, 75 teachers from secondary and further education institutions in 12 counties surrounding Cambridgeshire completed the questionnaire. A psychometric model of item response theory was used to identify redundant items and produce a reduced questionnaire that would be acceptable to teachers. The final instrument comprised 73 items and showed acceptable reliability (α = 0.69-0.81) for all direct measures. Teacher's confidence and control over identification of HR students was low. Although identification of HR students was considered worthwhile, teachers believed that their peers, students and particularly their managers might not approve. Path analysis revealed that direct measures of attitude and PBC significantly predicted intention, but subjective norm did not. PBC was the strongest predictor of intention. Collectively, the direct measures explained 37 % of the variance of intention to identify HR for psychosis. This research demonstrated how the TPB can be used to identify and measure factors that influence identification of students at HR of developing psychosis in 16+ educational institutions and confirmed the
Chapter 1. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development in plant disease is introduced. Foci develop in space and time. The theory applies primarily to air-borne fungal diseases of the foliage.
Chapter 2. The contents of the present volume are outlined.
Chapter 3. The
Valanis, K.C.; Lee, C.F.
In this paper we presented a comprehensive review of recent developments of the endochronic theory of plasticity. The endochronic theory was first proposed by Valanis in 1971 with the aim of circumventing some of the difficulties associated with classical theories of plasticity, such as the concept of a yield surface and its motion in the stress space, criteria for unloading, hardening rules, etc. The theory is developed by using irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables. In the early version of the theory the intrinsic time was defined as a measure of length in strain space. This version is now called the simple endochronic theory. The derived constitutive equations have been applied with success to a number of problems of practical interest, e.g. cyclic response, cross hardening, cross ratcheting, etc. However, it has been shown by the first author that the simple theory leads to an unloading response which is not elastic at its onset. As a consequence infinitesimal hysteresis loops in the first quadrant of the stress-strain space are open, in disagreement with observed behavior in metals. Recently Valanis introduced a new intrinsic time scale which is a measure of length in the plastic strain space. As a result, a new model of endochronic theory has been developed which leads to closure of hysteresis loops in the small as well as the large. It is also shown that the new model predicts the existence of a yield surface. Hardening rules proposed in the classical theory of plasticity appear as special results. (orig.)
Martin Hernani Merino
Full Text Available There has been growing recognition of the importance of creating performance measurement tools for the economic, social and environmental management of micro and small enterprise (MSE. In this context, this study aims to validate an instrument to assess perceptions of sustainable development practices by MSEs by means of a Graded Response Model (GRM with a Bayesian approach to Item Response Theory (IRT. The results based on a sample of 506 university students in Peru, suggest that a valid measurement instrument was achieved. At the end of the paper, methodological and managerial contributions are presented.
Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo
education. Applying neo-institutional theory, we examine the development of student incubation activities in the field of general state-funded Danish universities. We review institutional pressures from the political sphere that led to the diffusion of student incubation, introducing a three-phase process...
Schuijers, Johannes A; McDonald, Stuart J; Julien, Brianna L; Lexis, Louise A; Thomas, Colleen J; Chan, Siew; Samiric, T
Many conventional science courses contain subjects embedded with laboratory-based activities. However, research on the benefits of positioning the practicals within the theory subject or developing them distinctly from the theory is largely absent. This report compared results in a physiology theory subject among three different cohorts of students: those taking the theory subject alone, those taking it concurrent with a physiology practicum subject, and those who previously took the subject when it had practicums embedded within the one subject. The path model shows that students taking both physiology theory and physiology practicum attained a significantly higher result in online tests compared with those who took the theory subject alone (P physiology theory and the physiology practicum attained a significantly higher end-examination result compared with those who took the physiology subject in previous years when the practicums were embedded within the theory subject (P physiology theory and the physiology practicum likely performed better in the theory subject due to better problem-solving skills and a more developed understanding of theoretical content. We suggest that consideration be given in all science curricula to the separation of theory and practicum by developing two subjects with clearly defined different learning outcomes.
The question of what motivates students has been explored by many researchers and teachers over the years( Marandos and Randall, 2012; Irie, 2003; Lee, 2012). Goal-setting theory is one concept that many English language educators have applied to their classroom practices and have found effective (Rivers, 2012; Chang, 2012; Zhao et al., 2012; Koda-Dallow and Hobbs, 2005).This paper will report the results of action research done in Spring 2012 during the months of May to August. The study rev...
Several neo-Kantians have questioned the standard deontological interpretation of Kant's ethical theory. They have also responded to charges of rationalism and rigorism by emphasizing the role of virtues and emotions in Kant's view. However, none have defended a fully virtue theoretic interpretation of Kant's theory. I claim that virtue theory has much to offer Kantians, but that resistance to developing a Kantian virtue theory rests on faulty assumptions about virtue theory. In this paper I ...
Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed
Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Wenner, Julianne A.
We assessed the performance of students with a self-reported conflict between their religious belief and the theory of evolution in two sections of a large introductory biology course (N = 373 students). Student performance was measured through pretest and posttest evolution essays and multiple- choice (MC) questions (evolution-related and…
Berkhout, J J; Slootweg, I A; Helmich, E; Teunissen, P W; van der Vleuten, C P M; Jaarsma, A D C
In clerkships, students are expected to self-regulate their learning. How clinical departments and their routine approach on clerkships influences students' self-regulated learning (SRL) is unknown. This study explores how characteristic routines of clinical departments influence medical students' SRL. Six focus groups including 39 purposively sampled participants from one Dutch university were organized to study how characteristic routines of clinical departments influenced medical students' SRL from a constructivist paradigm, using grounded theory methodology. The focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and were analyzed iteratively using constant comparison and open, axial and interpretive coding. Students described that clinical departments influenced their SRL through routines which affected the professional relationships they could engage in and affected their perception of a department's invested effort in them. Students' SRL in a clerkship can be supported by enabling them to engage others in their SRL and by having them feel that effort is invested in their learning. Our study gives a practical insight in how clinical departments influenced students' SRL. Clinical departments can affect students' motivation to engage in SRL, influence the variety of SRL strategies that students can use and how meaningful students perceive their SRL experiences to be.
Roth, Wolff-Michael; Milkent, Marlene M.
This study was designed as a test for two neo-Piagetian theories. More specifically, this research examined the relationships between the development of proportional reasoning strategies and three cognitive variables from Pascual-Leone's and Case's neo-Piagetian theories. A priori hypotheses linked the number of problems students worked until they induced a proportional reasoning strategy to the variables of M-space, degree of field dependence, and short-term storage space. The subjects consisted of students enrolled in Physical Science I, a science course for nonscience majors at the University of Southern Mississippi. Of the 34 subjects in the study, 23 were classified as concrete operational on the basis of eight ratio tasks. Problems corresponding to five developmental levels of proportional reasoning (according to Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theory), were presented by a microcomputer to the 23 subjects who had been classified as concrete operational. After a maximum of 6 hours of treatment, 17 of the 23 subjects had induced ratio schemata at the upper formal level (IIIB), while the remaining subjects used lower formal level (IIIA) schemata. The data analyses showed that neither M-space and degree of field-dependence, either alone or in combination, nor short-term storage predicted the number of problems students need to do until they induce an appropriate problem-solving strategy. However, there were significant differences in the short-term storage space of those subjects who mastered ratio problems at the highest level and those who did not. Also, the subjects' degree of field-dependence was not a predictor of either the ability to transfer problem-solving strategies to a new setting or the reuse of inappropriate strategies. The results of this study also suggest that short-term storage space is a variable with high correlations to a number of aspects of learning such as transfer and choice of strategy after feedback.
Eaton, Paul William
This article examines the limitations and possibilities of the emerging competency-based movement in student affairs. Using complexity theory and postmodern educational theory as guiding frameworks, examination of the competency-based movement will raise questions about overapplication of competencies in graduate preparation programs and…
Geis, Gena; Williams, Miguel; Linder, Tyler; Pakey, Donald
The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical asteroid rotational theory from first principles. Starting at first principles provides a firm foundation for computer simulations which can be used to analyze multiple variables at once such as size, rotation period, tensile strength, and density. The initial theory will be presented along with early models of applying the theory to the asteroid population. Early results confirm previous work by Pravec et al. (2002) that show the majority of the asteroids larger than 200m have negligible tensile strength and have spin rates close to their critical breakup point. Additionally, results show that an object with zero tensile strength has a maximum rotational rate determined by the object’s density, not size. Therefore, an iron asteroid with a density of 8000 kg/m^3 would have a minimum spin period of 1.16h if the only forces were gravitational and centrifugal. The short-term goal is to include material forces in the simulations to determine what tensile strength will allow the high spin rates of asteroids smaller than 150m.
This article combines foundational and empirical aspects of healthcare education and develops a framework for teaching ethical theories inspired by pragmatist learning theory and recent work on the concept of moral resilience. It describes an exemplary implementation and presents data from student evaluation. After a pilot implementation in a regular ethics module, the feasibility and acceptance of the novel framework by students were evaluated. In addition to the regular online module evaluation, specific questions referring to the teaching of ethical theories were added using simple (yes/no) and Likert rating answer formats. At the Bern University of Applied Sciences, a total of 93 students from 2 parallel sub-cohorts of the bachelor's program in nursing science were sent the online survey link after having been exposed to the same modular contents. A total of 62% of all students participated in the survey. The survey was voluntary and anonymous. Students were free to write their name and additional comments. Students consider ethical theories-as taught within the proposed framework-as practically applicable, useful, and transferable into practice. Teaching ethical theories within the proposed framework overcomes the shortcomings described by current research. Students do not consider the mutually exclusive character of ethical theories as an insurmountable problem. The proposed framework is likely to promote the effectiveness of healthcare ethics education. Inspired by pragmatist learning theory, it enables students to consider ethical theories as educative playgrounds that help them to "frame" and "name" the ethical issues they encounter in daily practice, which is seen as an expression of moral resilience. Since it does not advocate a single ethical theory, but is open to the diversity of traditions that shape ethical thinking, it promotes a culturally sensitive, ethically reflected healthcare practice. © The Author(s) 2013.
Hustedde, Ronald J.; Ganowicz, Jacek
Relates three classical theories (structural functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism) to fundamental concerns of community development (structure, power, and shared meaning). Links these theories to Giddens' structuration theory, which connects macro and micro structures and community influence on change through cultural norms.…
This largely self-contained book on the theory of quantum information focuses on precise mathematical formulations and proofs of fundamental facts that form the foundation of the subject. It is intended for graduate students and researchers in mathematics, computer science, and theoretical physics seeking to develop a thorough understanding of key results, proof techniques, and methodologies that are relevant to a wide range of research topics within the theory of quantum information and computation. The book is accessible to readers with an understanding of basic mathematics, including linear algebra, mathematical analysis, and probability theory. An introductory chapter summarizes these necessary mathematical prerequisites, and starting from this foundation, the book includes clear and complete proofs of all results it presents. Each subsequent chapter includes challenging exercises intended to help readers to develop their own skills for discovering proofs concerning the theory of quantum information.
Chesnut, Renae; Tran-Johnson, Jennifer
To assess the effectiveness of the Student Leadership Development Series (SLDS), an academic-year--long, co-curricular approach to developing leadership skills in pharmacy students. Participants met once per month for activities and a college-wide guest speaker session. Students also completed monthly forms regarding what they had learned, participated in poster presentations, and created a personal leadership platform. One hundred twenty-three students participated in the program between 2008 and 2013. On monthly evaluation forms and a summative evaluation, students indicated that the program helped them feel prepared for leadership opportunities and increased their desire to pursue leadership. They valued interacting with pharmacy leaders from the community and learning how they could distinguish themselves as leaders. The SLDS provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to explore personal leadership styles and develop broader understanding of leadership, and increased their desire to pursue leadership positions in the future.
Foster, Thomas M.
Every student is different, which is the challenge of astronomy education research (AER) and teaching astronomy. This difference also provides the greatest goal for education researchers - our GUT - we need to be able to quantify these differences and provide explanatory and predictive theories to curriculum developers and teachers. One educational theory that holds promise is Cognitive Load Theory. Cognitive Load Theory begins with the well-established fact that everyone's working memory can hold 7 ± 2 unique items. This quirk of the human brain is why phone numbers are 7 digits long. This quirk is also why we forget peoples’ names after just meeting them, leave the iron on when we leave the house, and become overwhelmed as students of new material. Once the intricacies of Cognitive Load are understood, it becomes possible to design learning environments to marshal the resources students have and guide them to success. Lessons learned from Cognitive Load Theory can and should be applied to learning astronomy. Classroom-ready ideas will be presented.
Kryazhimskiy, Arkady A
This paper gives an overview of Yu.S. Osipov's work in mathematical control theory, including development of the theory of positional differential games for control systems with time delay; analysis of the phenomenon of infinite dimensionality of the state space of a dynamical system in the context of differential games; development of the theory of dynamical inversion (dynamical regularization) for finite- and infinite-dimensional control systems; applications of methods of the theory of positional differential games beyond the scope of the theory itself; work on new differential-game methods and on methods of control under incomplete information. The author of this overview is the first student of Osipov, and also his longstanding colleague.
Full Text Available This book review aims to discuss the new perspectives on theories of development provided by two outstanding scholars: Richard Peet and Elaine Hartwick in their recent published book “Theories of development: Contestations, Arguments, Alternatives”. An interesting point a view is presented from the beginning: development means a better life for everyone but economic growth can occur without touching problems like inequalities, poverty etc. The introductory chapter explains the differences between Growth and Development, and it is followed by a part I Conventional Theories of Development, part II Nonconventional Critical Theories of Development, part III Critical Modernism. Readers will find this book review intriguing and interesting enough to stimulate their curiosity to explore this fascinating book.
Cotton, Debby R. E.; Miller, Wendy; Winter, Jennie; Bailey, Ian; Sterling, Stephen
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate students' energy literacy at a UK university, and recommends ways in which it can be enhanced using a behaviour change model. Developing students' energy literacy is a key part of the "greening" agenda, yet little is known about how students develop their ideas about energy use and energy saving at…
Luděk Kolman; Hana Chýlová; Richar Selby
The paper deals with a semiotic analysis of work motivation theories developed in the second half of the twentieth century. These theories stem from different theoretical backgrounds, varying in ideas as well as in their impact to work motivation reality. For a student approaching this field it might seem to provide an overwhelming situation in an area of study filled with contradictory theories. The method used in this study is similar to one historians use when analysing development in a hu...
Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…
Kelleher, Seán; FitzGerald, Serena; Hegarty, Josephine
Future health care professionals need to be broadly-educated, adaptable individuals who have significant experience in the world beyond the classroom. Study abroad is an ideal means of developing some of the skills and attitudes that are not only valued among health professionals, but also have global applicability. Although internationalisation through study abroad is widely publicised as a preferred means of developing globally competent third level graduates very little is known about the factors that influence students' predisposition to study abroad, students decision making process and how various factors influence that process. To explore the motivating factors that influence nursing and midwifery student's intentions to study abroad. Qualitative descriptive. A third level institution in Ireland. A purposive sample (n=25) of undergraduate nursing and midwifery students. Data were obtained individually and in a free response format by means of an open ended belief elicitation questionnaire. The theory of planned behaviour was used a theoretical framework to guide both the structure of the questionnaire and the content analysis. The study's findings support earlier works in identifying the main behavioural, normative and control factors that influence a student's decision to study abroad and is the first study to recognise enhanced professional identity as a potential benefit of study abroad. Factors such as cultural sensitivity, employability, language and cost emerged as important issues in need of further investigation. The findings of this study have implications for administrators, academics, and others involved in the development of third level study abroad programmes for nursing and midwifery students. New methods which promote the perceived benefits of study abroad, address the perceived barriers and ultimately increase student participation are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cardamone, Caroline N.; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel T.; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.
Item response theory is useful in both the development and evaluation of assessments and in computing standardized measures of student performance. In item response theory, individual parameters (difficulty, discrimination) for each item or question are fit by item response models. These parameters provide a means for evaluating a test and offer a better measure of student skill than a raw test score, because each skill calculation considers not only the number of questions answered correctly, but the individual properties of all questions answered. Here, we present the results from an analysis of the Mechanics Baseline Test given at MIT during 2005-2010. Using the item parameters, we identify questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test that are not effective in discriminating between MIT students of different abilities. We show that a limited subset of the highest quality questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test returns accurate measures of student skill. We compare student skills as determined by item response theory to the more traditional measurement of the raw score and show that a comparable measure of learning gain can be computed.
Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E; Hekler, Eric B; Adams, Marc A; Buman, Matthew P; Pavel, Misha; King, Abby C
Social cognitive theory (SCT) is among the most influential theories of behavior change and has been used as the conceptual basis of health behavior interventions for smoking cessation, weight management, and other health behaviors. SCT and other behavior theories were developed primarily to explain differences between individuals, but explanatory theories of within-person behavioral variability are increasingly needed as new technologies allow for intensive longitudinal measures and interventions adapted from these inputs. These within-person explanatory theoretical applications can be modeled as dynamical systems. SCT constructs, such as reciprocal determinism, are inherently dynamical in nature, but SCT has not been modeled as a dynamical system. This paper describes the development of a dynamical system model of SCT using fluid analogies and control systems principles drawn from engineering. Simulations of this model were performed to assess if the model performed as predicted based on theory and empirical studies of SCT. This initial model generates precise and testable quantitative predictions for future intensive longitudinal research. Dynamic modeling approaches provide a rigorous method for advancing health behavior theory development and refinement and for guiding the development of more potent and efficient interventions.
Price, V; Archbold, J
This article traces the development of social learning theory over the last 30 years, relating the developments to clinical nursing practice. Particular attention is focused on the contribution of Albert Bandura, the American psychologist, and his work on modelling.
Bose, Nirmal K
Revised and updated, this concise new edition of the pioneering book on multidimensional signal processing is ideal for a new generation of students. Multidimensional systems or m-D systems are the necessary mathematical background for modern digital image processing with applications in biomedicine, X-ray technology and satellite communications. Serving as a firm basis for graduate engineering students and researchers seeking applications in mathematical theories, this edition eschews detailed mathematical theory not useful to students. Presentation of the theory has been revised to make it more readable for students, and introduce some new topics that are emerging as multidimensional DSP topics in the interdisciplinary fields of image processing. New topics include Groebner bases, wavelets, and filter banks.
Written in a lucid and engaging style, the author takes readers from an overview of classical mechanics and the historical development of quantum theory through to advanced topics. The mathematical aspects of quantum theory necessary for a firm grasp of the subject are developed in the early chapters, but an effort is made to motivate that formalism on physical grounds. Including animated figures and their respective Mathematica® codes, this book provides a complete and comprehensive text for students in physics, maths, chemistry and engineering needing an accessible introduction to quantum mechanics. Supplementary Mathematica codes available within Book Information
Hanson, R. Keith
Video tapes of student teachers micro-teaching in a high school biology class were analyzed. Attention was focussed on students' interpretations of data and the teacher's responses to these interpretations. Examples are given of student explanations which teachers find unsatisfactory but which are valid alternatives based on the data available to…
Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip; Rhodes, Ryan; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Courneya, Kerry S.
Intervention;The psychological determinants of physical activity (PA) among college students may vary by ethnicity and gender, but few studies have considered these characteristics. This study tested constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) by ethnicity and gender to explain differences in PA. A total of 231 Blacks (70% female) and 218 White…
Cordano, Mark; Welcomer, Stephanie; Scherer, Robert F.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor
We surveyed business students in the United States (n = 256) and Chile (n = 310) to compare three theories of pro-environmental behavior.We examined Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, Schawartz's norm activation theory, and the values-beliefs-norms theory created by Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, and Kalof. We produced reliable…
Barbara Smolej Fritz; Cirila Peklaj
The aim of the present research was to examine the relation between processes of selfregulated learning and achievement in Music Theory (MT), a basic and obligatory subject in Slovenian music schools. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students (153 boys and 303 girls) from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the study. Students completed a questionnaire about affective-motivational processes and a questionnaire about (meta)cognitive processes of selfregulate...
Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa
Across the Western world, including Australia, growing popularity of complementary medicines (CMs) mandates their implementation into medical education (ME). Medical students in international contexts have expressed a need to learn about CMs. In Australia, little is known about the student-specific need for CM education. The objective of this paper was to assess the self-reported need for CM education among Australian medical students. Thirty second-year to final-year medical students participated in semi-structured interviews. A constructivist grounded theory methodological approach was used to generate, construct and analyse data. Medical school education faculties in Australian universities. Medical students generally held favourable attitudes toward CMs but had knowledge deficits and did not feel adept at counselling patients about CMs. All students were supportive of CM education in ME, noting its importance in relation to the doctor-patient encounter, specifically with regard to interactions with medical management. As future practitioners, students recognised the need to be able to effectively communicate about CMs and advise patients regarding safe and effective CM use. Australian medical students expressed interest in, and the need for, CM education in ME regardless of their opinion of it, and were supportive of evidence-based CMs being part of their armamentarium. However, current levels of CM education in medical schools do not adequately enable this. This level of receptivity suggests the need for CM education with firm recommendations and competencies to assist CM education development required. Identifying this need may help medical educators to respond more effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evans, Nancy J.; Guido, Florence M.
This rejoinder to Patrick Love's article, "Informal Theory: The Ignored Link in Theory-to-Practice," which appears earlier in this issue of the "Journal of College Student Development", was written at the invitation of the Editor. In the critique, we point out the weaknesses of many of Love's arguments and propositions. We provide an alternative…
Ávalos-Carranza, María Teresa; Amador-Olvera, Eric; Zerón-Gutiérrez, Lydia
It is often said that it is easier to learn what is observed and practiced on a daily basis; to the need to effectively link theory with practice considered in the process of teaching and learning, many strategies have been developed to allow this process to be carried out in a more efficiently maner. It is, therefore, very important to recognize that an appropriate teacher/student relationship is essential for students to acquire the skills and abilities required.
Implicit theories of creativity provide an understanding of attitude towards among different populations, including students. Insights on how students see and define creativity might help to adjust educational settings and thus make it possible to provide students with better conditions to support their creativity. Although many studies have been…
Wolff, Wanja; Brand, Ralf; Baumgarten, Franz; Lösel, Johanna; Ziegler, Matthias
Healthy university students have been shown to use psychoactive substances, expecting them to be functional means for enhancing their cognitive capacity, sometimes over and above an essentially proficient level. This behavior called Neuroenhancement (NE) has not yet been integrated into a behavioral theory that is able to predict performance. Job Demands Resources (JD-R) Theory for example assumes that strain (e.g. burnout) will occur and influence performance when job demands are high and job resources are limited at the same time. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not university students' self-reported NE can be integrated into JD-R Theory's comprehensive approach to psychological health and performance. 1,007 students (23.56 ± 3.83 years old, 637 female) participated in an online survey. Lifestyle drug, prescription drug, and illicit substance NE together with the complete set of JD-R variables (demands, burnout, resources, motivation, and performance) were measured. Path models were used in order to test our data's fit to hypothesized main effects and interactions. JD-R Theory could successfully be applied to describe the situation of university students. NE was mainly associated with the JD-R Theory's health impairment process: Lifestyle drug NE (p performance. From a public health perspective, intervention strategies should address these costs of non-supervised NE. With regard to future research we propose to model NE as a means to reach an end (i.e. performance enhancement) rather than a target behavior itself. This is necessary to provide a deeper understanding of the behavioral roots and consequences of the phenomenon.
Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS
Analyzing the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), this project uses both Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) to investigate the LSCI itself in order to better understand what it is actually measuring. We use Classical Test Theory to form a framework of results that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of individual questions at measuring differences in student understanding and provide further insight into the prior results presented from this data set. In the second phase of this research, we use Item Response Theory to form a theoretical model that generates parameters accounting for a student's ability, a question's difficulty, and estimate the level of guessing. The combined results from our investigations using both CTT and IRT are used to better understand the learning that is taking place in classrooms across the country. The analysis will also allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of individual questions and determine whether the item difficulties are appropriately matched to the abilities of the students in our data set. These results may require that some questions be revised, motivating the need for further development of the LSCI. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Chaipichit, Dudduan; Jantharajit, Nirat; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee
The objectives of this research were to study issues around the management of science learning, problems that are encountered, and to develop a learning management model to address those problems. The development of that model and the findings of its study were based on Constructivist Theory and literature on reasoning strategies for enhancing…
Many of the important and creative developments in modern mathematics resulted from attempts to solve questions that originate in number theory. The publication of Emil Grosswald’s classic text presents an illuminating introduction to number theory. Combining the historical developments with the analytical approach, Topics from the Theory of Numbers offers the reader a diverse range of subjects to investigate, including: * divisibility * congruences * the Riemann zeta function * Diophantine equations and Fermat’s conjecture * the theory of partitions Comprehensive in nature, Topics from the Theory of Numbers is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students alike. "In my opinion it is excellent. It is carefully written and represents clearly a work of a scholar who loves and understands his subject. One can only wish more authors would take such pains and would be as good and honest expositors as Grosswald." — Marc Kac "This book is designed for use in a first course in number theory at...
Stoll, Robert R
Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in
This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was used to assess the participants' conceptual knowledge. The reasoning mode was assessed using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results showed that, although some weak to moderate associations were found between conceptual organization in memory and reasoning modes, the students' ability to incorporate theory and evidence was in general inadequate. It was also found that students' reasoning modes were consistent with their epistemological perspectives. Moreover, male and female students appear to have different reasoning approaches.
Pincherle, L; Green, L L
Worked Problems in Heat, Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory for Physics Students is a complementary to textbooks in physics. This book is a collection of exercise problems that have been part of tutorial classes in heat and thermodynamics at the University of London. This collection of exercise problems, with answers that are fully worked out, deals with various topics. This book poses problems covering the definition of temperature such as calculating the assigned value of the temperature of boiling water under specific conditions. This text also gives example of problems dealing with the fir
Valas, Harald; Sovik, Nils
Effects of the controlling strategies of the mathematics teacher on student achievement, interest, and mathematics self-concept were demonstrated in a longitudinal study involving 161 seventh graders and 164 eighth graders. This empirical test of the self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan provides insight into student motivation. (SLD)
Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.
The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.
Peter G. Schrader
Full Text Available User You are logged in as... mocak My Profile Log Out Log Out as User Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Indexing/Abstracting -Doaj -Google Scholar -J Gate/Informatics -Ulrich's Under review by: -Ebsco -Journal Seek -info BASE INDEX -ERIC -Ulakbim/tr index Article Tools Abstract Print this article Indexing metadata How to cite item Finding References Review policy Email this article Email the author Related Items Show all The fourth issue of Journal of Learning and Teaching in Digital Age(JOLTIDA has been published. Editorial Board Open Journal Systems Journal Help Notifications View (564 new Manage Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Creative Commons License Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2016 > Schrader DOES MULTIMEDIA THEORY APPLY TO ALL STUDENTS? THE IMPACT OF MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS ON SCIENCE LEARNING Peter G. Schrader University of Nevada Las Vegas, USA firstname.lastname@example.org Eric E. Rapp email@example.com ABSTRACT In K-12 school settings in the United States, there is a preponderance of information delivered via multimedia to students everyday (e.g., visual aids found in science textbooks, electronic tablets, streamed video content, web pages, animations, and PowerPoint presentations. The cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML outlines numerous principles associated with learning from and with multimedia (Mayer, Hegarty, Mayer, & Cambell, 2005. However, the bulk of the research like the CTML has been conducted using college age students (Jones, 2010; McTigue, 2009. There is ample evidence that college age students and younger students exhibit numerous and important differences when learning from multimedia content (Hannus & Hyona, 1999; McTique, 2009; Moreno, 2007; Van Parreren, 1983. As a result, the objective of the current study is to examine the
Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US Army War College, July...Lens of Complexity Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” (Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US...planners managed to cause confusion in the enemy’s internal model by operating in an unexpected manner. 140 Glenn E. James, “Chaos Theory : The
This dissertation addresses theory and practice of evaluation and assessment in university student affairs, by applying logic modeling/program theory to a case study. I intend to add knowledge to ongoing dialogue among evaluation scholars and practitioners on student affairs program planning and improvement as integral considerations that serve…
Rance, Sharon; Sweet, Linda
Competency Standards in Australia articulate that the midwife must be able to contribute to the professional development of themselves and others. Few undergraduate health professional curricula currently incorporate content for the development of specific knowledge and skills required for clinical teaching. This project aimed to understand and enhance midwifery students' preparedness to assume their future clinical teaching responsibilities. Design-based research was used to implement an educational intervention aimed at developing clinical teaching skills through a peer education session between 1st and 3rd year students. The perspectives of 30 undergraduate midwifery students about their preparedness for their teaching role and the intervention were obtained through 3 focus groups. A thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Three themes were identified encompassing the research aims and objectives; 'Co-creating a culture for learning', 'reciprocal teaching and learning' and 'developing clinical teaching capacities'. The findings indicate that the midwifery students had a holistic understanding of their responsibilities in clinical teaching in the workplace. They were able to identify ways in which their teaching capacities were being developed through their clinical experiences and the curriculum, both intended and hidden. Despite limited educational activities for clinical teaching, the midwifery students made explicit connections of the relational interdependence of workplace-based experiences and their learning. Students were clearly able to identify ways in which their own learning experiences and the culture in which this learning is embedded, assists them to develop clinical teaching skills, ready to support the next generation of midwifery students. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kamal Mirkarimi; Morteza Mansourian; Mohammad Javad Kabir; Rahman Berdi Ozouni- Davaji; Maryam Eri; Seyed Ghadir Hosseini; Mostafa Qorbani; Omid Safari; Babak Rastgari Mehr; Mehdi Noroozi; Abdurrahman Charkazi; Hossein Shahnazi
Background: Studies report inappropriate snack and junk food consumption patterns in children and young adults in Iran. The current survey was aimed to explore fast food consumption behaviors in high-school students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 500 high-school students. Samples were selected based on cluster sampling method at first and simple random at second. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. ...
Mila Kryjevskaia; MacKenzie R. Stetzer; Nathaniel Grosz
We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics s...
Full Text Available Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011, but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues, challenges, and solutions associated with the design and implementation of career development services for youth with disabilities, this article describes the status quo for students with disabilities in South Korea and then discusses career development services that potentially reduce variation, help facilitate optimal career development, and promote future employment opportunities. To accomplish this task, we explore the intersection of culture, theory, and policy in the Korean transition service delivery system.
M. Serdar Köksal
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate parent, student and teacher opinions about which characteristics of gifted students should be developed in cognitive, affective, psychomotor and social learning areas. The participants included 609 gifted students, 350 parents and 157 teachers from Science and Art Canters. Participants were surveyed using “The Which Characteristics of Gifted Students Should Be Developed”. The results of research revealed that students, parents and teachers agreed that social and affective skills should be improved. On the other hand, they held different opinions on the importance of music, art, dance, role-play, sport, domestic economy skills. This result indicates that these skills are thought by participants to be less important for gifted students’ development. In addition, teachers did not think technology so important for the development of gifted students, placing more emphasis on cognitive and affective domains.
Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.
The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.
Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel
We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after…
Zou, Junhua; Liu, Qingtang; Yang, Zongkai
Based on Competence Motivation Theory (CMT), a Moodle course for schoolchildren's table tennis learning was developed (The URL is http://www.bssepp.com, and this course allows guest access). The effects of the course on students' knowledge, perceived competence and interest were evaluated through quantitative methods. The sample of the study…
Chizhik, Estella Williams; Chizhik, Alexander Williams
How is lesson planning useful? This research study used Cultural Historical Activity Theory and intersubjectivity to answer this questions. This research explored to what extent teacher candidates' lesson plans (i.e., alignment among objectives, assessment, and instruction), and analyses of assessment data mediate their thinking about students'…
This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…
Full Text Available The purposes of the this research: 1. were study the problems and needed science activities learning 2. to improve students activities 3. study the activities; 3.1 to improve the learning of course to pass the standard in 70 percentage 3.2 to improve basic science process skills to pass in 70 percentage 3.3 to study on attitude in science. the Target group was mathayomsuksa 3 students in the class 1 of Anuban Mahasarakham school by using purposive sampling technique that totally were 32 persons. The research instruments were an interview of teacher, the questionnaires of students who were managed in science learning activities and learning management based, the evaluation of learning achievement that had 4 choices were totally 30 items are have discrimination levels from 0.20 - 0.64 and all reliability levels were 0.74, the test of science process skills on basic level that had 4 choices with 30 items had discrimination levels from 0.28 - 0.83 and all reliability levels were 0.73. The evaluation of attitude to science course had 5-scale levels scale 5 levels, 20-item and difficulty levels from 0.20 - 0.71. The reliability levels were 0.69. The statistics used was percentage, mean and standard division. The research found as follows; 1. Study of the problems and needed science activities learning was found that concerning learning activities management focused on description, note by student non-action with learning activities, it non-evaluating science process skills and attitude in science. The knowledge of most student on science was lower. The motivated students students in learning activities in science were at high level ( = 3.81 2. Learning activities management was developed by 5 stages as follow; 1 introduction stage, 2 review old idea stage, 3 improvement and change concept stage, 4 applying a new idea stage, 5 conclusion stage and appropriately learning activities plan was at high level ( = 4.30 3. the Effects of learning activities
Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)
Mason, Brandon; Smithey, Martha
This study examines Merton's Classical Strain Theory (1938) as a causative factor in intimate partner violence among college students. We theorize that college students experience general life strain and cumulative strain as they pursue the goal of a college degree. We test this strain on the likelihood of using intimate partner violence. Strain…
Latz, Amanda O.
Too little research exists that provides windows into the day-to-day lives of community college students. The purpose of this paper is to explicate one finding and concomitant grounded theory derived from a photovoice project aimed at understanding the educational lives of community college students. Participants saw the community college as a…
Case, Jennifer; Jawitz, Jeff
It has been proposed that situated cognition theory, in which learning is conceptualized as induction into a community of practice through the activity of legitimate peripheral participation, offers an appropriate theoretical perspective for examining issues of gender in science education. This study critically engages with this proposal by means of an investigation of the vacation work experiences of a group of South African final-year civil and chemical engineering students. Issues of race and gender appeared prominently and spontaneously in focus group and interview data. An analysis of these data using the situated cognition framework allowed for a deeper understanding of these issues and their impact on learning. It was found that access to legitimate peripheral participation was critical for good learning outcomes (associated with positive identity formation) while denial of this access (as sometimes experienced by black and female students) appeared to be related to less effective learning and poor feelings of self-worth.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors use the theory of communicative action (Habermas, 1984-6 to analyse problematic relationships that can occur between supervisors and PhD students, between co-supervisors and between the students themselves. In a situation where power is distributed unequally, instrumental and strategic action on the part of either party can complicate and disturb efficacious relationships. We use Flanagan’s critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954 to analyse twenty-five incidents that are told from a supervisor perspective and twentyfive from a PhD student perspective. The analysis reveals that a large proportion of incidents involved power struggles. Other categories include lack of professional or emotional support and poor communication. Rational dialogue based on Habermasian principles might have avoided many of these problems. The analysis concludes with some practical suggestions as to how the use of communicative action theory and critical incident technique can improve supervision, supervision training and the PhD process.
Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael
This study is part of a large-scale project focused on 'Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science' (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science teaching in Qatari schools. This report details the development and validation of the 'Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey' (ASSASS), which was specifically developed for the purposes of the QIAS project. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRAPB) [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2005). The influence of attitudes on behavior. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 173-221). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum] guided the instrument development. Development and validation of the ASSASS proceeded in 3 phases. First, a 10-member expert panel examined an initial pool of 74 items, which were revised and consolidated into a 60-item version of the instrument. This version was piloted with 369 Qatari students from the target schools and grade levels. Analyses of pilot data resulted in a refined version of the ASSASS, which was administered to a national probability sample of 3027 participants representing all students enrolled in grades 3-12 in the various types of schools in Qatar. Of the latter, 1978 students completed the Arabic version of the instrument. Analyses supported a robust, 5-factor model for the instrument, which is consistent with the TRAPB framework. The factors were: Attitudes toward science and school science, unfavorable outlook on science, control beliefs about ability in science, behavioral beliefs about the consequences of engaging with science, and intentions to pursue science.
Garza, Oscar W.; Witry, Matthew J.; Chang, Elizabeth H.; Letendre, Donald E.; Trewet, CoraLynn B.
Objective. To develop and implement a flexible-credit elective course to empower student pharmacists to develop lifelong leadership skills and provide teaching practice opportunities for graduate students. Design. An elective course focusing on leadership development for second- and third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students was designed and taught by 4 graduate students under the mentorship of 2 faculty members. Student pharmacists could enroll in a 1-, 2-, or 3-credit-hour version of the course. Assessment. Attainment of course objectives was measured using student pharmacist reflection papers and continuing professional development portfolios. Additionally, self-assessments of graduate students and faculty members delivering the course were conducted. In their responses on course evaluations, student pharmacists indicated they found the course a valuable learning experience. Graduate students found course development to be challenging but useful in developing faculty skills. Conclusion. This flexible-credit elective course taught by graduate students was an innovative way to offer formal leadership instruction using limited college resources. PMID:24371347
Ewing, Douglas R.; Ewing, Randall L.
Drawing on identity theory, this conceptual inquiry posits a need to redefine the standard that individuals use to judge themselves as a "business student." Learners will be more likely to succeed in a corporate context if they experience daily interactions throughout a curriculum that approximate a professional environment. These social…
Fein, Lance; Jones, Don
This study addresses the compromise skills that are taught to students diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and related social and communication deficits. A private school in the southeastern United States implemented an emergence theory-based curriculum to address these skills, yet no formal analysis was conducted to determine its…
King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.
Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…
Komiyama, Reiko; McMorris, Alessandra
Motivation is thought to contribute to better text comprehension (Grabe, 2009), but L2 reading motivation of adult ESL students in the US is an underexplored area of research. The current study adopted self-determination theory--the concepts of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and controlled motivation, in particular--to examine IEP…
One hundred and sixty-five undergraduate music students studying in Scotland completed a 30-statement Q-sort to describe their self- and task-theories of musical performance. Statements reflected the importance of effort, confidence, technical ability, significant others and luck/chance in determining a successful performance. The Q-sorts were…
Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit
This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…
Full Text Available This paper asks what beginning design learning experiences best support the remainder of design education. It is a conjecture of brain-based learning theory that a student’s direct, concrete primary experiences are responsible for the construction of fundamental structures of neural processing as “hard wired” pathways. These structures then form the ground of and set into play patterns of later more abstracted learning experiences. Pedagogy of basic design courses that seeks introduction of creative processes as a foundation for design education must recognize these experiential, biologically developmental relationships as basic to developmentally appropriate beginning design curriculum. This paper models a beginning design pedagogy on developmental relationships between concrete and abstract processes of learning as a basis for transformative creative thinking that enables student self-development that progresses up the curriculum. Aligning with developmental learning theories (Piaget and others, a basic tenant of this approach is that learning at the primary level of direct experience self initiates brain changes where students form their own structure of learning. Thus, initial learning experiences will be those that best enable decision-making consistent with the biological interactivity between body and mind, between, respectively, the concrete and the abstract. This is important because the designed environment in which we all live is grounded in the development of abstract content experientially based in concrete material physicality. Experiential learning theories (Kolb and others, following Piaget identify concrete and abstract learning as fundamental poles for acquiring and acting on knowledge: Concrete learning involves direct experiential engagement through heuristic discovery and reflection and abstract learning involves indirect representational cues in acts of conceptualization, synthesis, and experimentation. The
Jiang, Hualin; Zhang, Shaoru; Ding, Yi; Li, Yuelu; Zhang, Tianhua; Liu, Weiping; Fan, Yahui; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongqiang; Ma, Xuexue
China faces many challenges in controlling tuberculosis (TB). One significant challenge is the control of college students' TB. In particular, cross-sectional studies of college students' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) in regard to TB have attracted substantial attention. However, few measurement tools have been developed to aid processes related to expert consultation, pre-testing, reliability and validity testing. Our study developed the College Students' TB Knowledge Attitudes and Practices Questionnaire (CS-TBKAPQ) following the scale development steps. The construction of the CS-TBKAPQ was based on the Theory of Knowledge, Attitude, Belief, and Practice (KABP or KAP). The item pool was compiled from literature reviews and individual interviews. The reliability validation was assessed by calculating Cronbach's α coefficient, the split-half reliability coefficient, and the test-retest reliability coefficient. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the World Health Organization Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilization KAP Survey Questionnaire (WHO-TBKAPQ) as the reference standard. A total of 31 questionnaire items were proposed. Cronbach's α coefficient, the split-half reliability coefficient and the test-retest reliability coefficient were 0.86, 0.78 and 0.91. Four factors that explained 62.52% of the total variance were also identified in EFA and confirmed in CFA. The CFA model fit indices were x 2 /df = 1.82 (p students with low-level KAP. The positive and negative predictive values were 83.23% and 69.91%. The findings of this study demonstrate that the CS-TBKAPQ is a reliable and valid tool for measuring the KAP towards TB in college students.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Drug abuse is one of the complicated phenomenons in the human communities that it produces health problems. The effect of applying fear appeal message on attitudes and intention against drug abuse, drug resistance skills, knowledge about side effect of drugs and drug abuse related behaviors among male high school students was studied based on applying extended parallel process model as a theoretical framework. Materials & Methods: Two high schools were chosen from six state high schools as an intervention (n=86 and control (n=97 groups. Educational curriculum, that was designed, based on students’ educational needs, appealed students’ fear and recommended messages developed students' ability for resisting against drugs. Before intervention 5-6 students who were known as a favourite and leader of students, were selected by student’s opinion in each class as students' leaders. The each leader of the group had a coordinator and mediate role between his group and health educators. Henceforth a favourite teacher was chosen by students’ vote for helping health educators and participated in the educational intervention program.Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for intention (t= -4.03, p<0.000 and attitude against drug abuse (t= -6.19, p<0.000, peer resistance skills (t=-0.82, p<0.000, and knowledge (t= -10.88, p<0.000. In addition, it was not found positive urinary rapid immune-chromatography test for opium and marijuana in the intervention group whereas 6.3% in the control groups.Conclusion: This findings suggest that applying fear appeals theories and effective health risk message would be an efficient tool for preventing drug abuse education programs but further studies are needed to define function of EPPM as a effective model for creating social inoculation against drug abuse among non- drug expose adolescents.
Jens O. Zinn
Full Text Available This article gives a brief overview of the main streams and recent developments of sociological research and theorising on risk. It outlines shifts in cultural theory on risk, from risk society to reflexive modernisation, from governmentality on risk to governmentality on uncertainty and adds the often neglected systems theory approach. Some important insights result from these developments: Risk and uncertainty should be interpreted as systematically linked to each other because there are different ways beyond instrumental rationality how risk can be managed. Furthermore, risk understood as rational calculation is an uncertain business, too. Risks are at the same time both real and socially constructed. Risks and uncertainties have to be managed case by case. When ignorance or uncertainty is too big there are no general rationalities available to make reasonable decisions. Finally, it is argued for more theoretical integration of the outlined approaches. The article finishes with some considerations regarding the contribution of sociology to risk research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601301
Thompson, Michael D.
Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…
Reconstructing or approximating objects from seemingly incomplete information is a frequent challenge in mathematics, science, and engineering. A multitude of tools designed to recover hidden information are based on Shannon’s classical sampling theorem, a central pillar of Sampling Theory. The growing need to efficiently obtain precise and tailored digital representations of complex objects and phenomena requires the maturation of available tools in Sampling Theory as well as the development of complementary, novel mathematical theories. Today, research themes such as Compressed Sensing and Frame Theory re-energize the broad area of Sampling Theory. This volume illustrates the renaissance that the area of Sampling Theory is currently experiencing. It touches upon trendsetting areas such as Compressed Sensing, Finite Frames, Parametric Partial Differential Equations, Quantization, Finite Rate of Innovation, System Theory, as well as sampling in Geometry and Algebraic Topology.
Yu, Haiying; Jiang, Minghui; Li, Chengzhang
Industry clusters have outperformed in economic development in most developing countries. The contributions of industrial clusters have been recognized as promotion of regional business and the alleviation of economic and social costs. It is no doubt globalization is rendering clusters in accelerating the competitiveness of economic activities. In accordance, many ideas and concepts involve in illustrating evolution tendency, stimulating the clusters development, meanwhile, avoiding industrial clusters recession. The term chaos theory is introduced to explain inherent relationship of features within industry clusters. A preferred life cycle approach is proposed for industrial cluster recessive theory analysis. Lyapunov exponents and Wolf model are presented for chaotic identification and examination. A case study of Tianjin, China has verified the model effectiveness. The investigations indicate that the approaches outperform in explaining chaos properties in industrial clusters, which demonstrates industrial clusters evolution, solves empirical issues and generates corresponding strategies.
Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank
Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…
Bhana, Varshika M
Student nurses require training in the development of the interpersonal skills that are required for therapeutic nurse-patient relationships. This training should be provided within the basic education of nurses in a higher education institution. As the birth years of Generation Y range from the early 1980s to the late 1990s this generation is of the age group that enrols in higher education institutions. The unique learning needs of this generation necessitate a review of teaching strategies used in the development of interpersonal skills. The aim of this study is to present a literature review on the significance and development of interpersonal skills in Generation Y nursing students through nursing education. Literature searches were conducted on databases-with the use of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Clinical key, PubMed and Google Scholar-using specific keywords and a timeframe of 2005 to 2013. All relevant articles were read critically. Interpersonal skills are at the core of the nurse-patient relationship. Meaningful interaction is recognised in Swanson's theory of "informed caring". Debates, case studies, role-playing, storytelling, journaling, simulations and web page links to audio and video clips are some of the teaching strategies which can develop the interpersonal skills needed for meaningful interactions. Teaching strategies embedded in the deconstruction pedagogies stimulate critical, analytical thinking through methods which complement the unique learning styles of Generation Y learners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article reports on the process of producing a film for students in a university course. The purpose of the production was to make local film material that could assist students in their learning of developmental cognitive psychology theory in general, but specifically also the mathematical cognition of children. Although the students in the production team set out as actors and technical helpers, they gradually appropriated their acting roles and the plot of the story to the extent that they learned the theory that the film was portraying. Not only did they show interest in the psychology texts and the story, but they also developed agency – they became the owners of the film. The argument of this paper is that a multimodal foundation in teacher education can give students multiple semiotic entry points, but also, if given the opportunity to make a dramatic film, they can learn the content of mathematical cognition while learning film production. The article argues that contemporary teacher education programmes are by their very nature briefed to be multimodal, because teachers’ work in schools in the 21st century requires more than language text and oral, in-person communication.
Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.
This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…
Xu, Xianglong; Pu, Yang; Sharma, Manoj; Rao, Yunshuang; Cai, Yilin; Zhao, Yong
(1) Background: Generally suggested public health measures to reduce obesity were to limit television (TV) viewing, enhance daily physical activities, enable the consumption of fruit and vegetables, and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake. This study analyzed the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these behaviors among Chinese undergraduate students. (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1976 undergraduate students from six universities in Chongqing, China. A self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behavior scale based on social cognitive theory was utilized. (3) Results: This study included 687 (34.77%) males and 1289 (65.23%) females. A total of 60.14% of the students engaged in exercise for less than 30 min per day. Approximately 16.5%of the participants spent at least 4 h watching TV and sitting in front of a computer daily. Approximately 79% of the participants consumed less than five cups of fruit and vegetables daily. Undergraduate students who had high self-efficacy scores had more leisure time physical activities. Those who have high expectation scores had considerable time watching TV and sitting in front of a computer. Undergraduate students who had high expectation and self-efficacy scores had substantially low consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Those who had high self-efficacy scores consumed considerable amounts of fruit and vegetables. Furthermore, the type of university, BMI group, gender, age, lack of siblings, and grade level were associated with the aforementioned four behaviors. (4) Conclusion: Physical inactivity and unhealthy nutrition behaviors are common among undergraduate students. This study used social cognitive theory to provide several implications for limiting the TV viewing, enhancing daily physical activities, consuming fruit and vegetables, and reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake among undergraduate students.
Peens, B J; Louw, D A
Kohlberg's theory of moral development was based on extensive research done on the reactions of people of all ages to specific moral situational dilemmas. Kohlberg was specifically interested in reasoning processes involved in decision-making. The way in which children perceive their rights is also based on reasoning processes that are inextricably linked to their level of development and more specifically to their level of moral development since the area of human rights can be considered essentially moral. Since Kohlberg's theory is primarily concerned with development, a great deal of insight can be gained into the developmental shift that occurs in children's reasoning about the rights to which they feel they should be entitled. This article focuses on Kohlberg's six-stage theory, specifically as it pertains to reasoning processes similar to those that would be used in rights reasoning. At each stage the authors propose a potential view of how children at each developmental stage might perceive their rights based on the description Kohlberg gives of the developmental trends associated with each stage. A critical assessment of Kohlberg's work is also given in order to highlight certain considerations about the limitations of this theory that need to be considered for future research.
McCalla, C., Sr.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.
Mar, Raymond A.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Moore, Chris
Exposure to different forms of narrative media may influence children's development of theory-of-mind. Because engagement with fictional narratives provides one with information about the social world, and possibly draws upon theory-of-mind processes during comprehension, exposure to storybooks, movies, and television may influence theory-of-mind…
Lima, Maria de Fátima Gomes; Pequeno, Alice Maria Correia; Rodrigues, Dafne Paiva; Carneiro, Cleide; Morais, Ana Patrícia Pereira; Negreiros, Francisca Diana da Silva
To analyze the development of professional skills in an obstetric nursing graduate course. Qualitative research, applying semi-structured interviews with 11 students in the obstetric nursing specialization at the State University of Ceará. Data was submitted to thematic review. According to the subjects, the course offers the development of skills to strengthen and expand the range of activities in obstetric nursing. Despite relying on previous knowledge and experience acquired by the students, there is a gap between the content taught and internship practice, presented as challenges and difficulties faced by the students. The findings suggest a need for curricular revision, incorporating active teaching-learning methodologies, to overcome the disjunction between theory and practice. Students are part of a corpus that is potentially implicated in the construction and transformation of thoughts and values set forth by educational and health institutions, and it is necessary to make changes in political and social organizations, with a focus on providing comprehensive and egalitarian care to the population. Analisar o desenvolvimento de competências profissionais em curso de pós-graduação em Enfermagem Obstétrica. Pesquisa qualitativa, utilizando entrevista semiestruturada com 11 egressos da especialização em Enfermagem Obstétrica da Universidade Estadual do Ceará. Dados submetidos à análise temática. Na ótica dos sujeitos, o curso confere o desenvolvimento de competências que fortalecem e ampliam o campo de atuação da enfermagem obstétrica. Embora resgate o conhecimento prévio dos discentes e as experiências vivenciadas, há distanciamento entre conteúdos ministrados e a prática de estágios, apresentados como desafios e dificuldades enfrentadas pelos egressos. Os achados sugerem revisão curricular, incorporando as metodologias ativas de ensino-aprendizagem, superando a fragmentação entre teoria e prática. Os egressos se constituem em um
Dimitrov, Nanda; Dawson, Debra L.; Olsen, Karyn C.; Meadows, Ken N.
This study explores how teaching development programs may facilitate the development of intercultural competence in graduate students and prepare them for communicating effectively in the global workplace after graduation. First, we describe the concept of intercultural teaching competence and examine the skills that graduate students may need to…
Puolakka, Kristiina; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Kiikkala, Irma; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Paavilainen, Eija
To discuss the creation of a substantive theory using grounded theory. This article provides an example of generating theory from a study of mental health promotion at a high school in Finland. Grounded theory is a method for creating explanatory theory. It is a valuable tool for health professionals when studying phenomena that affect patients' health, offering a deeper understanding of nursing methods and knowledge. Interviews with school employees, students and parents, and verbal responses to the 'school wellbeing profile survey', as well as working group memos related to the development activities. Participating children were aged between 12 and 15. The analysis was conducted by applying the grounded theory method and involved open coding of the material, constant comparison, axial coding and selective coding after identifying the core category. The analysis produced concepts about mental health promotion in school and assumptions about relationships. Grounded theory proved to be an effective means of eliciting people's viewpoints on mental health promotion. The personal views of different parties make it easier to identify an action applicable to practice.
Pike, Gary R.; Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.
This research examined the relationships among students' academic majors, levels of engagement, and learning outcomes within the context of Holland's person-environment theory of vocational and educational behavior. The study focused on the role of student engagement as a mediating agent in the relationships between academic majors and student…
Utami, Wiwik Sri; Sumarmi; Ruja, I. Nyoman; Utaya, Sugeng
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of geography student worksheet in developing high school students' learning experiences. The student worksheet was planned to gain opportunity to develop creative and geography skills. The effectiveness is assessed from the contribution of the worksheets in improving the skills of…
Ozbay, Ozden; Ozcan, Yusuf Ziya
In this study, Hirschi's social bonding theory is employed to identify what aspects of the theory can explain male and female delinquency and whether social bonding variables can equally explain male and female delinquency (generalizability problem) in a developing society, Turkey. The data include a two-stage-stratified cluster sample of 1,710 high school students from the central districts of Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The findings suggest that social bonding variables play a more important role for male students than for female students. Furthermore, they indicate that components of the social bonding theory can equally explain both male and female delinquent acts.
Brien, Sarah; Parry, Marcus
Background For an increasingly busy and geographically dispersed faculty, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, developed a range of Web-based faculty development modules, based on Kolb’s experiential learning cycle, to complement the faculty’s face-to-face workshops. Objective The objective of this study was to assess users’ views and perceptions of the effectiveness of Web-based faculty development modules based on Kolb’s experiential learning cycle. We explored (1) users’ satisfaction with the modules, (2) whether Kolb’s design framework supported users’ learning, and (3) whether the design principle impacts their work as educators. Methods We gathered data from users over a 3-year period using evaluation surveys built into each of the seven modules. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and responses to open-ended questions were analyzed using content analysis. Results Out of the 409 module users, 283 completed the survey (69.1% response rate). Over 80% of the users reported being satisfied or very satisfied with seven individual aspects of the modules. The findings suggest a strong synergy between the design features that users rated most highly and the key stages of Kolb’s learning cycle. The use of simulations and videos to give the users an initial experience as well as the opportunity to “Have a go” and receive feedback in a safe environment were both considered particularly useful. In addition to providing an opportunity for reflection, many participants considered that the modules would enhance their roles as educators through: increasing their knowledge on various education topics and the required standards for medical training, and improving their skills in teaching and assessing students through practice and feedback and ultimately increasing their confidence. Conclusions Kolb’s theory-based design principle used for Web-based faculty development can support faculty to
Omer, Selma; Choi, Sunhea; Brien, Sarah; Parry, Marcus
For an increasingly busy and geographically dispersed faculty, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, developed a range of Web-based faculty development modules, based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle, to complement the faculty's face-to-face workshops. The objective of this study was to assess users' views and perceptions of the effectiveness of Web-based faculty development modules based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle. We explored (1) users' satisfaction with the modules, (2) whether Kolb's design framework supported users' learning, and (3) whether the design principle impacts their work as educators. We gathered data from users over a 3-year period using evaluation surveys built into each of the seven modules. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and responses to open-ended questions were analyzed using content analysis. Out of the 409 module users, 283 completed the survey (69.1% response rate). Over 80% of the users reported being satisfied or very satisfied with seven individual aspects of the modules. The findings suggest a strong synergy between the design features that users rated most highly and the key stages of Kolb's learning cycle. The use of simulations and videos to give the users an initial experience as well as the opportunity to "Have a go" and receive feedback in a safe environment were both considered particularly useful. In addition to providing an opportunity for reflection, many participants considered that the modules would enhance their roles as educators through: increasing their knowledge on various education topics and the required standards for medical training, and improving their skills in teaching and assessing students through practice and feedback and ultimately increasing their confidence. Kolb's theory-based design principle used for Web-based faculty development can support faculty to improve their skills and has impact on their role as educators
Ibrahim, Rania; Sarirete, Akila
Sustainable education requires a new approach to knowledge acquisition and learning. This approach is manifested in merging student experience inside and outside the classroom, which eventually results in shaping the 21 st century lifelong learner. This paper presents an innovative student development model based on the constructivist approach; showing the collaboration between student affairs and academics. Furthermore, it illustrates a unique experience implemented at Effat University for developing the student as a whole person. This is done to complement the student's academic experience with the necessary skills and abilities derived from Effat University mission that focuses on creating women leaders. The student finds herself in a journey of self development and growth throughout the course of her study until graduation. At the time of graduation, she is equipped with all what it takes to be a successful career woman and a leader of change in her society.