WorldWideScience

Sample records for student behavior peer

  1. College students' behavioral reactions upon witnessing relational peer aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji-In; Bellmore, Amy

    2014-01-01

    With a sample of 228 college students (82.5% females) from the Midwestern United States, individual factors that contribute to emerging adults' behavioral responses when witnessing relational aggression among their peers were explored. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was found to be systematically associated with college students' behavioral responses to relational aggression through two social cognitive processes: normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was associated with defending behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and both assisting and reinforcing behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression and susceptibility to peer influence. The experience of witnessing relational aggression was also associated with onlooking behavior through normative beliefs about relational aggression. The findings indicate that exposure to relational aggression as a witness may influence witness responses because of the way such exposure may shape specific social cognitions. The potential for using the study findings for promoting effective witness interventions among college students is discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The association of peer pressure and peer affiliation with the health risk behaviors of secondary school students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, A Y; Mak, Y W; Wu, C S T

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peer pressure and the health risk behaviors of secondary school students. Cross-sectional study using a self-completed questionnaire. Secondary school students in Year 3 were the target population of this study. Information was solicited from students on their perceptions of peer pressure using a questionnaire employing the Peer Pressure Inventory and their involvement in risk behaviors using a modified global school-based student health survey. A total of 840 secondary students from Hong Kong completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of secondary students who had ever smoked was 6.4%, consumed alcohol 39.2%, ever used drugs 0.5%, were sexually active 3.9%, and involved in bullying 20.5%. A higher proportion of secondary students involved in risk behaviors were affiliated with peers who were involved in the same activities: smoking (48.9%), drinking alcohol (86.5%), using drugs (18.2%), engaged in sexual activity (34.5%), and bullying (82.6%). The perception of peer conformity and peer involvement was found to be significantly correlated with the students' health risk behaviors, particularly with regard to smoking, drinking alcohol, and bullying. A logistic regression analysis showed that having friends who are involved in the same risk behaviors is the single most important factor associated with the participation of secondary students in those specific risk behaviors. The results of this study provided a better understanding of the association between peer pressure and the adoption of health behaviors. The development of effective peer-led prevention programs to reduce the uptake of health risk behaviors should therefore be promoted to prevent adolescents from developing serious health problems. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders' energy balance-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B C; Shrewsbury, V A; Hardy, L L; Flood, V M; Byth, K; Shah, S

    2017-09-07

    Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders' fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415) who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P peer leaders' intentions, except MVPA which remained stable. The SALSA program had a positive impact on peer leaders' EBRBs, with gender and socio-economic status moderating some outcomes. ACTRN12617000712303 retrospectively registered.

  4. Impact of Parents and Peers Smoking on Tobacco Consumption Behavior of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resen, Hussein Mohammed

    2018-03-27

    Introduction: In the United Arab Emirates, smoking prevalence has increased in both sexes, especially among young adults. Various factors have led to this catastrophe; examples include coverage on TV and social media, as well as market availability. One major influence is smoking by parents and peers. A lot of students may start smoking because of the behavior of their family and friends, and therefore it is necessary to quantify adverse contributions. The aim of this project was to study to what degree parents and peers smoking habits may impact on smoking behavior of students at the University of Sharjah. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study with a non-probability convenient type of sampling, was conducted with university students aged 18 to 23. Information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, comprising 23 questions, developed by ourselves. Results: A total of 400 University of Sharjah students (50% males and 50% females) were included.Some 15.8% of the smoking students had smoking parents, and 17.1% of them had smoking peers. The respective figures were 22.2% and 21.7% for males and 10% and 7.8% for females. Conclusions: Peers had a stronger impact than parents and both parents and peers had greater influence on males than on females. Interestingly, almost 80% of the smoking students did not have smoking parents or peers, which leaves the question unanswered of why they started smoking in the first place. Actions at a societal level should be taken into consideration to prevent smoking and thus help create a non-smoking generation. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. The Role of Peers in Predicting Students' Homophobic Behavior: Effects of Peer Aggression, Prejudice, and Sexual Orientation Identity Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Rivers, Ian; Vecho, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological framework, there has been growing attention on the role of peers in accounting for adolescents' homophobic behavior. In this study, we considered whether individuals' homophobic behavior could be attributed to their peers' collective levels of aggression, sexual prejudice, and importance placed on their sexual…

  6. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders’ energy balance-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Foley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA program on SALSA peer leaders’ EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. Methods We used a pre–post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15–16 year olds who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13–14 year olds. This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders’ fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. Results There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415 who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P < 0.01; eating ≥5 serves vegetables/day from 8 to 12% (P < 0.01; and drinking <1 cup/day of SSBs from 56 to 62% (P < 0.01. Change in ≥60 min MVPA participation/day depended on gender (P < 0.01: Boys increased 14% while girls decreased −2%. Changes in eating breakfast daily also depended on gender (P < 0.004: Boys increased 13% while girls decreased −0.4%. The change in peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P < 0.05: above average

  7. A Comparative Investigation of Environmental Behaviors of Gifted Students and Their Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Sontay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to compare gifted and non-gifted students’ behaviors towards environment. The sample of the study consisted of 364 sixth, seventh and eighth graders attending six different middle schools in the city of Amasya and 34 gifted sixth, seventh and eighth graders attending the Amasya Science and Art Center in Turkey. Data was collected through a 12-item “Environmental Behavior Scale (EBS” developed by the researchers. Independent samples t-test was used to compare scores. The findings showed that gifted students were superior to their peers in terms of showing positive environmental behaviors.

  8. Peer Contexts: Do Old for Grade and Retained Peers Influence Student Behavior in Middle School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschkin, Clara G.; Glennie, Elizabeth; Beck, Audrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many school systems have ended social promotion by implementing accountability systems where students who fail academic assessments are retained in grade. Additionally, some parents have delayed their children's entry into school, believing that older students have an advantage. While research has examined outcomes for students who…

  9. Using Peer-Mediated Literacy-Based Behavioral Interventions to Increase First Aid Safety Skills in Students With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Kelly B; Brady, Michael P; Hall, Kalynn; Honsberger, Toby

    2017-08-01

    Many adolescents with developmental disabilities do not learn the safety skills needed to maintain physical well-being in domestic and community environments. Literacy-based behavioral interventions (LBBIs) that combine print, pictures, and behavioral rehearsal are effective for promoting acquisition and maintenance of self-care skills, but have not been investigated as safety skill intervention. Also, LBBIs have primarily been implemented by teachers and other professionals. In this study, a peer partner was taught to deliver an LBBI story to students so they would learn to perform a basic first aid routine: cleaning and dressing a wound. Results showed that students' accuracy with the first aid routine increased after a peer delivered the LBBI instructional package, and maintained after the peer stopped delivering it. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the LBBI instructional package for teaching first aid safety skills, and extends previous research showing the efficacy of peers in delivering this intervention.

  10. Conflicts between On-Task and Off-Task Behaviors in the Classroom: The Influences of Parental Monitoring, Peer Value Orientations, Students' Goals, and Their Value Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Britta; Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Students in class are sometimes torn between following the lesson and engaging in off-task behavior. In this paper, instead of classifying it as a form of deviant behavior, off-task behavior is reconstructed as a manifestation of students multiple motivations in the classroom. The study examines whether parental monitoring, peer value…

  11. Understanding the antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy: parental influence, peer influence, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, Namauk; Yoo, Jina

    2011-12-29

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents' drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy.

  12. The Effect of Peer Education upon Breast Self-Examination Behaviors and Self-Esteem among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayran, Gulsun; Fırat, Meryem; Kucukakca, Gulden; Cuneydioğlu, Beyazıt; Tahta, Kubra; Avcı, Esra

    2017-07-01

    The current study was semi-experimentally designed in order to identify the effect of peer education upon breast self-examination (BSE) behaviors and self-esteem among university students. The study was undertaken with 100 female students who studied at Erzincan University. Peer educators were recruited from the 4th year students. The data were collected with a questionnaire form, BSE skill form and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale in two phases one month before and after the BSE peer education. For the data assessment; percentage distributions, frequency, mean, standard deviation and Simple T test were employed. The mean age of the participant students was 20.45±1.67 year and all of them were single. It was found that during the first data collection phase, only 16 % of the students performed BSE while during the final data collection phase, the rate of the students performing BSE rose to 77 %. During the first data collection phase, students received a mean score of 2.36±4.13 from BSE skill form while during the last data collection phase they had a mean score of 10.70±3.40 from BSE skill form. When the scores obtained from Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale by the students were examined, it was seen that they received a mean score of 1.20±1.34 during the first data collection phase while they had a mean score of 0.84±1.07 during the final data collection phase. Although short-term feedback was obtained, it was noted that students' BSE knowledge and skills increased considerably.

  13. The Effect of Peer Education upon Breast Self-Examination Behaviors and Self-Esteem among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayran, Gulsun; Fırat, Meryem; Kucukakca, Gulden; Cuneydioğlu, Beyazıt; Tahta, Kubra; Avcı, Esra

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study was semi-experimentally designed in order to identify the effect of peer education upon breast self-examination (BSE) behaviors and self-esteem among university students. Materials and methods The study was undertaken with 100 female students who studied at Erzincan University. Peer educators were recruited from the 4th year students. The data were collected with a questionnaire form, BSE skill form and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale in two phases one month before and after the BSE peer education. For the data assessment; percentage distributions, frequency, mean, standard deviation and Simple T test were employed. Results The mean age of the participant students was 20.45±1.67 year and all of them were single. It was found that during the first data collection phase, only 16 % of the students performed BSE while during the final data collection phase, the rate of the students performing BSE rose to 77 %. During the first data collection phase, students received a mean score of 2.36±4.13 from BSE skill form while during the last data collection phase they had a mean score of 10.70±3.40 from BSE skill form. When the scores obtained from Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale by the students were examined, it was seen that they received a mean score of 1.20±1.34 during the first data collection phase while they had a mean score of 0.84±1.07 during the final data collection phase. Conclusion Although short-term feedback was obtained, it was noted that students’ BSE knowledge and skills increased considerably. PMID:28894853

  14. Video surveillance captures student hand hygiene behavior, reactivity to observation, and peer influence in Kenyan primary schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Pickering

    Full Text Available In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods.Student hand cleaning behavior was monitored with video surveillance and in-person structured observation, both simultaneously and separately, at four primary schools in urban Kenya over a study period of 8 weeks.Video surveillance and in-person observation captured similar rates of hand cleaning (absolute difference <5%, p = 0.74. Video surveillance documented higher hand cleaning rates (71% when at least one other person was present at the hand cleaning station, compared to when a student was alone (48%; rate ratio  = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01-1.28]. Students increased hand cleaning rates during simultaneous video and in-person monitoring as compared to single-method monitoring, suggesting reactivity to each method of monitoring. This trend was documented at schools receiving a handwashing with soap intervention, but not at schools receiving a sanitizer intervention.Video surveillance of hand hygiene behavior yields results comparable to in-person observation among schools in a resource-constrained setting. Video surveillance also has certain advantages over in-person observation, including rapid data processing and the capability to capture new behavioral insights. Peer influence can significantly improve student hand cleaning behavior and, when possible, should be exploited in the design and implementation of school hand hygiene programs.

  15. Peer Assessment of Student-Produced Mechanics Lab Report Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Scott S.; Aiken, John M.; Lin, Shih-Yin; Greco, Edwin F.; Alicea-Muñoz, Emily; Schatz, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    We examine changes in students' rating behavior during a semester-long sequence of peer evaluation laboratory exercises in an introductory mechanics course. We perform a quantitative analysis of the ratings given by students to peers' physics lab reports, and conduct interviews with students. We find that peers persistently assign higher ratings…

  16. Effects of Peer Tutoring and Academic Self-Monitoring on the Mathematics Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, Brittany L.; Evmenova, Anya; Brigham, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring coupled with academic self-monitoring on the mathematics vocabulary acquisition of students with emotional or behavioral disabilities (EBD). Six middle school students from diverse backgrounds with EBD attending a public, urban middle school participated in the study. A rigorous multiple…

  17. Peer assessment of student-produced mechanics lab report videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Scott S.; Aiken, John M.; Lin, Shih-Yin; Greco, Edwin F.; Alicea-Muñoz, Emily; Schatz, Michael F.

    2017-12-01

    We examine changes in students' rating behavior during a semester-long sequence of peer evaluation laboratory exercises in an introductory mechanics course. We perform a quantitative analysis of the ratings given by students to peers' physics lab reports, and conduct interviews with students. We find that peers persistently assign higher ratings to lab reports than do experts, that peers begin the semester by giving high ratings most frequently and end the semester with frequent middle ratings, and that peers go through the semester without much change in the frequency of low ratings. We then use student interviews to develop a model for student engagement with peer assessment. This model is based on two competing influences which appear to shape peer evaluation behavior: a strong disinclination to give poor ratings with a complementary preference to give high ratings when in doubt, and an attempt to develop an expertlike criticality when assessing peers' work.

  18. The influence of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soowon Park

    Full Text Available Peer influence on students' maladaptive behaviors has been well documented; however, the influence on positive development is less acknowledged.The purpose of this study was to examine anonymous peer influence on college students' prosocial behavior, specifically behavior for the improvement of society (i.e., donating money or participating in social campaigns via an experimental approach. The effects of indirect peer influence (IP and direct peer influence (DP on college students' prosocial behavior were examined.A total of 125 college students participated in an online survey and laboratory experiment. Self-reported helping behavior, social concern goals, and empathy were measured by the online survey. In the laboratory experiments, reading of a prosocial paragraph (IP and confederates' prosocial behavior (DP were manipulated. Participation in a signature campaign and money donation for illness were observed. Furthermore, 19 participants among those who donated were asked about their reasons for participating in such prosocial behavior.Prosocial behavior of anonymous peers (confederates exerts a profound influence on college students' participation in a signature campaign and money donation, whereas the reading of a prosocial paragraph has no effect. Furthermore, no participants reported peer influence as a reason for engaging in prosocial behavior.This finding supports and extends recent research examining the positive impacts of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is not only a foundational and consistent aspect of personality, as previous studies report, but is also highly malleable and unstable in response to immediate situations.

  19. Peer Victimization and Suicidal Behaviors among High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…

  20. Effectiveness of peer-led education on knowledge, attitude and risk behavior practices related to HIV among students at a Malaysian public university--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Normala; Rampal, Lekhraj; Jamil, Zubaidah; Zain, Azhar Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led education program related to HIV/AIDS among university students. randomized controlled trial with 276 university students at Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang in 2011. A peer-led education program on HIV prevention by university students. differences in knowledge, attitude and risk behavior practices related to HIV between baselines, immediate follow-up after intervention and after three months. Significant improvement in sound knowledge in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio, 1.75; 95% CI 1.01, 3.00; p=0.04) and improvement in good attitude related to HIV (Odds ratio 2.22; 95% CI 1.37, 3.61; p=0.01). The odds of high substance risk behavior was significantly reduced in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio 0.07; 95% CI 0.02, 0.34; p=0.01). The association between good knowledge and intervention was modified by the different time points (baseline, immediately after intervention and 3 months after intervention), ethnicity and gender. Peer-led education program in HIV prevention improves knowledge, attitude and substance risk behavior. Changes in sexual risk behavior may require a longer follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of peer education intervention on HIV/AIDS related sexual behaviors of secondary school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-09-07

    Worldwide, about 50% of all new cases of HIV occur in youth between age 15 and 24 years. Studies in various sub-Saharan African countries show that both out of school and in school adolescents and youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. School-based health education has been a cornerstone of youth-focused HIV prevention efforts since the early 1990s. In addition, peer-based interventions have become a common method to effect important health-related behavior changes and address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of peer education on changing HIV related risky sexual behaviors among school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quasi experimental study with peer education intervention was conducted in purposively selected four secondary schools (two secondary schools for the intervention and other two for the control group) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Five hundred sixty students from randomly selected sections of grade 11 were assessed through anonymous questionnaires conducted in pre- and post-intervention periods. Pertinent data on socio-demographic and sexual behavior related factors were collected. The statistical packages used for data entry and analysis were epi-info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0 respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regressions were used for testing association between peer education intervention and sexual behaviors of students. In addition to testing association between dependent and independent variables, multi-variable analysis was employed to control for the effects of confounding variables. When the pre and post intervention data of each group were compared, comprehensive Knowledge of HIV (P-Values =0.004) and willingness to go for HIV counseling and testing (P-value = 0.01) showed significant differences among intervention group students during post intervention period. Moreover, students in the intervention group were more likely to use condoms during post

  2. Relational perceptions in high school physical education: teacher- and peer-related predictors of female students' motivation, behavioral engagement, and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gairns, Felicity; Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE), there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students' relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students' perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a) engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b) satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c) were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy). Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE.

  3. Peer assessment of student-produced mechanics lab report videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott S. Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine changes in students’ rating behavior during a semester-long sequence of peer evaluation laboratory exercises in an introductory mechanics course. We perform a quantitative analysis of the ratings given by students to peers’ physics lab reports, and conduct interviews with students. We find that peers persistently assign higher ratings to lab reports than do experts, that peers begin the semester by giving high ratings most frequently and end the semester with frequent middle ratings, and that peers go through the semester without much change in the frequency of low ratings. We then use student interviews to develop a model for student engagement with peer assessment. This model is based on two competing influences which appear to shape peer evaluation behavior: a strong disinclination to give poor ratings with a complementary preference to give high ratings when in doubt, and an attempt to develop an expertlike criticality when assessing peers’ work.

  4. Alcohol perceptions and behavior in a residential peer social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Ott, Miles; Meisel, Matthew K; Barnett, Nancy P

    2017-01-01

    Personalized normative feedback is a recommended component of alcohol interventions targeting college students. However, normative data are commonly collected through campus-based surveys, not through actual participant-referent relationships. In the present investigation, we examined how misperceptions of residence hall peers, both overall using a global question and those designated as important peers using person-specific questions, were related to students' personal drinking behaviors. Participants were 108 students (88% freshman, 54% White, 51% female) residing in a single campus residence hall. Participants completed an online baseline survey in which they reported their own alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use using both an individual peer network measure and a global peer perception measure of their residential peers. We employed network autocorrelation models, which account for the inherent correlation between observations, to test hypotheses. Overall, participants accurately perceived the drinking of nominated friends but overestimated the drinking of residential peers. Consistent with hypotheses, overestimating nominated friend and global residential peer drinking predicted higher personal drinking, although perception of nominated peers was a stronger predictor. Interaction analyses showed that the relationship between global misperception and participant self-reported drinking was significant for heavy drinkers, but not non-heavy drinkers. The current findings explicate how student perceptions of peer drinking within an established social network influence drinking behaviors, which may be used to enhance the effectiveness of normative feedback interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Short-Term Dynamics of Peers and Delinquent Behavior: An Analysis of Bi-weekly Changes Within a High School Student Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Weerman (Frank); P. Wilcox (Pamela); C.J. Sullivan (Christopher J.)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Objectives:_ To analyze short-term changes in peer affiliations, offending behavior and routine activities in order to evaluate three different processes: peer selection, peer socialization and situational peer influences. _Methods:_ The short-term longitudinal TEENS study was

  6. Relational perceptions in high school physical education: Teacher- and peer-related predictors of female students' motivation, behavioral engagement, and social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity eGairns

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE, there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students’ relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students’ perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy. Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE.

  7. The influence of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho

    2017-01-01

    Background Peer influence on students’ maladaptive behaviors has been well documented; however, the influence on positive development is less acknowledged. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine anonymous peer influence on college students’ prosocial behavior, specifically behavior for the improvement of society (i.e., donating money or participating in social campaigns) via an experimental approach. The effects of indirect peer influence (IP) and direct peer influence (DP) on college students’ prosocial behavior were examined. Methods A total of 125 college students participated in an online survey and laboratory experiment. Self-reported helping behavior, social concern goals, and empathy were measured by the online survey. In the laboratory experiments, reading of a prosocial paragraph (IP) and confederates’ prosocial behavior (DP) were manipulated. Participation in a signature campaign and money donation for illness were observed. Furthermore, 19 participants among those who donated were asked about their reasons for participating in such prosocial behavior. Results Prosocial behavior of anonymous peers (confederates) exerts a profound influence on college students’ participation in a signature campaign and money donation, whereas the reading of a prosocial paragraph has no effect. Furthermore, no participants reported peer influence as a reason for engaging in prosocial behavior. Conclusion This finding supports and extends recent research examining the positive impacts of anonymous peers on prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior is not only a foundational and consistent aspect of personality, as previous studies report, but is also highly malleable and unstable in response to immediate situations. PMID:29016612

  8. Dimensions of school climate: teachers' or principals' power styles and subjects' propensities to be climate vigilant as related to students' perceptions of satisfaction and of peers' abusive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoek-Miller, Nancy; Miller, Duane I; Shirachi, Miyoko; Hoda, Nicholas

    2002-08-01

    Two studies investigated teachers' and principals' power styles as related to college students' retrospective ratings of satisfaction and peers' abusive behavior. One study also investigated retrospective self-perception as related to students' sensitivity to the occurrence of physical and psychological abuse in the school environment. Among the findings were positive correlations between subjects' perceptions that their typical elementary school teacher used referent, legitimate, or expert power styles and subjects' reported satisfaction with their elementary school experience. Small but statistically significant correlations were found suggesting that principals' power style was weakly associated with ratings of psychological abuse in elementary school and physical abuse in middle school. Also, students who rated themselves as intelligent, sensitive, attractive, and depressive had higher ratings of perceived psychological and physical abuse at school. It was concluded that parameters of leaders' power styles and subjects' vigilance might be useful for understanding school climates. Experimentally designed studies are required.

  9. Peer/Self Assessment and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye, Abdou

    2017-01-01

    Effective and durable learning achievements can result from students' engagement in their own learning. This study explored students' perceptions of the mechanisms and processes through which peer and self-assessment can contribute to their learning. More specifically, the study investigated students' perceived ways in which peer and…

  10. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R

    2017-06-01

    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  11. Students' Informal Peer Feedback Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headington, Rita

    2018-01-01

    The nature and significance of students' informal peer feedback networks is an under-explored area. This paper offers the findings of a longitudinal investigation of the informal peer feedback networks of a cohort of student teachers [n = 105] across the three years of a UK primary education degree programme. It tracked the dynamic nature of these…

  12. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  13. Peer and Teacher Preference, Student-Teacher Relationships, Student Ethnicity, and Peer Victimization in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical linear…

  14. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  15. University students' attitudes towards peer assessment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the whole, the findings show that students were happy to peer assess but not so much to be peer assessed. Also, half of the participants estimated that their assessments did not match those to be expected by their course instructor even if the same assessment criteria were to be used. Some recommendations are ...

  16. Adolescents' perception of peer groups: Psychological, behavioral, and relational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyoon; Foote, Jeremy; Wittrock, Zachary; Xu, Siyu; Niu, Li; French, Doran C

    2017-07-01

    Adolescents' social cognitive understanding of their social world is often inaccurate and biased. Focusing on peer groups, this study examines how adolescents' psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics influence the extent to which they accurately identify their own and others' peer groups. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 1481 seventh- and tenth-grade Chinese students who are embedded with 346 peer groups. Overall, females and older students had more accurate perceptions. In addition, lower self-esteem, higher indegree centrality, and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of one's own groups, whereas higher academic performance and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of others' groups. Implications for understanding the connection between adolescents' psychological and behavioral traits, social relationships, and social cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PEER INTERACTIONS AND POSITIVE STUDENT-LECTURER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sets out to interrogate the role played by peer interactions in the teaching and learning of College Algebra in a classroom setting. It also explores the impact of positive student-lecturer relationship on teaching and learning of College Algebra at the university level and the general improvement of student ...

  18. Increasing Academic Skills of Students with Autism Using Fifth Grade Peers as Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Nonhandicapped fifth-grade students conducted tutoring sessions in math, language, and reading for two elementary-aged children with autism. Results demonstrated that normal peers could effectively increase academic behaviors of autistic students through tutoring activities. (Author/JDD)

  19. Prosocial behavior as a protective factor for children's peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R; Buhs, Eric S

    2014-07-01

    A majority of peer victimization research focuses on its associations with negative outcomes, yet efforts to understand possible protective factors that may mitigate these negative outcomes also require attention. The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of prosocial behaviors on loneliness for youth who are peer victimized. Participants were fourth and fifth grade students (511 total; 49 % boys) who were primarily European American (43.4 %) and Hispanic (48.2 %). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the interaction of prosocial behavior and peer victimization (relational and overt forms) on loneliness 1 year later. The results indicated that prosocial behavior significantly moderated the relationship between peer victimization (for the relational form only) and loneliness while controlling for levels of perceived peer support. A multi-group comparison by gender further indicated the moderation was significant for boys only. Potential implications for intervention/prevention efforts focused on developing children's prosocial skills as a possible protective factor for relationally victimized youth are discussed.

  20. Peer Rejection and Internalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Peer Victimization in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Aslan, Özge

    2018-05-23

    The author examined the relationship among peer rejection, peer victimization, and internalizing behaviors. The author hypothesized that physical and relational victimization would have a different indirect effect on the relationship between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. Participants were 94 preschool children (37 girls; average age 49.97 months) from two university preschools located in the northern part of the United States. The results indicated that internalizing behaviors predicted the mediating variables only regarding relational victimization. Relational victimization indirectly affected the association between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of victimization behaviors on the relationship among peer rejection, victimization, and internalizing behaviors.

  1. Prevalence and Mental Health Treatment of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior Among College Students Aged 18-25 Years and Their Non-College-Attending Peers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Beth; Compton, Wilson M; Eisenberg, Daniel; Milazzo-Sayre, Laura; McKeon, Richard; Hughes, Art

    2016-06-01

    College students have been the focus of many studies on suicidal ideation with or without suicidal behavior. Little attention has been given to their non-college-attending peers on these issues. We examined the 12-month prevalence and mental health treatment of suicidal ideation with or without suicidal behavior among college students aged 18-25 years and their non-college-attending peers in the United States. We assessed data from 135,300 persons aged 18-25 years who participated in the 2008-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were applied. Compared with full-time college students, high school students, those not enrolled in a school or college, and part-time college students were more likely to attempt suicide with a plan (model-adjusted prevalence = 0.67% vs 1.09%, 1.06%, and 1.07%, respectively). The mental health treatment rate among full-time college students with suicidal ideation with or without suicidal behavior was similar to the rates among the other 3 counterparts. The effects of race/ethnicity and serious mental illness on receipt of mental health treatment were significantly larger among those who did not perceive unmet treatment need than among those who perceived unmet treatment need (P = .019 and P = .001, respectively). Compared to full-time college students, non-college-attending young adults and part-time college students were at higher risk for attempting suicide with a plan. Suicide prevention and intervention strategies should emphasize increasing access to mental health treatment among both college students with suicidal ideation with or without suicidal behavior and their non-college-attending peers (particularly among minorities and those who seem to be at low risk because they are without serious mental illness and report no need for mental health treatment). © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. The Effects of Peer-Administered Token Reinforcement on Jump Rope Behaviors of Elementary Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Token economies have a long research and applied history within clinical settings and classroom education (Kazdin, 1982). However, despite reported successes in improving physical activity behaviors (Alstot, 2012), research examining token reinforcement implemented specifically in physical education is virtually nonexistent. Therefore, the purpose…

  3. Peer Review as a Strategy for Improving Students' Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is an established strategy for improving the quality of students' writing. This study moves beyond the focus on outcomes to assess the peer-review process. In particular, this study focuses on the timing of the peer review, a highly structured feedback form, and student writers' revisions after engaging in peer review. This study draws…

  4. Reconceptualizing Research on College Student Peer Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Kristen A.; Arnold, Karen D.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces to higher education Bronfenbrenner's ecology model of development. The model reflects reciprocal influences of individuals and their environments and offers needed advances in understanding, studying, and influencing college student peer groups. Describes the model, draws illustrations from research, and analyzes its implications for…

  5. Peer to peer mentoring: Outcomes of third-year midwifery students mentoring first-year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Rosemarie; Fox, Deborah; Barratt-See, Georgina

    2017-06-01

    Undergraduate midwifery students commonly experience anxiety in relation to their first clinical placement. A peer mentoring program for midwifery students was implemented in an urban Australian university. The participants were first-year mentee and third-year mentor students studying a three-year Bachelor degree in midwifery. The program offered peer support to first-year midwifery students who had little or no previous exposure to hospital clinical settings. Mentors received the opportunity to develop mentoring and leadership skills. The aim was to explore the benefits, if any, of a peer mentoring program for midwifery students. The peer mentoring program was implemented in 2012. Sixty-three peer mentors and 170 mentees participated over three academic years. Surveys were distributed at the end of each academic year. Quantitative survey data were analysed descriptively and qualitative survey data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 software. Over 80% of mentors and mentees felt that the program helped mentees adjust to their midwifery clinical placement. At least 75% of mentors benefited, in developing their communication, mentoring and leadership skills. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data, including 'Receiving start-up advice'; 'Knowing she was there' and 'Wanting more face to face time'. There is a paucity of literature on midwifery student peer mentoring. The findings of this program demonstrate the value of peer support for mentees and adds knowledge about the mentor experience for undergraduate midwifery students. The peer mentor program was of benefit to the majority of midwifery students. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relational Aggression in Peer and Dating Relationships: Links to Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…

  7. Training Peer Sexual Health Educators: Changes in Knowledge, Counseling Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Britt L.; Krumboltz, John D.; Koopman, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Peer sexual health education programs are widespread on college campuses, but little research has assessed the effect of these programs on the peer educators. This study employed a repeated measures design to examine changes over the academic quarter in the knowledge, counseling self-efficacy, and sexual behavior of 70 college students enrolled in…

  8. Peer Tutoring Effects on Omani Students' English Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, Marwa N.; Aldhafri, Said S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the social cognitive learning theory (1997), peer learning can be viewed as an effective way of enhancing learning. In this study, peer tutoring, a form of peer learning, was examined. The current study investigated the influence of a peer tutoring program implemented at Sultan Qaboos University on students' English self-concept. 125…

  9. Scaffolding student engagement via online peer learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, M M; Bates, S P; Galloway, K W; Galloway, R K; Hardy, J A; Kay, A E; Kirsop, P; McQueen, H A

    2014-01-01

    We describe one aspect of a UK inter-institutional project wherein an online tool was used to support student generation of multiple choice questions. Across three universities and in five modules in physics, chemistry and biology, we introduced the PeerWise online system as a summative assessment tool in our classes, the desire being to increase student engagement, academic attainment and level of cognitive challenge. Engagement with the system was high with many students exceeding the minimum requirements set out in the assessment criteria. We explore the nature of student engagement and describe a working model to enable high-impact student-learning and academic gain with minimal instructor intervention. (paper)

  10. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  11. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents’ Intentions to Volunteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other’s prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental “chat room” paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55 % female, 45 % male; Mage = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., “e-confederates”), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants’ intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent “public” and “private” experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates’ prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors. PMID:26525387

  12. Dynamic Relationships Between Parental Monitoring, Peer Risk Involvement and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Bahamian Mid-Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja

    2015-06-01

    Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13-17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths' sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior.

  13. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide: Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students and Their Heterosexual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploskonka, Rachel Ann

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students are among the most vulnerable to suicidal ideation and behaviors when compared to both heterosexual college students and other, generally older, members of the LGB community (Oswalt & Wyatt, 2011). Joiner's (2005) interpersonal psychological theory of suicide seems to be a possible framework…

  14. Use of peer teaching to enhance student and patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharjo, Robert; Hoy, Georgina

    This article describes an evaluation of a peer-teaching project undertaken by second-year nursing students at a higher education institution in England. The initiative has enhanced the students' understanding of peer education. The importance of the nurse's role in patient education is emphasised. It is hoped that the experience of peer teaching will prepare nursing students for their future roles as nurse educators for patients, students and other staff.

  15. Designing student peer assessment in higher education: Analysis of written and oral peer feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, I.; Admiraal, W.; Pilot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Designing student peer assessment in higher education: analysis of written and oral peer feedback Relating it to design features, the present article describes the nature of written and oral peer feedback as it occurred in seven writing courses, each with a different PA design. Results indicate that

  16. Students' use of Facebook for peer-to-peer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    are using Facebook groups to help each other with all kinds of school-related matters, including issues relating directly to academic subjects. Based on the findings from the study, the paper concludes that there is an educational potential of Facebook groups in supporting peer-to-peer learning between...

  17. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  18. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interprofessional Peer Teaching of Pharmacy and Physical Therapy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Cheryl A; Li, Johnson Ching-hong; Pasay, Darren; Jones, C Allyson

    2015-12-25

    To evaluate an interprofessional peer-teaching activity during which physical therapy students instructed undergraduate pharmacy students on 3 ambulatory devices (canes, crutches, walkers). The pre/post evaluation of 2 pharmacy undergraduate classes included 220 students, 110 per year. After pharmacy students completed a 10-point, knowledge-based pretest, they participated in a hands-on activity with physical therapy students teaching them about sizing, use, and safety of canes, crutches, and walkers. A 10-point posttest was completed immediately afterward. The mean difference of pre/post scores was 3.5 (SD 1.9) for the peer-led teaching, and 3.8 (SD 2.2) for the peer learning group. Students had positive responses regarding the learning exercise and recommended further peer teaching. The peer-learning activity involving physical therapy students teaching pharmacy students was an effective method of improving knowledge and skills regarding basic ambulatory devices.

  20. Nursing Student Peer Mentorship: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatinsky, Noelle; Harding, Katie; Carriere, Terra

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of peer student mentorship programs are making them increasingly popular in nursing education. This manuscript reviews and synthesizes 20 articles outlining key elements, outcomes, and barriers of nursing student peer mentorship programs to allow educators to create mentorship programs that meet the needs of their students, faculty,…

  1. Students' Perceptions of Social Relatedness in the Classroom: The Roles of Student-Teacher Interaction Quality, Children's Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Rebecca A.; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature clarifying teaching practices in elementary classrooms that promote students' social relatedness. The focus on teaching practices reflects the need to understand malleable elements of the classroom, which can then be targeted for professional development. Specifically, this study examines whether children…

  2. Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Peer Victimization in Taiwanese Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationships between social withdrawal, peer rejection and peer victimization among Taiwanese middle school students as well as to explore the applicability of relevant models in an East Asia culture context. The sample of this study consists of 219 7th grade students from middle schools in Taiwan. Data from…

  3. Peer Mentoring and Peer Tutoring among K-12 Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine research on peer mentoring among K-12 students to assist practitioners with how to incorporate these instructional techniques into their own music programs. Primary themes across the music education literature of peer mentoring include the role of music teachers, the role of students as they…

  4. In Peer Matters, Teachers Matter: Peer Group Influences on Students' Engagement Depend on Teacher Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet, Justin W.; Kindermann, Thomas A.; Skinner, Ellen A.

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the joint effects of teachers and peer groups as predictors of change in students' engagement during the first year of middle school, when the importance of peer relationships normatively increases and the quality of teacher-student relationships typically declines. To explore cumulative and contextualized joint effects, the…

  5. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among college students and same-aged peers: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortier, Philippe; Auerbach, Randy P.; Alonso, Jordi; Axinn, William G.; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David D.; Green, Jennifer G.; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.; Liu, Howard; Nock, Matthew K.; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; De Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Mcgrath, John J.; O’neill, Siobhan; Nakov, Vladimir; Pennell, Beth Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rapsey, Charlene; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    Purpose: The primary aims are to (1) obtain representative prevalence estimates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) among college students worldwide and (2) investigate whether STB is related to matriculation to and attrition from college. Methods: Data from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

  6. Collaborations That Promote Growth: Music Student Teachers as Peer Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draves, Tami J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the experiences of four music student teachers engaged in peer mentoring. This was an intrinsic case study with a focus on the peer-mentoring programme. Data included reflections on peer-mentoring activities and individual and focus group interviews. Five themes resulted from data analysis: expanding…

  7. Teaching doctors to treat doctors: medical student peer counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, J H; Roenneburg, M; Maly, B J

    1980-01-01

    Physicians' emotional problems need to be recognized and treated. Intervention and prevention in this problem area have been attempted at the Medical College of Wisconsin through a programme of peer counselling designed to teach student physicians how to recognize and treat emotional difficulties faced by their peers. During the 18 months that the programme has been in operation, 20 peer counsellors reported a total 1,185 hours spent in counselling their peers, lending credence to the speculation that doctors will turn to their peers for help if, in medical school, there is acceptance of fallibility and responsiveness on the part of peers.

  8. Developing students' teaching through peer observation and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Eliot L; Davies, Benjamin; Eastwood, Michael

    2015-10-01

    With the increasing popularity and scale of peer teaching, it is imperative to develop methods that ensure the quality of teaching provided by undergraduate students. We used an established faculty development and quality assurance process in a novel context: peer observation of teaching for undergraduate peer tutors. We have developed a form to record observations and aid the facilitation of feedback. In addition, experienced peer tutors have been trained to observe peer-taught sessions and provide tutors with verbal and written feedback. We have found peer observation of teaching to be a feasible and acceptable process for improving quality of teaching provided by undergraduate medical students. However, feedback regarding the quality of peer observer's feedback may help to develop students' abilities further.

  9. Peer Involvement in University Students' Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlations between peer involvement in students’ education and their self-perception, attachment style, relationships with peers, personality and well-being. We used the Inventory of parent and peer attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987, Relationship questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991, Questionnaire of the subjects’ self-perceptions (Cugmas, 2012 and The big five questionnaire (BFQ; Caprara et al, 2002. We developed the questionnaires of peer involvement and subjects’ well-being. Positive relationships with peers, secure attachment style, positive self-perceptions, some personal characteristics and well-being were positively associated with peer support, and negatively with peer pressure.

  10. The Associations among Sibling and Peer-Bullying, Social Support and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Samantha; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Klossing, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peer bullying is associated with internalizing problems for children and adolescents. However, less is known about how these same behaviors are related to student well-being when they occur within the context of the sibling relationship and how supportive behavior may benefit those experiencing bullying. Objective: The purpose of this…

  11. Dependability and Treatment Sensitivity of Multi-Item Direct Behavior Rating Scales for Interpersonal Peer Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian; Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) represents a feasible method for monitoring student behavior in the classroom; however, limited work to date has focused on the use of multi-item scales. The purposes of the study were to examine the (a) dependability of data obtained from a multi-item DBR designed to assess peer conflict and (b) treatment sensitivity…

  12. Predicting change in early adolescent problem behavior in the middle school years: a mesosystemic perspective on parenting and peer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.

  13. A Reciprocal Peer Review System to Support College Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2011-01-01

    As students' problem-solving processes in writing are rarely observed in face-to-face instruction, they have few opportunities to participate collaboratively in peer review to improve their texts. This study reports the design of a reciprocal peer review system for students to observe and learn from each other when writing. A sample of 95…

  14. Investigating Secondary School Students' Unmediated Peer Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivitanidou, Olia E.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Hovardas, Tasos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary school students' unmediated peer assessment skills. Specifically, 36 seventh graders, without receiving any kind of support, were anonymously assigned to reciprocally assess their peers' science web-portfolios. Additionally, students' attitudes towards and intentions about the use of…

  15. A Grounded Theory of Counseling Students Who Report Problematic Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.

    2014-01-01

    All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…

  16. Online Peer Review: Encouraging Student Response and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansiquot, Reneta; Rosalia, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the use of a tailored online peer review program for first-year undergraduate students at an urban college of technology. The program facilitated group peer review in meaningful and technologically elegant ways. Students in a composition class were divided into two groups. One group acted as first reviewers, and the other group…

  17. Transformational mentoring: Leadership behaviors of spinal cord injury peer mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert B; McBride, Christopher B; Casemore, Sheila; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership behaviors of spinal cord injury (SCI) peer mentors and examine whether behaviors of peer mentors align with the tenets of transformational leadership theory. A total of 12 SCI peer mentors aged 28-75 (M = 49.4) who had between 3 and 56 years (M = 13.9) of mentoring experience were recruited for the study. Utilizing a qualitative methodology (informed by a social constructionist approach), each mentor engaged in a semistructured interview about their experiences as a peer mentor. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to a directed content analysis. SCI peer mentors reported using mentorship behaviors and engaging with mentees in a manner that closely aligns with the core components of transformational leadership theory: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. A new subcomponent of inspirational motivation described as 'active promotion of achievement' was also identified and may be unique to the context of peer mentorship. SCI peer mentors inherently use behaviors associated with transformational leadership theory when interacting with mentees. The results from this study have the potential to inform SCI peer mentor training programs about specific leadership behaviors that mentors could be taught to use and could lead to more effective mentoring practices for people with SCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Which peer teaching methods do medical students prefer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Nithish; Srirathan, Danushan; Shah, Rishita; Jakubowska, Agnieszka; Clarke, Andrew; Annan, David; Albasha, Dekan

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of peer teaching in medical education have been well-described in the literature. However, it is unclear whether students prefer to be taught by peers in small or large group settings. This study's aim was to identify differences in medical students' preferences and perceptions of small-group versus large-group peer teaching. Questionnaires were administered to medical students in Year 3 and Year 4 (first 2 years of clinical training) at one institution in the United Kingdom to identify their experiences and perceptions of small-and large-group peer teaching. For this study, small-group peer teaching was defined as a tutorial, or similar, taught by peer tutor to a group of 5 students or less. Large-group peer teaching was defined as a lecture, or similar, taught by peer tutors to a group of more than 20 students. Seventy-three students (81% response rate) completed the questionnaires (54% males; median age of 23). Nearly 55% of respondents reported prior exposure to small-group peer teaching but a larger proportion of respondents (86%) had previously attended large-group peer teaching. Of all valid responses, 49% did not have a preference of peer teaching method while 47% preferred small-group peer teaching. The majority of Year 3 students preferred small-group peer teaching to no preference (62.5% vs 37.5%, Fisher's exact test; P = 0.035) whereas most Year 4 students did not report a particular preference. Likert-scale responses showed that the majority of students held negative perceptions about large-group peer teaching, in comparison with small-group peer teaching, with respect to (1) interactivity, (2) a comfortable environment to ask questions, and (3) feedback received. Most respondents in this study did not report a preference for small-versus large-group settings when taught by peers. More Year 3 respondents were likely to prefer small-group peer teaching as opposed to Year 4 respondents.

  19. Levels of Assertiveness and Peer Pressure of Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research was conducted in order to determine levels of assertiveness and peer pressure of the nursing students.Methodology: This descriptive research has been performed with 154 nursing students in Bozok University, The data were collected with Questionnaire Form, Rathus Assertiveness Inventory and Peer Pressure Scale. We used the data one way Anova, two samples t test, the relationship between several independent variables and scales were evaluated by Pearson correlation technique in order to evaluate the data with normal distribution.Results: It was seen that 69.5% of the students was assertive and mean scores for assertiveness of the male students (19.4±17.9 were higher than that of the female students (29.0±14.1. However, mean scores for peer pressure of the male students (56.6±12.4 were higher than that of the female students (44.0±8.8. It was found out that there was a positive direction middle level significant correlation between mean assertiveness scores and mean peer pressure scores of the studentsConclusion: Although we did not find any significant correlation between mean assertiveness scores and mean peer pressure scores, it was seen that male students were more assertive than female students and male students experienced peer pressure more than female students.

  20. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pascual-Ezama

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1. Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2, suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3.

  1. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  2. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

  3. Parents and Peers as Social Influences to Deter Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Henson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Growth curve analyses were used to investigate parents' and peers' influence on adolescents' choice to abstain from antisocial behavior in a community-based sample of 416 early adolescents living in the Southeastern United States. Participants were primarily European American (91%) and 51% were girls. Both parents and peers were important…

  4. Student Voices: Perspectives on Peer-to-Peer Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, Carolyn; Rosapep, Lauren; Barr, Sherry

    2017-01-01

    Background: This process study is a companion to a randomized evaluation of a school-based, peer-led comprehensive sexual health education program, Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), in which 11th- and 12th-grade students are trained by school health educators to conduct informative workshops with ninth-grade peers in schools in North…

  5. Telemedicine for Peer-to-Peer Psychiatry Learning between U.K. and Somaliland Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Ali, Faisal R.; Finlayson, Alexander E. T.; Handuleh, Jibriil; Adam, Gudon; Bowen, Jordan S. T.; Leather, Andrew; Little, Simon J.; Whitwell, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The proportion of U.K. medical students applying for psychiatry training continues to decline, whereas, in Somaliland, there are no public-sector psychiatrists. This pilot study assessed the usefulness and feasibility of online, instant messenger, peer-to-peer exchange for psychiatry education between cultures. Method: Twenty medical…

  6. Classroom peer relationships and behavioral engagement in elementary school: the role of social network equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W; Jackson, Daisy R

    2013-12-01

    Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties-social network equity-had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools.

  7. International Students as Peer Tutors: Is It Lawful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach-López, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in Principles of Accounting courses might require peer tutoring services. Accounting Departments (schools) can assist these students by maintaining a list of students offering tutoring services for a fee. The opportunity to be included in the list of tutors must be offered to all university students, both domestic and foreign.…

  8. Resistance to peer influence moderates the relationship between perceived (but not actual) peer norms and binge drinking in a college student social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Meisel, Matthew K; Balestrieri, Sara G; Ott, Miles Q; Cox, Melissa J; Clark, Melissa A; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-05-01

    Adolescent and young adult binge drinking is strongly associated with perceived social norms and the drinking behavior that occurs within peer networks. The extent to which an individual is influenced by the behavior of others may depend upon that individual's resistance to peer influence (RPI). Students in their first semester of college (N=1323; 54.7% female, 57% White, 15.1% Hispanic) reported on their own binge drinking, and the perceived binge drinking of up to 10 important peers in the first-year class. Using network autocorrelation models, we investigated cross-sectional relationships between participant's binge drinking frequency and the perceived and actual binge drinking frequency of important peers. We then tested the moderating role of RPI, expecting that greater RPI would weaken the relationship between perceived and actual peer binge drinking on participant binge drinking. Perceived and actual peer binge drinking were statistically significant predictors of participant binge drinking frequency in the past month, after controlling for covariates. RPI significantly moderated the association between perceptions of peer binge drinking and participant's own binge drinking; this association was weaker among participants with higher RPI compared to those with lower RPI. RPI did not interact with the actual binge drinking behavior of network peers. RPI may function to protect individuals from the effect of their perceptions about the binge drinking of peers, but not from the effect of the actual binge drinking of peers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Peer tutoring program for academic success of returning nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates among students in associate degree nursing programs are a concern for faculty, administrators, and students. Programs offering academic and emotional support for students at risk for failing a clinical course may decrease attrition rates and improve academic performance. A peer tutoring program was developed for returning nursing students who were unsuccessful in a previous clinical course. Peer tutors met with returning students weekly to review course work, complete case studies and practice NCLEX questions. Trusting, supportive relationships developed among students and a significant increase in grades was noted at the end of the course for 79% of students. Implementation of peer tutoring was beneficial for returning students, tutors, and the nursing program and may be valuable in other courses where academic achievement is a concern.

  10. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  11. STUDENT NURSES' EXPERIENCE OF A SYSTEM OF PEER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support

    A system of peer group supervision and accompaniment for student nurses has been in place at a ... The themes that were identified indicated that certain elements motivated nursing stu- dents to ..... tutors receive a financial incentive.

  12. A Peer-Support and Mindfulness Program to Improve the Mental Health of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus; Hassed, Craig; Moyes, Simon A; Elley, C Raina

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that peer-support programs can improve mental health indices and help-seeking behavior among students in some secondary school and university settings and that mindfulness can improve mental health in medical students. Peer-led programs have not been formally assessed in a medical student population, where psychological issues exist and where it has been shown that students approach peers for help in preference to staff members or professional services. Medical students elected peer leaders who underwent training and then provided the intervention. The peer leaders provided support to students in the intervention group, as well as offering teaching in mindfulness meditation. An exploratory study was conducted with 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students at 1 medical school in New Zealand randomized into 2 groups. In addition to existing mental health resources, intervention participants received a program including peer support and peer-taught mindfulness practice. Study participants not offered the intervention participants could use existing mental health resources. Primary measures included depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) scores. Secondary measures were quality of life, resilience (15-item resilience scale), academic self-concept, and motivation to learn, assessed at baseline and 6 months. Of the 402 students eligible, 275 (68%) participated and 232 (58%) completed the study. At baseline, 53% were female and mean age was 21 years (SD = 3)-PHQ-9 score (M = 5.2, SD = 3.7) and GAD-7 score (M = 4.5, SD = 3.4). Twelve peer leaders were elected. There was good participation in the intervention. One fourth of intervention students used the face-to-face peer support and more than 50% attended a peer social event and/or participated in the mindfulness program. Although improvements in mental health were seen in the intervention group, the difference between the intervention and nonintervention groups did not reach statistical significance. Although

  13. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students' Revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Hadiseh; Abasi, Maasumeh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students' subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students' first drafts, revisions, and reviewers' comments were…

  14. Part-Time Doctoral Student Socialization through Peer Mentorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lisa S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the socialization (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001) experiences of part-time doctoral students as a result of peer mentorship in one college. Part-time doctoral students are identified as students who are maintaining full-time employment or obligations outside of the university. The…

  15. Student Perceptions of Peer Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…

  16. Levels of Assertiveness and Peer Pressure of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Esin Arslan; Nazan Kiliç Akça; Mürüvvet Baser

    2013-01-01

    Background: The research was conducted in order to determine levels of assertiveness and peer pressure of the nursing students.Methodology: This descriptive research has been performed with 154 nursing students in Bozok University, The data were collected with Questionnaire Form, Rathus Assertiveness Inventory and Peer Pressure Scale. We used the data one way Anova, two samples t test, the relationship between several independent variables and scales were evaluated by Pearson correlation tech...

  17. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  18. Mentored peer reviewing for PhD faculty and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayun; Kim, Kyounghae; Kurtz, Melissa; Nolan, Marie T

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for scholars to be prepared as peer reviewers in order to ensure the continual publication of quality science. However, developing the skills to craft a constructive critique can be difficult. In this commentary, we discuss the use of a group peer review mentoring model for PhD students to gain experience in peer review from a faculty member who is experienced in peer review. Central to this model, was the opportunity for each student and faculty mentor to openly discuss their critique of the manuscript. Through this enriching experience, novice researchers were able to learn the elements of a good peer review, better determine a manuscript's substantive contribution to science, and advance the quality of their own manuscript writing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  20. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  1. Peer Assessment with Online Tools to Improve Student Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Leslie J.

    2012-11-01

    Introductory physics courses often require students to develop precise models of phenomena and represent these with diagrams, including free-body diagrams, light-ray diagrams, and maps of field lines. Instructors expect that students will adopt a certain rigor and precision when constructing these diagrams, but we want that rigor and precision to be an aid to sense-making rather than meeting seemingly arbitrary requirements set by the instructor. By giving students the authority to develop their own models and establish requirements for their diagrams, the sense that these are arbitrary requirements diminishes and students are more likely to see modeling as a sense-making activity. The practice of peer assessment can help students take ownership; however, it can be difficult for instructors to manage. Furthermore, it is not without risk: students can be reluctant to critique their peers, they may view this as the job of the instructor, and there is no guarantee that students will employ greater rigor and precision as a result of peer assessment. In this article, we describe one approach for peer assessment that can establish norms for diagrams in a way that is student driven, where students retain agency and authority in assessing and improving their work. We show that such an approach does indeed improve students' diagrams and abilities to assess their own work, without sacrificing students' authority and agency.

  2. Peer Review in Higher Education: Student Perceptions before and after Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Raoul A.; Pearce, Jon M.; Baik, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is integral to academic endeavour, but opportunities for students to benefit from peer review in higher education remain limited, and relatively little is known about how student perceptions influence their appreciation of peer review. University student perceptions were examined before and after experiencing student peer review in…

  3. The Effects of Autonomy Support on Student Engagement in Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangmei; Kim, ChanMin

    2018-01-01

    Although peer assessment is widely implemented in higher education, not all students are highly engaged in it. To enhance student engagement in peer assessment, we designed and developed a web-based tool, autonomy-supportive peer assessment (ASPA), to support students' need for autonomy when they conducted peer assessment. Students' sense of…

  4. Peer-Led Team Learning Helps Minority Students Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J; Sloane, Jeremy D; Dunk, Ryan D P; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-03-01

    Active learning methods have been shown to be superior to traditional lecture in terms of student achievement, and our findings on the use of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) concur. Students in our introductory biology course performed significantly better if they engaged in PLTL. There was also a drastic reduction in the failure rate for underrepresented minority (URM) students with PLTL, which further resulted in closing the achievement gap between URM and non-URM students. With such compelling findings, we strongly encourage the adoption of Peer-Led Team Learning in undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses.

  5. 父母、同伴及文化取向对青少年饮酒行为的影响%The analysis of the influence on the drinking behavior of students by parents,peers and cultural orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄烨; 梁雪梅; 刘可智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence on drinking behavior of the students by parent,peers and cultural orienta-tion.So to provide a scientific proof for the intervention of adolescent binge drinking.Methods Stratified cluster random sam-pling method was used in this study.644 students were randomly selected from 12 classes in the 4 schools in Luzhou city.The students were asked to finish the following questionnaires:the general questionnaire,the alcohol consumption scale(including the parents and peers'attitude toward alcohol)and the youth and cultural orientation scale.Results 644 questionnaires were handed out and retrieved 604 valid questionnaires,the effective rate was 93.8%.The total drinking rate was 36.6%.The male 's drinking rate was 38.3% and the female's was 34.5%.There were no statistical differences between the male and female drinking rate(P>0.05).There were no statistical differences in the drinking rate among the 3 different drinking attitude of parents groups (support,neutral,opposed to drinking alcohol)(P>0.05).Alcohol drinking rate was the highest in the peer support group (48.8%),while the drinking rate of the peer against drinking group was the lowest (32.2%).The drinking rate of the peer neutral group was between the above two groups (35%)and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05)。父母对饮酒持支持、中立、反对态度的3组青少年饮酒率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。同伴对饮酒持支持、中立、反对态度的3组青少年饮酒率分别为48.8%、35.0%、32.2%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。饮酒组与非饮酒组传统文化倾向得分比较[(3.12±0.55)分 vs.(3.26±0.58)分]差异有统计学意义(t=-2.95,P=0.03)。结论青少年饮酒行为普遍,父母的饮酒态度对青少年饮酒行为影响小,同伴对饮酒的支持态度更容易让青少年产生饮酒行为。“传统文化倾向”可能是青少年饮酒的保护因素。

  6. Effect of peer nominations of teacher-student support at individual and classroom levels on social and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E

    2014-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Replacing Lecture with Peer-led Workshops Improves Student Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Preszler, Ralph W.

    2009-01-01

    Peer-facilitated workshops enhanced interactivity in our introductory biology course, which led to increased student engagement and learning. A majority of students preferred attending two lectures and a workshop each week over attending three weekly lectures. In the workshops, students worked in small cooperative groups as they solved challenging problems, evaluated case studies, and participated in activities designed to improve their general learning skills. Students in the workshop versio...

  8. Student Voices: Perspectives on Peer-to-Peer Sexual Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, Carolyn; Rosapep, Lauren; Barr, Sherry

    2017-07-01

    This process study is a companion to a randomized evaluation of a school-based, peer-led comprehensive sexual health education program, Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), in which 11th- and 12th-grade students are trained by school health educators to conduct informative workshops with ninth-grade peers in schools in North Carolina. The process study was designed to understand youth participants' perspectives on the program in order to gain insight into program effectiveness. This is a mixed-methods study in 7 schools, with online surveys (N = 88) and 8 focus groups with peer educators (N = 116), end-of-program surveys (N = 1122), 8 focus groups with ninth-grade workshop participants (N = 89), and observations of the Teen PEP class and workshops during the semester of implementation in each school, 2012-2014. Both peer educators and ninth graders perceived benefits of participating in Teen PEP across a range of domains, including intentions, skills, and knowledge and that the peer education modality was important in their valuation of the experience. Our findings suggest that the peer-led comprehensive sexual health education approach embodied in Teen PEP can be an important educational mechanism for teaching students information and skills to promote sexual health. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  9. Peer influence on school learning among students of varying socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined peer Influence on School Learning among students of varying socio-economic backgrounds. One hundred and twenty students (60 males and 60 females) with a mean age 15.1 years were randomly selected from four co-educational Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government area of Ogun State.

  10. A Student Experience of Peer Assisted Study Sessions in Physiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Gisela; Rose, Andrew; Bennet, Tracey; Jaques, Katrina; Rippon, Zoe; van der Meer, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) were introduced as an optional learning experience in a Bachelor of Physiotherapy programme. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PASS from the student perspective. Eight third year physiotherapy students who had participated in PASS during their second year of training attended a focus group, at…

  11. Student peer reviewers' views on teaching innovations and imaginative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2016-04-01

    Various teaching innovations have been proven effective in promoting students' critical thinking, creativity, problem solving and active learning. However, little attention has been paid to the possibility of including students as peer reviewers to evaluate these innovations in light of imaginative learning. This study explored the perspective of senior students who played the role of the student peer reviewer on three teaching innovations, namely writing poetry, composing songs and creating role-plays in problem-based learning (PBL), specifically in relation to imaginative learning. A focus group interview. Ten senior nursing students who had experienced the conventional PBL approach but not the mentioned teaching innovations were invited to participate in reviewing a video recording of a PBL class using the above teaching innovations with a total of 18 junior year students. Five themes were identified using content analysis: (i) motivation to learn, (ii) increased empathy, (iii) information retention, (iv) development of critical thinking and creativity, and (v) drawbacks of teaching innovations. It is suggested that student peer reviewers should be considered, as they can bring an outsider-learner's views on understanding the impacts of teaching innovations on imaginative learning. A call should be made to invite student peer reviewers on teaching and learning approaches, and more effort should be devoted to promoting an understanding of how imaginative learning can be achieved via teaching innovations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Peering into the Brain to Predict Behavior: Peer-Reported, but not Self-Reported, Conscientiousness Links Threat-Related Amygdala Activity to Future Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. PMID:27717769

  13. Peering into the brain to predict behavior: Peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness links threat-related amygdala activity to future problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving Student Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pamela; Gilbert, Janice T.

    This report describes a program for improving the behavior of seventh and eighth grade students with learning disabilities in a self-contained classroom setting. Analysis of probable causes revealed that students demonstrated a lack of problem-solving skills, showed a low frustration tolerance, and exhibited poor self-concepts. Two major…

  15. Peer, social media, and alcohol marketing influences on college student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Angela A; McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney; Coleman, Ashley

    2018-07-01

    To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students' alcohol use through social media. College students (N = 682) aged 18 to 22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as well as moderation by gender and race. Drinking behavior was directly related to perceived norms and attitudes toward alcohol that develop, in part, from direct and indirect interactions with their online and offline peers, as well as engagement with alcohol-related content on social media. Gender and ethnicity moderated some effects. College student drinking is influenced by friends' alcohol-related content posted on social networking sites and by greater engagement with traditional and online alcohol marketing. College campus alcohol misuse interventions should include components to counter peer influences and alcohol marketing on social media.

  16. Colleges Use Peer Pressure To Encourage Healthy Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisberg, Leo

    2000-01-01

    Examines "social norms" marketing, an effort by several colleges and universities to encourage healthy student behaviors by countering perceptions of unhealthy "cool" behaviors and stressing the positive behaviors of "most" students. Examples of posters and other marketing strategies are from Virginia Commonwealth University, Gustavus Adolphus…

  17. Peer Teaching among Physical Therapy Students during Human Gross Anatomy: Perceptions of Peer Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W.; Hoffarth, Brianna L.; Kohlwey, Scott R.; Kramer, Christine M.; Petro, Jaime L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite nearly 200 accredited entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States that culminate in a doctoral degree, only a paucity of reports have been published regarding the efficacy of peer teaching in gross anatomy. No one has described the usefulness of peer teaching from the viewpoint of the peer teacher. An organized…

  18. Student prosocial behavior and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasenović Vera Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful learning and work. Also, correlation is interpreted by means of teacher’s preferences of prosocial students, which is reflected in teacher expectations and behavior towards students but in evaluating their work too. In addition, prosocial behavior may produce direct effects, for it is through peer prosocial interactions that positive intellectual exchange is performed, which contributes to more successful mastering of teaching content. The paper provides a survey of investigations whose results indicate that there exists correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Also, consideration is given to possible methods and treatments for encouraging prosocial behavior in school context, especially the role of teacher in the process and the importance of the program for promoting student prosocial skills.

  19. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  20. Student-peer mentoring on a drug information response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Jennifer Lin; Backo, Jennifer; Schmidt, Brittany M; Pruchnicki, Maria C

    2014-03-12

    To implement a student peer-mentoring program with a drug information response assignment in an introductory pharmacy practice course. Second-year student pharmacists (P2 mentors) enrolled in an independent study course were randomly assigned first-year student pharmacists (P1 mentees) to mentor on a drug information assignment. The P2 mentors provided feedback to P1 mentees' assignment drafts. The P1 mentees had the opportunity to revise the draft prior to turning in the completed assignment to course faculty members for grading. Both P1 mentees and P2 mentors agreed the mentorship improved their ability to prepare a drug information response (76% and 100%, respectively). A majority of the student pharmacists would choose to be involved in the program again. The student peer-mentoring program was successful in improving student pharmacists' perceptions of ability to compose a drug information response.

  1. Designing a Peer-Mentoring Program for Education Doctorate (EdD) Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kendra Lowery; Rachel Geesa; Kat McConnell

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: In preparation for creating a peer-mentoring program for education doctorate (EdD) students, we conducted a literature review to learn about the characteristics of peer-mentoring programs for graduate students and EdD students specifically. Method: Our search criteria included articles about peer mentoring for graduate students only; published in peer-reviewed journals since the year 2000; and about programs that involved more experienced students, students farther along in t...

  2. The Relationship between Class Attitudes towards Peers with a Disability and Peer Acceptance, Friendships and Peer Interactions of Students with a Disability in Regular Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Katja

    2018-01-01

    Students with a disability in inclusive classes often face problems with peer acceptance, friendships and peer interactions. In this paper, the relationship between these difficulties in social participation and the attitudes that typically developing adolescents hold towards peers with a disability at the level of the class was explored. A…

  3. Are Negative Peer Influences Domain Specific? Examining the Influence of Peers and Parents on Externalizing and Drug Use Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ronald B; Criss, Michael M; Harrist, Amanda W; Zapata-Roblyer, Martha

    2017-10-01

    Most studies tend to characterize peer influences as either positive or negative. In a sample of 1815 youth from 14 different schools in Caracas, Venezuela, we explored how two types of peer affiliations (i.e., deviant and drug-using peers) differentially mediated the paths from positive parenting to youth's externalizing behavior and licit and illicit drug use. We used Zero Inflated Poisson models to test the probability of use and the extent of use during the past 12 months. Results suggested that peer influences are domain specific among Venezuelan youth. That is, deviant peer affiliations mediated the path from positive parenting to youth externalizing behaviors, and peer drug-using affiliations mediated the paths to the drug use outcomes. Mediation effects were partial, suggesting that parenting explained unique variance in the outcomes after accounting for both peer variables, gender, and age. We discuss implications for the development of screening tools and for prevention interventions targeting adolescents from different cultures.

  4. [Correlation of resistance to peer pressure and risky decision-making with adolescent health risk behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xi; Zu, Ping; Mai, Jin-cheng; Liang, Jian-ping; Xu, Zhi-yong; Man, Xue-jun; Mao, Yan; Tao, Fang-biao

    2013-03-01

    To explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer pressure, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Based on the cluster sampling method, the participants who were recruited from 5 junior middle schools in Guangzhou and 3 junior middle schools in Shenyang city on October, 2010, were administered to complete the questionnaire concerned with their experiences with drinking and smoking during the past 30 days preceding the survey, and the hours using computer daily both in weekdays and in weekend. The level of resistance to peer influence and risky decision-making were assessed by Resistance to peer influence scale (RPIS) and Youth decision-making questionnaire (YDMQ). Logistic regression was used to explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer influence, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. A total of 1985 questionnaires were valid, including 1001(50.4%) boys and 984 (49.6%) girls. About 27.1% (537/1985) junior middle school students reported having health risk behaviors, boys' (30.7%, 307/1001) was higher than girls' (23.4%, 230/984) with significant gender difference (P peer influence (low and middle level vs high level, had odds ratios of 2.97 (1.96 - 4.50) and 1.51 (1.05 - 2.16)), and also the middle and high level of risky decision-making (middle and high level vs low level, had odds ratios of 1.62 (1.19 - 2.22) and 3.43 (2.39 - 4.90)) were all the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors. Adolescents with poor ability of resistance to peer pressure and high risky decision-making were both the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors.

  5. ASSESSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE ON INTERPRETING THROUGH PEER-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismailia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of translation interpreting is translating spoken discourse orally. It needs some requirements like ability to speak clearly, clarity, fluency, eye contact, and self-confidence. It also needs linguistic proficiency, analytical skill, listening and recall, interpersonal skills, ethical behaviour, speaking skills, cultural knowledge, and subject knowledge. Evaluating students performance on interpreting can be done through peer assessment. Peer- assessment is one of alternative assessment to grade the peers in group or individuals by commenting on and judging other students work. To do this process there is a join work between listening and speaking, and two students. The first student as a speaker and the second student as an interpreter. Both of them should do the same quality on speak clearly as a speaker and as an interpreter should able to listen and translating the spoken discourse orally. Evaluation can use analytical grade that allows teacher to set clear criteria for correction like fluency, grammar, terminology, general content, and mechanics. Students and teacher can give comment on every criteria based on their own competency. During the process on making criteria, students and teacher can discuss and give reasonable suggestion to make the assessment suitable to the students competency. At the end, a rubric of assessment with the score from 0 to 100 and criteria and also the comment included in the paper of assessment.

  6. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  7. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  8. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten Visby; Skyt Nielsen, Helena

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving schoolcohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  9. Rap Music Use, Perceived Peer Behavior, and Sexual Initiation Among Ethnic Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Baker, Kimberly A; Markham, Christine; Baumler, Elizabeth; Swain, Honora; Emery, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that rap music use is associated with risky sexual behavior in ethnic minority youth; however, it is unknown whether rap music use impacts sexual initiation specifically and, if so, which factors mediate this impact. Thus, we investigated the longitudinal relationship between hours spent listening to rap music in seventh grade and sexual initiation in ninth grade. We also examined the role of perceived peer sexual behavior as a potential mediator of this relationship. We analyzed data from students (n = 443) enrolled in a school-based randomized controlled trial of a sexual health education curriculum collected at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Rap music use and perceived peer sexual behavior were assessed in seventh grade, whereas sexual initiation was assessed in ninth grade. Univariate, multivariate, and mediation analyses were conducted. At baseline, rap music use was significantly associated with race/ethnicity, parental music rules, and sexual behavior, but not with gender or parental education. Rap music use was a significant predictor of sexual initiation on univariate analysis but not multivariate analysis. Mediation analysis showed that the association between hours spent listening to rap music and sexual initiation was significantly mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. Rap music use in early adolescence significantly impacts sexual initiation in late adolescence, partially mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. More research is needed to understand how rap music influences perceptions of peer sexual behavior, which, in turn, influence early sexual initiation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  11. APPLICATION OF PEER-TO-PEER ASSESSMENT OF WRITTEN WORKS OF STUDENTS IN STREAM INTERNAL COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д А Королев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At reduction of contact time in subject matters the instruments of preservation of active forms of studying for students assuming independent research work are required. One of such forms is peer-to- peer evaluation of works (peer assessment allowing to go beyond a narrow framework of automaticallychecked tests for the level of small research works. In article results of a two-year experiment on use of a piring on a stream course are given in MIEM Higher School of Economics National Research University taking into account specifics of audience rather mass online of courses.The received results and conclusions have formed a basis for modeling of ways of estimation of written works at peer-to-peer check without participation of the teacher. In an experiment schemes of estimation and motivation for management of a ratio of number of authors and reviewers have been fulfilled, and also the general questions of use of the offered system of assessment it is aware.

  12. A Behaviorally Specific, Empirical Alternative to Bullying: Aggravated Peer Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2016-11-01

    To test a behaviorally specific measure of serious peer victimization, called aggravated peer victimization (APV), using empirically derived aggravating elements of episodes (injury, weapon, bias content, sexual content, multiple perpetrators, and multiple contexts) and compare this measure with the conventional Olweus bullying (OB) measure, which uses repetition and power imbalance as its seriousness criteria. The data for this study come from The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence 2014, a study conducted via telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample. This analysis uses the 1,949 youth ages 10-17 from that survey. The APV measure identified twice as many youth with serious episodes involving injury, weapons, sexual assaults, and bias content as the OB measure. In terms of demographic and social characteristics, the groups were very similar. However, the APV explained significantly more of the variation in distress than the OB (R 2  = .19 vs. .12). An empirical approach to identifying the most serious incidents of peer victimization has advantages in identifying more of the youth suffering the effects of peer victimization. Moreover, its behaviorally specific criteria also bypass the difficult challenge of trying to reliably assess what is truly bullying with its ambiguous definitional element of power imbalance. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, S.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually

  14. Personal and Perceived Peer Use of and Attitudes Toward Alcohol Among University and College Students in Seven EU Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlaney, J.; Helmer, S. M.; Stock, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore perceptions of peer substance use and related attitudes among European students. Challenging perceptions about peer substance use has become the basis of a form of prevention and intervention known as the social norms approach, which can...... be delivered using personalized online feedback. This article reports baseline alcohol use and attitudes data for university students across Europe collected as part of the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE project (Project SNIPE). Method: Students from universities in Belgium...... agreed to participate. Results: Overall, respondents reported both perceived alcohol use and perceived acceptance of alcohol use among their peers that were higher than their own use or acceptance. Perceived peers' behaviors and attitudes were found to be predictive of personal behaviors and attitudes...

  15. Effect of Peer Education on Deaf Secondary School Students' HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of an AIDS education program on deaf secondary school students' knowledge, attitude and perceived susceptibility to AIDS using peer education. Two secondary schools matched for ownership (government), composition (mixture of hearing and deaf) and teaching arrangement (separate ...

  16. Evaluating a Psychology Graduate Student Peer Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Christina; Mullins, Morell E.

    2012-01-01

    Research on mentoring outcomes and characteristics of various types of mentoring programs in different settings is limited. The present study sampled 39 graduate students at a small Midwestern university to evaluate peer mentoring in a graduate school setting. Mentoring function and outcome relationships as well as program characteristics were…

  17. College Students' Openness toward Autism Spectrum Disorders: Improving Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Rose E. A.; White, Susan W.

    2011-01-01

    One probable consequence of rising rates of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in individuals without co-occurring intellectual disability is that more young adults with diagnoses or traits of ASD will attend college and require appropriate supports. This study sought to explore college students' openness to peers who demonstrate…

  18. Students' Perception and Practice of Writing through Peer-led ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' Perception and Practice of Writing through Peer-led Learning (PLL) at Bahir Dar University. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... parties to get the maximum benefit from PLTL; that is, the 'one-to-five' group discussion ...

  19. Business Students' Views of Peer Assessment on Class Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiew, Fidella

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to introduce peer and self assessment on tutorial class participation to a marketing unit at Curtin Sarawak. This assessment strategy was introduced with desire to improve class participation and increase student involvement in assessment. At the end of semester, a questionnaire was used to gather responses from a…

  20. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  1. Peer victimization: Intimidation and victmization in Chilean students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about peer intimidation and victimization with 1167 school students from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Valparaiso Region of Valparaíso, Chile. The instrument used was the Insebull Battery (Avilés & Elices, 2007. Results show that approximately 9% of students have been victim of peer victimization many times or almost every day during the school year. Psychological victimization was more frequent thanphysical aggression, particularly through virtual communication such as cell-phone messages and e-mails. Participants tend to be groups of male students. Although male students participate more in physical aggression, they also receive more physical and psychological aggression. The most frequent places were inside the classroom and the school yard, when the teacher is not present. Most students inform not knowing, or vaguely knowing, thereasons underlying these aggressions, and do not do anything to deal with them. These results coincide with international studies and allow a better understanding of the characteristics of peer victimization in specific educational contexts within the Chilean school system.

  2. Pre-University Chemistry Students in a Mimicked Scholarly Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rens, Lisette; Hermarij, Philip; Pilot, Albert; Beishuizen, Jos; Hofman, Herman; Wal, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is a significant component in scientific research. Introducing peer review into inquiry processes may be regarded as an aim to develop student understanding regarding quality in inquiries. This study examines student understanding in inquiry peer reviews among pre-university chemistry students, aged 16-17, when they enact a design of a…

  3. Where It All Began: Peer Education and Leadership in Student Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Stephanie R.; Kennedy, Tricia L.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of undergraduate students serving in peer leader or peer educator roles is relatively recent in the history of higher education. Peer leadership positions were first recorded in 1959 in the field of student services, specifically working with students entering college and living in residence halls. Beginning with the Hazen Report of…

  4. A Peer-Assessment Mobile Kung Fu Education Approach to Improving Students' Affective Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Fon-Chu; Chen, Jun-Ming; Chu, Hui-Chun; Yang, Kai-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Peer-assessment and video comment-sharing are effective learning strategies for students to receive feedback on their learning. Researchers have emphasized the need for well-designed peer involvement in order to improve students' abilities in the cognitive and affective domains. Although student perceptions of peer-assessment have been studied…

  5. Peer Positive Social Control and Men's Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Janie; Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Mercerat, Coralie; Gaboury, Isabelle; Tremblay, Gilles; de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Roy, Bernard; Auger, Nathalie; Lavoie, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Men are generally thought to be less inclined to take care of their health. To date, most studies about men's health have focused on deficits in self-care and difficulties in dealing with this sphere of their life. The present study reframes this perspective, using a salutogenic strengths-based approach and seeking to identify variables that influence men to take care of their health, rather than neglect it. This study focuses on the association between peer positive social control and men's health behaviors, while controlling for other important individual and social determinants (sociodemographic characteristics, health self-efficacy, home neighborhood, spousal positive social control, and the restrictive emotionality norm). In a mixed-method study, 669 men answered a self-reported questionnaire, and interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of 31 men. Quantitative results indicated that, even after controlling for sociodemographic variables and other important factors, peer positive social control was significantly associated with the six health behaviors measured in the study (health responsibility, nutrition, physical activity, interpersonal relations, stress management, and spirituality). Interview results revealed that peer positive social control influenced men's health behaviors through three different mechanisms: shared activity, being inspired, and serving as a positive role model for others. In summary, friends and coworkers could play a significant role in promoting various health behaviors among adult men in their daily life. Encouraging men to socialize and discuss health, and capitalizing on healthy men as role models appear to be effective ways to influence health behavior adoption among this specific population.

  6. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  7. Analysis of Student Performance in Peer Led Undergraduate Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Linda M.

    Foundations of Chemistry courses at the University of Kansas have traditionally accommodated nearly 1,000 individual students every year with a single course in a large lecture hall. To develop a more student-centered learning atmosphere, Peer Led Undergraduate Supplements (PLUS) were introduced to assist students, starting in the spring of 2010. PLUS was derived from the more well-known Peer-Led Team Learning with modifications to meet the specific needs of the university and the students. The yearlong investigation of PLUS Chemistry began in the fall of 2012 to allow for adequate development of materials and training of peer leaders. We examined the impact of academic achievement for students who attended PLUS sessions while controlling for high school GPA, math ACT scores, credit hours earned in high school, completion of calculus, gender, and those aspiring to be pharmacists (i.e., pre-pharmacy students). In a least linear squares multiple regression, PLUS participants performed on average one percent higher on exam scores for Chemistry 184 and four tenths of a percent on Chemistry 188 for each PLUS session attended. Pre-pharmacy students moderated the effect of PLUS attendance on chemistry achievement, ultimately negating any relative gain associated by attending PLUS sessions. Evidence of gender difference was demonstrated in the Chemistry 188 model, indicating females experience a greater benefit from PLUS sessions. Additionally, an item analysis studied the relationship between PLUS material to individual items on exams. The research discovered that students who attended PLUS session, answered the items correctly 10 to 20 percent more than their comparison group for PLUS interrelated items and no difference to 10 percent for non-PLUS related items. In summary, PLUS has a positive effect on exam performance in introductory chemistry courses at the University of Kansas.

  8. Peer mentoring: Enhancing the transition from student to professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Margaret; Stanyer, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    to share the experience of a model of peer mentoring in a pre-qualification midwifery programme DESIGN: description of the framework and benefits of the model SETTING: University and practice PARTICIPANTS: third year midwifery students INTERVENTIONS: practical activities meeting regulatory body requirements in a pre-qualification mentorship module MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: informal evaluations by students of key activities undertaken during peer mentoring demonstrated a range of positive outcomes. These included enhanced confidence, self-awareness, interpersonal and teaching skills, team-working and leadership - factors also associated with emotional intelligence. Students developed an appreciation of the accountability of the mentor including making practice assessment decisions. They stated that the learning achieved had aided their professional development and enhanced employability. this module equips students with skills for their future role in facilitating learners and contributes to development of a 'professional persona', enhancing their transition to qualified midwives. The Peer Mentoring Model would be easily adapted to other programmes and professional contexts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How Mandated College Students Talk About Alcohol: Peer Communication Factors Associated with Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kate B.; Lust, Sarah A.; Reid, Allecia E.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little research has examined how peer communication influences alcohol consumption. In a sample of mandated college students, we differentiate conversations about drinking among from conversations about harm prevention and provide evidence for the validity of these communication constructs. Students who violated campus alcohol policies and were referred for alcohol sanctions (N = 345) reported on drinking patterns, use of protective behavioral strategies, perceived descriptive norms for close friends and serving as social leader among their friends; they also reported on the frequency of conversations about drinking, about drinking safety, and about risk reduction efforts. Predicted correlations were found among types of communication and conceptually related variables. General communication was related to consumption but not protective behavioral strategies, whereas safety/risk reduction conversations correlated positively with all protective behavioral strategies. Both types of communication were associated with social leadership. Safety communication moderated the relationship between peer descriptive norms and drinks per week; more frequent talking about safety attenuated the norms-consumption relationship. Peer communication about both drinking and safety may serve as targets for change in risk reduction interventions for mandated college students. PMID:26861808

  10. Poor mental health, peer drinking norms, and alcohol risk in a social network of first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Meisel, Matthew K; Balestrieri, Sara G; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-04-16

    College students with anxiety and depressive symptomatology face escalated risk for alcohol-related negative consequences. While it is well-established that normative perceptions of proximal peers' drinking behaviors influence students' own drinking behaviors, it is not clear how mental health status impacts this association. In the current study, we examined cross-sectional relationships between anxiety and depressed mood, perceived drinking behaviors and attitudes of important peers, and past month alcohol consumption and related problems in a first-semester college student social network. Participants (N = 1254, 55% female, 47% non-Hispanic White) were first-year students residing on campus at a single university who completed a web-based survey assessing alcohol use, mental health, and social connections among first-year student peers. Network autocorrelation models were used to examine the independent and interactive associations between mental health and perceptions of close peers' drinking on drinking outcomes, controlling for important variables. Mental health interacted with perceptions to predict past-month drinking outcomes, such that higher anxiety and higher perceptions that peers drink heavily was associated with more drinks consumed and consequences, and higher depression and perceptions was associated with more drinks consumed, heavy drinking frequency, and consequences. Attitudes that peers approve of heavy drinking were associated with more drinks consumed and heavy drinking frequency among students with lower (vs. higher) depressed mood. This study provides strong evidence that perceiving that close peers drink heavily is particularly risk-enhancing for anxious and depressed college students, and offers implications about alcohol intervention targeted at these subgroups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The importance of peer effects, cigarette prices and tobacco control policies for youth smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Tauras, John A; Ross, Hana

    2005-09-01

    This paper expands the youth cigarette demand literature by undertaking an examination of the determinants of smoking among high school students incorporating the importance of peer effects and allowing cigarette prices (taxes) and tobacco control policies to have a direct effect and an indirect effect (via the peer effect) on smoking behavior. To control for the potential endogeneity of our school-based peer measure we implement a two-stage generalized least squares estimator for a dichotomous dependent variable and implement a series of diagnostic tests. The key finding is that peer effects play a significant role in youth smoking decisions: moving a high-school student from a school where no children smoke to a school where one quarter of the youths smoke is found to increase the probability that the youth smokes by about 14.5 percentage points. The results suggest that there is a potential for social multiplier effects with respect to any exogenous change in cigarette taxes or tobacco control policies.

  12. Beyond student ratings: peer observation of classroom and clinical teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A; Naumann, Phyllis L; Appling, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Peer observation of classroom and clinical teaching has received increased attention over the past decade in schools of nursing to augment student ratings of teaching effectiveness. One essential ingredient is the scale used to evaluate performance. A five-step systematic procedure for adapting, writing, and building any peer observation scale is described. The differences between the development of a classroom observation scale and an appraisal scale to observe clinical instructors are examined. Psychometric issues peculiar to observation scales are discussed in terms of content validity, eight types of response bias, and interobserver reliability. The applications of the scales in one school of nursing as part of the triangulation of methods with student ratings and the teaching portfolio are illustrated. Copies of the scales are also provided.

  13. Equity by Design: Using Peer-Mediated Learning to Advance Equity for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paulo; Macey, Erin M.; Thorius, Kathleen A. K.; Simon, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The use of peer-mediated learning has emerged as a promising practice to transform the classroom experiences of both students with disabilities and their non-disabled peers. This brief summarizes the best practices for implementing peer-mediated learning and advocates situating peer-mediated learning in inclusive, interdependent learning…

  14. Multicontextual Influences on High Risk Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Audrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether peer involvement, family involvement, media within the school campus, and cultural beliefs about college life were related to student involvement in risky behaviors, such as binge drinking, illicit drug use, risky sexual behavior, and problem gambling. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model was…

  15. The impact of peer-led simulations on student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valler-Jones, Tracey

    Simulation within nurse education has been widely accepted as an educational approach. However, this is mainly led by the facilitator with the student maintaining a passive role in the learning. This paper describes a study that was undertaken to analyse the effectiveness of peer-led simulations in the undergraduate nursing programme. A mixed-method approach was used for this study design. This study took place in a simulation suite within a university in the Midlands. Twenty four second-year child branch students were purposively selected to take part. Students designed and facilitated a simulation based on the care of a critically ill child. Formal assessment of the learning was collected via the use of a structured clinical examination. Students completed an evaluation of their perceived confidence and competence levels. There was 100% pass rate in the assessment of students' clinical competence following the simulation. Thematic analysis of the evaluation highlighted the learning achieved by the students, not only of their clinical skills but also their personal development. The use of peer-led simulation promotes new learning and is a valuable educational approach.

  16. Using peer-mediated instruction to support communication involving a student with autism during mathematics activities: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paulo; Alant, Erna

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an A-B singled subject design to explore the extent to which a peer-mediated intervention supported a first-grade student with autism's usage both in purpose and frequency of a speech-generating device (SGD) during mathematics activities. The intervention involved teaching a peer without a disability to encourage the student with autism to use the SGD during partnered mathematics activities. Our analysis involved visual and descriptive examination of trends and patterns over time, and comparison of means between and within phases. We found during the course of this study that (1) the student with autism's level of overall communication, which included the relevancy of these communicative behaviors, increased; (2) the student with autism's level of spontaneous communication acts increased; and (3) the peer became more independent with supporting the student with autism's communication. Implications for future research and practice are provided.

  17. Integrating International Students into Tertiary Education Using Intercultural Peer-to-Peer Training at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Nadine; Schreier, Margrit; Kühnen, Ulrich; Kedzior, Karina Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Increasing internationalization of higher education raises the question of how well institutions prepare their students to integrate into and benefit from cultural diversity on any university campus. The aim of this study was to assess an intercultural peer-to-peer training at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany, that aims to facilitate the…

  18. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  19. Replacing lecture with peer-led workshops improves student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W

    2009-01-01

    Peer-facilitated workshops enhanced interactivity in our introductory biology course, which led to increased student engagement and learning. A majority of students preferred attending two lectures and a workshop each week over attending three weekly lectures. In the workshops, students worked in small cooperative groups as they solved challenging problems, evaluated case studies, and participated in activities designed to improve their general learning skills. Students in the workshop version of the course scored higher on exam questions recycled from preworkshop semesters. Grades were higher over three workshop semesters in comparison with the seven preworkshop semesters. Although males and females benefited from workshops, there was a larger improvement of grades and increased retention by female students; although underrepresented minority (URM) and non-URM students benefited from workshops, there was a larger improvement of grades by URM students. As well as improving student performance and retention, the addition of interactive workshops also improved the quality of student learning: Student scores on exam questions that required higher-level thinking increased from preworkshop to workshop semesters.

  20. Global health partnership for student peer-to-peer psychiatry e-learning: Lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne C

    2016-12-03

    Global 'twinning' relationships between healthcare organizations and institutions in low and high-resource settings have created growing opportunities for e-health partnerships which capitalize upon expanding information technology resources worldwide. E-learning approaches to medical education are increasingly popular but remain under-investigated, whilst a new emphasis on global health teaching has coincided with university budget cuts in many high income countries. King's Somaliland Partnership (KSP) is a paired institutional partnership health link, supported by Tropical Health and Education Trust (THET), which works to strengthen the healthcare system and improve access to care through mutual exchange of skills, knowledge and experience between Somaliland and King's Health Partners, UK. Aqoon, meaning knowledge in Somali, is a peer-to-peer global mental health e-learning partnership between medical students at King's College London (KCL) and Hargeisa and Amoud Universities, Somaliland. It aims to extend the benefits of KSP's cross-cultural and global mental health education work to medical students and has reported positive results, including improved attitudes towards psychiatry in Somaliland students. The process of devising, piloting, evaluating, refining, implementing, re-evaluating and again refining the Aqoon model has identified important barriers to successful partnership. This article describes lessons learned during this process, sharing principles and recommendations for readers wishing to expand their own global health link beyond qualified clinicians, to the healthcare professionals of the future.

  1. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…

  2. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status Among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47

  3. Helping Peers Seek Professional Treatment for Depression among Young South Koreans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hae; Choi, Jung Ah; Park, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to understand factors that influence whether young South Koreans help peers with depression to seek professional counseling services. The structural equation modeling on the survey data collected from 191 South Korean students suggests that subjective norms and behavioral…

  4. How Does Student Peer Review Influence Perceptions, Engagement and Academic Outcomes? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Raoul; Baik, Chi; Naylor, Ryan; Pearce, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Involving students in peer review has many pedagogical benefits, but few studies have explicitly investigated relationships between the content of peer reviews, student perceptions and assessment outcomes. We conducted a case study of peer review within a third-year undergraduate subject at a research-intensive Australian university, in which we…

  5. Mapping Psychology Students' Perspective on Group Peer-Tutoring in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantinotti, Michael; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie; Balbinotti, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Students in psychology generally have difficulties to successfully accomplish mandatory courses in statistics. Group peer-tutoring is a pedagogical strategy to support them with a peer that has already successfully mastered the content of such a course. In order to specifically tailor group peer-tutoring to the needs of students and to sustain…

  6. The Use of Peer Networks to Increase Communicative Acts of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Debra; Mason, Rose; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Feldmiller, Sarah; Turcotte, Amy; Miller, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Peer networks including social groups using typical peers, scripted instruction, visual text cues, and reinforcement were examined with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A multiple baseline design across four participants was used to measure students' use of communication acts with peers during free play following instruction. Peer…

  7. Pre-university Chemistry Students in a Mimicked Scholarly Peer Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rens, L.; Hermarij, P.; Pilot, A.; Beishuizen, J.J.; Hofman, H.; van der Wal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is a significant component in scientific research. Introducing peer review into inquiry processes may be regarded as an aim to develop student understanding regarding quality in inquiries. This study examines student understanding in inquiry peer reviews among pre-university chemistry

  8. Adolescent Pathways to Co-Occurring Problem Behavior: The Effects of Peer Delinquency and Peer Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Brown, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Delinquency and substance use are more likely to co-occur in adolescence compared to earlier and later developmental periods. The present study examined developmental pathways to co-occurring problem behavior from 6th-10th grade (N=2,002), testing how peer delinquency and substance use were linked to transitioning between abstaining, delinquency, substance use, and co-occurring problem behavior. Developmentally, most youth transition from abstinence to delinquent behavior, and then escalate to co-occurring problem behavior. Once co-occurring problem behavior onsets, remitting to single problem behavior or abstinence is unlikely. The impact of peers on problem behavior are domain specific when individuals transition from abstaining to a single problem behavior, but are more general with respect to escalation of and desistance from problem behavior. PMID:25506186

  9. Using Peer Feedback to Improve Students' Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Tammy Q.; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert

    2016-02-01

    This article examines a 7th grade teacher's pedagogical practices to support her students to provide peer feedback to one another using technology during scientific inquiry. This research is part of a larger study in which teachers in California and Washington and their classes engaged in inquiry projects using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry. Videotapes of classroom lessons and artifacts such as student work were collected as part of the corpus of data. In the case examined, Ms. E supports her students to collectively define "meaningful feedback," thereby improving the quality of feedback that was provided in the future. This is especially timely, given the attention in Next Generation Science Standards to cross-cutting concepts and practices that require students discuss and debate ideas with each other in order to improve their understanding and their written inquiry reports (NGSS, 2013).

  10. A Web-based Peer Assessment System for Assigning Student Scores in Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Sukstrienwong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Working in groups has become increasingly important in order to develop students' skills. However, it can be more successful when peers cooperate and are involved in the assigned tasks. However, several educators firmly show disadvantages when all peers received the same reward, regardless of individual contribution. Some teachers also considering peer assessment to be time and effort consuming because preparation and monitoring are needed. In order to overcome these problems, we have developed a web-based peer assessment referred to as the ‘Scoring by Peer Assessment System’ (SPAS that allows teachers to set up the process of peer assessment, in order to assign scores that reflect the contribution of each student. Moreover, a web-based application allows students to evaluate their peers regarding their individual contribution where cooperative learning and peer assessment are used. The paper describes the system design and the implementation of our peer assessment application.

  11. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  12. Understanding adolescent peer sexual harassment and abuse: using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man Yu; Frieze, Irene; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2010-06-01

    This study examines intentions to take protective action against peer sexual harassment and abuse (PSHA). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposes that attitudes about protective action, perceptions of what others would think about doing this (subjective norms), and behavioral control would be important predictors. A total of 1,531 Chinese secondary school students (769 boys and 762 girls) from Hong Kong were surveyed to test this model. Results showed that the TPB model was predictive for girls, but only subjective norms and behavioral control significantly predicted boys' intentions to protect themselves. Results supported the influence of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on youths' intentions to reject PSHA. These factors may be useful in guiding the development of an educational program for prevention of PSHA.

  13. Two Functions of Peer Influence on Upper-Secondary Education Application Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenqvist, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Peers have a paradoxical influence on each other's educational decisions. On one hand, students are prone to conform to each other's ambitious educational decisions and, on the other hand, are discouraged from ambitious decisions when surrounded by successful peers. In this study I examine how peers influence each other's decision to apply to an…

  14. The stability and predictors of peer group deviance in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Dick, Danielle

    2015-09-01

    Peer group deviance (PGD) is strongly associated with current and future externalizing behaviors. Debate remains about the degree to which this association arises from social selection. The first year of university constitutes a social experiment in which most individuals leave their home environment and recreate for themselves a new peer group. PGD was measured in newly arrived university students and then 6 and 18 months later. Other personality and family traits were also assessed. PGD reported for high school friends at the start of university and university friends 6 months later were substantially correlated (+0.60). This correlation was only slightly diminished if restricted to students whose home was greater than 50 miles from the university. PGD was strongly predicted across three cohorts by male sex (+), extraversion (+), conscientiousness (-), a family history of alcohol use disorders (+) and depression (+), and religiosity (-).These predictors of PGD had a relatively stable impact over 18 months and, aside from sex, differed only modestly in males and females. As individuals change social groups from high school to university, the level of PGD remains relatively stable, suggesting that individuals play a strong role in selecting peer groups with consistent characteristics. PGD is also predicted cross-sectionally and longitudinally by personality, family background and religiosity. Our results suggest that the association between personal and peer deviance is due at least in part to the effects of social selection.

  15. The Impact of Ranking Information on Students’ Behavior and Performance in Peer Review Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the potential of usage and ranking information in increasing student engagement in a double-blinded peer review setting, where students are allowed to select freely which/how many peer works to review. The study employed 56 volunteering sophomore students majoring in Informatics...... and Telecommunications Engineering. We performed a controlled experiment, grouping students into 3 study conditions: control, usage data, usage and ranking data. Students in the control condition did not receive additional information. Students in the next two conditions were able to see their usage data (logins, peer...

  16. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicate...

  17. The third-year medical student "grapevine": managing transitions between third-year clerkships using peer-to-peer handoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Dylan E; O'Brien, Bridget C; Chou, Calvin L

    2013-10-01

    As third-year medical students rotate between clerkships, they experience multiple transitions across workplace cultures and shifting learning expectations. The authors explored clerkship transitions from the students' perspective by examining the advice they passed on to their peers in preparation for new clerkships. Seventy-one students from three Veterans Affairs-based clerkship rotations at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine participated in a peer-to-peer handoff session from 2008 to 2011. In the handoff session, they gave tips for optimizing performance to students starting the clerkship they had just completed. The authors transcribed student comments from four handoff sessions and used qualitative content analysis to identify and compare advice across clerkships. Students shared advice about workplace culture, content learning, logistics, and work-life balance. Common themes included expectations of the rotation, workplace norms, specific tasks, learning opportunities, and learning strategies. Comments about patient care and work-life balance were rare. Students emphasized different themes for each clerkship; for example, for some clerkships, students commented heavily on tasks and content learning, while in another students focused on workplace culture and exam preparation. These findings characterize the transitions that third-year students undergo as they rotate into new clinical training environments. Students emphasized different aspects of each clerkship in the advice they passed to their peers, and their comments often describe informal norms or opportunities that official clerkship orientations may not address. Peer-to-peer handoffs may help ease transitions between clerkships with dissimilar cultures and expectations.

  18. Mediating effects of teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and emotional/behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peers Influence Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Peer influence has a profound impact on decision-making in typically developing adolescents. In this study, we examined to what extent adolescent males (age 11-17 years; N = 144) with and without autism (ASD) were influenced by peer feedback on prosocial behavior, and which factors were related to individual differences in peer feedback…

  20. Peer Status in Emerging Adulthood: Associations of Popularity and Preference with Social Roles and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…

  1. Peer-assisted learning: a medical student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallaha MA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Amre Fallaha, Aalia Pagarkar, Nicholas LucasFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWe read the paper by Kazzazi et al1 with great interest. The original paper was informative, and as penultimate year medical students at Imperial College, we want to share our unique perspective regarding student learning and the benefits of peer-assisted learning (PAL. We find that many subjects, including embryology as outlined in the paper,1 are complex and typically taught through lecture-based formats. While this may be understandable to readers of respective specialties, students may find certain concepts abstract and not easily grasped through lectures alone.View the original paper by Kazzazi and Bartlett.

  2. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; Stephan, Cookie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the generality of stereotypes associated with physical attractiveness and assesses the relative contributions of attractiveness and ethnicity in determining children's behavioral attributions and peer preferences. (JMB)

  3. College Students' Beliefs about Supporting a Grieving Peer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrick Parikh, Sara J.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used I. Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) to explore college students' beliefs about listening supportively to a grieving friend. Responses to open-ended questions suggested that students ("N" = 23) perceived both benefits and risks, connected with listening supportively, for the grieving friend and for…

  4. When learners become teachers: a review of peer teaching in medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benè, Kristen L; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Peer teaching engages students as teachers and is widely used in K-12 education, many universities, and increasingly in medical schools. It draws on the social and cognitive congruence between learner and teacher and can be attractive to medical schools faced with a growing number of learners but a static faculty size. Peer teachers can give lectures on assigned topics, lead problem-based learning sessions, and provide one on one support to classmates in the form of tutoring. We undertook a narrative review of research on peer teachers in medical school, specifically investigating how medical students are impacted by being peer teachers and how having a peer teacher impacts learners. Studies have shown that peer teaching has a primarily positive impact on both the peer teacher and the learners. In the setting of problem-based learning courses or clinical skills instruction, medical students' performance on tests of knowledge or skills is similar whether they have faculty instructors or peer teachers. There is also strong evidence that being a peer teacher enhances the learning of the peer teacher relative to the content being taught. It is common for peer teachers to lack confidence in their abilities to successfully teach, and they appreciate receiving training related to their teaching role. We find evidence from several different educational settings that peer teaching benefits both the peer teachers and the learners. This suggests that peer teaching is a valuable methodology for medical schools to engage learners as teachers.

  5. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2013-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...

  6. Learning from peer feedback on student-generated multiple choice questions: Views of introductory physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Alison E.; Hardy, Judy; Galloway, Ross K.

    2018-06-01

    PeerWise is an online application where students are encouraged to generate a bank of multiple choice questions for their classmates to answer. After answering a question, students can provide feedback to the question author about the quality of the question and the question author can respond to this. Student use of, and attitudes to, this online community within PeerWise was investigated in two large first year undergraduate physics courses, across three academic years, to explore how students interact with the system and the extent to which they believe PeerWise to be useful to their learning. Most students recognized that there is value in engaging with PeerWise, and many students engaged deeply with the system, thinking critically about the quality of their submissions and reflecting on feedback provided to them. Students also valued the breadth of topics and level of difficulty offered by the questions, recognized the revision benefits afforded by the resource, and were often willing to contribute to the community by providing additional explanations and engaging in discussion.

  7. Learning clinical skills in the simulation suite: the lived experiences of student nurses involved in peer teaching and peer assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Dianne; Thomson, Anna; Jackson, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of peer teaching and assessment are well documented within nurse education literature. However, research to date has predominantly focused on the advantages and disadvantages for the inexperienced learner, with a dearth of knowledge relating to the perceptions of senior nursing students involved in teaching their peers. This study sought to investigate the student experience of taking part in a peer teaching and assessment initiative to include the perceptions of both first year nursing students and second/third year participants. Data were collected via open-ended questionnaires and analysed with qualitative 'Framework' analysis. This initiative received a generally positive response both from students being taught and also from those acting as facilitators. Perceived benefits included the social learning experience, development of teaching skills, self-awareness and the opportunity to communicate both good and bad news. Suggestions for improvement included additional time working in small groups, specific supplementary learning materials and the introduction of peer teaching and assessment into other areas of the Adult Nursing Programme. Peer teaching and assessment principles represent valuable strategies which can be utilised in nurse education to develop clinical skills and prepare nurses for real-life scenarios. Further research needs to investigate how to enhance the student learning experience and to fully exploit the potential for simulated experience to prepare students for their future role as registered nurses in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Peer Review on Student Learning Outcomes in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jessica A.; Silva, Tony; Ceresola, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we test the effect of in-class student peer review on student learning outcomes using a quasiexperimental design. We provide an assessment of peer review in a quantitative research methods course, which is a traditionally difficult and technical course. Data were collected from 170 students enrolled in four sections of a…

  9. The Protective Role of Teacher-Student Relationships against Peer Victimization and Psychosocial Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Simmons, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether teacher-student relationships protect against peer victimization and its negative psychosocial effects (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress). Additionally, the influence of teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and students' perceptions of school order and discipline was investigated as these variables…

  10. Social Media and Peer Feedback: What Do Students Really Think about Using Wiki and Facebook as Platforms for Peer Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbilek, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools are becoming increasingly pervasive in higher education, and as a result, there is increasing interest in the use of online feedback activities. This study investigated students' actual experiences and perceptions using social media, Wiki and Facebook, tools to provide peer feedback on students' instructional material projects and to…

  11. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  12. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Linguistic Knowledge between Students and Their Healthy Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiva Mohammadi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are many reports about relations between stuttering and language development. Some studies reveal that bilingualism is a contributing factor to the development of stuttering. Main objective of this study was comparison of linguistic knowledge in Kurdish (L1 and Farsi (L2 between bilingual stutterers and their normal peers. Materials & Methods: In this case-control and comparative study all of 31 Kurdish-Farsi bilingual stutterers from 4 and 5 grades in primary schools of Javanrood were selected as case group and 31 normal peers were selected as control group by Pairs Matching Method. The linguistic knowledge of two groups in L1 and L2 were evaluated and compared by analyzing the speech quality indices (speech fluency index, speech complexity index, type-token ratio in a sample of their spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Data were analyzed by Independent -T-test and Mann-Whitney U. Results: In both Kordish and Farsi Language, Speech unfluency was more in stutterd students than normal group. Also, speech complexity, speech fluency and lexical diversity of stuttered students were less than normal group and there were significant differences between two groups in all speech indices (P<0.05. Conclusion: The linguistic knowledge of stuttered group was less than normal group in both Kordish and Farsi language. This finding confirms that level of language proficiency may be considered as a contributing factor to stuttering.

  14. The impact of contact on students' attitudes towards peers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Susanne

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the relationship between contact with peers with Special Educational Needs (SEN) and students' attitudes towards their peers with SEN, by examining the inter-group contact theory in regular and inclusive classes. A total of 463 students in 8th grade, with a mean age of 14.42 years, from 25 secondary school classes in Styria (Austria) completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their contact with peers with SEN and their attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Contact was indicated by nominations for joint activities and examined in inclusive and regular classes. The German short version of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps scale (CATCH; Schwab, 2015b; Rosenbaum et al., 1986) was used to measure students' attitudes towards peers with learning disabilities and emotional disorders. Students with SEN are less frequently nominated by their peers for joint activities, such as working together on a school project. Students from inclusive and regular classes did not differ in their attitudes towards peers with SEN. However, those students who nominated at least one peer with SEN for a joint activity had more positive attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Freely choosing contact with a peer with SEN was associated with more positive attitudes towards disability while simply attending the same class may have no effect or even a negative impact on students' attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship of Peer Mentoring to Academic Success and Social Engagement for First Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brenda O.

    2013-01-01

    A correlational explanatory research design examined the relationship between peer mentoring, academic success and social engagement of first year college students participating in a peer mentoring program at a research one university in the southeastern United States. One hundred thirty-eight participants from the peer mentoring program responded…

  16. "Me, My Classmates and My Buddies": Analysing Peer Group Effects on Student Marijuana Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rosa; Escario, Jose-Julian; Molina, Jose-Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of peer behaviour on student marijuana consumption. Our hypothesis is that, in contrast to the traditional measures of peer group effects carried out at class or school level, the use of a closer peer group, which we relate to the group of friends, is more relevant in the explanation of marijuana…

  17. Parental and Peer Support as Predictors of Depression and Self-Esteem among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan Tinsley; Albert, Arielle Berman; Dwelle, Deborah G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parent support and peer support as predictors of depression and self-esteem in college students. Several competing models of parental and peer influence were compared including a mediational model in which peer support was hypothesized to mediate the effects of parental support on adjustment. The results…

  18. A Peer-Assisted Learning Program and Its Effect on Student Skill Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer; Vardiman, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of an intentional Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program on peer-tutors and peer-tutees for performance on specific psychomotor skills. Design and Setting: Randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 69, 42 females and 27 males, all participants were 18 to 22 years old,…

  19. The Effect of Menstrual Health Education Conducted with Peer Education Method to Adolescent Girls in 6-8 Classes on Information and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Golbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Research was conducted as a experimental study in order to determine the effect of menstrual health education conducted with peer education to adolescent girls in 6-8 classes on information and behaviors. Method: The study was made in Primary School of Regional Girl Boarding. Working group consisted of 202 students responded completely pre-test and post-test from 214 female students studying in this school in 2008-2009 academic year. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Menstruation and Menstrual Health Information Form. The forms were implemented to all students before the start of peer education program. Then, a total of 24 students including two students from each class were chosen as a peer educator with simple random sampling method. Peer educators were given information about menstruation and menstrual health for 2 hours per week and a total of 6 hours during 3 weeks in line with the educational booklet. Peer educator were asked to share acquired this information with classmates in various environments. Forms used at the beginning of students were applied to students again 4 weeks after completion of peer education program. Results: The average score of the students' knowledge of menstruation and menstrual health increased significantly (p <0.05 after the peer education program. Also, a statistically significant increase has occurred in the behaviors of students’ washing their hands before the toilet during menstruation, lustrating from front to back with toilet paper, bathing in the form of shower during menstruation, using cotton underwear, changing frequently pads used and taking away the pads used by wrapping (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be considered that the method of peer education is an effective method to increase knowledge of adolescent girls about menstruation and menstrual health and develop health behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 191-198

  20. Hanging Out With the Right Crowd: Peer Influence on Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Crone, Eveline A; Van Leijenhorst, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Peer influence plays a key role in the increase of risk-taking behavior during adolescence. However, its underlying processes are not fully understood. This study examined the effects of social norms, conveyed through peer advice, on risk-taking behavior in 15- to 17-year-old adolescents (N = 76). Participants played a card-guessing task alone and with online peer advice. Results showed that risk-taking increased in the presence of peers. The results further showed that adolescents took into account the uncertainty associated with gambles, as well as the social norms conveyed by peers. Our findings suggest that peers are most influential in uncertain situations and demonstrate the value of a social norms approach in examining the processes underlying peer effects. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  1. Peer Rejection in Middle School: Subgroup Differences in Behavior, Loneliness, and Interpersonal Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Jennifer T.; Asher, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Studied patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Obtained data on seventh and eighth graders' loneliness, social dissatisfaction, and concerns. The combination of aggressiveness and submissiveness with low levels of prosocial behavior was associated with peer rejection. (GLR)

  2. Getting Acquainted: Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment and Temperament on Young Children's Peer Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Holland, Ashley S.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Ogolsky, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament…

  3. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; French, Michael T.; Norton, Edward C.

    2011-01-01

    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers)…

  4. Near-peer teaching programme for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Zoe; Epstein, Samantha; Richards, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is increasingly recognised as an effective method for teaching and learning within medical education. We describe a student-as-teacher programme developed for fourth-year students (MS4s) helping to deliver the second-year Respiratory Pathophysiology course at our medical school. Twelve MS4s were paired with faculty members to co-teach one or two small group case-based sessions for second-year students (MS2s). Beforehand, MS4s attended an orientation session and workshop, reviewing skills and strategies for teaching effectively. Following each teaching session co-taught by MS4s, both MS4s and MS2s completed multiple-choice surveys evaluating the MS4's teaching skills and the experience overall. MS4s also wrote reflection essays describing their experiences. Faculty member co-teachers completed a 12-question feedback form for MS4s during the session. We received 114 post-session MS2 surveys, 13 post-session MS4 surveys and 13 post-session faculty staff evaluations. The majority of MS2s reported that MS4s enhanced their understanding of the material, and considered the quality of MS4 teaching to be 'good' or 'outstanding'. Nearly all of the MS4s enjoyed their experiences and believed that the programme improved their teaching skills. Time management was the most common challenge cited by both MS4s and faculty member co-teachers. These data demonstrate that NPT is valuable for both MS2s and MS4s: MS2s benefited from the social and cognitive congruence afforded by near-peer teachers, whereas MS4s used this experience to build and enhance their skills as educators. These results support the continued involvement of MS4s in this second-year course, as well as broadening the scope of and opportunities for student teaching at our medical school and beyond. Near-peer teaching is recognised as an effective method for teaching and learning within medical education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  5. Undergraduate Medical Students Using Facebook as a Peer-Mentoring Platform: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Severin; Nicolai, Leo; Gradel, Maximilian; Pander, Tanja; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-27

    Peer mentoring is a powerful pedagogical approach for supporting undergraduate medical students in their learning environment. However, it remains unclear what exactly peer mentoring is and whether and how undergraduate medical students use social media for peer-mentoring activities. We aimed at describing and exploring the Facebook use of undergraduate medical students during their first 2 years at a German medical school. The data should help medical educators to effectively integrate social media in formal mentoring programs for medical students. We developed a coding scheme for peer mentoring and conducted a mixed-methods study in order to explore Facebook groups of undergraduate medical students from a peer-mentoring perspective. All major peer-mentoring categories were identified in Facebook groups of medical students. The relevance of these Facebook groups was confirmed through triangulation with focus groups and descriptive statistics. Medical students made extensive use of Facebook and wrote a total of 11,853 posts and comments in the respective Facebook groups (n=2362 total group members). Posting peaks were identified at the beginning of semesters and before exam periods, reflecting the formal curriculum milestones. Peer mentoring is present in Facebook groups formed by undergraduate medical students who extensively use these groups to seek advice from peers on study-related issues and, in particular, exam preparation. These groups also seem to be effective in supporting responsive and large-scale peer-mentoring structures; formal mentoring programs might benefit from integrating social media into their activity portfolio.

  6. Exploration of the attitudes of nursing students to peer physical examination and physical examination of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearn, Andy M; Bhoopatkar, Harsh; Mathew, Thomas K; Stewart, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    The use of peer physical examination (PPE) in early clinical skills has been studied amongst medical students. The majority of students are comfortable with using peer physical examination, when sensitive areas are excluded. Students' attitudes are related to their personal characteristics: gender, age, religious faith, and ethnicity. There is no data on nursing students' attitudes to peer physical examination. Identify and explore: Dual cohort, cross-sectional, anonymous survey. Three-year undergraduate nursing programme, skills centre and service clinical learning. All first and third year nursing students were asked to complete a modified Examining Fellow Students questionnaire at the end of 2008. The questionnaire asked students to indicate which of 12 body areas they would not be willing to examine/have examined by a peer of the same/opposite gender. This study also asked students which of the 12 body areas they felt uncomfortable examining on patients. The response rate was 76% (128/168). The students were predominantly female (93% female; 7% male). Most students were comfortable with examining non-sensitive body regions of peers (78.2%-100% willing) and patients (92.3-100% willing). Male gender was significantly associated with willingness to examine and be examined by peers (p=0.001); Asian students were significantly less willing to engage in peer physical examination with opposite gender (pexamining patients of either gender (pexamination shows similarities and differences to other studies. Student characteristics were not related to patient examination attitudes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Students teaching students: evaluation of a "near-peer" teaching experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeger, David M; Conrad, Miles; Nguyen, Janet; Kohi, Maureen P; Webb, Emily M

    2013-09-01

    Teaching is an important skill. Academic physicians teach on a daily basis, and nearly all physicians occasionally teach colleagues and patients. There are generally few opportunities for medical students to learn teaching skills. We developed a novel "near-peer" teaching program in which fourth-year students cotaught first-year students. Eighteen fourth-year students enrolled in our institution's primary senior radiology elective learned the basics of ultrasound through a series of lectures and hands-on scanning sessions. Each fourth-year student, paired with a radiology resident or attending, then cotaught a first-year anatomy small group session. After instruction, voluntary surveys were administered to assess the perceived value of the "near-peer" teaching experience. Seventeen of 18 (94%) and 104 of 120 (87%) administered surveys were returned by fourth- and first-year students, respectively. Sixteen (94%) and 99 (95%) of the fourth- and first-year students reported they "enjoyed" or "really enjoyed" the near-peer teaching experience. Fourteen (82%) of the fourth years perceived improvement in their teaching skills and an increase in their knowledge. Only 8 (47%) of the fourth years thought they were "helpful" or "very helpful," though 92 (88%) of the first years identified their fourth-year co-instructors as "helpful" or "very helpful." We piloted a novel "near-peer" program. Both senior and freshman students enjoyed the experience, and fourth years thought the session was educational for them as well. Although most fourth years did not judge themselves as helpful, first-year students overwhelmingly considered them a useful addition to the session. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Brief, cooperative peer-instruction sessions during lectures enhance student recall and comprehension*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the academic impact of cooperative peer instruction during lecture pauses in an immunology/endocrinology course. Methods: Third-quarter students participated across iterations of the course. Each class offered 20 lectures of 50 minutes each. Classes were divided into a peer-instruction group incorporating cooperative peer instruction and a control group receiving traditional lectures. Peer-instruction group lectures were divided into 2–3 short presentations followed by a multiple-choice question (MCQ). Students recorded an initial answer and then had 1 minute to discuss answers with group peers. Following this, students could submit a revised answer. The control group received the same lecture material, but without MCQs or peer discussions. Final-exam scores were compared across study groups. A mixed-design analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results: There was a statistically significant main effect for the peer-instruction activity (F(1, 93) = 6.573, p = .012, r = .257), with recall scores higher for MCQs asked after peer-instruction activities than for those asked before peer instruction. Final-exam scores at the end of term were greater in the peer-instruction group than the control group (F(1, 193) = 9.264, p = .003, r = .214; question type, F(1, 193) = 26.671, p = .000, r = .348). Conclusion: Lectures with peer-instruction pauses increase student recall and comprehension compared with traditional lectures. PMID:26967766

  9. Peer assessment of individual contributions to a group project: Student perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, Peter L.; Field, Nikki; Agudera, Maila; Gill, Margo

    2009-01-01

    Group work has many benefits for a student's professional development but it is difficult to determine the individual contributions to the group assessment tasks. Peer assessment of an individual's contribution to group work can be used to encourage student participation. It is important that the method of peer assessment is fair and that the students' submissions be treated confidentially. A model for peer assessment of individual contributions to the group assessment is described. Students who did not participate adequately in the group were penalised resulting in a reduced individual grade. Perceptions of the peer assessment method are reported for students enrolled (n = 169) in the subject 'Medical Radiations Project'. The questionnaire showed a positive student response towards the peer assessment model.

  10. Young Children's Trust Beliefs in Peers: Relations to Social Competence and Interactive Behaviors in a Peer Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between children's trust beliefs and social competence as well as social preference. In addition, this study examined how children with different trust belief profiles may differ in their peer interactive behaviors. A total of 47 children ages 5 to 6 participated in this study.…

  11. Peer group self-identification as a predictor of relational and physical aggression among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steven; Black, David; Sun, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Adolescent peer group self-identification refers to adolescents' affiliation with reputation-based peer groups such as "Goths" or "Jocks." These groups tend to vary on normative characteristics, including the group members' attitudes and behaviors. This article examined whether adolescents' baseline peer group self-identification predicted their self-reported relational and physical aggression 1 year later. Self-report data were collected from 1614 students from 9 regular and 9 continuation (alternative) high schools in Southern California, at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Subjects' mean baseline age was 15.21 years (SD = 1.18) and 51.6% of the subjects were female. Findings indicated that compared with self-identified "Regular" or "Normal" students, adolescents who identified with high-risk peer groups (eg, "Druggies,"Goths") tended to report higher relational and physical aggression 1 year later, controlling for baseline aggression and demographic variables. In addition, adolescents' self-identification with high-status peer groups (eg, "Jocks,"Populars") was predictive of higher relational aggression 1 year later. Gender and school type (ie, regular vs continuation) were not found to moderate these effects. It appears that peer group self-identification is a salient predictor of physical and relational aggression across gender and school type. Adolescents who identify with high-risk peer groups tend to report higher levels of physical as well as relational aggression in the future. In addition, adolescents who affiliate with elite groups tend to become more relationally aggressive over time. School-based prevention programs targeting aggression may benefit from addressing the impacts of peer group self-identification on adolescents' aggressive behavior.

  12. Albania's students teach their peers about sexuality and safer sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliriani, E; Asllani, P

    1995-01-01

    Under the previous pronatalist regime, Albania was the country with the youngest population and the highest birth rate in Europe. Nevertheless, sexuality used to be repressed, and the penalty for homosexuality was 10 years in prison. The repercussions of this period when information, education, and services in the field of sexual health were withheld are still felt. There are still thousands of young people and teenagers who lack the knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. Every day in Albania, at least one student has an abortion. The Organization for the Propagation of Sexual Education (SOPSE) was officially launched in November 1993, and it was initially based among students of the University of Tirana. After attending workshops concerned with health education, they became the first peer educators for sex, contraception and AIDS information. SOPSE has carried out about 700 sessions of counseling in student residences at the branch created at the University of Korca and has also distributed about 2000 condoms. SOPSE also organized a masked ball for students at the University of Tirana. 25 SOPSE members each invited 4 other students, and everyone received a free condom. The ball was also attended by representatives from Action Plus, an Albanian nongovernmental organization concerned with AIDS prevention, which distributed condoms and information at the ball. In addition, there were participants from the UN Development Programme, the World Health Organization, the Ministry of Health, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the Albanian Family Planning Association, as well as a number of journalists and medical professors. Part of the evening was devoted to telling the students about SOPSE, putting across safe sex messages, introducing contraceptive methods, and discussing sexuality and the risks of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection.

  13. Enhancing Students' Speaking Skills through Peer Team Teaching: A Student Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, V. Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    The present paper attempts to establish that peer team teaching of a prescribed English lesson of 1st year B.Tech course by the students will provide more opportunities to enhance their public speaking skills. This kind of classroom activity will also help them to develop their vocabulary, reading skills, team working skills, etc. It is assumed…

  14. Problematic Social Situations for Peer-Rejected Students in the First Year of Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Martín-Antón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the social situations that are problematic for peer-rejected students in the first year of elementary school. For this purpose, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations for Children (TOPS, Dodge et al., 1985 in 169 rejected pupils, identified from a sample of 1457 first-grade students (ages 5-7 enrolled in 62 classrooms of elementary school. For each rejected student, another student of average sociometric status of the same gender was selected at random from the same classroom (naverage = 169. The model for the rejected students showed a good fit, and was also invariant in the group of average students. Four types of situations were identified in which rejected students have significantly more difficulties than average students. They are, in descending order: (a respect for authority and rules, (b being disadvantaged, (c prosocial and empathic behavior, and (d response to own success. Rejected boys have more problems in situations of prosociability and empathy than girls. The implications concerning the design of specific programs to prevent and reduce early childhood rejection in the classroom are discussed.

  15. Peer Instruction in the Learning Laboratory: A Strategy To Decrease Student Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Laura D.; Walden, Debra J.

    2001-01-01

    To decrease nursing students' anxiety during psychomotor skills testing in learning laboratories, paid peer instructors were trained to assist. Over 3 years, 270 students participated and reported positive outcomes. (SK)

  16. Predicting Pre-Service Teachers' Intention of Implementing Peer Assessment for Low-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Su Yon; Cho, Young Hoan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the benefits of peer assessment, many teachers are not willing to implement it, particularly for low-achieving students. This study used the theory of planned behaviour to predict pre-service teachers' intention to use peer assessment for low-achieving students. A total of 229 pre-service teachers in Singapore participated in the survey…

  17. The Design and Implementation of a Peer Mentoring Program for International Students at Morehead State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Donell Cochran

    2017-01-01

    Peer mentoring is a way to help guide and form valuable relationships between two or more students and plays an important role in the success, both academically and socially, of students. At Morehead State University (MSU), the International Peer Mentoring Program (IPMP) was designed and implemented in the Fall of 2016 to assist in the academic…

  18. Peer Mentoring among Doctoral Students of Science and Engineering in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-nii; Hsu, Angela Yi-ping

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the peer mentoring experience from doctoral student mentors' point of view. Twelve science and engineering doctoral students participated in this phenomenology study. The findings suggest doctoral peer mentors served instrumental, psychosocial, buffering, and liaison roles; they passed on their social, professional, and…

  19. Evaluating the Outcomes of a Peer-Mentoring Program for Students Transitioning to Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Lori

    2011-01-01

    A peer-mentoring program was developed for students in an introductory biology course at a university in Ontario, Canada. Students could attend up to five peer-mentoring sessions during their first semester. Quantitative-survey, participation, and academic data spanning from 2003 through 2007 were reviewed for the purpose of evaluating the…

  20. Peer Mediation and Its Effects on Elementary Student Perceptions of Self-Esteem and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Deanna Janine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the effectiveness of training students in peer mediation (Mediator Mentors Curriculum), and how peer mediation-training influences third- through fifth-grade student perceptions of self-esteem, resiliency, and social competence. The research was a mixed-methods design with both quantitative and…

  1. Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

  2. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  3. Building a Peer-Learning Service for Students in an Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Mary; Garrison, Julie; Merry, Brian; Torreano, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Academic libraries are well lauded for offering supportive spaces for students' self-directed study, and significant resources are dedicated to librarian instruction in the classroom. What many academic libraries lack, however, is a middle ground, a routine way for students to help one another using best practices in peer-to-peer learning theory.…

  4. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (ppeer teaching (ppeer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about intraprofessional care.

  5. Why Peer Mentoring is an Effective Approach for Promoting College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Both hierarchical (e.g. student-faculty member or student-adviser) and peer (e.g. student-student) mentoring are recognized as best-practice strategies for promoting college student success. Formal mentoring programs utilizing both approaches can be found on many campuses. In the current institutional context of scarce or stagnant resources,…

  6. Impact of peer teaching on nursing students: perceptions of learning environment, self-efficacy, and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim B; Dellinger, Amy; Thomas, Jan; Mitchell, Denise; Lewis-Trabeaux, Shirleen; Dupre, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Peer teaching has been shown to enhance student learning and levels of self efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of peer-teaching learning experiences on nursing students in roles of tutee and tutor in a clinical lab environment. This study was conducted over a three-semester period at a South Central University that provides baccalaureate nursing education. Over three semesters, 179 first year nursing students and 51 third year nursing students participated in the study. This mixed methods study, through concurrent use of a quantitative intervention design and qualitative survey data, examined differences during three semesters in perceptions of a clinical lab experience, self-efficacy beliefs, and clinical knowledge for two groups: those who received peer teaching-learning in addition to faculty instruction (intervention group) and those who received faculty instruction only (control group). Additionally, peer teachers' perceptions of the peer teaching learning experience were examined. Results indicated positive response from the peer tutors with no statistically significant differences for knowledge acquisition and self-efficacy beliefs between the tutee intervention and control groups. In contrast to previous research, students receiving peer tutoring in conjunction with faculty instruction were statistically more anxious about performing lab skills with their peer tutor than with their instructors. Additionally, some students found instructors' feedback moderately more helpful than their peers and increased gains in knowledge and responsibility for preparation and practice with instructors than with peer tutors. The findings in this study differ from previous research in that the use of peer tutors did not decrease anxiety in first year students, and no differences were found between the intervention and control groups related to self efficacy or cognitive improvement. These findings may indicate the need to better prepare peer

  7. How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in the beginning of the school year, adolescents reported academic year increases in their behavioral engagement and mastery motivation. Mid-year student reports indicated that in emotionally-supportive classrooms, adolescents experienced more developmentally-appropriate opportunities to exercise autonomy in their day-to-day activities and had more positive relationships with their peers. Analyses of the indirect effects of teacher emotional support on students' engagement and motivation indicated significant mediating effects of autonomy and peer relatedness experiences, but not competence beliefs, in this sample of 960 students (ages 11–17) in the classrooms of 68 middle and high school teachers in 12 U.S. schools. PMID:28190936

  8. How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A; Hafen, Christopher A; Allen, Joseph P; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in the beginning of the school year, adolescents reported academic year increases in their behavioral engagement and mastery motivation. Mid-year student reports indicated that in emotionally-supportive classrooms, adolescents experienced more developmentally-appropriate opportunities to exercise autonomy in their day-to-day activities and had more positive relationships with their peers. Analyses of the indirect effects of teacher emotional support on students' engagement and motivation indicated significant mediating effects of autonomy and peer relatedness experiences, but not competence beliefs, in this sample of 960 students (ages 11-17) in the classrooms of 68 middle and high school teachers in 12 U.S. schools.

  9. Singaporean college students overpour drinks similar to Western populations: influence of peer presence in a simulated alcohol-pouring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandy, Shannon L; Pang, Joyce S; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Matthews, Douglas B

    2013-11-01

    College drinking is a global health concern. However, most studies originate from countries with high alcohol consumption. In the United States, college students overpour a standard alcoholic drink, yet it is unclear if this remains true in countries with low alcohol consumption. Additionally, in college, peer influence is the greatest predictor of drinking behavior, yet it is unknown if social norms affect how students pour drinks. This study examined how male college students, in a country with low alcohol consumption, define standard drinks, and if the presence of an unfamiliar peer affects how students pour during a simulated alcohol-pouring task. Male undergraduate students (n = 105) underwent baseline assessments of impulsivity, self-monitoring, religiosity, and drinking characteristics. Participants poured fluid into empty cups of different sizes to equal a standard serving of beer or shot of liquor. There were 2 groups based on gender of experimenter. Within each group, participants were randomly assigned to Alone or Dyad condition. In the Alone condition, students were instructed to pour only for themselves. In the Dyad condition, students were instructed to pour for themselves and the experimenter. The volumes poured by the students were compared with standards used in Singapore and the United States. Collapsed across container size, students overpoured shots by 50% and beer by 100% when compared to the standard drink definition in Singapore. When using a more liberal definition, students overpoured beer by 25%, but did not overpour shots. In the presence of an unfamiliar peer, overpouring decreased by 10% for beer. The current data show that college students, in a country with low alcohol consumption, overestimate standard alcoholic drinks similar to their Western counterparts and use social norms to determine how much to pour for a drink when confronted with an unfamiliar peer. Efforts toward creating internationally recognized standard drink

  10. Evaluation of a 2 to 1 peer placement supervision model by physiotherapy students and their educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpine, Lucy M; Caldas, Francieli Tanji; Barrett, Emer M

    2018-04-02

    The objective of the study was to investigate student and practice educator evaluations of practice placements using a structured 2 to 1 supervision and implementation model. Cross-sectional pilot study set in clinical sites providing placements for physiotherapy students in Ireland. Students and practice educators completing a 2.1 peer placement between 2013 and 2015 participated. A self-reported questionnaire which measured indicators linked to quality assured placements was used. Three open-ended questions captured comments on the benefits and challenges associated with the 2 to 1 model. Ten students (10/20; 50% response rate) and 10 practice educators (10/10; 100% response rate) responded to the questionnaire. Student responses included four pairs of students and one student from a further two pairs. There was generally positive agreement with the questionnaire indicating that placements using the 2 to 1 model were positively evaluated by participants. There were no significant differences between students and practice educators. The main benefits of the 2 to 1 model were shared learning experiences, a peer supported environment, and the development of peer evaluation and feedback skills by students. A key component of the model was the peer scripting process which provided time for reflection, self-evaluation, and peer review. 2 to 1 placements were positively evaluated by students and educators when supported by a structured supervision model. Clear guidance to students on the provision of peer feedback and support for educators providing feedback to two different students is recommended.

  11. Peer Helping Programs: Helper Role, Supervisor Training, and Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Max W.; Lewis, Arleen C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of Washington State school counselors concerning peer helper programs. Descriptive analyses indicate that peer helper counseling programs are widely used and that they are often supervised by noncounseling professionals. The analysis also revealed greater numbers of completed suicides at those schools with the…

  12. Sweating under pressure: skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior may be illuminated by individual differences in skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) in the context of peer stress. Participants included 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mean age = 12.03 years, 50% females; 42% ethnic minorities). SCLR was assessed in the context of an ecologically relevant, lab-based peer-evaluative stress experience in preadolescence. As hypothesized, self-reported peer victimization was linked with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior, and SCLR consistently moderated these associations. Peer victimization was associated with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior among preadolescents who exhibited lower SCLR, but not among preadolescents who exhibited higher SCLR. Results suggest that promoting engagement with peer stress experiences and enhancing inhibitory control are potential intervention targets that may reduce externalizing behavior in the context of peer victimization (or reduce peer victimization among preadolescents who exhibit externalizing behavior). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Peer teaching in paediatrics - medical students as learners and teachers on a paediatric course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauseil-Zipf, Ulrike; Karay, Yassin; Ehrlich, Roland; Knoop, Kai; Michalk, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Peer assisted learning is known as an effective educational strategy in medical teaching. We established a peer assisted teaching program by student tutors with a focus on clinical competencies for students during their practical training on paediatric wards. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the effects of a clinical skills training by tutors, residents and consultants on students evaluations of the teaching quality and the effects of a peer teaching program on self assessed clinical competencies by the students. Medical student peers in their 6(th) year were trained by an intensive instruction program for teaching clinical skills by paediatric consultants, doctors and psychologists. 109 students in their 5(th) year (study group) participated in a peer assisted teaching program for training clinical skills in paediatrics. The skills training by student peer teachers were supervised by paediatric doctors. 45 students (control group) participated in a conventional paediatric skills training by paediatric doctors and consultants. Students from both groups, which were consecutively investigated, completed a questionnaire with an evaluation of the satisfaction with their practical training and a self assessment of their practical competencies. The paediatric skills training with student peer teachers received significantly better ratings than the conventional skills training by paediatric doctors concerning both the quality of the practical training and the support by the teaching medical staff. Self assessed learning success in practical skills was higher rated in the peer teaching program than in the conventional training. The peer assisted teaching program of paediatric skills training was rated higher by the students regarding their satisfaction with the teaching quality and their self assessment of the acquired skills. Clinical skills training by student peer teachers have to be supervised by paediatric doctors. Paediatric doctors seem to be more

  14. Nutrition knowledge in adolescents: perception of parents and peers behavior and stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Moreira, Pedro; Silva, Gustavo Gonçalves da; Aires, Luísa

    2010-01-01

    It is well known the influence that parents and peers have in children and adolescent choices and behaviors, including eating habits and physical activity practice. No work has been done yet about parents and peers influence in nutrition knowledge. This work aims to study the relation between adolescents’ perception of parents and peers food habits, physical activity practice, stimulus to the adolescent to follow a healthy diet and be physically active and adolescents Nut...

  15. Anonymity as an Instructional Scaffold in Peer Assessment: Its Effects on Peer Feedback Quality and Evolution in Students' Perceptions about Peer Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsaert, Tijs; Panadero, Ernesto; Schellens, Tammy

    2018-01-01

    Although previous research has indicated that providing anonymity is an effective way to create a safe peer assessment setting, continuously ensuring anonymity prevents students from experiencing genuine two-way interactive feedback dialogues. The present study investigated how installing a transitional approach from an anonymous to a…

  16. Peer Assessment of Webpage Design: Behavioral Sequential Analysis Based on Eye-Tracking Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Chia; Chang, Shao-Chen; Liu, Nan-Cen

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking machine to record the process of peer assessment. Each web page was divided into several regions of interest (ROIs) based on the frame design and content. A total of 49 undergraduate students with a visual learning style participated in the experiment. This study investigated the peer assessment attitudes of the…

  17. Crossing professional barriers with peer-assisted learning: undergraduate midwifery students teaching undergraduate paramedic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Gayle; McKenna, Lisa; French, Jill

    2013-07-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) has been shown in undergraduate programmes to be as effective as learning from instructors. PAL is a shared experience between two learners often with one being more senior to the other but usually both are studying within the same discipline. Interprofessional education occurs when two or more professionals learn with, from and about each other. Benefits of PAL in an interprofessional context have not been previously explored. As part of a final year education unit, midwifery students at Monash University developed workshops for second year undergraduate paramedic students. The workshops focused on care required during and after the birth of the baby. To investigate the benefits of an interprofessional PAL for both midwifery and paramedic students. Data for this project were obtained by both quantitative and qualitative methods. Questionnaires were distributed to both cohorts of students to explore experiences of peer teaching and learning. Results were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Focus groups were conducted separately with both cohorts of students and transcripts analysed using a thematic approach. Response rates from the midwifery and paramedic students were 64.9% and 44.0% respectively. The majority of students regardless of discipline enjoyed the interprofessional activity and wanted more opportunities in their curricula. After initial anxieties about teaching into another discipline, 97.3 (n = 36) of midwifery students thought the experience was worthwhile and personally rewarding. Of the paramedic students, 76.9% (n = 60) reported enjoying the interaction. The focus groups supported and added to the quantitative findings. Both midwifery and paramedic students had a new-found respect and understanding for each other's disciplines. Midwifery students were unaware of the limited knowledge paramedics had around childbirth. Paramedic students admired the depth of knowledge displayed by the midwifery

  18. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

    2013-09-01

    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.

  19. Students helping students: vertical peer mentoring to enhance the medical school experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christine; Deerin, Jessica; Leykum, Luci

    2017-05-02

    Effective mentoring is an important component of medical student professional development. We provide a description of the mentoring program at our institution. Our institution UTHSCSA implemented a student-advising program (Veritas) with clinical faculty mentors and senior students (MiMs). The MiMs provided vertical peer mentoring to more junior students as an adjunct to faculty advising. The MiMs lead small group discussions that foster camaraderie, share academic and career information and promote professional identity. An optional MiM elective more intensively develops mentorship and leadership skills through a formal curriculum. The authors used annual survey data of all students as well as student mentors to evaluate program effectiveness. Overall, student perception of the program improved each year across multiple domains, including feeling more prepared, supported and satisfied with their overall experience in medical school. Student mentors also found the process rewarding and helpful to their future careers as physicians. The authors suggest implementing a vertical peer-mentoring program can be an effective adjunct to faculty mentoring.

  20. Peer learning partnerships: exploring the experience of pre-registration nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Angela; Bell, Amelia

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores the impact of a peer learning initiative developed to facilitate, purposefully, mutually supportive learning relationships between student nurses in the practice setting. Finding effective strategies to support learning in the practice setting has been the focus of professional concern for a considerable time. In the UK clinical mentorship is seen as pivotal to ensuring fitness to practice; however, recent debate on the nature of learning has revealed the clinical workplace as a rich learning environment where learning occurs not only through hierarchical relationships, but also from a network of peer relationships. Formalising peer relationships through peer assisted learning is increasingly suggested as a strategy to support workplace learning and support novice students' transition to the clinical setting. Despite the developing literature in this field there is limited understanding about how students experience facilitated peer relationships. An interpretive qualitative design. Focus group interviews were used to collect interactive and situated discourse from nursing students who had recently participated in peer learning partnerships (n = 54). Narrative data were analysed thematically. Findings suggest that active support from a fellow student reduced the feelings of social isolation experienced by novice students in initial clinical placements, helping them to deal more effectively with the challenges faced and reducing the factors that have an impact on attrition. In addition, the reciprocity of the peer learning partnerships facilitated understanding of mentorship and created a heightened sense of readiness for registration and professional practice. Peer learning partnerships facilitated by mentors in clinical practice can support the transition to nursing for first year students and can help more experienced students gain a confidence and a heightened readiness for mentorship and registered practice. Facilitated peer learning

  1. Deviant Peer Behavior and Adolescent Delinquency: Protective Effects of Inhibitory Control, Planning, or Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Forman-Alberti, Alissa B

    2018-05-09

    We examined relations between adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior and delinquency as moderated by inhibitory control, planning, and decision making in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development at age 15 (N = 991). Adolescents reported perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Inhibitory control, planning, and decision making were assessed behaviorally. Delinquency was evaluated with a latent variable comprised of parent-guardian perceptions of adolescent delinquency and adolescent self-reports. Only inhibitory control moderated the relationship between deviant peer behavior and delinquency, showing that better inhibition protected against delinquency in contexts of high levels of adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Findings are discussed in the context of theories of adolescent delinquency and risk taking. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  2. Connecting embedded and stand-alone peer mentoring models to enhance student engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Cooper

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the Trident Student Mentoring Program that runs in the College of Engineering at Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. The program offers both embedded and stand-alone models of peer mentoring services to the same cohort of first-year students. It shows that by forming strong links between these two types of peer mentoring models, the inherent challenges of both, such as low attendance rates in stand-alone models and short periods of peer to peer time in embedded models, are mitigated.

  3. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  4. Understanding the privacy behavior of adolescents on Facebook : The role of peers, popularity and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, B.; Corten, R.; van Tubergen, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    We study whether peer influence processes, popularity and trust predict privacy settings on Facebook. We use large-scale survey data from 3434 Dutch adolescents combined with observed privacy behavior on Facebook. The findings show that peer influence processes play a role and that adolescents

  5. The Social Transmission of Delinquency: Effects of Peer Attitudes and Behavior Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megens, Kim C. I. M.; Weerman, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    While a growing number of longitudinal studies contribute to our knowledge on the relationship between delinquent peers and one's own delinquent behavior, researchers have generally approached the issue in a restricted way: failing to identify mediating processes or to distinguish between what peers approve of and what they do. Moreover, most…

  6. Peer Crowd Identification and Adolescent Health Behaviors: Results From a Statewide Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey W; Stalgaitis, Carolyn A; Charles, John; Madden, Patrick A; Radhakrishnan, Anjana G; Saggese, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Peer crowds are macro-level subcultures that share similarities across geographic areas. Over the past decade, dozens of studies have explored the association between adolescent peer crowds and risk behaviors, and how they can inform public health efforts. However, despite the interest, researchers have not yet reported on crowd size and risk levels from a representative sample, making it difficult for practitioners to apply peer crowd science to interventions. The current study reports findings from the first statewide representative sample of adolescent peer crowd identification and health behaviors. Weighted data were analyzed from the 2015 Virginia Youth Survey of Health Behaviors ( n = 4,367). Peer crowds were measured via the I-Base Survey™, a photo-based peer crowd survey instrument. Frequencies and confidence intervals of select behaviors including tobacco use, substance use, nutrition, physical activity, and violence were examined to identify high- and low-risk crowds. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for each crowd and behavior. Risky behaviors clustered in two peer crowds. Hip Hop crowd identification was associated with substance use, violence, and some depression and suicidal behaviors. Alternative crowd identification was associated with increased risk for some substance use behaviors, depression and suicide, bullying, physical inactivity, and obesity. Mainstream and, to a lesser extent, Popular, identities were associated with decreased risk for most behaviors. Findings from the first representative study of peer crowds and adolescent behavior identify two high-risk groups, providing critical insights for practitioners seeking to maximize public health interventions by targeting high-risk crowds.

  7. Peer Mentoring to Facilitate Original Scientific Research by Students With Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danch, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Developed to allow high school students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Peer Mentoring Program was a supplement to existing science instruction for students in a self-contained classroom. Peer mentors were high school seniors at the end of a three-year advanced science research course who used their experience to create and develop inquiry-based research activities appropriate for students in the self- contained classroom. Peer mentors then assisted cooperative learning groups of special education students to facilitate the implementation of the research activities. Students with special needs successfully carried out an original research project and developed critical thinking and laboratory skills. Prior to embarking on their undergraduate course of study in the sciences, peer mentors developed an appreciation for the need to bring original scientific research to students of all levels. The program will be expanded and continued during the 2007-2008 school year.

  8. Partnership for development: A peer mentorship model for PhD students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Allison A; Mann, Tara; Flores, Dalmacio; Vance, Ashlee; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hirschey, Rachel

    Formal mentoring relationships socialize Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) students to their current and future roles as nursing scholars. Despite formal mentoring, some students may desire or benefit from additional mentoring in an informal setting. Informal mentoring complements the one-to-one relationship students develop with a primary faculty mentor or dissertation chair. This manuscript describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a student-driven, peer mentorship model, titled Partnership for Development. This small group, peer mentorship model was implemented in a PhD program at a School of Nursing during an academic year. Five student peer facilitators organized a total of 32 PhD students, 2 post-doctoral associates, and invited 5 faculty to participate. Data includes pre- and post-implementation surveys completed by the students and peer facilitator field notes. Student reported post-participation benefits included: getting to know faculty in an informal setting (n=6), socializing with students from other cohorts (n=6), and obtaining a sense of camaraderie with other PhD students (n=5). We recommend peer mentorship for other PhD programs as a way to socialize PhD students into the role of nurse scientist and assist students during their tenure as a PhD student. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Study of Student Interaction in an Online Learning Environment Specially Crafted for Cross-Level Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the ways that students in an online teacher education program connected in a specially crafted peer mentoring program developed for cross-level peer mentoring. Program administrators developed the peer mentoring site in response to observations that enrolled students, particularly new students, were often unsure of how to…

  10. CORELATION BETWEEN PORNOGRAPHIC MEDIA AND INFLUENCE OF PEERS WITH UNSAFE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENT OF SOUTH SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdiningsih Murdiningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problems associated with unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents are caused by premarital sexual intercourse with a partner of their own age. One of the problems caused by premarital sex is a pregnancy outside of marriage. Increased incidence of premarital sex is caused by the development through media depictions of sex scenes in the form of television, magazines, video clips, online media, and films. In Musi Banyuasin there are 7754 high school students, many students have dropped out of school because they get pregnant before marriage so that in adolescence their parents are forced to marry or have abortions. The aim study is determined the factors associated with unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents in high school. Method: Observational research with cross sectional and quantitative approach. The population is high school students. Sampling technique was using multistage random sampling obtained 393 samples. Bivariate analysis, chi-square Result: the result showed a correlation between the influence of peers with adolescent sexual behavior has p-value (0,000. There was no relationship between media pornography with sexual behavior because the result more than p-value (0,05. Conclusion: Necessary to be given knowledge and assistance to adolescents about positively and creatively thing and supervision of parents to their children in order to have a friends and avoid unsafe sexual behavior.   Key words: The Influence of Peers, Pornographic Media, Unsafe Sexual, Adolescent

  11. Peer influence on students' estimates of performance: social comparison in clinical rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, A N Janet; Kuks, Jan B M; van Hell, E Ally; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-02-01

    During clinical rotations, students move from one clinical situation to another. Questions exist about students' strategies for coping with these transitions. These strategies may include a process of social comparison because in this context it offers the student an opportunity to estimate his or her abilities to master a novel rotation. These estimates are relevant for learning and performance because they are related to self-efficacy. We investigated whether student estimates of their own future performance are influenced by the performance level and gender of the peer with whom the student compares him- or herself. We designed an experimental study in which participating students (n = 321) were divided into groups assigned to 12 different conditions. Each condition entailed a written comparison situation in which a peer student had completed the rotation the participant was required to undertake next. Differences between conditions were determined by the performance level (worse, similar or better) and gender of the comparison peer. The overall grade achieved by the comparison peer remained the same in all conditions. We asked participants to estimate their own future performance in that novel rotation. Differences between their estimates were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students' estimates of their future performance were highest when the comparison peer was presented as performing less well and lowest when the comparison peer was presented as performing better (p influences students' estimates of their future performance in a novel rotation. The effect depends on the performance level and gender of the comparison peer. This indicates that comparisons against particular peers may strengthen or diminish a student's self-efficacy, which, in turn, may ease or hamper the student's learning during clinical rotations. The study is limited by its experimental design. Future research should focus on students' comparison behaviour in real transitions

  12. The Double Standard at Sexual Debut: Gender, Sexual Behavior and Adolescent Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11–16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents’ own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for “making out” showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both “heavy” and “light” sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts. PMID:27833252

  13. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  15. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  16. Fostering Dental Students' Academic Achievements and Reflection Skills Through Clinical Peer Assessment and Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricio, Jorge A; Woolford, Mark J; Escudier, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Peer assessment is increasingly being encouraged to enhance dental students' learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational impact in terms of academic achievements and reflective thinking of a formative prospective peer assessment and feedback protocol. Volunteer final-year dental students at King's College London Dental Institute, UK, received training on peer assessment, peer feedback, and self-reflection. At the beginning (baseline) and end (resultant) of the 2012-13 academic year, 86 students (55% of the year group) completed a reflection questionnaire (RQ). Sixty-eight of those students used a modified Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) as a framework for peer assessment and peer feedback during a complete academic year. End-of-year, high-stakes examination grades and RQ scores from the participants and nonparticipants were statistically compared. The participants completed 576 peer DOPS. Those 22 students who peer assessed each other ≥10 times exhibited highly statistically significant differences and powerful positive effect sizes in their high-stakes exam grades (p=0.0001, d=0.74) and critical reflection skills (p=0.005, d=1.41) when compared to those who did not assess one another. Furthermore, only the same 22 students showed a statistically significant increase and positive effect size in their critical reflection skills from baseline to resultant (p=0.003, d=1.04). The results of this study suggest that the protocol used has the potential to impact dental students' academic and reflection skills, provided it is practiced in ten or more peer encounters and ensuring peer feedback is provided followed by self-reflection.

  17. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2014-12-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females ( N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.

  18. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  19. Genetic variation in GABRA2 moderates peer influence on externalizing behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Sandra; Trucco, Elisa M; Heitzeg, Mary M; Burmeister, Margit; Zucker, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Genetic predisposition and environmental influences are both important factors in the development of problematic behavior leading to substance use in adolescence. Involvement with delinquent peers also strongly predicts adolescent externalizing behavior. Several lines of evidence support a role of GABRA2 on externalizing behavior related to disinhibition. However, whether this genetic association is influenced by the environment such as peer behavior remains unknown. We examined the moderating role of GABRA2 genetic variation on the socialization model of delinquent peer affiliation (at ages 12-14 years) on externalizing behavior (at ages 15-17 years) in the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS) adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 244 adolescents (75 females and 152 with at least one parent with a DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence/abuse diagnosis). Peer delinquent activity reported by the participant and teacher-reported adolescent externalizing behavior (Teacher Report Form (TRF) were assessed. No main effect of the GABRA2 SNP rs279826, which tags a large haplotype, on externalizing behavior was observed. However, there was a statistically reliable GABRA2 × peer delinquency interaction. The effect of peer delinquent involvement on externalizing scores and the rule breaking subscale is significantly stronger for those with the GG genotype compared to A-carriers, whereas there was no effect of genotype on externalizing in the absence of peer delinquent involvement. No interaction was observed for the aggression subscale. Our results suggest that the genetic effect of GABRA2 on externalizing behavior, more specifically on rule breaking is, at least in part, due to its effect on susceptibility to environmental exposure (i.e., peer delinquency).

  20. Peer Harassment and Risky Behavior among Sexual Minority Girls and Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact o...

  1. A meta-analysis of the relations between three types of peer norms and adolescent sexual behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Deković, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms–descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex–and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed = .40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed = .22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed = .10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed = .11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. PMID:25217363

  2. Peer Pressure and Adaptive Behavior Learning: A Study of Adolescents in Gujrat City

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Yunus; Shahzad Khaver Mushtaq; Sobia Qaiser

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at discovering the influences of Peer Pressure on adaptive behavior learning in the adolescents. For the purpose two scales, Adaptive behavior scale (ABS) and Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) were developed to measure both variables. The Sample of the study was purposive in nature and comprised of late adolescents (n=120) i.e. 60 males and 60 females, from Gujrat city. Cronbach alpha was calculated and found to be significant for Peer Pressure Scale(PPS) and its subscales i.e. Belongi...

  3. Pre-university Chemistry Students in a Mimicked Scholarly Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rens, Lisette; Hermarij, Philip; Pilot, Albert; Beishuizen, Jos; Hofman, Herman; Wal, Marjolein

    2014-10-01

    Peer review is a significant component in scientific research. Introducing peer review into inquiry processes may be regarded as an aim to develop student understanding regarding quality in inquiries. This study examines student understanding in inquiry peer reviews among pre-university chemistry students, aged 16-17, when they enact a design of a mimicked scholarly peer review. This design is based on a model of a human activity system. Twenty-five different schools in Brazil, Germany, Poland and The Netherlands participated. The students (n = 880) conducted in small groups (n = 428) open inquiries on fermentation. All groups prepared an inquiry report for peer review. These reports were published on a website. Groups were randomly paired in an internet symposium, where they posted review comments to their peers. These responses were qualitatively analyzed on small groups' level of understanding regarding seven categories: inquiry question, hypothesis, management of control variables, accurate measurement, presenting results, reliability of results, discussion and conclusion. The mimicked scholarly review prompted a collective practice. Student understanding was significantly well on presenting results, discussion and conclusion, and significantly less on inquiry question and reliability of results. An enacted design, based on a model of a human activity system, created student understanding of quality in inquiries as well as an insight in a peer-reviewing practice. To what extent this model can be applied in a broader context of design research in science education needs further study.

  4. Student peer teaching in paediatric simulation training is a feasible low-cost alternative for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael; Mileder, Lukas P; Goeral, Katharina; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Cardona, Francesco S; Berger, Angelika; Schmölzer, Georg M; Olischar, Monika

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends regular simulation training to prevent adverse healthcare events. We used specially trained medical students to provide paediatric simulation training to their peers and assessed feasibility, cost and confidence of students who attended the courses. Students at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria were eligible to participate. Students attended two high-fidelity simulation training sessions, delivered by peers, which were videorecorded for evaluation. The attendees then completed questionnaires before and after the training. Associated costs and potential benefits were analysed. From May 2013 to June 2015, 152 students attended the sessions and 57 (37.5%) completed both questionnaires. Satisfaction was high, with 95% stating their peer tutor was competent and 90% saying that peer tutors were well prepared. The attendees' confidence in treating critically ill children significantly improved after training (p peer tutor were six Euros per working hour, compared to 35 Euros for a physician. Using peer tutors for paediatric simulation training was a feasible and low-cost option that increased the number of medical students who could be trained and increased the self-confidence of the attendees. Satisfaction with the peer tutors was high. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Interparental Conflict, Parenting Behavior, and Children's Friendship Quality as Correlates of Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization Among Aggressor/Victim Subgroups in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hee; Hong, Jun Sung; Yoon, Jina; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this study was to examine whether interparental conflict, maternal parenting behaviors, and children's friendship quality varied as a function of peer aggression/victim subgroups among a sample of 227 elementary school children and their mothers in South Korea. Both self-report and peer-report data indicated that the majority of the students were uninvolved in peer aggression situations, and the number of participants in the subgroups (aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims) varied depending on the source of report. According to the self-report data, victims and aggressor-victims reported a higher level of maternal rejection than uninvolved youth. Aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims reported higher maternal neglect than uninvolved youth. The highest level of interparental conflict was reported by victims, followed by aggressors. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in positive functioning of friendship quality among the subgroups, although results indicated a significant difference among groups in negative friendship quality. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Impact of near-peer teaching rounds on student satisfaction in the basic surgical clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph A; Farrow, Norma; Lindeman, Brenessa M; Lidor, Anne O

    2017-06-01

    Teaching rounds are rarely featured in the surgery clerkship. Senior students interested in surgery are suited to precept teaching rounds. Near-peer teaching can provide benefits to both learners and preceptors. Near-peer teaching rounds consisted of senior student-precetors leading groups of 3 clerkship students on teaching rounds once during the clerkship. We prospectively surveyed student satisfaction before and after instituting near-peer teaching rounds. We retrospectively gathered qualitative narratives from student-preceptors. The survey response rate was 93% before near-peer teaching rounds were instituted and 85% after. Satisfaction with the learning environment and the quality and amount of small-group teaching were significantly higher after the institution of near-peer teaching rounds (P ≤ .001 for all 3). Satisfaction with the overall clerkship and baseline interest in surgery were not significantly different. Student-preceptors reported gaining valuable experience for future roles in academia as residents and attending surgeons. Student satisfaction with small-group teaching and the learning environment increased after the institution of near-peer teaching rounds in the surgery clerkship. Student-preceptors gained early experience for careers in academic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient and Effective Use of Peer Teaching for Medical Student Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Joseph B; Choe, Carol H; Wourman, Heather L; Berg, Kristin M; Fischer, Jonathan P; Santen, Sally A

    2017-01-01

    Simulation is increasingly used in medical education, promoting active learning and retention; however, increasing use also requires considerable instructor resources. Simulation may provide a safe environment for students to teach each other, which many will need to do when they enter residency. Along with reinforcing learning and increasing retention, peer teaching could decrease instructor demands. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of peer-taught simulation compared to physician-led simulation. We hypothesized that peer-taught simulation would lead to equivalent knowledge acquisition when compared to physician-taught sessions and would be viewed positively by participants. This was a quasi-experimental study in an emergency medicine clerkship. The control group was faculty taught. In the peer-taught intervention group, students were assigned to teach one of the three simulation-based medical emergency cases. Each student was instructed to master their topic and teach it to their peers using the provided objectives and resource materials. The students were assigned to groups of three, with all three cases represented; students took turns leading their case. Three groups ran simultaneously. During the intervention sessions, one physician was present to monitor the accuracy of learning and to answer questions, while three physicians were required for the control groups. Outcomes compared pre-test and post-test knowledge and student reaction between control and intervention groups. Both methods led to equally improved knowledge; mean score for the post-test was 75% for both groups (p=0.6) and were viewed positively. Students in the intervention group agreed that peer-directed learning was an effective way to learn. However, students in the control group scored their simulation experience more favorably. In general, students' response to peer teaching was positive, students learned equally well, and found peer-taught sessions to be interactive and

  8. Hanging out with the right crowd : behavioral and neuroimaging studies of peer influence on decision-making in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van J.

    2017-01-01

    Peer influence plays a crucial role in the rise of health-risk behaviors during adolescence. However, there is increasing evidence that peer influence can also lead to positive psychosocial outcomes, such as prosocial behavior. The main goal of this thesis was to investigate peer influence on

  9. Perspectives on Peer-Mentoring from Taiwanese Science and Engineering Master's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the peer-mentoring experience from the perspective of 16 master's students majoring in science or engineering at a research-oriented university in Taiwan. Utilizing a qualitative method of phenomenology, these mentees shared their views about their peer-mentors through in-depth interviews. Participants…

  10. Can Peer Mentors Improve First-Year Experiences of University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomtov, Dani; Plunkett, Scott W.; Efrat, Rafi; Marin, Adriana Garcia

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of a peer-mentoring program was examined at a university in California. Previous studies suggest university peer mentoring might increase students' feelings of engagement, which can contribute to their retention. Pretest and posttest data were collected from 304 freshmen (mentored and nonmentored) during the fall of 2012 in a…

  11. Taiwan College Students' Self-Efficacy and Motivation of Learning in Online Peer Assessment Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sheng-Chau; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Online peer assessment is an innovative evaluation method that has caught both educators' and practitioners' attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to develop relevant questionnaires for teachers to understand student self-efficacy and motivation in online peer assessment learning environments. A total of 205 college students…

  12. Efficacy and Social Validity of Peer Network Interventions for High School Students with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Jennifer M.; Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Born, Tiffany L.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Brock, Matthew E.; Cattey, Gillian N.; Cooney, Molly; Fesperman, Ethan S.; Hochman, Julia M.; Huber, Heartley B.; Lequia, Jenna L.; Lyons, Gregory L.; Vincent, Lori B.; Weir, Katie

    2017-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of peer network interventions to improve the social connections of 47 high school students with severe disabilities. School staff invited, trained, and supported 192 peers without disabilities to participate in individualized social groups that met throughout one semester. Compared to…

  13. The Development of a Peer Assisted Learning Model for the Clinical Education of Physiotherapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenhuysen, Samantha L.; Nickson, Wendy; Farlie, Melanie K.; Raitman, Lyn; Keating, Jennifer L.; Molloy, Elizabeth; Skinner, Elizabeth; Maloney, Stephen; Haines, Terry P.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for clinical placements in physiotherapy education continues to outstrip supply. Peer assisted learning, in various formats, has been trialled to increase training capacity and facilitate student learning during clinical education. There are no documented examples of measurable or repeatable peer assisted learning models to aid clinicians…

  14. A Review of Peer-Mediated Social Interaction Interventions for Students with Autism in Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laci; O'Reilly, Mark; Kuhn, Michelle; Gevarter, Cindy; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the use of peer-mediated interventions (PMI) to improve the social interaction skills of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in inclusive settings. The purpose of this review is to (a) identify the characteristics and components of peer-mediated social interaction interventions, (b) evaluate the effectiveness of PMI…

  15. Implementation of Peer Tutoring Strategies in Teaching Students with ADHD: Teachers' Attitudes in Saudi Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaoud, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measured teachers' attitudes toward implementation of peer tutoring strategies in teaching students with ADHD in Saudi Arabia. The study moreover examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes of implementation of peer tutoring strategies and variables of demographic characteristics. Five hundred thirty eight teachers…

  16. An Investigation into How Students Respond to Being Victimized by Peer Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Bauman, Sheri A.; Dinner, Stephanie; Nixon, Charisse; Davis, Stan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how students respond to peer aggression. Results indicate that boys tend to use more retaliatory responses to peer aggression compared with girls, who are more likely to confide in their friends. The use of humor in response to being victimized also was found to be a promising way to respond to being victimized, especially…

  17. Peer-assisted learning--beyond teaching: How can medical students contribute to the undergraduate curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmedge, Daniel S; Iwata, Kazuya; Gill, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become increasingly popular over recent years with many medical schools now formally incorporating peer-teaching programs into the curriculum. PAL has a sound evidence base with benefit to both peer-teacher and peer-learner. Aside from in teaching delivery, empowering students to develop education in its broadest sense has been much less extensively documented. Five case studies with supportive evaluation evidence illustrate the success of a broad range of peer-led projects in the undergraduate medical curriculum, particularly where these have been embedded into formal teaching practices. These case studies identify five domains of teaching and support of learning where PAL works well: teaching and learning, resource development, peer-assessment, education research and evaluation and mentoring and support. Each case offers ways of engaging students in each domain. Medical students can contribute significantly to the design and delivery of the undergraduate medical program above and beyond the simple delivery of peer-assisted "teaching". In particular, they are in a prime position to develop resources and conduct research and evaluation within the program. Their participation in all stages enables them to feel involved in course development and education of their peers and ultimately leads to an increase in student satisfaction.

  18. Emotional Autonomy versus Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: A Case Study of Hong Kong Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Wai; Chan, Siu-Mui

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire consisting of two scales was administered to 550 Hong Kong secondary students to examine their emotional autonomy and susceptibility to peer pressure. Emotional autonomy was studied by the scale (EAS) developed by Steinberg and Silverberg (1986) and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied by the scale developed by Sim and Koh…

  19. When Elementary Students Change Peer Groups: Intragroup Centrality, Intergroup Centrality, and Self-Perceptions of Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Estell, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The current study follows two cohorts of fourth and fifth graders across 1 school year to better understand why some students change peer groups. The study focuses on popularity and intragroup social status. We examined whether differences between individuals' and group members' self-perceptions of popularity were related to changing peer groups.…

  20. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents’ Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents’ sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents’ lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents’ experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (Mage T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents’ perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents’ level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys’ SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents’ sexual health. PMID:26086606

  1. "I Got Your Back": Friends' Understandings regarding College Student Spring Break Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E.; Morgan, Nicole; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviors that pose threats to safety and health, including binge drinking and unprotected sex, increase during a week-long break from university. Understandings with peers regarding these behaviors may be important for predicting behavior and related harms. College students (N = 651; 48% men) reported having understandings with their friends…

  2. Caution, Student Experience May Vary: Social Identities Impact a Student’s Experience in Peer Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.; Thummaphan, Phonraphee; Lan, Ming-Chih; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for implementing active learning in college-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses, classrooms across the country are being transformed from instructor centered to student centered. In these active-learning classrooms, the dynamics among students becomes increasingly important for understanding student experiences. In this study, we focus on the role a student prefers to assume during peer discussions, and how this preferred role may vary given a student’s social identities. In addition we explore whether three hypothesized barriers to participation may help explain participation difference in the classroom. These barriers are 1) students are excluded from the discussion by actions of their groupmates; 2) students are anxious about participating in peer discussion; and 3) students do not see value in peer discussions. Our results indicate that self-reported preferred roles in peer discussions can be predicted by student gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality. In addition, we found evidence for all three barriers, although some barriers were more salient for certain students than others. We encourage instructors to consider structuring their in-class activities in ways that promote equity, which may require more purposeful attention to alleviating the current differential student experiences with peer discussions. PMID:26628561

  3. Challenging Behavior, Parental Conflict and Community Violence in Students with Aggressive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alberto Valdés Cuervo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the presence of challenging behavior problems, parental conflict and violence in the community were determined by the probability of occurrence of bullying behaviors in elementary students. 664 students participated in the study, of whom 80 (12.04% were identified as aggressors. 80 students with no reports of attacks were later selected randomly for comparison. Using logistic regression, it was found that the variables studied manifest significant differences between the student groups with and without aggressive behavior toward peers (R2 = .39. Challenging behavior (OR = 7.83, parental conflict (OR = 3.77 and Community Violence (OR = 5.36 increase the probability of belonging to the group of aggressors. We conclude that it is necessary to analyze the bullying from an ecological framework that considers variables located in the contexts in which individuals interact.

  4. Parents' and peers' normative influence on adolescents' smoking: results from a Swiss-Italian sample of middle schools students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-01-21

    Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking. Multinomial logistic regression show that, as adolescents get older, more of the pro-smoking factors come from peers and parents, the higher the risk gets of being a "heavy smoker" has compared against having no experience with smoking. Living in a context with no factor of normative influence toward smoking play a protective role against smoking, and this effect becomes more important than more harmful the smoking behavior in question is. Furthermore, peers' descriptive norms are more influential for adolescents to become "light" and "heavy smokers", while smoking being approved by peers is important for adolescents to become accustomed to smoking. Findings support the different influence of parents' and peers' norms on adolescents' smoking, and highlight the importance of peers' model behavior as the most important factor influencing smoking during adolescence. Such results have implications for programs that aim to prevent or reduce smoking in early adolescence when friendship choice starts to become crucial.

  5. Peer Mentorship and Transformational Learning: PhD Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.; Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Nsiah, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe our peer mentorship experiences and explain how these experiences fostered transformational learning during our PhD graduate program in educational administration. As a literature backdrop, we discuss characteristics of traditional forms of mentorship and depict how our experiences of peer mentorship was…

  6. Perceptions of first-year medical students towards learning anatomy using cadaveric specimens through peer teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Andee; Calleja, Neville; Camenzuli, Christian; Sultana, Roberta; Pullicino, Richard; Zammit, Christian; Calleja Agius, Jean; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-11-07

    During the last decade, global interest in the multiple benefits of formal peer teaching has increased. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of first-year medical students towards the use of peer teaching to learn anatomy using cadaveric specimens. A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective survey was carried out. Data were collected using an online questionnaire which was administered to all medical students who were in their second year of their medical school curriculum and who had participated in sessions taught by their peers during their first year. Peer teaching was perceived as an effective method of learning anatomy by more than half of the participants. Analysis of mean responses revealed that the peer teachers created a positive, non-intimidating learning environment. Overall, participants gave positive feedback on their peer teachers. Six categories emerged from the responses given by participants as to why they would or would not recommend peer teaching. Ways of improvement as suggested by the respondents were also reported. Variables found to be significantly associated with the perceived benefits of the peer teaching program included sex differences, educational level and recommendations for peer teaching. This study brings to light the merits and demerits of peer teaching as viewed through the eyes of the peer learners. Peer teaching provides a sound platform for teaching and learning anatomy. Further discussions at higher levels are encouraged in order to explore the feasibility of introducing formal peer teaching in the medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.

  8. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  9. Peer teaching experience of the first year medical students from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Zeliha; Avsar, Zeynep; Cayir, Yasemin; Acemoglu, Hamit

    2015-02-01

    To document peer teaching activity performed by first-year medical students and their views on the teaching activity. Survey. Medical Education Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey, in the 2012 - 2013 academic year. Volunteer students were selected for peer teaching model by an academician from the Medical Education Department. Students were taught subjects selected from classes such as biochemistry and microbiology in the same way as the academicians do. Following each class activity, the teaching student was assessed by the other students on a 5-point rating scale. Written and verbal feedback was also obtained from both teaching students and participated students. Verbal feedbacks were noted by a faculty member and similar opinions were categorized. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 statistical program. Eleven students took part in the program. Feedback was received from students 171 times. The mean number of students participated was 24.4 ± 14.3 in each program. Statistical analysis revealed that mean value for teaching materials, peer instructors and teaching environment were 4.62 ± 0.49, 4.63 ± 0.47 and 3.88 ± 1. 27 respectively. Peer teaching method is a pretty good way of teaching for medical students. It is a practicable technique that can be used in medical training. Taking part in this program as a lecturer, student increased students' self-confidence in the learning and teaching activities. Quite positive feedbacks were received.

  10. Basic echocardiography for undergraduate students: a comparison of different peer-teaching approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl-Dietsch, G; Menon, A K; Gürsel, A; Götzenich, A; Hatam, N; Aljalloud, A; Schrading, S; Hölzl, F; Knobe, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of different teaching interventions in a peer-teaching environment on basic echocardiography skills and to examine the influence of gender on learning outcomes. We randomly assigned 79 s year medical students (55 women, 24 men) to one of four groups: peer teaching (PT), peer teaching using Peyton's four-step approach (PPT), team based learning (TBL) and video-based learning (VBL). All groups received theoretical and practical hands-on training according to the different approaches. Using a pre-post-design we assessed differences in theoretical knowledge [multiple choice (MC) exam], practical skills (Objective Structured Practical Examination, OSPE) and evaluation results with respect to gender. There was a significant gain in theoretical knowledge for all students. There were no relevant differences between the four groups regarding the MC exam and OSPE results. The majority of students achieved good or very good results. Acceptance of the peer-teaching concept was moderate and all students preferred medical experts to peer tutors even though the overall rating of the instructors was fairly good. Students in the Video group would have preferred a different training method. There was no significant effect of gender on evaluation results. Using different peer-teaching concepts proved to be effective in teaching basic echocardiography. Gender does not seem to have an impact on effectiveness of the instructional approach. Qualitative analysis revealed limited acceptance of peer teaching and especially of video-based instruction.

  11. Alcohol use and related problems among college students and their noncollege peers: the competing roles of personality and peer influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2011-07-01

    Although alcohol use and related problems are highly prevalent in emerging adulthood overall, college students drink somewhat more than do their peers who do not attend college. The personal or social influences underlying this difference, however, are not yet well understood. The present study examined whether personality traits (i.e., self-regulation and sensation seeking) and peer influence (i.e., descriptive drinking norms) contributed to student status differences. At approximately age 22, 4-year college students (n = 331) and noncollege emerging adults (n = 502) completed web-based surveys, including measures of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, personality, and social norms. College students drank only slightly more heavily. This small difference, however, reflected personality suppression. College students were lower in trait-based risk for drinking, and accounting for traits revealed a stronger positive association between attending college and drinking more heavily. Although noncollege emerging adults reported greater descriptive drinking norms for social group members, norms appeared to more strongly influence alcohol use among college students. Finally, despite drinking less, noncollege individuals experienced more alcohol-related problems. The association between attending college and drinking heavily may be larger than previously estimated, and it may be masked by biased selection into college as a function of both self-regulation and sensation seeking. Differing patterns of alcohol use, its predictors, and its consequences emerged for the college and noncollege samples, suggesting that differing intervention strategies may best meet the needs of each population.

  12. The Extent and Effects of Peer Pressure among High School Students: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B. Bradford

    1982-01-01

    The extent of peer pressure in high school and its influences on behavior were examined in accounts from college undergraduates. One-third of both genders identified peer pressure as difficult, being stronger for females. Pressure areas included dating, sexual activity, and drug and alcohol use, but not parent-child relationships. (Author/CM)

  13. College Students and Sexual Dynamics: Two Studies of Peer Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Diana K.; Hamlet, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    Shows that more women than men reported being targets of peer sexual harassment. Notes that women view certain behaviors as harassing and as more severe than men. Finds that classmates were a primary category of harassers for women and a secondary category for men. Documents peer sexual harassment in college classrooms and discusses implications…

  14. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among…

  15. Harsh Parenting, Deviant Peers, Adolescent Risky Behavior: Understanding the Meditational Effect of Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.

  16. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interact...

  17. Student Nutrition, Learning and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Martha

    This discussion addresses several nutrition issues considered important to schools, students, and educators in the United States. Contents consist of a review of malnutrition and learning research and discussions of food additives and allergies, diet and hyperkinesia, the effects of caffeine and sugar on children's behavior, and the National…

  18. Students' Attitudes towards Peers with Disabilities : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The trend towards inclusive education has led to an increase of studies focusing on peer attitudes. This review study presents an overview of studies describing attitudes of students, variables relating to students' attitudes, and the relationship between students' attitudes and the social

  19. Effect of Peer and Self-Assessment on Male and Female Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and self assessment on the self-efficacy and students' learner autonomy in the learning of mathematics as well as determining the attitude of male and female students towards the use of peer and self assessment. The population was made of senior secondary three students (SS3) of a state public school in Osun State.

  20. Developing an Embedded Peer Tutor Program in Design Studio to Support First Year Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlan, Lisa; Wilson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    An improved first year student experience is a strategic focus for higher education in an increasingly competitive marketplace. A successful peer tutoring program creates a visible community of practice, supports the student learning experience, elevates senior students as ambassadors of the program, and reinforces an emphasis on learning through…

  1. Peer Facilitated Writing Groups: A Programmatic Approach to Doctoral Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Aitchison, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Very few empirical studies have investigated programmes in which doctoral students act as peer facilitators in faculty writing groups. We report on the development of a centrally delivered doctoral student writing programme in which twenty student participants were mentored and provided with the resources to initiate their own faculty-based…

  2. Peer Mentoring for International Students in a UK Law School: Lessons from a Pilot Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Shamini K.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study discusses the impact of a support network for international students of culturally diverse backgrounds using a peer mentoring scheme. The scheme focused on facilitating cultural integration in the international student community in Newcastle and sought to engender a cooperative community among new students. Data obtained…

  3. 'Walk with Us…' Student Peer-Mentoring in Interdisciplinary Cancer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maqrashi, Zainab; Al-Lawati, Yasser; Al-Sadi, Amira; Al-Wahaiby, Malak; Lakhtakia, Ritu

    2017-02-27

    'Walk with us…' reflects on a series of innovative educational journeys that have offered value addition in cancer education of health professions students. It provides an insight into interdisciplinary peer education through extra-curricular pathways. It taps on student creativity and inspirational techniques in health education that stimulate student-centered learning.

  4. Peer Instruction in Chemistry Education: Assessment of Students' Learning Strategies, Conceptual Learning and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga; Gok, Ozge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on learning strategies, problem solving performance, and conceptual understanding of college students in a general chemistry course. The research was performed students enrolled in experimental and control groups of a chemistry course were selected. Students in the…

  5. An Investigation of Students' Performance after Peer Instruction with Stepwise Problem-Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of strategic problem solving with peer instruction on college students' performance in physics. The students enrolled in 2 sections of a physics course were studied; 1 section was the treatment group and the other section was the comparison group. Students in the treatment group received peer…

  6. Peer-Mentoring Undergraduate Accounting Students: The Influence on Approaches to Learning and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alison; Stevenson, Lorna; Connelly, Patricia; Duff, Angus; Dunlop, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the impact of a student peer-mentoring programme (the Mentor Accountant Project, MAP) on first-year undergraduates' academic performance. The development of MAP was informed by reference to extant literature; it relies on the voluntary services of third-year students who then act as mentors to first-year student mentees in…

  7. The Effect of Peer Support on University Level Students' English Language Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Irfan; Çeliköz, Nadir; Ünal, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of peer support on university level students' English language achievements. An experimental model with pretest-posttest experimental and control group was used with 800 students who were studying at a university in Istanbul vicinity. As experiment group, 400 students (200 of whom…

  8. A comparison between unwanted sexual behavior by teachers and by peers in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    This study explores differences and similarities between sexual harassment of students by teachers and by peers. Respondents were adolescents in 22 secondary schools, randomly selected in 2 regions in the Netherlands. Of the 2808 students 512 (18%) reported unwanted sexual experiences at school in

  9. Can Learners Become Teachers? Evaluating the Merits of Student Generated Content and Peer Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Murray

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this project was to explore student perceptions of the value of both the creation of video content and exposure to other students’ work though peer assessment and inclusion of exemplars as unit material. Background: The research was in a first year information technology flipped-learning unit, where the assessment involved students developing video presentations that were peer assessed and exemplars incorporated into the unit as teaching material. Methodology: Data was gathered using a mixed methods approach using an online questionnaire followed by semi-structured interviews with a selection of questionnaire respondents. The interviews were designed to further explore issues identified from the analysis of the questionnaire data. Contribution: Informs on student perceptions of peer review and the integration of student generated content into University teaching. Findings: Most students enjoyed the video assessment (58% with many preferring it to a written or programming task (55-58%. In the subsequent peer assessment, many liked seeing the work of others (67% and found the approach engaging (63% yet some other perceptions were mixed or neutral. Recommendations for Practitioners: University IT students generally enjoyed and perceived peer assessment and found student generated content to be valuable. Recommendation for Researchers: Further investigation of peer review and student generated content in contexts where the student cohort represents a variety of cultures and age categories Impact on Society: Contributes to a body of knowledge regarding peer assessment and student generated educational materials. Future Research: Future work is needed to better understand this domain, in particular the role of learners’ individual differences in order to successfully integrate these approaches into modern learning environments.

  10. Peer Feedback Through SNSs (Social Networking Sites): Student Teachers’ Views about Using Facebook for Peer Feedback on Microteachings

    OpenAIRE

    Okumuş, Kübra; Yurdakal, İbrahim Halil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine the views of pre-service teachers on the use of Facebook for providing peer feedback on their microteachings. To serve this aim, a case study was conducted with 38 English language student teachers.  Firstly, these student teachers did their microteachings and uploaded them to a Facebook group opened by the researchers. Then, it was provided that their classmates comment on these videos. In order to collect data, an open-ended questionnaire was ...

  11. Assessing Student Peer Dialogue in Collaborative Settings: A Window into Student Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Antoinette

    The use of science classroom discourse analysis as a way to gain a better understanding of various student cognitive outcomes has a rich history in Science Education in general and Physics Education Research (PER) in particular. When students talk to each other in a collaborative peer instruction environment, such as in the CLASP classes (Collaborative Learning and Sense-making in Physics) at UC Davis, they get to practice and enhance their reasoning and sense-making skills, develop collaborative approaches to problem solving, and participate in co-construction of knowledge and shared thinking. To better understand these important cognitive processes, an analysis tool for monitoring, assessing and categorizing the peer talk arising in this environment is needed as a first step in teasing out evidence for these processes inherent in such talk. In order to meaningfully contribute to the extensive body of knowledge that currently exists, deeper, more insightful answers to the question of what happens linguistically when students struggle to "make sense" and how students use language to mediate these important cognitive outcomes is needed. To this end, a new tool for interpreting particularly qualitative linguistic data is needed, and the first part of the dissertation expounds on the development of a discourse analysis tool that has as its underpinnings a framework for coding borrowed extensively from Systemic Functional Linguistics Theory (SFL). The second part of this dissertation illustrates multiple ways in which the tool is used and how it can be utilized to address many current research questions.

  12. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Hojat; Amini, Mitra; Momen Nasab, Ameneh; Malek Pour, Abdolrasoul; Jafari, Mohammad Morad

    2014-07-01

    Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual's performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7(th) year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale.  After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.83). Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57) for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD= 4.49±0.53) for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32) for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students' learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  13. Allowing Students to Select Deliverables for Peer Review: Analysis of a Free-Selection Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas; Demetriadis, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the benefits and limitations of a “free-selection” peer assignment protocol by comparing them to the widely implemented “assigned-pair” protocol. The primary motivation was to circumvent the issues that often appear to the instructors implementing peer review activities with pre......-Selection, where students were able to explore and select peer work for review. Result analysis showed a very strong tendency in favor of the Free-Selection students regarding both domain specific (conceptual) and domain-general (reviewing) knowledge....

  14. Medical Students Teaching Medical Students Surgical Skills: The Benefits of Peer-Assisted Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samuel Robert; Morris, Simon Rhys; Mirza, Salman

    2018-04-10

    Teaching surgical skills is a labor intensive process, requiring a high tutor to student ratio for optimal success, and teaching for undergraduate students by consultant surgeons is not always feasible. A surgical skills course was developed, with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of undergraduate surgical peer-assisted learning. Five surgical skills courses were conducted looking at eight domains in surgery, led by foundation year doctors and senior medical students, with a tutor to student ratio of 1:4. Precourse and postcourse questionnaires (Likert scales 0-10) were completed. Mean scores were compared precourse and postcourse. Surgical skills courses took place within clinical skills rooms in the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (UK). Seventy students (59 medical, 2 dental, and 9 physician associate students) from a range of academic institutions across the UK completed the course. There was an overall increase in mean scores across all eight domains. Mean improvement score precourse and postcourse in WHO surgical safety checklist (+3.94), scrubbing (+2.99), gowning/gloving (+3.34), knot tying (+5.53), interrupted sutures (+5.89), continuous sutures (+6.53), vertical mattress sutures (+6.46), and local anesthesia (+3.73). Peer-assisted learning is an effective and feasible method for teaching surgical skills in a controlled environment, subsequently improving confidence among healthcare undergraduates. Such teaching may provide the basis for feasibly mass-producing surgical skills courses for healthcare students. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brief Announcement: Induced Churn to Face Adversarial Behavior in Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anceaume, Emmanuelle; Brasileiro, Francisco; Ludinard, Romaric; Sericola, Bruno; Tronel, Frederic

    Awerbuch and Scheideler [2] have shown that peer-to-peer overlays networks can only survive Byzantine attacks if malicious nodes are not able to predict what will be the topology of the network for a given sequence of join and leave operations. A prerequisite for this condition to hold is to guarantee that nodes identifiers randomness is continuously preserved. However targeted join/leave attacks may quickly endanger the relevance of such an assumption. Inducing churn has been shown to be the other fundamental ingredient to preserve randomness. Several strategies based on these principles have been proposed. Most of them are based on locally induced churn. However either they have been proven incorrect or they involve a too high level of complexity to be practically acceptable [2]. The other ones, based on globally induced churn, enforce limited lifetime for each node in the system. However, these solutions keep the system in an unnecessary hyper-activity, and thus need to impose strict restrictions on nodes joining rate which clearly limit their applicability to open systems.

  16. Perceived Discrimination, Peer Influence and Sexual Behaviors in Mexican American Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Both discrimination and sexual health disparities have significant negative health implications for Latina/o preadolescent youth, including negative mental health outcomes, STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, and ongoing poverty. Studying these links within this population, therefore, has significant public health relevance, both in terms of promoting sexual health in general as well as serving the specific needs of Latina/o youth. This study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behaviors among 438 Mexican American preadolescents in the Southwest United States (55.3 % male). Additionally, this study examined whether psychological distress, substance use, and sexual motives mediated and whether gender moderated these relations. A multiple-group path analysis of the analytical model was performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, peer influence, psychological distress, substance use, sexual motives and sexual behaviors. The findings indicated that perceived discrimination was directly linked to sexual behaviors among participants and indirectly linked via substance use. The findings also indicated that peer influence was indirectly linked to sexual behaviors via substance use among participants and via sexual motives among boys. This study underscores the importance of substance use in the perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behavior link in Mexican American preadolescents. Additionally, it highlights the importance of sexual motives in the link between peer influence and sexual behaviors of Mexican American boys.

  17. An assessment of student satisfaction with peer teaching of clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jonathan K A; Dalleywater, William J; Tischler, Victoria

    2014-10-13

    Peer teaching is now used in medical education with its value increasingly being recognised. It is not yet established whether students differ in their satisfaction with teaching by peer-teachers compared to those taught by academic or clinical staff. This study aimed to establish satisfaction with communication skills teaching between these three teaching groups. Students participated in a role-play practical facilitated either by clinicians, peer-teachers or non-clinical staff. A questionnaire was administered to first-year medical students after participating in a communication skills role-play session asking students to evaluate their satisfaction with the session. Data were analysed in SPSS 20. One hundred and ninety eight students out of 239 (83%) responded. Students were highly satisfied with the teaching session with no difference in satisfaction scores found between those sessions taught by peers, clinical and non-clinical staff members. 158 (80%) considered the session useful and 139 (69%) strongly agreed tutors facilitated their development. There was no significant difference in satisfaction scores based on tutor background. Satisfaction is as high when tutored by peer-teachers compared to clinicians or non-clinical staff. Constructive feedback is welcomed from a range of personnel. Final-year students could play an increasing role in the teaching of pre-clinical medical students.

  18. Peer harassment and risky behavior among sexual minority girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; French, Michael T.; Norton, Edward C.

    2010-01-01

    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers) and popularity at school. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich and nationally-representative survey with detailed information on social networks. Our findings suggest that adolescents are socially rewarded for conforming to their peers' alcohol use and penalized (to a lesser degree) for increasing their consumption above that of their peers. Male adolescents are rewarded for keeping up with their peers' drinking and for getting drunk. Female adolescents are rewarded for drinking per se, but not necessarily for keeping up with their peers. The results offer new information on peer influence and have implications for substance abuse interventions at school and in the community. PMID:21860582

  20. Relations between Children's Levels of Responsiveness and Resistance, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Social Behaviors with Peers in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Daniela; Neitzel, Carin

    2017-01-01

    Children's peer relationships have their origins in family relationships. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children's levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and tests a model of the direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with…

  1. Ready to Make Nice: Parental Socialization of Young Sons' and Daughters' Prosocial Behaviors with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D.; McShane, Kelly E.; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their…

  2. Maternal Caregiving Moderates the Relation between Temperamental Fear and Social Behavior with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penela, Elizabeth C.; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie A.; Ghera, Melissa M.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperament works in combination with a child's environment to influence early socioemotional development. We examined whether maternal caregiving behavior at infant age 9 months moderated the relation between infant temperamental fear (9 months) and observations of children's social behavior with an unfamiliar peer at age 2 in a typically…

  3. Problem Behavior and Developmental Tasks in Adolescents with Visual Impairment and Sighted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed associations of problem behavior with the attainment of developmental tasks in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and 449 sighted peers. Higher levels of initial problem behavior predicted less progress in the attainment of developmental tasks at the one-year follow-up only in sighted adolescents. This…

  4. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  5. Getting acquainted: Actor and partner effects of attachment and temperament on young children's peer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Peer Mentoring During Practicum to Reduce Anxiety in First-Semester Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Danielle; Verklan, Terese

    2016-11-01

    The clinical setting creates significant anxiety for students that can decrease their ability to learn. This quasi-experimental study examined whether nursing students who participate in peer mentoring during their first clinical experience (n = 18) experienced less anxiety than those in traditional clinical experiences (n = 19). Anxiety was measured using the standardized State Trait Anxiety Index and the Clinical Experiences Anxiety Form (CEAF). Data were analyzed using descriptive and nonparametric statistics. A significant decrease was demonstrated in clinical situation-specific anxiety, as measured by the CEAF, among students who were peer mentored as compared with students who were not. Peer mentoring shows promise as an effective strategy to reduce anxiety among novice nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(11):651-654.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Press Start: the value of an online student-led, peer-reviewed game studies journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Barr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an online student journal is described, and the ways in which student participants value the journal are discussed. Press Start is a peer-reviewed international journal of game studies, which aims to publish the best student work related to the academic study of video games. Content analysis of qualitative survey data (n = 29 provides insights into what students value about the journal, revealing six broad themes: community and support, inclusiveness and accessibility, the published research, feedback from peer review, experience of conducting peer review and the opportunity to publish. The article concludes by suggesting that engagement with online student journals should not be limited in terms of geography or the level of study, unless there are robust pedagogical reasons for doing so.

  8. A study: Effect of Students Peer Assisted Learning on Magnetic Field Achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueanploy, Wannapa

    2016-01-01

    This study is the case study of Physic II Course for students of Pathumwan Institute of Technology. The purpose of this study is: 1) to develop cooperative learning method of peer assisted learning (PAL), 2) to compare the learning achievement before and after studied magnetic field lesson by cooperative learning method of peer assisted learning. The population was engineering students of Pathumwan Institute of Technology (PIT’s students) who registered Physic II Course during year 2014. The sample used in this study was selected from the 72 students who passed in Physic I Course. The control groups learning magnetic fields by Traditional Method (TM) and experimental groups learning magnetic field by method of peers assisted learning. The students do pretest before the lesson and do post-test after the lesson by 20 items achievement tests of magnetic field. The post-test higher than pretest achievement significantly at 0.01 level. (paper)

  9. Effects of peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Moon Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of video-based peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students. A non-equivalent control with pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 47 sophomore nursing students taking a fundamentals of nursing course at a nursing college in Korea. Communication with a standardized patient was videotaped for evaluation. The intervention group used peer reviews to evaluate the videotaped performance; a small group of four students watched the videotape of each student and then provided feedback. The control group assessed themselves alone after watching their own videos. Communication skills and learning motivation were measured. The intervention group showed significantly higher communication skills and learning motivation after the intervention than did the control group. The findings suggest that peer review is an effective learning method for nursing students to improve their communication skills and increase their motivation to learn. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Use of an audience response system during peer teaching among physical therapy students in human gross anatomy: perceptions of peer teachers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Kevin R; Cloud, Beth A; Forster, Lindsey A; Jones, Tiffany M; Nokleby, Jessica J; Wolfe, Cortney R; Youdas, James W

    2009-01-01

    An audience response system (ARS) has become popular among educators in medicine and the health professions because of the system's ability to engage listeners during a lecture presentation. No one has described the usefulness of ARS technology during planned nonlecture peer teaching sessions in gross anatomy instruction for health professionals. The unique feature of each peer teaching session was a nongraded 12-15 item ARS quiz assembled by six second-year doctor of physical therapy (DPT) students and purposely placed at the beginning of the review session for those first-year DPT students in attendance. This study used a ten-item questionnaire and a five-point Likert scale in addition to three open ended questions to survey perceptions of both first-year and second-year DPT students about the usefulness of ARS technology implemented during weekly interactive peer teaching sessions during a semester course in Anatomy for Physical Therapists. First-year students overwhelmingly acknowledged the ARS system permitted each student to self-assess his/her preparedness for a quiz or examination and compare his/her performance with that of classmates. Peer teachers recognized an ARS quiz provided them an opportunity to: (1) estimate first-year students' level of understanding of anatomical concepts; and (2) effectively prepare first-year students for their weekly quizzes and future examinations. On the basis of the mutual benefits derived by both students/tutees and teachers/tutors, physical therapist educators may wish to consider using ARS technology to enhance teaching methods for a class in gross human anatomy.

  11. Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Wilson, Nichola C; Singh, Primal P; Lemanu, Daniel P; Hawken, Susan J; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    Introduction International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL) during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice. Objective To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students. Method A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes. Results From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective contexts, achieves short-term learner outcomes that are comparable with those produced by faculty-based teaching. Furthermore, peer-teaching has beneficial effects on student-teacher learning outcomes. Conclusions Peer-teaching in undergraduate medical programs is comparable to conventional teaching when utilized in selected contexts. There is evidence to suggest

  12. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOJAT RAEE

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducrion: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale. After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83. Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57 for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD=4.49±0.53 for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32 for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  13. Exploring Peer-to-Peer Library Content and Engagement on a Student-Run Facebook Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beynen, Kaya; Swenson, Camielle

    2016-01-01

    Student-run Facebook groups offer librarians a new means of interacting with students in their native digital domain. Facebook groups, a service launched in 2010 enables university students to create a virtual forum to discuss their concerns, issues, and promote events. While still a relatively new feature, these groups are increasingly being…

  14. Promoting University Students' Metacognitive Regulation through Peer Learning: The Potential of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Liesje; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Although successful learning in university education can be advanced by students' competence to self-regulate their learning, students often possess insufficient metacognitive regulation skills to regulate their learning adequately. The present study investigates changes in university students' adoption of metacognitive regulation after…

  15. Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective

  16. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Whipp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education. Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical and student learning outcomes within high school physical education classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59 were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach. Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in physical education.

  17. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE.

  18. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  19. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  20. Diagnostic radiography students' perceptions of formative peer assessment within a radiographic technique module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshami, W.; Abdalla, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Assessment is a central part of student learning. Student involvement in peer assessment leads to significant improvement in students' performance, supports students' learning, promotes the development of evaluation skills and encourages reflection. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess perceptions of the Formative Peer Assessment (FPA) initiative within a higher education setting for undergraduate radiography students. Methods: Qualitative action research was conducted. Students were allowed to anonymously assess each other's assignments using a standardized evaluation sheet that they had been trained to use. Participants' perceptions were assessed through focus group discussion. Results: The findings showed that students' experiences with peer assessment were positive. Students acknowledged that they received valuable feedback and learned from assessing their peers. Students recommended the need for training and suggested using more than one evaluator. Conclusion: The FPA initiative in the study institution believed to be succeed as the students had a positive experience with the FPA. Students learnt from PA and from self-assessment. Implementation of PA will promote reflection and critical thinking and problem solving skills, that are important traits in radiography graduate profile as in radiography clinical practice the professional require to modify imaging techniques and critique images to ensure the quality of care. - Highlights: • Participants had a positive experience with the Formative Peer Assessment (FPA). • Students believed that the FPA had a positive impact on their learning. • FPA was time-consuming but benefits outweigh the extra time commitment. • Comprehensive training and detailed grading rubric are recommended to improve FPA.

  1. The Two Faces Of Adolescents’ Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, both marking high levels of concurrent psychosocial adaptation, but also predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. This hypothesis was tested with multi-method, longitudinal data obtained on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents. Sociometric popularity data were examined in relation to data from interview-based assessments of attachment security and ego development, observations of mother-adolescent interactions, and repeated self- and peer-report assessments of delinquency and alcohol use. Results indicated that popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent levels of ego development, secure attachment and more adaptive interactions with mothers and best friends. Longitudinal analyses supported a “popularity-socialization” hypothesis, however, in which popular adolescents were more likely to increase in behaviors that receive approval in the peer group (e.g., minor levels of drug use and delinquency) and decrease in behaviors unlikely to be well-received by peers (e.g., hostile behavior with peers). PMID:15892790

  2. Taking peer victimization research to the next level: complex interactions among genes, teacher attitudes/behaviors, peer ecologies, & classroom characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-01-01

    This commentary reviews research findings of the five papers in the special entitled "School-related Factors in the Development of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization", which represent critical areas that are often overlooked in the literature. First, one paper points to the complex interaction between a genetic disposition for aggression and classroom norms toward aggression. Second, an intervention paper unpacks the underlying mechanisms of an efficacious school-wide bully prevention program by opening the "black box" and testing for mediators. Third, the remaining studies employ a wide range of rigorous designs to identify how teachers' attitudes, behaviors, and classroom practices play a critical role in the prevalence of victimization and bullying in the classroom. Further, teachers' attitudes and behaviors are shown to be predictive of youth's willingness to intervene to assist a peer who is being victimized. Results are situated in what is known about bullying prevention, and how the findings from these studies could maximize the sensitivity of future prevention efforts.

  3. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.

  4. How revealing rankings affects student attitude and rerformance in a peer review learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible benefits as well as the overall impact on the behaviour of students within a learning environment, which is based on double-blinding reviewing of freely selected peer works. Fifty-six sophomore students majoring in Informatics and Telecommunications Engi....... The students that participated in the other two conditions were provided with their usage information (logins, peer work viewed/reviewed, etc.), while members of the last group could also have access to ranking information about their positioning in their group, based on their usage data. According to our...

  5. The construction of different classroom norms during Peer Instruction: Students perceive differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Turpen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes variations in instructors’ implementation practices during Peer Instruction (PI and shows how these differences in practices shape different norms of classroom interaction. We describe variations in classroom norms along three dimensions of classroom culture that are integral to Peer Instruction, emphasis on: (1 faculty-student collaboration, (2 student-student collaboration, and (3 sense-making vs answer-making. Based on interpretations by an observing researcher, we place three different PI classrooms along a continuum representing a set of possible norms. We then check these interpretations against students’ perceptions of these environments from surveys collected at the end of the term. We find significant correspondence between the researchers’ interpretations and students’ perceptions of Peer Instruction in these environments. We find that variation in faculty practices can set up what students perceive as discernibly different norms. For interested instructors, concrete classroom practices are described that appear to encourage or discourage these norms.

  6. Effect of Peer Influence on Exercise Behavior and Enjoyment in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Andrew J; Petersen, Jennifer L; Barkley, Jacob E

    2016-02-01

    Fitness professionals and popular media sources often recommend exercising with a partner to increase exercise motivation, adherence, intensity, and/or duration. Although competition with peers has been shown to enhance maximal athletic performance, experimental research examining the impact of peer influence on submaximal exercise behavior in adults is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the presence of familiar and unfamiliar peers, vs. running alone, on recreational runners' voluntary running duration, distance, intensity, liking (i.e., enjoyment), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs). Recreational runners (n = 12 males, n = 12 females) completed 3 experimental trials, each under a different social condition, in a randomized order. Each trial consisted of self-paced running for a duration voluntarily determined by the participant. The 3 social conditions were running alone, with a sex- and fitness-matched familiar peer, or with a sex- and fitness-matched unfamiliar peer. A wrist-worn global positioning system was used to record running duration, distance, and average speed. Liking and RPE were assessed at the end of each trial. Mixed model regression analysis showed no significant effects of social condition (p ≥ 0.40) for any of the dependent variables. The presence of a familiar or unfamiliar peer did not alter recreational runners' running behavior, liking, or perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. However, exercising with others may have other benefits (e.g., reduced attrition) not examined herein.

  7. Peer, Social Media, and Alcohol Marketing Influences on College Student Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Angela A.; McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney; Coleman, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students' alcohol use through social media. Participants: College students (N = 682) aged 18 to 22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as…

  8. Students' Perception of Peer Review in an EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Liliya; Poveda, María Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    Even though there is plenty of published information about the advantages of peer review, little can be found on what the beneficiaries (i.e. the students) feel about this method and what they might expect from it. In this paper, we present an analysis of the perceptions of 44 students at one of the largest universities in Ecuador, who had just…

  9. School Belonging of Adolescents: The Role of Teacher-Student Relationships, Peer Relationships and Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Fatma; Gizir, Sidika

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and family involvement can be used to predict a sense of school belonging among adolescents, according to gender. The sample of the study consists of 815 students enrolled in nine state primary schools in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey. The data was…

  10. Measuring the Effects of Peer Learning on Students' Academic Achievement in First-Year Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, Diane; Morrison, Kellie; Tarr, Garth

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted study session (PASS) programs have been shown to positively affect students' grades in a majority of studies. This study extends that analysis in two ways: controlling for ability and other factors, with focus on international students, and by presenting results for PASS in business statistics. Ordinary least squares, random effects…

  11. Understanding How Peer Mentoring and Capitalization Link Stem Students to Their Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jonathan M.; Major, Debra A.; Orvis, Karin A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of peer mentoring and voluntary self-development activities (i.e., capitalization) in anchoring science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students to their college majors. Online data were collected from 214 undergraduate students. As hypothesized, mentoring was positively related to capitalization, and…

  12. Assessing the Reliability of Self- and Peer Rating in Student Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Johnston, Lucy; Kilic, Gulsen Bagci

    2008-01-01

    Peer and self-ratings have been strongly recommended as the means to adjust individual contributions to group work. To evaluate the quality of student ratings, previous research has primarily explored the validity of these ratings, as indicated by the degree of agreement between student and teacher ratings. This research describes a…

  13. Toward Fairness in Assessing Student Groupwork: A Protocol for Peer Evaluation of Individual Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenz, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    A key challenge for management instructors using graded groupwork with students is to find ways to maximize student learning from group projects while ensuring fair and accurate assessment methods. This article presents the Groupwork Peer-Evaluation Protocol (GPEP) that enables the assessment of individual contributions to graded student…

  14. Exploring Predictors of Social Actions by General Education Students towards Peers with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpareke, Alicia Wyche; Salisbury, Christine L.

    2018-01-01

    This study deepens the field's understanding about factors that contribute to positive social engagement between students without disabilities and their peers with mild disabilities in general education classrooms. A sample of 68 seventh grade students with and without disabilities was drawn from general education classrooms in a suburban, Midwest…

  15. Student Acceptance and Application of Peer Assessment in a Final Year Genetics Undergraduate Oral Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, Heather; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students benefit from observation of each other's oral presentations through both exposure to content and observation of presentation style. In order to increase the engagement and reflection of final year students in an oral presentation task, a peer assessment component was introduced using a rubric that emphasised scientific…

  16. Peer Education in Student Leadership Programs: Responding to Co-Curricular Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Paige

    2011-01-01

    Leadership development is an outcome of colleges and universities today stressed both in and out of the classroom. Additionally, leadership is often included in institutional missions, with emphasis on students developing as responsible citizens or leaders. The use of peer educators is standard in many student leadership development programs. In…

  17. The Power of Peers: Influences on Postsecondary Education Planning and Experiences of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicole E.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation demonstrates the effect that peers have on students' academic engagement and educational aspirations. Forty-nine African American university students retrospectively discuss the manner by which their friends influenced their academic commitment and activity while in high school; their postsecondary education aspirations,…

  18. Motives of Cheating among Secondary Students: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Peer Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Wong Lok Yan; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2010-01-01

    A survey research study was conducted with a sample of 100 secondary students from a local secondary school about the motives of cheating. The primary focus of this study was the interplay among variables of self-efficacy, peer influence and cheating. The results showed that students with low self-efficacy were more likely to cheat than those who…

  19. A Peer-Delivered Social Interaction Intervention for High School Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; Harvey, Michelle; Cosgriff, Joseph; Reilly, Caitlin; Heilingoetter, Jamie; Brigham, Nicolette; Kaplan, Lauren; Bernstein, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    Limited social interaction typically occurs between high school students with autism and their general education peers unless programming is introduced to promote interaction. However, few published social interaction interventions have been conducted among high school students with autism and their general education classmates. Such studies…

  20. Substance Use among Middle School Students: Associations with Self-Rated and Peer-Nominated Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Zhou, Annie J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Shih, Regina A.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1793 6-8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana…

  1. Urban and Rural High School Students' Perspectives of Productive Peer Culture for Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Melva R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' perspectives about productive peer culture (PPC) in general and for mathematics learning. The urban and rural high school students in this study have participated for at least one year in either an Algebra Project Cohort Model (APCM) for daily mathematics instruction and/or worked as mathematics…

  2. Collaborative Learning with Web 2.0 Tools: Analysing Malaysian Students' Perceptions and Peer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Fui Theng; Neo, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Today, ICT, web resources and multimedia contents have become prevalent in Malaysian university classrooms; hence, the learning approaches need to be redesigned for enabling students to use these technologies in co-constructing new meaning. This study analyses student's perception and their peer interaction in the constructivist-collaborative…

  3. Beyond Black and White: How White, Male, College Students See Their Asian American Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2014-01-01

    This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…

  4. The Effect of Peer Teaching on Mathematics Academic Achievement of the Undergraduate Students in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkarim, Ra'ed; Abuiyada, Reem

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of peer teaching on mathematics academic achievement of the undergraduate students in Oman. The sample of this study composed of (32) undergraduate female students enrolled in the course, "Mathematics for Social Sciences I" in Mathematics and Sciences Unit in Dhofar University in spring semester 2014-2015.…

  5. Teaching Students to Be Instrumental in Analysis: Peer-Led Team Learning in the Instrumental Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Miller, Martin E.; Avitabile, Brianna C.; Burrow, Dillon L.; Schmittou, Allison N.; Mann, Meagan K.; Hiatt, Leslie A.

    2017-01-01

    Many instrumental analysis students develop limited skills as the course rushes through different instruments to ensure familiarity with as many methodologies as possible. This broad coverage comes at the expense of superficiality of learning and a lack of student confidence and engagement. To mitigate these issues, a peer-led team learning model…

  6. The Use of Peer Facilitators To Enhance Self-Esteem Levels of At-Risk Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Joann B.

    This practicum addressed the problems of low self-esteem levels of at-risk students in kindergarten and in grades three and five by implementing a peer facilitator program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the OUNCE Attitude Scale, and a Kindergarten Checklist of Low Self-Esteem Characteristics were used to determine the students'…

  7. Using Plickers Cooperate with Peer Instruction to Promote Students' Discussion in Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttiprom, Sura; Toeddhanya, Khanti; Buachoom, Aakapong; Wuttisela, Karntarat

    2017-01-01

    In decades Peer Instruction (PI) has been confirmed that it can improve students' conceptual understanding. Anyway the main problem for using PI is an audience responding system which is required for gathering students' answer, to enhance the learning process of PI instead of using Clickers which cost about 40 USD per item. In this work we decided…

  8. Motivation, Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors of Juveniles in Compare to Wellbehaved Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Kupiec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contain results of research which participants were 104 juvenile delinquent and 294 adolescents from public schools. The statistic analyses show that juveniles have similar level of prosocial motivation as their well behaving peers from schools. However, gender is significant differentiation factor because girls have higher prosocial motivation and more frequently behave prosocially than boys in both compared groups. Juveniles exhibit less prosocial behavior than antisocial to relatives and friends, compared to their peers from schools, also. This paper include discussion of results and practical recommendations how we can develope motivation and prosocial behavior among juvenile delinquents.

  9. Influences of peer relations and locus of control on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effort to checkmate extravagance and maximize gain is the focus of all organizations more in this period of global financial crisis. There is need therefore to checkmate unnecessary financial spending. This study examines the influence of the variables, peer relations and locus of control, on such spending among University ...

  10. Student nurses' experience of a system of peer group supervision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recommendations were made to change the system in order to eliminate the negative aspects and after careful consideration and programme changes, implemented in 2001. It therefore became necessary to evaluate the revised system of peer group supervision and guidance for effectiveness. A qualitative, descriptive ...

  11. Near-peer role modeling: Can fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, enhance reflection among second-year students in a physical diagnosis course?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi McEvoy

    2016-09-01

    development. Overall, students preferred facilitated to non-facilitated peer feedback forums. This model holds promise for enhancing self-reflection in medical education, but needs further exploration to determine behavioral effects.

  12. The Effectiveness of Peer Taught Group Sessions of Physiotherapy Students within the Clinical Setting: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Dee; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether learning from peers, learning from a clinical educator, or being the peer teacher during clinical group sessions was more effective at enhancing student learning outcomes for different health conditions. A secondary aim was to determine which method students found more satisfactory. Physiotherapy students at…

  13. Student prosocial behavior and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Spasenović Vera Z.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful lear...

  14. Effects of a Peer Evaluation Technique on Nursing Students' Anxiety Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia; Greene, Debbie; Coke, Sallie

    2017-11-16

    Techniques to help decrease students' stress and anxiety during a nursing program can be beneficial to their overall health and mental well-being. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine if a peer evaluation technique during clinical skill practice sessions decreases anxiety prior to skill performance evaluation with nursing faculty. Participant feedback supports the integration of a peer evaluation technique when learning clinical skills.

  15. Peer Effects in Exogenously Formed University Student Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Androushchak; Oleg Poldin; Maria Yudkevich

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the influence of classmates’ ability characteristics on student achievement in exogenously formed student groups. The study uses administrative data on undergraduate students at a large selective university in Russia. The presence of high-ability classmates has a positive effect on individual academic performance, and students at the top of the ability distribution derive the greatest benefit from their presence. An increase in the proportion of less able students has an insignifi...

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends' Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-10-01

    To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5 th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6 th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.

  18. Experiences of undergraduate nursing students in peer assisted learning in clinical practice: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Matthew C; Kent, Bridie; Latour, Jos M

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this qualitative systematic review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on experiences of peer assisted learning (PAL) among student nurses in clinical practice so as to understand the value of PAL for this population. Peer-assisted learning considers the benefits of peers working in collaboration and supporting each other in professional roles. This approach to facilitate learning is effective within universities, but there is limited exploration within the clinical practice environment. Within the UK, 50% of student nurses' learning is undertaken within clinical practice, providing a large portion of student allocation within these areas, but is unexplored in relation to PAL. Therefore, existing evidence examining PAL in clinical practice needs further exploration for a better understanding of its value to student nurses' learning. The systematic review considered studies that included male and female nursing students aged 18-50 years that explored undergraduate nursing students' experiences of PAL within the clinical practice environment. Studies that utilized designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were considered. Other text such as opinion papers and reports were to be considered if no qualitative studies could be located. The review excluded quantitative studies, as well as those addressing PAL outside the nursing profession and students within the nursing profession but not including undergraduate student nurses. This review considered studies that included aspects related to experiences of PAL in the clinical practice setting, as seen by undergraduate nursing students and the researcher. A three-step search strategy was undertaken to find both published and unpublished studies in English from 2003 to 2017 in various databases, and included searching of reference lists within articles selected for appraisal. Each of the included studies were assessed for

  19. The outcomes and acceptability of near-peer teaching among medical students in clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Carole; Raw, Lynne

    2016-06-12

    To determine the outcomes and acceptability of final-year students tutoring in Clinical Skills to Years 1-2 students in a 4-week Medical Education elective. A paper-based survey with 14 questions requiring responses on a Likert-like scale and 2 questions with free-text responses was used to investigate Year 6 student-tutor (n=45) and Years 1-2 tutee (n=348) perceptions of near-peer teaching in Clinical Skills. The independent t-test compared mean responses from student-tutors and tutees, and thematic analysis of free-text responses was conducted. Tutee perceptions were significantly higher than student-tutor self-perceptions in small-group teaching and facilitation skills (p=0.000), teaching history-taking skills (p=0.046) and teaching physical examination skills (p=0.000). Perceptions in aspects of 'Confidence in tutoring' were not significantly different for student-tutors and tutees, with both having lowest perceptions for identifying and providing remediation for underperforming tutees. Student-tutors rated all areas of personal and professional development highly. Main themes emerging from analysis of student comments were the benefits to student-tutors, benefits to tutees and areas needing improvement, with outcomes of this near-peer teaching relating well to cognitive and social theories in the literature. Both student tutors and their tutees perceived near-peer teaching in Clinical Skills to be acceptable and beneficial with particular implications for Medical Education.

  20. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Silver Huff

    Full Text Available Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking. Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior.

  2. Moving the boundaries : peer learning between nursing and physiotherapy students

    OpenAIRE

    Fogstad, Lise; Christiansen, Bjørg

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to explore nursing and physiotherapy students’ views on peer learning as an innovative learning strategy. Background: Departments of nursing and physiotherapy at Oslo University College, Norway, initiated a cooperative project based on interdisciplinary and cross-level learning in patient transfer activities. Patient transfer is based on natural human body movement patterns, ergonomics, and communication skills. The project involved partnering sec...

  3. Information Literacy Advocates: developing student skills through a peer support approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Since 2013/2014, an Information Literacy Advocates (ILA) scheme has been running at the University of Nottingham as an extracurricular module on the Nottingham Advantage Award programme. The Information Literacy Advocates scheme, which recruits medicine and health sciences students in their second year or above, aims to facilitate development of information literacy skills and confidence, as well as communication, organisation and teamwork, through the provision of peer support. Previous research indicates peer assistance effectively enhances such skills and is valued by fellow students who welcome the opportunity to approach more experienced students for help. This article, written by guest writer Ruth Curtis from the University of Nottingham, provides an overview of administering the ILA scheme and explores its impact on the Information Literacy Advocates, peers and librarians, and discusses future developments for taking the scheme forward. H. S. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  4. Near-peer teaching in an anatomy course with a low faculty-to-student ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Claudia Elisa Pámanes; Bahena, Eduardo Navarro; Rodríguez, María de Los Ángeles García; Baca, Guillermo Jacobo; Uresti, Antonio Sánchez; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; López, Santos Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    Near-peer teaching is an educational format which utilizes tutors who are more advanced in a curriculum's content to supervise students' activities and to act as instructors in laboratory settings. This format is often used in anatomy laboratory courses. The goal of the present study is to describe the design and implementation of near-peer teaching in an anatomy course and to evaluate students' perceptions of the program. A total of 700 students were registered for this anatomy course which employed near-peer instructors. Of enrolled students, 558 (79.7%) agreed to participate in this study. In general, the practical section (e.g., the clinical hour, image-based anatomy session, and gross anatomy laboratory) of the course was viewed more favorably compared to the theory section (54.8%, n = 306), with dissection and prosection in the laboratory rated as the most valued experiences (34.9%, n = 195). Near-peer teaching is a viable option that satisfies the demands of modern curricula using small groups. This format stimulates learning within courses that have large numbers of students and low faculty-to-student ratios. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms and adolescents' experience with sexual behavior : Testing an integrative model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model

  6. How Family Socioeconomic Status, Peer Behaviors, and School-Based Intervention on Healthy Habits Influence Adolescent Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…

  7. We're all in this together: Midwifery student peer mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Lois; Kempster, Cathy

    2017-05-01

    Many higher education institutions have adopted mentoring programs for students as a means of providing support, improve learning and enhance the student experience. The aim of this project was to improve midwifery students experience by offering a peer mentoring program to commencing students to assist with the transition to university life and the rigours of the midwifery program. This paper reports the evaluation of this specific mentoring program and the ongoing development and implementation of a sustainable program within an Australian University. A survey design was adopted to gather feedback from both mentees to evaluate if the peer mentoring program enhanced the first year midwifery student experience and ascertain how the program could be further developed. Fifty-five students engaged with the peer mentors and completed the questionnaire regarding the mentoring program. Specifically valuable was the positive impact that mentoring had on midwifery student confidence, managing the demands of the program and being motivated to keep going when the program requirements were challenging. The success of this program rested largely with mentoring students sharing their own experiences and providing reassurance that other students could also succeed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing Student Outcomes through Mentoring, Peer Counselling and Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa; Dubus, Nicole; Sossou, Marie-Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    The government of Ghana has designed various initiatives to achieve the Millennium Development Goals on education and the Education for All goals. Despite these initiatives, student outcomes continue to be poorer than desired. Although access to education has improved, student dropout remains a problem and student scores on achievement tests…

  9. Assessing students in community settings: the role of peer evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); A.A. Abdel-Hameed (Ahmed); M.E.M. Mohi Eldin (Magzoub)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe assessment of students in community settings faces unique difficulties. Since students are usually posted in small groups in different community settings and since the learning (largely) takes place outside the classroom, assessing student performance becomes an intrinsically complex

  10. Preschool Interactive Peer Play Mediates Problem Behavior and Learning for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Sandy L.; Carter, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    The study employed a developmental, ecological, and resiliency framework to examine whether interactive peer play competencies mediated associations between teacher reported problem behavior and learning outcomes for a representative sample of urban low-income children (N = 507 across 46 Head Start classrooms). Structural equation models provided…

  11. Early Social Behaviors and the Trajectory of Peer Victimization across the School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Niwako; Berry, Daniel; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2017-01-01

    Research has established that long-term exposure to peer victimization is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral maladjustment. Yet, relatively little is known regarding predictors of stable versus declining victimization across extended periods of time. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study used latent growth curve…

  12. The influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on adolescents' risky sexual online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on the engagement in risky sexual online behavior. A four-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,016 Dutch adolescents (12-17 years old) was conducted. Two autoregressive cross-lagged

  13. Parent and Peer Influence on Sexual Behavior, Contraceptive Use, and Pregnancy Experience of Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farida; Zelnik, Melvin

    1981-01-01

    Analyzed data from a national probability sample of 15 through 19-year-old women to determine the influence of parents and peers on premarital sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and premarital pregnancy. Results show women with views resembling those of parents have low levels of premarital experience. (Author)

  14. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  15. ALDH2*2 and peer drinking in East Asian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Taryn; Thomas, Nathaniel; Webb, Bradley Todd; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Chartier, Karen G

    2017-11-01

    The ALDH2*2 allele (A-allele) at rs671 is more commonly carried by Asians and is associated with alcohol-related flushing, a strong adverse reaction to alcohol that is protective against drinking. Social factors, such as having friends who binge drink, also contribute to drinking in Asian youth. This study examined the interplay between ALDH2*2, peer drinking, and alcohol consumption in college students. We hypothesized that the relationship between ALDH2*2 and standard grams of ethanol per month would vary based on the level of peer drinking. Subjects (N = 318, 63.25% female) were East Asian college students in the United States who reported drinking alcohol. Data were from the freshman year of a university survey that included a saliva DNA sample. ALDH2*2 status was coded ALDH2*2(+) (A/G and A/A genotypes) and ALDH2*2(-) (G/G genotype). Peer drinking was students' perception of how many of their friends "got drunk". Main effects of ALDH2*2(-) and having more friends who got drunk were associated with greater alcohol consumption. The ALDH2*2 × peer drunkenness interaction showed a stronger positive association with alcohol consumption for ALDH2*2(-) versus ALDH2*2(+) at increasing levels of peer drunkenness. Follow-up comparisons within each peer drunkenness level identified significantly higher alcohol consumption for ALDH2*2(-) compared to ALDH2*2(+) at the all friends got drunk level. There was evidence of a stronger effect for ALDH2*2(-) compared to ALDH2*2(+) with greater alcohol use when students were more exposed to peer drinking. Findings contribute to a growing literature on the interrelationships between genetic influences and more permissive environments for alcohol consumption.

  16. Addressing Escape-Maintained Behavior for Students with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review of School-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Evan H.; Radley, Keith C.; Mason, Benjamin A.; Allen, Justin P.

    2018-01-01

    Students with developmental disabilities have been found to exhibit higher rates of problem behavior in the classroom than their typically developing peers. Effectively addressing these students' behavior concerns requires the identification of interventions that can be implemented in an educational setting. Furthermore, matching intervention…

  17. Development of leadership behaviors in undergraduate nursing students: a service-learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Braswell, Melanie; Kirkpatrick, Jane; Lim, Eunjung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine leadership behaviors developed by nursing students and peers before and after a service-learning experience. Nurses have been called to fill growing needs in the health care setting, rendering care to vulnerable and diverse populations in a wide range of organizations. Leadership behaviors are therefore essential. Baccalaureate students (N = 65) completed the Student Leadership Practices Inventory-Self at the beginning and end of the semester. The students also rated peers using the Leadership Practices Inventory-Observer and answered six questions about service-learning. Repeated measures of analysis of variance for pre- and posttests revealed that leadership behaviors improved (p leadership course is an effective approach to the development of leadership behaviors.

  18. Interpersonal Complementarity – Self-rated Behavior by Normal and Antisocial Adolescents with a Liked and Disliked Peer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Hakelind

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory and the SASB model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior as developed by Benjamin (1974 were used to study how adolescents in a normal group of 60 adolescents and a group of 42 adolescents with severe behavioural problems rated that they usually behaved in relation to a liked and disliked peer. The peer’s behaviour varied in a systematic way on the dimensions of affiliation and dominance. Complementary behavior was defined as the same behaviour from peer and self and anticomplementarity was defined as opposite behaviour from self in relation the peer’s behavior. Consistent over the two groups complementarity and anticomplementarity were influenced by both the peer’s behaviour and type of relationship with the peer. Friendly behaviour from a liked peer evoked much more complementary friendly behaviour compared to a disliked peer who with the same behaviour evoked almost as much anticomplementary hostile behaviour as complementary friendly behaviour. Hostile behaviour from a disliked peer evoked much more complementary hostile behaviour compared to a liked peer with the same kind of behavior. Autonomy granting from a liked peer evoked more complementary autonomous behaviour compared to a disliked peer. Differences between the two groups were small and only in relation with a disliked peer. The results were discussed in terms of interpersonal theory and the principle of complementarity with focus on kind of relationship.

  19. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from Grade…

  20. The development and implications of peer emotional support for student service members/veterans and civilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Barry, Adam E; Mroczek, Daniel K; Macdermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-04-01

    Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian counterparts and be at risk for social isolation. The present study compared the development and implications of emotional support from peers among 199 student service members/veterans and 181 civilian students through 3 distinct occasions over the course of 1 calendar year. Data were collected via electronic survey. Measured constructs included perceived emotional support from university friends, mental health, alcohol use, and academic functioning. A series of multilevel models revealed that student service members/veterans reported less emotional support from their peers compared with their civilian counterparts; yet, emotional support from peers increased similarly for both groups over time. Although, increasing peer emotional support was generally related to better academic and mental health outcomes for both groups, the links between emotional support and mental health were stronger for civilian students. Results suggest that mental health practitioners, particularly those on college campuses, should be prepared to deal with veteran-specific experiences that occur before and during college.

  1. Brain structural correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Soo Kwon

    Full Text Available Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18-19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle. Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says.

  2. Kindness counts: prompting prosocial behavior in preadolescents boosts peer acceptance and well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Layous

    Full Text Available At the top of parents' many wishes is for their children to be happy, to be good, and to be well-liked. Our findings suggest that these goals may not only be compatible but also reciprocal. In a longitudinal experiment conducted in 19 classrooms in Vancouver, 9- to 11-year olds were instructed to perform three acts of kindness (versus visit three places per week over the course of 4 weeks. Students in both conditions improved in well-being, but students who performed kind acts experienced significantly bigger increases in peer acceptance (or sociometric popularity than students who visited places. Increasing peer acceptance is a critical goal, as it is related to a variety of important academic and social outcomes, including reduced likelihood of being bullied. Teachers and interventionists can build on this study by introducing intentional prosocial activities into classrooms and recommending that such activities be performed regularly and purposefully.

  3. Evaluation of an Intercultural Peer Training for Incoming Undergraduate Students at an International University in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina K. Kedzior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available University education is increasingly becoming international. Therefore, it is important that universities prepare their new students for the challenges of an intercultural academic environment. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of an intercultural peer-to-peer training offered to all new incoming students at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany. The training aims to facilitate the social and academic integration of students at this international university. A total of 117 first-year undergraduate students completed a pen-and-paper questionnaire with 47 items one semester (6 months after attending the intercultural training. The results suggest that participants liked the structure of the training and the use of senior students as peer trainers. It appears that the training improved the awareness of the effects of culture (own and other on the social life of students. However, the training was less adequate at preparing the participants for the student-centered academic culture at this university. In light of its cost-effectiveness, the intercultural training could be easily adopted for use at other universities as part of the campus-wide orientation activities. However, regardless of their culture, all new university students require more assistance to academically adapt to and succeed in multicultural classrooms.

  4. Helping students learn effective problem solving strategies by reflecting with peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-07-01

    We study how introductory physics students engage in reflection with peers about problem solving. The recitations for an introductory physics course with 200 students were broken into a "peer reflection" (PR) group and a traditional group. Each week in recitation, small teams of students in the PR group reflected on selected problems from the homework and discussed why the solutions of some students employed better problem solving strategies than others. The graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants in the PR recitations provided guidance and coaching to help students learn effective problem solving heuristics. In the traditional group recitations students could ask the graduate TA questions about the homework before they took a weekly quiz. The traditional group recitation quiz questions were similar to the homework questions selected for peer reflection in the PR group recitations. As one measure of the impact of this intervention, we investigated how likely students were to draw diagrams to help with problem solving on the final exam with only multiple-choice questions. We found that the PR group drew diagrams on more problems than the traditional group even when there was no explicit reward for doing so. Also, students who drew more diagrams for the multiple-choice questions outperformed those who did not, regardless of which group they were a member.

  5. Peer teacher training (PTT) program for health professional students: interprofessional and flipped learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Roberts, Chris; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig

    2017-12-04

    The need for developing healthcare professional students' peer teaching skills is widely acknowledged, and a number of discipline-based peer teacher training programs have been previously reported. However, a consensus on what a student peer teaching skills program across the health professions should entail, and the associated benefits and challenges, has not been previously described. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the design and implementation of an interprofessional Peer Teacher Training (PTT) program, and explore outcomes and participant perceptions, using Experience-Based Learning (ExBL) theory. In 2016, an interprofessional team of academics from across three healthcare faculties: Medicine, Pharmacy and Health Sciences, developed and implemented a six module, flipped learning, interprofessional PTT program. Pre- and post questionnaires, using a Likert scale of 1-5, as well as open ended questions, were distributed to students. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Ninety senior students from across the three faculties participated. Eighty nine percent of participants completed a pre- and post-course questionnaire. Students felt the required pre-class preparation, including online pre-reading, discussion board, videos, and teaching activities enhanced their face-to-face learning experience. In class, students valued the small-group activities, and the opportunities to practice their teaching skills with provision of feedback. Students reported increased confidence to plan and deliver peer teaching activities, and an increased awareness of the roles and responsibilities of health professionals outside of their own discipline, and use of different terminology and communication methods. Students' suggestions for improving the PTT, included; less large group teaching; more online delivery of theory; and inclusion of a wider range of health professional disciplines

  6. Using peer teaching to introduce the Pharmaceutical Care Model to incoming pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Claire; Hager, Keri; Janke, Kristin K

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this initiative was to design and evaluate a peer teaching activity where pairs of second-year pharmacy students introduced the Pharmaceutical Care Model and discussed success in the broader first-year pharmacy curriculum with pairs of first year students. Second-year pharmacy students individually created concept maps illustrating the main components of pharmaceutical care to be used as teaching tools with first-year students. First-year students were given a brief introduction to pharmaceutical care by faculty and prepared questions to ask their second-year colleagues. Two second-year students were then matched with two first-year students for a two-part peer teaching event. Each student completed documentation of the peer experience, which included questions about the effectiveness of the teaching, changes to be made in the future, and the usefulness of the exercise. The documentation was analyzed via content analysis and instructors evaluated the concept maps based on their effectiveness as a teaching tool for novices. A rubric was used to evaluate 166 concept maps of which 145 were rated good, 18 were rated as better, and 3 as best. Themes emerging from the content analysis included: positive impact of teaching and learning pharmaceutical care, value of broader curriculum discussion, and beneficial first- and second-year connections. A structured peer teaching event outside the traditional classroom setting can create a space for: teaching and learning to occur, student-student connections to be made, and advice on the curriculum to be shared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Baccalaureate nursing students' perspectives of peer tutoring in simulation laboratory, a Q methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Petrini, Marcia A; Stone, Teresa E

    2018-02-01

    The study aim was to identify the perceived perspectives of baccalaureate nursing students toward the peer tutoring in the simulation laboratory. Insight into the nursing students' experiences and baseline data related to their perception of peer tutoring will assist to improve nursing education. Q methodology was applied to explore the students' perspectives of peer tutoring in the simulation laboratory. A convenience P-sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students was used. Fifty-eight selected Q statements from each participant were classified into the shape of a normal distribution using an 11-point bipolar scale form with a range from -5 to +5. PQ Method software analyzed the collected data. Three discrete factors emerged: Factor I ("Facilitate or empower" knowledge acquisition), Factor II ("Safety Net" Support environment), and Factor III ("Mentoring" learn how to learn). The findings of this study support and indicate that peer tutoring is an effective supplementary strategy to promote baccalaureate students' knowledge acquisition, establishing a supportive safety net and facilitating their abilities to learn in the simulation laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adoptive parent hostility and children's peer behavior problems: examining the role of genetically informed child attributes on adoptive parent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-05-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation [rGE]) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative rGE while examining the associations between family processes and children's peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children's later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn links to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Suicidal Behavior among Latina College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesin, Megan S.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Latina college students are one of the fastest-growing segments of the college student population. Although there is evidence suggesting Latina high school students are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior, it is unclear Bwhether this risk continues in college. Over the course of 3 years, 554 Latina college students, the majority of…

  10. Illicit drug use among adolescent students. A peer phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Cousineau, D.; Savard, M.; Allard, D.

    1993-01-01

    Illicit drug use was studied in 2071 students 11 to 18 years of age. Almost all drug users had friends who consumed drugs, compared with only one third of those who did not use drugs. This suggests a bond between adolescent drug users, who form a distinct group of which most students are unaware.

  11. Chinese students' perceptions of teacher-student interpersonal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, M.; Zhou, Yalun; Barber, C. E.; Brok, den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Students' perceptions are one of the most important elements in evaluating the learning environment. Although the literature is replete with studies investigating teacher-student interpersonal behavior in science classrooms, relatively few studies have been conducted in foreign language classrooms,

  12. Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

  13. Peer Assessment of Oral Presentations: Effects of Student Gender, University Affiliation and Participation in the Development of Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Mark A.; Wheater, Philip C.; Shaw, Emma M.; Haines, Ben J.; Cullen, Rod W.; Boyle, Jennefer C.; Penney, David; Oldekop, Johan A.; Ashcroft, Carl; Lockey, Les; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Peer assessment provides a useful mechanism to develop many positive qualities in students studying in higher education (HE). Potential influences on peer-awarded marks include student qualities such as gender, HE background (e.g. university affiliation) and participation in the development of the assessment criteria. Many studies that have…

  14. Early puberty, negative peer influence, and problem behaviors in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend's deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls' race/ethnicity. Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend's deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend's deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the "other" racial/ethnic minority group only. Early puberty and friends' deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences.

  15. Family and peer support matter for precoital and coital behaviors among adolescents in Lima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Cabrera, Lilia Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Tsui, Amy O.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the association between sub-scales developed with adolescents and the outcomes of precoital behaviors and vaginal sex in Lima, Peru. Adolescent participants in key informant sessions operationalized concepts identified during qualitative concept mapping into several sub-scales. Face and content validity testing and pilot application with respondent debriefing were used to refine the sub-scales. Three hundred 15–17 year olds were surveyed about the sub-scales, socio-demographics and sexual behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed six sub-scales, self-image, goals and decision-making, family education, parental rules/control, school support and peer support, which we regressed on the outcomes. Twice as many males as females reported more than three precoital behaviors and vaginal sex. Higher peer support reduced the likelihood of vaginal sex and precoital behaviors and higher family education reduced precoital behaviors. Results affirm the importance of including adolescents in the entire research process and of sex education with family- and peer-based strategies. PMID:25305443

  16. Development of Peer Tutoring Services to Support Osteopathic Medical Students' Academic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Nicholas; Wimsatt, Leslie

    2015-11-01

    Peer tutoring can benefit both tutors and tutored students, but information is lacking regarding establishing and measuring outcomes of such a program at new medical schools. To examine the outcomes of a pilot peer tutoring initiative and explore the implications for long-term program development. Fifty-one osteopathic medical students who participated in a pilot peer tutoring program during the 2013-2014 academic year were surveyed regarding satisfaction with the program. Course grade means for the tutors (all courses) and tutored students (specific courses) were analyzed before and after participating in the tutoring experience. Data analyses were performed using frequency distributions, t tests, and qualitative assessment of emergent themes. The survey had a 76% response rate (39 of 51 students). Both tutored students and tutors were satisfied with the tutoring program. Statistically significant changes in course grades for the tutored courses were noted at 3 to 4 and 8 to 9 months among the tutored students who were most at risk for failure (P=.001). Tutor course grades showed no significant changes for any of the courses in which they were enrolled (P=.445). Learning gains were realized by the students at greatest academic risk. Additional research is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes.

  17. Identifying Opportunities for Peer Learning: An Observational Study of Medical Students on Clinical Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna H; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Peer assisted learning (PAL) is frequently employed and researched in preclinical medical education. Fewer studies have examined PAL in the clinical context: These have focused mainly on the accuracy of peer assessment and potential benefits to learner communication and teamwork skills. Research has also examined the positive and negative effects of formal, structured PAL activities in the clinical setting. Given the prevalence of PAL activities during preclinical years, and the unstructured nature of clinical placements, it is likely that nonformal PAL activities are also undertaken. How PAL happens formally and informally and why students find PAL useful in this clinical setting remain poorly understood. This study aimed to describe PAL activities within the context of clinical placement learning and to explore students' perceptions of these activities. An ethnographic study was conducted to gather empirical data on engagement in clinical placement learning activities, including observations and interviews with students in their 1st clinical year, along with their supervising clinicians. Thematic analysis was used to interrogate the data. On average, students used PAL for 5.19 hours per week in a range of activities, of a total of 29.29 hours undertaking placements. PAL was recognized as a means of vicarious learning and had greater perceived value when an educator was present to guide or moderate the learning. Trust between students was seen as a requirement for PAL to be effective. Students found passive observation a barrier to PAL and were able to identify ways to adopt an active stance when observing peers interacting with patients. For example, learners reported that the expectation that they had to provide feedback to peers after task observation, resulted in them taking on a more critical gaze where they were encouraged to consider notions of good practice. Insights: Students use PAL in formal (i.e., tutorial) and nonformal (e.g., peer

  18. Near-peer mentoring to complement faculty mentoring of first-year medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satendra; Singh, Navjeevan; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2014-01-01

    The first year is stressful for new medical students who have to cope with curricular challenges, relocation issues, and separation from family. Mentoring reduces stress and facilitates adaptation. A program for faculty mentoring of first-semester students was initiated by the Medical Education Unit in 2009 at University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. Feedback after the first year revealed that mentees were reluctant to meet their mentors, some of whom were senior faculty. In the following year, student mentors (near-peers) were recruited to see if that would improve the rate and quality of contact between mentees and mentors. Volunteer faculty (n=52), near-peers (n=57), and new entrants (n=148) admitted in 2010 participated in the ratio of 1:1:3. The program aims were explained through an open house meeting, for reinforcement, and another meeting was conducted 5 months later. At year-end, a feedback questionnaire was administered (response rate: faculty, 28 [54%]; mentees, 74 [50%]). Many respondent faculty (27, 96%) and mentees (65, 88%) believed that near-peer mentoring was useful. Compared to the preceding year, the proportion of meetings between faculty mentors and mentees increased from 4.0±5.2 to 7.4±8.8; mentees who reported benefit increased from 23/78 (33%) to 34/74 (46%). Benefits resulted from mentors' and near-peers' demonstration of concern/support/interaction/counseling (35, 47.3% mentees); 23 mentees (82%) wanted to become near-peers themselves. Near-peer mentoring supplements faculty mentoring of first-year medical students by increasing system effectiveness.

  19. Engaging ‘students as partners’ in the design and development of a peer-mentoring program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah O'Shea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focussed on an innovative approach to developing peer mentoring programs. Drawing upon a ‘student as partners’ framework, the presentation explored how this has been used to underpin an approach to peer mentoring from the ground up. University peer mentoring programs are largely designed and developed by staff, who not only recruit and train student mentors but also select frequency and type of involvement for all parties. This pilot project proposes a different approach by collaborating with students in the design, development and enactment of a peer-mentoring program within one School of Education. From this pilot, we will develop guidelines and recommendations for the implementation of student-led peer mentoring programs (Students as Partners in Mentoring: SaPiM across the University of Wollongong (UOW.

  20. Effect of Peer Attendance on College Students' Learning Outcomes in a Microeconomics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The authors' main purpose in this article is to examine whether peer presence, measured by overall class attendance rate, has any significant effect on college students' academic performance. They use a rich dataset from an intermediate microeconomics course from the fall of 2008 to the spring of 2013 at a public university in Taiwan. The…

  1. Developing Business Management Students' Persuasive Writing through Blog-Based Peer-Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Osama H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the effect of using blog-based peer feedback on the persuasive writing of EFL business management students at the community college in Bisha, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. The study used a pre-test/post-test experimental and control group design. An experimental group and a control group were…

  2. How Do Supports from Parents, Teachers, and Peers Influence Academic Achievement of Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived external factors such as supports from parents and teachers, and influences from peers contributed to the academic successes and failures of Singaporean twice-exceptional (2e) students. A total of six 2e participants from one secondary school in Singapore voluntarily participated in the study. This study used…

  3. Negative Peer Influence in Special Needs Classes--A Risk for Students with Problem Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christoph Michael

    2010-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive and delinquent behaviours are often educated in special needs classes with others who exhibit the same kind of challenging behaviour. Beside the opportunities provided by this approach there are also risks, as several studies point to the problem of negative peer influence among this student population.…

  4. Students' Experiences and Perceptions of Peer Assisted Study Sessions: Towards Ongoing Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jacques; Scott, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been done on the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction programs, (Peer Assisted Study Sessions, PASS, in Australasia). Less research has emerged on on students' reasons for participating in PASS and their perceptions of the effectiveness of the program. In this article, we will report on a small improvement-focused research…

  5. Peer and Faculty Mentoring for Students Pursuing a PhD in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alicia K.; Wangmo, Tenzin; Ewen, Heidi H.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Hatch, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    The Graduate Center for Gerontology at the University of Kentucky incorporates three levels of mentoring in its PhD program. This project assessed satisfaction with peer and faculty mentoring and explored their perceived benefits and purposes. Core and affiliate faculty and current and graduated students were surveyed. Participants seemed…

  6. HOW PEER COACHING AFFECTS PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENT TEACHERS IN TEYL PRACTICUUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Winarsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to advance English Department students‘ professional competence about Teaching English to Young Learners. The research questions addressed are (1 does peer coaching improve students teachers‘ professional competence and (2 how does peer coaching affect their professional competence. This qualitative research is carried out by studying pre-service teachers' pedagogicalreasoning in a peer coaching program.Each week during a three-month practicum, twenty student teachersreceive training in clarity skills. Dataare collected in the form of videos, weeklyjournals, questionnaires, observation, focus-group interviews. Follow-up interviews are analyzed qualitatively. Peer provides opportunities to discuss, analyze, and reflect on problems ofprofessional practice. It improve professional practice of student teachers andclarity competenciesare perceived as valuable for TEYL.They also enhance mastery and presentations of language elements and learning activities and classroom management.Italso shows more pedagogical reasoning that as a vehiclefor competencies acquisition and teacher reflection.The cooperating teacher is akey success of studentteachers' interaction with pupils, classroom management, and adaptation ofcontent to relevant aspects of pupils' learning needs. Lecturer‘s feedback assists studentteachers in setting goals for improvement. Thepeer coach functions of collegiality, technicalfeedback, adaptation to students, analysis of application, and support.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of students towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy

    In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and

  8. Academic Achievement and Perceived Peer Support among Turkish Students: Gender and Preschool Education Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement and perceived peer support levels of 4th-8th grade Turkish elementary and middle school students at low socio-economic status. Factorial design analyses were used to test the statistical effects of gender and preschool education variables on the dependent variables. The findings…

  9. The Value of Peer Feedback Opportunities for Students in Writing Intensive Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennette, Lynne N.; Frank, Nichole M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the usefulness of peer feedback on APA-style research papers in a writing-intensive class. Subsequent to APA training, students were asked to review and provide feedback on a classmate's APA-style research report for both content and formatting. Performance on this research report was then compared to…

  10. Peer Mentoring Experiences of Psychology Students at the London Metropolitan University Writing Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Savita; Harrington, Kathy; O'Neill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    "It really helps knowing that you are going to have someone around to help you..." This short article reports on research taking place into peer writing tutorials at London Metropolitan University and examines in particular, the experiences of psychology students who have taken part in the scheme. Some of the implications of this…

  11. Near-Peer Teaching in an Anatomy Course with a Low Faculty-to-Student Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Claudia Elisa Pamanes; Bahena, Eduardo Navarro; Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles Garcia; Baca, Guillermo Jacobo; Uresti, Antonio Sanchez; Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Lopez, Santos Guzman

    2012-01-01

    Near-peer teaching is an educational format which utilizes tutors who are more advanced in a curriculum's content to supervise students' activities and to act as instructors in laboratory settings. This format is often used in anatomy laboratory courses. The goal of the present study is to describe the design and implementation of near-peer…

  12. Peer Teaching as a Strategy for Conflict Management and Student Re-Engagement in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a major action research program that experimented with the use of cross-age peer teaching in schools to assist teachers to manage conflict issues in their classrooms, and to re-engage disaffected students in learning. The research, which was conducted in a range of elementary and secondary schools in Australia, was part of…

  13. Peer Assessment of Personality Traits and Pathology in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric; Strauss, Milton E.

    1998-01-01

    Characteristic features that define narcissistic, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders were studied using information collected for 265 targeted female college students and evaluations of self and others by 162 peers. Areas of agreement and disagreement between self-reports and reports of others are discussed. (SLD)

  14. Is Being Gifted Always an Advantage? Peer Relations and Self-Concept of Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košir, Katja; Horvat, Marina; Aram, Urška; Jurinec, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between identified gifted adolescents and adolescents not identified as gifted in terms of social acceptance and self-concept (peer relations, academic, and general). In addition, we aimed to investigate the differences between two groups of students identified according to different…

  15. Improvements in self-efficacy for engaging in patient-centered communication following a course in peer-supervision and communication for medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit; O Connor, Maja; Kjær, Louise Binow

    and Department of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Center for Medical Education, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.; belas@clu.au.dk Aim: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of a training course in peer-supervision and communication with the aim of improving medical...... student self-efficacy for engaging in patient-centered communication and examine the influence of course-related motivation to learn, course-related self-efficacy, and medical student well-being at baseline. Methods: A total of 127 graduate school medical students in clinical clerkship who participated...... in a course in peer-supervision and communication completed a pre-course questionnaire package including: 1) The Patient-Centeredness Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PCSEQ), 2) Course-Related Motivation to Learn (CRML), 3) Course-Related Self-Efficacy (CRSE), and 4) the Medical Student Well-Being Index (MSWBI...

  16. Effects of Self-esteem Improvement Program on Self-esteem and Peer Attachment in Elementary School Children with Observed Problematic Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors. Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. A total of 47 fourth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The program was provided for 45 minutes once a week; a total of 12 sessions were completed with ...

  17. Adolescent-Peer Relationships, Separation and Detachment from Parents, and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Linkages and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2018-01-01

    Most research exploring the interplay between context and adolescent separation and detachment has focused on the family; in contrast, this investigation directs its attention outside of the family to peers. Utilizing a latent variable approach for modeling interactions and incorporating reports of behavioral adjustment from 14-year-old adolescents (N = 190) and their mothers, we examine how separation and detachment relate to adolescent peer relationships, and whether peer relationships moderate how separation and detachment relate to adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Positive peer relationships were both associated with lower detachment and sharply attenuated relations between detachment and higher adolescent internalizing and externalizing. Separation from parents was unrelated to peer relationships, and regardless of whether peer relationships were positive, separation was not related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing. We integrate these findings with those from family-focused investigations and discuss their substantive and clinical implications. PMID:29527086

  18. Peer tutoring pilot program for the improvement of oral health behavior in underprivileged and immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Claus H; Löpker, Nadine; Noack, Michael J; Klein, Klaus; Rosen, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Caries prevalence in underprivileged children is particularly high and, even though many efforts have been made, adherence to dental preventive programs is low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a tutoring program can improve oral health behavior in underprivileged and/or immigrant children. Thirty fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.6), over 50 percent of immigrant background, participated in this longitudinal pilot study. The fourth graders were invited to develop on oral health program for their first-grade peers. For this purpose, the fourth graders learned oral health practices and developed the peer tutoring program. Prior to the intervention and after having instructed their first-grade peers, all fourth graders were interviewed about their oral health habits and their tooth-brushing was recorded on video. Toothbrushing time, performance of circular tooth-brushing movements, and systematic cleaning of all dental surfaces were analyzed before and after the intervention. After peer teaching, there was a significant increase concerning tooth-brushing time (P = .004), performance of circular tooth-brushing movements (P tutoring program yielded a significant improvement in relevant oral care behavior. This approach provided an environment which, in contrast to traditional approaches, facilitates empowerment.

  19. Peer scaffolding in an EFL writing classroom: An investigation of writing accuracy and scaffolding behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastou Gholami Pasand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the tenets of Sociocultural Theory with its emphasis on co-construction of knowledge, L2 writing can be regarded as a co-writing practice whereby assistance is provided to struggling writers. To date, most studies have dealt with peer scaffolding in the revision phase of writing, as such planning and drafting are remained untouched. The present study examines the impact of peer scaffolding on writing accuracy of a group of intermediate EFL learners, and explores scaffolding behaviors employed by them in planning and drafting phases of writing. To these ends, 40 freshmen majoring in English Language and Literature in the University of Guilan were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group consisting of dyads in which a competent writer provided scaffolding to a less competent one using the process approach to writing. Results of independent samples t-tests revealed that learners in the experimental group produced more accurate essays. Microgenetic analysis of one dyad’s talks showed that scaffolding behaviors used in planning and drafting phases of writing were more or less the same as those identified in the revision phase. These findings can be used to inform peer intervention in L2 writing classes, and assist L2 learners in conducting successful peer scaffolding in the planning and drafting phases of writing.

  20. Improving Geoscience Learning and Increasing Student Engagement Using Online Interactive Writing Assignments with Calibrated Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbor, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Peer review is a hallmark of the publication process for scientific research, yet it is rarely used as a pedagogical approach in university geoscience courses. Learning outcomes for university geoscience courses include content knowledge and critical thinking and analysis skills, and often include written communication of scientific issues or concepts. Because lecture and memorization is not the most effective learning approach for many students, instructors are increasingly exploring teaching approaches that involve active engagement. In this context, writing assignments that engage students in using content, constructing arguments, and critiquing other students' work are highly desirable. However, many of us struggle with extensive writing requirements in our courses because the workload associated with having the instructor provide detailed comments on writing is daunting, especially in large-enrollment courses, and organizing effective peer review by students is very challenging. Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is a web-based program that involves students in writing and in reviewing each other's writing. It is designed to allow for more involved writing and feedback experiences with much less instructor time. Here we report on the results of a qualitative-methods analysis of narrative survey responses from students using CPR in an introductory geoscience class. In addition to an impact on the students' writing and their understanding of what goes in to effective writing, the results indicate that CPR acted as reinforcement for content learning, and an impetus for gaining a deeper understanding of content material. It allowed students to see how other students explained and analyzed content, and to check their understanding of a topic in relation to other students in the class. Not surprisingly, the instructor reported that students performed far better on exam questions that tested knowledge covered by CPR assignments.

  1. The Relationship of Peer Relations of University Students with Several Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan TOZOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is only possible through positive relationships between communicating individuals in social and education life to experience a high level information sharing and cooperation. It is known that the level of such an interaction among peer groups will be higher than that seen among other individual groups. Objective of the present study was to determine the variables which can affect the level of peer relations among university students and the effect levels of peer relations in education process and social life. It was found from the results that there is a significant difference between mean scores of the subscales of peer relations when considered the variables of gender, individual monthly income, family structure, performing sportive activities, time spent on sport weekly and the reason for performing sportive activities. No significant difference was found between the groups for the types of sportive activities. The level of peer relation among the students performing sportive activities was found to be higher than those who are not engaged in any kinds of sport activities.

  2. Peer Victimization among Classmates-Associations with Students' Internalizing Problems, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara B; Modin, Bitte

    2017-10-13

    Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!), including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14-15 years of age) distributed across 242 classes. Results from multilevel analyses show a significant association between classes with a high proportion of students being victimized and higher levels of internalizing problems, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction at the student level. This association holds when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. This suggests that peer victimization negatively affects those who are directly exposed, as well as their classmates. We conclude that efficient methods and interventions to reduce bullying in school are likely to benefit not only those who are victimized, but all students.

  3. An Examination of Family, Healthcare Professionals, and Peer Advice on Physical Activity Behaviors among Adolescents at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O; Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E

    2017-07-01

    Studies have shown that many college students do not meet the recommended daily physical activity (PA) levels, and about 22% of these students are overweight. Given that engaging in PA is a protective behavior against many chronic conditions, it is imperative to understand what sources of information/advice to engage in PA is most influential. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different sources of advice regarding exercise and PA on actual PA engagement among obese/overweight adolescents. Using data from 319 overweight/obese college students, multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine which source of advice (from parents, peers, or healthcare provider) to engage in PA was associated with PA behavior among these adolescents. Influence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) family history on PA behavior was also examined. Moderate and vigorous PA behavior was more likely among obese/overweight adolescents who received advice to exercise or engage in PA from their peers (B = 200.85, β = 0.193, p = 0.001; B = 121.19, β = 0.145, p = 0.014). Overweight/obese adolescents with a T2D family history were more likely to walk compared with those without a T2D family history (χ 2  = 12.97, p = 0.000). Findings suggest that although healthcare professionals advise obese/overweight adolescents, those who received advice regarding PA behavior from their peers were more likely to heed the advice and exercise/engage in PA. In essence, intervention efforts should focus on employing peer ambassadors to counsel other adolescents on the importance of PA.

  4. Students Helping Students: Evaluating a Pilot Program of Peer Teaching for an Undergraduate Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Paul A.; Love Green, Jennifer K.; Illerbrun, Sara L.; Holness, Duncan A.; Illerbrun, Samantha J.; Haus, Kara A.; Poirier, Sylvianne M.; Sveinson, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on…

  5. Designing a Culturally Appropriate Format of Formative Peer Assessment for Asian Students: The Case of Vietnamese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong; Gillies, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment has recently been widely recommended in Vietnamese classrooms. However, there are argumentative opinions about this assessment because it has many conflicts with the learning culture of Vietnamese students. To date, there has not been any study addressing this issue. The present study investigated how Vietnamese students…

  6. A Peer-Led, Social Media-Delivered, Safer Sex Intervention for Chinese College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wai Han; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wong, William Chi Wai

    2017-08-09

    The peer-led, social media-delivered intervention is an emerging method in sexual health promotion. However, no research has yet investigated its effectiveness as compared with other online channels or in an Asian population. The objective of this study is to compare a peer-led, social media-delivered, safer sex intervention with a sexual health website. Both conditions target Chinese college students in Hong Kong. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a peer-led, safer sex Facebook group as the intervention and an existing online sexual health website as the control. The intervention materials were developed with peer input and followed the information-motivation-behavioral skills model; the intervention was moderated by peer educators. The participants filled out the online questionnaires before and after the 6-week intervention period. Outcome evaluations included safer sex attitudes, behavioral skills, and behaviors, while process evaluation focused on online experience, online-visiting frequency, and online engagement. The effect of online-visiting frequency and online engagement on outcome variables was investigated. Of 196 eligible participants-100 in the control group and 96 in the intervention group-who joined the study, 2 (1.0%) control participants joined the Facebook group and 24 of the remaining 194 participants (12.4%) were lost to follow-up. For the process evaluation, participants in the intervention group reported more satisfying online experiences (Psocial media-delivered, safer sex intervention was found to be feasible and effective in improving attitudes toward condom use and behavioral skills, but was not significantly more effective than a website. Future research may focus on the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this popular method, as well as the potential cultural differences of using social media between different countries. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-IOR-16009495; http

  7. "Only you can play with me!" Children's inclusive decision making, reasoning, and emotions based on peers' gender and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplak, Joanna; Song, Ju-Hyun; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the development of children's decisions, reasoning, and emotions in contexts of peer inclusion/exclusion. We asked an ethnically diverse sample of 117 children aged 4years (n=59; 60% girls) and 8years (n=58; 49% girls) to choose between including hypothetical peers of the same or opposite gender and with or without attention deficit/hyperactivity problems and aggressive behavior. Children also provided justifications for, and emotions associated with, their inclusion decisions. Both 4- and 8-year-olds predominantly chose to include the in-group peer (i.e., the same-gender peer and peers without behavior problems), thereby demonstrating a normative in-group inclusive bias. Nevertheless, children included the out-group peer more in the gender context than in the behavior problem contexts. The majority of children reported group functioning-related, group identity-related, and stereotype-related reasoning after their in-group inclusion decisions, and they associated happy feelings with such decisions. Although most children attributed sadness to the excluded out-group peer, they attributed more anger to the excluded out-group peer in the aggression context compared with other contexts. We discuss the implications of our findings for current theorizing about children's social-cognitive and emotional development in contexts of peer inclusion and exclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Empathy and nonattachment independently predict peer nominations of prosocial behavior of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahdra, Baljinder K; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip D; Marshall, Sarah; Heaven, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    There is a plethora of research showing that empathy promotes prosocial behavior among young people. We examined a relatively new construct in the mindfulness literature, nonattachment, defined as a flexible way of relating to one's experiences without clinging to or suppressing them. We tested whether nonattachment could predict prosociality above and beyond empathy. Nonattachment implies high cognitive flexibility and sufficient mental resources to step out of excessive self-cherishing to be there for others in need. Multilevel Poisson models using a sample of 15-year olds (N = 1831) showed that empathy and nonattachment independently predicted prosocial behaviors of helpfulness and kindness, as judged by same-sex and opposite-sex peers, except for when boys nominated girls. The effects of nonattachment remained substantial in more conservative models including self-esteem and peer nominations of liking.

  9. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors. PMID:25083349

  10. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F; Browne, Dillon T; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  11. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan F. Andrade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate, or influence (i.e., moderate, peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  12. Learning with peers, active citizenship and student engagement in Enabling Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Zepke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines one specific question:  What support do students in Enabling Education need to learn the behaviours, knowledge and attitudes required to succeed in tertiary education, employment and life? Success appears in many guises. It can mean achieving officially desired outcomes such as retention, completion and employment. It can also mean achieving less measurable outcomes such as deep learning, wellbeing and active citizenship. The paper first introduces an overarching success framework before exploring how the widely used student engagement pedagogy can support learners to achieve both official and personal success outcomes. It then develops two specific constructs applicable to Enabling Education as found in student engagement: facilitated peer learning and active citizenship. Peer learning is here connected to tutor supported but peer facilitated mentoring; active citizenship to educational experiences in classrooms, institutions and workplaces that support flexibility, resilience, openness to change and diversity. The paper includes examples of how facilitated peer learning and active citizenship can build success in practice.

  13. The value of near-peer teaching in the medical curriculum: a medical student's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsi IA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ishar Alexander Kalsi GKT School of Medical Education, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London, UKIt is with both interest and sympathy that I read the research letter published by Sonagara et al1 about the numerous advantages of near-peer teaching and the recommendation that it should be part of the medical syllabus. As a medical student at King’s College London, I am a member of a near-peer learning scheme. Our peer-assisted learning (PAL scheme is designed to complement the material taught in lectures. In groups of five students, we select a lecture to revise together with our PAL tutors (senior medical students for one hour weekly. A self-made presentation, mock exam questions, and diagrams are commonly used as material in PAL sessions. It is the PAL tutors themselves who generate this material, while balancing their own study needs; thus, I find credit in the statement of how time management skills improve through peer teaching. View the original paper by Sonagara and colleagues. 

  14. The "Near-Peer" Approach to Teaching Musculoskeletal Physical Examination Skills Benefits Residents and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Casandra J; Nanos, Katherine N; Newcomer, Karen L

    2017-03-01

    The musculoskeletal physical examination (MSK PE) is an essential part of medical student training, and it is best taught in a hands-on, longitudinal fashion. A barrier to this approach is faculty instructor availability. "Near-peer" teaching refers to physicians-in-training teaching their junior colleagues. It is unknown whether near-peer teaching is effective in teaching this important physical examination skill. To investigate attitudes of medical students and physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents regarding near-peer teaching in an MSK PE curriculum. Qualitative, anonymous paper and online surveys. Tertiary academic center with a medical school and PM&R training program. Ninety-nine second- and third-year medical students and 13 PM&R residents in their third or fourth postgraduate year. Attitudes of second- and third-year medical students were measured immediately after their MSK PE course. Resident attitudes were measured in a single cross-sectional sample. Student attitudes were assessed via a questionnaire with 5-point Likert scales and a free-text comment section. The resident questionnaire included a combination of multiple-choice questions, rankings, free-text responses, and Likert scales. All 99 students completed the questionnaire. The majority of students (n = 79 [80%]) reported that resident involvement as hands-on instructors of examination skills was "very useful," and 87 (88%) indicated that resident-led small discussion groups were "very helpful" or "somewhat helpful." Fifty-seven of 99 students (58%) reported that the resident-facilitated course was "much better" than courses without resident involvement. Twelve of 13 eligible residents completed the survey, and of those, 8 found teaching "very helpful" to their MSK knowledge, and 11 became "somewhat" or "much more confident" in clinical examination skills. Our study supports educational benefits to medical students and resident instructors in our MSK PE program. We recommend

  15. Witness and nonwitness children's violent and peaceful behavior in different types of simulated conflict with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif-Spanvill, Bonnie; Clayton, Claudia J; Hendrix, Suzanne B

    2007-04-01

    The violent and peaceful behaviors of 115 children who had or had not witnessed domestic violence were measured in five types of simulated conflict. Witnesses did not differ from nonwitnesses in conflicts involving limited resources, jealousy over possessions, or intimidation; witnesses were significantly more violent in conflicts involving aggression and exclusion. The most violent responses were found among abusers' sons who had been excluded by peers. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  16. A specialist peer mentoring program for university students on the autism spectrum: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Choo Ting; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Rooney, Rosanna; Girdler, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    The provision of peer mentoring may improve tertiary education outcomes of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the pilot year of the Curtin Specialist Mentoring Program (CSMP), a specialised peer mentoring program for university students with ASD aimed at improving self-reported well-being, academic success and retention in university studies. A single group pre-test, post-test design was employed. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were undertaken with 10 young adults with ASD to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of the CSMP program. Students completed a battery of questionnaires focused on general anxiety, state communication apprehension, perceived communication competence, and communication apprehension both prior to, and five months after commencing enrolment in the CSMP. Information regarding academic success and retention was also obtained. Interviews with participants provided further insight into their experience of the program. Students enrolled in the CSMP showed significant improvement in social support and general communication apprehension assessment scores. Interviews revealed key features of the CSMP that may have contributed to these positive outcomes. The current study provides preliminary evidence that a specialised peer mentoring program can improve the well-being of students with ASD, and highlights the importance of interventions which are individualised, flexible, based on a social model, and target environmental factors such as social support.

  17. Peer victimization and subjective health among students reporting disability or chronic illness in 11 Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gavin, Aoife; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Molcho, Michal; Due, Pernille; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Malkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Gobina, Inese; Vollebergh, Wilma; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-06-01

    To compare the strength of the association between peer victimization at school and subjective health according to the disability or chronic illness (D/CI) status of students across countries. This study used data from 55 030 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from 11 countries participating in the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Self-completed questionnaires were administered in classrooms. Multivariate models of logistic regression (controlled for confounding factors and countries) were used to investigate differences in the association between peer victimization and poor subjective health according to the D/CI status. Overall, 13.5% of the students reported having been bullied at least two or three times a month. The percentage of victims was significantly higher among those reporting D/CI than among others in all countries studied. Victims of bullying were more likely to report poor self-rated health, low life satisfaction and multiple health complaints. However, there were no differences in the associations between peer victimization and subjective health indicators according to the D/CI status. In all countries studied, students reporting D/CI were more likely to report being victims of bullying. Victims of bullying reported more negative subjective health outcomes regardless of their D/CI status. Although inclusive education is currently a major topic of educational policies in most countries, additional efforts should be made to improve the quality of the integration of students with D/CI.

  18. Midwifery students experience of teamwork projects involving mark-related peer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Carolyn R; Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny A; Grace, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Lack of teamwork skills among health care professionals endangers patients and enables workplace bullying. Individual teamwork skills are increasingly being assessed in the undergraduate health courses but rarely defined, made explicit or taught. To remedy these deficiencies we introduced a longitudinal educational strategy across all three years of the Bachelor of Midwifery program. To report on students' experiences of engaging in team based assignments which involved mark-related peer feedback. Stories of midwifery students' experiences were collected from 17 participants across the three years of the degree. These were transcribed and analysed thematically and interpreted using feminist collaborative conversations. Most participants reported being in well-functioning teams and enjoyed the experience; they spoke of 'we' and said 'Everyone was on Board'. Students in poorly functioning teams spoke of 'I' and 'they'. These students complained about the poor performance of others but they didn't speak up because they 'didn't want to make waves' and they didn't have the skills to be able to confidently manage conflict. All participants agreed 'Peer-related marks cause mayhem'. Teamwork skills should be specifically taught and assessed. These skills take time to develop. Students, therefore, should be engaged in a teamwork assignment in each semester of the entire program. Peer feedback should be moderated by the teacher and not directly related to marks. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Cross-National Comparison of School Students' Perceptions Regarding High Performing Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyerim Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-national scenario based study exam-ined fourth-grade students’ perceptions of high-performing classmates in terms of their ex-pected intellectual abilities, positive social qual-ities and popularity among their peers across seven countries. The overall results show that high academic achievements predominantly lead to positive expectations within the peer group. However, pronounced differences were found between the countries. The results indi-cated that students from Spanish-speaking countries viewed their potential high-perform-ing peers most favorably, followed by students from Australia, the United Kingdom and Ger-many. The least favorable expectations, but by no means negative attitude, were exhibited by students from the two East-Asian countries Ko-rea and Vietnam. In contrast, the respondents’ gender and the gender of the hypothetical suc-cessful classmates had less influence on student perceptions of high-performers. These findings have implications for the educational provision of high performing students in different cross-national contexts.

  20. Near-peer mentoring to complement faculty mentoring of first-year medical students in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satendra Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The first year is stressful for new medical students who have to cope with curricular challenges, relocation issues, and separation from family. Mentoring reduces stress and facilitates adaptation. A program for faculty mentoring of first-semester students was initiated by the Medical Education Unit in 2009 at University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. Feedback after the first year revealed that mentees were reluctant to meet their mentors, some of whom were senior faculty. In the following year, student mentors (near-peers were recruited to see if that would improve the rate and quality of contact between mentees and mentors. Methods: Volunteer faculty (n=52, near-peers (n=57, and new entrants (n=148 admitted in 2010 participated in the ratio of 1:1:3. The program aims were explained through an open house meeting, for reinforcement, and another meeting was conducted 5 months later. At year-end, a feedback questionnaire was administered (response rate: faculty, 28 [54%]; mentees, 74 [50%]. Results: Many respondent faculty (27, 96% and mentees (65, 88% believed that near-peer mentoring was useful. Compared to the preceding year, the proportion of meetings between faculty mentors and mentees increased from 4.0±5.2 to 7.4±8.8; mentees who reported benefit increased from 23/78 (33% to 34/74 (46%. Benefits resulted from mentors’ and near-peers’ demonstration of concern/support/interaction/counseling (35, 47.3% mentees; 23 mentees (82% wanted to become near-peers themselves. Conclusion: Near-peer mentoring supplements faculty mentoring of first-year medical students by increasing system effectiveness.

  1. Near-peer mentoring to complement faculty mentoring of first-year medical students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The first year is stressful for new medical students who have to cope with curricular challenges, relocation issues, and separation from family. Mentoring reduces stress and facilitates adaptation. A program for faculty mentoring of first-semester students was initiated by the Medical Education Unit in 2009 at University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. Feedback after the first year revealed that mentees were reluctant to meet their mentors, some of whom were senior faculty. In the following year, student mentors (near-peers) were recruited to see if that would improve the rate and quality of contact between mentees and mentors. Methods: Volunteer faculty (n=52), near-peers (n=57), and new entrants (n=148) admitted in 2010 participated in the ratio of 1:1:3. The program aims were explained through an open house meeting, for reinforcement, and another meeting was conducted 5 months later. At year-end, a feedback questionnaire was administered (response rate: faculty, 28 [54%]; mentees, 74 [50%]). Results: Many respondent faculty (27, 96%) and mentees (65, 88%) believed that near-peer mentoring was useful. Compared to the preceding year, the proportion of meetings between faculty mentors and mentees increased from 4.0±5.2 to 7.4±8.8; mentees who reported benefit increased from 23/78 (33%) to 34/74 (46%). Benefits resulted from mentors’ and near-peers’ demonstration of concern/support/interaction/counseling (35, 47.3% mentees); 23 mentees (82%) wanted to become near-peers themselves. Conclusion: Near-peer mentoring supplements faculty mentoring of first-year medical students by increasing system effectiveness. PMID:24980428

  2. Associations among Children's Social Goals, Responses to Peer Conflict, and Teacher-Reported Behavioral and Academic Adjustment at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Smith-Schrandt, Heather L.; Gesten, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations among children's agentic (social influence, status, power) and communal (relationship, affiliation) goals for peer interaction, cognitive and affective responses to hypothetical peer conflict, and teacher-reported achievement and behavior at school ("N" = 367; "M" age = 9.9 years). Agentic goals…

  3. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group. They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior.

  4. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Francisco J. P.; Herrera, Ana del Refugio C.; Rubalcava, San J. A.; Martínez, Kalina I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group). They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior. PMID:28626430

  5. Role of family and peers in the initiation and continuation of smoking behavior of future physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausumi Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Globally researchers have long back noted that the trend of substance use was on the rise particularly in the student population. Objective : To find out the prevalence and determinants of smoking practices among undergraduate medical students. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical (MBBS students of a tertiary care medical college using a predesigned and pretested semi-structured self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Results : Among 182 participants, 55 (30% were smokers; 85.45% were regular smokers; majority in the age group 20-22 years (70%; mostly males (98%. No significant difference was observed among urban and rural students, and religion had no association. The practice of smoking for last 6 months to 1 year was in 43.6% and 40% smoked less than 6 months. Half of them (50.9% smoked 5-9 cigarettes per day. Peer pressure was significantly high in smokers (83.6%; 42% had other addictions. The effect of parental smoking on smoking habits of the participants was quite evident among smokers (82%, which was significantly higher than nonsmokers (χ2=63.49, P<0.05. Peer pressure was the most important risk factor (57.69% of initiation of smoking habit followed by parental influence (16.49%. Among morbidities of smokers, 60.6% were suffering from regular cough, 6% from bronchitis, and 2% had asthma. Conclusions : Our survey conducted on budding doctors surprisingly showed that undergraduate medical students smoke so much.

  6. Evaluation of an online peer fundus photograph matching program in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Jason; Liao, Walter; Baxter, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Direct ophthalmoscopy is an important clinical skill that is often poorly performed by medical professionals and students. This is attributable to a declining emphasis on ophthalmology in medical school. We present and evaluate a self-directed approach of teaching ophthalmoscopy to medical students that is suitable for the current medical curriculum. Prospective medical education trial. Ninety-five second-year medical students at Queen's University: 32 in the experimental group and 63 in the control group. The experimental group consisted of medical students who practised ophthalmoscopy with one another using an online peer fundus photograph matching exercise created by the Department of Ophthalmology at Queen's University. To use the program, students first examined a peer with an ophthalmoscope and then selected an online photograph of a fundus corresponding to that of the examinee. The program notifies students if a correct selection is made. To encourage use of the program, students participated in a 2-week ophthalmoscopy competition during their ophthalmology rotation. The control group consisted of students who did not participate in the learning exercise. On assessment at the end of the ophthalmology rotation, the experimental group (n = 32) was more accurate in matching fundus photographs compared with the control group (n = 63) (p = 0.02). Participants were faster at performing ophthalmoscopy at the end of the learning exercise (p peer fundus photographs in a self-directed manner appeared to increase the skill and confidence of medical students in ophthalmoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tomorrow's educators … today? Implementing near-peer teaching for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Adam J; Nelson, Sophie V; Linn, Andrew M J; Raw, Lynne E; Kildea, Hugh B; Tonkin, Anne L

    2013-01-01

    The University of Adelaide offers a six-year undergraduate medical degree with a focus on small group learning. Senior medical students had previously received limited formal training in education skills, and were identified as an underutilised teaching resource. To devise a programme in which senior students are exposed to the various facets of university teaching responsibilities and to evaluate its impact on both the tutors and the students. A six week rotation in medical education for final year medical students was designed and implemented in 2010 to involve them in the development, delivery and assessment of the 1st and 2nd year medical programme as near-peer tutors (NPTs). Two years after the rotation's implementation, voluntary evaluation of both the junior students and NPTs was undertaken through a mixed methods approach of survey and focus group. Junior students (n=358) revealed the NPTs provided non-threatening learning environments, provided helpful feedback and acted as role models. Additionally, the NPTs (n=24) reported they had consolidated prior knowledge, developed their teaching skills and expressed a desire to be more involved in teaching in the future. The implementation of NPTs in the teaching of junior medical students appears to benefit both students and their near-peer colleagues. Involvement of NPTs in all facets of medical education through this rotation stands to not only foster potential interest in an academic pathway but also equip them with a variety of transferable skills which they can draw on as future educators in their profession.

  8. Peer feedback: Using diciplinary-specific teaching formats as "bridges" to enable student engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Dankl, Kathrina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Peer feedback has been proven to significantly strengthen students’ academic writing skills as well as foster meta-cognitive awareness on learning processes (Gibbs et al. 2004, Nicol et. al 2006). In order to unleash this potential, a collaborative and trusting ethos is required...... disciplinary-specific teaching formats and using these as “bridges” to enable students’ active engagement and unlock student’s co-creation skills. Method The proposed method has been applied at the Design School in Kolding at a course initiated as a part of the Master’s thesis supervision. As a method...... for a synopsis, and peer feedback was introduced for ‘shaping and co-creating’ first drafts of a synopsis. Both peer feedback and the concept of creative constraints (see freewriting format), are commonly used in design as methods to spur creativity. Results According to students own written evaluations (fifteen...

  9. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-08-01

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  10. Effects of self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors. This study is a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. A total of 47 fourth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The program was provided for 45 minutes once a week; a total of 12 sessions were completed with a group in the classroom for the experimental group. Child Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire was used to measure problematic behavior. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Questionnaire, and peer attachment was measured using the Inventory of Parent and Attachment. Measuring was performed right after the program was done (post 1) and 1 month after the program was finished (post 2). To compare the differences in self-esteem and peer attachment between groups, repeated measures analysis of variance was used. Most participants in the experimental group were 10 years old (62.5%, range 10-11), male (52.0%) and with middle grade point average (64.0%). The self-esteem scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 26.64, p < .001). The peer attachment scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 6.48, p = .014). The self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Don´t drink and... avoid risky sex of your peers: the influence of alcohol consumption of opposite-gender peers on youth risky sexual behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pertold, Filip

    -, č. 422 (2010), s. 1-27 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : peer effects * sexual behavior * drinking Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp422.pdf

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Peer Victimization (Bullying among Grades 7 and 8 Middle School Students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad J. Abdulsalam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peer victimization (bullying is a universal phenomenon with detrimental effects. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors of bullying among grades 7 and 8 middle school students in Kuwait. Methods. The study is a cross-sectional study that includes a sample of 989 7th and 8th grade middle school students randomly selected from schools. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure different forms of bullying. After adjusting for confounding, logistic regression identified the significant associated factors related to bullying. Results. Prevalence of bullying was 30.2 with 95% CI 27.4 to 33.2% (3.5% bullies, 18.9% victims, 7.8% bully victims. Children with physical disabilities and one or both non-Kuwaiti parents or children with divorced/widowed parents were more prone to be victims. Most victims and bullies were found to be current smokers. Bullies were mostly in the fail/fair final school grade category, whereas victims performed better. The logistic regression showed that male gender (adjusted odds ration = 1.671, p=0.004, grade 8 student (adjusted odds ratio = 1.650, p=0.004, and student with physical disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.675, p=0.003, were independently associated with bullying behavior. Conclusions. There is a need for a school-wide professional intervention program and improvement in the students’ adjustment to school environment to control bullying behavior.

  13. Elementary student self efficacy scale development and validation focused on student learning, peer relations, and resisting drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertman, Carl I; Primack, Brian A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item self efficacy scale and social support and social skills instruments. The results provide evidence for a valid and reliable 3-factor self efficacy scale. Subscale internal consistency reliability was good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.75, 0.83, 0.91). Construct validity was supported by correlations between each subscale and social skills, social support, and demographic data. The scale has potential as a tool to measure self efficacy in children related to learning, peer interactions, and resisting peer pressure to use drugs and to help shape drug education programs.

  14. The influence of peer affiliation and student activities on adolescent drug involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J E

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the importance of students' academic performance level and extracurricular activities as predictors of drug involvement relative to peer influence. Social development theory provided the theoretical rational for the study. Data were obtained from 2,229 randomly selected students in the eighth, tenth, and twelfth grades from seventeen school districts in northeastern Ohio. At all three grade levels, involvement in extracurricular activities and academic level were significantly correlated with students' gateway and hard drug use. Consistent with prior research, the strongest correlate of gateway and hard drug use across all grade levels was affiliation with drug-using friends. Having a job after school was marginally related to self-reported gateway drug use at grade level ten. Multiple regression analysis revealed that extracurricular involvement and academic performance level make small, but unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' gateway drug use beyond affiliation with drug-using peers at all three grade levels. The findings of this study suggest that students' academic performance and extracurricular involvements are significantly related to adolescent gateway and hard drug use, but have less predictive significance relative to peer relationships.

  15. Impact of guided reciprocal peer questioning on nursing students' self-esteem and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdizaji, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Hassankhanih, Hadi; Kalantari, Manizhe

    2013-07-01

    Self-esteem is essential for clinical judgments. Nursing students in clinical environments should make a bridge between theoretical education and clinical function. This study was aimed to survey the effect of guided questioning in peer groups on nursing students' self-esteem and clinical learning. In this quasi-experimental study, all nursing students in semester 4 (60) were selected. The autumn semester students (n = 28) were chosen as the control group, and the spring semester students (n = 32) as the experimental group. The experimental group underwent the course of cardiac medical surgical training by the Guided Reciprocal Peer Questioning. The control group was trained by lecture. After confirmation of the validity and reliability of tools including Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the researcher-made questionnaire, data were collected and analyzed by SPSS version 17.0. There was no significant difference concerning demographic and educational characteristics between the two groups. Mean score differences of self-esteem and learning were not significant before teaching, while they were significantly promoted after teaching in the experimental (P self-esteem and students' learning, can be applied alone or in combination with the other methods. Conducting this study for other students and for theoretical courses is suggested.

  16. Voluntary peer-led exam preparation course for international first year students: Tutees' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Daniel; Eckart, Wolfgang; Karimian-Jazi, Kianush; Amr, Ali; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-06-18

    While the number of international students has increased over the last decade, such students face diverse challenges due to language and cultural barriers. International medical students suffer from personal distress and a lack of support. Their performance is significantly lower than non-international peers in clinical examinations. We investigated whether international students benefit from a peer-led exam preparation course. An exam preparation course was designed, and relevant learning objectives were defined. Two evaluations were undertaken: Using a qualitative approach, tutees (N = 10) were asked for their thoughts and comments in a semi-structured interview at the end of the semester. From a quantitative perspective, all participants (N = 22) were asked to complete questionnaires at the end of each course session. International students reported a range of significant benefits from the course as they prepared for upcoming exams. They benefited from technical and didactic, as well as social learning experiences. They also considered aspects of the tutorial's framework helpful. Social and cognitive congruence seem to be the key factors to success within international medical students' education. If tutors have a migration background, they can operate as authentic role models. Furthermore, because they are still students themselves, they can offer support using relevant and understandable language.

  17. Predicting Relationship of Smoking Behavior Among Male Saudi Arabian College Students Related to Their Religious Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.

  18. Early Puberty, Negative Peer Influence, and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend’s deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls’ race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend’s deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend’s deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the “other” racial/ethnic minority group only. CONCLUSIONS: Early puberty and friends’ deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences. PMID:24324002

  19. The nuclear weapons inheritance project: student-to-student dialogues and interactive peer education in disarmament activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Inheritance Project is a student run and student initiated project founded in 2001 with the purpose of increasing awareness of health effects of nuclear policies and empowering university students to take action in a local and international context. The project uses dialogues to discuss nuclear disarmament with university students and a method of interactive peer education to train new trainers. The project has met more than 1500 students in nuclear weapon states in dialogue and trained about 400 students from all over the world. This article describes the methods and results of the project and discuss how the experience of the project can be used in other projects seeking to increase awareness of a topic and to initiate action on social injustice.

  20. A Novel Approach to Medical Student Peer-assisted Learning Through Case-based Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Joshua; Bright, Steven; Strote, Jared; Shandro, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is the development of new knowledge and skills through active learning support from peers. Benefits of PAL include introduction of teaching skills for students, creation of a safe learning environment, and efficient use of faculty time. We present a novel approach to PAL in an emergency medicine (EM) clerkship curriculum using an inexpensive, tablet-based app for students to cooperatively present and perform low-fidelity, case-based simulations that promotes accountability for student learning, fosters teaching skills, and economizes faculty presence. We developed five clinical cases in the style of EM oral boards. Fourth-year medical students were each assigned a unique case one week in advance. Students also received an instructional document and a video example detailing how to lead a case. During the 90-minute session, students were placed in small groups of 3-5 students and rotated between facilitating their assigned cases and participating as a team for the cases presented by their fellow students. Cases were supplemented with a half-mannequin that can be intubated, airway supplies, and a tablet-based app (SimMon, $22.99) to remotely display and update vital signs. One faculty member rotated among groups to provide additional assistance and clarification. Three EM faculty members iteratively developed a survey, based on the literature and pilot tested it with fourth-year medical students, to evaluate the course. 135 medical students completed the course and course evaluation survey. Learner satisfaction was high with an overall score of 4.6 on a 5-point Likert scale. In written comments, students reported that small groups with minimal faculty involvement provided a safe learning environment and a unique opportunity to lead a group of peers. They felt that PAL was more effective than traditional simulations for learning. Faculty reported that students remained engaged and required minimal oversight. Unlike other simulations, our

  1. Unstructured Socializing with Peers and Delinquent Behavior: A Genetically Informed Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Barnes, J C

    2017-09-01

    A large body of research finds that unstructured socializing with peers is positively associated with delinquency during adolescence. Yet, existing research has not ruled out the potential for confounding due to genetic factors and factors that can be traced to environments shared between siblings. To fill this void, the current study examines whether the association between unstructured socializing with peers and delinquent behavior remains when accounting for genetic factors, shared environmental influences, and a variety of non-shared environmental covariates. We do so by using data from the twin subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 1200 at wave 1 and 1103 at wave 2; 51% male; mean age at wave 1 = 15.63). Results from both cross-sectional and lagged models indicate the association between unstructured socializing with peers and delinquent behavior remains when controlling for both genetic and environmental influences. Supplementary analyses examining the association under different specifications offer additional, albeit qualified, evidence supportive of this finding. The study concludes with a discussion highlighting the importance of limiting free time with friends in the absence of authority figures as a strategy for reducing delinquency during adolescence.

  2. The direct effects of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on peer problems and mediating roles of prosocial and conduct problem behaviors in a community sample of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F; Tannock, Rosemary

    2013-11-01

    This study tested whether children's symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were associated with peer problems and whether these associations were mediated by conduct problems and prosocial behaviors. A community sample of 500 children, including 245 boys and 255 girls, who ranged in age from 6 to 9 years (M = 7.6, SD = 0.91) were recruited. Teachers' report of children's inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, conduct problems, prosocial behaviors, and peer problems was collected. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were significantly positively associated with peer problems. Conduct problems were associated with more peer problems and prosocial behaviors with less peer problems. Conduct problems and prosocial behaviors partially mediated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and peer problems and fully mediated the inattention-peer problems association. Findings show that prosocial behaviors and conduct problems are important variables that account for some of the negative impact of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on peer functioning.

  3. Midwifery students' evaluation of team-based academic assignments involving peer-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, Jenny A; Fahy, Kathleen M; Hastie, Carolyn R

    2014-03-01

    Midwives should be skilled team workers in maternity units and in group practices. Poor teamwork skills are a significant cause of adverse maternity care outcomes. Despite Australian and International regulatory requirements that all midwifery graduates are competent in teamwork, the systematic teaching and assessment of teamwork skills is lacking in higher education. How do midwifery students evaluate participation in team-based academic assignments, which include giving and receiving peer feedback? First and third year Bachelor of Midwifery students who volunteered (24 of 56 students). Participatory Action Research with data collection via anonymous online surveys. There was general agreement that team based assignments; (i) should have peer-marking, (ii) help clarify what is meant by teamwork, (iii) develop communication skills, (iv) promote student-to-student learning. Third year students strongly agreed that teams: (i) are valuable preparation for teamwork in practice, (ii) help meet Australian midwifery competency 8, and (iii) were enjoyable. The majority of third year students agreed with statements that their teams were effectively coordinated and team members shared responsibility for work equally; first year students strongly disagreed with these statements. Students' qualitative comments substantiated and expanded on these findings. The majority of students valued teacher feedback on well-developed drafts of the team's assignment prior to marking. Based on these findings we changed practice and created more clearly structured team-based assignments with specific marking criteria. We are developing supporting lessons to teach specific teamwork skills: together these resources are called "TeamUP". TeamUP should be implemented in all pre-registration Midwifery courses to foster students' teamwork skills and readiness for practice. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peer review in design: Understanding the impact of collaboration on the review process and student perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Mahender Arjun

    A cornerstone of design and design education is frequent situated feedback. With increasing class sizes, and shrinking financial and human resources, providing rich feedback to students becomes increasingly difficult. In the field of writing, web-based peer review--the process of utilizing equal status learners within a class to provide feedback to each other on their work using networked computing systems--has been shown to be a reliable and valid source of feedback in addition to improving student learning. Designers communicate in myriad ways, using the many languages of design and combining visual and descriptive information. This complex discourse of design intent makes peer reviews by design students ambiguous and often not helpful to the receivers of this feedback. Furthermore, engaging students in the review process itself is often difficult. Teams can complement individual diversity and may assist novice designers collectively resolve complex task. However, teams often incur production losses and may be impacted by individual biases. In the current work, we look at utilizing a collaborative team of reviewers, working collectively and synchronously, in generating web based peer reviews in a sophomore engineering design class. Students participated in a cross-over design, conducting peer reviews as individuals and collaborative teams in parallel sequences. Raters coded the feedback generated on the basis of their appropriateness and accuracy. Self-report surveys and passive observation of teams conducting reviews captured student opinion on the process, its value, and the contrasting experience they had conducting team and individual reviews. We found team reviews generated better quality feedback in comparison to individual reviews. Furthermore, students preferred conducting reviews in teams, finding the process 'fun' and engaging. We observed several learning benefits of using collaboration in reviewing including improved understanding of the assessment

  5. Investigating Peer Review as an Intentional Learning Strategy to Foster Collaborative Knowledge-Building in Students of Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Hodges, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review has been advocated for as an intentional strategy to support the knowledge and skill attainment of adult learners preparing for professional practice, including those students preparing for instructional design and technology practice. The purposes of this article are to discuss the practical application of peer review as an…

  6. Efficacy of Peer Networks to Increase Social Connections among High School Students with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Julia M.; Carter, Erik W.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Harvey, Michelle N.; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    Although peer interaction takes on increased salience during adolescence, such social connections remain elusive for many high school students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This social isolation can be particularly prevalent within unstructured school contexts. In this study, we examined the effects of a lunchtime peer network intervention…

  7. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on the Reading Comprehension Performance of Secondary Students with Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Turkey; Leko, Melinda

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to examine the effects of peer tutoring models on the reading comprehension performance of secondary students with disabilities and to provide evidence of the extent to which peer tutoring can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP) for improving reading comprehension performance among secondary students…

  8. The Effects of Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Training on Turkish Elementary School Students' Conflict Resolution Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnuklu, Abbas; Kacmaz, Tarkan; Gurler, Selma; Turk, Fulya; Kalender, Alper; Zengin, Feza; Sevkin, Burcak

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of conflict resolution and peer mediation (CRPM) training among 10- and 11-year-old elementary school students was examined. The CRPM training program consisted of skills, such as understanding the nature of interpersonal conflicts, communication, anger management, negotiation and peer mediation. The research was carried out…

  9. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  10. The Quality of Experience of Students with and without Special Educational Needs in Everyday Life and When Relating to Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Carmen L. A.; Venetz, Martin; Hinni, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the quality of experience of students with and without SEN in everyday life in general and when relating to peers in particular: (1) How do they experience everyday school life vs. leisure time? (2) How much time per week do they spend with peers outside school? and (3) How do they experience those peer…

  11. High School-Aged Youths' Attitudes toward Their Peers with Disabilities: The Role of School and Student Interpersonal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Janette; DeWit, David J.; King, Gillian; Miller, Linda T.; Killip, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Negative peer attitudes are generally recognised as being a major barrier to full social inclusion at school for children and youth with disabilities. The present study examined the attitudes of 1,872 grade nine high school students in Ontario, Canada toward their peers with disabilities. A bioecological perspective and a structural equation…

  12. Peer tutoring for college students with learning disabilities: perceptions of tutors and tutees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Gila; Fresko, Barbara; Wertheim, Cheruta

    2007-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a commonly provided support service for students with learning disabilities (LD) in institutions of higher education. A large-scale survey was conducted to evaluate the PERACH peer tutoring project for students with LD at 25 universities, regional colleges, and teacher training colleges in Israel. The purpose of the study was to understand the tutoring process from the point of view of both tutees and tutors with respect to 5 main areas: tutees' needs, focus of tutoring activities, difficulties surrounding the tutoring endeavor, importance of similar study experiences, and satisfaction with the project. It is our supposition that major discrepancies in perceptions are likely to undermine the effectiveness of the tutoring. Similarities and differences in perceptions were identified, and implications that can be useful in guiding service providers are discussed.

  13. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  14. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L

    2015-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years) completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes' scores in these constructs.

  15. They all do it, will you? Event-related potential evidence of herding behavior in online peer-to-peer lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haihong; Dan, MengHan; Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia

    2018-05-14

    As herding is a typical characteristic of human behavior, many researchers have found the existence of herding behavior in online peer-to-peer lending through empirical surveys. However, the underlying neural basis of this phenomenon is still unclear. In the current study, we studied the neural activities of herding at decision-making stage and feedback stage using event-related potentials (ERPs). Our results showed that at decision-making stage, larger error related negativity (ERN) amplitude was induced under low-proportion conditions than that of high-proportion conditions. Meanwhile, during feedback stage, negative feedback elicited larger feedback related negativity (FRN) amplitude than that of positive feedback under low-proportion conditions, however, there was no significant FRN difference under high-proportion conditions. The current study suggests that herding behavior in online peer-to-peer lending is related to individual's risk perception and is possible to avoid negative emotions brought by failed investments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotional and cognitive effects of peer tutoring among secondary school mathematics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre Ansuategui, Francisco José; Moliner Miravet, Lidón

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes an experience of same-age peer tutoring conducted with 19 eighth-grade mathematics students in a secondary school in Castellon de la Plana (Spain). Three constructs were analysed before and after launching the program: academic performance, mathematics self-concept and attitude of solidarity. Students' perceptions of the method were also analysed. The quantitative data was gathered by means of a mathematics self-concept questionnaire, an attitude of solidarity questionnaire and the students' numerical ratings. A statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. The qualitative information was gathered by means of discussion groups and a field diary. This information was analysed using descriptive analysis and by categorizing the information. Results show statistically significant improvements in all the variables and the positive assessment of the experience and the interactions that took place between the students.

  17. Relational perceptions in high school physical education: teacher- and peer-related predictors of female students’ motivation, behavioral engagement, and social anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gairns, Felicity; Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE), there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students’ relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students’ perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a) engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b) satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c) were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy). Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE. PMID:26157404

  18. Peer sexual harassment victimization at school: the roles of student characteristics, cultural affiliation, and school factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the links between students' reports of sexual harassment victimization by peers and a number of individual and school contextual factors. It is based on a nationally representative sample of 16,604 students in Grades 7 through 11 in 327 schools across Israel who completed questionnaires during class. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to examine the links. Overall, approximately one in four students (25.6%) were victims of at least one unwanted and unwelcome act of harassment by peers (such as being touched or pinched in sexual manner) in the prior month. The most vulnerable groups were Israeli-Arab boys and students with negative perceptions of their school climate. The school correlates associated with higher levels of victimization were a higher share of students with less-educated parents, larger schools and classrooms, and negative school climate. The interactions between gender and school-related factors indicate that the gender patterns are different for Israeli-Arab and Jewish schools and for schools with different concentrations of students' families with low socioeconomic status. The study emphasizes the need for an ecological perspective in addressing school-based sexual harassment.

  19. Peer influence strategies in collectively consumed products: (Events and Festivals): An exploratory study among university students.

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, K.; Moital, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The paper examines peer influence in the context of purchasing collectively consumed products. The particular focus of the paper is on strategies used by university students for persuasion and resistance when attending events & festivals. METHODOLOGY: Five females and three males studying for a degree in the UK were interviewed. Independent analysis of the interview transcripts was undertaken in order to identify persuasion and resistance strategies, as well as the factors influencin...

  20. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.