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Sample records for student absence jeopardizes

  1. Is student debt jeopardizing the short-term financial health of U.S. households?

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, William; Nam, IlSung

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors use the Survey of Consumer Finances to determine whether student loans are associated with household net worth. They find that median 2009 net worth ($117,700) for households with no outstanding student loan debt is nearly three times higher than for households with outstanding student loan debt ($42,800). Further, multivariate statistics indicate that households with outstanding student loan debt and a median 2007 net worth of $128,828 incur a loss of about 54 perc...

  2. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...

  3. Impact of School Flu Vaccine Program on Student Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaspohl, Sara S.; Dixon, Betty T.; Streater, James A.; Hausauer, Elizabeth T.; Newman, Christopher P.; Vogel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Literature provides evidence that school attendance correlates with academic performance and student success. Influenza is a contributing factor to school absences. Primary prevention for influenza includes immunization. School-located influenza vaccine (SLIV) programs provide greater access for students to be immunized. A retrospective review of…

  4. Eating in the absence of hunger in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Taylor A; Johnston, Carol S; Lee, Chong D; Garza, Andrea M

    2015-09-01

    Nearly one-third of college students are overweight or obese. Disinhibited eating, a phenomenon defined as the lack of self-restraint over food consumption prompted by emotional or external factors, is prevalent among college students and may be a target for intervention in this population. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is a form of disinhibited eating that has been studied extensively in children and adolescents, but there is little investigation of EAH among college students. In this research, a validated measure for assessing continual and beginning EAH in children and adolescents was modified and assessed in a free-living college population (n = 457; 84% F; 24.5 ± 7.6 years; 23.4 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)). Nine subscales grouped into three latent factors (emotion, external, and physical) accounted for 68% of the variance in continual EAH, and a separate set of nine subscales grouped into the same latent factors accounted for 71% of the variance in beginning EAH (Cronbach's alpha: 0.82 for continual EAH and 0.81 for beginning EAH). Female sex and sedentary behavior were significantly related to continual EAH, relationships driven by scores for the emotion factor, and to beginning EAH, relationships driven by scores for the physical factor. BMI was weakly related to the emotion factor (p = 0.06) for continuing EAH only. The observation that a sedentary lifestyle was associated to EAH (both continuing and beginning EAH) in a college population is a novel finding and reveals a possible strategy to moderate EAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sickness absence in student nursing assistants following a preventive intervention programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, A L; Marott, J L; Suadicani, P

    2011-01-01

    reduced SF-36 scores for general health perception [general health (GH)], psychological well-being [mental health (MH)] and energy/fatigue [vitality (VT)] compared with the intervention group, which remained at the baseline level for all three measures. AIMS: To ascertain whether this effect remained......BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a multidimensional programme combining physical training, patient transfer techniques and stress management significantly reduced sickness absence rates in student nurse assistants (NAs) after 14 months of follow-up. At follow-up, the control group had...... after a further 36 months of follow-up and to analyse the association of GH, MH and VT scores with sickness absence. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized prospective study. The original study involved assessment at baseline and follow-up at 14 months (the duration of the student NA course). Of 568...

  6. Developing a national computerised absence monitoring and management system to reduce nursing student attrition: evaluation of staff and student perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kay; McCallum, Jacqueline; Murray, John; Scott, Janine; Strachan, Evelyn; Yates, Lynda; Wright, Marty

    2014-05-01

    Reducing avoidable nursing student attrition is an international challenge. A pattern of falling attendance is recognised as a frequent precursor to withdrawal from nursing programmes. To address concerns regarding nursing student attrition, the Scottish Government implemented a pilot project for a centralised Computerised Absence Management and Monitoring System (CAMMS). The CAMMS adopted an 'assertive outreach' approach, contacting students every two weeks via colour coded letters to tell them whether their attendance was 'excellent', 'good, but potentially causing concern'; or 'warning; attendance concerns/contact academic staff for support'. This article reports key findings from an evaluation of CAMMS. To explore the perceived impact of CAMMS on student support and attrition, from the perspectives of academic and administrative staff and students. Mixed methods evaluation design. Three large geographically dispersed Schools of Nursing in Scotland. 83 students; 20 academic staff; and 3 lead administrators. On-line cohort survey of academic staff and students; structured interviews with lead administrators. Findings reflected a spectrum of negative and positive views of CAMMS. Students who are attending regularly seem pleased that their commitment is recognised. Lecturers who teach larger groups report greater difficulty getting to know students individually and acknowledge the benefit of identifying potential attendance concerns at an early stage. Conversely, some students who received a 'warning' letter were frequently annoyed or irritated, rather than feeling supported. Increased staff workload resulted in negative perceptions and a consequent reluctance to use CAMMS. However, students who were causing concern reported subsequent improvement in attendance. CAMMS has the potential to identify 'at-risk' students at an early stage; however, the system should have flexibility to tailor automatically generated letters in response to individual circumstances, to

  7. The Power of Paradigms: A Discussion of the Absence of Bullying Research in the Context of the University Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleyshaw, Liz

    2010-01-01

    The literature on bullying is vast and this social phenomenon has been studied in depth in relation to schooling and the workplace. Between school and workplace lies higher education (HE), but there is a marked absence of published work regarding undergraduate student-to-student bullying in this setting. This theoretical paper explores possible…

  8. 47 CFR 74.23 - Interference jeopardizing safety of life or protection of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference jeopardizing safety of life or... SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.23 Interference jeopardizing safety of life or protection of property. (a) The licensee of any station authorized under this part that causes...

  9. 7 CFR 1744.207 - Investment not to jeopardize loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment not to jeopardize loan security. 1744.207... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.207 Investment not to jeopardize loan security. A borrower shall...

  10. Tenacious self-reliance in health maintenance may jeopardize late life survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jeremy M; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Parker, Patti C; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2017-11-01

    Although an active pursuit of health goals is typically adaptive, there may be circumstances in very late life when it is not. Our 10-year study of community-dwelling individuals (n = 220, 79-98 years-old) examined whether investing substantial effort into personal health (high selective primary control) in the absence of help-seeking strategies (low compensatory primary control) jeopardized survival for very old adults who varied in functional independence (low, high). Cox proportional hazard models showed selective primary control (SPC) predicted 10-year mortality risk for only those with low compensatory primary control (CPC) and high initial functional independence. For these individuals, each standard deviation increase in SPC predicted a 101% higher risk of death. Results are consistent with the lines-of-defense model (Heckhausen et al., 2013) and suggest that, for very old adults with little previous need for help-seeking strategies, tenacious self-reliance (high SPC, low CPC) may have life-shortening consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Association of obesity and eating in the absence of hunger among college students in a Mexican-USA border city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Alcántara-Jurado, Luis; Armendáriz-Anguiano, Ana; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have examined disinhibited eating behaviors in Mexico. However eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), defined as eating in response to the presence of palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger, is one of the more frequently examined behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between obesity and EAH among college students in a large Mexican-USA border city. Two-hundred and one sophomore college students completed the EAH questionnaire (EAH-C). Weight and height were measured. To assess reproducibility a test-retest was conducted in a subset sample (n = 20). Test-retest correlations ranged from ρ = 0.44 to 0.86, p obesity was 29 and 14 % respectively. The internal validity was assessed by Cronbach's alph. Internal consistency for all subscales was: external eating (α = 0.83), negative affect (α = 0.92) and fatigue/boredom (α = 0.86). Principal component analysis generated four subscales for the EAH-C: external eating, negative affect, fatigue and boredom. Comparing normal weight students versus obese students, normal weight students (57.1%) had higher scores on boredom subscale than obese students (p students had higher scores in the negative affect subscale than the males (p obesity.

  12. An Analysis of Student Characteristics and Behaviour in Relation to Absence from Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawon, Krystyna; Pembroke, Michael; Wille, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Concern has been expressed in the literature that student absenteeism from lectures is undesirable as it may have adverse consequences for academic performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are identifiable groups of low-attendance students who display characteristic behaviours that are more typical than any other group.…

  13. Poor hand hygiene by college students linked to more occurrences of infectious diseases, medical visits, and absence from classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Kayla J; Fortuna, Crystal A; McGill, Janis L; Brandeberry, Macey S; Stone, Abigail R; Lu, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Proper hand hygiene has been linked to lower susceptibility to infectious diseases in many types of communities, but it has not been well established on college campuses. This study investigated the hand hygiene statuses of college students and their occurrences in relation to infectious diseases, medical visits, and absence from classes or work. It also examined the effects of education on handwashing technique to improve hand hygiene. College students enrolled at a university in Northwestern Ohio were recruited as study subjects. Microbial samples were collected 3 times from each of the 220 valid volunteers before washing their hands, after washing with their own procedures, and after washing with a procedure recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each volunteer also answered a survey including questions on their health conditions, medical visits, and absence from classes or work. Hands of 57.7% volunteers were colonized by an uncountable number of microbial colonies, which were significantly linked to more occurrences to infectious diseases (P hygiene. It is critical to promote education on proper handwashing in colleges, in grade schools, and at home to improve health and learning outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Absence seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM. Seizures (paroxysmal disorders). In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ...

  15. Do Teacher Absences Impact Student Achievement? Longitudinal Evidence from One Urban School District. NBER Working Paper No. 13356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Raegen T.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Rates of employee absences and the effects of absences on productivity are topics of conversation in many organizations in many countries. One reason is that high rates of employee absence may signal weak management and poor labor-management relations. A second reason is that reducing rates of employee absence may be an effective way to improve…

  16. Work Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Wallette, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether low levels of absence increase the probability of permanent employment and reduce that of unemployment for Swedish temporary workers. We investigate two reasons for absence: worker sickness and sickness of a dependent child. Using a competing risk estimation model,...

  17. Towards a better understanding of sickness absence in adolescence : A qualitative study among Dutch intermediate vocational education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Feron, F.J.M.; Van Mook, M.A.W.; De Rijk, A.

    An adequate approach to sickness absence can reduce school dropout which is a major problem in Intermediate Vocational Education (IVE). This practice-based study explores the sickness absence reasons and factors influencing reporting the sickness, from a student’s perspective. Semistructured

  18. Overcoming Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, I address the rhetoric of modern love correspondence – its various purposes, modes of communication, and meta-reflections on writing and media – from the beginning of the 20th century till today. I analyze how love and the beloved are mediated in the articulated desire and longing...... of love letters, and how love letters are used as a medium to overcome absence. I also reflect on the material status of love letters in relation to the technological development and subsequently the replacement of traditional letters by their digital counterparts such as email, text messages and real...

  19. Do Students' Religion and School Absences Moderate the Effect of Ethnic Stereotypes on School-Placement Recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, Florian; Kärchner, Henrike; Glock, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    The results of two experiments demonstrate that preservice teachers made biased school-placement recommendations depending on student's ethnicity, which on average penalized students from an ethnic minority. Moreover, additional information that was supposed to disconfirm ethnic stereotypes (religious affiliation in Experiment 1, number of missed…

  20. The dynamics of absence behaviour: Interrelations between absence from class and absence in class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Studies of absence in educational settings have primarily been concerned with the causes for and results of student absence. However, recent research has argued that distinguishing between different forms of absence could be important. In consequence, studying the way in whi...... in the social practice of students, teachers and school managers. Evaluations of both absence from class and absence in class are important for understanding how absence behaviour can be identified and prevented....... performance. It is helpful to describe these findings using theoretical frameworks from sociology and psychology: specifically, spill-over theory and symbolic capital theory. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated how different forms of absence become dynamically interrelated through ongoing negotiations...

  1. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days. Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05. Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001. For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  2. The Importance of Terminal Values and Religious Experience of God's Presence and God's Absence in the Lives of University Students with Various Levels of Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głaz, Stanisław

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the research I embarked on were: (a) to show the preference of terminal values in personal and in social character, as well to determine the level of religious experience--God's presence and God's absence, in groups of young people characterized by a high and low level of empathy and (b) to show the relation between terminal values in personal and in social character and religious experience: God's presence and God's absence, in groups of young people with a high and low level of empathy. In the research, the following methods were applied: The Scale of Religious Experience by Głaz-in order to define the level of religious experience: God's presence and God's absence, and Mehrabian and Epstein's Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy-in order to define the level of empathy. In order to show the terminal values preference amongst young people, the Rokeach Value Survey was applied. The research was carried out in Kraków amongst 200 university students. The research has shown that students with a high level of empathy reveal a higher level of experience of God's presence than the people with a low level of it. University students with a high level of empathy amongst terminal values prefer most two values in personal character, that is wisdom and pleasure, and one in social character-family security. Similarly, students with a low level of empathy prefer most also two values in personal character, that is pleasure and freedom, and one in social character-family security. In the group of people with a high level of empathy, it is value in personal character-a sense of accomplishment-that contribute more to explaining the variance of religious experience of God's presence, and in group of people with a low level of empathy, it is social value-social recognition. Whereas in the group of people with a high level of empathy it is value in social character-equality-that contribute more to explaining the variance of religious experience of God's absence, and

  3. THE JEOPARDIZED SITUATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTE IN BANGLADESH: CAN CUSTOMIZED POLICY APPROACH SOLVE THE CHALLENGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Md. Bahauddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amountonly 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills,  rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  4. Work Absence in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Bonato; Lusine Lusinyan

    2004-01-01

    Work absence is a part of an individual's decision concerning hours worked. This paper focuses on sickness absence in Europe and builds on an analytical framework in which absence enters both labor supply and demand considerations, with sickness insurance provisions and labor market institutions affecting the costs of absence. The results from a panel of 18 European countries indicate that absence is higher under generous insurance systems and where employers bear little responsibility for th...

  5. Effects of Absence and Cognitive Skills Index on Various Achievement Indicators. A Study of ISTEP Scores, Discrepancies, and School-Based Math and English Tests of 1997-1998 Seventh Grade Students at Sarah Scott Middle School, Terre Haute, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Holly S.

    This study examines the correlation between absence, cognitive skills index (CSI), and various achievement indicators such as the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) test scores, discrepancies, and school-based English and mathematics tests for 64 seventh-grade students from one middle school. Scores for each of the subtests…

  6. Absence of National Culture in Foreign Language Teaching and Intercultural Communication Competence Training of College Students in China Frontier Minority Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jinan

    2015-01-01

    The absence of Chinese culture in foreign language teaching has a strong impact on the exchange between different cultures, and is also an obstacle to intercultural communication competence training. In general, English teaching level in China frontier minority areas is far behind that in developed areas, and shows its own teaching and cultural…

  7. Analyses of Sickness Absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, S.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is an empirical phenomenon of all time. Generally, it has a medical cause. However, other factors also appear to have an impact on the actual rate of sickness absence, such as the institutional setting, the business cycle and the economic structure. Many questions on the different

  8. The Relationship Between the Status of Unnecessary Accommodations Being Made to Unconfirmed Food Allergy Students and the Presence or Absence of a Doctor’s Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Ganaha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the current state of unnecessary children food allergy accommodation and the medical efforts to confirm the existence of food allergies in school lunch service kitchens in Okinawa, Japan, including kitchens accommodating food allergy students by requiring medical documentation at the start and during provisions being made (Double Diagnosis, requiring medical documentation at the start only (Single Diagnosis, and with no medical documentation (Non-Diagnosis. Unnecessary accommodations are being made to unconfirmed food allergy students, wherein the more medical consultation was required, the lower the food allergy incident rate was and the more food allergens were diagnosed (Non-Diagnosis > Single Diagnosis > Double Diagnosis. This study suggests the possibility that unconfirmed food allergy students may be receiving unnecessary food allergy accommodations per school lunches, and the number of unnecessary food allergy provisions being made could be reduced by requiring medical documentation at the start and during these provisions.

  9. Preparing for Infectious Disease: Department of Education Recommendations to Ensure the Continuity of Teaching and Learning for Schools (K-12) during Extended Student Absence or School Dismissal

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (ED) wishes to remind states, districts, schools, students, staff, families, and guardians as well as communities about the importance of: (1) addressing the prevention of infectious disease in schools, including the seasonal flu, viral meningitis, enterovirus, and Ebola; and (2) ensuring the continuity of teaching…

  10. Father Absence in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    This document reports a study investigating the effects of father absence on measures of cognitive, social, and motivational development in infancy. The sample included 54 black infants, 27 of whom were classified "father-absent." This classification was based on two indices, (1) a dichotomy of father-absent or father-present based on…

  11. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Minimization of late dysphagia without jeopardizing tumor control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto, Anouchka; Laprie, Anne; Graff, Pierre; Rives, Michel [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Vieillevigne, Laure [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Medical Physics, Toulouse (France); Sarini, Jerome; Vergez, Sebastien; Farenc, Jean-Claude [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Toulouse (France); Delord, Jean-Pierre [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Medical Oncology, Toulouse (France); Vigarios, Emmanuelle [Centre Hospitalo Universitaire de Rangueil, Dental Surgery Department, Toulouse (France); Filleron, Thomas [Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Department of Biostatistics, Toulouse (France)

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to retrospectively determine the value of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LHSCC), on outcome and treatment-related toxicity compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). A total of 175 consecutive patients were treated between 2007 and 2012 at our institution with curative intent RT and were included in this study: 90 were treated with 3D-CRT and 85 with IMRT. Oncologic outcomes were estimated using Kaplan-Meier statistics; acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events scale v 3.0. Median follow-up was 35 months (range 32-42 months; 95% confidence interval 95 %). Two-year disease-free survival did not vary, regardless of the technique used (69 % for 3D-CRT vs. 72 %; for IMRT, p = 0.16). Variables evaluated as severe late toxicities were all statistically lower with IMRT compared with 3D-CRT: xerostomia (0 vs. 12 %; p < 0.0001), dysphagia (4 vs. 26 %; p < 0.0001), and feeding-tube dependency (1 vs 13 %; p = 0.0044). The rates of overall grade ≥ 3 late toxicities for the IMRT and 3D-CRT groups were 4.1 vs. 41.4 %, respectively (p < 0.0001). IMRT for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer minimizes late dysphagia without jeopardizing tumor control and outcome. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie war es, retrospektiv den Nutzen der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (IMRT) in der Behandlung von Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinom von Kehlkopf und Hypopharynx (LHSCC) zu bewerten und mit dem Outcome und den Spaetfolgen der 3-D-konformalen Strahlentherapie (3D-CRT) zu vergleichen. Insgesamt wurden zwischen Januar 2007 und Dezember 2012175 LHSCC-Patienten mit einer RT behandelt und in die Studie aufgenommen: 85 Patienten wurden mit 3D-CRT und 90 Patienten mit IMRT behandelt.Das onkologische Outcome wurde mittels Kaplan-Meier-Statistik ermittelt und Akut- und Spaettoxizitaeten anhand der CTCAE

  12. Bilateral absence of musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathada V Ravishankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus is an important group of spinal nerve plexus that supplies the muscles of the upper limb via the ventral rami of the Cervical 5 - Thoracic 1 fibers of the spinal nerves. It is not uncommon to notice the variations during cadaveric dissections in many regions of the body, at different levels, such as, roots, trunks, division, cords, communications, and branches as reported in the literature. Although the nerve supply of the body musculature takes place in the fetal life itself, its course, branching pattern, innervations, and communication can show variable patterns as the fetal development progresses. One such anomaly was noticed during our routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, showing bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve, which obviously drew the attention of the students of medicine, physiotherapy, and learning clinicians as well.

  13. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  14. Academic Performance in the Context of a "Three Excused Absences" Psychiatry Clerkship Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillerstrom, Jason E.; Lutz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to better manage medical student absences during the psychiatry clerkship, a policy allowing students to miss up to 3 days without penalty was developed. The purpose of this study was to describe absence patterns and compare academic performance between students with and without absences. Method: Authors reviewed the academic…

  15. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    of confounders such as gender, age, seniority, wage, contracted number of work hours and season. The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence duration and past absence spells and past absence days, respectively. The study thus confirms...... that past days and past spells have an equal potential of predicting present absent. Past absence behaviour can thus be used as an early warning for managers. The study also confirms that personal characteristics such as age and seniority also influence absence duration. Moreover, job characteristics...... such as wage and contracted number of work hours also influence absence duration. Finally, the season of the year seems to influence absence duration....

  16. The return of dissociation as absence within absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2014-12-01

    My aim is to translate Ferenczi's central concepts of the intrapsychic impact and imprint of early developmental trauma into both revived and contemporary conceptualizations. The concept of dissociation was renounced by Freud, yet it is returning as a cornerstone of recent trauma theories. Ferenczi used the concept of "repression," but used it in the sense of an intrapsychic imprint of early external trauma that fragments consciousness, that is, as dissociation. Furthermore, early trauma is double: an absence of protection that threatens existence of the self, combined with an absence of attachment and of recognition of this threat and terror; thus it is an absence-within-absence. This contemporary conceptualization entails a widening of the intrapsychic realm to include an intersubjective one, and regards dissociation as a unique and complex intrapsychic absence, which is a negative of the external absence-within-absence in the early environment.

  17. Beyond the Excused/Unexcused Absence Binary: Classifying Absenteeism through a Voluntary/Involuntary Absence Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birioukov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Student absenteeism in secondary schools has received international academic attention for quite some time. Absenteeism has been linked to diminished academic outcomes and is one of the leading causes of high school dropout. Although absenteeism is a serious concern for educational scholars, the definitions of absences and their subtypes are…

  18. Supporting University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Goldstein, Jody; Murphy, Deirdra; Trietsch, Rhoda; Keeves, Jacqueline; Mendes, Eva; Queenan, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum…

  19. Extending' euthanasia to those 'tired of living' in the Netherlands could jeopardize a well-functioning practice of physicians' assessment of a patient's request for death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florijn, Barend W

    2018-03-01

    The Dutch Euthanasia Act (EA) took effect in 2002 and regulates the ending of one's life by a physician at the request of a patient who is suffering unbearably. According to the Dutch Supreme Court, unbearable suffering is a state for which the presence of a medical condition is a strict prerequisite. As a consequence, the Dutch EA has attributed the assessment of unbearable suffering to physicians who evaluate the presence of a medical classifiable disorder. Currently, a debate within the Netherlands questions whether older people, without a medical condition, who value their life as completed, should be granted euthanasia. To concede the autonomy of such a person, the Dutch government intends to create a separate legal framework that regulates this tired of living euthanasia request. This debate is crucial for policy-makers and an international audience because it discusses if a self-directed death of older people, should be implemented in (the current Dutch) euthanasia practice. However, this article argues that the current legal proposal that regulates the tired of living euthanasia request ignores crucial jurisprudence on physicians' application of the unbearable suffering criterion in practice. Furthermore it points out that this proposal neglects physicians role in guaranteeing a euthanasia practice of due care and that its use of an ethic of absolute autonomy could jeopardize this well-established practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  1. Medically certified sickness absence among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Rajab Ali; Sikander, Raheel; Khawaja, Asad Ali; Jareno, Rechel Joy Macadaan; Halepota, Aurangzeb Taj

    2012-09-01

    To compare the days and spells of sickness absence among males versus females and Saudi nationals versus expatriate employees of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, and to identify the cause of sickness absence. The cross-sectional, descriptive study comprised 3117 King Khalid University Hospital employees. Records of physician-certified sickness absence from January 1 to June 30, 2009, were obtained from the employee health clinic's register. Absence rate, frequency, duration and severity were assessed and compared between genders and nationalities, and causes were noted. SPSS version 16 and student's t test were used for statistical analyses and comparison. A total of 377 (12.1 %) employees had 416 spells of sickness absence with 639 sick-off days (mean: 1.54 +/- 0.85). The probability of sickness absence was higher among Saudi (OR=1.33) and female (OR=1.39) employees. The association of sickness absence was not found among the absentees with either gender (p= 0.335) or nationality (p = 0.086). Almost all spells of sick-off days were of short duration. Longer spells were mainly due to chicken pox which was found to be more among the expatriates. Heavy absenteeism was found only among the Saudis. The most common causes of sickness absence were acute upper respiratory infection, diseases of musculoskeletal system and the digestive system. The rate, frequency and duration of absence due to sickness in the study were higher among Saudi and female employees. The rate of absence, with passage of time, has increased significantly among Saudi nationals.

  2. Absence of satellites of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references

  3. How school climate relates to chronic absence: A multi-level latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Johnson, Stacy R; Bettencourt, Amie; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2017-04-01

    Chronic absence is a significant problem in schools. School climate may play an important role in influencing chronic absence rates among schools, yet little research has evaluated how school climate constructs relate to chronic absence. Using multilevel latent profile analysis, we evaluated how profiles of student perceptions of school climate at both the student and school level differentiated school-level rates of chronic absence. Participants included 25,776 middle and high school students from 106 schools who completed a district administered school climate survey. Students attended schools in a large urban school district where 89% of 6th through 12th grade students were African-American and 61% were eligible for the federally subsidized school meals program. Three student-level profiles of perceptions of school climate emerged that corresponded to "positive," "moderate," and "negative" climate. Two predominant patterns regarding the distribution of these profiles within schools emerged that corresponded to the two school-level profiles of "marginal climate" and "climate challenged" schools. Students reporting "moderate" and "negative" climate in their schools were more likely to attend schools with higher chronic absence rates than students reporting that their school had "positive" climate. Likewise, "climate challenged" schools had significantly higher chronic absence rates than "marginal climate" schools. These results suggest that school climate shares an important relation with chronic absence among adolescent students attending urban schools. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dizziness causes absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; van Leeuwen, R B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to assess absenteeism from work due to dizziness in patients referred to a tertiary centre. Consecutive patients with a paid employment completed the WHO Health and work Performance Questionnaire, including items on work absence in the past 7 days and 4 weeks, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Of the 400 patients [55% females, mean age 46.3 years (SD 10.8), range 18-68 years], 46 (12%) indicated they were completely disabled to work due to dizziness, while 202 (51%) patients indicated they had worked less than expected due to dizziness. Patients with more disease-related disabilities had more absenteeism from work. Half of the patients who are referred to a tertiary centre for dizziness report work absenteeism due to their complaints, and 12% is completely disabled to work.

  5. Analysis of Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes from a Bottom-up Comprehensive School Reform in the Absence of Student Level Data through Simulation Methods: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines the efficacy of a bottom-up comprehensive school reform (CSR) program by evaluating its impact on student achievement, attendance, and behavior outcomes through an explanatory mixed methods design. The CSR program (Gear Up) was implemented in an urban junior high school over the course of seven years allowing for…

  6. Disentangling fathers' absences from household remittances in international migration: The case of educational attainment in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli

    2016-09-01

    Estimating the effects of international migration on left-behind children's educational attainment is complicated by the potential offsetting effects of fathers' absences and household remittances. Most research has not separated these aspects of international migration on children's human capital outcomes. We address this deficiency by using instrumental variables to isolate the effects of fathers' international migration absences from international household remittances on student enrollment and grade progression in Guatemala. Results indicate that fathers' absences and household international remittances are negatively related to enrollment, providing evidence for a culture of migration effect. For students who remain in school, household international remittances neutralize the harmful influence of fathers' absences on grade progression.

  7. Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2014-01-01

    Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.

  8. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  9. Impact of Teacher's Income on Student's Educational Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…

  10. Teacher Absence as a Factor in Gender Inequalities in Access to Primary Schooling in Rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Sharon; Lloyd, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a teacher in the classroom is central to the provision of schooling, with accumulating evidence showing that teacher absence compromises student learning. Teacher absence is common in schools in low- and middle-income countries. With much of the developing world making rapid progress in achieving universal primary school enrollment…

  11. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... a single 12-month period to care for the covered servicemember. Comments received on the portion of... provider that the child's presence at daycare or at school could jeopardize the health of others because of... to now cover grandparents and grandchildren, same-sex and opposite domestic partners, step parents...

  12. [Sickness absence associated with major life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røgeberg, Ole

    2012-05-29

    Sickness absence in the Norwegian workplace doubled in the period 1993-2003. However, the extent to which the driving factors were medical or non-medical remains unclear, as does the extent to which the cause may be found in the composition of the workforce. A differences-in-differences regression model was used to estimate the added sickness absence associated with major life events such as separation, death of spouse and pregnancy in the period 1993-2005. The data were obtained from administrative registers covering the entire Norwegian population, and include all absence periods of 16 days' duration or more reported by a doctor's medical certificate. The primary outcome measures were incidence (the proportion of absentees in a given time window) and absence (the proportion of sick days in a given time window). The level of absence among employees exposed to the specified life events was compared to control groups matched for gender, age, education and income. In 1993, people in each of the three groups exposed to major life events had more frequent and longer periods of absence than people in the control groups. This added sickness absence increased between 1993 and 2005. The changes in added sickness absence were at times significant, particularly for pregnant women. While sickness absence among pregnant women in 1993 was 15.4 percentage points higher than in the control group, the difference had increased to 24.8 percentage points in 2005. We find it improbable for the increase in added sickness absence to be caused by changes in the medical impact of life events or alterations in the workforce composition. We believe the increase is caused by changing attitudes among the working population and in the medical profession towards sickness absence on grounds that are not strictly medical, combined with improved social acceptance and diagnosis of mental health issues, and/or a medicalisation of natural health variations (pregnancy) and emotional distress (grief).

  13. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  14. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The influence of managers' and colleagues' absence on public employee absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2015-01-01

    Background: The level of absence is higher in the public sector than in the private sector both internationally and in a Danish context (e.g. The Confederation of Danish Employers, 2002, Winkelmann, 1999). However, little economic research is conducted to understand determinants of absence among...... public sector employees (De Paola, 2010). Research on the effect of managers’ own absence on their employees’ absence is scarce (Kristensen et al., 2006, Løkke, 2008) and so is the effect of colleagues’ absence in a large scale (Bradley et al., 2007, Dale-Olsen et al., 2010, Hesselius et al., 2009......). To date, research on the simultaneous effect of managers’ and colleagues’ absence behavior does not exist. The most acknowledged literature on absence (e.g., Steers and Rhodes, 1978) concludes that absence is influenced by many determinants; this makes it relevant to control for gender, age etc. Aim...

  16. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  17. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... with higher HR of sickness absence. Physical exercise of >120 minutes per week was associated with lower HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSION: Risk for sickness absence was higher among women who were multiparous, overweight, obese, received ART, and had prolonged TTP, and lower among women engaged...

  18. Surfing USA: How Internet Use Prior to and during Study Abroad Affects Chinese Students' Stress, Integration, and Cultural Learning While in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikal, Jude P.; Yang, Junhong; Lewis, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Campuses across the United States continue to welcome a record number of Chinese students coming in pursuit of both academic and cultural goals. Yet, high levels of acculturative stress coupled with difficulties integrating into life abroad jeopardize accomplishing these goals. In this study, we examine Chinese students' Internet use both prior to…

  19. Source and sink nodes in absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner C; Machado, Birajara S; Caboclo, Luis Otavio S F; Fujita, Andre; Baccala, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC). By segmenting the EEG signals into relatively short 5-sec-long time windows we studied the evolution of coupling strengths from both sink and source nodes, and the network dynamics of absence seizures in eight patients.

  20. Can digital presence reconfigure experiences of absence?

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, J.; Clayton, W.

    2014-01-01

    Family Rituals 2.0 is a project based on the premise that work-related travel is unlikely to disappear in the foreseeable future. Many work roles – from truck drivers to CEOs – involve periods of absence, and often being away overnight. Travel which takes people away overnight impacts on family and home life; however, the emergence of powerful new digital communication technologies could challenge traditional experiences of such absence.\\ud \\ud Many studies have considered the potential for d...

  1. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  2. Worried sick? Sickness absence during organizational turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence has risen over the past years in Norway. An explanation put forward is that a tougher labour market represents a health hazard, while a competing hypothesis predicts that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. In this analysis we aim to trace a causal impact of organizational turmoil or job insecurity on sickness absence, applying a difference-in-difference approach. Utilizing a negative financial shock that hit specific employers and workplaces, we find that...

  3. Toward Teaching Methods that Develop Learning and Enhance Problem Solving Skills in Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loji, K.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…

  4. Dexter Time: The Space, Time, and Matterings of School Absence Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodén, Linnea

    2016-01-01

    Working with a posthumanist approach, this article explores how the computer software Dexter, used for the registration of students' absences and presences, is part of the production of different practices of time, place, space, and matter in Swedish schools. The empirical material engaged with comes from two schools, and the students involved are…

  5. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  6. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  7. How "Doing Business" jeopardizes institutional reform

    OpenAIRE

    Arruñada, Benito

    2008-01-01

    Simplifying business formalization and eliminating outdated formalities is often a good way of improving the institutional environment for firms. Unfortunately, the World Bank’s "Doing Business" project is harming such policies by promoting a reform agenda that gives them priority even in countries lacking functional business registers, so that the reformed registers keep producing valueless information, but faster. Its methodology also promotes biased measurements that impede proper consider...

  8. Disentangling fathers’ absences from household remittances in international migration: The case of educational attainment in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the effects of international migration on left-behind children’s educational attainment is complicated by the potential offsetting effects of fathers’ absences and household remittances. Most research has not separated these aspects of international migration on children’s human capital outcomes. We address this deficiency by using instrumental variables to isolate the effects of fathers’ international migration absences from international household remittances on student enrollment and grade progression in Guatemala. Results indicate that fathers’ absences and household international remittances are negatively related to enrollment, providing evidence for a culture of migration effect. For students who remain in school, household international remittances neutralize the harmful influence of fathers’ absences on grade progression. PMID:27293309

  9. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    's Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer...

  10. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  11. Congenital Absence of the Internal Carotid Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, Francesco; Balzano, Silverio; Nardella, Michele; Strizzi, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Mario; Bozzini, Vincenzo; Catapano, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    1999-01-01

    We report three cases of congenital absence of an internal carotid artery (ICA), diagnosed incidentally by digital subtraction angiography. The analysis of the cases is based on the classification of segmental ICA agenesis proposed by Lasjaunias and Berenstein. Usually the patients with this rare vascular anomaly are asymptomatic; some may have symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, compression by enlarged intracranial collateral vessels, or complications associated with cerebral aneurysms. Diagnosis of congenital absence of ICA is made by skull base computed tomography (CT) scan, CT and magnetic resonance angiography, and conventional or digital subtraction angiography

  12. Isolated absence of the septum pellucidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Sian, J.; Heils, A.; Hofmann, E.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L.

    1999-01-01

    Absence of the septum pellucidum in the human is a rare congenital anomaly. Previous reports suggest it is almost always associated with other brain anomalies. However, MRI in two patients with absence of the septum pellucidum presented here, indicates that this anomaly may occur without associated anomalies. It may be one manifestation of a spectrum of developmental anomalies. One patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis; developmental disturbances in limbic areas are believed to be associated with schizophrenia. Agenesis of the septum pellucidum may indicate abnormal development of limbic structures and it may be associated with anomalies, such as cytoarchitectural disturbances of cortical layers, as yet undetectable by MRI. (orig.)

  13. Isolated absence of the septum pellucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supprian, T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)]|[Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Sian, J.; Heils, A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Hofmann, E.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Absence of the septum pellucidum in the human is a rare congenital anomaly. Previous reports suggest it is almost always associated with other brain anomalies. However, MRI in two patients with absence of the septum pellucidum presented here, indicates that this anomaly may occur without associated anomalies. It may be one manifestation of a spectrum of developmental anomalies. One patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis; developmental disturbances in limbic areas are believed to be associated with schizophrenia. Agenesis of the septum pellucidum may indicate abnormal development of limbic structures and it may be associated with anomalies, such as cytoarchitectural disturbances of cortical layers, as yet undetectable by MRI. (orig.) With 1 fig., 19 refs.

  14. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  15. Automatic characterization of dynamics in Absence Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Katrine N. H.; Nielsen, Trine N.; Kjær, Troels W.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the spike-wave paroxysms in Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE) are automatically characterized using novel approaches. Features are extracted from scalograms formed by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). Detection algorithms are designed to identify an estimate of the temporal development...

  16. Father Absence Effects on Military Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    during his absence. Then there’s the problem of learning how to drive an automobile after being on a cruise for nine months." For those who felt that...D.C. 20370 3. Director for HRM Plans and Policy (OP-150) Human Resource Management Division Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Manpoer. Personnel

  17. Pedagogy of Absence, Conflict, and Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, Miye Nadya; Suárez-Krabbe, Julia; Caballero Castro, Trinidad

    2017-01-01

    This article employs the pedagogy of absence, conflict, and emergence (PACE), as an analytical approach to study concrete contributions to the decolonization of education. PACE seeks to transcend Eurocentric knowledge construction, and hence one of its fundamental efforts is to think from...

  18. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  19. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Congenital Absence of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ansari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of left circumflex artery is a rare congenitalanomaly of the coronary arteries. The prevalence of theanomaly in different studies ranges from 0.6% to 1.3%. Ofthese, 80% are benign and asymptomatic and 20% are clinicallyimportant. We report a 56-year-old man presented withacute resting chest pain who was diagnosed as having acuteanterolateral infarction accompanied by electrocardiographicchanges and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary angiographyin different views was conducted, however, no left circumflexartery was found. The territory supplied by the artery had beenperfused by the super dominant right coronary artery. Therewas no left circumflex coronary artery with anomalous origin.Sever stenosis of left anterior ascending artery superimposedto the absent left circumflex artery was presented as acute anterolateralinfarction. Although absence of the artery is mostlyconsidered as a benign condition, atherosclerotic lesions maybe more important in such cases because of diminished compensatingmechanisms.

  1. Bronchitis: sickness absence in London Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, C J; Raffle, P A.B.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of records of bronchitis morbidity of 4 days or more among 60,000 male London Transport employees for the years 1952 to 1956 is discussed. Bronchitis morbidity accounted for about 10% of the absences, similar to that for the country as a whole. Annual inception rate increased with age after age 45; average length of spell increased with age over the whole age range. Absence from bronchitis broadly correlated with foggy periods (Dec, 52; Jan, 56), more so with city workers. Higher rates exist in north sectors where pollution is higher (south wind), and there is more industry and a higher population density. Lower rates exist among country workers. 20 to 25% of bronchitis morbidity can be ascribed to air pollution when country and city workers are compared.

  2. Certifying the absence of quantum nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Quantum nonlocality is an inherently non-classical feature of quantum mechanics and manifests itself through violation of Bell inequalities for nonlocal games. We show that in a fairly general setting, a simple extension of a nonlocal game can certify instead the absence of quantum nonlocality. Through contraposition, our result implies that a super-classical performance for such a game ensures that a player's output is unpredictable to the other player. Previously such output unpredictabilit...

  3. Sickness Absence: a Pan-European Study

    OpenAIRE

    Livanos, Ilias; Zangelidis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    This study, using the EU-LFS, examines the determinants of sickness absence in 26 EU countries. The analysis highlights the importance of demographic and workplace characteristics and of institutional and societal conditions. Female workers aged 26-35 exhibit higher absenteeism, possibly reflecting the level of high household labour pressure. Increased job insecurity, captured by temporary contracts, and labour market uncertainty, reflected in higher unemployment rates, have a negative effect...

  4. Work, Sickness, Absence, and Identity-Work

    OpenAIRE

    Trude Gjernes

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how a group of industrial workers experience long-term sickness absence and how they cope with this situation. The article presents data from in-depth interviews with male industrial workers employed in a Norwegian factory. The findings suggest that the factory workers handle their failing health by engaging in activities other than wage work. They did not accept a social situation characterized by passivity, social isolation, marginalization, or loss of self. The worker...

  5. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  6. The relationship between school absence, academic performance, and asthma status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz; Sterling, David A; Figgs, Larry W; Castro, Mario

    2008-03-01

    Children with asthma experience more absenteeism from school compared with their nonasthma peers. Excessive absenteeism is related to lower student grades, psychological, social, and educational adjustment. Less is known about the relationship between the presence of asthma and the academic achievement in school-aged children. Since students with asthma miss more days from school, this may negatively impact their academic achievement. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between absenteeism, presence of asthma, and asthma severity level with standardized test level performance in a predominantly African American urban school district. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 3812 students (aged 8-17 years) who took the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) standardized test during the 2002-2003 academic year. After adjustment for covariates, a significant inverse relationship was found between absenteeism and test level performance on the MAP standardized test in all children (F = 203.9, p achievement between those with and without asthma (p = .12). Though not statistically different, those with persistent asthma showed a modestly increased likelihood of scoring below Nearing Proficient compared with those with mild intermittent asthma (adjusted odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence intervals = 0.93-4.01, p = .08). A negative impact of absenteeism on standardized test level achievement was demonstrated in children from an urban African American school district. Children with asthma perform the same academically as their nonasthma peers. However, those with persistent asthma show a trend of performing worse on MAP standardized test scores and have more absence days compared with other students. More research is warranted on the effects of persistent asthma on academic achievement.

  7. Reading with Maggie: The Effect of the Presence/Absence of a Classroom Pet Dog in a Reading Intervention Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassette, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the presence/absence of a classroom pet dog impacted reading skills in four 5th grade middle school students with emotional/ behavioral disabilities. An alternating treatment design was used to assess the fluency and comprehension measures in students during reading a reading intervention package…

  8. Neurochemical and Behavioral Features in Genetic Absence Epilepsy and in Acutely Induced Absence Seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazyan, A.S.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    The absence epilepsy typical electroencephalographic pattern of sharp spikes and slow waves (SWDs) is considered to be due to an interaction of an initiation site in the cortex and a resonant circuit in the thalamus. The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cationic Ih pacemaker

  9. Impact of Father Absence: III. Problems of Family Reintegrating Following Prolonged Father Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stewart L.; and others

    A three-phase, longitudinal study at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., of family problems with prolonged father absence indicates that there is (1) continuing family growth beyond the situational crisis, (2) active re-examination of roles and values, and (3) heightened awareness of family strength and resourcefulness during the…

  10. Does contact by a family nurse practitioner decrease early school absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in nursing literature. This article describes a nursing intervention to decrease early school absence in two elementary schools K-3 (N = 449) and a Head Start program (N = 130). The Head Start Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) contacted families of chronically and excessively absent students by telephone, clinic visit at school, or home visit. The aggregate percentage attendance was evaluated by grades (preschool to third grade), schools (Head Start, Elementary Schools 1 and 2), and grades and schools and compared with publicly available school district aggregate data. There were statistically significant increases in attendance from Year 1 to Year 2 at p < .05 at the elementary level but not at the Head Start level. Student demographics, types of contacts, absence reasons (including sick child), and medical diagnoses are described.

  11. Seeing red? : The agency of computer software in the production and management of students’ school absences

    OpenAIRE

    Bodén, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of Swedish municipalities use digital software to manage the registration of students’ school absences. The software is regarded as a problem-solving tool to make registration more efficient, but its effects on the educational setting have been largely neglected. Focusing on an event with two students from a class of 11-year-olds, the aim of the paper is to explore schools’ common uses of computer software for registering absence in order to understand how materialities –...

  12. Absence of auditory 'global interference' in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M; Stewart, Mary E; Barnard, Louise; Rodgers, Jacqui; Young, Allan H; O'Brien, Gregory; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2003-12-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the cognitive style of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One theory, that of weak central coherence, concerns an inability to combine stimulus details into a coherent whole. Here we test this theory in the case of sound patterns, using a new definition of the details (local structure) and the coherent whole (global structure). Thirteen individuals with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome and 15 control participants were administered auditory tests, where they were required to match local pitch direction changes between two auditory sequences. When the other local features of the sequence pairs were altered (the actual pitches and relative time points of pitch direction change), the control participants obtained lower scores compared with when these details were left unchanged. This can be attributed to interference from the global structure, defined as the combination of the local auditory details. In contrast, the participants with ASD did not obtain lower scores in the presence of such mismatches. This was attributed to the absence of interference from an auditory coherent whole. The results are consistent with the presence of abnormal interactions between local and global auditory perception in ASD.

  13. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  14. Maternity and Absence in Shakespearean Romance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Helen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The equivocation of the private life of Elizabethan and Jacobean subjects with the public life of monarchy and state endowed mothers with an import, and therefore a power, not previously acknowledged. These changes provoked a fear of female disruption to patriarchal structures which found its way onto Shakespeare’s stage by the representation of mothers as ‘unnatural’ agents of chaos, associated with witchcraft, murder, dangerous ambition, and infidelity; if not by complete absence, which “posits the sacrifice of the mother’s desire as the basis of the ideal society” (Rose, 1991: 313. I suggest that in the late romances, specifically The Winter's Tale and The Tempest, Shakespeare found a form that could demonstrate the complexity of the mother’s position, while still resolving the action with a satisfactory ending that presented a stable continuation of patriarchal lineage. The fathers rely on a fantasy of parthenogenesis to relocate the role of the mother in themselves, ensuring the children are free from her corruptive influence and the bloodlines are safe. However, as all themes return to maternity - chastity, fertility, lineage for example - the fantasy of eradicating the mother is shown to be limited even in the artificial realm of the romance.

  15. Speaking absence. Art museums, representation and knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tali, M.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I investigate multiple absences that are at work in art museums. My understanding of absence is informed by postcolonial theory, gender studies and memory studies. Museal absence involves material and immaterial sides that are based on excluded objects and certain unwanted social

  16. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of

  17. Validation in the Absence of Observed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, John; Ezell, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the problem of validating models in the absence of observed events, in the area of weapons of mass destruction terrorism risk assessment. We address that problem with a broadened definition of "validation," based on stepping "up" a level to considering the reason why decisionmakers seek validation, and from that basis redefine validation as testing how well the model can advise decisionmakers in terrorism risk management decisions. We develop that into two conditions: validation must be based on cues available in the observable world; and it must focus on what can be done to affect that observable world, i.e., risk management. That leads to two foci: (1) the real-world risk generating process, and (2) best use of available data. Based on our experience with nine WMD terrorism risk assessment models, we then describe three best use of available data pitfalls: SME confidence bias, lack of SME cross-referencing, and problematic initiation rates. Those two foci and three pitfalls provide a basis from which we define validation in this context in terms of four tests--Does the model: … capture initiation? … capture the sequence of events by which attack scenarios unfold? … consider unanticipated scenarios? … consider alternative causal chains? Finally, we corroborate our approach against three validation tests from the DOD literature: Is the model a correct representation of the process to be simulated? To what degree are the model results comparable to the real world? Over what range of inputs are the model results useful? © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Absence of mucosal inflammation in uncomplicated diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Terrani, Claudia; Bonura, Antonella; Ciulla, Michele; Marconi, Stefano; Piodi, Luca

    2011-07-01

    Uncomplicated diverticular disease is a common condition in patients older than 50 years. Symptoms are aspecific and overlapping with those of irritable bowel syndrome. Nowadays, patients are often treated with antinflammatory drugs (5-aminosalicilic acid). Our purpose was to evaluate the presence of inflammation in the colonic mucosa of patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease compared with subjects without diverticula. Endoscopic biopsies of colon from 10 patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease and 10 from subjects without diverticula (controls) were taken. Specimens were homogenised and IL2, IL4, IL5, IL8, IL10, IL12p70, IL13, IFN gamma, TNF alfa (searchlight multiplex technique), TGF beta, transglutaminase type 2 and caspase 9 were measured. Histochemistry for transglutaminase type 2 and TUNEL were performed on the histological sections, in addition to morphologic evaluation, as markers of tissue remodelling and apoptosis. For statistical analysis Student's t test and Spearman correlation test were used. No histological differences were detected between the patients with an uncomplicated diverticular disease and controls. Mean values of mucosal cytokines and of the other tested parameters did not show statistically significant differences between patients with uncomplicated diverticular disease and controls. Even if based on a small number of patients, the study demonstrates the absence of inflammation in the mucosa of subjects affected by uncomplicated diverticular disease.

  19. Impacts on work absence and performance: what really matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Buck, Rhiannon; Varnava, Alice; Phillips, Ceri; Main, Chris J

    2009-12-01

    A number of factors influence an individual's decision to take sickness absence or to remain at work while ill. The relationship between health, work characteristics, individual perceptions of work and sickness absence and performance is complex and further clarification of the interactions between these factors is necessary. To assess the relative impact of health, work characteristics and perceptions of work on absence and performance. Cross-sectional survey of two public sector organizations (n = 505). Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression to assess the individual and combined influence of each class of independent variables on the following: days sickness absence, spells of sickness absence, VAS performance and presenteeism. Characteristics of work were weakly associated with days absence and performance. Perceptions of work were more strongly associated with performance than absence. Measures of mental health, rather than physical health, had the greatest influence on ability to work. Poor health had a greater impact on work performance than work absence. When considered together, health variables accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in both absence and performance when compared with characteristics of work and work perceptions. Using absence as a marker of health-associated compromise at work may lead to an underestimation of the impact of health on work. This study demonstrates the need to manage the impact of health problems on the workforce not only from a bio-medical perspective but also in terms of the psychological pressures and the social context in which employees work.

  20. Job satisfaction and sickness absence: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Koopmans, Petra C; Notenbomer, Annette; Groothoff, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. A sample of workers was randomly drawn from a population of employees who had an episode of absence between January and April 2003. Job satisfaction was measured using a validated single question with a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction levels were linked to the number of recorded sickness absence days and episodes in 2003, distinguishing between short (1-7 days) episodes and long (>7 days) episodes. Of 898 questionnaires distributed, 518 (58%) were returned. The mean+/-standard deviation job satisfaction level was 5.1+/-1.4 and negatively related to the number of sickness absence days. Job satisfaction was also negatively related to the number of short episodes and long episodes of absence, but these associations were not significant. Job satisfaction was significantly related to total sickness absence duration. The association with the number of sickness absence episodes was weak and just below the level of statistical significance. Assessing work satisfaction levels might usefully identify those workers most likely to have the greatest sickness absence duration.

  1. Solving Problems in Software Applications through Data Synchronization in Case of Absence of the Network

    OpenAIRE

    Isak Shabani; Betim Cico; Agni Dika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have presented an algorithm for data synchronization based on Web Services (WS), which allows software applications to work well on both configurations Online and "Offline", in the absence of the network. For this purpose is in use Electronic Student Management System (ESMS) at University of Prishtina (UP) with the appropriate module. Since the use of ESMS, because of a uncertain supply of electricity, disconnecting the network and for other reasons which are not under the c...

  2. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P

    2014-01-01

    's salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...

  3. Changes in alcohol drinking and subsequent sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to examine whether changes in alcohol drinking are associated with sickness absence. Repeated postal questionnaires on alcohol drinking were conducted among employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2 and 2007 to assess changes in drinking habits between these two time points. Data on the number of self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absences were derived from the employer's register. Sickness absences were followed from 2007 until the end of 2010 among employees participating in both questionnaire surveys. The study includes 3252 female and 682 male employees 40-60 years old at baseline. Poisson regression was used in the data analysis and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Alcohol drinking was associated especially with self-certified sickness absence. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing weekly average drinking were 1.38, 1.18-1.62 among women and 1.58, 1.18-2.12 among men. Also stable problem drinking (for women 1.39, 1.26-1.54, for men 1.44, 1.10-1.87) and among women stable heavy drinking (1.53, 1.20-1.94) increased self-certified sickness absence. There were associations between alcohol drinking and medically confirmed sickness absence but these were mainly explained by health and health behaviours. Also, a decrease in weekly average drinking was associated with sickness absence among women whereas among men former problem drinking increased sickness absence. According to the PAF values, problem drinking had a stronger contribution to sickness absence than weekly average drinking. Alcohol drinking is particularly associated with self-certified sickness absence. Reducing adverse drinking habits is likely to prevent sickness absence. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E

    2009-12-01

    To compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (> or =4 days) absence spells. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Smoking and high relative weight were most strongly associated with sickness absence, while the associations of other studied health-related behaviours were weaker. The associations were stronger for medically confirmed sickness absence spells for which heavy smoking and obesity more than doubled the risk of sickness absence in men and nearly doubled it in women. Adjusting for psychosocial working conditions had little or no effect on the associations. Physical working conditions and social class somewhat attenuated the associations, especially for smoking and relative weight. In self-certified sickness absence the PAF for smoking (16.4 in men, 10.3 in women) was largest, while in medically confirmed absence relative weight had the largest PAF (23.5 in men, 15.0 in women). Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.

  5. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeen, M; Magnussen, L H; Maeland, S; Larun, L; Eriksen, H R; Tveito, T H

    2013-01-01

    The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT.

  6. Involuntary Absence from an Organizational Point of View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.P. de Kok (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractInvoluntary absence is often seen as an exogenous factor, but firms can take actions to reduce it. In this paper the notion that firms, especially SMEs, are faced with a single decision whether or not to undertake these actions is questioned. A firm model on involuntary absence measures

  7. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  8. 20 CFR 416.1167 - Temporary absences and deeming rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1167 Temporary absences and deeming..., we consider your absence to be temporary through the date of discharge. (b) Child away at school. If you are an eligible child who is away at school but comes home on some weekends or lengthy holidays...

  9. Genetic models of absence epilepsy: New concepts and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery, development and use of genetic rodent models of absence epilepsy have led to a new theory about the origin of absence seizures, which has gained impact within the international epilepsy community. A focal zone has been identified in the perioral region of the somatosensory cortex in

  10. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  11. Omphalocele minor associated with complete absence of the large bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferede, Atakelet

    2012-02-01

    Colonic atresia, unlike small intestine atresia, is a rare congenital malformation. Congenital absence of the entire colon is exceptionally rare. Moreover, an association of omphalocele and complete absence of the colon has not yet been reported in the literature. We present an infant born with such combination of congenital anomalies.

  12. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W

    2016-01-01

    Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model as theoretical framework. Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  13. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify

  14. Subjective health complaints in relation to sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Dutch population is healthy in terms of living and working conditions, but the levels of subjective health complaints (SHC) and sickness absence are high in the Dutch workforce. Are SHC related to sickness absence? Participants: The study population included the personnel of four

  15. Avoidable sickness absence in a dutch working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.M.; Steenbeek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sickness absence has an important impact on employers (e.g. reduced productivity, high costs) and employees (e.g. replacement, job loss). Therefore, we investigated possible reduction by exploring avoidable sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was filled out by 2,954 Dutch workers

  16. Genetic models of absence epilepsy: New concepts and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Coenen, A.M.L.; Schwartzkroin, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery, development, and use of genetic rodent models of absence epilepsy have led to a new theory about the origin of absence seizures. A focal zone has been identified in the peri-oral region of the somatosensory cortex in WAG/Rij and GAERS – the two most commonly used models – from which

  17. Cortical and limbic excitability in rats with absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Chepurnov, S.A.; Kaminskij, Y.; Mares, P.

    2004-01-01

    The classical cortico-reticular theory on absence epilepsy suggests that a hyperexcitable cortex is a precondition for the occurrence of absence seizures. In the present experiment seizure thresholds and characteristics of cortical and limbic epileptic afterdischarges (AD) were determined in a

  18. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  19. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Absence of evidence or evidence of absence: reflecting on therapeutic implementations of attentional bias modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Patrick J F; Notebaert, Lies; MacLeod, Colin

    2014-01-15

    Attentional bias modification (ABM) represents one of a number of cognitive bias modification techniques which are beginning to show promise as therapeutic interventions for emotional pathology. Numerous studies with both clinical and non-clinical populations have now demonstrated that ABM can reduce emotional vulnerability. However, some recent studies have failed to achieve change in either selective attention or emotional vulnerability using ABM methodologies, including a recent randomised controlled trial by Carlbring et al. Some have sought to represent such absence of evidence as a sound basis not to further pursue ABM as an online intervention. While these findings obviously raise questions about the specific conditions under which ABM procedures will produce therapeutic benefits, we suggest that the failure of some studies to modify selective attention does not challenge the theoretical and empirical basis of ABM. The present paper seeks to put these ABM failures in perspective within the broader context of attentional bias modification research. In doing so it is apparent that the current findings and future prospects of ABM are in fact very promising, suggesting that more research in this area is warranted, not less.

  1. Recruitment Of International Students Into Cameroon Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recruitment Of International Students Into Cameroon Tertiary Institutions In The Absence Of International Offices. ... The present system of recruiting international students is haphazardly been handled by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Associations between work stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasse, R M; Nijhuis, F J; Kok, G

    1998-02-01

    To test an interactional model on the associations between work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Cross-sectional survey. The study was part of a Worksite Health Project including an Employee Assistance Programme and a Health Promotion Programme in the Netherlands. Participants were blue-collar workers from two Municipal Garbage Collecting Departments and white-collar workers from a Pharmaceutical Company (N = 471). Measurements included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status), work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Type of work-site (blue- or white-collar) and smoking behaviour were used as covariates. Regression analyses resulted in three major findings. First, in the presence of stress, abstinence increased the risk of sickness absence compared with moderate drinking. We failed to find a significant relationship between excessive drinking and sickness absence. Secondly, stress mediated the associations between stressor and alcohol consumption, and between stressor and sickness absence, although stressors also directly predicted sickness absence. The association between abstinence and sickness absence could reflect medical problems of abstainers or a lack of skills for coping with stress. The failure to find a significant detrimental effect of excessive drinking may have been due to use of a low threshold for excessive drinking and/or low power. Prospective studies are needed to gain insight in causal relationships between the variables concerned.

  3. An exploration of anomia as origin of work absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, Pablo; Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J

    2015-01-01

    Although it also portrays a loss of function in psychology, in this context the term anomia (from the Greek, an-: absence, and -nomos: law) is used to describe a sociological phenomenon that can lead individuals to misbehave due to feelings of valuelessness and cynicism resulting from a lack of integration in social life (Srole, 1956). Previous research has neglected anomia as part of the origin of employee work absence. This study tests the association between anomia and absence - operationalized as propensity to abusive absence due to illness. A large variety of job attitudes grouped in terms of organizational climate are controlled for. Data were collected from 84 of the 198 (42.4%) employees of a provincial Spanish Social Security Service. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the associations. With the climate factors controlled for by entering them together with anomia in a SEM model as causes of absence, the results show a significant relationship between anomia and absence. The findings explain the origin of absence at work and management strategies. The very nature of anomia suggests that strategies can be designed to provide employees with an organizational `micro-cosmos' that promotes support, predictability, and bonds of trust to create an effective bulwark against absenteeism.

  4. Linking Teacher Quality, Student Attendance, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of educational inputs, particularly research on teacher effectiveness, typically overlooks teachers' potential impact on behavioral outcomes, such as student attendance. Using longitudinal data on teachers and students in North Carolina I estimate teacher effects on primary school student absences in a value-added…

  5. Attention impairment in childhood absence epilepsy : An impulsivity problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerminara, Caterina; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W.; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Parisi, Pasquale; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo

    Although attention problems have often been described in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the use of different methodological approaches, neuropsychological tests, and heterogeneous experimental groups has prevented identification of the selective areas of attention deficit in this

  6. Upper Limb Absence : Predictors of Work Participation and Work Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). SETTING: Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops.

  7. The Relationship Between Father-Absence and Encopresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaengold, Marilyn

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on encopresis shows strong emphasis on father-absence as a dominant factor. Other characteristics of patients and their families are listed, and theoretical considerations discussed. (MS)

  8. Refractory absence epilepsy associated with GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2011-05-01

    GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS) is a disorder of cerebral glucose transport associated with early infantile epilepsy and microcephaly. We report two boys who presented with refractory absence epilepsy associated with hypoglycorrhachia, both of whom have genetically confirmed GLUT-1 DS. We propose that these children serve to expand the phenotype of GLUT-1 DS and suggest that this condition should be considered as a cause of refractory absence seizures in childhood.

  9. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  10. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Odeen, Magnus; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Mæland, Silje; Larun, Lillebeth; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2013-01-01

    Background: The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims: To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with ...

  11. Congenital unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Garcia, Mauricio; Escalante Mora, Hector A; Lozano Castillo, Alfonso J

    2000-01-01

    Unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery is a rare anomaly. It occurs with pulmonary ipsilateral hypoplasia and it's frequently associated with other cardiovascular malformations. The majority of the cases are diagnosed in childhood. This is a case report of two adult patients of the Hospital Central de la Policia Nacional in Bogota, Colombia, with unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery one isolated and the other with patent ductus arteriosus. We describe the clinical and roentgenographic findings of this congenital anomaly

  12. School Liability: Student to Student Injuries Involving Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettenhausen, Sherrie

    In the absence of immunity, courts have held schools and school personnel liable for personal injury by a student with a disability that resulted from negligent failure to provide a reasonable safe environment, failure to warn of known hazards, or failure to provide adequate supervision. Case law is presented to demonstrate the extent that school…

  13. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  14. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Father absence and gendered traits in sons and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Cross, Catharine P

    2017-01-01

    Research has previously found a number of apparently contradictory patterns in the relationship between 'father absence' (having a non-resident father during childhood) and the expression of gender roles, as well as other sexually dimorphic traits such as aggression. In the current study we measured a battery of sexually differentiated traits in relation to family background. 133 men and 558 women from the United States and Australia completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, the Fear Survey Schedule and the Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Principal components analysis found two main axes of variation in these traits. Firstly, a general 'reactivity' factor, on which aggression, impulsivity, and fear all loaded positively, was weakly associated with father absence in women. Secondly, 'masculinity' (consisting of high scores on masculine traits, low fear, and physical and verbal aggression) was not associated with father absence. Participants (except American males) reporting a poor childhood relationship with their parents also had high 'reactivity' but not higher 'masculinity'. We found some evidence of a link between father absence and earlier age of first coitus in American females (although not in Australia), but there was no link with age of menarche in either country. Overall, the current results suggest that previous findings linking gender development with father absence in girls may have arisen from a tendency towards greater externalising and reactive behaviour rather than a change in gender development per se.

  16. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  17. Learning skills and academic performance in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Sánchez-Torres, J M; Velez-van-Meerbeke, A

    2015-03-01

    Although cognitive and learning disorders have been described in patients with epilepsy, very few studies focus on specific disorders such as absence epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate learning skills and academic performance in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy. Observational case-control study. Cases were chosen from the Central League against Epilepsy's clinic in Bogotá, Colombia. Controls were selected from a private school and matched with cases by age, school year, and sex. Medical history, seizure frequency, antiepileptic treatment, and academic performance were assessed. Academic abilities were tested with Batería de Aptitudes Diferenciales y Generales (BADyG) (a Spanish-language test of differential and general aptitudes). Data were analysed using Student t-test. The sample consisted of 19 cases and 19 controls aged between 7 and 16. In 15 patients, seizures were controlled; all patients had received antiepileptic medication at some point and 78.9% were actively being treated. Although cases had higher rates of academic failure, a greater incidence of grade retention, and more therapeutic interventions than controls, these differences were not significant. Similarly, there were no significant differences on the BADyG test, except for the immediate memory subcategory on which cases scored higher than controls (P=.0006). Children treated pharmacologically for absence epilepsy, whose seizures are controlled, have normal academic abilities and skills for their age. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Congenital absence of the portal vein presenting as pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Sur Young; Lee, Whal; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2007-01-01

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a rare malformation in which intestinal and splenic venous flow bypasses the liver and drains directly into the systemic circulation via a congenital portosystemic shunt. We describe two cases of CAPV presenting as pulmonary hypertension that were initially suspected as primary pulmonary hypertension. However, subsequent ultrasonography and CT detected the absence of a portal vein and the presence of a portosystemic shunt. Pulmonary hypertension is a recognized complication of liver disease and portal hypertension. However, these two cases illustrate that CAPV may result in pulmonary hypertension without liver disease or portal hypertension

  20. Congenital absence of the portal vein presenting as pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sur Young; Lee, Whal; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a rare malformation in which intestinal and splenic venous flow bypasses the liver and drains directly into the systemic circulation via a congenital portosystemic shunt. We describe two cases of CAPV presenting as pulmonary hypertension that were initially suspected as primary pulmonary hypertension. However, subsequent ultrasonography and CT detected the absence of a portal vein and the presence of a portosystemic shunt. Pulmonary hypertension is a recognized complication of liver disease and portal hypertension. However, these two cases illustrate that CAPV may result in pulmonary hypertension without liver disease or portal hypertension.

  1. The Group's Absence Norm and Commitment to the Group as Predictors of Group Member Absence in the Next Session: An Actor-Partner Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Kivlighan, D. Martin, III; Cole, Odessa Dorian

    2012-01-01

    The group's absence norm, a construct from the applied psychology literature, was used to examine session absences in personal growth groups. Rather than examining the absence norm statically, we modeled it dynamically as a time-varying covariate (Tasca et al., 2010). We also examined moderation by modeling the interaction of the absence norm and…

  2. The nature and extent of college student hazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Elizabeth J; Madden, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the nature and extent of college student hazing in the USA. Hazing, a form of interpersonal violence, can jeopardize the health and safety of students. Using a web-based survey, data were collected from 11,482 undergraduate students, aged 18-25 years, who attended one of 53 colleges and universities. Additionally, researchers interviewed 300 students and staff at 18 of the campuses. Results reveal hazing among USA college students is widespread and involves a range of student organizations and athletic teams. Alcohol consumption, humiliation, isolation, sleep-deprivation and sex acts are hazing practices common across student groups. Furthermore, there is a large gap between the number of students who report experience with hazing behaviors and those that label their experience as hazing. To date, hazing prevention efforts in post-secondary education have focused largely on students in fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletes. Findings from this study can inform development of more comprehensive and research-based hazing prevention efforts that target a wider range of student groups. Further, data can serve as a baseline from which to measure changes in college student hazing over time.

  3. Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slany, Corinna; Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (> 7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level.

  4. Contempt as the absence of appraisal, not recognition, respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Gervais & Fessler's defense of a sentiment construct for contempt captures features distinguishing the phenomenon from basic emotions and highlights the fact that it comprises a coordinated syndrome of responses. However, their conceptualization of contempt as the absence of respect equivocates. Consequently, a "dignity" culture that prescribes respect does not thereby limit legitimate contempt in the manner the authors claim.

  5. Sickness absence: self-reported and objective risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroome, E. de

    2006-01-01

    Absence from work in the Netherlands is partly caused by the work itself and therefore work-related interventions could be part of the solution. Such interventions should not only be aimed at risk factors highlighted by employees themselves, but should also focus on those factors that are found to

  6. Common mental disorders : Prediction of sickness absence durations and recurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Lammechiena

    2016-01-01

    Psychological disorders cause a considerable proportion of long-term sickness absence and constitute the most significant reason for disability pensions of employees under 55 years of age. Knowledge of the risk factors will help occupational physicians to initiate treatments and interventions at an

  7. [Problematic sickness absence: a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, P.J. van der; Stadhouders, N.; Staal, J.B.; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Netherlands, an occupational physician supports absence management and staff's return to work, but this role may be hampered if there is uncertainty concerning return to labour options. The return to work process may be improved when a specialized second opinion organization is

  8. Management of long term sickness absence: a systematic realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam

    2012-09-01

    The increasing impact and costs of long term sickness absence have been well documented. However, the diversity and complexity of interventions and of the contexts in which these take place makes a traditional review problematic. Therefore, we undertook a systematic realist review to identify the dominant programme theories underlying best practice, to assess the evidence for these theories, and to throw light on important enabling or disabling contextual factors. A search of the scholarly literature from 1950 to 2011 identified 5,576 articles, of which 269 formed the basis of the review. We found that the dominant programme theories in relation to effective management related to: early intervention or referral by employers; having proactive organisational procedures; good communication and cooperation between stakeholders; and workplace-based occupational rehabilitation. Significant contextual factors were identified as the level of support for interventions from top management, the size and structure of the organisation, the level of financial and organisational investment in the management of long-term sickness absence, and the quality of relationships between managers and staff. Consequently, those with responsibility for managing absence should bear in mind the contextual factors that are likely to have an impact on interventions, and do what they can to ensure stakeholders have at least a mutual understanding (if not a common purpose) in relation to their perceptions of interventions, goals, culture and practice in the management of long term sickness absence.

  9. 5 CFR 353.106 - Personnel actions during employee's absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... knowingly provides written notice of intent not to return to a position of employment with the agency, in... advantage of employment that they may have been entitled to had they not been absent. This is determined by... workplace and whether it was denied solely because of absence for military service; (2) Considering whether...

  10. Researching Absences and Silences in Higher Education: Data for Democratisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge, power and democracy are being more explicitly related to higher education globally. Increasingly there are calls for cognitive justice and the development of a sociology of absences, particularly in relation to structures of inequalities and knowledge production from the Global South. The university of the future will need to be…

  11. Unilateral hydronephrosis with congenital absence of contralateral kidney in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, C.; Wikstad, I.

    1988-01-01

    The case histories of six children with absence of functioning renal parenchyma on one side and dilatation of the contralateral pelvis are reviewed. The hydronephrosis was obstructive in two cases. In the others no cause could be found. The development of this combination of renal malformations is discussed against an embryologic background. (orig.)

  12. Absenteeism: Beyond Reporting and beyond Another Special Initiative. Addressing Barriers to Learning Vol. 21, #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2016

    2016-01-01

    An estimated five to seven and a half million students miss 18 or more days of school each year, or nearly an entire month or more of school, which puts them at significant risk of falling behind academically and failing to graduate from high school. Every student absence jeopardizes the ability of students to succeed at school and schools to…

  13. Anthropogenic disturbances jeopardize biodiversity conservation within tropical rainforest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Iván A; Piñero, Daniel; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Sarukhán, José

    2016-05-10

    Anthropogenic disturbances affecting tropical forest reserves have been documented, but their ecological long-term cumulative effects are poorly understood. Habitat fragmentation and defaunation are two major anthropogenic threats to the integrity of tropical reserves. Based on a long-term (four decades) study, we document how these disturbances synergistically disrupt ecological processes and imperil biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning at Los Tuxtlas, the northernmost tropical rainforest reserve in the Americas. Deforestation around this reserve has reduced the reserve to a medium-sized fragment (640 ha), leading to an increased frequency of canopy-gap formation. In addition, hunting and habitat loss have caused the decline or local extinction of medium and large herbivores. Combining empirical, experimental, and modeling approaches, we support the hypothesis that such disturbances produced a demographic explosion of the long-lived (≈120 y old, maximum height of 7 m) understory palm Astrocaryum mexicanum, whose population has increased from 1,243-4,058 adult individuals per hectare in only 39 y (annual growth rate of ca 3%). Faster gap formation increased understory light availability, enhancing seed production and the growth of immature palms, whereas release from mammalian herbivory and trampling increased survival of seedlings and juveniles. In turn, the palm's demographic explosion was followed by a reduction of tree species diversity, changing forest composition, altering the relative contribution of trees to forest biomass, and disrupting litterfall dynamics. We highlight how indirect anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., palm proliferation) on otherwise protected areas threaten tropical conservation, a phenomenon that is currently eroding the planet's richest repositories of biodiversity.

  14. Small-scale fisheries bycatch jeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hoyt Peckham

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna.30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996-2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS. We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1 observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2 through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year(-1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge.Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in partnership with small-scale fishers may provide a crucial solution toward ensuring the persistence of vulnerable megafauna.

  15. Small-scale fisheries bycatch jeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, S Hoyt; Maldonado Diaz, David; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B; Nichols, Wallace J

    2007-10-17

    Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996-2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year(-1), rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in partnership with small-scale fishers may provide a crucial solution toward ensuring the persistence of vulnerable megafauna.

  16. Air Traffic Control: Weak Computer Security Practices Jeopardize Flight Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Given the paramount importance of computer security of Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems, Congress asked the General Accounting Office to determine (1) whether the Fedcral Aviation Administration (FAA) is effectively managing physical security at ATC...

  17. Can nonstandard interactions jeopardize the hierarchy sensitivity of DUNE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, K. N.; Goswami, Srubabati; Nath, Newton

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of nonstandard interactions (NSIs) on the propagation of neutrinos through the Earth's matter and how it affects the hierarchy sensitivity of the DUNE experiment. We emphasize the special case when the diagonal NSI parameter ɛe e=-1 , nullifying the standard matter effect. We show that if, in addition, C P violation is maximal then this gives rise to an exact intrinsic hierarchy degeneracy in the appearance channel, irrespective of the baseline and energy. Introduction of the off diagonal NSI parameter, ɛe τ, shifts the position of this degeneracy to a different ɛe e. Moreover the unknown magnitude and phases of the off diagonal NSI parameters can give rise to additional degeneracies. Overall, given the current model independent limits on NSI parameters, the hierarchy sensitivity of DUNE can get seriously impacted. However, a more precise knowledge of the NSI parameters, especially ɛe e, can give rise to an improved sensitivity. Alternatively, if a NSI exists in nature, and still DUNE shows hierarchy sensitivity, certain ranges of the NSI parameters can be excluded. Additionally, we briefly discuss the implications of ɛe e=-1 (in the Earth) on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the Sun.

  18. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n=801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10-2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, I.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Rhenen, W.; de Boer, M.R.; Bultmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  20. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  1. Characterization of the child’s academic performance in the absence of at least one parent. Case: Milagro City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Arias Guevara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available I made this research to help children of Milagro City, Ecuador. Here, there is a high proportion of school students without their parents at home. It was possible todefine, by mathematical methods, the typical student’s characteristics, his typical family, and a typical situation at classroom according to the reasons of the absence (in a state school or in a private school and some aspects about his recuperation; however you should not forget that this information is only a reference because each student is a different case to be entirely analyzed. This research could be repeated in other cities.

  2. Nursing Students' Use of Electronic and Social Media: Law, Ethics, and E-Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the promotion of professionalism in nursing students with regard to the use of electronic and social media. Misuse of social media can lead to disciplinary actions and program dismissal for students and to legal actions and lawsuits for nursing programs. Programs are concemed about breaches of patient confidentiality and release of private or inappropriate information that jeopardizes clinical placements and relationships. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics and National Council of State Boards of Nursing social media guidelines provide a foundation for promoting e-professionalism in students. Recent law cases involving students who were dismissed from nursing programs due to social media misuse are analyzed. Schools need policies that clearly establish expectations and the consequences of misuse of social media platforms. Lessons learned from the legal cases presented provide further guidance for both nursing students and nursing programs.

  3. Disruptive Silence: Deepening Experiential Learning in the Absence of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carol A.; Parks, Rodney; Parrish, Jesse; Swirski, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Technology plays an integral role in the lives of the majority of the US population. As technology becomes integrated into young people's lives, questions arise regarding its effects on learning. This exploratory study draws on interviews with students who attend university in the United States to determine how separating students from technology…

  4. Congenital Absence of a Teat in a Japanese Black Heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elshabrawy Ghanem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Japanese Black heifer with a congenital absence of teat (athelia was observed at Highashi-Hiroshima Agricultural High School, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The heifer was born after transfer of embryo from Japanese Black cattle. The sire of the heifer was a proven Japanese Black. The birth weight of the heifer was 27 kg. On physical examination of the heifer at 21 months after birth, the teat at fore left was absent and the remaining three teats were normal in shape without any physical abnormalities. Per rectal palpation of the genital organs revealed the normal cervix and uterine horns. It was difficult to palpate the ovaries due to the fat around the organs. Blood samples were taken for cytogenetic and DNA testing. The heifer had normal chromosomal set. The heifer was culled due to its mammary abnormality. This might be the first to report a case of congenital absence of a teat in Japanese Black heifers.

  5. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    provided, in a randomized controlled design, a psychiatric examination giving feedback to the individuals, primary care, and rehabilitation officers with regard to treatment and rehabilitation. Half of individuals who just had passed eight weeks of continuous sickness absence had a mental disorder of which......Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...

  6. Preserving location and absence privacy in geo-social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freni, Dario; Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Mascetti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    accessible to multiple users. This renders it difficult for GeoSN users to control which information about them is available and to whom it is available. This paper addresses two privacy threats that occur in GeoSNs: location privacy and absence privacy. The former concerns the availability of information...... about the presence of users in specific locations at given times, while the latter concerns the availability of information about the absence of an individual from specific locations during given periods of time. The challenge addressed is that of supporting privacy while still enabling useful services....... The resulting geo-aware social networks (GeoSNs) pose privacy threats beyond those found in location-based services. Content published in a GeoSN is often associated with references to multiple users, without the publisher being aware of the privacy preferences of those users. Moreover, this content is often...

  7. Ireland and immigration: explaining the absence of the far right

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the absence of far-right political formations in the history of the Republic of Ireland, especially in relation to immigration. I argue that the ‘mainstream’ nationalist parties have implemented a racialized governance of Ireland via the issue of citizenship (in the referendum of 2004). While hegemonic ideas on the racial purity of indigenous populations and the highly ambivalent attitudes and policies on immigration pursued over the last decade are characteristi...

  8. Absence of Debye screening in the quantum Coulomb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.; Keller, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present an approximation to the quantum Coulomb plasma at equilibrium which captures the power-law violations of Debye screening which have been reported in recent papers. The objectives are (1) to produce a simpler model which we will study in forthcoming papers, and (2) to develop a strategy by which the absence of screening can be proven for the low-density quantum Coulomb plasma itself

  9. THE CRIME OF UNJUSTIFIED ABSENCE IN THE ROMANIAN CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code of Romania regulates in Title XI of its Special Part the crimes against the combat capability of the military forces. Under this title, Chapter I is dedicated to the crimes committed by the military and defines the crime of unjustified absence. In this study, the author analysed the specific elements of this crime, including: the specific legal object - military discipline, the field of the active subject and the essential requirements imposed by its objective side.

  10. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  11. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit ...

  12. Implications of the absence of high-mass radion signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aqeel; Dillon, Barry M.; Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Gunion, John F.; Jiang, Yun

    2017-05-01

    Given the disappearance of the 750 GeV diphoton LHC signal and the absence of signals at high mass in this and other channels, significant constraints on the mixed Higgs-radion of the five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum model arise. By combining all channels, these constraints place a significant radion-mass-dependent lower bound on the radion vacuum expectation value that is fairly independent of the amount of Higgs radion mixing.

  13. Congenital absence of the portal vein in a boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, E.; Hiramatsu, K.; Saeki, Morihiro; Nakano, Miwako; Masaki, Hidekazu; Ogawa, Kenji; Nirasawa, Mali

    1999-01-01

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a malformation that is generally thought to be limited to females. We encountered an 11-year-old boy with this malformation. In 17 previously reported cases of CAPV, 2 were male. Three male patients, including our case, were Abernethy type Ib malformation. They had no associated liver tumour and two had no additional congenital abnormality. Conversely, 13 of the 15 female patients had congenital abnormalities and 6 had liver mass lesions. (orig.)

  14. A case of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bi Mo,1 Vishnu Garla,2 Lawrence M Wyner1 1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA Background: Congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens occurs in 0.5%–1.0% of males. It has been associated with various genitourinary abnormalities, including renal agenesis. We report a case of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens found incidentally during vasectomy in a patient with known unilateral renal agenesis. Case presentation: A 24-year-old male presented to our urology clinic requesting vasectomy. His past history was significant for left renal agenesis. Following successful right vasectomy, several attempts to locate the left vas deferens were unsuccessful. We diagnosed congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens. Follow-up semen analysis showed azoospermia. Conclusion: As vasectomies are increasingly performed in outpatient settings, it is imperative that physicians be aware of this condition, which can be recognized by a simple physical exam. Recognition could prevent unnecessary surgery and prompt providers to investigate for associated abnormalities. Keywords: vas deferens, embryology, abnormalities, surgery

  15. Trichophagia along with trichobezoar in the absence of trichotillomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichobezoars are rarely described in the absence of trichotillomania. In this report we present a case of trichobezoar associated with trichophagia in the absence of trichotillomania. A 16-year-old girl presented to surgery outpatient with complaints of pain in abdomen and vomiting for the last 6 months. Physical examination revealed a 14 × 16 cm firm, tender, mass with smooth surface, irregular margins, which was mobile with respiration. Ultrasound abdomen revealed a bizarre lesion in the right upper and middle abdomen suggestive of gastric bezoars. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy did not reveal any abnormality in the esophagus and showed a large mobile mass in the stomach. In view of trichobezoar, psychiatry consultation was sought. Exploration of history revealed that the patient was eating hairs and clay since early childhood. As per patient she would eat hairs thrown by others. She would like the taste of hair and had strong persistent desire to eat hair and would go out searching for the same. At times she would also eat clay. However, she denied of pulling her own hairs. Physical examination of scalp and other body parts did not show any evidence of alopecia or pulling of hair/short hair. She was managed surgically and was counseled about the consequences of eating hairs and clays and was encouraged not to eat hair. To conclude our case suggests that patients can have trichobezoar and trichophagia even in the absence of trichotillomania.

  16. Selection ofmedical students - a follow-up study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... women and applicants with university experience increased. Students who ... can take leave of absence to pursue, for a year, other interests. Students who take ... years of university education 2t the time of admission. Only 97.

  17. Congenital Complete Absence of Pericardium Masquerading as Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saad; Mahmood, Sultan; Madeira, Samuel; Tarasov, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Congenital absence of the pericardium is a rare cardiac condition, which can be either isolated or associated with other cardiac and extracardiac anomalies. There are six different types, depending on the severity of the involvement. Most of the patients with this defect are asymptomatic, especially the ones with complete absence of the pericardium. However, some patients are symptomatic, reporting symptoms that include chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, and syncope. Diagnosis is established by the characteristic features on chest X-ray, echocardiogram, chest computed tomography (CT), and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imging (MRI). We present here a case of a 23 year-old-male, who presented to our hospital with complaints of pleuritic chest pain and exertional dyspnea, of a two-week duration. He was physically active and his past history was otherwise insignificant. His chest CT with contrast was interpreted as showing evidence of multiple emboli, predominantly in the left lung, and he was started on a heparin and warfarin therapy. A repeat chest CT with contrast three weeks later showed no significant change from the previous CT scan. Both scans showed that the heart was abnormally rotated to the left side of the chest. An echocardiogram raised the suspicion of congenital absence of the pericardium, with a posteriorly displaced heart. In retrospect, motion artifact on the left lung, attributed to cardiac pulsations and the lack of pericardium, resulted in a CT chest appearance, mimicking findings of pulmonary embolism. The misdiagnosis of pulmonary embolism was attributed to the artifact caused by excessive cardiac motion artifact on the chest CT scan. In non-gated CT angiograms, excessive motion causes an artifact that blurs the pulmonary vessels, reminiscent of a ′seagull′ or a ′boomerang′. Physicians need to be aware of this phenomenon, as well as the characteristic radiological features of this congenital anomaly, to enable them to make a correct

  18. Perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear among victims, bullies, and bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution of the types of involvement in school violence (bullies, victims, bully-victims, and students not involved in violence) among the general population of Israeli school students. The prevalence of these different types of involvement was also examined according to gender, age or school level (junior high vs. high school), and ethnicity (Jewish vs. Arab). Further, the study examines the relationships between type of involvement in school violence and students' perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear. Data were obtained from a nationally representative, stratified sample of 13,262 students in grades 7-11 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on victimization by, and perpetration of, school violence and on perceptions of school climate. Data revealed that 3.6% of all students were victims of bullying (18.5% of those involved in violence). The proportion of bully-victims among male students was 6.4% (21.9% of all involved) compared with 1.1% (11.2% of all involved) among females. Bully-victims reported the lowest levels of teacher support and feelings of security and missed school because of fear significantly more often. The results point to the uniqueness of the bully-victim group. This group presents multiple challenges for school staff with these students needing special attention. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  19. Probiotics and child care absence due to infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of infections is higher in children attending child care compared with children cared for at home. This study examined the effect of a combination of probiotics on absence from child care because of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in healthy infants aged 8 to 14...... range: 6-16). Intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference between the probiotics and placebo groups (P = .19). Additionally, there was no difference in any of the secondary outcomes between groups; the number of children with doctor-diagnosed upper or lower respiratory tract infections, the number...

  20. Bilateral Absence of Musculocutaneous Nerve: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anubha

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of course and distribution of nerves in the axilla and arm is very important in the management of nerve injuries particularly in case of their variations. Bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve was found during routine dissection in a male cadaver. The dissected part was cleared to see the distribution of the muscles of the arm. The muscles of the flexor compartment were supplied by the median nerve, instead of the musculocutaneous nerve. The present case report of this anatomical variation of the nerves should help in management of nerve injuries in the axilla or the arm. PMID:25386419

  1. A 48,XXXX female with absence of ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, R J; Falk, R E; Lippe, B M; Kaplan, S A

    1980-01-01

    A 16 1/2-year-old phenotypic female had primary amenorrhea, mild mental retardation, radioulnar synostosis, and other minor anomalies. Chromosome constitution of leukocytes and skin fibroblasts was 48,XXXX. Plasma levels of gonadotropins were increased, and those of estrogens, decreased consistent with ovarian failure. Laparoscopy showed a small midline uterus, and 2 fallopian tubes, and fimbriae. Neither ovaries nor gonadal streaks were seen on either side. This patient appears to represent the first instance of 48,XXXX aneuploidy with documented absence of ovaries.

  2. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K.; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z.

    2017-01-01

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca2+ entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor i...

  3. Diagnosing lynch syndrome in absence of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T; Knezetic, Joseph; Lanspa, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    There are many ways in which a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can be made, most prominent of which is family history, presence of cancer, high microsatellite instability, immunohistochemistry, and a mismatch repair germline mutation. There are at least four molecular pathways for colorectal cancer carcinogenesis: 1) adenoma-carcinoma sequence; 2) hereditary microsatellite instability; 3) serrated pathway; 4) epidermal growth factor receptor. The answer to diagnosing Lynch syndrome in the absence of colorectal cancer may be partially based upon the phenotypic characteristics of the colonic polyps should they be identified at colonoscopy, specifically their phenotypic characteristics of location, size, histology, number, and age of polyp onset.

  4. Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-07-09

    Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders' effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=-5.4; CI -10 to -1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Risk factors for school absence included girl's attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management methods prior to menarche, privacy and a

  5. Why September Matters: Improving Student Attendance. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…

  6. Cortical and subcortical brain alterations in Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tondelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the common assumption that genetic generalized epilepsies are characterized by a macroscopically normal brain on magnetic resonance imaging, subtle structural brain alterations have been detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques in Childhood Absence Epilepsy syndrome. We applied quantitative structural MRI analysis to a group of adolescents and adults with Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (JAE in order to investigate micro-structural brain changes using different brain measures. We examined grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, surface areas, and subcortical volumes in 24 patients with JAE compared to 24 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM and Freesurfer analyses were used. When compared to healthy controls, patients revealed both grey matter volume and surface area reduction in bilateral frontal regions, anterior cingulate, and right mesial-temporal lobe. Correlation analysis with disease duration showed that longer disease was correlated with reduced surface area in right pre- and post-central gyrus. A possible effect of valproate treatment on brain structures was excluded. Our results indicate that subtle structural brain changes are detectable in JAE and are mainly located in anterior nodes of regions known to be crucial for awareness, attention and memory.

  7. Work health determinants in employees without sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, E; Theorell, T; Nilsson, B; Saraste, H

    2013-01-01

    Working ability is known to be related to good physical condition, clear work tasks, positive feedback and other occupational, organizational and psychosocial factors. In Sweden, high levels of sickness absence are due to stress-related disorders and musculoskeletal pain. To identify work health characteristics in a working population with a large variety of professional skills and occupational tasks. Employers' data on occupation, sickness absence, age and gender in a working population of 11 occupational groups and questionnaire responses regarding work-organization, environment, work stress, pain, health, and socio-demographic factors were collected. Employees with no history of sick-leave were compared with those with a history of sick-leave (1-182 days, mean 25 days). Of 2641 employees, 1961 participated. Those with no history of sick-leave reported less work-related pain, work-related stress, sleep disturbances, worry about their health, 'sick-presenteeism', monotonous work, bent and twisted working positions and exposure to disturbing noise than those with a history of sick-leave (P health, support from superiors, having influence on their working hours and evening and week-end working, longer working hours per week (P health and less neck, shoulder and back pain and more support from their superiors and influence on their working hours.

  8. Climate in the Absence of Ocean Heat Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B. E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The energy transported by the oceans to mid- and high latitudes is small compared to the atmosphere, yet exerts an outsized influence on the climate. A key reason is the strong interaction between ocean heat transport (OHT) and sea ice extent. I quantify this by comparing a realistic control climate simulation with a slab ocean simulation in which OHT is disabled. Using the state-of-the-art CESM with a realistic present-day continental configuration, I show that the absence of OHT leads to a 23 K global cooling and massive expansion of sea ice to near 30º latitude in both hemisphere. The ice expansion is asymmetric, with greatest extent in the South Pacific and South Indian ocean basins. I discuss implications of this enormous and asymmetric climate change for atmospheric circulation, heat transport, and tropical precipitation. Parameter sensitivity studies show that the simulated climate is far more sensitive to small changes in ice surface albedo in the absence of OHT, with some perturbations sufficient to cause a runaway Snowball Earth glaciation. I conclude that the oceans are responsible for an enormous global warming by mitigating an otherwise very potent sea ice albedo feedback, but that the magnitude of this effect is still rather uncertain. I will also present some ideas on adapting the simple energy balance model to account for the enhanced sensitivity of sea ice to heating from the ocean.

  9. Pathogenesis of arteriovenous malformations in the absence of endoglin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Marwa; Allinson, Kathleen R; Zhai, Zhenhua; Oakenfull, Rachael; Ghandi, Pranita; Adams, Ralf H; Fruttiger, Marcus; Arthur, Helen M

    2010-04-30

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) result in anomalous direct blood flow between arteries and veins, bypassing the normal capillary bed. Depending on size and location, AVMs may lead to severe clinical effects including systemic cyanosis (pulmonary AVMs), hemorrhagic stroke (cerebral AVMs) and high output cardiac failure (hepatic AVMs). The factors leading to AVM formation are poorly understood, but patients with the familial disease hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) develop AVMs at high frequency. As most HHT patients have mutations in ENG (endoglin) or ACVRL1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1), a better understanding of the role of these genes in vascular development is likely to reveal the etiology of AVM formation. Using a mouse with a conditional mutation in the Eng gene, we investigated the sequence of abnormal cellular events occurring during development of an AVM. In the absence of endoglin, subcutaneous Matrigel implants in adult mice were populated by reduced numbers of new blood vessels compared with controls, and resulted in local venous enlargement (venomegaly). To investigate abnormal vascular responses in more detail, we turned to the more readily accessible vasculature of the neonatal retina. Endoglin-deficient retinas exhibited delayed remodeling of the capillary plexus, increased proliferation of endothelial cells and localized AVMs. Muscularization of the resulting arteriovenous shunts appeared to be a secondary response to increased blood flow. AVMs develop when an angiogenic stimulus is combined with endoglin depletion. Moreover, AVM formation appears to result from the combination of delayed vascular remodeling and an inappropriate endothelial cell proliferation response in the absence of endoglin.

  10. Attention impairment in childhood absence epilepsy: an impulsivity problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Caterina; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Parisi, Pasquale; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    Although attention problems have often been described in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the use of different methodological approaches, neuropsychological tests, and heterogeneous experimental groups has prevented identification of the selective areas of attention deficit in this population. In this study, we investigated several components of attention in children with CAE using a unique computerized test battery for attention performance. Participants included 24 patients with CAE and 24 controls matched for age and sex. They were tested with a computerized test battery, which included the following tasks: selective attention, impulsivity, focused attention, divided attention, alertness, and vigilance. Compared with healthy controls, patients with CAE made more commission errors in the Go/No-Go task and more omission errors in the divided attention task. Childhood absence epilepsy patients also showed decreased reaction times in measures of selective attention and a great variability of reaction times in alertness and Go/No-Go tasks. Our findings suggest that patients with CAE were impaired in tonic and phasic alertness, divided attention, selective attention, and impulsivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Congenital absence of the vagina with a functioning uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Yasuo; Naito, Mariko; Noda, Yoichi; Ozasa, Hiroshi; Mori, Takahide

    1986-01-01

    A functioning uterus may be present in 5 to 10 % of the patients with congenital absence of the vagina. The proper treatment for these patients depends on accurate pre-operative diagnosis on whether or not a cervix is present, because the mode of operation should be selected according to the type of abnormality. Ultrasonography or X-ray CT scan will not always be useful to answer this question. We encountered a 15-year-old female with cyclic lower abdominal pain and the failure of onset of menstruation. The external genitalia were normal except for the absence of the vaginal opening. Ultrasonography and X-ray CT scan revealed the presence of both uterine corpus and hematocolpos, but no definite findings were obtained on the integrity of the cervix. By using NMR-CT scan, we found a hematocolpos, properly developed uterine cervix and corpus above it. We treated the patient by preserving the uterine function and the potential for pregnancy in the future. NMR-CT scan seems more useful in some cases for diagnosis of pelvic mass than ultrasonography and X-ray CT scan. (author)

  12. Climate in the absence of ocean heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B. E. J.

    2017-12-01

    The energy transported by the oceans to mid- and high latitudes is small compared to the atmosphere, yet exerts an outsized influence on climate. A key reason is the strong interaction between ocean heat transport (OHT) and sea ice extent. I quantify the absolute climatic impact of OHT using the state-of-the-art CESM simulations by comparing a realistic control climate against a slab ocean simulation in which OHT is disabled. The absence of OHT leads to a massive expansion of sea ice into the subtropics in both hemispheres, and a 24 K global cooling. Analysis of the transient simulation after setting the OHT to zero reveals a global cooling process fueled by a runaway sea ice albedo feedback. This process is eventually self-limiting in the cold climate due to a combination of subtropical cloud feedbacks and surface wind effects that are both connected to a massive spin-up of the atmospheric Hadley circulation. A parameter sensitivity study shows that the simulated climate is far more sensitive to small changes in ice surface albedo in the absence of OHT. I conclude that the oceans are responsible for an enormous global warming by mitigating an otherwise very potent sea ice albedo feedback, but that the magnitude of this effect is rather uncertain. These simulations provide a graphic illustration of how the intimate coupling between sea ice and ocean circulation governs the present-day climate, and by extension, highlight the importance of modeling ocean - sea ice interaction with high fidelity.

  13. Bilateral Congenital Absence of the Stapes Superstructure in Two Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Undabeitia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Middle ear ossicle malformations are an uncommon event. Among them, the congenital absence of the stapes is a very rare condition that is seldom described in the literature. We report the cases of two women, aged 19 and 22 , who presented with a long history of conductive deafness. An exploratory tympanotomy was performed and the absence of the stapes superstructure and an abnormal position of the facial nerve could be observed. A bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA was implanted in both patients with good results. It is believed that stapes agenesis is related to an abnormal development of the facial nerve, which by the 5th to 6th week of gestation would interpose between the otic capsule and the stapes blastema, preventing these structures from contacting. A long history of nonprogressive hearing loss from birth or early childhood is the key to reach a diagnosis. Several treatment options have been described. The authors opted for a hearing aid due to the high risk of facial nerve lesion, with good functional results.

  14. Recognizing, Differentiating, and Referring Students with Absence Seizures: What Factors Affect Preservice Teachers' Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasewicz, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy are common pediatric disorders that often occur co-morbidly. Both disorders predispose children to a wide range of school-related problems, some of which are the same and others vastly different. Fortunately, with early diagnosis and comprehensive disease management, the long-term…

  15. Macroinvertebrates as indicators of fish absence in naturally fishless lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, C.S.; Huryn, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    1. Little is known about native communities in naturally fishless lakes in eastern North America, a region where fish stocking has led to a decline in these habitats. 2. Our study objectives were to: (i) characterise and compare macroinvertebrate communities in fishless lakes found in two biophysical regions of Maine (U.S.A.): kettle lakes in the eastern lowlands and foothills and headwater lakes in the central and western mountains; (ii) identify unique attributes of fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities compared to lakes with fish and (iii) develop a method to efficiently identify fishless lakes when thorough fish surveys are not possible. 3. We quantified macroinvertebrate community structure in the two physiographic fishless lake types (n = 8 kettle lakes; n = 8 headwater lakes) with submerged light traps and sweep nets. We also compared fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities to those in fish-containing lakes (n = 18) of similar size, location and maximum depth. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to assess differences in community structure and t-tests for taxon-specific comparisons between lakes. 4. Few differences in macroinvertebrate communities between the two physiographic fishless lake types were apparent. Fishless and fish-containing lakes had numerous differences in macroinvertebrate community structure, abundance, taxonomic composition and species richness. Fish presence or absence was a stronger determinant of community structure in our study than differences in physical conditions relating to lake origin and physiography. 5. Communities in fishless lakes were more speciose and abundant than in fish-containing lakes, especially taxa that are large, active and free-swimming. Families differing in abundance and taxonomic composition included Notonectidae, Corixidae, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae and Chaoboridae. 6. We identified six taxa unique to fishless lakes that are robust indicators of fish absence: Graphoderus

  16. Project Selection in the Design Studio: Absence of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basa, Inci

    2010-01-01

    Project selection is an essential matter of design teaching. Based on observations of a specific curriculum, the author claims that a wide repertoire of subjects including offices, restaurants, hotels, and other public places are used to prepare design students, but that schools and other "learning environments/ schools" are similarly…

  17. Absence of mutagenicity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos F.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna (locally called “Cerrado” is an important biome presenting several plants that are used in popular medicine. However, the risks associated with the consumption of derivatives from these plants are generally unknown. Studies with compounds obtained from different species have shown the risks of DNA damage. The present work assessed the in vivo mutagenicity of three plant species used in popular medicine to treat human gastrointestinal disorders (Mouriri pusa, Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora. The micronucleus assay was performed in peripheral blood of mice submitted to acute treatments. Results showed that no assessed extracts were mutagenic in vivo. In fact, the absence of mutagenicity in the present study indicates that the extracts do not contain compounds capable of inducing DNA breaks or chromosomal loss. However, further analysis should be performed in others systems to guarantee their safety, mainly to human chronic use.

  18. Attractive Serial Dependence in the Absence of an Explicit Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Michele; Park, Joonkoo

    2018-03-01

    Attractive serial dependence refers to an adaptive change in the representation of sensory information, whereby a current stimulus appears to be similar to a previous one. The nature of this phenomenon is controversial, however, as serial dependence could arise from biased perceptual representations or from biased traces of working memory representation at a decisional stage. Here, we demonstrated a neural signature of serial dependence in numerosity perception emerging early in the visual processing stream even in the absence of an explicit task. Furthermore, a psychophysical experiment revealed that numerosity perception is biased by a previously presented stimulus in an attractive way, not by repulsive adaptation. These results suggest that serial dependence is a perceptual phenomenon starting from early levels of visual processing and occurring independently from a decision process, which is consistent with the view that these biases smooth out noise from neural signals to establish perceptual continuity.

  19. Absence of U(1) anomalous superamplitudes in N≥5 supergravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Daniel Z. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Mathematics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kallosh, Renata; Murli, Divyanshu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); Yamada, Yusuke [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-05-12

    We list all potential candidates for U(1) anomalous non-local 1-loop 4-point amplitudes and higher loop UV divergences in N≥5 supergravities. The relevant chiral superinvariants are constructed from linearized chiral superfields and define the corresponding superamplitudes. The anomalous amplitudes, of the kind present in N=4, are shown to be absent in N≥5. In N=6 supergravity the result is deduced from the double-copy (N=4){sub YM}×(N=2){sub YM} model, whereas in N=5,8 the result on absence of anomalous amplitudes is derived in supergravities as well as in the (N=4){sub YM}×(N−4){sub YM} double-copy models.

  20. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is defined as the excessive development of breast tissue in males, which can occur as unilateral or bilateral. Although the overall prevalence of gynecomastia is 40%-65%, the prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities is unusual, with only a few case reports in literature. Idiopathic gynecomastia in prepuberty is benign but a diagnosis of exclusion. We here report two cases of healthy prepubertal boys aged 8.8 and 9.6 years old, respectively, presented with painful palpable mass in their unilateral breast. Breast tissue with glandular proliferation was confirmed on ultrasonography. Serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, and other laboratory findings were within normal range. They seem to have the prepubertal idiopathic gynecomastia but further follow-up to see their progression is needed.

  1. Complete Absence of Suprascapular Notch: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Mohan Pawar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment (SSNE is an acquired neuropathy secondary to compression of suprascapular nerve in the Suprascapular Notch (SSN. Complete ossification of superior transverse scapular ligament may be a cause for suprascapular nerve entrapment. The absence of suprascapular notch is not very common condition, though its prevalence was quoted by Indian authors to be varying from 1.36% to 32.46% in different parts of the country. It is considered to be a predisposing factor for suprascapular nerve entrapment neuropathy. We noticed a male scapula without suprascapular notch in osteology section of Forensic Medicine department. In this case we observed costal and dorsal surfaces of the left scapula of a male without suprascapular notch at its superior border. The details of the said scapula are discussed in this report.

  2. Temenos regained: reflections on the absence of the analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Henry

    2002-10-01

    The importance of the temenos as a metaphor to conceptualize therapeutic containment is discussed. Jung drew the analogy between the consulting room and the temenos, at the centre of the Greek Temple as a sacred and inviolate place where the analysand might encounter the Self. Although Jung believed that whether called or not, the gods would appear, under certain conditions, patients may experience 'temenos lost', the loss of the holding function of the analytic space. Two cases are presented in which temenos issues played a central role. In one case, an unorthodox method was used to preserve the analytic container during the absence of the analyst and in the other, the impact of an extra-analytical encounter had a dramatic effect on the holding function of the temenos. A discussion is presented of the appropriate circumstances in which analysts may deviate from traditional analytic practice in order to preserve the temenos and transform a 'temenos lost' into a 'temenos regained'.

  3. Evidence of absence (v2.0) software user guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela; Dail, David

    2017-07-06

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly software application for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and for designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities is below a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software also includes tools (1) for estimating carcass persistence distributions and searcher efficiency parameters ( and ) from field trials, (2) for projecting future mortality based on past monitoring data, and (3) for exploring the potential consequences of various choices in the design of long-term incidental take permits for protected species. The software was designed specifically for cases where tolerance for mortality is low and carcass counts are small or even 0, but the tools also may be used for mortality estimates when carcass counts are large.

  4. Absence of bacterial resistance following repeat exposure to photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Lisa A.; Gibbs, Aaron J.; Scott, Robert J.; Street, Cale N.

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria necessitates exploration of alternative approaches to treat hospital and community acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial pathogens develop resistance to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) during repeated sub-lethal challenge. Antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus and antibiotic sensitive E. coli were subjected to repeat PDT treatments using a methylene blue photosensitizer formulation and 670 nm illumination from a non-thermal diode laser. Parameters were adjusted such that kills were antibiotic resistance strains. Furthermore, repeated sub-lethal exposure does not induce resistance to subsequent PDT treatments. The absence of resistance formation represents a significant advantage of PDT over traditional antibiotics.

  5. Et l'absence, éloquente, de geste...

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Si le geste peut se faire révélateur des sentiments intimes d'un personnage, l'absence de tout geste peut parfois s'avérer tout aussi significative. Hypnose, coup de foudre, pétrification, extase : autant d'attitudes qui peuvent dévoiler l'état d'âme du héros. Qu'on songe à la pétrification de Lancelot à la vue de Guenièvre, à l'extase de Perceval devant le sang de l'oie blessée sur la neige, a l'hypnose de Gauvain devant les gouttes tombées de la Lance flamboyante sur la table d'ivoire, au s...

  6. Absence of periodic orbits in digital memcomputing machines with solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Traversa, Fabio L.

    2017-10-01

    In Traversa and Di Ventra [Chaos 27, 023107 (2017)] we argued, without proof, that if the non-linear dynamical systems with memory describing the class of digital memcomputing machines (DMMs) have equilibrium points, then no periodic orbits can emerge. In fact, the proof of such a statement is a simple corollary of a theorem already demonstrated in Traversa and Di Ventra [Chaos 27, 023107 (2017)]. Here, we point out how to derive such a conclusion. Incidentally, the same demonstration implies absence of chaos, a result we have already demonstrated in Di Ventra and Traversa [Phys. Lett. A 381, 3255 (2017)] using topology. These results, together with those in Traversa and Di Ventra [Chaos 27, 023107 (2017)], guarantee that if the Boolean problem the DMMs are designed to solve has a solution, the system will always find it, irrespective of the initial conditions.

  7. Absence seizure associated with coloprep consumption in colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Chandrakumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coloprep is a bowel preparatory solution given before endoscopic procedures to get a unobscured internal vision. It has among its constituents’ sodium sulphate, potassium sulphate and magnesium sulphate which produce an osmotic effect in the bowel. However, the use of such agents in hyponatremic and patients predisposed to seizures can have adverse ramifications. The current case outlines manifestation of absence seizure in a 52-year-old male patient who was administered Coloprep for colonoscopy. There was absence of other predisposing factors and the symptoms were ameliorated using timely identification and rectification of the underlying derangements. Resumo: Coloprep é uma solução preparatória intestinal administrada antes de procedimentos endoscópicos, com o objetivo de se ter uma visão interna não obscurecida. Entre os constituintes de Coloprep, observa-se sulfato de sódio, sulfato de potássio e sulfato de magnésio, que provocam efeito osmótico no intestino. Mas o uso de tais agentes em pacientes hiponatrêmicos e com predisposição para convulsões pode ter ramificações adversas. O caso em tela delineia uma manifestação de convulsão de ausência em paciente do gênero masculino com 52 anos e que recebeu Coloprep para colonoscopia. Não havia outros fatores predisponentes e os sintomas melhoraram graças à oportuna identificação e correção dos transtornos subjacentes. Keywords: Adverse reaction, Seizure, Purgative, Hyponatremia, Sodium phosphate, Palavras-chave: Reação adversa, Convulsão, Purgante, Hiponatremia, Fosfato de sódio

  8. Sickness absence among young employees: trends from 2002 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanen, Hilla; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahti, Jouni; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-01-01

    Young adults entering employment are a key group in extending work careers, but there is a lack of research on trends in work ability among young employees. Prolonged sickness absence (SA) constitutes a risk for permanent work disability. We examined 12-year trends in SA spells among young female and male municipal employees. The data were obtained from the employers' registers in the City of Helsinki, Finland. The data included employees aged 18-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-54 from 2002 to 2013 (the average number for each year was 31,600). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified intermediate (4-14 days) and long (15+ days) SAs were examined. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify major changes in SA trends. Younger employees had more short SAs but fewer long SAs than older employees. During the study period, SAs of almost any length first increased and later decreased among both genders, except for young men. The turning points for short SA were in 2007-2011 among younger and older employees. In intermediate and long SAs the respective turning points were in 2008-2009 and 2005-2009. Women had more SAs in all categories. Age is related to the length of absences. Given the relatively low chronic morbidity among younger employees, it is likely that reasons other than ill health account for increased SA. More evidence on factors behind the changing trends is needed in order to reduce SA and extend the working careers of young people.

  9. Test Anxiety Research: Students with Vision Impairments and Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee

    2014-01-01

    There is an absence of research on test anxiety in students with disabilities although such testing is taken for granted among students without disabilities. This study investigated the test anxiety of the students in each of the two disability groups, those with vision impairments and those with intellectual disabilities who are placed in…

  10. Absence from work due to occupational and non-occupational accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Laursen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    . Absence from work is estimated at between 3% and 6% of working hours in the EU and costs are estimated at approximately 2.5% of GNP. Methods: Victims of accidents treated at two emergency departments were interviewed regarding absence for the injured, the family and others. All answers were linked...... to the hospital information on the injury, so that it was possible to examine the relation between absence and injury type, and cause of the accident. Results: In total, 1,479 injured persons were interviewed. 36% of these reported absence from work by themselves or others. In mean, an injury caused 3.21 days...... of absence. Based on this the total absence due to injuries in Denmark was estimated to 1,822,000 workdays, corresponding to approximately 6% of the total absence from work due to all types of illness. Non-occupational injuries resulted in more absence than did occupational injuries. Conclusions: Absence due...

  11. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B

    2007-01-01

    follows a cohort of 5357 working employees and 106 long-term sickness absent employees in Denmark. They were interviewed in 2000 regarding self-efficacy and various co-variates, and followed for 78 weeks in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed in order to assess...... or with Return-to-Work. CONCLUSION: The results may suggest that lower self-efficacy among employees with sickness absence is a result of the sickness absence itself rather than a precursor of it. This indicates a need to investigate the potential change in self-efficacy in relation to the employee's change......AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  12. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  13. Authoritative School Climate and High School Student Risk Behavior: A Cross-sectional Multi-level Analysis of Student Self-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis

    2016-11-01

    Many adolescents engage in risk behaviors such as substance use and aggression that jeopardize their healthy development. This study tested the hypothesis that an authoritative school climate characterized by strict but fair discipline and supportive teacher-student relationships is conducive to lower risk behavior for high school students. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional, student-report survey data from a statewide sample of 47,888 students (50.6 % female) in 319 high schools. The students included ninth (26.6 %), tenth (25.5 %), eleventh (24.1 %) and twelfth (23.8 %) grade with a racial/ethnic breakdown of 52.2 % White, 18.0 % Black, 13.1 % Hispanic, 5.9 % Asian, and 10.8 % reporting another or two or more race/ethnicities. Schools with an authoritative school climate had lower levels of student-reported alcohol and marijuana use; bullying, fighting, and weapon carrying at school; interest in gang membership; and suicidal thoughts and behavior. These results controlled for demographic variables of student gender, race, grade, and parent education level as well as school size, percentage of minority students, and percentage of low income students. Overall, these findings add new evidence that an authoritative school climate is associated with positive student outcomes.

  14. Absence from work due to occupational and non-occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Laursen, Bjarne

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate absence from work in Denmark due to occupational and non-occupational accidents. Since the beginning of the last decade, political focus has been placed on the population's working capacity and the scope of absence due to illness. Absence from work is estimated at between 3% and 6% of working hours in the EU and costs are estimated at approximately 2.5% of GNP. Victims of accidents treated at two emergency departments were interviewed regarding absence for the injured, the family and others. All answers were linked to the hospital information on the injury, so that it was possible to examine the relation between absence and injury type, and cause of the accident. In total, 1,479 injured persons were interviewed. 36% of these reported absence from work by themselves or others. In mean, an injury caused 3.21 days of absence. Based on this the total absence due to injuries in Denmark was estimated to 1,822,000 workdays, corresponding to approximately 6% of the total absence from work due to all types of illness. Non-occupational injuries resulted in more absence than did occupational injuries. Absence due to accidents contributed to a considerable part of the total absence from work, and non-occupational accidents caused more absence than did occupational accidents.

  15. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) - the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  16. Feasibility of a mobile cognitive intervention in childhood absence epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Glynn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE frequently present with cognitive comorbidities and school performance concerns. The present study evaluated the feasibility of an intervention for such comorbidities using a mobile cognitive therapy application on an iPad. Eight children with CAE and school concerns aged 7-11 participated in a four-week intervention. They were asked to use the application for 80 minutes per week (20 minutes/day, 4 times/week. Parents and children completed satisfaction surveys regarding the application. Participants were evaluated before and after the intervention using the Cognitive Domain of the NIH Toolbox and by parental completion of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF. All eight patients completed the study, using the iPad for an average of 78 minutes/week. Children and parents reported high satisfaction with the application. Though a demonstration of efficacy was not the focus of the study, performance improvements were noted on a processing speed task and on a measure of fluid intelligence. An iPad based cognitive therapy was found to be a feasible intervention for children with CAE.

  17. Ventricular Tachycardia in the Absence of Structural Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. P. Scott

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In up to 10% of patients who present with ventricular tachycardia (VT, obvious structural heart disease is not identified. In such patients, causes of ventricular arrhythmia include right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT VT, extrasystoles, idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT, idiopathic propranolol-sensitive VT (IPVT, catecholaminergic polymorphic VT (CPVT, Brugada syndrome, and long QT syndrome (LQTS. RVOT VT, ILVT, and IPVT are referred to as idiopathic VT and generally do not have a familial basis. RVOT VT and ILVT are monomorphic, whereas IPVT may be monomorphic or polymorphic. The idiopathic VTs are classified by the ventricle of origin, the response to pharmacologic agents, catecholamine dependence, and the specific morphologic features of the arrhythmia. CPVT, Brugada syndrome, and LQTS are inherited ion channelopathies. CPVT may present as bidirectional VT, polymorphic VT, or catecholaminergic ventricular fibrillation. Syncope and sudden death in Brugada syndrome are usually due to polymorphic VT. The characteristic arrhythmia of LQTS is torsades de pointes. Overall, patients with idiopathic VT have a better prognosis than do patients with ventricular arrhythmias and structural heart disease. Initial treatment approach is pharmacologic and radiofrequency ablation is curative in most patients. However, radiofrequency ablation is not useful in the management of inherited ion channelopathies. Prognosis for patients with VT secondary to ion channelopathies is variable. High-risk patients (recurrent syncope and sudden cardiac death survivors with inherited ion channelopathies benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement. This paper reviews the mechanism, clinical presentation, and management of VT in the absence of structural heart disease.

  18. Peace is more than the absence of war

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Last week, the UN Office at Geneva (UNOG) issued an infographic that gives a snapshot of what international Geneva does to foster peace around the world. Its publication was part of the UN’s ongoing campaign to show the remarkable breadth and depth of work carried out by Geneva’s international organisations, and it was released through the Twitter account @GenevaImpact with the hashtag #FridayInfographic. Michael Møller, Director-General of UNOG, blogged about it in the Huffington Post (see here).     In his blog, Mr Møller points out all the ways that the UN works every day to translate peace into food, shelter, water, healthcare, education and decent work, as well as freedom, rights, and equality. In Geneva, he says, organisations contribute to peace in all its different shapes and forms. And, he says, peace is much more than the absence of war. The reason I’m drawing attention to this is that CERN takes pride of place in the...

  19. Source memory in the absence of successful cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Gabriel I; Marsh, Richard L; Hicks, Jason L

    2006-07-01

    Five experiments were conducted to address the question of whether source information could be accessed in the absence of being able to recall an item. The authors used a paired-associate learning paradigm in which cue-target word pairs were studied, and target recall was requested in the presence of the cue. When target recall failed, participants were asked to make a source judgment of whether a man or woman spoke the unrecalled item. In 3 of the 5 experiments, source accuracy was at or very close to chance. By contrast, if cue-target pairs were studied multiple times or participants knew in advance of learning that a predictive judgment would be required, then predictive source accuracy was well above chance. These data are suggestive that context information may not play a very large role in metacognitive judgments such as feeling-of-knowing ratings or putting one into a tip-of-the-tongue state without strong and specific encoding procedures. These same results also highlight the important role that item memory plays in retrieving information about the context in which an item was experienced. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Absence of diffusion in disordered spin-chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Snir; Khait, Ilia; Yao, Norman; Auerbach, Assa

    We study the dynamical properties of the one dimensional XXZ model at infinite temperature in the presence of quench disorder. This model is expected to exhibit a many body localization (MBL) transition at finite disorder. We compute the local dynamical spin correlation function using a non-perturbative continued fraction expansion. The expansion up to 15th order is sufficient to achieve convergence of our extrapolation scheme. We compare the continued fraction result to the exact diagonalization (ED) on 22 sites. The phase diagram is determined in the disorder-anisotropy plane. Our main finding is the emergence of sub-diffusive transport and absence of a diffusive behavior (ω - 1 / 2 at low frequencies) in the weak disorder regime. The lack of a true diffusive phase contrasts with previous results and expectations obtained from smaller system sizes. In addition, the MBL transition is determined to occur at lower values than those deduced by ED on finite systems. Lastly, the finite frequency-momentum dynamical structure factor is computed and we explore its space-time scaling behavior.

  1. Cerebellar neurodegeneration in the absence of microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Anne; O'Carroll, Dónal; Tan, Chan Lek; Hillman, Dean; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo; Greengard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Genome-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression. The significance of miRNAs in various biological processes has been suggested by studies showing an important role of these small RNAs in regulation of cell differentiation. However, the role of miRNAs in regulation of differentiated cell physiology is not well established. Mature neurons express a large number of distinct miRNAs, but the role of miRNAs in postmitotic neurons has not been examined. Here, we provide evidence for an essential role of miRNAs in survival of differentiated neurons. We show that conditional Purkinje cell–specific ablation of the key miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer leads to Purkinje cell death. Deficiency in Dicer is associated with progressive loss of miRNAs, followed by cerebellar degeneration and development of ataxia. The progressive neurodegeneration in the absence of Dicer raises the possibility of an involvement of miRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:17606634

  2. Upper Limb Absence: Predictors of Work Participation and Work Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2016-06-01

    To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops. Individuals (n=207) with unilateral transverse upper limb reduction deficiency (RD) or acquired amputation (AA), at or proximal to the carpal level, between the ages of 18 and 65 years, and a convenience sample of control subjects (n=90) matched on age and sex. Not applicable. Employment status, self-reported work productivity measured with the Quality-Quantity method, and self-reported upper extremity work demands measured with the Upper Extremity Work Demands scale. Seventy-four percent of the individuals with RD and 57% of the individuals with AA were employed (vs 82% of the control group and 66% of the general population). Male sex, younger age, a medium or higher level of education, prosthesis use, and good general health were predictors of work participation. Work productivity was similar to that of the control group. Higher work productivity was inversely related to musculoskeletal complaint-related pain. When having predominantly mentally demanding work, individuals with ULA perceived higher upper extremity work demands compared with controls. Work participation of individuals with RD was slightly higher compared with that of the general population, whereas employment rates of individuals with AA were slightly lower. Furthermore, work productivity did not differ between individuals with RD, AA, and controls. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Frontal and temporal volumes in Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Rochelle; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Wu, Keng Nei; Gurbani, Suresh; Sankar, Raman; Shields, W Donald

    2009-11-01

    This study compared frontotemporal brain volumes in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) to age- and gender-matched children without epilepsy. It also examined the association of these volumes with seizure, demographic, perinatal, intelligence quotient (IQ), and psychopathology variables. Twenty-six children with CAE, aged 7.5-11.8 years, and 37 children without epilepsy underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 1.5 Tesla. Tissue was segmented, and total brain, frontal lobe, frontal parcellations, and temporal lobe volumes were computed. All children had IQ testing and structured psychiatric interviews. Parents provided seizure, perinatal, and behavioral information on each child. The CAE group had significantly smaller gray matter volumes of the left orbital frontal gyrus as well as both left and right temporal lobes compared to the age- and gender-matched children without epilepsy. In the CAE group these volumes were related to age, gender, ethnicity, and pregnancy complications but not to seizure, IQ, and psychopathology variables. In the group of children without epilepsy, however, the volumes were related to IQ. These findings suggest that CAE impacts brain development in regions implicated in behavior, cognition, and language. In addition to supporting the cortical focus theory of CAE, these findings also imply that CAE is not a benign disorder.

  4. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit audiovisual association learning task with two different colors of red and purple (the latter color known to minimally activate the extra-genicular pathway). Interestingly, the patient learned the association between an auditory cue and a visual stimulus only when the unseen visual stimulus was red, but not when it was purple. The current study presents the first evidence showing the possibility of audiovisual association learning in humans with lesioned striate cortex. Furthermore, in line with animal studies, it supports an important role for the SC in audiovisual associative learning.

  5. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso eBontognali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries. More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS – the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  6. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z

    2017-01-03

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca 2+ entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil reduced NMDA-activated currents, but had no effect on the mechanically induced Ca 2+ influx. Extracellular Mg 2+ at 2 mM did not significantly affect the shear induced Ca 2+ influx, but at 10 mM it produced significant inhibition. Patch clamp experiments showed mechanical activation of NMDAR and inhibition by MK-801. The mechanical sensitivity of NMDARs may play a role in the normal physiology of fluid flow in the glymphatic system and it has obvious relevance to TBI.

  7. Enhanced clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the absence of calnexin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Dong Li

    Full Text Available Calnexin, together with calreticulin, constitute the calnexin/calreticulin cycle. Calnexin is a type I endoplasmic reticulum integral membrane protein and molecular chaperone responsible for the folding and quality control of newly-synthesized (glycoproteins. The endoplasmic reticulum luminal domain of calnexin is responsible for lectin-like activity and interaction with nascent polypeptide chains. The role of the C-terminal, cytoplasmic portion of calnexin is not clear.Using yeast two hybrid screen and immunoprecipitation techniques, we showed that the Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (Endophilin interacting protein 1 (SGIP1, a neuronal specific regulator of endocytosis, forms complexes with the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of calnexin. The calnexin cytoplasmic C-tail interacts with SGIP1 C-terminal domains containing the adaptor complexes medium subunit (Adap-Comp-Sub region. Calnexin-deficient cells have enhanced clathrin-dependent endocytosis in neuronal cells and mouse neuronal system. This is reversed by expression of full length calnexin or calnexin C-tail.We show that the effects of SGIP1 and calnexin C-tail on clathrin-dependent endocytosis are due to modulation of the internalization of the receptor-ligand complexes. Enhanced clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the absence of calnexin may contribute to the neurological phenotype of calnexin-deficient mice.

  8. The Stigma of Stress and The Absence of Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølholm, Martin; Vetner, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    For more than 15 years, stress has set the agenda in the Danish work-life discourses. Every day 35,000 employees are reportedly absent from work due to stress-related illnesses, and stress is estimated to cost the Danish society approx. 14 billion DKK per year. Stress is a serious threat to both...... on stress in Danish journals on leadership and management and in newspapers over a decade has contributed to creating an intricate stress stigma and an absence of agency. Seit mehr als 15 Jahren setzt Stress die Agenda in die dänischen Work-Life-Diskurse. Täglich fehlen 35.000 Beschäftigte aufgrund von...... physical and mental health as well as to the general well-being of the population. Compared to other discourses, the discourse on stress is characterized by a notable lack of agency or policies for how to act or, in this case, ways to deal with stress. This article describes how a substantial discourse...

  9. Absence of synaptic regulation by phosducin in retinal slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Long

    Full Text Available Phosducin is an abundant photoreceptor protein that binds G-protein βγ subunits and plays a role in modulating synaptic transmission at photoreceptor synapses under both dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions in vivo. To examine the role of phosducin at the rod-to-rod bipolar cell (RBC synapse, we used whole-cell voltage clamp recordings to measure the light-evoked currents from both wild-type (WT and phosducin knockout (Pd(-/- RBCs, in dark- and light-adapted retinal slices. Pd(-/- RBCs showed smaller dim flash responses and steeper intensity-response relationships than WT RBCs, consistent with the smaller rod responses being selectively filtered out by the non-linear threshold at the rod-to-rod bipolar synapse. In addition, Pd(-/- RBCs showed a marked delay in the onset of the light-evoked currents, similar to that of a WT response to an effectively dimmer flash. Comparison of the changes in flash sensitivity in the presence of steady adapting light revealed that Pd(-/- RBCs desensitized less than WT RBCs to the same intensity. These results are quantitatively consistent with the smaller single photon responses of Pd(-/- rods, owing to the known reduction in rod G-protein expression levels in this line. The absence of an additional synaptic phenotype in these experiments suggests that the function of phosducin at the photoreceptor synapse is abolished by the conditions of retinal slice recordings.

  10. Analysis of a case of drug-resistant childhood absence epilepsy concurrent with mysophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of childhood absence epilepsy concurrent with mysophobia, panic attacks, and the development of alternative psychosis in an accentuated girl with drug-induced remission of absence seizures and EEG changes.

  11. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. Purposes: This study investigated the relationship

  12. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to

  13. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  14. Frequency of palmaris longus absence and its association with other anatomical variations in the Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, Hoda Abdel; Kader, Ghada Abdel; Jaradat, Ahmed; Dharap, Amol; Fadel, Raouf; Salem, Abdel Halim

    2013-07-01

    The palmaris longus (PL) is one of the most variable muscles in the human body. Racial differences in its variation have been documented. Several studies have attempted to correlate PL absence with other anatomical variations. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of absence of PL, correlate it with gender and body side and to determine its association with other anatomical variations in the Egyptian population. The presence of PL was clinically determined in 386 Egyptians using the standard technique. All subjects were examined for the presence of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the fifth finger. Allen's test was done to assess the completeness of the superficial palmar arch (SPA). The overall prevalence of absence of the PL in Egyptian subjects was 50.8%. There was no significant difference in PL absence with regard to the body side but a significant difference was seen as regards gender and when bilateral absence of PL was compared to its unilateral absence. Absence of FDS tendon to the fifth finger was seen in 1.3% subjects. There was no association between the absence of the FDS tendon to the fifth finger and either presence or absence of PL and also between the absence of PL and the incompleteness of SPA in both genders. In conclusion, the prevalence of absence of PL in the Egyptian population represents one of the highest rates of absence to be reported for this muscle, which is significantly different from that in other ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The role of SLC2A1 in early onset and childhood absence epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhle, Hiltrud; Helbig, Ingo; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2013-01-01

    Early Onset Absence Epilepsy constitutes an Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with absences starting before the age of four years. Mutations in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter, account for approximately 10% of EOAE cases. The role of SLC2A1 mutations in absence epilepsies with a later onset...

  16. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-9 - Maternity and paternity absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maternity and paternity absence. 1.410(a)-9... Maternity and paternity absence. (a) Elapsed time—(1) Rule. For purposes of applying the rules of § 1.410(a...)(5)(E) and 411(a)(6)(E) (relating to maternity or paternity absence), the severance from service date...

  17. Associations of work ability with frequent and long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different

  18. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  19. The gender gap in sickness absence from work and the influence of parental absence on offspring absence 15 years later: register-based cohort of Norwegians born in 1974-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind

    2015-07-21

    Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents' and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would have a stronger impact for women than for men. All persons born alive between 1974 and 1976 in Norway were followed up in several national registries. Employed persons considered to be at risk of sickness absence and also with parents at risk of sickness absence (n = 78,878) were followed in the calendar year of their 33(rd) birthday with respect to spells lasting >16 days. The probability of one or more spells during this year constituted the one-year risk under study. Additive risk differences in association with an exposure (parental sickness absence 15 years earlier) were estimated in a binomial regression analysis. The estimates were adjusted for parental socioeconomic factors. The 1-year sickness absence risk was higher for women (30.4%) than for men (12.3%). The crude risk differences between those exposed and those unexposed to parental sickness absence were similar in percentage points (PP) for women (3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 4.9) and men (3.8; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.6). The risk differences were moderately attenuated after adjustment for parental education and father's income to 3.4 PP (2.2 to 4.5) for women and 2.8 PP (2.0 to 3.7) for men. Male absence was more strongly associated with the father's than with the mother's sickness absence, while associations for women were stronger for the same diagnostic groups as their parents. Parental sickness absence was moderately associated with sickness absence in the next generation. Bias from unmeasured confounders cannot

  20. Parental presence or absence during paediatric burn wound care procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Marthe R; de Jong, Alette E E; Hofland, Helma W C; Geenen, Rinie; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2017-12-18

    Differing views on benefits and disadvantages of parental presence during their child's wound care after burn injury leave the topic surrounded by controversies. This study aimed to describe and explain parents' experiences of their presence or absence during wound care. Shortly after the burn event, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children (0-16 years old) that underwent hospitalization in one of the three Dutch burn centers. Eighteen of these parents also participated in follow-up interviews three to six months after discharge. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Analyses resulted in themes that were integrated into a model, summarizing key aspects of parental presence during wound care. These aspects include parental cognitions and emotions (e.g., shared distress during wound care), parental abilities and needs (e.g., controlling own emotions, being responsive, and gaining overall control) and the role of burn care professionals. Findings emphasize the distressing nature of wound care procedures. Despite the distress, parents expressed their preference to be present. The abilities to control their own emotions and to be responsive to the child's needs were considered beneficial for both the child and the parent. Importantly, being present increased a sense of control in parents that helped them to cope with the situation. For parents not present, the professional was the intermediary to provide information about the healing process that helped parents to deal with the situation. In sum, the proposed model provides avenues for professionals to assess parents' abilities and needs on a daily basis and to adequately support the child and parent during wound care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling pathogenesis and treatment response in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Andrew T; Glauser, Tracy; Tenney, Jeffrey; Lytton, William W; Holland, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome with polygenic inheritance, with genes for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors and T-type calcium channels implicated in the disorder. Previous studies of T-type calcium channel electrophysiology have shown genetic changes and medications have multiple effects. The aim of this study was to use an established thalamocortical computer model to determine how T-type calcium channels work in concert with cortical excitability to contribute to pathogenesis and treatment response in CAE. The model is comprised of cortical pyramidal, cortical inhibitory, thalamocortical relay, and thalamic reticular single-compartment neurons, implemented with Hodgkin-Huxley model ion channels and connected by AMPA, GABA A , and GABA B synapses. Network behavior was simulated for different combinations of T-type calcium channel conductance, inactivation time, steady state activation/inactivation shift, and cortical GABA A conductance. Decreasing cortical GABA A conductance and increasing T-type calcium channel conductance converted spindle to spike and wave oscillations; smaller changes were required if both were changed in concert. In contrast, left shift of steady state voltage activation/inactivation did not lead to spike and wave oscillations, whereas right shift reduced network propensity for oscillations of any type. These results provide a window into mechanisms underlying polygenic inheritance in CAE, as well as a mechanism for treatment effects and failures mediated by these channels. Although the model is a simplification of the human thalamocortical network, it serves as a useful starting point for predicting the implications of ion channel electrophysiology in polygenic epilepsy such as CAE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Associations between health and combinations of sickness presence and absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, K; Marklund, S

    2014-01-01

    The association between sickness presence (SP), sickness absence (SA) and health is not well known although research on these phenomena has grown in recent years. To identify the health outcomes of different combinations of self-reported SP and SA while controlling for background and work-related factors. The study group was a representative three-wave sample of 1886 employed individuals from the Swedish Working Life Cohort, gathered in 2004-2006. Block-wise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for combinations of self-reported SP and SA, using controls for background, work-related and previous health factors. The crude odds ratios showed that health and mental well-being were most negatively affected in the group with high SP and SA in the preceding year. When differences in individual background, health and work-related factors were controlled for, distinct significant odds ratios remained. The odds ratios for negative health outcomes were between 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02-2.18) and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.81-3.85) higher among those with both high SP and high SA than those with both low SP and low SA. However, the study also indicated that individuals with high SP and low SA showed the highest odds ratios for poor mental well-being. The results showed that combinations of frequent self-rated SP and SA are related to negative values in the four measured aspects of self-reported health 1 year later. Occupational medicine practitioners should therefore be concerned particularly with employees who report frequently occurring SP and SA.

  3. Laparoscopic surgery for solitary insulinoma in the absence of IOUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Narendra Dalvi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulinomas are the most common pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. In spite of adequate pre-operative localisation, conventional surgical methods rely on intraoperative palpation. Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS is said to aid in accurate localisation, decreases morbidity. Laparoscopic removal of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms is beneficial due to magnification and minimal invasion; however, in the absence of IOUS, error of judgement may lead to conversion to open surgery, thereby relying on 'palpation method' to localise the tumour. We combined laparoscopic surgical removal of insulinomas using an innovative method of 'laparoscopic finger palpation' with intraoperative blood glucose monitoring and frozen section for surgical cure. Materials and Methods: Patients were evaluated and investigated by the department of endocrinology and referred for surgical management of insulinoma. Pre-operative localisation of insulinoma was done by either contrast-enhanced computerised tomography angiogram – arterial and venous phase, or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS or DOTATATE scan. Intraoperative localisation was done by laparoscopic dissection and 'laparoscopic finger palpation'. After enucleation, the specimen was sent for frozen section, and in the interim period, serial monitoring of blood glucose was done by the anaesthetist. Maintenance of glucose levels for more than 45 min after enucleation and confirmation of neuroendocrine tumour on frozen section was the end point of surgical procedure. Results: A total of 19 patients were subjected to laparoscopic removal of solitary insulinomas. Enucleation was performed in 16 patients successfully. In three patients, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was performed. Three patients had pancreatic duct leak, of which two patients responded to conservative approach and the third patient required drainage by USG-guided pigtail catheter. All patients are cured of their disease and no patient has had

  4. The gender gap in sickness absence from work and the influence of parental absence on offspring absence 15?years later: register-based cohort of Norwegians born in 1974?1976

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind

    2015-01-01

    Background Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents? and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would h...

  5. School absence and its effect on school performance for children born with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jane; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Turner, Robin; Bower, Carol; Dodson, Alan; Hancock, Kirsten; Nassar, Natasha

    2017-07-17

    School absence is associated with lower performance on standardized tests. Children born with orofacial clefts (OFC) are likely to have more absence than children without OFC; however, school absence for children with OFC has not been quantified. We aimed to describe school absence and its relationship with school performance for children with and without OFC. Population-based record-linked cohort study of children (402 with OFC, 1789 without OFC) enrolled in schools in Western Australia, 2008 to 2012. We compared median school absence rates using Wilcoxon rank tests, and investigated the impact of school absence on standardized scores from reading, numeracy, and writing tests, using multivariable models fitted by generalized estimating equations. In Semester 1, at each primary school year level, children without OFC and children with cleft lip only or cleft palate only had similar median absence rates (approximately 1 week). Children with cleft lip and palate had significantly higher absence rates in Years 4 to 6 (between 1 and 2 weeks). During secondary school, median absence rates were higher (2 weeks) for all children, but not statistically different between children with and without OFC. Higher absence was significantly associated with lower standardized reading, numeracy, and writing scores. However, having a cleft of any type had little influence on the association between absence and test scores. School absence affected school performance for all children. Absence did not differentially disadvantage children born with OFC, suggesting current practices to identify and support children with OFC are minimizing effects of their absence on school performance. Birth Defects Research 109:1048-1056, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Narcissism and other-derogation in the absence of ego threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

    2015-06-01

    The relation between narcissism and other-derogation has been examined primarily in the context of ego threat. In three studies, we investigated whether narcissistic individuals derogate others in the absence of ego threat. In Study 1, 79 judges watched four videotaped dyadic interactions and rated the personality of the same four people. In Study 2, 66 judges rated the personality of a friend. In Study 3, 72 judges considered the average Northeastern University student and rated the personality of this hypothetical person. Across the three studies, targets' personality characteristics were described on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Judges' ratings of targets were compared to a CAQ prototype of the optimally adjusted person to assess target-derogation. Judges' narcissism and other-derogation were positively related in Studies 1 and 2. Narcissism positively predicted and self-esteem negatively predicted target-derogation after controlling for each other in Study 3. Narcissistic individuals derogate others more than non-narcissistic individuals regardless of whether ego threat is present or absent. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Workers' opinions on the effect of contact with health care providers on sickness absence duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy

    2014-01-01

    Because of the aging working population and the increasing age of retirement the number of workers with chronic illnesses and disabilities is growing. It is important that workers with health complaints receive efficient health care in order to remain fully or at least partly productive. To explore workers' opinions about the effectiveness of contact with health care providers in shortening sickness absence duration. Data come from a four-wave study from 2005 to 2008 among Dutch workers (n=1,424). Data were obtained on visits to health care providers, sickness absence and workers' opinions on whether and how their absence could have been shortened. A third of the workers were of the opinion that the health care provider (most often the general practitioner, GP) had played a role in preventing sickness absence and 35% were of the opinion that the health care provider had limited their absence. Most often the physical therapist (71%) and mental health therapist (61%) shortened sickness absence duration, in contrast to the occupational physician (OP, 25%) and GP (32%). The effectiveness of the health care providers' treatment was associated with the cause of sickness absence. Approximately 15% of the workers reported that their sickness absence could have been shortened if health care providers had provided the proper treatment and if waiting times had been reduced. Health care providers differ in their potential to shorten sickness absence duration. Health care providers can further reduce sickness absence and health care costs by providing the proper treatment and by reducing waiting times.

  8. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; van der Beek, Allard J; Smid, Tjabe

    2017-01-11

    Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees) cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days) and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02-1.69). Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to be negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes, and

  9. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwin van Drongelen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. Methods This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. Results After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02–1.69. Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to

  10. Measures of work-family conflict predict sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clays, Els; Kittel, France; Godin, Isabelle; Bacquer, Dirk De; Backer, Guy De

    2009-08-01

    To examine the relation between work-family conflict and sickness absence. The BELSTRESS III study comprised 2983 middle-aged workers. Strain-based work-home interference (WHI) and home-work interference (HWI) were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12-months follow-up were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted. HWI was positively and significantly related to high sickness absence duration (at least 10 sick leave days) and high sickness absence frequency (at least 3 sick leave episodes) in men and women, also after adjustments were made for sociodemographic variables, health indicators, and environmental psychosocial factors. In multivariate analysis, no association between WHI and sickness absence was found. HWI was positively and significantly related to high sickness absence duration and frequency during 12-months follow-up in male and female workers.

  11. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response...... rate was 78%. A cohort of 5627 shift and day workers was followed for sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks and for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks in a sickness compensation register covering all social transfer payments in Denmark. RESULTS: Among the evening workers, the rate ratio (RR......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....

  12. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS...

  13. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS...... of dependent and independent variables in the two sub-cohorts. Stratified logistic regression analysis was performed to identify causes for absence within the two sub-cohorts, and logistic regression analysis was performed to study differences in sickness absence levels between the two sub-cohorts. RESULTS......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...

  14. Leakage from medically-certified to self-certified workplace absence among norwegian employees

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Geir Runar; Ytterstad, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20021518.2017.1411119 There are two different kinds of sickness absence in Norway: self-certified absence (SCA), and medically-certified absence (MCA). In this study of 6437 Norwegian employees, we applied logistic regression models for a dichotomous SCA variable on initially 38 independent vari- ables including age and gender. Our findings showed that employees reporting long-term health issues but no record of MCA in the past 12 months (...

  15. Time to recurrence of mental health-related absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norder, G; Hoedeman, R; de Bruin, J; van Rhenen, W; Roelen, C A M

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic categories. A 10-year observational study of workers employed at a steel mill. Sickness absence data were retrieved from an occupational health register. Mental health-related absences were defined as absence due to emotional disturbance or mental and behavioural disorders. The first mental health-related absence since baseline was called the index episode. Recurrences were defined as mental health-related absences occurring >28 days after recovery from the index episode. The frequency of recurrent mental health-related absence was assessed by the recurrence density (RD) per 1000 person-years. The time to recurrent mental health-related absence was investigated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of 15461 workers, 391 had recurrent mental health-related absences. RD was 30.5, 34.3, 29.9 and 37.7 per 1000 person-years after index episodes due to emotional disturbance, mood disorders, neurotic disorders and other psychiatric disorders, respectively. RDs did not differ across ICD-10 diagnostic categories. The median time to recurrent mental health-related absence was 15.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6-17.7] and was shortest for mood disorders (5.2, 95% CI 1.4-8.9 months) and specific psychiatric disorders (5.3, 95% CI 1.0-13.1 months). Based on this observational study, we suggest that occupational and primary health care providers consider reviewing the mental health status of workers 6 months after recovery from mental health-related absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Bilateral congenital absence of the long head of the biceps tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplas, Monica C. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute/HB6, Cleveland, OH (United States); Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute/A21, Cleveland, OH (United States); Ulmer, William H. [Orthopedic and Spine Specialists, York, PA (United States); Recht, Michael [NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Absence of the long head of the biceps tendon is a rare anomaly particularly when it occurs bilaterally. We present the magnetic resonance and arthroscopy findings in a patient with bilateral congenital absence of the long head of the biceps who presented with bilateral shoulder pain. Identification of a shallow or absent intertubercular groove may aid in differentiating congenital absence of the long head of the biceps from a traumatic tendon rupture. (orig.)

  17. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    . The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes....

  18. Workplace bullying and sickness absence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Indregard, Anne-Marthe Rustad; Øverland, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The association between workplace bullying and sickness absence remains unclear. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on the association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published primary studies on workplace bullying and sickness absence. Studies based on prospective design or registry data on sickness absence were included. Cross-sectional studies with self-reported sickness absence were excluded. Seventeen primary studies were included in the review, sixteen originated from the Nordic countries and fifteen included registry data on sickness absence. All but one study found that exposure to workplace bullying was associated with increased risk of sickness absence. A meta-analysis of ten independent studies showed that exposure to bullying increased the risk of sickness absence (odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.39-1.79). Five studies included variables that moderated the association between bullying and absenteeism. None of the studies included mediating variables. No studies examined sickness absence as a risk factor for later exposure to bullying. Following the GRADE guidelines, the evidence for an association between bullying and sickness absence is moderate. Workplace bullying is a risk factor for sickness absence, but the mechanisms to explain this relationship are not sufficiently described. It is unclear whether sickness absence predicts later exposure to bullying. While, the methodological quality of the reviewed studies was high, the knowledge base is small. There is a need for more research on how and when bullying is related to sickness absence and the possible bidirectional relationships involved.

  19. Congenital absence of the lumbar facet joint associated with bilateral spondylolysis of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Kasai, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a rare case of congenital absence of lumbar facet joint manifesting as low back pain. Physical examination showed no neurological or hematologic abnormalities. Radiography revealed absence of a facet joint on the right side of L4-5. Computed tomography and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed absence of the facet joint on the right side of L4-5 and spondylolysis on both sides of L5. Pain subsided after conservative treatment. This is an extremely rare case of congenital absence of lumbar facet joint associated with bilateral spondylolysis.

  20. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Multilevel analysis of workplace and individual risk factors for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine if psychosocial and physical work-environment factors predict long-term sickness absence (>8 weeks) at both the individual and the workplace level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces....... Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel logistic regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors of long-term sickness absence over 5 years based on data from a national absence register. RESULTS: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by physical work...

  2. The Influence of Inadequate Teacher-to-Student Social Support on Amotivation of Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Li, Weidong; Sun, Haichun; Rukavina, Paul Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Guided by Green-Demers, Leagult, Pelletier, and Pelletier's (2008) assumption that amotivation (absence of motivation) is a multidimensional construct, we designed this study to investigate the influence of inadequate teacher-to-student social support on amotivation of high-school physical education students. Five hundred and sixty-six ninth…

  3. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  4. Do work factors modify the association between chronic health problems and sickness absence among older employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to (i) assess how common chronic health problems and work-related factors predict sickness absence and (ii) explore whether work-related factors modify the effects of health problems on sickness absence. A one-year longitudinal study was conducted among employed persons aged 45-64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (N = 8984). The presence of common chronic health problems and work-related factors was determined at baseline and self-reported sickness absence at one-year follow-up by questionnaire. Multinomial multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between health, work factors, and sickness absence, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) techniques were used to test effect modification. Common health problems were related to follow-up sickness absence, most strongly to high cumulative sickness absence (> 9 days per year). Baseline psychological health problems were strongly related to high sickness absence at follow-up [odds ratio (OR) 3.67, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.80-4.82]. Higher job demands at baseline increased the likelihood of high sickness absence at follow-up among workers with severe headaches [RERI 1.35 (95% CI 0.45-2.25)] and psychological health problems [RERI 3.51 (95% CI 0.67-6.34)] at baseline. Lower autonomy at baseline increased the likelihood of high sickness absence at follow-up among those with musculoskeletal [RERI 0.57 (95% CI 0.05-1.08)], circulatory [RERI 0.82 (95% CI 0.00-1.63)], and psychological health problems [RERI 2.94 (95% CI 0.17-5.70)] at baseline. Lower autonomy and higher job demands increased the association of an array of common chronic health problems with sickness absence, and thus focus should be placed on altering these factors in order to reduce sickness absence and essentially promote sustainable employability.

  5. Neologisms in the information society: analysis of its presence and absence in lexicographical school sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta PRAT SABATER

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} The flow of words among different countries and the creation of neologisms are constant in today’s Information Society and young people generally seem to be the most receptive group to acquire these new words. Some factors such as migration, the popularization of Internet and the spreading of social networks have brought new words into Spanish which become established especially in the spoken language. Therefore, our aim is to test the degree of acceptance that the words used frequently among schoolchildren and teenagers have in lexicographical works. In our study, we have selected a corpus consisting of 40 terms, sorted according to regionalisms, colloquialisms or loanwords, and we have analysed its presence or absence in different school dictionaries of both primary and secondary school, and in academic sources. We have also studied the notes that indicate the register that the terms belong to, the spelling guidelines and the pronunciation of foreign words. For the selection of the terms, we have based our search on several Facebook profiles of high school students, and online magazines such as Superpop.

  6. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  7. The Correlates of Childhood Father Absence in College-aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Louise; Feig, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Personality and attitudinal correlates of father absence early (before age 5) or late (between 5 and 11) in childhood were studied in a sample of college- aged women. Father absence was due to either death or divorce. Results showed few differences between father-absent subjects and father-present controls. (Author/JMB)

  8. Absence of positive eigenvalues for hard-core N-body systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, K.; Skibsted, Erik

    We show absence of positive eigenvalues for generalized 2-body hard-core Schrödinger operators under the condition of bounded strictly convex obstacles. A scheme for showing absence of positive eigenvalues for generalized N-body hard-core Schrödinger operators, N≥ 2, is presented. This scheme inv...

  9. Linkage and association analysis of CACNG3 in childhood absence epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everett, Kate V; Chioza, Barry; Aicardi, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an idiopathic generalised epilepsy characterised by absence seizures manifested by transitory loss of awareness with 2.5-4 Hz spike-wave complexes on ictal EEG. A genetic component to aetiology is established but the mechanism of inheritance and the genes...

  10. Longitudinal Relationships Between Organizational Justice, Productivity Loss, and Sickness Absence Among Older Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice. METHOD: A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted

  11. Longitudinal relationships between organizational justice, productivity, loss and sickness absence older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice.Method A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted

  12. The Behavioral Effects of Father Absence on Children and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, E. Doyle; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated effect of father presence or absence in the home in New York City families: welfare AFDC families and lower-middle income families. Results indicated that children of surrogate fathers revealed significantly more behavioral difficulties. Cross-section children and mothers were more adversely affected by father absence than others.…

  13. Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia, a transitional fertility population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions.

  14. Multiple schwannomas of cauda equine in the absence of von Recklinghausen's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaoglu, Cetin R.; Sengul, G.; Aydin, Ismail H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple schwannomas in the absence of neurofibromatosis is rarely reported in the literature. We present a 56-year-old female with a history of severe leg and back pain on the left side for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 4 schwannomas located in the cauda equine in the absence of von Recklinghausen's disease. (author)

  15. Effect of Psychosocial Work Environment on Sickness Absence Among Patients Treated for Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    -force becomes increasingly important. Previous studies among healthy workers suggest that the psychosocial working environment is associated with sickness absence. Whether the psychosocial working environment plays a role for patients with existing cardiovascular disease on return to work and sickness absence...

  16. 25 CFR 700.841 - Determination of loss or absence of archaeological interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of loss or absence of archaeological... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.841 Determination of loss or absence of... providing scientific or humanistic understandings of past human behavior, cultural adaptation, and related...

  17. 29 CFR 1690.306 - Formal submission in absence of consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal submission in absence of consultation. 1690.306... § 1690.306 Formal submission in absence of consultation. If an initiating agency has an issuance which was already under development on or before July 1, 1978, when Executive Order 12067 became effective...

  18. Military service absences and family members' mental health: A timeline followback assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-08-01

    Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Kjekshus, Lars Erik

    2012-09-17

    Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager's behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager's behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%). Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35) and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers' display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. The findings clearly support the line manager's importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager's role in change processes is needed.

  20. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....

  1. Do work factors modify the association between chronic health problems and sickness absence among older employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aim of this study was to (i) assess how common chronic health problems and work-related factors predict sickness absence and (ii) explore whether work-related factors modify the effects of health problems on sickness absence. Methods A one-year longitudinal study was

  2. Association Between Cortisol to DHEA-s Ratio and Sickness Absence in Japanese Male Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Fujii, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and sickness absence over 2 years in Japanese male workers. A baseline survey including questions about health behavior, along with blood sampling for cortisol and DHEA-s, was conducted in 2009. In total, 429 men (mean ± SD age, 52.9 ± 8.6 years) from whom blood samples were collected at baseline were followed until December 31, 2011. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sickness absence were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for potential confounders. Among 35 workers who took sickness absences, 31 had physical illness. A high cortisol to DHEA-s ratio increased the risk of sickness absence (crude HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.12-6.41; adjusted HR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.35-8.20). The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio was linearly associated with an increased risk of sickness absence (p for trend sickness absences. This trend did not change when limited to absences resulting from physical illness. Hormonal conditions related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and adrenal function should be considered when predicting sickness absence. The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio may be more informative than single effects of cortisol and DHEA-s levels.

  3. Exploring the linkage between the home domain and absence from work: Health, motivation, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brummelhuis, L.L.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; de Jong, M.D.T.; Peper, B.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. First, we examined depleting and enriching effects of employees' home domain (home demands and quality time spent at home) on unscheduled absence from work. Second, we tested the assumption of the medical and withdrawal models that absence duration and frequency

  4. Self-rated health and sickness-related absence: the modifying role of civic participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.; ter Hoeven, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined civic participation as an effect modifier between self-rated health and absence from work. Building on the theoretical framework of social exchange, we use German data to test a conceptual model relating self-rated health to sickness-related absence, as well as the

  5. Work-related determinants of return to work of employees on long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to identify work-related determinants of return to work (RTW) of employees who are on long-term sickness absence. Method. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence ( maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline

  6. Genetic absence rats have a lower threshold for limbic type of afterdischarges: a cortical stimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Chepurnov, S.A.; Mares, P.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Chepurnov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Classical theories on absence epilepsy suggest that a hyperexcitable cortex is a precondition for the occurrence of absence seizures. In the present experiment seizure thresholds and cortical epileptic afterdischarges (AD) were determined in a comparative study of genetically epileptic WAG/Rij,

  7. Labour Market Segregation and Gender Differences in Sickness Absence: Trends in 2005-2013 in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Taina; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Virta, Lauri J; Laaksonen, Mikko; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2018-04-18

    Women have higher sickness absence rate than men, but less is known of changes in this difference over time. We examined gender differences in sickness absence trends focusing on gender segregation in the labour market. We used large nationwide register data on Finnish wage earners aged 25-59 and generalized estimation equations based on repeated logistic regression to estimate the annual risk of sickness absence lasting at least 2 weeks. Between 2005 and 2013, the age-adjusted proportion (%) of employees with all-cause sickness absence decreased from the initial levels of 10.6 among men and 15.1 among women by 16.7 and 13.6%, respectively. Among both genders, the largest decrease in sickness absence coincided with the peak of the economic recession in 2009. In sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases, also the excess decrease among men mainly occurred in 2009, and in sickness absence due to mental disorders 2 years later. In sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases, the increasing gender difference was mainly attributable to a larger decrease in sickness absence at the time of the recession in male-dominated groups, such as in manual and manufacturing work, than in other sectors and occupational classes. In mental disorders, the increasing gender difference was partly attributable to a later smaller decrease in sickness absence among female-dominated lower non-manual and lower income employment groups. The increasing gender differences did not result from differential distributional changes in employment or sociodemographic factors among the employed male and female populations. In fact, widening of the gender gap in sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases would have been even larger without faster increase among women in the educational level and in non-manual employment. Sickness absence decreased especially in male-dominated employment groups, resulting in a larger decrease in absences among

  8. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Brødsgaard Grynderup

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Methods Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the “Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease” (PRISME cohort and the “Workplace Bullying and Harassment” (WBH cohort (n = 5418. Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. Results High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.99, but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81–1.18 or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82–1.18 were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association

  9. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Garde, Anne Helene; Gullander, Maria; Kaerlev, Linda; Persson, Roger; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Høgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-09-16

    Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We found no

  10. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...... absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces...

  11. EEG features of absence seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Impact of syndrome, age, and state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadleir, L.G.; Scheffer, I.E.; Smith, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Factors influencing the electroencephalography (EEG) features of absence seizures in newly presenting children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) have not been rigorously studied. We examined how specific factors such as state, provocation, age, and epilepsy syndrome affect the EEG...... features of absence seizures. Methods: Children with untreated absence seizures were studied using video-EEG recording. The influence of state of arousal, provocation (hyperventilation, photic stimulation), age, and epilepsy syndrome on specific EEG features was analyzed. Results: Five hundred nine...... seizures were evaluated in 70 children with the following syndromes: childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) 37, CAE+ photoparoxysmal response (PPR) 10, juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) 8, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) 6, and unclassified 9. Polyspikes occurred in all syndromes but were more common in JME...

  12. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybema, Jan F; van den Bos, Kees

    2010-05-01

    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that perceived justice would contribute to lower depressive symptoms and sickness absence, whereas depressive symptoms and absenteeism in turn would contribute to lower perceptions of organizational justice. In line with the predictions, we found that both distributive and procedural justice contributed to lower depressive symptoms, and distributive justice contributed to lower sickness absence in the following year. With regard to reversed effects, sickness absence contributed to lower perceptions of distributive justice to some extent. Moreover, sickness absence was related to higher depressive symptoms a year later. This research shows the importance of justice in organizations as a means to enhance the wellbeing of people at work and to prevent absenteeism. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points......BACKGROUND: Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol...... levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Participants came from...

  14. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A H; Roelen, Corné A M; van Zweeden, Nely F; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. This study investigated the relationship between managerial leadership and sickness absence in health care by associating nurse managers' leadership styles with registered sickness absence among their nursing staff. The cross-sectional study included 699 nurses working in six wards (staff range = 91-140 employees) of a Dutch somatic hospital employing a total of 1,153 persons. The nurse managers heading the wards were asked to complete the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description questionnaire for situational leadership. The Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description scores were linked to employer-registered nursing staff sickness absence. High relationship-high task behavior (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65-0.85) and high relationship-low task behavior (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.14 -0.98) were inversely related to the number of short (one to seven consecutive days) episodes of sickness absence among the staff. Low relationship-high task styles (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.14-5.22) as well as low relationship-low task styles (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.26-4.71) were positively associated with the number of short episodes of sickness absence. However, the leadership styles only explained 10% of the variance in short episodes of sickness absence. Leadership styles are associated with registered sickness absence. The nursing staff of relationship-oriented nurse managers has fewer short episodes of sickness absence than the staff of task-oriented managers. Training nurse managers in relational leadership styles may reduce understaffing and improve nursing efficiency and quality.

  15. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  16. The cross-lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E; Narayanan, M K; Midouhas, E

    2015-11-01

    Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross-lagged relationship between father absence (non-residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2-4). The sample was 15,293 families in which both biological parents were co-resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut-offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut-off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross-lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The cross‐lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M. K.; Midouhas, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross‐lagged relationship between father absence (non‐residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. Methods We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2–4). The sample was 15 293 families in which both biological parents were co‐resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut‐offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Results Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut‐off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross‐lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Conclusions Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. PMID:25708874

  18. The influence of the absence of fathers and the timing of separation on anxiety and self-esteem of adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Wang, L-G; Gao, W-B

    2012-09-01

    Many rural children in China have been experiencing life without fathers since the 1990s, when their fathers left the rural areas for the urban areas to find a job that would allow them to continue to support their family. However, to date, knowledge and understanding of the effects of the absence of fathers and timing of separation on the mental health of adolescents are limited. A total of 2233 students, ranging in age from 11 to 23 years, from five provinces of China, including 1024 adolescents who experienced the absence of their fathers, were recruited for this study. The data were collected using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which were self-report questionnaires. Findings from a structured questionnaire showed that the subjects who experienced life without fathers have increased state-anxiety (t=-5.80, P self-esteem (t= 39.54, P state-anxiety scores [F(3,992) = 2.26, P= 0.05], and post test also revealed that the self-esteem of female scores in the 0-2 timing group was higher than other timing group's [F(3,992) = 4.58, P= 0.004]. The influence of the absence of fathers on the anxiety and self-esteem of adolescents seems to be more serious than our expectation, and the influence will be different according to the timing of father absence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Emergence of trimethoprim-resistant Escherichia coli in healthy persons in the absence of prophylactic or therapeutic antibiotics during travel to Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D B; Jiang, Z D; Ericsson, C D; Adachi, J; Dupont, H L

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy US students without diarrheal disease and who had not received prophylactic or therapeutic antibiotics were monitored for emergence of trimethoprim-resistant gram-negative fecal flora for a 3-week period after arrival in Guadalajara, Mexico. During this time period, most students showed no change in total fecal gram-negative bacteria (p > 0.05) but showed an increasing level of trimethoprim (TMP) resistance (p students. These 18 TMP-resistant E. coli were also resistant to ampicillin (44%), azithromycin (11%), chloramphenicol (39%), ciprofloxacin (11%), doxycycline (89%), erythromycin (100%), furazolidone (72%), levofloxacin (17%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (89%) and trovafloxacin (17%). In the absence of prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics, increased acquisition of TMP-resistant gram-negative fecal flora in this developing country is probably due to poor sanitary conditions and the recurrent and heavy exposure to antimicrobial-resistant indigenous flora as a result of contaminated food and drink.

  20. Father absence and depressive symptoms in adolescence: findings from a UK cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, I; Heron, J; Araya, R; Melotti, R; Joinson, C

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies suggest a link between parental separation or divorce and risk of depression in adolescence. There are, however, few studies that have prospectively examined the effects of timing of biological father absence on risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence while controlling for a range of confounding factors. We examine the association between father absence occurring in early (the first 5 years) and middle childhood (5-10 years) and adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample comprising 5631 children from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Self-reported depressive symptoms at 14 years were assessed using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Father absence was assessed from maternal questionnaires completed at regular intervals from the birth of the study child up to 10 years. There was evidence for an association between father absence in early childhood and increased odds of depressive symptoms at 14 years. This association was stronger in girls than in boys and remained after adjusting for a range of socio-economic, maternal and familial confounders assessed prior to the father's departure. Conversely, there was no evidence for an association between father absence in middle childhood and depressive symptoms at 14 years. Father absence in early childhood increases risk for adolescent depressive symptoms, particularly in girls. Future research should be aimed at identifying possible biological and psychosocial mechanisms linking father absence to depressive symptomatology to enable the development of family-based early prevention and intervention programmes targeting young children at risk.

  1. Long-term sickness absence during pregnancy and the gender balance of workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Anne M

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses how the gender composition of workplaces affects pregnant women's sickness absence. It also assesses whether an observed association may be explaine by differential selection to female- or male-dominated workplaces. The analyses are based on Norwegian registry data from 2003-2011. Using Poisson regressions with detailed control for occupational categories, I examine whether the number of absence days are associated with the proportion of females at the workplace. I address possible selection effects by Poisson regressions with fixed individual effects using only within-individual variation on women with two or more pregnancies during the time window. The analyses indicate a positive and significant relationship between the female proportion in workplaces and sickness absence rates during pregnancy. Analyses limited to within-individual variation also show positive and significant effects of similar strength, indicating that the observed relationship is not due to differential selection of absence-prone pregnant workers to female-dominated workplaces. The proportion of female individuals at workplaces is positively associated with sickness absence rates during pregnancy this association is not likely explained by occupational nor individual characteristics the results are consistent with absence culture theory and more lenient norms concerning sickness absence during pregnancy at female-dominated workplaces. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Francioli, Laura; Garde, Anne Helene; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Hgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-06-01

    To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. The association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence may be partially mediated by perceived stress.

  3. Self-reported and employer-recorded sickness absence in doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, I J

    2014-09-01

    Doctors' sickness absence reduces the quality and continuity of patient care and is financially costly. Doctors have lower rates of sickness absence than other healthcare workers. To compare self-reported with recorded sickness absence in doctors in a UK National Health Service hospital trust. A retrospective questionnaire study. The main outcome measures were self-reported and trust-recorded sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in two consecutive 6-month periods. The response rate was 82% (607/736). Self-reported sickness absence rates were 1.2% compared with a rate of 0.6% from trust-recorded data. There were 38 matched pairs of self-reported (mean duration: 18 days, standard deviation: 22 days) and trust-recorded (mean duration: 10 days, standard deviation: 17 days) sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in the 12 months studied. A matched pairs t-test determined that the difference between the two means was significant (t = 2.57, P sickness absence was significantly under-recorded in this study population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Organizational factors related to low levels of sickness absence in a representative set of Swedish companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bergman, Peter; Aborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Parmsund, Marianne; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify manageable organizational factors that could explain why some companies have low levels of sickness absence. There may be factors at company level that can be managed to influence levels of sickness absence, and promote health and a prosperous organization. 38 representative Swedish companies. The study included a total of 204 semi-structured interviews at 38 representative Swedish companies. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to the interviews, primarily with managers, to indicate the organizational factors that characterize companies with low levels of sickness absence. The factors that were found to characterize companies with low levels of sickness absence concerned strategies and procedures for managing leadership, employee development, communication, employee participation and involvement, corporate values and visions, and employee health. The results may be useful in finding strategies and procedures to reduce levels of sickness absence and promote health. There is research at individual level on the reasons for sickness absence. This study tries to elevate the issue to an organizational level. The findings suggest that explicit strategies for managing certain organizational factors can reduce sickness absence and help companies to develop more health-promoting strategies.

  5. Predictors of sickness absence in college and university educated self-employed: a historic register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E C; Van der Klink, Jac J L; De Boer, Michiel R; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-02

    Despite a large proportion of the workforce being self-employed, few studies have been conducted on risk factors for sickness absence in this population. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for future sickness absence in a population of college and university educated self-employed. In a historic register study based on insurance company files risk factors were identified by means of logistic regression analysis. Data collected at application for private disability insurance from 634 applicants were related to subsequent sickness absence periods of 30 days or more during a follow-up period of 7.95 years. Variables studied were self-reported lifestyle variables, variables concerning medical history and present health conditions and variables derived from the general medical examination including blood tests and urinary analysis. Results from analysis of data from 634 applicants for private disability insurance show that previous periods of sickness absence (OR 2.07), female gender (OR 2.04), health complaints listed in the health declaration (OR 1.88), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR 4.05) and the nature of the profession were related to a higher risk of sickness absence. Sickness absence was found to be related to demographic variables (gender, profession), medical variables (health complaints and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and to variables with both a medical and a behavioural component (previous sickness absence).

  6. Sickness absence indicating depressive symptoms of working population in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cheolmin; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Jeon, Sang Won; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Yong-Ku; Patkar, Ashwin A; Han, Changsu

    2018-02-01

    Sickness absence has been regarded as an important indicator of workers' health and work productivity. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and sickness absence in workers of South Korea. We used nationwide cross-sectional survey data from 2889 individuals in the working population aged over 19 years in South Korea. Depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Those respondents who scored above 10 on PHQ-9 were regarded as having depressive symptoms. Sickness absence was considered a binary variable with an absence of at least 1 day in the past month. The survey instrument contained questions about sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, work-related factors, and chronic illnesses. Logistic regression models were used to find odds ratios and confidence intervals. The prevalence of sickness absence was found to be overall 4.6%. The adjusted odds ratio of sickness absence with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) was 3.63 (Confidence Interval: 2.13-6.20) after controlling of possible confounders. Compared to minimal depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 sickness absences were more significant. The sickness absence based on the memory of the respondent in this study may result in a recall bias. Incidence of at least 1 day of sickness absence per month increased the risk of depressive symptoms after controlling for the possible confounding factors in general working population. It may be necessary to consider strategies for assessing depression in the workers who take sick leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sickness absence among municipal workers in a Brazilian municipality: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Ana Lucia M; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Turchi, Marília D; Steenstra, Ivan A; Cole, Donald C

    2017-12-28

    Sickness absence, work disability associated with illness or injury, is a major public health problem worldwide. Some studies have investigated determinants of sickness absence among workers with shorter job tenure, but have only focused on certain diagnostic groups. Although it is well established that job tenure has an inverse relationship with work injury rate, less is known about its association with sickness absence for other disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the risk factors for incidence and duration of sickness absence according to diagnosis over a 7-year period. A dynamic cohort consisting of all permanent civil servants hired from 2005 to 2011 by the Goiania municipality-Brazil. Data of certified sickness absences longer than 3 days were analyzed. The incidence density was calculated per 1000 person-years in each ICD-10 category. The association between sickness absence and socio-demographic and occupational characteristics was examined using negative binomial regression models. 18,450 workers, mean age of 32 years, accumulated 14,909 episodes of sickness absence. Overall, the incidence density was 234.6 episodes per 1000 person years. Diagnostic groups with the highest incidence density of sickness absences were injuries (49.1), musculoskeletal disorders (31.3) and mental disorders (29.2). Factors predicting any sickness absence were female gender, older age, low education, being a health professional, multiple jobs and full-time employment. Mental health disorders were more common among education professionals, musculoskeletal disorders among blue collar workers and injuries among inspection workers. Prolonged time on sick leave was associated with male gender, older age groups, low education and income, blue-collar workers, more than one job contract and full time employment. These findings demonstrate a substantial sickness absentee burden and they provide relevant information for targeting prevention and health promotion

  8. Reasons for Students\\' Absenteeism in Classroom: viewpoints of dental students and faculty members of Yazd School of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yasayi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the presence or absence of students in the classroom, were influenced by factors related to both teachers and students groups. Student interests to the subject, teaching methods and the use of new and creative techniques, teacher characters and behavior and the time of the classes determined the rate of attendance and continued presence of students.

  9. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...... of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that could counteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention and confidence from...

  10. Improving workplace productivity--it isn't just about reducing absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Kathy; Mahieu, Kathleen; Mallett, David; Norville, Julie; VanderWerf, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Employers must get more aggressive in their health and productivity strategies. A comprehensive strategy includes data analytics across health and lost-time programs, absence policies that meet today's needs for both employer and employee, health and wellness programs targeting modifiable health behaviors, and absence program administration that is aligned to operational goals. This article targets key aspects of a comprehensive long-term health and productivity strategic vision. An organization can use these aspects independently to address immediate tactical issues while it develops its broader strategy. The target areas include a view from the perspective of data management, absence program design and management, employee health and wellness, and behavioral health.

  11. Radiographic evaluation of 70 patients with absence of the corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Flannery, A.; Osborn, R.E.; Radkowski, M.A.; Naidich, T.P.; Bohan, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Absence (agenesis) of the corpus callosum is one of the most common congenital malformations of the brain seen in the pediatric population. The authors used CT, MR imaging, or US to study 70 children with absence of the corpus callosum. Patients were divided into two groups; those with isolated absence of the corpus callosum, and those with other associated brain lesions. The associated brain lesions included interhemispheric arachnoid cyst, Dandy-Walker malformations, encephaloceles, and migrational disorders (heterotopias, schizencephaly, lissencaphaly, septo-optic dysplasia, lipoma, Chiari malformations, and holoprosenscephaly). The clinical presentations and radiologic findings are described

  12. Focal frontal epileptiform discharges in a patient with eyelid myoclonia and absence seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelid myoclonia with absences is classified as a unique type of generalized seizure. Its pathogenesis is proposed to involve the functional abnormalities in cortical–subcortical networks. Here, we describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who had eyelid myoclonia with absences, along with focal motor seizures. Video-EEG monitoring demonstrated eyelid myoclonia associated with 4- to 5-Hz generalized polyspike–waves preceded by focal frontal discharges. Interictal EEG showed focal epileptiform discharges over the frontal regions. Our case suggests an important role of the frontal lobe in the generation of eyelid myoclonia with absences.

  13. PICK1 uncoupling from mGluR7a causes absence-like seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Bertaso, Federica; Zhang, Chuansheng; Scheschonka, Astrid; de Bock, Frédéric; Fontanaud, Pierre; Marin, Philippe; Huganir, Richard L; Betz, Heinrich; Bockaert, Joël; Fagni, Laurent; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes a recurrent loss of consciousness and generalized spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram (EEG). The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and associated scaffolding proteins in absence epilepsy has been unclear to date. We investigated a possible role for these proteins in absence epilepsy, focusing on the mGluR7a receptor and its PDZ-interacting protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1), in rats and ...

  14. Narrative Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2008-01-01

    examples of successful refugee resettlement and national self-assertion. Within the master narrative of Partition migration history, however, the experiences of forced movement and resettlement suffered by the ‘Untouchables' are obscured. Popular accounts of violence, forced movement and suffering...

  15. On the absence of order in 2-dimensional systems with compact symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, M.L.; Garcia, A.A.; Masperi, L.; Garcia Canal, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    An alternative proof for the generalization to any compact Lie group of the absence of an ordered phase in one and two dimensional classical systems is provided using the original Bogoliubov inequality. (Author) [pt

  16. Isolated unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery: a case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend); N.A. Blom (Nico); J. Ottenkamp (Jaap)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the symptomatology, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic strategies of patients with an isolated unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery (UAPA). BACKGROUND: Isolated UAPA is a rare anomaly. Some case

  17. Screening instruments for predicting return to work in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A-M H; Stapelfeldt, C M; Nielsen, C V

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple somatic symptoms are common and may cause prolonged sickness absence (SA) and unsuccessful return to work (RTW). Aims: To compare three instruments and their predictive and discriminative abilities regarding RTW. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study of participants recruited...

  18. Congenital absence of the portal vein in a child with Turner syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, Jacob A.; Burton, Edward M.; Pittman, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a rare malformation associated with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function abnormalities. We report a case of a 2-year-old with Turner syndrome, CAPV, and congenital heart malformations. (orig.)

  19. Congenital absence of the portal vein in a child with Turner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noe, Jacob A.; Burton, Edward M. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee College of Medicine-Chattanooga Branch, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Pittman, Heather C. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine-Chattanooga Branch, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a rare malformation associated with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function abnormalities. We report a case of a 2-year-old with Turner syndrome, CAPV, and congenital heart malformations. (orig.)

  20. A theoretical understanding of sickness absence among women who have experienced workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sue; MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith

    2010-04-01

    Historically, we have assumed that workplaces, where employed individuals spend approximately one third of their days, provide safe and supportive environments and opportunities to enhance women's capacities. Unfortunately, workplace bullying and consequent sickness absence are prevalent and costly realities that significantly influence women's health. In this study, sickness absence among 18 Canadian women who were targets of workplace bullying was explored using a grounded theory secondary analysis. Findings show that although sickness absence is critical in attenuating the health consequences of being bullied, it is a partial solution because rehabilitation and successful return to work is challenged when working conditions remain unchanged. This problem is addressed using is a three-stage process of discerning a path that involves gaining space, making sense, and moving forward. Organizational support is critical to all stages of the process; it can reduce the risk of declines in health and sickness absence, and is essential for successful return to work.

  1. Main and combined effects of musculoskeletal pain frequency and avoidant coping on sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Hougaard, Charlotte Orsted

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Musculoskeletal pain and avoidant coping predicts sickness absence, but how these 2 predictors relate to each other is unknown. We examined the main and combined effects of musculoskeletal pain and avoidant, behavioural coping on incidence of sickness absence. Design and subjects......: Prospective cohort study of a sample of middle-aged Danes, economically active in 2006, reporting functional limitations due to musculoskeletal pain, n = 3115. Methods: Data included surveys from 2000 and 2006 and register data from 2007. Outcome was sickness absence exceeding 2 consecutive weeks in 2007....... The main effect of self-reported pain frequency and avoidant coping on sickness absence was analysed by multivariate logistic regression. The combined effect was calculated as departure from multiplicativity and by the inclusion of a product term. Results: Daily pain and use of avoidant coping were both...

  2. Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    men and women when adjusting for demographic factors and health behavior. After further adjustment for physical workload at work the association between noise exposure and sickness absence disappeared for women, but not for men. Men that reported to be exposed to loud noise between one......Self-reported noise exposure is on the rise in Denmark. Little is known, however, about the social consequences, including sickness absence, of noise exposure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between self-reported noise exposure and long-term sickness absence....... The association was investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze outcomes in Danish register data on the basis of Danish survey data (5357 employees aged 18-69 in 2000). The analyses showed that self-reported noise exposure was significantly associated with long-term sickness absence for both...

  3. Job strain and informal caregiving as predictors of long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the individual, joint and interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on long-term sickness absence with special attention to gender differences. METHODS: The study comprised a prospective cohort study of 6798 working adults from...... France, 14 727 from Finland, and 5275 from the UK. A total of 26 800 participants, age 52 (interquartile range 47-56) years participated in the study. Job strain was assessed using the demand-control model. Informal caregiving was defined as care for a sick, disabled, or elderly person. Long......-term sickness absence spells defined as absence >14 consecutive days were registered during two years follow-up. We used recurrent-events Cox regression in random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 12% men and 21% women had ≥1 long-term sickness absence spell. Among women, both high job strain [hazard...

  4. Sickness Absence and Disability Pension After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Bränström, Richard; Nilsson, Kerstin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To explore future diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer. Also, to examine associations with disease-related and sociodemographic factors among those with breast cancer. Methods Longitudinal register data on 3,547 women living in Sweden (age 20 to 65 years) who were first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005, and a matched comparison cohort (n = 14,188), were analyzed for the annual prevalence of diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension over 5 years. Logistic regressions were used to explore associations of disease-related and sociodemographic factors with future sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer. Results Immediately after being diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of women with sickness absence was high but decreased continuously from the 1st through 5th year after diagnosis (71%, 40%, 30%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). In comparison, the range for women without breast cancer was 17% to 11%, respectively. The higher prevalence of sickness absence after breast cancer was mainly a result of breast cancer diagnosis, not a mental diagnosis, or other somatic diagnoses. Advanced cancer at diagnosis, > 90 days sickness absence before diagnosis, low education, and being born outside Sweden were associated with higher odds ratios for sickness absence and disability pension (odds ratio range, 1.40 to 6.45). Conclusion The level of sickness absence increased substantially in women with breast cancer during the first year after diagnosis and approached the level of breast cancer-free women in the following years; however, even in the first year, most women were not on sickness absence for a substantial time, and even in high-risk groups, many were not on sickness absence or disability pension in the following years. Information about relatively low future sickness absence and disability pension levels can be used by

  5. Congenital absence of the nose: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oe.E.; Rosendahl, K.; Gjelland, K.; Reigstad, H.

    2001-01-01

    A case of congenital absence of the nose is presented. The etiology of this rare condition is unknown. A review of the literature reveals that the previously applied terms, e. g. 'arhinia', are unclear. In the reviewed cases there seems to be a pattern of facial anomalies associated with nasal absence. In most cases, one could probably expect a lack of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. We suggest a new terminology and summarize the aims of the radiological evaluation of this condition. (orig.)

  6. Lung herniation into pericardial cavity: A case of partial congenital absence of right pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadashiv B Tamagond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of pericardium is rarely seen, often diagnosed intraoperatively during cardiac and thoracic surgeries. Left-sided pericardial defects are more common than right-sided ones. We present a case of an incidentally detected congenital absence of right pericardium with herniation of part of the right lung during ventricular septal defect closure surgery in a male child aged 4 years.

  7. Longitudinal relationships between organizational justice, productivity, loss and sickness absence older employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ybema, J.F.; Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice.Method A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted among employed persons aged 45–64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Participants (N = 7011) yearly filled out an online questionnaire. Structural equat...

  8. Longitudinal Relationships Between Organizational Justice, Productivity Loss, and Sickness Absence Among Older Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ybema, Jan F.; van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R. M.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice. METHOD: A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted among employed persons aged 45-64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Participants (N = 7011) yearly filled out an online questionnaire. Structural eq...

  9. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onbas, Omer; Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT

  10. Psychosocial work factors and sickness absence in 31 countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean-François; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Vermeylen, Greet; Parent-Thirion, Agnès

    2013-08-01

    The studies on the associations between psychosocial work factors and sickness absence have rarely included a large number of factors and European data. The objective was to examine the associations between a large set of psychosocial work factors following well-known and emergent concepts and sickness absence in Europe. The study population consisted of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers in 31 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Psychosocial work factors included the following: decision latitude, psychological demands, social support, physical violence, sexual harassment, discrimination, bullying, long working hours, shift and night work, job insecurity, job promotion and work-life imbalance. Covariates were as follows: age, occupation, economic activity, employee/self-employed status and physical, chemical, biological and biomechanical exposures. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel negative binomial hurdle models to study the occurrence and duration of sickness absence. In the models, including all psychosocial work factors together and adjustment for covariates, high psychological demands, discrimination, bullying, low-job promotion and work-life imbalance for both genders and physical violence for women were observed as risk factors of the occurrence of sickness absence. Bullying and shift work increased the duration of absence among women. Bullying had the strongest association with sickness absence. Various psychosocial work factors were found to be associated with sickness absence. A less conservative analysis exploring each factor separately provided a still higher number of risk factors. Preventive measures should take psychosocial work environment more comprehensively into account to reduce sickness absence and improve health at work at European level.

  11. Bilateral congenital absence of flexor pollicis longus with thumb hypoplasia and thenar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Sehgal, Harsha; Bano, Shahina; Parmar, Pranjali R; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of flexor pollicis longus with or without associated anomalies of thenar muscles and thumb is of rare occurrence. Inability to flex the interphalangeal joint of the thumb and absent dorsal wrinkles and flexion creases of the thumb are important clues to the diagnosis. Routine radiography and cross-sectional imaging help to confirm and document the condition. This article presents an extremely rare case of bilateral congenital absence of flexor pollicis longus tendon with thumb hypoplasia and thenar atrophy

  12. A ‘Balanced’ Life: Work-Life Balance and Sickness Absence in Four Nordic Countries

    OpenAIRE

    D Antai; A Oke; P Braithwaite; DS Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little attention has been given to the relationship between work-life balance and sickness absence. Objective: To investigate the association between poor work-life balance and sickness absence in 4 Nordic welfare states. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed on pooled cross-sectional data of workers aged 15–65 years from Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway (n=4186) obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). Poor work-lif...

  13. Effects of sanitation on cognitive development and school absence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, G D; Garn, J V; Penakalapati, G; Alexander, K T; Krauss, J; Freeman, M C; Boisson, S; Medlicott, K O; Clasen, T

    2017-08-01

    We undertook this systematic review to explore the relationship between sanitation and learning outcomes, specifically cognitive development and absence. We searched leading databases to identify experimental and observational studies that address the effect of sanitation on our outcomes of interest. We identified 17 studies that met the review's eligibility criteria, four reporting on measures of cognitive development, 12 on school absence (with two studies reporting on school and work absence), and one study that reported on both outcomes. We assessed the risk of bias of individual studies as well as the overall strength of evidence for each outcome. Because of fundamental differences among the studies in terms of sanitation exposure and outcome measurement, pooling results via meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate so a descriptive review is presented. Studies reported that access to household sanitation was associated with measures of improved cognitive ability in children. However, collectively these studies were rated by GRADE as poor methodological quality with significant potential for confounding and bias, including publication bias. Studies on the association between household, community or school sanitation and school absence yielded mixed results. Some sanitation studies reported lower absence while others reported higher absence. Only the two randomized controlled trials reported no overall effects on absence even when combining sanitation with water supply improvements and hygiene promotion. Study quality as assessed by GRADE was again generally poor. While studies to date provide some support for positive effects from sanitation on cognitive development, the effects on school absence are uncertain. Differences in effects may be due to differences in study settings, type of sanitation exposure and most notably in outcome definitions. Further research in multiple settings using rigorous study designs and measuring intermediate outcomes such as exposure

  14. Automatic Detection of Childhood Absence Epilepsy Seizures: Toward a Monitoring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Madsen, Rasmus E.; Remvig, Line S.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic detections of paroxysms in patients with childhood absence epilepsy have been neglected for several years. We acquire reliable detections using only a single-channel brainwave monitor, allowing for unobtrusive monitoring of antiepileptic drug effects. Ultimately we seek to obtain optimal...... long-term prognoses, balancing antiepileptic effects and side effects. The electroencephalographic appearance of paroxysms in childhood absence epilepsy is fairly homogeneous, making it feasible to develop patient-independent automatic detection. We implemented a state-of-the-art algorithm...

  15. Economy and job contract as contexts of sickness absence practices: revisiting locality and habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, P; Vahtera, J; Nakari, R; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M

    2004-04-01

    This study revisits two Finnish local governments-Raisio and Nokia-that in an earlier study showed different sickness absence rates in the early 1990s. The locality difference was interpreted sociologically, within a framework inspired by Bourdieu's theory of social field, habitus and practice. The same framework is applied in the present study, starting out from the hypothesis that a constant historical and cultural locality context tends to reproduce prevailing sickness absence practices. The hypothesis was tested by extending the context beyond the locality to the macroeconomic fluctuations that occurred during the 1990s and to the type of employment contract. In both localities a 30% rise was observed in levels of sickness absence from 1991-1993 to 1997-2000. At the beginning of the 1990s the absence rate among permanent employees was 1.86 times higher in Nokia than in Raisio; at the end of the decade the corresponding rate ratio was 1.88. The absence rates were significantly lower among fixed-term employees than permanent employees, but the locality difference was seen in their case, too. Both results support the hypothesis. In spite of major changes taking place in the national economy, the differences between the two towns' sickness absence rates persisted, which in this particular case probably reflects the persisting working-class character of Nokia and middle-class character of Raisio. The theory also applies to the difference between permanent and fixed-term employees: the peripheral power position of the latter on work related social fields leads to the observed practices, i.e. to the relatively low absence rate. The results of our revisit give reason to recapitulate and elaborate upon our theoretical interpretation with a view to deepening our understanding of the social origins of sickness absence practices in the post-industrial workplace, which is characterised by increasing atypical employment and growing job insecurity.

  16. Can pulsed xenon ultraviolet light systems disinfect aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Villamaria, Frank C; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Brown, Donna S; Liao, I-Chia; Stock, Eileen M; Copeland, Laurel A; Zeber, John E

    2015-04-01

    Whereas pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light no-touch disinfection systems are being increasingly used for room disinfection after patient discharge with manual cleaning, their effectiveness in the absence of manual disinfection has not been previously evaluated. Our study indicates that pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light systems effectively reduce aerobic bacteria in the absence of manual disinfection. These data are important for hospitals planning to adopt this technology as adjunct to routine manual disinfection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Relationship between nutritional status and school absenteeism among students in rural schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escobar, Gilma; Vargas-Cruz, Sandra L; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Edgar; Matiz-Salazar, María I; Jörgen-Overgaard, Hans

    2015-12-01

    Objective To determine the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition and overweight in students in rural schools and their relationship with school absence rates. Methods Descriptive study carried out in 34 rural schools in Anapoima and La Mesa in 2013. A sample of 785 (82.4 %) students was selected by convenience sampling. The inclusion criteria were students registered for the period 2013 in grades 0-5 (ages 5-16) with parental consent and student assent. Weight and height of all subjects were taken. Overall absence rates and illness-related absence rates were recorded. Results 422 pupils were male (53.8 %) and 524 (66.8 %) had between 5-9 years old. A lower than average height for age occurred in 10.1 %(n=79) of the students. The thinness was recorded at 1.75 %(n=13), the overweight at 14.3 %(n=112) and the obesity at 4.5 %(n=45) of the students. The number of absence episodes per child per year due to any reason and due to disease was 5.7 and 1.4, respectively. Stunted growth and overweight students had a significantly higher number of absence days compared to students with adequate nutritional status (p school absence days (both general and illness-related) and stunting and overweight in students.

  18. NIPSA: a new scale for measuring non-illness predictors of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Wang, Min-Jung; Dorrington, Sarah; Henderson, Max; Madan, Ira; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    We describe the development and initial validation of a new scale for measuring non-illness factors that are important in predicting occupational outcomes, called the NIPSA (non-illness predictors of sickness absence) scale. Forty-two questions were developed which covered a broad range of potential non-illness-related risk factors for sickness absence. 682 participants in the South East London Community Health study answered these questions and a range of questions regarding both short-term and long-term sickness absence. Factor analysis was conducted prior to examining the links between each identified factor and sickness absence outcomes. Exploratory factor analysis using the oblique rotation method suggested the questionnaire should contain 26 questions and extracted four factors with eigenvalues greater than 1: perception of psychosocial work environment (factor 1), perceived vulnerability (factor 2), rest-focused attitude towards recovery (factor 3) and attitudes towards work (factor 4). Three of these factors (factors 1, 2 and 3) showed significant associations with long-term sickness absence measures (psickness absence has been developed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Relationship Between Occupational Stress Dimensions and Sickness Absence Among a Gas Company Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Zare

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Working conditions have considerably changed and exposure to psychosocial risk factors, particularly occupational stress, has recently had an increasing trend. Studies have shown that sickness absence was the worst outcome of occupational stress. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between dimensions of occupational stress and sickness absence in a gas company in Boushehr, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 employees of a gas company, Boushehr, Iran who were selected through random sampling. Osipow occupational stress questionnaire was used to determine the participants’ stress levels. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The participants’ mean of sickness absence was 2.164.57± days per year. Besides, 1.5%, 32.5%, 36.3%, and 29.8% of the participants had low, low to moderate, moderate to severe, and severe occupational stress, respectively. Additionally, the mean of total stress was moderate to severe among the study participants. This was also the case concerning the stress dimensions. The results revealed a significant relationship between the number of sickness absences and dimensions of occupational stress, including workload, role insufficiency, role conflict, responsibility, physical environment, and total stress (P=0.0001. Conclusion: The majority of the employees had high levels of occupational stress. Besides, a significant association was observed between the dimensions of occupational stress and sickness absence. Accordingly, to decrease the number of sickness absence, we should take measures to reduce occupational stress.

  20. Air pollution around schools is linked to poorer student health and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohai, Paul; Kweon, Byoung-Suk; Lee, Sangyun; Ard, Kerry

    2011-05-01

    Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children's schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children's health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates-a potential indicator of poor health-and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary.

  1. Occupational class differences in long sickness absence: a register-based study of 2.1 million Finnish women and men in 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-07-20

    Sickness absence is consistently higher in lower occupational classes, but attempts to analyse changes over time in socioeconomic differences are scarce. We examined trends in medically certified sickness absence by occupational class in Finland from 1996 to 2013 and assessed the magnitude and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences. Population-based, repeated cross-sectional study. A 70% random sample of Finns aged between 25 and 63 years in the years 1996-2013. The study focused on 25- to 63 year-old female (n between 572 246 and 690 925) and male (n between 525 698 and 644 425) upper and lower non-manual and manual workers. Disability and old age pensioners, students, the unemployed, entrepreneurs and farmers were excluded. The analyses covered 2 160 084 persons, that is, 77% of the random sample.For primary and secondary outcome measures, we examined yearly prevalence of over 10 working days long sickness absence by occupational class. The Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were used to assess the magnitude and changes in occupational class differences. Compared with mid-1990s, sickness absence prevalence was slightly lower in 2013 in all occupational classes except for female lower non-manual workers. Hierarchical occupational class differences in sickness absence were found. Absolute differences (SII) peaked in 2005 in both women (0.12, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.13) and men (0.15, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.15) but reached the previous level in women by 2009 and decreased modestly in men until 2013. Relative differences narrowed over time (p<0.001) but levelled off by 2013. Sickness absence prevalence is currently slightly lower in almost all occupational classes than in the mid-1990s, but occupational class differences have remained large. Ill health and poor working conditions especially in the lower occupational classes should be targeted in order to reduce sickness absence and to achieve longer

  2. Occupational class differences in long sickness absence: a register-based study of 2.1 million Finnish women and men in 1996–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Sickness absence is consistently higher in lower occupational classes, but attempts to analyse changes over time in socioeconomic differences are scarce. We examined trends in medically certified sickness absence by occupational class in Finland from 1996 to 2013 and assessed the magnitude and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences. Design Population-based, repeated cross-sectional study. Setting A 70% random sample of Finns aged between 25 and 63 years in the years 1996–2013. Participants The study focused on 25- to 63 year-old female (n between 572 246 and 690 925) and male (n between 525 698 and 644 425) upper and lower non-manual and manual workers. Disability and old age pensioners, students, the unemployed, entrepreneurs and farmers were excluded. The analyses covered 2 160 084 persons, that is, 77% of the random sample. For primary and secondary outcome measures, we examined yearly prevalence of over 10 working days long sickness absence by occupational class. The Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were used to assess the magnitude and changes in occupational class differences. Results Compared with mid-1990s, sickness absence prevalence was slightly lower in 2013 in all occupational classes except for female lower non-manual workers. Hierarchical occupational class differences in sickness absence were found. Absolute differences (SII) peaked in 2005 in both women (0.12, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.13) and men (0.15, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.15) but reached the previous level in women by 2009 and decreased modestly in men until 2013. Relative differences narrowed over time (p<0.001) but levelled off by 2013. Conclusions Sickness absence prevalence is currently slightly lower in almost all occupational classes than in the mid-1990s, but occupational class differences have remained large. Ill health and poor working conditions especially in the lower occupational classes should be targeted

  3. Links of adolescent- and parent-reported eating in the absence of hunger with observed eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A; Courville, Amber B; Field, Sara E; Matheson, Brittany E; Brady, Sheila M; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2013-06-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) typically was assessed by measuring snack intake after consumption of a meal. There were no validated self-report measures of EAH. The relationship of adolescent self-report and parent-reported EAH to adolescents' measured intake in the absence of hunger was examined. Ninety adolescents completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EAH-C) to describe eating when not hungry. Parents described children's EAH on a parallel version designed for parents (EAH-P). In a randomized crossover study, adolescent EAH in response to external cues was measured as snack intake after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of daily energy requirements and after a large array (>10,000 kcal). Parents' reports of children's EAH in response to external cues were associated with greater EAH after both meals, adjusting for body composition, sex, age, race, puberty, and meal intake. Adolescent-reported EAH was unrelated or showed an inverse association with observed EAH. Parent-reported EAH showed a positive association with adolescents' observed EAH and may be a useful research and clinical tool for assessing EAH in response to external cues in conditions when laboratory assessments are not feasible. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  4. Examining Leisure Boredom in High School Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Merve Beyza

    2015-01-01

    High school students who do not have leisure skills are more likely to be bored during leisure time. The aim of the study is to examine leisure boredom of high school students based on some variables (gender and income), and to investigate the relationship between leisure boredom, the presence/absence of anti-social behavior and the frequency at…

  5. European University Students' Experiences and Attitudes toward Campus Alcohol Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hal, Guido; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies indicate that a substantial part of the student population drinks excessively, yet most European universities do not have an alcohol policy. In the absence of an alcohol guideline at universities and the easy access to alcohol sold at the student cafeteria, for instance, ...

  6. Honouring Roles: The Story of a Principal and a Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the teacher-student relationship in educational practice is well established, as is the idea of principal leadership in relationship to staff. Even though principal leadership is regarded as a factor in student success, the principal's effect is usually assumed to take place via the teaching staff. There is an absence of research…

  7. Attitude of final year medical students of a Nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doctors' attitude towards homosexuality may determine their responses and care for patients whose sexual orientation is homosexuality. Despite this, there is near absence of data on the attitude of medical students to homosexuals in Nigeria. Thus, this study investigated the attitude of final year medical students to ...

  8. A ‘Balanced’ Life: Work-Life Balance and Sickness Absence in Four Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Antai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been given to the relationship between work-life balance and sickness absence. Objective: To investigate the association between poor work-life balance and sickness absence in 4 Nordic welfare states. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed on pooled cross-sectional data of workers aged 15–65 years from Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway (n=4186 obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS. Poor work-life balance was defined based on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments outside work. Self-reported sickness absence was measured as absence for ≥7 days from work for health reasons. Results: Poor work-life balance was associated with elevated odds (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.80 of self-reported sickness absence and more health problems in the 4 Nordic countries, even after adjusting for several important confounding factors. Work-related characteristics, ie, no determination over schedule (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.53, and job insecurity (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.02 increased the likelihood of sickness absence, and household characteristics, ie, cohabitation status (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.96 reduced this likelihood. The associations were non-significant when performed separately for women and men. Conclusion: Sickness absence is predicted by poor work-life balance. Findings suggest the need for implementation of measures that prevent employee difficulties in combining work and family life.

  9. Work-family conflict as a risk factor for sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, N W H; Kant, I J; van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Kristensen, T S; Swaen, G M H; Nijhuis, F J N

    2006-07-01

    (1) To study both cross-sectional and prospective relationships between work-family conflict and sickness absence from work; (2) to explore the direction of the relationships between the different types of conflict (work-home interference and home-work interference) and sickness absence; and (3) to explore gender differences in the above relationships. Data from the Maastricht Cohort Study were used with six months of follow up (5072 men and 1015 women at T6). Work-family conflict was measured with the Survey Work-Home Interference Nijmegen (SWING). Sickness absence was assessed objectively through individual record linkage with the company registers on sickness absence. In the cross-sectional analyses, high levels of work-family conflict, work-home interference, and home-work interference were all associated with a higher odds of being absent at the time of completing the questionnaire, after controlling for age and long term disease. Differences in average number of absent days between cases and non-cases of work-home interference were significant for men and most pronounced in women, where the average number of absent days over six months follow up was almost four days higher in women with high versus low-medium work-home interference. A clear relation between work-family conflict and sickness absence was shown. Additionally, the direction of work-family conflict was associated with a different sickness absence pattern. Sickness absence should be added to the list of adverse outcomes for employees struggling to combine their work and family life.

  10. A 'Balanced' Life: Work-Life Balance and Sickness Absence in Four Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, D; Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Anthony, D S

    2015-10-01

    Little attention has been given to the relationship between work-life balance and sickness absence. To investigate the association between poor work-life balance and sickness absence in 4 Nordic welfare states. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed on pooled cross-sectional data of workers aged 15-65 years from Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway (n=4186) obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). Poor work-life balance was defined based on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments outside work. Self-reported sickness absence was measured as absence for ≥7 days from work for health reasons. Poor work-life balance was associated with elevated odds (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.80) of self-reported sickness absence and more health problems in the 4 Nordic countries, even after adjusting for several important confounding factors. Work-related characteristics, ie, no determination over schedule (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.53), and job insecurity (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.02) increased the likelihood of sickness absence, and household characteristics, ie, cohabitation status (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.96) reduced this likelihood. The associations were non-significant when performed separately for women and men. Sickness absence is predicted by poor work-life balance. Findings suggest the need for implementation of measures that prevent employee difficulties in combining work and family life.

  11. Case-specific colleague guidance for general practitioners' management of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhagen, H P; Harvey, S B; Rosvold, E O; Bruusgaard, D; Blonk, R; Mykletun, A

    2017-12-02

    General practitioners (GPs) report sickness absence certification as challenging. They express need for support with functional assessment beyond guidelines and reforms. Case-specific collegial one-to-one guidance for other clinical topics has proved popular with GPs and may be an acceptable and effective way to improve GPs skills and competence in sickness absence certification. To present a new model of case-specific colleague guidance focusing on the management of long-term sickness absence and to describe its feasibility in terms of application and reception among GPs, and also GPs' self-reports of effects on their practice. Randomly selected GPs received case-specific collegial guidance over a 12-month period, in two Norwegian trials, delivered by former GPs employed by the social security administration. We measured reception and perceived effects by GPs' self-report and registered participation and withdrawal rates. The participation rate (n = 165) was 94%, and no GPs withdrew during training. Among the 116 GPs responding to the survey (70%), 112 (97%; 95% CI 92-99) stated they would recommend it to their colleagues. Considerable benefit from the guidance was reported by 68 (59%; 95% CI 50-68). The GPs self-reported other effects on their sickness absence certification, specifically an increased use of part-time sickness absence (Fit-Note equivalent). This model of case-specific colleague guidance to aid GPs' management of long-term sickness absence is feasible and was popular. This type of guidance was perceived by GPs to be somewhat beneficial and to alter their sickness absence certification behaviour, though the true impact requires further testing in controlled trials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence: the Helsinki Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to examine the joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence of various lengths while considering several covariates. Baseline surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, (N = 6535) were prospectively linked with employer's personnel register data comprising short self-certified (1-3 days), medically-certified intermediate (4-14 days) and long (15 days or more) sickness absence spells. Average follow-up time was 4.1 years. Sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sociodemographics, working conditions, health behaviours and health were self-reported in the surveys. Poisson regression analysis was used. Insomnia symptoms were associated with sickness absence at all levels of sleep duration. Adjusting for gender and age, U-shaped associations regarding sleep hours were found. Thus, those reporting short or long sleep and reporting insomnia symptoms had a higher risk for medically-certified intermediate and long sickness absence as compared to those reporting 7 hours of sleep without insomnia symptoms. Also, those reporting 6, 7, and 8 hours of sleep had a higher risk for such sickness absence, if they reported insomnia. Weak associations were also found for self-certified sickness absence, and for those reporting short and long sleep without insomnia. Adjustments attenuated the associations, but they mainly remained. These results suggest primacy of the effects of insomnia symptoms over sleep duration on sickness absence. Although insomnia dominated the joint association, U-shaped associations suggest that both sleep duration and insomnia symptoms need to be considered to promote work ability.

  13. Long working hours and sickness absence-a fixed effects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff

    2018-05-02

    While long working hours seem to lead to impaired health, several studies have also shown that long working hours are related to lower levels of sickness absence. Previous studies on the relationship between long working hours and sickness absence have compared those who work long hours to those who do not, looking only at between-individual correlations. Those results might therefore reflect relatively stable differences between employees who typically work long hours and employees who typically do not. The aim of the present study is to examine within-individual correlations between long working hours and sickness absence. Records from the Human Resources department in a large Norwegian hospital from 2012 to 2015 provided objective data on both working hours and sickness absence. Two analyses were performed: a prospective cohort analysis to replicate the results from previous between-individual analyses and a second analysis of within-individual correlations using a fixed effect design. In line with existing research, both between-individual and within-individual analyses showed a negative relationship between long working hours (> 48 h/week) and short-term sickness absence (1-8 days) and no significant difference in incidence of long-term sickness absence (> 8 days). The results indicate that the negative relationship between long working hours and sickness absence is not due only to relatively stable individual differences between those who typically work long hours and those who do not. The results from both analyses therefore still contrast with previous research showing a negative relationship between long working hours and other health indicators.

  14. Employee experience of workplace supervisor contact and support during long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Nicholas J; Selander, John; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-07

    Workplace support is an important factor in promoting successful return to work. The purpose of this article is to examine relationships between supervisor contact, perceived workplace support and demographic variables among employees on long-term sickness absence. Data were collected from 204 public employees at a municipality in Sweden who had been on long term sickness absence (60 days or more) using a 23 question survey instrument that collected information on demographic variables, supervisor contact and perceived workplace support. Most injured employees (97%) reported having contact with their supervisors during their sickness absence, with a majority (56%) reporting high levels of support, including early (58.6%) and multiple (70.7%) contacts. Most were pleased with amount of contact (68.9%) and the majority had discussed workplace accommodations (68.1%). Employees who self-initiated contact, felt the amount of contact was appropriate, had a personal meeting with their supervisors and discussed workplace adjustments reported experiencing higher levels of support from supervisors. Employees on long-term sickness absence appreciate contact from their supervisors and this is associated with perceived workplace support. However, the amount and employee experience of this contact is important. It needs to be perceived by employees as supportive, which includes a focus on strategies (e.g., work adjustment) to facilitate a return to work. Supervisor training is required in this area to support the return to work process. Implications for Rehabilitation Contact and support from workplace supervisors is important to workers on long-term sickness absence. Employees appreciate frequent contact from supervisors during long-terms sickness absence. Employees appreciate a personal meeting with supervisors and the opportunity to discuss issues related to return to work such as work adjustment. Employers should provide training to supervisors on how to communicate and

  15. Values as Predictors of Religious Experience in the Lives of Seminary Students of Philosophy and Students of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głaz, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to show the preferences of terminal values of personal and social character and the level of religious experience: God's presence and God's absence, as well as to examine the relationship between the two variables in the groups of seminary students of philosophy and students of physics. The following methods were applied in the study: Rokeach Value Survey and Głaz's Scale of Religious Experience. The study was conducted amongst university students in Kraków (Poland). The results of 100 correctly completed sets of questionnaires were analysed. The results analysis proves that seminary students of philosophy have a higher level of religious experience: God's presence and God's absence than students of physics. Seminary students of philosophy most preferred terminal values in personal and in social character. In the group of seminary students of philosophy, from amongst the four most preferred terminal values, two have a significant relation with the experience of God's presence and God's absence, whereas in the group of students of physics only one of them has a significant relation with the experience of God's absence.

  16. Evaluation of students' knowledge about paediatric dosage calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyazıcıoğlu, Nurcan; Aydın, Ayla İrem; Sürenler, Semra; Çinar, Hava Gökdere; Yılmaz, Dilek; Arkan, Burcu; Tunç, Gülseren Çıtak

    2018-01-01

    Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students). Drug dose calculation questions in exam papers including 3 open ended questions on dosage calculation problems, addressing 5 variables were distributed to the students and their responses were evaluated by the researchers. In the evaluation of the data, figures and percentage distribution were calculated and Spearman correlation analysis was applied. Exam question on the dosage calculation based on child's age, which is the most common method in paediatrics, and which ensures right dosages and drug dilution was answered correctly by 87.1% of the students while 9.5% answered it wrong and 3.4% left it blank. 69.6% of the students was successful in finding the safe dose range, and 79.1% in finding the right ratio/proportion. 65.5% of the answers with regard to Ml/dzy calculation were correct. Moreover, student's four operation skills were assessed and 68.2% of the students were determined to have found the correct answer. When the relation among the questions on medication was examined, a significant relation (correlation) was determined between them. It is seen that in dosage calculations, the students failed mostly in calculating ml/dzy (decimal). This result means that as dosage calculations are based on decimal values, calculations may be ten times erroneous when the decimal point is placed wrongly. Moreover, it

  17. Hand sanitiser provision for reducing illness absences in primary school children: a cluster randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Priest

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for transmission of infectious diseases offered by the school environment are likely to be an important contributor to the rates of infectious disease experienced by children. This study aimed to test whether the addition of hand sanitiser in primary school classrooms compared with usual hand hygiene would reduce illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This parallel-group cluster randomised trial took place in 68 primary schools, where schools were allocated using restricted randomisation (1:1 ratio to the intervention or control group. All children (aged 5 to 11 y in attendance at participating schools received an in-class hand hygiene education session. Schools in the intervention group were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitiser dispensers in classrooms for the winter school terms (27 April to 25 September 2009. Control schools received only the hand hygiene education session. The primary outcome was the number of absence episodes due to any illness among 2,443 follow-up children whose caregivers were telephoned after each absence from school. Secondary outcomes measured among follow-up children were the number of absence episodes due to specific illness (respiratory or gastrointestinal, length of illness and illness absence episodes, and number of episodes where at least one other member of the household became ill subsequently (child or adult. We also examined whether provision of sanitiser was associated with experience of a skin reaction. The number of absences for any reason and the length of the absence episode were measured in all primary school children enrolled at the schools. Children, school administrative staff, and the school liaison research assistants were not blind to group allocation. Outcome assessors of follow-up children were blind to group allocation. Of the 1,301 and 1,142 follow-up children in the hand sanitiser and control groups, respectively, the

  18. Predictors of short- and long-term sickness absence in female post office workers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Szubert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to highlight major predictors of the frequency of sickness absence in a group of workers directly involved in customer service. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on a random sample of 229 women employed as assistants and clerks in post offices. The survey was based on the Subjective Work, Health Status and Life Style Characteristics Questionnaire, and sickness absence data for the years 2004–2006. Results: The negative binominal regression model of sickness absence risk revealed the following significant predictors of short-term absence spells (1–29 days: 1 marital status, sickness absence risk for single women was (rate ratio (RR = 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01–2.39 vs. married women; 2 post offices employing 7 workers had a rate ratio of sickness absence of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.04–2.42; 13–25 workers – RR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.41–2.93; > 25 workers – RR = 1.82 (95% CI: 1.15–2.88 compared with an average number of 8–12 workers; 3 shift work, RR = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.14–2.14; 4 breaks from work – the risk of absence in the case of any breaks amounted to RR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.07–2.07 in comparison with the statutory breaks; 5 self-rated health reported as moderate relative to good health, RR = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.26–2.32; and 6 occurrence of respiratory diseases resulted in the risk of RR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.08–2.08. The Poisson regression model of long-term sickness absence spells (≥ 30 days revealed the following significant predictors: 1 number of clients per shift: 51–100 clients, RR = 3.62 (95% CI: 1.07–22.6 compared with a lower number of clients; 2 self-rated health, assessed as moderate, RR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.06–3.78 and 3 household chores performed for at least 4 h a day, RR = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.18–0.79. Conclusions: Association between sickness absence and workload as well as work organization indicates directions of corrective actions, which could reduce the

  19. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and

  20. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95

  1. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Trine R; Jensen, Signe M; Kreiner, Svend; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-10-25

    Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors.The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times

  2. Stress-related sickness absence and return to labour market in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Lars-Gunnar; Janson, Staffan

    2007-03-15

    To analyse factors influencing chances of returning to work after long-term sickness absence with a stress-related psychiatric diagnosis. Primary focus is on employer- and occupational categories as explanatory variables. Data was collected from the regional social insurance office in the county of Värmland for 911 individuals, all with stress-related sickness absences during November in the year 2000. Logistic regressions were carried out on outcome states from long-term sickness absence on two follow-up occasions after two and three years. The results indicate that the employer- and occupational categories only had a minor effect on return to work after the long-term sickness absence. Age and health-related factors together with time factors seem to be more relevant in explaining return to work. The findings suggest that individual labour market position, as occupation, employer, branch etc, seems to be less important than expected in explaining return to work from sickness absence due to stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  3. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration of...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes.......The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration...... of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks.147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9%) became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence...

  4. Women's experiences of long term sickness absence: implications for rehabilitation practice and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockander, Marlene K; Timpka, Toomas

    2003-01-01

    In most European countries, spells of long-term absence contribute the largest number of days that are reimbursed as a result of sickness absence. This group is growing and it is constituted mainly of women. The present study seeks further knowledge about what happens then and there, i.e. how women on long-term sickness absence handle and explain, for themselves and others, this interruption in their daily life. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 82 middle-aged women with personal experience of long-term sickness absence. The women's accounts of sickness absence contained interpretations of what had happened to them, how things were at present, and what they thought the future would bring. Three different accounts could be distinguished: crisis, breakpoint, and migration. The perception of their own situation and especially what they thought about their future was associated with their feeling of power to take the initiative, and their well-being. From this study the authors have found implications for central topics of importance: time elapse, sense of coherence, reorientation/adaptation, vital goals, and gender.

  5. The cortical focus in childhood absence epilepsy; evidence from nonlinear analysis of scalp EEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrigiannis, Ptolemaios G; Zhao, Yifan; He, Fei; Billings, Stephen A; Baster, Kathleen; Rittey, Chris; Yianni, John; Zis, Panagiotis; Wei, Hualiang; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Grünewald, Richard

    2018-03-01

    To determine the origin and dynamic characteristics of the generalised hyper-synchronous spike and wave (SW) discharges in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). We applied nonlinear methods, the error reduction ratio (ERR) causality test and cross-frequency analysis, with a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model, to electroencephalograms (EEGs) from CAE, selected with stringent electro-clinical criteria (17 cases, 42 absences). We analysed the pre-ictal and ictal strength of association between homologous and heterologous EEG derivations and estimated the direction of synchronisation and corresponding time lags. A frontal/fronto-central onset of the absences is detected in 13 of the 17 cases with the highest ictal strength of association between homologous frontal followed by centro-temporal and fronto-central areas. Delays consistently in excess of 4 ms occur at the very onset between these regions, swiftly followed by the emergence of "isochronous" (0-2 ms) synchronisation but dynamic time lag changes occur during SW discharges. In absences an initial cortico-cortical spread leads to dynamic lag changes to include periods of isochronous interhemispheric synchronisation, which we hypothesize is mediated by the thalamus. Absences from CAE show ictal epileptic network dynamics remarkably similar to those observed in WAG/Rij rats which guided the formulation of the cortical focus theory. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 2–4 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  7. Gender difference in sickness absence from work: a multiple mediation analysis of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Annalisa; Godin, Isabelle; Clays, Els; Kittel, France

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has shown that job characteristics, private life and psychosocial factors partially account for gender difference in work absences because of sickness. Most studies have analysed these factors separately. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether these explanatory factors act as mediators when they are considered simultaneously. The evaluated data set comprises the merger of two Belgian longitudinal studies, BELSTRESS III and SOMSTRESS. It includes 3821 workers (1541 men) aged 21-66 years, employed in eight organizations. A multiple mediation analysis was performed to explain the higher prevalence among women. Estimated factors were occupational grade, total number of paid working hours per week, job strain, overcommitment, home-work interference and social support at and outside work. Prospective data concerning duration and frequency of medically justified sickness absence (registered by the organizations) were used as outcomes. Overall, the mediating factors partially account for gender difference in sickness absence. The strongest mediator for both outcomes is job strain. In addition, difference in absence duration is mediated by social support at work, whereas difference in frequency is mediated by professional grade and home-work interference. Our results call attention to the necessity to elaborate actual preventive actions aiming at favouring a better positioning of women on the labour market in term of hierarchical level as well as in terms of quality of work for reducing sickness absence in this group.

  8. Sickness absence and disability pension following breast cancer - A population-based matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Marie Høyer; Lampic, Claudia; Nordin, Karin; Ahlgren, Johan; Bergkvist, Leif; Lambe, Mats; Berglund, Anders; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-12-01

    To compare sickness absence and disability pension in a population-based cohort of women with breast cancer (n = 463) from 1 year pre-diagnosis until 3 years post-diagnosis with a matched control group (n = 2310), and to investigate predictors of sickness absence during the 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis. Following breast cancer, the proportion of disease-free women with sickness absence decreased post-diagnosis (1st-3rd year; 78%-31%-19%), but did not reach the pre-diagnostic level (14%; P pension post-diagnosis (P > 0.05). Among patients, chemotherapy, baseline fatigue and pre-diagnosis sick days predicted sickness absence during the 2nd, 3rd, and 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis, respectively (P < 0.05). Breast cancer is associated with increased sickness absence 3 years post-diagnosis. In a clinical setting, prevention and treatment of side effects are important in reducing long-term consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternity Leave and Mothers' Long-Term Sickness Absence: Evidence From West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertzgen, Nicole; Hank, Karsten

    2018-04-01

    Exploiting unique German administrative data, we estimate the association between an expansion in maternity leave duration from two to six months in 1979 and mothers' postbirth long-term sickness absence over a period of three decades after childbirth. Adopting a difference-in-difference approach, we first assess the reform's labor market effects and, subsequently, prebirth and postbirth maternal long-term sickness absence, accounting for the potential role of the reform in mothers' selection into employment. Consistent with previous research, our estimates show that the leave extension caused mothers to significantly delay their return to work within the first year after childbirth. We then provide difference-in-difference estimates for the number and length of spells of long-term sickness absence among returned mothers. Our findings suggest that among those returned, mothers subject to the leave extension exhibit a higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with mothers who gave birth before the reform. This also holds true after we control for observable differences in prebirth illness histories. At the same time, we find no pronounced effects on mothers' medium-run labor market attachment following the short-run delay in return to work, which might rationalize a negative causal health effect. Breaking down the results by mothers' prebirth health status suggests that the higher incidence of long-term sickness absence among mothers subject to the reform may be explained by the fact that the reform facilitated the reentry of a negative health selection into the labor market.

  10. Sickness absence, marginality, and medically unexplained physical symptoms: a focus-group study of patients' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamland, Aase; Werner, Erik L; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-06-01

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. Two focus-group discussions were conducted with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically unexplained. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis. Inspired by theories of marginalization and coping, the authors searched for knowledge of how patients' positive resources can be mobilized to counteract processes of marginality. Analysis revealed how invisible symptoms and lack of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that could counteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention and confidence from professionals. Confidence from both personal and professional contacts is crucial. GPs have an important and appreciated role in this aspect.

  11. An application of viola jones method for face recognition for absence process efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizki Damanik, Rudolfo; Sitanggang, Delima; Pasaribu, Hendra; Siagian, Hendrik; Gulo, Frisman

    2018-04-01

    Absence was a list of documents that the company used to record the attendance time of each employee. The most common problem in a fingerprint machine is the identification of a slow sensor or a sensor not recognizing a finger. The employees late to work because they get difficulties at fingerprint system, they need about 3 – 5 minutes to absence when the condition of finger is wet or not fit. To overcome this problem, this research tried to utilize facial recognition for attendance process. The method used for facial recognition was Viola Jones. Through the processing phase of the RGB face image was converted into a histogram equalization face image for the next stage of recognition. The result of this research was the absence process could be done less than 1 second with a maximum slope of ± 700 and a distance of 20-200 cm. After implement facial recognition the process of absence is more efficient, just take less 1 minute to absence.

  12. Congenital or torsion-induced absence of Fallopian tubes. Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, D M; Costantini, W; Uglietti, A; Vasile, C; Bocconi, L

    1998-05-01

    Unilateral absence of a uterine tube is an extremely rare finding, for which there are two possible etiopathogenic causes: in some cases it is due to haemorrhage filling of the cavity and its reabsorption as a result of asymptomatic torsion of the uterine tube during adult life, in pediatric age or even during intrauterine life; alternatively, the absence may be congenital, associated with developmental alterations of the mesonephric and paramesonephric ducts. The article presents two cases of fallopian tube absence: a congenital monolateral absence and a tubal torsion during pregnancy. The symptomatology of the torsion of the fallopian tube in pregnancy can be milder than in the classic description with peritoneal reaction and severe clinical alteration. The main risk factors for tubal torsion are: adhesions and inflammatory processes, ovarian cysts, usually of dermoid type, menstrual period, pregnancy, abnormal long mesosalpinx and/or mesovarium, pelvic congestion induced by constipation and disturbed venous blood flow from the adnexa. A congenital defect of the mesonephric duct is followed by a homolateral defect of the paramesonephric duct. The resulting anomaly is characterized by the absence of the uterine tube, uterus-tube angle, kidney and ureter. Partial or total unilateral defects of a paramesonephric duct are more common than aplasia of both ducts. Some authors have suggested that an inadequate blood supply during the descent into the pelvis of the caudal part of the paramesonephric duct might feasibly lead to incomplete tube development.

  13. Social protection and the employment contract: the impact on work absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Scott-Marshall, Heather; Fang, Miao

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of temporary employment on all-cause sickness absence of one week or more with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by factors related to social protection (job tenure, union membership and firm size). A sample of 5,307 individuals who experienced 9,574 distinct job episodes was drawn from a longitudinal Canadian labour market survey (2000-2004). Duration analysis was undertaken to model the time from the start of a job to the first sickness absence. Specifically, a proportional hazard model was estimated using a complementary log-log function for continuous time processes. Findings showed that temporary employment was associated with a lower rate of sickness absence after controlling for tenure, prior health status, and several other individual and job characteristics. The results suggest that the lack of social protection in temporary jobs is a powerful determinant of absence taking, even in the case of serious health conditions that require an absence of one week or more.

  14. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E C; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed.

  15. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella G; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found. The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.

  16. Congenital absence of anterior papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve and surgical repair with artificial chordae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chuan; Pan, Shiwei

    2017-02-01

    We report the case of a 26-year old woman who underwent successful tricuspid valve repair for the absence of the anterior papillary of the tricuspid valve. Preoperative echocardiography revealed grade IV tricuspid valve regurgitation, caused by congenital absence of the anterior papillary muscle and prolapse of the anterior leaflet. Tricuspid valve repair was performed using artificial chords consisting of two polytetrafluoroethylene sutures and a concomitant ring annuloplasty. Postoperative echocardiography revealed mild tricuspid valve regurgitation. This approach represented a safe and effective technique for tricuspid valve repair in congenital absence of papillary muscle. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Pokemon decreases the transcriptional activity of RARα in the absence of ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yutao; Li, Yueting; Di, Fei; Cui, Jiajun; Wang, Yue; David Xu, Zhi-Qing

    2016-12-20

    Pokemon is a transcriptional repressor that belongs to the POZ and Krüppel (POK) protein family. In this study, we investigated the potential interaction between Pokemon and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) and determined the role of Pokemon in regulation of RARα transcriptional activity in the absence of ligand. We found that Pokemon could directly interact with RARα. Moreover, we demonstrated that Pokemon could decrease the transcriptional activity of RARα in the absence of ligand. Furthermore, we showed that Pokemon could repress the transcriptional activity of RARα by increasing the recruitment of nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR) and silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) to the retinoic acid response element (RARE) element. Taken together, these data suggest that Pokemon is a novel partner of RARα that acts as a co-repressor to regulate RARα transcriptional activity in the absence of ligand.

  18. On Absence of Pure Singular Spectrum of Random Perturbations and in Anderson Model at Low Disorde

    CERN Document Server

    Grinshpun, V

    2006-01-01

    Absence of singular component, with probability one, in the conductivity spectra of bounded random perturbations of multidimensional finite-difference Hamiltonians, is for the first time rigorously established under certain conditions ensuring either absence of pure point, or absence of pure absolutely continuous component in the corresponding regions of spectra. The main technical tool applied is the theory of rank-one perturbations of singular spectra. The respective new result (the non-mixing property) is applied to establish existence and bounds of the (non-empty) pure absolutely continuous component in the spectrum of the Anderson model with bounded random potential in dimension 2 at low disorder. The new (1999) result implies, via the trace-class perturbation analysis, the Anderson model with the unbounded potential to have only pure point spectrum (complete system of localized wave-functions) with probability one in arbitrary dimension. The new technics, based on the resolvent reduction formula, and ex...

  19. Reducing sickness absence in the catering department of Statoil; Naervaersarbeid i Statoil Forpleining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Mia Nadia; Odijk, Joseph

    2004-07-01

    Since 1997, the catering department of the Norwegian oil company Statoil has been working systematically to improve the working conditions such that as many employees as possible can be present at work and cope with the many demands and challenges. Using sickness absence data from Statoil and Statistics Norway, and a questionnaire to the employees, the authors have found that the sickness absence has gone down by 8 per cent since 1997. A large majority of the employees say that both the physical and the psychosocial working environment have improved. The leaders have improved their skill in leadership and have become good at organizing work such that it can be mastered by everybody. Collegial support also has improved. It appears that a good social network that emphasizes presence at the work-place reduces the sickness absence.

  20. Work-injury absence and compensation among partnered and lone mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the risk of a work-injury absence and the likelihood of receiving compensation among partnered and lone mothers and fathers. This study utilized data from an annual survey of Canadian residents. Logistic regression models examined the association between family status and the receipt of workers' compensation, and absences due to work-related injury or illnesses of 7 or more days. Being a lone mother was significantly associated with the risk of work-injury absence. Gender differences were observed for workers' compensation: mothers were half as likely as fathers to receive workers' compensation benefits, which may be attributed to differences in work experiences between men and women. Findings may help in understanding whether some parental situations are more vulnerable than others and may contribute to identifying policies that could help workers sustain employment or return to work following an injury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence while addressing methodological weaknesses in earlier studies. METHODS: The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplace units in Aarhus County, Denmark....... Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction...... with psychosocial work conditions. RESULTS: Sickness absence was 30.8% lower in the most satisfied group (11.7 days/year (CI 95%: 10.2; 13.1)) than in the least satisfied group (16.9 days/year (CI 95%: 15.3; 18.6)) adjusted for the covariates included. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions has...

  2. Finding 'Evidence of Absence' in Medical Notes: Using NLP for Clinical Inferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marjorie E; Divita, Guy; Redd, Andrew; Rubin, Michael A; Samore, Matthew H; Gupta, Kalpana; Trautner, Barbara W; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2016-01-01

    Extracting evidence of the absence of a target of interest from medical text can be useful in clinical inferencing. The purpose of our study was to develop a natural language processing (NLP) pipelineto identify the presence of indwelling urinary catheters from electronic medical notes to aid in detection of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). Finding clear evidence that a patient does not have an indwelling urinary catheter is useful in making a determination regarding CAUTI. We developed a lexicon of seven core concepts to infer the absence of a urinary catheter. Of the 990,391 concepts extractedby NLP from a large corpus of 744,285 electronic medical notes from 5589 hospitalized patients, 63,516 were labeled as evidence of absence.Human review revealed three primary causes for false negatives. The lexicon and NLP pipeline were refined using this information, resulting in outputs with an acceptable false positive rate of 11%.

  3. Does Workplace Bullying Affect Long-Term Sickness Absence Among Co-Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To examine if non-bullied employees at work units (WUs) with workplace bullying have more long-term sickness absence (LTSA) than employees in non-bullying WUs. METHODS: We included 7229 public health employees from 302 WUs and 3158 responders to a questionnaire on working conditions and health...... in 2007. WUs were classified into three categories of WUs; 1) no bullying (0% bullied); 2) moderate prevalence of bullying (bullied); and 3) high prevalence of bullying (≥10% bullied). LTSA (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence) during the following two years was obtained by linkage to the Danish...... register of sickness absence compensation benefits and social transfer payments. RESULTS: Non-bullied co-workers in WUs, where bullying was reported had 15 to 22% more LTSA compared with non-bullying WUs. CONCLUSION: Workplace bullying may be associated with LTSA in the entire WU....

  4. 0156 Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy - a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten Hansen, Mette; Marie Thulstrup, Ane; Kolding Kristensen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if parity, fertility treatment, body mass index (BMI), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise are risk factors for sickness absence during pregnancy weeks 10 to 30. METHOD: We use data from The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Danish...... and health. We excluded women, who were no longer pregnant at the time of the interview, were unemployed, multiple pregnant or had an obstetrical event within one year before the DNBC pregnancy. This resulted in a study population of 65 047 pregnancies. Outcome data were retrieved from DREAM, which contains...... information on sickness absence on a weekly basis. Data will be analysed using multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 30.5 years, 46% were nulliparous, 6.3% received fertility treatment, mean BMI was 23.6 kg/m(2). Prevalence of sickness absence until pregnancy week...

  5. The dismissal of an employee because of absence from work after recent labor reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Moreno Gené

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing contract termination because of absence from work for both objective reasons (article 52 d ET and disciplinary dismissal (article 52.4 a ET, this article aims to discuss the two defining aspects of the effect of the labour reforms of 2012 on the termination of work contracts: namely, that the dismissal of a worker is much simpler and much more economical. To this end, we first analyse the reformulationof the cause of termination because of absence from work covered by article 52 d ET, which has made it easier for employers to terminate contracts by this means. Then we study the effects of the declaration of unfair dismissal because of absence from work covered in both article 54.2 a ET and article 52 d ET. In both cases, the amount of compensation has been considerably reduced and procedural salaries have virtually been done away with.

  6. A Study on the Absence of Palmaris Longus in a Multi- racial Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Roohi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmaris longus is a dispensable muscle with a long tendon which is very useful in reconstructive surgery. It is absent 2.8 to 24% of the population depending on the race/ethnicity studied. Four hundred and fifty healthy subjects (equally distributed among Malaysia’s 3 major ethnic groups were clinically examined for the presence or absence of palmaris longus. This tendon was found to be absent unilaterally in 6.4% of study subjects, and bilaterally in 2.9% of study participants. Malays have a high prevalence of palmaris longus absence at 11.3% followed closely by Indians at 10.7% whilst Chinese had a low absence rate of 6.0%.

  7. The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Holte, Kari Anne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    . Conclusion Differences in psychosocial work environments in terms of emotional demands, reward at work, management quality and role conflicts, explained roughly 30% of women's excess long-term sickness absence risk. Assuming women and men had identical working conditions would leave the larger part......Objectives To identify differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between female and male employees in Denmark and to examine to what extent differences could be explained by work environment factors. Methods A cohort of 5026 employees (49.1% women, mean age 40.4 years; 50.9% men, mean age....... Results 298 workers (5.9%) received sickness absence compensation for 8 weeks or more. Women had an excess risk of 37% compared to men, when adjusting for age, family status and socio-economic position. Physical work environment exposures could not explain this difference, whereas differences...

  8. The Prognostic Value of the Work Ability Index for Sickness Absence among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; Robroek, Suzan J W; Niessen, Maurice A J; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The work ability index (WAI) is a frequently used tool in occupational health to identify workers at risk for a reduced work performance and for work-related disability. However, information about the prognostic value of the WAI to identify workers at risk for sickness absence is scarce. To investigate the prognostic value of the WAI for sickness absence, and whether the discriminative ability differs across demographic subgroups. At baseline, the WAI (score 7-49) was assessed among 1,331 office workers from a Dutch financial service company. Sickness absence was registered during 12-months follow-up and categorised as 0 days, 0performed for separate WAI dimensions, and subgroup analyses for demographic groups. A lower WAI was associated with sickness absence (≥15 days vs. 0 days: per point lower WAI score OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.21-1.33). The WAI showed reasonable ability to discriminate between categories of sickness absence (ORC=0.65; 95%CI 0.63-0.68). Highest discrimination was found for comparing workers with ≥15 sick days with 0 sick days (AUC=0.77) or with 1-5 sick days (AUC=0.69). At the cut-off for poor work ability (WAI≤27) the sensitivity to identify workers at risk for ≥15 sick days was 7.5%, the specificity 99.6%, and the positive predictive value 82%. The performance was similar across demographic subgroups. The WAI could be used to identify workers at high risk for prolonged sickness absence. However, due to low sensitivity many workers will be missed. Hence, additional factors are required to better identify workers at highest risk.

  9. Factors impacting participation in sports for children with limb absence: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmed, Batoul; Lamy, Marena; Cameron, Debra; Artero, Lisa; Ramdial, Sandra; Leineweber, Matthew; Andrysek, Jan

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with limb absence benefit from participating in sports. While barriers and facilitators affecting sport participation are well documented for adults, they have not been explored for children with limb absence. To identify the perceived factors impacting participation in sports according to children with limb absence and their parents. This study uses a descriptive qualitative study design. Nineteen participants, consisting of children and their parents, were recruited from an outpatient hospital clinic for semi-structured interviews. The 11 interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were then coded and analyzed using the DEPICT model. The thematic analysis was guided by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Analysis of our participant interviews identified six themes as having an influence on sport participation: "functionality of prosthesis", "plan in advance", "know what I can do" (understanding capabilities), "it's like every stroke, 2 million questions" (stigma and the social environment), "love for the game" (love for sport), and "these things are an investment" (the investment involved). The findings have the potential to inform the development and implementation of strategies to increase levels of participation in sports among children with limb absence. Information from this study may help to deepen the rehabilitation team's understanding of factors that impact engagement in sports among children with limb absence. Implications for Rehabilitation Children with limb absence present with unique barriers and facilitators to participating in sports, thus, what may be a facilitator or barrier for one child may not for another. Strategies to increase a child's participation in sports should consider both person and environmental factors. Rehabilitation professionals can play a crucial role in educating both families and the community on living and coping with a limb difference, services and

  10. Spiritual absence and 1-year mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Deidre B; Christian, Lisa M; Patidar, Seema; Bishop, Michelle M; Dodd, Stacy M; Athanason, Rebecca; Wingard, John R; Reddy, Vijay S

    2010-08-01

    Religiosity and spirituality have been associated with better survival in large epidemiologic studies. This study examined the relationship between spiritual absence and 1-year all-cause mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Depression and problematic compliance were examined as possible mediators of a significant spiritual absence-mortality relationship. Eighty-five adults (mean = 46.85 years old, SD = 11.90 years) undergoing evaluation for allogeneic HSCT had routine psychologie evaluation prior to HSCT admission. The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic was used to assess spiritual absence, depression, and problematic compliance, the psychosocial predictors of interest. Patient status at 1 year and survival time in days were abstracted from medical records. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the psychosocial factors of interest and mortality after adjusting for relevant biobehavioral factors. Twenty-nine percent (n = 25) of participants died within 1 year of HSCT. After covarying for disease type, individuals with the highest spiritual absence and problematic compliance scores were significantly more likely to die 1-year post-HSCT (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.49, P = .043 and HR = 3.74, P = .029, respectively), particularly secondary to infection, sepsis, or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR = 4.56, P = .01 and HR = 5.61, P = .014), relative to those without elevations on these scales. Depression was not associated with 1-year mortality, and problematic compliance did not mediate the relationship between spiritual absence and mortality. These preliminary results suggest that both spiritual absence and problematic compliance may be associated with poorer survival following HSCT. Future research should examine these relations in a larger sample using a more comprehensive assessment of spirituality.

  11. Working conditions in the explanation of occupational inequalities in sickness absence in the French SUMER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Lesuffleur, Thomas; Memmi, Sarah; Chastang, Jean-François

    2017-12-01

    Explanations of social inequalities in sickness absence are lacking in the literature. Our objectives were to evaluate the contribution of various occupational exposures in explaining these inequalities in a national representative sample of employees. The study was based on the cross-sectional sample of the SUMER 2010 survey that included 46 962 employees, 26 883 men and 20 079 women. Both sickness absence spells and days within the last 12 months, as health indicators, were studied. Occupation was used as a marker of social position. The study included both psychosocial work factors (variables related to the classical job strain model, psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and understudied variables related to reward, job insecurity, job promotion, esteem, working time/hours and workplace violence) and occupational exposures of chemical, biological, physical and biomechanical nature. Weighted age-adjusted Poisson and negative binomial regression analyses were performed. Strong occupational differences were found for sickness absence spells and days and for exposure to most work factors. Psychosocial work factors contributed to explain occupational differences in sickness absence spells, and the contributing factors were: decision latitude, social support, reward, shift work and workplace violence. Physical exposure, particularly noise, and biomechanical exposure were also found to be contributing factors. Almost no work factor was found to contribute to occupational differences in sickness absence days. Preventive measures at the workplace oriented towards low-skilled occupational groups and both psychosocial work factors and other occupational exposures may be beneficial to reduce sickness absence spells and occupational differences in this outcome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. 20 CFR 670.530 - Are Job Corps centers required to maintain a student accountability system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... student accountability system? 670.530 Section 670.530 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... accountability system? Yes, each Job Corps center must establish and operate an effective system to account for... student absence. Each center must operate its student accountability system according to requirements and...

  13. Student Internet Speech: Where Does the Schoolyard End in the Cyberworld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines student internet speech that originates off-campus but results in discipline from school. The history of the issue of student speech is explored to set the foundation for the current issue. In the absence of a Supreme Court ruling on student off-campus internet speech, cases reaching the Federal level are explored in search of…

  14. Factors Affecting Student Engagement in HEIs--It is All about Good Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarghani, Eman M.; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The passive role of students in their learning and education and the absence of student engagement in higher education institutions (HEIs) are quite common in many higher education institutions in developing countries. The main objective of the research presented in this paper is to explore the influential factors on student engagement in HEIs in…

  15. The absence of global positive solutions of systems of semilinear elliptic inequalities in cones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, G G

    2000-01-01

    Let K be a cone in R N , N>=2. We establish conditions for the absence of global non-trivial non-negative solutions of semilinear elliptic inequalities and systems of inequalities of the form -div(|x| α Du)>=|x| β u q , u| ∂K =0. We find the critical exponent q* that divides the domains of existence of these solutions from those of their absence. We prove that in the limiting case q=q* there are no solutions. The method is to multiply the system by a special factor and integrate the inequalities thus obtained

  16. Sickness absence associated with shared and open-plan offices - a national cross sectional questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Feveile, H; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    of office; the analysis was adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity during leisure time. Results Sickness absence was significantly related to having a greater number of occupants in the office (P...Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Methods The analysis was based on a national survey of Danish inhabitants between 18–59 years of age (response rate 62%), and the study...

  17. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...

  18. Sociodemographic Differences Between Alcohol Use and Sickness Absence: Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Head, Jenny; Goldberg, Marcel; Airagnes, Guillaume; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Suominen, Sakari; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Zins, Marie; Virtanen, Marianna

    2018-01-01

    We examined differences in sickness absence in relation to at-risk drinking and abstinence, taking into account potential changes in consumption. We used individual-participant data (n = 46,514) from four prospective cohort studies from Finland, France and the UK. Participants responded to a survey on alcohol use at two time points 4-6 years apart, and were linked to records of sickness absence for an ~6-year follow-up after the latter survey. Abstainers were those reporting no alcohol use in either survey. At-risk drinkers at T1 were labelled as 'former', at-risk drinkers at T2 as 'current' and at-risk drinkers at both times as 'consistent' at-risk drinkers. The reference group was low-risk drinkers at both times. Study-specific analyses were stratified by sex and socioeconomic status (SES) and the estimates were pooled using meta-analysis. Among men (n = 17,285), abstainers (6%), former (5%), current (5%) and consistent (7%) at-risk drinkers had an increased risk of sickness absence compared with consistent low-risk drinkers (77%). Among women (n = 29,229), only abstainers (12%) had a higher risk of sickness absence compared to consistent low-risk drinkers (74%). After adjustment for lifestyle and health, abstaining from alcohol was associated with sickness absence among people with intermediate and high SES, but not among people with low SES. The U-shaped alcohol use-sickness absence association is more consistent in men than women. Abstinence is a risk factor for sickness absence among people with higher rather than lower SES. Healthy worker effect and health selection may partly explain the observed differences. In a pooled analysis from four cohort studies from three European countries, we demonstrated a U-shaped association between alcohol use and sickness absence, particularly among men. Abstinence from alcohol was associated with increased sickness absenteeism among both sexes and across socioeconomic strata, except those with low SES. © The Author 2017

  19. Does workplace social capital protect against long-term sickness absence? Linking workplace aggregated social capital to sickness absence registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Sophie K; Madsen, Ida E H; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Melkevik, Ole; Bjørner, Jakob Bue; Andersen, Ingelise; Rugulies, Reiner

    2018-05-01

    Most previous prospective studies have examined workplace social capital as a resource of the individual. However, literature suggests that social capital is a collective good. In the present study we examined whether a high level of workplace aggregated social capital (WASC) predicts a decreased risk of individual-level long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in Danish private sector employees. A sample of 2043 employees (aged 18-64 years, 38.5% women) from 260 Danish private-sector companies filled in a questionnaire on workplace social capital and covariates. WASC was calculated by assigning the company-averaged social capital score to all employees of each company. We derived LTSA, defined as sickness absence of more than three weeks, from a national register. We examined if WASC predicted employee LTSA using multilevel survival analyses, while excluding participants with LTSA in the three months preceding baseline. We found no statistically significant association in any of the analyses. The hazard ratio for LTSA in the fully adjusted model was 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.13) per one standard deviation increase in WASC. When using WASC as a categorical exposure we found a statistically non-significant tendency towards a decreased risk of LTSA in employees with medium WASC (fully adjusted model: HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27)). Post hoc analyses with workplace social capital as a resource of the individual showed similar results. WASC did not predict LTSA in this sample of Danish private-sector employees.

  20. Zhuyi: From Absence to Bustle? Some Comments on Wang Jianjiang’s Article “The Bustle and the Absence of Zhuyi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Erjavec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a response to the article published in Filozofski vestnik in 2016 and written by Prof. Wanf Jianjiang who in recent years devoted much of his efforts to the influence of of Western aesthetics and philosophy on Chinese humanities. Thus a notion introduced by Prof. Wang Jianjiang – Zhuyi – became the center of discussion in the papers that are to be found in this volume of AM Journal. Prof. Jianjiang claims that Zhuyi has a similar meaning as Western -ism and argues that Chinese aestheticians and intellectuals in general must develop their own theories (-isms if they want to gain speech and not remain stuck with voice (cf. Jacques Rancière.   Article received: May 3, 2017; Article accepted: May 8, 2017; Published online: September 15, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Erjavec, Aleš. "Zhuyi: From Absence to Bustle? Some Comments on Wang Jianjiang’s Article 'The Bustle and the Absence of Zhuyi'." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 13 (2017: 111-121. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i13.189

  1. Factors Affecting Examination Attrition: Does Academic Support Help? A Survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) Students at Unisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tladi, Lerato Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the attributing and contributing factors to examination absence as well as whether the academic and social support available to students had a role to play in discouraging or reducing absence from examinations using results from a quantitative survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) students who were admitted…

  2. A case of absence of the septum pellucidum accompanied with hydrocephalus and detected by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Komei; Kobayashi, Eiki; Yamamoto, Kunimitsu; Asakura, Tetsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    A case of absence of the septum pellucidum accompanied with hydrocephalus in 56 years-old woman who had complained headache, dizziness and numbness of left leg was reported. Absence of the septum pellucidum in this case had not been detected untill CT scan was performed. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed, then her complaints were cleared up. The discussion was limited as far as possible to absence of the septum pellucidum without agenesis of the corpus callosum with a few references. Encephalographic characteristics of absence of the septum pellucidum were firstly noted by Foster in 1935. The real prevelence should lie at about 1 : 400 in a sufficiently large encephalographical series, which should be an estimate between 2 and 3 per 100,000 of population. Encephalography, although, afflicts patients with headache, nausea and vomiting, moreover it accompanied with possible intracranial infection. The other hand, CT scan has cleared up these problems, we can perform it easily in any cases, and know about status of the septum pellucidum. Further examination for more distinct information are took by coronal section and ''high definition 5 mm slice thickness'' of CT scan. (author)

  3. Sickness absence: could gender divide be explained by occupation, income, mental distress and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeby, Lisbeth; Bruusgaard, Dag; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2009-09-01

    Women have more spells of sickness absence than men but the reasons for this are unknown. We wanted to see if occupation, working conditions, income, health and mental distress may explain this gender difference. In a health survey in 2000-01 of all Oslo inhabitants aged 40, 45, and 59/60 years, 11,072 (48.7%) participated. Survey data were linked to the National Insurance Administration and Statistics Norway for the 8,174 eligible for sickness pay in the next four years. Occupation, working conditions, general health and mental distress were self-reported, and income was from official statistics. Long-term sickness absence (>16 days) was calculated for 2001-04 as cumulative incidence and number of days reimbursed. Cumulative incidence was 50.1% for women and 34.7% for men in the four years after the survey. An age-adjusted female overweight of 48% was only reduced to 41% by adjusting for occupation, working conditions, income, self-reported health and mental distress. Duration of long-term sickness absence was 17 days more for women than for men, and was not influenced by adjustments. We have not explained why women have more sickness absence than men, either by work-related factors or by general health or mental distress. Factors explaining the gender divide should be sought elsewhere.

  4. An absence theorem for static wave maps in the Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Naqing

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, we obtain an absence theorem for static wave maps defined from the Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter spacetime into any Riemannian manifold. This work extends the results in [Chinese Ann. Math. B 5 (1984) 737, Lett. Math. Phys. 14 (1987) 343

  5. Predicting the duration of sickness absence for patients with common mental disorders in occupational health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to determine the factors that best predict the duration of absence from work among employees with common mental disorders. Methods: A cohort of 188 employees, of whom 102 were teachers, on sick leave with common mental disorders was followed for 1 year. Only

  6. Predicting the duration of sickness absence for patients with common mental disorders in occupational health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine the factors that best predict the duration of absence from work among employees with common mental disorders. METHODS: A cohort of 188 employees, of whom 102 were teachers, on sick leave with common mental disorders was followed for 1 year. Only

  7. Return of fear after retrospective inferences about the absence of an unconditioned stimulus during extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, A.K.; de Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.; de Raedt, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether the effect of an extinction phase can be influenced retrospectively by information about the cause of the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (US) during that phase. Participants were subjected to a differential fear conditioning procedure, followed by an extinction procedure.

  8. Updating and prospective validation of a prognostic model for high sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Rhenen, W.; Pallesen, S.; Bjorvatn, B.; Moen, B.E.; Mageroy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further develop and validate a Dutch prognostic model for high sickness absence (SA). Methods Three-wave longitudinal cohort study of 2,059 Norwegian nurses. The Dutch prognostic model was used to predict high SA among Norwegian nurses at wave 2. Subsequently, the model was updated by

  9. Adolescent eating in the absence of hunger and relation to discretionary calorie allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Moore, Reneé H; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Tanaka, Leeann M; Kabay, April C; Faith, Myles S

    2010-12-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger is a risk factor for overeating during childhood. The objective of this study was to examine eating in the absence of hunger in adolescents based on their familial predisposition to obesity and current weight status. Thirty-one subjects (16 male, 15 female), who were 13 years of age and born at low risk or high risk for obesity, consumed lunch to fullness. After lunch, subjects had access to different snacks for 15 minutes. Eating in the absence of hunger referred to energy intake from the snacks. Low-risk females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than high-risk females and twice as many calories as low-risk and high-risk males when expressed as an individualized percentage of daily allowance for discretionary calories. Normal-weight females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than obese females and normal-weight males. The association between eating in the absence of hunger and weight and obesity risk status depended on adolescents' sex and could reflect emerging developmental differences, such as dieting or social desirability. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal sickness absence and return to work among welders and metal workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); B. Naaktgeboren; W.K. Post (Wendel)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To analyse factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal problems and the time it takes to return to work. METHODS: A longitudinal study with two year follow up was conducted among 283 male welders and metal

  11. Performance Indicators: Sickness and Absence Rates as Indicators of Staff Morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sandra

    Employee absenteeism is a problem faced by all library and information service managers as it erodes both salary budgets and productivity. It can have an undermining effect on staff morale, and may be an indicator of low staff motivation levels. There are two types of absence, unavoidable and avoidable, which can be measured using lost time and…

  12. A protocol improves GP recording of long-term sickness absence risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Paul C. M.; Hogervorst, Wouter; ter Riet, Gerben; van Dijk, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background If general practitioners (GPs) were better informed about patients' risks of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), they could incorporate these risk assessments into their patient management plans and cooperate more with occupational physicians to prevent LTSA. Aim To evaluate the

  13. The absence of exanthema is related with death and illness severity in acute enterovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Tao Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: A considerable proportion of children with an acute enterovirus infection in Guangdong Province, China during 2009–2012 presented no exanthema, and the absence of exanthema was found to be related to death and illness severity for these acute enterovirus infections. Clinicians in China should consider enterovirus as the possible pathogen when treating children with an acute pathogen infection without exanthema.

  14. Isolated unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery: a case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Harkel, A. Derk Jan; Blom, Nico A.; Ottenkamp, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the symptomatology, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic strategies of patients with an isolated unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery (UAPA). BACKGROUND: Isolated UAPA is a rare anomaly. Some case reports exist, but the best

  15. Toward a Reconception of Absence in the School Workplace: Teacher Absenteeism as Invention and Social Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; And Others

    Findings of a study that formulated and tested new ways of thinking about teacher absence are presented in this paper, which is based on the premise that teacher absenteeism is a social invention that must be studied within the context of the work site and understood as a function of the social exchange that occurs therein. Prior research has used…

  16. Temporalities in conlict: body and absence in the modern artistic practices in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ortega Galvez

    2012-01-01

    and ilmmakers in which the corporality (the absence of ones’ bodies plays an essential role. On one hand, we are going to talk about the violence victims’ (im- possibility of representation, and on the other hand, we are going to talk about the resigniication of the temporality through this kind of works.

  17. Epilepsy with myoclonic absences - favourable response to add-on rufinamide treatment in 3 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häusler, M; Kluger, G; Nikanorova, M

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA) is a rare epileptic syndrome with frequently poor response to antiepileptic treatment. Rufinamide (RUF) is a relatively new EMEA- and FDA-approved anticonvulsant licensed as an orphan drug for the adjunctive treatment of patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome....

  18. A study of parental presence/absence technique for child dental behaviour management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boka, V.; Arapostathis, K.; Charitoudis, G.; Veerkamp, J.; van Loveren, C.; Kotsanos, N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effectiveness of parental presence/absence (PPA) technique on the dental behaviour management of children. Materials and methods: This randomised control study recruited 61 child dental patients with uncooperative behaviour (Frankl 1 or 2) managed with AAPD-endorsed

  19. Congenital absence of infrarenal IVC and iliac venous system : Unusual collateral Pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Joo; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1994-01-01

    We present a case with congenital absence of the infrarenal portion of inferior vena cava and iliac venous system, showing unusual venous collaterals including the left ovarian venous collateral via parametrial venous complex, and a mesenteric-periureteric venous connection. The venous collateral pathways were demonstrated by computed tomography and venography

  20. Psychosocial work environment and registered absence from work: estimating the etiologic fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    or supervisor, predictability, and meaning of work were assessed with questionnaires at baseline and sickness absence was followed-up in employers' registers for 1,919 respondents (response rate 75.2%, 68% women, mainly low-skilled jobs) from 52 Danish workplaces during a 2-year period. Etiologic fractions (EFs...

  1. Work engagement and voluntary absence : The moderating role of job resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shantz, Amanda; Alfes, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of job resources, namely, organizational trust, the quality of employees’ relationship with their manager, and the motivating potential of jobs, on the negative relationship between work engagement and voluntary absence. Employee survey results and

  2. Leadership, Absenteeism Acceptance, and Ethical Climate as Predictors of Teachers' Absence and Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Raftar-Ozery, Tehila

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the mediating role of 'absenteeism acceptance' between different leadership styles and school ethical climate (SEC) on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and voluntary absence among Israeli teachers. 304 teachers were randomly selected from 304 different mainstream and special-education schools. The…

  3. School Board Policies on Leaves and Absences. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This report provides board policy samples and other policy resources on leaves and absences. The intent in providing policy samples is to encourage thinking in policy terms and to provide working papers that can be edited, modified, or adapted to meet local requirements. Topics covered in the samples include (1) sick leave, (2) maternity leave,…

  4. Effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis on Longterm Sickness Absence in 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Mandrup; Hetland, Merete Lund; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective. By linkage of national registries, we investigated the risk of longterm sickness absence (LTSA) ≥ 3 weeks in a large cohort of Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-patients. The study aimed to (1) estimate the risk of LTSA for patients with RA compared with the general...

  5. Sickness absence and return to work rates in women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; de Graaf, Jan H.; Balak, Fulya; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Most women are diagnosed with breast cancer when they are of working age. How long are breast cancer patients absent? How many of them return to work? ArboNed Occupational Health Services documents sickness absence data of 1 million workers of whom 40% were women. Between 2001 and 2005, 2,259 women

  6. Reading presence and absence in Fax from Sarajevo’s rape narrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in ‘t Veld, L. (Laurike)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn Joe Kubert’s Fax from Sarajevo, the chapter ‘The Rape Camp’ deals with the mass rape of women by Serb troops during the Bosnian War. Kubert’s rape narrative displays a tension between presence and absence that is analysed on different (extra)textual levels. Formally, the two

  7. 20 CFR 416.1149 - What is a temporary absence from your living arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Temporary Absence § 416.1149 What is a temporary... under age 22, you are temporarily absent while you are away at school, regardless of how long you are... provided in school regulations). (ii) However, if you are a child under age 18, and your permanent living...

  8. Unexplained Absences and Risk of Death and Injury Among Nursing Home Residents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Marta H; Weller, Carolina; Ibrahim, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    Unexplained absence of nursing home (NH) residents is one of the most challenging issues related to the care of older people. The aim of this review was to examine the death and injury outcomes of unexplained absence of NH residents. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AgeLine, and Cochrane Library to identify qualitative and quantitative studies published in the English language. Data on death and injury were collated, and aggregate proportions were calculated where possible. Nine studies were identified; most (n = 6) were conducted in the United States. Persons with dementia formed the study population in all studies. There were 1440 individual unexplained absences reported across the 9 studies. We calculated a rate of 82 deaths and 61 injuries per 1000 incidents of unexplained absence. Extreme temperatures were the most common cause of death. Most individuals left by foot, and were found within a 1-mile radius of place last seen in green vegetation and waterways. This review provides valuable insight into death and injury outcomes. Further studies are recommended to improve understanding and prevent adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Can sickness absence be reduced by stress reduction programs: On the effectiveness of two approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two brief preventive stress reduction programs - a cognitive focused program and a combined intervention of physical exercise and relaxation - on sickness absence in stressed and non-stressed employees working in various jobs in a

  10. Adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger and BMI in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Thalamus in Patients with Typical Absence Epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtíková, D.; Brázdil, M.; Horký, Jaroslav; Mikl, M.; Kuba, R.; Krupa, P.; Rektor, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, 2/Suppl. B (2006), B30 ISSN 1335-9592. [International Danube Symposium for Neurological Sciences and Continuing Education /38./. 06.04.2006-08.04.2006, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : typical absence epilepsy * idiopathic generalized epilepsy * proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy * thalamus Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  12. 48 CFR 9904.408 - Accounting for costs of compensated personal absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for costs of compensated personal absence. 9904.408 Section 9904.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408 Accounting for costs of compensated...

  13. Orthotopic liver transplantation for portosystemic encephalopathy in an adult with congenital absence of the portal vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcicki, M; Haagsma, EB; Gouw, ASH; Slooff, MJH; Porte, RJ

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a very rare venous malformation in which mesenteric venous blood drains directly into the systemic circulation. There is no portal perfusion of the liver and no portal hypertension. This abnormality is usually coincidentally discovered in children, the

  14. Teaching and Teacher Education: Absence and Presence in AERA Presidential Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This essay considers the absence, presence, and shifting treatment of the topic of research on teaching and teacher education in AERA presidential addresses. To capture the arc of this topic, the essay is structured chronologically according to three time periods beginning with AERA's birth in 1916 and continuing to the current years. At a general…

  15. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence: results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA...

  16. Gay Men's Book Clubs versus Wisconsin's Public Libraries: Political Perceptions in the Absence of Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, John

    2010-01-01

    Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…

  17. Attraction of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephitidae) to white light in the presence and absence of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of tephritid fruit flies to light and its role in fly biology and management has received little attention. Here, the objective was to show that western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is attracted to white light in the presence and absence of ammo...

  18. Conditions for the absence of infinite renormalization in masses and coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrab, E.S.C.

    1985-01-01

    A model of scalar, pseudo-scalar and spin 1/2 particle interaction is studied. After reformulation of the problem in function of auxiliary fields, perturbative calculations up to one loop are developed, finding out certain relations among characteristics constants of system, which assure (until the considered order) the absence of infinite renormalization in masses and coupling constants. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell, L.; Bultmann, U.; Rugulies, R.; Villadsen, E.; Faber, A.; Sogaard, K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market. Methods Data on work ability were retrieved from a representative cohort study of Danish wage earners and linked with a

  20. Psychosocial work environment and mental health-related long-term sickness absence among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corné A.M.; van Hoffen, Marieke F.A.; Waage, Siri; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Twisk, Jos W R; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E.; Pallesen, Ståle

    Purpose: We investigated which job demands and job resources were predictive of mental health-related long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in nurses. Methods: The data of 2059 nurses were obtained from the Norwegian survey of Shift work, Sleep and Health. Job demands (psychological demands, role

  1. THE INTERACTION OF FATHER-ABSENCE AND SIBLING-PRESENCE ON COGNITIVE ABILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON-SMITH, B.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE THE INFLUENCE UPON A CHILD'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FATHER'S PRESENCE IN (FP) OR ABSENCE FROM (FA) THE FAMILY IN A ONE-, TWO-, OR THREE-CHILD FAMILY. THE EFFECT OF THE SEX AND ORDINAL POSITION OF A SIBLING UPON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT WAS ALSO CONSIDERED. DATA FOR THIS ANALYSIS WERE OBTAINED FROM…

  2. LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

    IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

  3. Controlling absence seizures by deep brain stimulus applied on substantia nigra pars reticulata and cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a typical neural disease in nervous system, and the control of seizures is very important for treating the epilepsy. It is well known that the drug treatment is the main strategy for controlling the epilepsy. However, there are about 10–15 percent of patients, whose seizures cannot be effectively controlled by means of the drug. Alternatively, the deep brain stimulus (DBS) technology is a feasible method to control the serious seizures. However, theoretical explorations of DBS are still absent, and need to be further made. Presently, we will explore to control the absence seizures by introducing the DBS to a basal ganglia thalamocortical network model. In particular, we apply DBS onto substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the cortex to explore its effects on controlling absence seizures, respectively. We can find that the absence seizure can be well controlled within suitable parameter ranges by tuning the period and duration of current stimulation as DBS is implemented in the SNr. And also, as the DBS is applied onto the cortex, it is shown that for the ranges of present parameters, only adjusting the duration of current stimulation is an effective control method for the absence seizures. The obtained results can have better understanding for the mechanism of DBS in the medical treatment.

  4. its absence) in both his paintings and in his prison memoir, The True ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-08

    Apr 8, 2016 ... its absence) in both his paintings and in his prison memoir, The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist (1984). While Saayman makes a promis- ing case for an oeuvre-wide reading of. Breytenbach's creative output, her own reading lacks depth and insight. Whereas the book argues that different genres ...

  5. Effects of biotic interactions and dispersal on the presence-absence of multiple species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, Mohd Hafiz; Murray, Rua; Plank, Michael J.; Godsoe, William

    2017-01-01

    One of the important issues in ecology is to predict which species will be present (or absent) across a geographical region. Dispersal is thought to have an important influence on the range limits of species, and understanding this problem in a multi-species community with priority effects (i.e. initial abundances determine species presence-absence) is a challenging task because dispersal also interacts with biotic and abiotic factors. Here, we propose a simple multi-species model to investigate the joint effects of biotic interactions and dispersal on species presence-absence. Our results show that dispersal can substantially expand species ranges when biotic and abiotic forces are present; consequently, coexistence of multiple species is possible. The model also exhibits ecologically interesting priority effects, mediated by intense biotic interactions. In the absence of dispersal, competitive exclusion of all but one species occurs. We find that dispersal reduces competitive exclusion effects that occur in no-dispersal case and promotes coexistence of multiple species. These results also show that priority effects are still prevalent in multi-species communities in the presence of dispersal process. We also illustrate the existence of threshold values of competitive strength (i.e. transcritical bifurcations), which results in different species presence-absence in multi-species communities with and without dispersal.

  6. Exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence among office workers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between selfreported exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) for more than two consecutive weeks among office workers. Methods LTSA was measured using register data that were linked to survey data from 2,883 office workers ...

  7. Transitions between sickness absence, work, unemployment, and disability in Denmark 2004-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...

  8. Limits to Ambulatory Displacement of Coconut Mites in Absence and Presence of Food-Related Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also

  9. High physical and psychological load at work and sickness absence due to neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Wal, G. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2002-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates the relationship between physical and psychosocial load at work and sickness absence due to neck pain. Methods A prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 3 years (1994-1998) was performed among a working population. At the beginning of the study,

  10. Derrida, Foucault and “Madness, the Absence of an Œuvre”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seferin James

    Full Text Available This article argues that Foucault's 1964 paper “La folie, l'absence d'œuvre” ought to be understood as a response to Derrida's 1963 paper “Cogito et histoire de la folie”. I clarify the chronology of the exchange between these two thinkers and follow commentators Bennington and Flynn in emphasising themes other than the status of madness in Descartes. I undertake a thematic investigation of Foucault's 1961 characterisation of madness as the absence of an œuvre and the role of this characterisation in Derrida's 1963 paper. Then I turn to an investigation of Foucault's substantial change in position on these key themes with his 1964 paper. I argue that Foucault seeks to minimise the initial importance he attributed to his characterisation of madness as the absence of an œuvre, altering his understanding of the relation between madness and language as well as shifting the event that silences madness from Descartes to Freud. Derrida's reconsideration of Foucault's Folie et déraison in 1991 treats Freud as the new locus of the exchange. This is an implicit recognition by Derrida of Foucault's “La folie, l'absence d'œuvre” and confirmation of its place within the exchange.

  11. Psychosocial work conditions and registered sickness absence : a 3-year prospective cohort study among office employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between a wide variety of psychosocial work conditions and sickness absence in a medium-sized company. Methods Prospective cohort study of 395 employees working in an insurance office. Self-reported psychosocial work conditions were measured by questionnaire in

  12. Electron beam CT diagnosis of congenital unilateral absence of pulmonary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuan; Dai Ruping; Cao Cheng; Zhang Gejun; Jing Baolian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of electron beam CT (EBCT) in diagnosing congenital unilateral absence of pulmonary artery (UAPA). Methods: Patients with clinically suspected pulmonary artery disease or primary pulmonary hypertension underwent EBCT scanning. EBCT confirmed the diagnosis of UAPA in 11 patients, who were also evaluated with echocardiography and chest roentgenography. Cardioangiography and nuclear ventilation-perfusion scan were performed in some patients for a comparative study. Results: 4 female adults had UAPA with out associated congenital anomaly. 3 male children with coexisting complex congenital abnormality had unilateral absence of the left pulmonary artery and 4 patients coexisted other simple cardiovascular anomaly. EBCT scanning simultaneously displayed topographic pattern of both unilateral absence of pulmonary artery and coexisting congenital cardiovascular anomaly, as well as lung diseases. Conclusion: UAPA diagnosed in childhood usually has unilateral absence of the left pulmonary artery and associated congenital cardiovascular anomaly, while UAPA diagnosed in adult usually has UAPA on the right side without associated congenital anomaly. EBCT is one of the optimal imaging techniques in diagnosing UAPA and it greatly increases the diagnostic efficacy than echocardiography dose. Both EBCT and cardioangiography have their own advantages, however, EBCT, as a noninvasive method, should be complementary and not exclusive

  13. The Contribution of High Levels of Somatic Symptom Severity to Sickness Absence Duration, Disability and Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; Krol, Boudien; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Introduction: The primary objectives were to compare the duration of sickness absence in employees with high levels of somatic symptom severity (HLSSS) with employees with lower levels of somatic symptom severity, and to establish the long-term outcomes concerning return to work (RTW), disability

  14. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence : Results from DWECS/DREAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Karl B.; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Bultmann, Ute; Villadsen, Ebbe

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA. This was

  15. The prevalence of implementation of mental health measures in companies and its association with sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, L Willemijn; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2016-03-01

    The main objective was to determine the prevalence of implementation of mental health measures aimed at the prevention of high workload (workload measures) and the promotion of work engagement (engagement measures) in companies and sectors. Additionally, its associations with sickness absence was explored. Cross-sectional survey. An internet-based survey among 12,894 company representatives in the Netherlands. Descriptive analyses were performed to determine the prevalence, and differences between sectors were tested using Chi-squared tests. ANOVA was performed to examine the association between companies with or without mental health measures and sickness absence rates. 32.8% and 21.7% of the companies reported to have implemented 'continuously or often' workload measures and engagement measures, respectively. The sectors 'health care and welfare' and 'education' reported to have implemented measures most often. Having implemented engagement measures was significantly associated with lower sickness absence (4.1% vs 4.5%). Overall, workload measures were more often implemented than engagement measures. Future research is recommended to determine reasons for implementation as well as causality in the association between mental health measures and sickness absence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The α2δ subunit and absence epilepsy: Beyond calcium channels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celli, R.; Santolini, I.; Guiducci, M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Parisi, P.; Striano, P.; Gradini, R.; Battaglia, G.; Ngomba, R.T.; Nicoletti, F.

    2017-01-01

    Spike-wave discharges, underlying absence seizures, are generated within a cortico-thalamo-cortical network that involves the somatosensory cortex, the reticular thalamic nucleus, and the ventrobasal thalamic nuclei. Activation of T-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) contributes to the

  17. The influence of lifestyle and gender on sickness absence in Brazilian workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Rabacow (Fabiana Maluf); R.B. Levy (Renata Bertazzi); P.R. Menezes (Paulo Rossi); O. Do Carmo Luiz (Olinda); A.M. Malik (Ana Maria); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite an increasing body of knowledge concerning gender and lifestyle factors as determinants of sickness absence in well-developed countries, the relationship between these variables has not been elucidated in emerging economic power countries, where the burden of

  18. Congenital Absence of Left Circumflex Artery Detected by Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerati Hongsakul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The congenital absence of the left circumflex artery (LCx is a very rare congenital anomaly of coronary arteries, but it is benign. Currently, the best modality for the diagnosis of coronary anomalies is computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA. We report a case of congenitally absent LCx with an atypical chest pain.

  19. The Prognostic Value of the Work Ability Index for Sickness Absence among Office Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin G Reeuwijk

    Full Text Available The work ability index (WAI is a frequently used tool in occupational health to identify workers at risk for a reduced work performance and for work-related disability. However, information about the prognostic value of the WAI to identify workers at risk for sickness absence is scarce.To investigate the prognostic value of the WAI for sickness absence, and whether the discriminative ability differs across demographic subgroups.At baseline, the WAI (score 7-49 was assessed among 1,331 office workers from a Dutch financial service company. Sickness absence was registered during 12-months follow-up and categorised as 0 days, 0absence were estimated by multinomial regression analyses. Discriminative ability of the WAI was assessed by the Area Under the Curve (AUC and Ordinal c-index (ORC. Test characteristics were determined for dichotomised outcomes. Additional analyses were performed for separate WAI dimensions, and subgroup analyses for demographic groups.A lower WAI was associated with sickness absence (≥15 days vs. 0 days: per point lower WAI score OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.21-1.33. The WAI showed reasonable ability to discriminate between categories of sickness absence (ORC=0.65; 95%CI 0.63-0.68. Highest discrimination was found for comparing workers with ≥15 sick days with 0 sick days (AUC=0.77 or with 1-5 sick days (AUC=0.69. At the cut-off for poor work ability (WAI≤27 the sensitivity to identify workers at risk for ≥15 sick days was 7.5%, the specificity 99.6%, and the positive predictive value 82%. The performance was similar across demographic subgroups.The WAI could be used to identify workers at high risk for prolonged sickness absence. However, due to low sensitivity many workers will be missed. Hence, additional factors are required to better identify workers at highest risk.

  20. Changes in drinking as predictors of changes in sickness absence: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Halonen, Jaana I; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in alcohol use predict changes in the risk of sickness absence in a case-crossover design. Finnish public sector employees were surveyed in 2000, 2004 and 2008 on alcohol use and covariates. Heavy drinking was defined as either a weekly intake that exceeded recommendations (12 units for women; 23 for men) or having an extreme drinking session. The responses were linked to national sickness absence registers. We analysed the within-person relative risk of change in the risk of sickness absence in relation to change in drinking. Case period refers to being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey and control period refers to not being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey. Periods of heavy drinking were associated with increased odds of self-certified short-term (1-3 days) sickness absence (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38 for all participants; 1.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.21 for men and 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33 for women). A higher risk of short-term sickness absence was also observed after increase in drinking (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and a lower risk was observed after decrease in drinking (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00). Both increase (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57) and decrease (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43) in drinking were associated with increased risk of long-term (>9 days) medically certified all-cause sickness absence. Increase in drinking was related to increases in short-term and long-term sickness absences. Men and employees with a low socioeconomic position in particular seemed to be at risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Parental work absenteeism is associated with increased symptom complaints and school absence in adolescent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hysing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. Methods We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16–19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Results Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. Conclusion We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.

  2. Occupational health impact of the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic: surveillance of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Delclos, George L; Martínez, José Miguel; Jardí, Josefina; Alberti, Constança; Manzanera, Rafael; Yasui, Yutaka; Clèries, Ramón; Tobías, Aurelio; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-03-01

    Workplace absences due to illness can disrupt usual operations and increase costs for businesses. This study of sickness absence due to influenza and influenza-related illness presents a unique opportunity to characterise and measure the impact of the 2009 (H1N1) pandemic, by comparing trends during the pandemic to those of previous years, and adding this information to that obtained by traditional epidemiological surveillance systems. We compared the numbers of cases of sickness absence due to illness caused by influenza and influenza-related illness in 2007-2009, and in the first 3 months of 2010 in Catalonia (n=811 940) using a time series approach. Trends were examined by economic activity, age and gender. The weekly endemic-epidemic index (EEI) was calculated and its 95% CI obtained with the delta method, with observed and expected cases considered as independent random variables. Influenza activity peaked earlier in 2009 and yielded more cases than in previous years. Week 46 (in November 2009) had the highest number of new cases resulting in sickness absence (EEI 20.99; 95% CI 9.44 to 46.69). Women and the 'education, health and other social activities' sector were the most affected. Results indicate that the new H1N1 pandemic had a significant impact on business, with shifts in the timing of peak incidence, a doubling in the number of cases, and changes in the distribution of cases by economic activity sector and gender. Traditional epidemiological surveillance systems could benefit from the addition of information based on sickness absence data.

  3. Subtle alterations in memory systems and normal visual attention in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Carneiro, J E; Faure, J-B; Barbelivien, A; Nehlig, A; Cassel, J-C

    2016-03-01

    Even if considered benign, absence epilepsy may alter memory and attention, sometimes subtly. Very little is known on behavior and cognitive functions in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) model of absence epilepsy. We focused on different memory systems and sustained visual attention, using Non Epileptic Controls (NECs) and Wistars as controls. A battery of cognitive/behavioral tests was used. The functionality of reference, working, and procedural memory was assessed in the Morris water maze (MWM), 8-arm radial maze, T-maze and/or double-H maze. Sustained visual attention was evaluated in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. In the MWM, GAERS showed delayed learning and less efficient working memory. In the 8-arm radial maze and T-maze tests, working memory performance was normal in GAERS, although most GAERS preferred an egocentric strategy (based on proprioceptive/kinesthetic information) to solve the task, but could efficiently shift to an allocentric strategy (based on spatial cues) after protocol alteration. Procedural memory and visual attention were mostly unimpaired. Absence epilepsy has been associated with some learning problems in children. In GAERS, the differences in water maze performance (slower learning of the reference memory task and weak impairment of working memory) and in radial arm maze strategies suggest that cognitive alterations may be subtle, task-specific, and that normal performance can be a matter of strategy adaptation. Altogether, these results strengthen the "face validity" of the GAERS model: in humans with absence epilepsy, cognitive alterations are not easily detectable, which is compatible with subtle deficits. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sickness absence in a municipal public service of Goiânia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Ana Lúcia de Melo; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Rassi Neto, Elias; Ribeiro, Cristina Aparecida Neves; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absence, as work absenteeism justified by medical certificate, is an important health status indicator of the employees and, overall, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics are among the main factors associated with sickness absence. Public administration accounts for 21.8% of the formal job positions in Brazil. This population allows the study of a wide range of professional categories. To assess the profile and indicators of sickness absence among public workers from the municipality of Goiania, in the State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study on certified sick leaves, lasting longer than three days, of all civil servants from January 2005 to December 2010. Prevalence rates were calculated using as main criteria the number of individuals, episodes and sick days. 40,578 certified sick leaves were granted for health treatment among 13,408 public workers, in an annual average population of 17,270 people, which resulted in 944,722 days of absenteeism. The cumulative prevalence of sick leave for the period was of 143.7%, with annual average of 39.2% and duration of 23 days per episode. The cumulative prevalence of sickness absence was higher among women (52.0%), older than 40 years old (55.9%), with a partner (49.9%), low schooling (54.4%), education professionals (54.7%), > 10 years of service (61.9%), and with multiple work contracts (53.7%). Diagnoses groups (ICD-10) with higher cumulative prevalence of sick leaves were those with mental disorders (26.5%), musculoskeletal diseases (25.1%), and injuries (23.6%). Indicators of sickness absence express the magnitude of this phenomenon in the public sector and can assist in planning health actions for the worker, prioritizing the most vulnerable occupational groups.

  5. Workload, work stress, and sickness absence in Swedish male and female white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Gunilla; Lundberg, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse, in a homogeneous population of highly educated men and women, gender differences in self-reported sickness absence as related to paid and unpaid work and combinations of these (double exposure), as well as to perceived work stress and work-home conflict, i.e. conflict between demands from the home and work environment. A total of 743 women and 596 men, full-time working white-collar employees randomly selected from the general Swedish population aged 32-58, were assessed by a Swedish total workload instrument. The influence of conditions in paid and unpaid work and combinations of these on self-reported sickness absence was investigated by multivariate regression analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences between men and women. Overtime was associated with lower sickness absence, not only for men but also for women, and a double-exposure situation did not increase the risk of sick leave. Contrary to what is normally seen, conflict between demands did not emerge as a risk factor for sickness absence for women, but for men. Our assumption that sickness absence patterns would be more similar for white-collar men and women than for the general population was not confirmed. However, the women working most hours were also the least sick-listed and assumed less responsibility for household chores. These women were mainly in top-level positions and therefore we conclude that men and women in these high-level positions seem to share household burdens more evenly, but they can also afford to employ someone to assist in the household.

  6. Parental work absenteeism is associated with increased symptom complaints and school absence in adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Petrie, Keith J; Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge

    2017-05-12

    Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile). Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.

  7. Student Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Edward

    This report discusses student violence within the framework of causes, issues, and false and true solutions. The author decries the abdication of responsibilities by both college administrators, who have permitted students to "do their thing," and leftwing students, who crusade thoughtlessly against educational institutions. Some true solutions…

  8. STUDENT PLACEMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    students express lack of interest in the field they are placed, it ... be highly motivated to learn than students placed in a department ... the following research questions. Research Questions. •. Did the criteria used by Mekelle. University for placement of students into different departments affect the academic performance of ...

  9. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  10. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Antai, D

    2016-07-01

    Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15-65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%), and highest in Finland (28%). 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. "Low household income" and "sickness presenteeism" were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  11. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  12. Shift and Day Work: A Comparison of Sickness Absence, Lateness, and other Absence Behaviour at an Oil Refinery from 1962 to 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. J.

    1967-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of continuous process shift work in modern industry, few studies on the medical aspects of shift work can be found in recent literature of occupational health. Physiologists have shown that the ability of the body to adjust its circadian rhythms to alteration in hours of work or sleep can take up to a month. The usual type of shift work in industry involves weekly changes of hours, and thus on theoretical grounds at least this may not be the most suitable frequency for shift changes. Sickness absence of male refinery workers has been studied over a four-year period. The figures show that continuous three-cycle shift workers have consistently and significantly lower rates of sickness than day workers in similar occupations. The annual inception rate (spells) standardized for age was 108% for shift workers and 182% for day workers, and the average annual duration per man was 11 days for shift workers and 18 days for day workers, although the average length of spell was slightly longer among shift workers. As far as is known, such a difference has not been described before in detail. Age-related lateness and absenteeism have been measured and show similar wide differences between the two groups. Although both types of worker are largely self-selected, the difference is not due to medical selection or to an excess of any one type of disease in day workers. Over three-quarters of 150 shift workers interviewed stated that they preferred shift work hours and that sleeping difficulties were not common. It is suggested that the main reasons for the difference between shift and day workers' sickness absence lie in the degree of personal involvement in the work and in the social structure of the working group. PMID:6023084

  13. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  14. Physical work environment risk factors for long term sickness absence: prospective findings among a cohort of 5357 employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    employees interviewed in 2000 about their physical work environment, and various covariates were followed for 18 months in a national sickness absence register. Outcome measurements Cox regression analysis was performed to assess risk estimates for physical risk factors in the work environment and onset......OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of physical work environment on long term sickness absence and to investigate interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study of long term sickness absence among employees in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 5357...... of long term sickness absence, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for eight consecutive weeks or more. RESULTS: 348 participants (6.9%) developed long term sickness absence during follow-up. Of these, 194 (55.7%) were women and 154 (44.3%) were men. For both female and male employees, risk...

  15. Leisure-time physical activity and direct cost of short-term sickness absence among Finnish municipal employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Anu; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahti, Jouni

    2017-03-04

    We aimed to examine the direct costs of short-term (1-14 days) sickness absence and the effect of employees' physical activity on the costs. The Finnish Helsinki Health Study survey (2007) was used in the analysis (n = 3,935). Physical activity was classified into inactive, moderately active, and vigorously active. Sickness absence (3 years follow-up) and salary data were derived from the employer's registers. On average, an employee was absent 6 days a year due to short-term sickness absence, with a production loss of 2,350 EUR during the 3 years. The vigorously active had less sickness absence than those less active. The direct cost of sickness absence of a vigorously active employee was 404 EUR less than that of an inactive employee. Promoting physical activity among employees may decrease direct cost of short-term sickness absence.

  16. Physical capacity and risk for long-term sickness absence: a prospective cohort study among 8664 female health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Andersen, Lars Louis; Clausen, Thomas; Strøyer, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prospective associations between self-reported physical capacity and risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers. Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about physical capacity and were followed in a national register of sickness absence lasting for two or more consecutive weeks during 1-year follow-up. Using Cox regression hazard ratio analyses adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, physical workload, job seniority, psychosocial work conditions, and previous sickness absence, we modeled risk estimates for sickness absence from low and medium physical capacity. Low and medium aerobic fitness, low muscle strength, low flexibility, and low overall physical capacity significantly increased the risk for sickness absence with 20% to 34% compared with health care workers with high capacity. Low physical capacity increases the risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers.

  17. Proper Support Improves Online Student Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sweitzer

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To ensure success of students enrolled in distance learning courses factors such as training for instructors, allocation of resources, administrative support, perceived relevance of content to the student's career or personal interests, degree of student support, amount and nature of feedback and amount of time/effort required as well as establishment of learning communities are critical. Unfortunately, these services are not always in place when colleges first begin to venture into distance education. In addition, faculty members are often reluctant to develop courses in the absence of sufficient support from administrators and technical staff, not only for themselves, but their students as well. This article will discuss these issues and why they are important for student success.

  18. Using Chronic Absence in a Multi-Metric Accountability System. Policy Memo 16-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Heather

    2016-01-01

    With the passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, California must integrate additional measures of student and school performance into the state-wide accountability system. To support the conversation as policymakers consider if/how to include chronic absenteeism data in the state's accountability system, PACE has conducted an…

  19. Case report 464: Bilateral congenital absence of the hook of the hamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, L.L.; Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A 28-year-old man presented after an injury in a fight, showed absence of the hook or hamulus of the hamate bone in the symptomatic left wrist. The asymptomatic right wrist showed a similar change, indicating the diagnosis of congenital absence of the hook of the hamate - an abnormality apparently not previously described in the literature. The anatomical and clinical implications, both potential and real, of fractures or dislocations of the wrist, are discussed briefly. It is stressed by the authors that the potential for a misdiagnosis, particularly in a case of trauma to the wrist, certainly exists in instances where an absent or hypoplastic hook of the hamate is present. It is also stressed that even though a hook of the hamate is not delineated radiologically, it may be present in its cartilaginous form. Under such circumstances, imaging with magnetic resonance might be helpful. (orig.)

  20. Boreal Forests Sequester Large Amounts of Mercury over Millennial Time Scales in the Absence of Wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Reiner; Clemmensen, Karina E; Wardle, David A; Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard

    2017-03-07

    Alterations in fire activity due to climate change and fire suppression may have profound effects on the balance between storage and release of carbon (C) and associated volatile elements. Stored soil mercury (Hg) is known to volatilize due to wildfires and this could substantially affect the land-air exchange of Hg; conversely the absence of fires and human disturbance may increase the time period over which Hg is sequestered. Here we show for a wildfire chronosequence spanning over more than 5000 years in boreal forest in northern Sweden that belowground inventories of total Hg are strongly related to soil humus C accumulation (R 2 = 0.94, p millennial time scales in the prolonged absence of fire.

  1. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan

    2013-05-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan; Lin, Chichuan; George, Roger R.; Melo, Fernando A.; Biggs, Eleanor R.; Ahmed, Zamal; Drake, Melanie N.; Arur, Swathi; Arold, Stefan T.; Ladbury, John E S D

    2013-01-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A multisite randomized controlled trial on time to self-support among sickness absence beneficiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen; Aust, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2010, the Danish Government launched the Danish national return-to-work (RTW) programme to reduce sickness absence and promote labour market attainment. Multidisciplinary teams delivered the RTW programme, which comprised a coordinated, tailored and multidisciplinary effort (CTM......) for sickness absence beneficiaries at high risk for exclusion from the labour market. The aim of this article was to evaluate the effectiveness of the RTW programme on self-support. METHODS: Beneficiaries from three municipalities (denoted M1, M2 and M3) participated in a randomized controlled trial. We.......54-0.95). In M1, we found no difference between the two groups (HR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.84-1.17). CONCLUSION: The effect of the CTM programme on return to self-support differed substantially across the three participating municipalities. Thus, generalizing the study results to other Danish municipalities...

  4. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep problems and adverse psychosocial working conditions are associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Because sleep problems affect role functioning they may also exacerbate any effects of psychosocial working conditions and vice versa. We examined whether sleep...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...... questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from...

  5. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on short-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    with a crude RR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.69–0.99) and an adjusted RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.69–1.01). Conclusions: Pre-school employees participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence during a 29-month follow......Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether employees in pre-schools that implemented a participatory organizational-level intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence compared to employees in the control group. Methods...

  6. The clinical and radiological evaluation of absence of the corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Radkowski, M.A.; McLone, D.G.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL; Flannery, A.

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective and prospective analysis of children with a diagnosis of complete absence of the corpus callosum (ACC) at the Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago over a 5-year period was performed. The diagnosis was based on the computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) images. From this material, 105 children with a diagnosis of ACC were analyzed on the basis of clinical symptomatology and radiological studies (CT, MR and ultrasound). Eighty-three percent of our children were symptomatic. The most common symptoms and signs were macrocephaly with hydrocephalus and seizures. MR was the best radiological imaging modality for evaluating children with ACC and associated brain anomalies. The most common associated brain anomalies with ACC in decreasing frequency in our children were: interhemispheric cyst with hydrocephalus, Dandy-Walker malformation, migrational disorders, absence of the inferior vermis, cephaloceles and lipoma aof the interhemispheric fissure. (author). 15 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maja Baeksgaard; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Becker, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: We investigated the association between weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension. DESIGN: Prospective register-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 17 690 men and women, aged 18-60 years from...... the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey in 2000, 2005 and 2010 participated in the study. Participants worked the entire year prior to baseline. MEASUREMENTS: Administrative registers were used to obtain information on unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension during a 5-year follow-up period....... Data were analysed by multivariate Cox regression model with random effect (frailty) adjusted for cohabitation status, educational level, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking habits, calendar year and geographic region. FINDINGS: Among males, adjusted hazards ratios (HR) of unemployment were 1.24 (95...

  8. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  9. Effect of the Danish return-to-work program on long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Otto M; Aust, Birgit; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    participant receiving ordinary sickness benefit management (OSM). Study participants were working-age adults receiving long-term (≥8 weeks or more) benefits, included regardless of reason for sickness absence or employment status. Each beneficiary was followed-up for a maximum period of 52 weeks. Cox......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Danish return-to-work (RTW) program on long-term sickness absence in a randomized controlled trial in three municipalities. METHODS: The intervention group comprised 1948 participants while the control group comprised 1157...... proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for return to work (RTW) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The intervention effect differed significantly between the municipalities (P=0.00005). In one municipality (M2) the intervention resulted in a statistically significant...

  10. Soybean Lectin Enhances Biofilm Formation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the Absence of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Pérez-Giménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean lectin (SBL purified from soybean seeds by affinity chromatography strongly bound to Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 cell surface. This lectin enhanced biofilm formation by B. japonicum in a concentration-dependent manner. Presence of galactose during biofilm formation had different effects in the presence or absence of SBL. Biofilms were completely inhibited in the presence of both SBL and galactose, while in the absence of SBL, galactose was less inhibitory. SBL was very stable, since its agglutinating activity of B. japonicum cells as well as of human group A+ erythrocytes was resistant to preincubation for one week at 60°C. Hence, we propose that plant remnants might constitute a source of this lectin, which might remain active in soil and thus favor B. japonicum biofilm formation in the interval between soybean crop seasons.

  11. Effects of worksite health interventions involving reduced work hours and physical exercise on sickness absence costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of physical exercise during work hours (PE) and reduced work hours (RWH) on direct and indirect costs associated with sickness absence (SA). Sickness absence and related costs at six workplaces, matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH, and referents), were retrieved from company records and/or estimated using salary conversion methods or value-added equations on the basis of interview data. Although SA days decreased in all conditions (PE, 11.4%; RWH, 4.9%; referents, 15.9%), costs were reduced in the PE (22.2%) and RWH (4.9%) conditions but not among referents (10.2% increase). Worksite health interventions may generate savings in SA costs. Costs may not be linear to changes in SA days. Combing the friction method with indirect cost estimates on the basis of value-added productivity may help illuminate both direct and indirect SA costs.

  12. Absence-like and tonic seizures in aspartoacylase/attractin double-mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohma, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Matalon, Reuben; Surendran, Sankar; Tyring, Stephen; Kitada, Kazuhiro; Sasa, Masashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2007-04-01

    The Spontaneously Epileptic Rat (SER), a double-mutant for tremor and zitter mutations, shows spontaneous occurrences of absence-like and tonic seizures. Several lines of evidence suggest that the combined effect of Aspa and Atrn mutations is the most likely cause of the epileptic phenotype of the SER. To address this issue, we produced a new double-mutant mouse line carrying both homozygous Aspa-knockout and Atrn(mg-3J) mutant alleles. The Aspa/Atrn double-mutant mice exhibited absence-like and tonic seizures that were characterized by the appearance of 5-7 Hz spike-wave-like complexes and low voltage fast waves on EEGs. These results demonstrate directly that the simultaneous loss of the Aspa and Atrn gene functions causes epileptic seizures in the mouse and suggest that both Aspa and Atrn deficiencies might be responsible for epileptic seizures in the SER.

  13. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E. C.; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed. Methods In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed. Results A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence. Conclusions Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence. PMID:27213963

  14. Partial absence of the posterior semicircular canal in Alagille syndrome: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Egelhoff, John; Benton, Corning [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati (United States); Goold, Amy [Tripler Army Medical Center, Family Practice, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We report a case of bilateral partial absence of the posterior semicircular canals (with normal lateral semicircular canals) imaged with CT in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Similar histologic findings have been reported in the pathology literature. This association has been previously reported only for Waardenburg syndrome in the imaging literature. We review the imaging findings and embryology of the semicircular canals, and suggest that this abnormality is specific to patients with Alagille or Waardenburg syndrome. (orig.)

  15. Partial absence of the posterior semicircular canal in Alagille syndrome: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Bernadette; Egelhoff, John; Benton, Corning; Goold, Amy

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral partial absence of the posterior semicircular canals (with normal lateral semicircular canals) imaged with CT in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Similar histologic findings have been reported in the pathology literature. This association has been previously reported only for Waardenburg syndrome in the imaging literature. We review the imaging findings and embryology of the semicircular canals, and suggest that this abnormality is specific to patients with Alagille or Waardenburg syndrome. (orig.)

  16. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These observations deserve detailed monitoring and could only partly be attributed to the compensation and unemployment rates in Greece so other possible reasons should be explored.

  17. The Absence of the Verumontanum at Voiding Cystourethrography as a Sign of Prostate Maldevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, A. L.; Ferrara, P.; Manzoni, C.; Mancini, A. P.; Pulitanò, S.; Bonomo, L.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate maldevelopment in prune-belly syndrome has only been described at necropsy. No reports are available in the “in vivo” studies. The absence of the verumontanum at voiding cystourethrography correlates with verumontanum and prostate hypoplasia. This radiographic sign can represent the earliest finding in prostate maldevelopment and might contribute to the “in vivo” assessment of the disease, especially in doubtful cases. PMID:21151546

  18. The Absence of the Verumontanum at Voiding Cystourethrography as a Sign of Prostate Maldevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Valentini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate maldevelopment in prune-belly syndrome has only been described at necropsy. No reports are available in the “in vivo” studies. The absence of the verumontanum at voiding cystourethrography correlates with verumontanum and prostate hypoplasia. This radiographic sign can represent the earliest finding in prostate maldevelopment and might contribute to the “in vivo” assessment of the disease, especially in doubtful cases.

  19. The rat cochlea in the absence of circulating adrenal hormones: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohuis, P J; Börjesson, P K; Klis, S F; Smoorenburg, G F

    2000-05-01

    Circulating adrenal hormones affect strial function. Removal of endogenous levels of adrenal steroids by bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) in rats causes a decrease of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the cochlear lateral wall [Rarey et al., 1989. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 115, 817-821] and a decrease of the volume of the marginal cells in the stria vascularis [Lohuis et al., 1990. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 110, 348-356]. To study further the effect of absence of circulating adrenocorticosteroids on cochlear function, 18 male Long Evans rats underwent either an ADX or a SHAM operation. Electrocochleography was performed 1 week after surgery for tone bursts in a frequency range of 1-16 kHz. Thereafter, the cochleas were harvested and examined histologically. No significant changes in the amplitude growth curves of the summating potential (SP), the compound action potential (CAP) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were detected after ADX. However, visually, there appeared to be a decrease of endolymphatic volume (tentatively called imdrops). Reissner's membrane (RM) extended less into scala vestibuli in ADX animals than in SHAM-operated animals. The ratio between the length of RM and the straight distance between the medial and lateral attachment points of RM were used as an objective measure to quantify this effect in each sub-apical half turn of the cochlea. The decrease in length of RM was statistically significant. Thus, circulating adrenal hormones appear to be necessary for normal cochlear fluid homeostasis. Absence of one or more of these hormones leads to shrinkage of the scala media (imdrops). However, the absence of adrenal hormones does not affect the gross cochlear potentials. Apparently, the cochlea is capable of compensating for the absence of circulating adrenal hormones to sustain the conditions necessary for proper cochlear transduction.

  20. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Falkinham III

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance.