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Sample records for structures choogata futai

  1. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure in waves. 2nd Report; Choogata futai no harochu dansei kyodo no suiteiho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    On the hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, a mutual interaction theory based on the area division method is used for the analysis of a fluid problem and a mode analysis method is used for the analysis of deformation. On the continuous deformation of a floating structure, the structure is considered as a set of partial structures obtained when the plane shape was divided into squares and discretely handled as a series of rigid motions in the small partial structures obtained by dividing the partial structures more finely. The experimental result in a water tank and the distribution method at a singular point were compared on the deformation of the elastic floating structure estimated by calculation based on this formulation. The result showed that the estimation method on the hydroelastic problem proposed in this paper is valid. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, various calculation examples indicate that the hydroelastic behavior is not only the relation between the structure length and wavelength, but also that the bending rigidity of a structure is a very important factor. For a huge floating structure in the 5,000 m class, up to shorter wavelength of about {lambda}/L = 1/100 must be investigated. 6 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Numerical response analysis of a large mat-type floating structure in regular waves; Matogata choogata futai kozobutsu no haro oto kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuzawa, Y.; Kagawa, K.; Kitabayashi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawano, D. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The theory and formulation for the numerical response analysis of a large floating structure in regular waves were given. This paper also reports the comparison between the experiment in the Shipping Research Institute in the Minitry of Transport and the result calculated using numerical analytic codes in this study. The effect of the bending rigidity of a floating structure and the wave direction on the dynamic response of a structure was examined by numerical calculation. When the ratio of structure length and incident wavelength (L/{lambda}) is lower, the response amplitude on the transmission side becomes higher in a wave-based response. The hydrodynamic elasticity exerts a dominant influence when L/{lambda} becomes higher. For incident oblique waves, the maximum response does not necessarily appear on the incidence side. Moreover, the response distribution is also complicated. For example, the portion where any flexible amplitude hardly appears exists. A long structure response can be predicted from a short structure response to some degree. They differ in response properties when the ridigity based on the similarity rule largely differs, irrespective of the same L/{lambda}. For higher L/{lambda}, the wave response can be easily predicted when the diffrection force is replaced by the concentrated exciting force on the incidence side. 13 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Hamada, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. On the estimation method of hydrodynamic forces acting on a huge floating structure; Choogata futai ni hataraku haryoku ryutairyoku no suiteiho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M.; Zhu, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A floating structure such as an international airport is anticipated to have a length of about 5,000 m and a width of about 1,000 m. A singular point method may be used as a method to estimate force that such a floating body is subjected to from waves. In order to derive a solution with practically sufficient accuracy, 1250 elements are required in the length direction and 250 elements in the width direction, or a total of 312,500 elements. Calculating this number of elements should use finally a linear equation system handling complex coefficients comprising 312,500 elements, which would require a huge amount of calculation time. This paper proposes a method to derive solution on wave forces acting on a super-large floating structure or fluid force coefficients such as added mass coefficients and decay coefficients at a practically workable calculation amount and still without degrading the accuracy. The structure was assumed to be a box-shaped structure. Strengths of the singular points to be distributed on each element were assumed to be almost constant except for edges in lateral, oblique and longitudinal waves. Under this assumption, the interior of the floating structure excepting its edges was represented by several large elements to have reduced the number of elements. A calculation method proposed based on this conception was verified of its effectiveness. 2 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Structural response analysis of very large floating structures in waves using one-dimensional finite element model; Ichijigen yugen yoso model ni yoru choogata futai no harochu kozo oto kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikubo, M.; Yao, T.; Oida, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Formulation was made on a one-dimensional beam finite element which is effective in analyzing structural response of very large floating structures by modeling them on beams on an elastic foundation. This element allows strict solution of vibration response in the beams on the elastic foundation to be calculated efficiently for a case where mass and rigidity change in the longitudinal direction. This analysis method was used to analyze structural response of a large pontoon-type floating structure to investigate mass in the end part for the structural response and the effect of decay while passing the structure. With a pontoon-type floating structure, reduction in bends and bending stress in the end part of the floating structure is important in designing the structure. Reducing the mass in the end part is effective as a means to avoid resonance in these responses and reduce the responses. Increase in rigidity of a floating structure shifts the peak in quasi-static response to lower frequency side, and reduces response in resonance, hence it is advantageous for improving the response. Since incident waves decay while passing through the floating structure, response in the lower wave side decreases. The peak frequency in the quasi-static response also decreases at the end part of the structure in the upper wave side due to decay in wave force. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Comparative study of hydroelastic responses of semisubmersible type and pontoon type very large floating structure in waves; Tachushiki semisabugata to pontoon gata choogata futai no harochu dansei oto no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, N.; Hirayama, T.; Sato, N. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A semisubmersible very large floating structure is compared with an equivalent pontoon type in vertical displacement and longitudinal bending moment in waves. The theoretical calculation is based on the mode synthesis method, and fluid force is analyzed by the three-dimensional singularity method for the symmetric structure, in which the effects of elastic deformation are taken into account. The semisubmersible and pontoon types are not much different from each other in eigenfrequency and mode shape in the dry mode. In the wet mode, on the other hand, the pontoon type is characterized by the synthetic mode in which torsional and bending modes overlap each other, each mode having a similar eigenfrequency. These types are different in elastic response, the pontoon type having several tens times higher coefficient of attenuation than the semisubmersible type. The pontoon type is generally lower in response, but its torsional mode is excited in transverse waves, making it higher than the semisubmersible type at near eigenfrequency of this mode. 15 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Consideration on the dynamic behavior and the structural design of large scale floating structure. 2nd Report. Stability of elastic structure and design of elastic response; Choogata futai no kozo kyodo oyobi kozo sekkei ni kansuru kosatsu. 2. Dansei henkei wo koryoshita fukugensei oyobi kozo oto no sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A policy of improving a very large floating body was planned based on its dynamic characteristics, and a proposal was made thereon. Furthermore, discussions were given on stability that considers effect of elastic deformation required when a structure is mounted on a floating body. With respect to a structural design of a very large floating body in which elastic response is governing, and upon modeling the very large floating body into an aeolotropic plate on an elastic supporting floor, it was shown that the existing range of natural vibration speed in the elastic response is in higher range than the natural vibration speed of heave. It was also indicated that the peak height of response to waves in resonance is inversely proportional to wave frequency, and furthermore, degree of flowing in of vibration energy during the resonance is determined by an inner product of spatial vibration patterns of wave force and the excited mode shape. A proposal was made on a floating body improved of excessive response in the floating body edges by changing the characteristics of the floating body edges. In addition, discussions were given on stability that considers elastic deformation of a floating body that becomes necessary when a structure, such as a building, is built on a very large floating body. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Systematic analysis on mooring systems of floating structures; Futai keiryuho ni kansuru keitoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H.; Ide, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Discussed herein are mooring performance requirements of the new types of marine structures now proposed, and characteristic ranges and future expansion potential of the existing mooring systems. The mooring systems studied for floating structures are catenary, single point (multi-leg and single-leg types), fixed structure with fender and tension leg mooring systems. The studied items include extraction of the elements that constitute rigidity of the spring for horizontal mooring, survey on and data collection for each element, determination of element ranges, programs for mooring analysis, assessment of mooring characteristic ranges, and potential development of the characteristic ranges. It is concluded that the existing systems with their current characteristic ranges and future possibility are insufficient for the future marine structures. It is therefore necessary to develop new mooring concepts, instead of expanding the current concepts, in order to meet the mooring performance requirements for the new marine structures. 14 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Evaluation on the effect of tsunami and seaquake on the floating structure; Tsunami kaishin no futai ni taisuru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H.; Hosomi, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nahata, H. [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effects of tsunami and seaquake on large floating structures are theoretically studied, where these effects are followed in terms of local strength using the equation proposed by Sells to predict surface shapes changed by seaquake-caused uplift of the seabottom. The equation is combined with the one for tsunami propagation, to better predict the tsunami motion. The simulation results indicate the necessity of considering the effects of tsunami for the design of a large floating structure. The authors discuss that the effect of tsunami is minimized when a floating structure is set at a depth of at least 40 to 50m, chain length should be determined by equalizing the breaking weight with the load at which the structure starts to move, and a structure should be set at a position where it is not attacked by transverse waves. They also discuss that seaquake intensity should be predicted by the equation of motion of compressible fluid, and, noting local strength of a floating structure, it will not be damaged when it is at least 16mm thick under the conditions of 2m as seabottom uplift and 0.5m as draft depth. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Experimental study on the response of very large floating structures (VLFS) in wave; Choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu oto ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, M.; Ikegami, H.; Yamaguchi, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The elastic response of VLFS of 1200m long in wave was studied experimentally using a water tank and integral elastic model of 1/80 scale. As offshore airport, a ultra- thin box type floating structure of 5km long, 1km wide and several meter thick is used, and the effect of elasticity is not negligible for such a structure. The experiment used a water tank of 160m long, 30m wide and 3.1m deep. Supposing a water depth of 20m for real VLFSs, the experiment was carried out mainly in a local shallow water area prepared with a temporary bottom together with that in a deep water area. A simple mooring equipment with a linear spring equivalent to real VLFSs was used. The integral floating model was prepared by not mechanical but welded junction to obtain uniform elasticity. The response in wave showed a complicated 3-D behavior, offering useful data for verification of a behavior estimation method. The response was nearly equal between shallow and deep water areas at the same wave length, and the response amplitude in regular waves was equivalent to the significant amplitude in long and short crested irregular waves. 7 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structures. 2nd Report. Effect of the water depth and the drift forces; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu chosei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Senkai eikyo to hyoryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, H.; Miyajima, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K.; Ikoma, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    Steady-state drift force in regular waves is theoretically analyzed. It is also studied under combined external force experimentally using a two-dimensional water tank. The fluid forces are analyzed by the pressure distribution method based on the potential theory, in which the effects of water depth are taken into account to discuss the effects of elastic deformation of the floating structure on the drift characteristics of steady-state waves. The tests were carried out using a wave-making circulating water tank equipped with a wind duct to create wind, waves and tidal flow. Drift force under a combined external force by wind, wave and/or tidal flow cannot be accurately predicted by arithmetically adding these components. For predicting drift force by tidal flow, it is necessary to take into account drag force in current at the floating structure bottom as well as that in wind at the front face. Drift force by tidal flow is affected by shallowness of water, which should be taken into account for drag forces. The floating structure will be deformed along the wave face as its stiffness decreases, basically decreasing steady-state drift force. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  12. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Wave-free floating body forms for a shallow sea area; Senkaiiki no naminashi futai keijo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y.; Nariai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In column footing or semi-submergible type marine structures, a vertical wave force vanishes at a specific period of waves. This phenomenon is called wave-free characteristics. This wave-free characteristics make it possible to design marine structures superior in oscillation performance in waves. Since Bessho`s wave-free theory is useful only for an infinite water depth, this paper studied the wave-free theory for a shallow sea area. On a wave-free singularity and required floating body form, 2-D and 3-D axisymmetric floating body forms were determined, and vertical wave force characteristics of the obtained body forms were calculated and verified experimentally. Since the source term of the wave-free singularity was weaker in a shallow sea area than an infinite deep water area, resulting in the narrow width of the obtained wave-free body forms in a shallow sea area. The wave-free theory for a shallow sea area was verified by both numerical calculation based on a singularity distribution method and model experiment for these floating body forms. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  14. FY 1991 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Attached data. Electromagnetic exploration (High accuracy MT method) (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa - Denji tansa (Koseido MT ho) hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki - Tenpu shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1991, electromagnetic exploration by the high accuracy MT method was conducted to acquire the information on the geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso, Kumamoto Prefecture. The detailed data were arranged as the data attached to the report on the electromagnetic exploration. As the attached data, included were the results of the 1D analysis (measuring/analysis {rho}a-F chart, analytic structure drawing), results of the 1D analysis (numerical list of the apparent resistivity analytic value and inverse analytic value) and numerical list of the apparent resistivity measured value. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Part 2. Electromagnetic surveillance using simplified MT method - No. 30: Western part of Hakkoda area); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Denji tansa (MT kan'i ho) hokokusho - No.30 Hakkoda seibu chiiki - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic surveillance using the simplified MT (magnetotelluric) method was conducted to help clarify the geothermal structure in the western part of the Hakkoda area, Aomori Prefecture. The survey covered approximately 60 km{sup 2,} and involved 38 survey points, 3 magnetic field components, 2 electric field components, not less than 10 measuring frequencies in the range of 0.01-125 Hz, and a measuring time of not less than 2 hours. An analysis was performed, with data previously collected at 60 points added to the data collected at the said 38 points. As the result, the resistivity structure in this area was divided into 3 layers of high-low-high as described from the surface to the depth, and the middle layer was further divided into 3 layers of high-middle-low and the bottom layer into 2 layers of high-low. The result conformed though roughly to the result obtained by the electrical logging carried out in the structure boring. In the geothermal zone including the Sukayu hot spa in the southeastern part of this area and along the Jogakura valley, there exist a complicated resistivity structure attributable to geothermal activities and a number of discontinuous lines of resistivity running in the directions of WNW-ESE and N-S. This enabled an inference that there is a deep-seated geothermal source between Odake and Akamizusawa extending eastward from the said geothermal zone. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion in Akinomiya area survey. Report on exploratory drilling/well survey and incidental work (1/2); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa Akinomiya chiiki chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Shisui kussaku koji kosei chosa oyobi futai koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    Exploratory drilling and well survey were conducted, for the purpose of grasping underground geological structure, temperature and physical properties of Akinomiya area, Akita prefecture, as a part of fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion. The exploratory drilling well N10-AY-6 was excavated to the depth of 1,701 m. This well had a small lost circulation of about 4.2 kL/h at the end of drilling; hence, pressurized water injection was carried out for the purpose of enhancing the performance as a reducing well, resulting in an improvement to 21.6 kL/h. The well N10-AY-7 was in the bedrocks of the Old Tertiary system at the depth of 492 m or deeper, which revealed that the Old Tertiary bedrocks lay more shallowly than expected. At the depth of 1,900 m, the maximum temperature showed 223.3 degree C. In a temperature recovery test, it climbed to 277.2 degree C at the depth of 1,400 m. In the well N10-AY-8, the Old Tertiary bedrocks were found drilled at the depth of 87 m or deeper. Inside well temperatures at the time of temperature recovery test showed nearly the same degrees from the depth of 880 m to 1,090 m or about, thereafter rising until the depth of 1,330 m, further rising from 1,370 m until the bottom of the well, and showing the maximum temperature of 277.0 degree C at the depth of 1,450 m. (NEDO)

  17. Structural cladding /clad structures:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2013-01-01

    tendencies, which can be traced in the use of materials, the structural features and the construction details of building systems in selected architectural works. With a particular focus at heavy constructions made of solid wood and masonry, and light weight constructions made of wooden frame structures...

  18. Structural cladding /clad structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2012-01-01

    the question of how materials are understood, handled and manifested when dealt with in architectural work and thus in building constructions. The question of ma-terial nature, the embedded properties and how materials perform when applied and transformed into constructions have been a central guiding rule...... or shared premise across architectural form making and building practices throughout centuries. However – today quite different regimes of thought define how building construction are to be designed and constructed. These are primarily driven by economic interest or environmental considerations dealt...... of materials, the structural features and the construction details of building systems in selected architectural works. With a particular focus at heavy constructions made of solid wood and masonry, and light weight constructions made of wooden frame structures and steel profiles, it is the intention...

  19. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oles, A.

    1976-01-01

    Description of progress in magnetic neutron diffraction gives an idea of its comtemporary possibilities. The most typical and interesting magnetic structures are presented. Magnetic structures symmetry is mentioned

  1. Structured cabling

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Martin, Jesus Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and implementation of a structured cabling system. A structured cabling is the way of standardizing the communications like telephony and ISDN in the buildings and facilitate the future scalability. In our case, we study the structured cabling system for a certain University building (in cooperation with Technical Services of University of Patras (Planning & Networks Directorate), University of Patras). The study of structured cabling is base...

  2. On Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Henry

    Structure as an aspect of educational setting is discussed and illustrated in the course of an argument indicating that efforts to change schools, including Project Follow Through, should aim to change structures rather than people. It is asserted that educational reform in America usually attempts to change people, especially children, and that…

  3. STRUCTURAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Ya. Danelyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article states the general principles of structural modeling in aspect of the theory of systems and gives the interrelation with other types of modeling to adjust them to the main directions of modeling. Mathematical methods of structural modeling, in particular method of expert evaluations are considered.

  4. Organisational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of organisational structure can provide guidance for organisations that want to change and innovate. Many writers agree that this understanding allows organisations to shape how their work is done to ultimately achieve their business goals--and that too often structure is given little consideration in business strategy and…

  5. Building structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrose, James

    2011-01-01

    James Ambrose is Editor of the Parker/Ambrose Series of Simplified Design Guides. He practiced as an architect in California and Illinois and as a structural engineer in Illinois. He was a professor of architecture at the University of Southern California. Patrick Tripeny is an Associate Professor, former director of the School of Architecture, and the current Director of the Center for Teaching and Learning Excellence at the University of Utah. He is a licensed architect in California. He has been the recipient of a number of teaching awards at the local and national level for his work in teaching structures and design. With James Ambrose, he is the coauthor of Simplified Engineering for Architects and Builders, Eleventh Edition; Simplified Design of Steel Structures, Eighth Edition; Simplified Design of Concrete Structures, Eighth Edition; and Simplified Design of Wood Structures, Sixth Edition, all published by Wiley.

  6. Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures.......The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....

  7. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  8. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  9. Organizational structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Schwartz, D.; Te'eni, D.

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, organization scientists have paid considerable attention to the link between knowledge and organization structure. An early contributor to these discussions was Max Weber (1922), who elaborated his concepts of professional bureaucracy. History shows a multitude of other

  10. Structural Origami

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 5. Structural Origami - A Geodesic Dome from Five Postcards. Subramania Ranganathan. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Subramania Ranganathan1. Discovery Laboratory Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Hyderabad 500 007, India.

  11. Structural Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Gi

    2005-08-01

    This book introduces summary of structural dynamics, the reason of learning of structural dynamics, single-degree of freedom system, simple harmonic vibration and application, numerical analysis method, such as time domain and frequency domain and nonlinear system, multi-degree of freedom system random vibration over discrete distribution, continuous distribution and extreme value distribution, circumstance vibration, earth quake vibration, including input earthquake, and earthquake-resistant design and capacity spectrum method, wind oscillation wave vibration, vibration control and maintenance control.

  12. Unemployment - Structural

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1999-01-01

    Structural unemployment differs from cyclical unemployment by not disappearing in cyclical booms. In economic theory, structural unemployment is usually analysed in terms of the concept of equilibrium unemployment (the "natural unemployment rate" in Friedman’s terminology). Two elaborate concepts of equilibrium unemployment – the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (the NAIRU) and the unemployment rate that induces firms and workers to accept the same real wage (the PS-WS-model) a...

  13. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  14. Foundation structure of structural member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi.

    1995-01-01

    Unevennesses are formed at the outer surface of a foundations of structural components to be buried underground. Pressure-receiving surfaces are disposed to the unevennesses at the periphery of the foundations for receiving vertically downwarding loads due to gravitational force of burying soils. Since the unevennesses are formed, slight gaps are formed between the foundations and the burying soils upon occurrence of earthquakes, and when the structural components undergo rising force, the weight of the soils at the periphery of the foundations exerts by way of the unevennesses to prevent the rising of the foundations of the structural components. As a result, rising of the foundations of the structural components can be prevented. (N.H.)

  15. Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya

    -dimensional range minimum queries. In the dynamic setting, we present data structures for the path minima problem that support optimal query time for various types of update operations. One of the results presents a comparison-based data structure which answers path minima queries in sub-logarithmic time......We study data structures for variants of range query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the range minimum problem: given a multidimensional array, find the position of the minimum element in a query rectangle; (2) the path minima problem: given a weighted tree, find the edge with minimum...... weight in a query path; (3) the range diameter problem: given a point set in the plane, find two points that are farthest away in a query rectangle. These and similar problems arise in various applications including document retrieval, genome sequence analysis, OLAP data cubes, network flows, shape...

  16. Microcavity structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustom, R.L.; Grudzien, D.; Feinerman, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of building mm-wave cavities using deep x-ray lithography techniques is being investigated. These cavities could be considered for linac accelerating structures, undulators, free electron lasers, or mm-wave amplifiers. The construction process includes making precision x-ray masks, x-ray exposure of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA), removal of PMMA, and electroplating a metal. Highly precise two-dimensional features can be machined onto wafers by this technique. The challenge is to fabricate the wafers onto three-dimensional rf structures. Rectangular cavity geometry is best suited to this fabrication technique. Status of wafer manufacture, fabrication and alignment techniques using capillaries bonded in precision grooves, 2π/3 120-GHz linac structures, heat extraction analysis, and beam dynamics in a 5-meter-long 50-MeV linac will be discussed. Measurements made on 10X larger scale models that were built with conventional techniques will also be discussed

  17. Structural biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. The structural biophysics group explores the high-resolution structure of biological macromolecules and cell organelles. Specific subject areas include: the basic characteristics of photosynthesis in plants; the chemical composition of individual fly ash particles at the site of their damaging action in tissues; direct analysis of frozen-hydrated biological samples by scanning electron microscopy; yeast genetics; the optical activity of DNA aggregates; measurement and characterization of lipoproteins; function of lipoproteins; and the effect of radiation and pollutants on mammalian cells

  18. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  19. Structural parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Zhang, Lei

    2000-01-01

    Parsing is an essential part of natural language processing. In this paper, structural parsing, which is based on the theory of knowledge graphs, is introduced. Under consideration of the semantic and syntactic features of natural language, both semantic and syntactic word graphs are formed. Grammar

  20. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which t...

  1. Nanocrystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hans J [Stoneham, MA; Sundar, Vikram C [Stoneham, MA; Walsh, Michael E [Everett, MA; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Bawendi, Moungi G [Cambridge, MA; Smith, Henry I [Sudbury, MA

    2008-12-30

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  2. Vcsel structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    .5, and wherein an index of refraction of low-index sections of the grating structure is less than 2. The core grating region defines a projection in a direction normal to the grating layer. The grating reflector further comprises a cap layer abutting the grating layer, and an index of refraction of the cap layer...

  3. Structural optimization

    CERN Document Server

    MacBain, Keith M

    2009-01-01

    Intends to supplement the engineer's box of analysis and design tools making optimization as commonplace as the finite element method in the engineering workplace. This title introduces structural optimization and the methods of nonlinear programming such as Lagrange multipliers, Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and calculus of variations.

  4. Structural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Julianne; Titmus, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an alternative conception held by high school and first-year university biology students regarding the structure of the left and right ventricles of the heart and the significance of the left ventricular wall being thicker than the right. The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right ventricular wall due to…

  5. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  6. Assessment of a Mega-Float on water quality and ecosystem in Tokyo bay; Choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ga Tokyowan no suishitsu to seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y.; Hu, C.; Hasemi, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hikai, A.

    1997-08-01

    The effect on the marine environment in the bay when a Mega-Float is installed in a bay was investigated. The physical process such as a residual flow (including tidal currents, water temperature, salt, density, and density currents), and the ecosystem model for which floating organic matter and plankton are handled were incorporated to develop a program for water quality calculation in a bay. The program was used for Tokyo Bay and compared with the conventional calculation result and the oceanograhpic observation result. Simultaneously, the effect on the Mega-Float was considered. On the flow in Tokyo Bay in summer, the calculation result that comparatively coincided with the observation value in a residual flow level was obtained. The horizontal distribution of COD comparatively coincides with the existing observation result. The influence that the Mega-Float exerts on the flow, water temperature, water quality, and ecosystem in the ambient sea area was little and local in the calculation scale (L {times} B {times} d = 6 km {times} 3 km {times} 2 m) of this time. However, the difference occurring due to the design position must also be investigated in future. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  8. Foundation Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Method of installing a bucket foundation structure comprising one, two, three or more skirts, into soils in a controlled manner. The method comprises two stages: a first stage being a design phase and the second stage being an installation phase. In the first stage, design parameters are determined...... relating to the loads on the finished foundation structure; soil profile on the location; allowable installation tolerances, which parameters are used to estimate the minimum diameter and length of the skirts of the bucket. The bucket size is used to simulate load situations and penetration into foundation...... soil, in order to predict necessary penetration force, required suction inside the bucket and critical suction pressures, which penetration force, required suction, and critical suction pressures are used as input for a control system in the second stage, in which second stage the parameters determined...

  9. Concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Setareh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This revised, fully updated second edition covers the analysis, design, and construction of reinforced concrete structures from a real-world perspective. It examines different reinforced concrete elements such as slabs, beams, columns, foundations, basement and retaining walls and pre-stressed concrete incorporating the most up-to-date edition of the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 318-14) requirements for the design of concrete structures. It includes a chapter on metric system in reinforced concrete design and construction. A new chapter on the design of formworks has been added which is of great value to students in the construction engineering programs along with practicing engineers and architects. This second edition also includes a new appendix with color images illustrating various concrete construction practices, and well-designed buildings. The ACI 318-14 constitutes the most extensive reorganization of the code in the past 40 years. References to the various sections of the ACI 318-14 are pro...

  10. Syllable structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsen Per

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional structuralist understanding, language is a system of signs i.e. an inseparable unity of content and expression. According to glossematic linguistic theory, the dichotomy of form and substance in the content has its parallel in the expression. The present paper shows that in one language certain consonant clusters within the syllable are allowed, in other languages they are not. The phonotactic structure, i.e. the rules of forming syllables decide the forming of new words and identify the language at the same time. This fundamental syllable structure shows that it is scientifically untenable to maintain that the Serbo-Croatian language has split up in several new languages. .

  11. Galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of hot, apparently normal, massive stars far from the galactic plane has been a major puzzle in an understanding of galactic structure and evolution. Such stars have been discovered and studied at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) over a number of years. During 1989 further evidence has been obtained indicating that these stars are normal, massive objects. Other studies of galactic structure conducted by the SAAO have included research on: the central bulge region of our galaxy; populations of M giants in the galaxy; a faint blue object survey; a survey of the galactic plane for distant Cepheid variables; interstellar reddening, and K-type dwarfs as tracers for the gravitational force perpendicular to the galactic plane. 1 fig

  12. Structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strømmen, Einar N

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces to the theory of structural dynamics, with focus on civil engineering structures that may be described by line-like beam or beam-column type of systems, or by a system of rectangular plates. Throughout this book the mathematical presentation contains a classical analytical description as well as a description in a discrete finite element format, covering the mathematical development from basic assumptions to the final equations ready for practical dynamic response predictions. Solutions are presented in time domain as well as in frequency domain. Structural Dynamics starts off at a basic level and step by step brings the reader up to a level where the necessary safety considerations to wind or horizontal ground motion induced dynamic design problems can be performed. The special theory of the tuned mass damper has been given a comprehensive treatment, as this is a theory not fully covered elsewhere. For the same reason a chapter on the problem of moving loads on beams has been included.

  13. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  14. Armor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  15. Acquiring Structural Knowledge from Semantically Structured Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    Hypertext researchers and designers contend that the hypertext information structures may reflect the semantic structures of human memory. Further, they believe that mapping the semantic structure of an expert onto hypertext information structure and explicitly illustrating that structure in the hypertext will result in improved comprehension…

  16. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...

  17. Lightweight Materials and Structures (LMS): Inflatable Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —  Current inflatable structures are designed on the restraint layer’s short term properties with a Factor of Safety of 4 due to lack of long-term data on structural...

  18. Organisational StructureStructures for Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ramskill, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Summary Rexam Plc has articulated that part of the company’s strategy is to make a carefully managed expansion into the emerging markets. In this report I suggest an alternative structure for Rexam to enable implementation of such a strategy and propose a business process for designing effective organisational structures. The work of Chandler (1962) charts the evolution of company organisational structures from the early centralised structures of the 1920s to the multidivisional str...

  19. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  20. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  1. Structural behaviour of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2010-01-01

    A new structural concept, called Super-light Structures (SLS), has recently been invented and patented at the Technical University of Denmark. The basic concept of SLS is to construct a skeleton of a stiff and strong material, such as ordinary or high strength concrete, and stabilize this skeleton...... with a lighter and softer material, such as lightweight concrete. The combined use of stiff and light material in SLS results in structures of high stiffness and low weight. The applied technology and the advantages of SLS are elaborated upon in [1] in these proceedings. The present paper focuses...... on the structural correlation between the stiff material and the light material. The shape of the skeleton can be optimized for the primary load on the structure, and it will take up the majority of the load. The lighter material forms the outer geometry of the structural component (e.g. a wall), and has several...

  2. Crystal structure and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  3. Structure-soil-structure interaction of nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, M.D.; Shaw, D.E.; Hall, J.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Structure-to-structure interaction resulting from coupling of the foundations through the soil has traditionally been neglected in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants. This paper examines the phenomenon and available methods of analytical treatment, including finite element and lumped parameter methods. Finite element techniques have lead to the treatment of through soil coupling of structural foundations using two dimensional plane strain models owing to the difficulty of considering three dimensional finite element models. The coupling problem is treated by means of a lumped parameter model derived from elastic half-space considerations. Consequently, the method is applicable to the interaction of any number of foundations and allows the simultaneous application of tri-directional excitation. The method entails the idealization of interacting structures as lumped mass/shear beams with lumped soil springs and dampers beneath each foundation plus a coupling matrix between the interacting foundations. Utilizing classical elastic half-space methods, the individual foundation soil springs and dampers may be derived, accounting for the effects of embedment and soil layering, analogous to the methods used for single soil-structure, interaction problems. The coupling matrix is derived by generating influence coefficients based on the geometric relationship of the structures using classical half-space solutions. The influence coefficients form the coupling flexibility matrix which is inverted to yield the coupling matrix for the lumped parameter model

  4. Strategy implemented through structuring and new structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate

    Research objective: With the purpose of generating a new understanding of how development in organisations take place, an interpretive perspective at continuous processes in organisations will be applied: more specifically at how organisational interpretation forms an organisation's strategy...... and how the strategy is implemented through structuring, new structures and routines....

  5. Task structure, need for structure, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Slijkhuis, Marjette; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2014-01-01

    Although creativity is often seen as requiring spontaneity and flexibility, recent work suggests that there is creative potential in a structured and systematic approach as well. In a series of four experiments, we show that when Personal Need for Structure (PNS) is high, either chronic (Study 1) or

  6. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Conference held in Dallas, Texas on 6-9 November 2006. We are developing structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store...structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store electrochemical energy. These multifunctional batteries could replace inert...solid-state goal, and is compatible with our PEO -based resin electrolytes . The metal substrate provides structural support while acting as a

  7. Building a Structural Model: Parameterization and Structurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mouchart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific concept of structural model is used as a background for discussing the structurality of its parameterization. Conditions for a structural model to be also causal are examined. Difficulties and pitfalls arising from the parameterization are analyzed. In particular, pitfalls when considering alternative parameterizations of a same model are shown to have lead to ungrounded conclusions in the literature. Discussions of observationally equivalent models related to different economic mechanisms are used to make clear the connection between an economically meaningful parameterization and an economically meaningful decomposition of a complex model. The design of economic policy is used for drawing some practical implications of the proposed analysis.

  8. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  9. The Structural Integrity Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the development and work of the Structural Integrity Centre (SIC) at Risley Nuclear Laboratories, United Kingdom. The centre was set up to provide authoritative advice to plant designers and operators on the integrity and life assessment of structures and components across the reactor projects in the United Kingdom. A description is given of the structure and role of the SIC, as well as the Structural Integrity Assessment work. The assessment methods are described for thermally loaded structures and welded structures. Finally, defect significance assessment and environmental effects are outlined. (U.K.)

  10. Neutron structural biology. Beyond the folding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms and water molecules around proteins and nucleic acids play a crucial role in many physiological functions. Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms. (a) Since almost all the H atom positions can be identified experimentally, the geometrical details of certain types of H-bonds can be visualized and (b) as far as mechanistic implications are concerned, the identification of protonation and deprotonation states of certain important amino acid residues can be carried out. (c) The hydration structure around proteins and the hydration networks around DNA oligomers have been successfully characterized in several outstanding cases. These will open the new field beyond the folding structure of bio-macromolecules such as: 1) Recognition of proteins and nucleic acids through the network structure of water molecules surrounding bio-macromolecules, and 2) The nature of chemical bond in proteins and nucleic acids elucidated by the accumulation of accurate structural information of hydrogen atoms. (author)

  11. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  12. STRUCTURAL STABILITY AND ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... of YCu for B1, B2, B3, and L10 phase, and elastic constants Cij (in GPa) for B2 phase. We calculated band structure of YCu compound in the B2 phase at equilibrium volume using the FP-LAPW method within DFT along the higher symmetry directions is presented in Fig. 2. The band structure of this phase ...

  13. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  14. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric...

  15. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the availability of structural measures at that hospital. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients....

  16. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric comput...

  17. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beta sheets (blue; thinner, tangled strands). Credit: RCSB Protein Data Bank. Even though proteins are strings of amino acids, ... structure of more than 122,000 proteins. The Protein Data Bank stores these structures and gives scientists access to ...

  18. Advanced structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas C W

    2008-01-01

    An English edition of a textbook based on teaching at the final year undergraduate and graduate level. It presents structure and bonding, generalizations of structural trends, crystallographic data, as well as highlights from the recent literature.

  19. Structural Static Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural testing is performed to verify the structural integrity of space flight and ground test hardware. Testing is also performed to verify the finite element...

  20. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  1. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  2. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  3. Structural Ceramics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  4. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and dynamic absorbers. Keywords. Structural dynamic modification; structural design; dynamic design; SDM using FRF. 1. Introduction. The problem of varying the dynamic behaviour of structures to reduce the vibration response or control the noise radiated by vibrating surfaces is ...

  5. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely the developm...

  6. Conformal Dirac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, A.

    2000-07-01

    The Courant bracket defined originally on the sections of a vector bundle TM +T*M → M is extended to the direct sum of the 1-jet vector bundle and its dual. The extended bracket allows one to interpret many structures encountered in differential geometry, in terms of Dirac structures. We give a new approach to conformal Jacobi structures. (author)

  7. Smart Structures and Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A structure is an assembly that serves an engineering function. It is reasonable to expect that all engineering design should be smart, and not dumb. But one can still make a distinction between smartly designed structures and smart structures. The latter term has acquired a specific technical meaning over the last few ...

  8. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  9. Socio-Technical Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Lindgren, Rikard; Henfridsson, Ole

    2004-01-01

    perspective relates to social theories (principally structuration theory), the second to linguistic theories (principally the structural linguistics of Chomsky), and the last to science studies (principally actor-network theory). The objective is to study areas of agreement and contention around the structure...

  10. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  11. PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sineglazov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.

  12. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2004-01-01

    It seems that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... be an inspiration to structural morphologists and other dealing with the shaping of structures for buildings and other objects. Often the patterns appear in "dual" materializations, which indicate two radically different structural types of action. Randomness as a generator for optimal and basic structural action...

  13. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2003-01-01

    It seemens that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In Nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... be an inspiration to structural morphologists and other dealing with the shaping of structures for buildings and other objects. Often the patterns appear in "dual" materializations, which indicate two radically different structural types of action. Randomness as a generator for optimal and basic structural action...

  14. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  15. Computers boost structural technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.

    1989-01-01

    Derived from matrix methods of structural analysis and finite element methods developed over the last three decades, computational structures technology (CST) blends computer science, numerical analysis, and approximation theory into structural analysis and synthesis. Recent significant advances in CST include stochastic-based modeling, strategies for performing large-scale structural calculations on new computing systems, and the integration of CST with other disciplinary modules for multidisciplinary analysis and design. New methodologies have been developed at NASA for integrated fluid-thermal structural analysis and integrated aerodynamic-structure-control design. The need for multiple views of data for different modules also led to the development of a number of sophisticated data-base management systems. For CST to play a role in the future development of structures technology and in the multidisciplinary design of future flight vehicles, major advances and computational tools are needed in a number of key areas.

  16. Structural NMR assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procter, J.B.; Torda, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: General automated NMR assignment approaches are aimed at full heteronuclear assignment, which is needed for structure determination. Usually, full assignment requires at least as much spectral information as is used for structure generation. For large proteins, obtaining sufficient spectral information may require a number of sample preparations and many spectra, resulting in a significant overhead for the use of NMR in biochemical investigation. For a protein of biochemical interest one may already have an x-ray crystal structure, but spectral assignment is still needed to use NMR as a structural probe for ligand binding studies. In this situation it may be possible to use much less spectral information to make an assignment based purely on the correspondence of structural data to the measurements contained in a few simple spectra. We introduce a framework to accomplish this 'structural assignment', and give some observations on the practical requirements for a structural assignment to succeed

  17. Exotic cluster structures on

    CERN Document Server

    Gekhtman, M; Vainshtein, A

    2017-01-01

    This is the second paper in the series of papers dedicated to the study of natural cluster structures in the rings of regular functions on simple complex Lie groups and Poisson-Lie structures compatible with these cluster structures. According to our main conjecture, each class in the Belavin-Drinfeld classification of Poisson-Lie structures on \\mathcal{G} corresponds to a cluster structure in \\mathcal{O}(\\mathcal{G}). The authors have shown before that this conjecture holds for any \\mathcal{G} in the case of the standard Poisson-Lie structure and for all Belavin-Drinfeld classes in SL_n, n<5. In this paper the authors establish it for the Cremmer-Gervais Poisson-Lie structure on SL_n, which is the least similar to the standard one.

  18. Antibacterial Structural Color Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Mo, Min; Fu, Fanfan; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Liu, Cihui; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-11-08

    Structural color hydrogels with lasting survivability are important for many applications, but they still lack anti-biodegradation capability. Thus, we herein present novel antibacterial structural color hydrogels by simply integrating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in situ into the hydrogel materials. Because the integrated AgNPs possessed wide and excellent antibacterial abilities, the structural color hydrogels could prevent bacterial adhesion, avoid hydrogel damage, and maintain their vivid structural colors during their application and storage. It was demonstrated that the AgNP-tagged poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) structural color hydrogels could retain their original thermal-responsive color transition even when the AgNP-free hydrogels were degraded by bacteria and that the AgNP-integrated self-healing structural color protein hydrogels could save their self-repairing property instead of being degraded by bacteria. These features indicated that the antibacterial structural color hydrogels could be amenable to a variety of practical biomedical applications.

  19. Decoupling structure and metallogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou

    1993-01-01

    The decoupling structure is, at present, a hot spot for the study in geoscience. A study on the decoupling structure is not only of great theoretical significance, but also of more economic importance. The author briefly discusses the study of the decoupling structure in terms of its present status, implication, characteristics, formation mechanism and theoretical significance, in addition, with emphasis on the expounding of the decoupling structure over endogenic metallic deposits such as oil and gas, coal, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc and iron etc. At last reconsideration is made on the ore control theory of the decoupling structure to the ore control structure in the uranium ore field in South China. The author proposes a superficial idea in order to provide a basis of geological structures for expanding old mining areas, opening up new areas(bases), and prospecting for large and rich uranium deposits

  20. Structures in sculptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanggaard, Ole

    the different concepts and find a final synthesis, but the problem is known. Large sculptures represent structural challenges. The design of the supports inside the structures reveals often a very different world from the outside view of the sculpture. The piece of art and its structure may have two very...... different lives. A sculpture of today may be very dissimilar from what we have seen earlier. The structure becomes sometimes a visual part of the art. Ultimately, there may not be any distinction between structure and art. The technical demand, the durability and the safety are just as important for a large...... sculpture as in all other structures. The problem presented by the artist involves sometimes quite new structural themes. The dialog between the engineer and the artist brings the engineer close into the creative work of the artist. Neither the artist nor the engineer can rely upon any tradition...

  1. Structural realism beyond physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulodziecki, Dana

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to test structural realism against (one example from) the historical record. I begin by laying out an existing challenge to structural realism - that of providing an example of a theory exhibiting successful structures that were abandoned - and show that this challenge can be met by the miasma theory of disease. However, rather than concluding that this is an outright counterexample to structural realism, I use this case to show why it is that structural realism, in its current form, has trouble dealing with theories outside physics. I end by making some concrete suggestions for structural realists to pursue if, indeed, they are serious about extending structural realism to other domains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure - Riverine Flow Structure (Dike/Wingdam)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A natural or man-made flow (or sediment) control structure in a water course or water body such as a dike or weir. This feature should not be used to model a levee....

  3. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    and evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated...... in four separate studies. In the first study, we propose a simple framework that may be used as a base when studying the link between social structure and fitness. We furthermore review current evidence for fitness effects of social structure, and find good support for such effects. In the second study......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...

  4. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  5. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  6. Advance in structural bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Dongqing; Zhao, Tangzhen; Dai, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This text examines in detail mathematical and physical modeling, computational methods and systems for obtaining and analyzing biological structures, using pioneering research cases as examples. As such, it emphasizes programming and problem-solving skills. It provides information on structure bioinformatics at various levels, with individual chapters covering introductory to advanced aspects, from fundamental methods and guidelines on acquiring and analyzing genomics and proteomics sequences, the structures of protein, DNA and RNA, to the basics of physical simulations and methods for conform

  7. Collateral and Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    S. Viswanathan; Adriano Rampini

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model of the capital structure based on the need to collateralize loans with tangible assets. The model provides a unified theory of optimal firm financing in terms of the optimal capital structure, investment, leasing, and risk management policy. Tangible assets are a key determinant of the cross section and dynamic behavior of the capital structure. Firms with low tangible capital are constrained longer, lease more of their physical capital, and borrow less. Le...

  8. Photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed

  9. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...

  10. A study on soil structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuylenborgh, van J.

    1947-01-01

    As soils differ in capacity to form a structure, it is necessary to distinguish between intrinsic structure and actual structure. Intrinsic structure is the capacity of a soil to form a certain structure. Actual structure is the structure of the soil at a certain moment.

    Using experiments and

  11. Structure of graphane polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkova, T. E.; Greshyakov, V. A.; Chernov, V. M.; Belenkov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Calculations of the structure and electronic properties for five structural variations of graphane were performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximations (GGA). The electron densities of states and band structure of graphene crystals have been calculated. It has been established that the band gap for graphane polymorphs varies from 5.50 eV to 5.65 eV. Sublimation energy of graphane layers with different structure was varying from 11.33 to 11.48 eV per C-H molecular group.

  12. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  13. Multifunctional Composite Structure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is developing a Composite Sandwich Habitable Pressurized Structure for deep space travel. Permeability, radiation, & micrometeoroids and orbital...

  14. Structures and infrastructures series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    "Research, developments, and applications...on the most advanced techonologies for analyzing, predicting, and optimizing the performance of structures and infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, dams...

  15. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  16. Structural building response review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations

  17. Structure and stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Structural and stoichiometric variations and their role in superconducting properties of bulk cuprate ceramics are elucidated. Atomic structure and chemistry of defect microstructures, including vacancy and interstitial defects, weak-link problems, structural modulations and coherent intergrowths leading to new structures are studies and quantitatively interpreted. They are shown to play a critical role in controlling hole concentration, critical currents and flux pinning. These phenomena underpin the solid state chemistry which determines the physical properties of the nonstoichiometric oxide superconductors. In this paper technological implications, synthesis of related novel materials and recent developments are discussed

  18. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  19. Structure of hadrons. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Knoll, J.; Noerenberg, W.; Wambach, J.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Hadronic reactions and resonances, structure of mesons, baryons, glueballs, and hybrids, physics with strange and charmed quarks, future projects and facilities. (HSI)

  20. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2004-01-01

    It seems that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... to sea shells, from river systems to trees etc. Sometimes this seeming archetypical morphology involve structural action and sometimes not - but the fact that it often posses efficient structural action opens a tool for evaluation and analyses of structures in nature and at the same time might...

  1. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  2. Structural Materials: 95. Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures and their materials of construction are described, and their operating experience noted. Aging and environmental factors that can affect the durability of the concrete structures are identified. Basic components of a program to manage aging of these structures are identified and described. Application of structural reliability theory to devise uniform risk-based criteria by which existing facilities can be evaluated to achieve a desired performance level when subjected to uncertain demands and to quantify the effects of degradation is outlined. Finally, several areas are identified where additional research is desired.

  3. Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural dynamic testing is performed to verify the survivability of a component or assembly when exposed to vibration stress screening, or a controlled simulation...

  4. Component nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  5. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  6. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    the development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...... ‘COST TU0601: Robustness of Structures’ was initiated in February 2007, aiming to provide a platform for exchanging and promoting research in the area of structural robustness and to provide a basic framework, together with methods, strategies and guidelines enhancing robustness of structures...

  7. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  8. Valency and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cartmell, E

    1977-01-01

    Valency and Molecular Structure, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive historical background and experimental foundations of theories and methods relating to valency and molecular structures. In this edition, the chapter on Bohr theory has been removed while some sections, such as structures of crystalline solids, have been expanded. Details of structures have also been revised and extended using the best available values for bond lengths and bond angles. Recent developments are mostly noted in the chapter on complex compounds, while a new chapter has been added to serve as an introduction t

  9. Structure of human adenovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Reddy, Vijay S. (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2012-07-11

    A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 MDa macromolecular complex. Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by X-ray diffraction at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution. The virus structure revealed the location, folds, and interactions of major and minor (cement proteins) on the inner and outer capsid surface. This new structural information sheds further light on the process of adenovirus capsid assembly and virus-host cell interactions.

  10. Radiation shielding structure for concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Crack inducing members for inducing cracks in a predetermined manner are buried in a concrete structure. Namely, a crack-inducing member comprises integrally a shielding plate and extended plates situated at the center of a wall and inducing plates vertically disposed to the boundary portion between them with the inducing plates being disposed each in a direction perforating the wall. There are disposed integrally a pair of the inducing plate spaced at a predetermined horizontal distance on both sides of the shielding plate so as to form a substantially crank-shaped cross section and extended plates formed in the extending direction of the shielding plate, and the inducing plates are disposed each in a direction perforating the wall. Then, cracks generated when stresses are exerted can be controlled, and generation of cracks passing through the concrete structure can be prevented reliably. The reliability of a radiation shielding effect can be enhanced remarkably. (N.H.)

  11. Languages for structural calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Chambon, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed [fr

  12. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  13. Sub-structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sub-structure generally refers to those components of the building that are constructed below ground, although there are circumstances when sub-structure can also include components above ground such as supporting columns on steeply sloping ground...

  14. Photonic band structure computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, D; Frank, M; Busch, K; Wolfle, P

    2001-01-29

    We introduce a novel algorithm for band structure computations based on multigrid methods. In addition, we demonstrate how the results of these band structure calculations may be used to compute group velocities and effective photon masses. The results are of direct relevance to studies of pulse propagation in such materials.

  15. Structural Dynamics, Vol. 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    This book has been prepared for the course on Computational Dynamics given at the 8th semester at the structural program in civil engineering at Aalborg University.......This book has been prepared for the course on Computational Dynamics given at the 8th semester at the structural program in civil engineering at Aalborg University....

  16. Robustness of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    robustness is still an issue of controversy and poses difficulties in regard to interpretation as well as regulation. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages'. However, despite the importance...

  17. The Dividend Term Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragt, Jac; de Jong, Frank; Driessen, Joost

    Dividend derivatives contain information about the expectations that investors have of stock dividends. We employ a state space model to estimate a term structure of discounted risk adjusted dividend growth enclosed in dividend derivative prices. A two state model of the term structure capturing

  18. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  19. Freedom, structure, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Kaufman, James

    2018-01-01

    Creativity is commonly thought to depend on freedom and a lack of constraints. While this is true to a large extent, it neglects the creative potential of structure and constraints. In this chapter, I will address the relation between freedom, structure, and creativity. I will explain that freedom,

  20. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  1. Structural Precast Concrete Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly.......Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly....

  2. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  3. Structural and Material Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes

    This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...

  4. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  5. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  6. Homogeneous Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafei Deh Abad, A.; Malek, F.

    1993-09-01

    We provide an algebraic definition for Schouten product and give a decomposition for any homogenenous Poisson structure in any n-dimensional vector space. A large class of n-homogeneous Poisson structures in R k is also characterized. (author). 4 refs

  7. Organisational Structure & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…

  8. Wave scour around structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This review (of scour around marine structures) is organized in seven main sections: Basic concepts; Tunnel erosion; Two- and three-dimensional scour around pipelines; Scour around piles (slender bodies), including pile groups; Scour around complex structures; Scour around large, vertical cylinde...

  9. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This special issue of Sadhana is a collection of five papers selected from those presented at the Eighth National Seminar on Aerospace Structures (8th NASAS) organised by and held at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, on 9±10 October 1998. The Structures Panel of the Aeronautics Research and ...

  10. Structure sensitivity in adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Nielsen, Ole Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The structure sensitivity of CO adsorption on different flat, stepped, kinked and reconstructed Pt surfaces is studied using large-scale density-functional calculations. We find an extremely strong structure sensitivity in the adsorption energy with variations up to 1 eV (or 100%) from one...

  11. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  12. Tapered structure construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric D.; Takata, Rosalind K.; Slocum, Alexander H.; Nayfeh, Samir A.

    2016-04-05

    Feeding stock used to form a tapered structure into a curving device such that each point on the stock undergoes rotational motion about a peak location of the tapered structure; and the stock meets a predecessor portion of stock along one or more adjacent edges.

  13. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  14. Elements of structural optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haftka, Raphael T; Gürdal, Zafer

    1992-01-01

    ... formulations; computational mechanics; statics, kinematics and dynamics of rigid and elastic bodies; vibrations of solids and structures; dynamical systems and chaos; the theories of elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity; composite materials; rods, beams, shells and membranes; structural control and stability; soils, rocks and geomechanic...

  15. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  17. Ligands in PSI structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhinav; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Morse, Andrew; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Deacon, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the types and frequency of ligands that are bound to PSI structures is analyzed as well as their utility in functional annotation of previously uncharacterized proteins. Approximately 65% of PSI structures report some type of ligand(s) that is bound in the crystal structure. Here, a description is given of how such ligands are handled and analyzed at the JCSG and a survey of the types, variety and frequency of ligands that are observed in the PSI structures is also compiled and analyzed, including illustrations of how these bound ligands have provided functional clues for annotation of proteins with little or no previous experimental characterization. Furthermore, a web server was developed as a tool to mine and analyze the PSI structures for bound ligands and other identifying features

  18. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J.; McArdle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM’s utility. PMID:27398019

  19. Structural dynamics in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    In view of thin walled large diameter shell structures with associated fluid effects, structural dynamics problems are very critical in a fast breeder reactor. Structural characteristics and consequent structural dynamics problems in typical pool type Fast Breeder Reactor are highlighted. A few important structural dynamics problems are pump induced as well as flow induced vibrations, seismic excitations, pressure transients in the intermediate heat exchangers and pipings due to a large sodium water reaction in the steam generator, and core disruptive accident loadings. The vibration problems which call for identification of excitation forces, formulation of special governing equations and detailed analysis with fluid structure interaction and sloshing effects, particularly for the components such as PSP, inner vessel, CP, CSRDM and TB are elaborated. Seismic design issues are presented in a comprehensive way. Other transient loadings which are specific to FBR, resulting from sodium-water reaction and core disruptive accident are highlighted. A few important results of theoretical as well as experimental works carried out for 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), in the domain of structural dynamics are presented. (author)

  20. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  1. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-03-03

    This paper is an overview of architectural structures which are either composed of polyhedral cells or closely related to them. We introduce the concept of a support structure of such a polyhedral cell packing. It is formed by planar quads and obtained by connecting corresponding vertices in two combinatorially equivalent meshes whose corresponding edges are coplanar and thus determine planar quads. Since corresponding triangle meshes only yield trivial structures, we focus on support structures associated with quad meshes or hex-dominant meshes. For the quadrilateral case, we provide a short survey of recent research which reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. Those are essential for successfully initializing numerical optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load-bearing structures, we illustrate here a new application to shading and indirect lighting. On a higher level, our work emphasizes the interplay between geometry, optimization, statics, and manufacturing, with the overall aim of combining form, function and fabrication into novel integrated design tools.

  2. Urban structures and substructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mierzejewska Lidia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In urban geography, a traditional but always important research problem has been the spatial-functional structure of towns and changes that occur in this field. Two approaches can be distinguished here: the sociological and the geographical. The former follows in the steps of the so-called Chicago school, i.e. Park, Burgess and Hoyt, and the other of Ullman and Harris. It seems, however, that those two approaches do not exhaust the range of spatial-structural studies which may be conducted in modern towns since there are areas within them endowed with specific properties that can be called their substructures. This paper will present the general characteristics of such substructures and identify factors responsible for their appearance and development. It will also propose an empirical research pattern. The term ‘substructures’ is taken to denote relatively autonomous, highly uniform wholes standing out in the spatial-functional structure of a town, distinguished on the basis of spatial relations generated by people. While structural elements of towns in the approach of the Chicago school or that of Harris and Ullman can be identified with structural regions, urban substructures show a similarity to functional regions in their organisation, structure and operation. Thus, towns with identified substructures have a polycentric spatial- functional structure, favourable in terms of both the level of service of their inhabitants and their sustainable development.

  3. Selective structural source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    In the field of acoustic source reconstruction, the inverse Patch Transfer Function (iPTF) has been recently proposed and has shown satisfactory results whatever the shape of the vibrating surface and whatever the acoustic environment. These two interesting features are due to the virtual acoustic volume concept underlying the iPTF methods. The aim of the present article is to show how this concept of virtual subsystem can be used in structures to reconstruct the applied force distribution. Some virtual boundary conditions can be applied on a part of the structure, called virtual testing structure, to identify the force distribution applied in that zone regardless of the presence of other sources outside the zone under consideration. In the present article, the applicability of the method is only demonstrated on planar structures. However, the final example show how the method can be applied to a complex shape planar structure with point welded stiffeners even in the tested zone. In that case, if the virtual testing structure includes the stiffeners the identified force distribution only exhibits the positions of external applied forces. If the virtual testing structure does not include the stiffeners, the identified force distribution permits to localize the forces due to the coupling between the structure and the stiffeners through the welded points as well as the ones due to the external forces. This is why this approach is considered here as a selective structural source identification method. It is demonstrated that this approach clearly falls in the same framework as the Force Analysis Technique, the Virtual Fields Method or the 2D spatial Fourier transform. Even if this approach has a lot in common with these latters, it has some interesting particularities like its low sensitivity to measurement noise.

  4. Kernels for structured data

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a unique treatment of an important area of machine learning and answers the question of how kernel methods can be applied to structured data. Kernel methods are a class of state-of-the-art learning algorithms that exhibit excellent learning results in several application domains. Originally, kernel methods were developed with data in mind that can easily be embedded in a Euclidean vector space. Much real-world data does not have this property but is inherently structured. An example of such data, often consulted in the book, is the (2D) graph structure of molecules formed by

  5. Multiplicative Galois module structure

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, A

    1996-01-01

    This book is the result of a short course on the Galois structure of S-units that was given at The Fields Institute in the fall of 1993. Offering a new angle on an old problem, the main theme is that this structure should be determined by class field theory, in its cohomological form, and by the behavior of Artin L-functions at s=0. A proof of this-or even a precise formulation-is still far away, but the available evidence all points in this direction. The work brings together the current evidence that the Galois structure of S-units can be described.

  6. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature......The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...

  7. Product Structuring, an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control.......In the paper, the field of product structuring is defined and broken down into topics. For each of the topics, results of research are presented. Issues for further research are identified. The references in the paper refer to papers in the proceedings of the workshops....

  8. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2003-01-01

    It seemens that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In Nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... to sea shells, from river systems to trees etc. Sometimes this seeming archetypical morphology involve structrual action and sometimes not-but the fact that it often posses efficient structural action opens a tool for evaluation and analysis of structures in nature and at the same time might...

  9. Programming language structures

    CERN Document Server

    Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P

    1978-01-01

    Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al

  10. Chromatin Structure and Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wolffe, Alan P

    1999-01-01

    The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active

  11. Manipulating structured light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4579 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 10/10/2016 1 Manipulating Structured... The City College of New York, New York, USA 5 July 2016 We are tied together by Structured Light Classical Quantum Resonators TweezingFibres Structured Light 10/10/2016 2 Bright Dark Reference beam Hologram Object Light reflected from object Conventional...

  12. Structures and their analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Maurice Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...

  13. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and

  14. Introduction to structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1996-07-01

    The theory of deep inelastic scattering structure functions is reviewed with an emphasis put on the QCD expectations of their behaviour in the region of small values of Bjorken parameter x. (author). 56 refs

  15. Sensemaking, structuring and strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate

    With the purpose of generating a new understanding of how organisations develop, an interpretive perspective at continuous processes in organisations will be applied: more specifically at sensemaking, structuring and strategising....

  16. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  17. Textures and ores structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author made conclusion that structural-texture particularities reflect the physical and chemical conditions, velocity of minerals crystallization, further tectonic situation, presence appearances of meta-somatic substitution, second decomposition and minerals leaching

  18. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  19. STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and analyzes scientific approaches of economists to the essence and contents of the economic mechanism. Proposals for methodological formation of economic mechanism structure are substantiated in the paper.

  20. Territorial Administrative Budgetary Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Risti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Local budget structure is a consequence of the way the country’s venues are organized from the territorial administrative point of view, in communes, towns, municipalities and the capital, Bucharest, in districts.

  1. Bioinspired structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-24

    Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. Various natural objects which provide functionality of commercial interest have been characterized to understand how a natural object provides functionality. We have modeled and fabricated structures in the lab using nature's route and developed optimum structures. Once it is understood how nature does it, optimum structures have been fabricated using smart materials and fabrication techniques. This feature article provides an overview of four topics: Lotus effect, rose petal effect, gecko feet, and shark skin.

  2. Modeling Structural Brain Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø

    The human brain consists of a gigantic complex network of interconnected neurons. Together all these connections determine who we are, how we react and how we interpret the world. Knowledge about how the brain is connected can further our understanding of the brain’s structural organization, help...... improve diagnosis, and potentially allow better treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool to estimate this “structural connectivity” of the brain non-invasively and in vivo. During the last decade, brain connectivity...... has increasingly been analyzed using graph theoretic measures adopted from network science and this characterization of the brain’s structural connectivity has been shown to be useful for the classification of populations, such as healthy and diseased subjects. The structural connectivity of the brain...

  3. Structural Identification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorov Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.

  4. Modeling Fluid Structure Interaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benaroya, Haym

    2000-01-01

    The principal goal of this program is on integrating experiments with analytical modeling to develop physics-based reduced-order analytical models of nonlinear fluid-structure interactions in articulated naval platforms...

  5. Transparent Armor Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rene G

    2004-01-01

    ... of tempered silica glass bonded to form a laminated bullet resisting structure and also having a bracket member adapted to hold a second transparent spall resisting layer parallel to and slightly spaced...

  6. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms and water molecules around proteins and nucleic acids play a crucial role in many physiological functions. Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms. (a) Since almost all the H atom positions can be identified experimentally, the geometrical details of certain types of H-bonds can be visualized and (b) as far as mechanistic implications are concerned, the identification of protonation and deprotonation states of certain important amino acid residues can be carried out. (c) The hydration structure around proteins and the hydration networks around DNA oligomers have been successfully characterized in several outstanding cases. These will open the new field beyond the folding structure of bio-macromolecules such as: 1) Recognition of proteins and nucleic acids through the network structure of water molecules surrounding bio-macromolecules, and 2) The nature of chemical bond in proteins and nucleic acids elucidated by the accumulation of accurate structural information of hydrogen atoms. (author)

  7. Nature teaching structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2002-01-01

    -living nature a number of striking statical and kinematical peculiarities have been observed. The paper will try to isolate and describe some of these observations and their relation to our engineered structures based on human thinking. The paper will deal with basic aspects as geometry, topology, redundancy...... and rare piece of fine architecture - or a common organism in Nature. That is why Nature makes an excellent object for architectural students to study structures from a conceptual and a morphological point of view. And that is why Nature - who has developed her structural systems by trial-and-error through...... millions of years - acts as an excellent teacher of these topics. At the same time, the idiom of Nature seems to possess a considerable attraction for students and is able to convey inspiration and imagination to the creative process of shaping architectural structures. In our surrounding living and non...

  8. Robustness of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have ...... will be proposed. The document adopts a probabilistic risk assessment framework and includes guidance for decision-making related to robustness....... attempted to quantify aspects of robustness such as redundancy and identify design principles that can improve robustness. This paper outlines the progress of recent work by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) to develop comprehensive guidance on assessing and providing robustness in structural...... systems. Guidance is provided regarding the assessment of robustness in a framework that considers potential hazards to the system, vulnerability of system components, and failure consequences. Several proposed methods for quantifying robustness are reviewed, and guidelines for robust design...

  9. Grounding of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  10. Silicon Carbide Printed Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The plan is to design a process that will allow precision fabrication of SiC structures using a sterolithographty printer and an oven process to sinter the material...

  11. Product Work Breakdown Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okayama, Y; Chirillo, L. D

    1980-01-01

    .... Any such subdivision scheme is a work breakdown structure. Traditional shipbuilders employ work subdivisions by ships functional systems which are natural and appropriate for estimating and for early design stages...

  12. Unequal by Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    This article applies classical concepts of organizational structure and extends them to contemporary challenges of diversity to explore why unequal opportunity structures persist in an organization despite its commitment to diversity and employing highly skilled ethnic minority employees. Based...... on a study of the team-based municipal center CityBiz, the article inquires as to how inequality is embedded in two structural features: first, the differentiation of roles accelerates in response to continuous change, which results in similar workers being attracted to collaborating with one another, which...... generates inequality. Second, inequality is sustained by inadequate integration methods that merge a formal–informal hierarchy, which results in peer competition and majority elites. The structural approach to organizational diversity developed in this article nuances the current research on diversity...

  13. Earth retaining structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  14. Differential geometric structures

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Walter A

    2007-01-01

    This introductory text defines geometric structure by specifying parallel transport in an appropriate fiber bundle and focusing on simplest cases of linear parallel transport in a vector bundle. 1981 edition.

  15. Capital Structure Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart C. Myers

    1984-01-01

    This paper contrasts the "static tradeoff" and "pecking order" theories of capital structure choice by corporations. In the static tradeoff theory, optimal capital structure is reached when the tax advantage to borrowing is balanced, at the margin, by costs of financial distress. In the pecking order theory, firms preferinternal to external funds, and debt to equity if external funds are needed. Thus the debt ratio reflects the cumulative requirement for external financing. Pecking order beha...

  16. Renovation of Roof Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    1997-01-01

    A 30 year old not-watertight roof based on wooden boards with roofing felt have been changed to a pitched structure with cementos plates. At the same time more thermal insulation has been placed.......A 30 year old not-watertight roof based on wooden boards with roofing felt have been changed to a pitched structure with cementos plates. At the same time more thermal insulation has been placed....

  17. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  18. Phosphor scintillator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.; Prener, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of fabricating scintillators is described in which the phosphor is distributed within the structure in such a way as to enhance the escape of the visible wavelength radiation that would otherwise be dissipated within the scintillator body. Two embodiments of the present invention are disclosed: one in which the phosphor is distributed in a layered structure and another in which the phosphor is dispersed throughout a transparent matrix. (U.K.)

  19. Structure of Silicon Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jun; Bahel, Atul; Ramakrishna, Mushti V.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the structures of silicon clusters in the 11-14 atom size range using the tight-binding molecular dynamics method. These calculations reveal that \\Si{11} is an icosahedron with one missing cap, \\Si{12} is a complete icosahedron, \\Si{13} is a surface capped icosahedron, and \\Si{14} is a 4-4-4 layer structure with two caps. The characteristic feature of these clusters is that they are all surface.

  20. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  1. Patchworking Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    analyzes fourdifferent managerial strategies of how to create network structures to deal with theinterfaces between industry, university and public institutions. The research-orientedstrategy, the incubator strategy, the industrial-partnering strategy, and the policyorientedstrategy. The research......-oriented strategyfocuses on the problem of having products approved by the public authorities. The aimof the article is to demonstrate how SBFs over time develop network structures throughpatchwork-like activities, ongoing and overlapping activities, that serve as a blueprintfor the management...

  2. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  3. Nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    New results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of 114,116 I and 114 Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides 114,116 Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of 126 Xe are also reported. A new approach to the problem of the underproduction of A = 120 nuclides in the astrophysical r-process is reported

  4. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  5. Structures and semiotic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Somov, Georgij Yu

    2007-01-01

    A model of interrelations between various types of mentation and semiotic systems is suggested. The relations of structures, forms, and signs in different mentation processes and their effect on semiotic systems are discussed. Major features of these systems are examined from the viewpoint of simulation of changes in physical objects and human environment. Most are multilateral and are clearly structures of various systems. Their organizing role in semiotic systemity are evinced through the a...

  6. SSI and structural benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the ongoing program entitled, Standard Problems for Structural Computer Codes, currently being worked on at BNL for the USNRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. During FY 1986, efforts were focussed on three tasks, namely, (1) an investigation of ground water effects on the response of Category I structures, (2) the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop and (3) studies on structural benchmarks associated with Category I structures. The objective of the studies on ground water effects is to verify the applicability and the limitations of the SSI methods currently used by the industry in performing seismic evaluations of nuclear plants which are located at sites with high water tables. In a previous study by BNL (NUREG/CR-4588), it has been concluded that the pore water can influence significantly the soil-structure interaction process. This result, however, is based on the assumption of fully saturated soil profiles. Consequently, the work was further extended to include cases associated with variable water table depths. In this paper, results related to cut-off depths beyond which the pore water effects can be ignored in seismic calculations, are addressed. Comprehensive numerical data are given for soil configurations typical to those encountered in nuclear plant sites. These data were generated by using a modified version of the SLAM code which is capable of handling problems related to the dynamic response of saturated soils. Further, the paper presents some key aspects of the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop (NUREG/CP-0054) which was held in Bethesda, MD on June 1, 1986. Finally, recent efforts related to the task on the structural benchmarks are described

  7. Structural prediction in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Warren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that young healthy comprehenders predict the structure of upcoming material, and that their processing is facilitated when they encounter material matching those predictions (e.g., Staub & Clifton, 2006; Yoshida, Dickey & Sturt, 2013. However, less is known about structural prediction in aphasia. There is evidence that lexical prediction may be spared in aphasia (Dickey et al., 2014; Love & Webb, 1977; cf. Mack et al, 2013. However, predictive mechanisms supporting facilitated lexical access may not necessarily support structural facilitation. Given that many people with aphasia (PWA exhibit syntactic deficits (e.g. Goodglass, 1993, PWA with such impairments may not engage in structural prediction. However, recent evidence suggests that some PWA may indeed predict upcoming structure (Hanne, Burchert, De Bleser, & Vashishth, 2015. Hanne et al. tracked the eyes of PWA (n=8 with sentence-comprehension deficits while they listened to reversible subject-verb-object (SVO and object-verb-subject (OVS sentences in German, in a sentence-picture matching task. Hanne et al. manipulated case and number marking to disambiguate the sentences’ structure. Gazes to an OVS or SVO picture during the unfolding of a sentence were assumed to indicate prediction of the structure congruent with that picture. According to this measure, the PWA’s structural prediction was impaired compared to controls, but they did successfully predict upcoming structure when morphosyntactic cues were strong and unambiguous. Hanne et al.’s visual-world evidence is suggestive, but their forced-choice sentence-picture matching task places tight constraints on possible structural predictions. Clearer evidence of structural prediction would come from paradigms where the content of upcoming material is not as constrained. The current study used self-paced reading study to examine structural prediction among PWA in less constrained contexts. PWA (n=17 who

  8. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  9. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  10. Integrated smart structures wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Solomon H.

    1993-09-01

    One objective of smart structures development is to demonstrate the ability of a mechanical component to monitor its own structural integrity and health. Achievement of this objective requires the integration of different technologies, i.e.: (1) structures, (2) sensors, and (3) artificial intelligence. We coordinated a team of experts from these three fields. These experts used reliable knowledge towards the forefront of their technologies and combined the appropriate features into an integrated hardware/software smart structures wingbox (SSW) test article. A 1/4 in. hole was drilled into the SSW test article. Although the smart structure had never seen damage of this type, it correctly recognized and located the damage. Based on a knowledge-based simulation, quantification and assessment were also carried out. We have demonstrated that the SSW integrated hardware & software test article can perform six related functions: (1) identification of a defect; (2) location of the defect; (3) quantification of the amount of damage; (4) assessment of performance degradation; (5) continued monitoring in spite of damage; and (6) continuous recording of integrity data. We present the successful results of the integrated test article in this paper, along with plans for future development and deployment of the technology.

  11. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  12. Expert Cold Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  13. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  14. Structure and biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the ISSBMR 7th Course: Structure and Biophysics - New Technologies for Current Challenges in Biology and Beyond. This NATO Advanced Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 22 June through 3 July 2005. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts in the fields of Structural Biology, Biophysics and Physics. Prominent lecturers, from seven different countries, and students from around the world participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). Advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and x-ray crystallography have allowed the three-dimensional structures of many biological macromolecules and their complexes, including the ribosome and RNA polymerase to be solved. Fundamental principles of NMR spectroscopy and dynamics, x-ray crystallography, computation and experimental dynamics we...

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    , by the implementation of the Simpy tool box. This is an object oriented system implemented in the Python language. It can be used for analysis of DAEs, ODEs and non-linear equation and uses e.g. symbolic representations of expressions and equations. The presentations of theory and algorithms for structural index...... analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since it e.g. proves....... The methodology is mainly based on strutural index analysis which is not limited by the index of the DAE as other methodologies. As a result of structural index analysis one can perform index reduction of the DAE and obtain the so-called augmented underlying ODE. It is also described, how to use the augmented...

  17. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

  18. Structure of tellurium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizewski, J.A.; Henry, R.G.; Lee, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The tellurium nuclei with two protons outside of the Z = 50 shell closure exhibit a complicated structure with signatures of collective vibrational, two-quasiparticle, possibly moderately deformed intruder configurations. To study further the structure of the tellurium nuclei the authors made extensive measurements of the (α,xnγ) reactions on even Sn targets, populating excitations in even- and odd-mass Te nuclei up to moderate angular momenta. By examining limits on possible intraband transitions, results suggest that a possible rotational band structure is not supported by the data, since intraband transitions are of comparable E2 strength to interband transitions. In the odd-A isotopes they concentrated on identifying the higher angular momentum negative-parity states (which probe the role of the h 11/2 neutron in the core), and the search for non-yrast negative-parity states, which are a sensitive measure of the shape of the collective excitations

  19. Graphene heat dissipating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.

    2017-08-01

    Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.

  20. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  1. Dynamic Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper

    statements about our data structure, which are based on the structure of the underlying problem, that we are trying to solve. We can rely on the properties of the invariants when performing queries, and in return we need to ensure that the invariants remain true after we perform updates. When designing data......In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...... to a given key? The updates we can do are: inserting a new key or deleting a given key. Our dictionary has the working set property, which means that the running time of a query depends on the query distribution. Specifically the time to search for a key depends on when we last searched for it. Our data...

  2. Dynamic Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    We study dynamic data structures for different variants of orthogonal range reporting query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given 3-sided rectangle with one....... Dynamic problems like the above arise in various applications of network optimization, VLSI layout design, computer graphics and distributed computing. For the first problem, we present dynamic data structures for internal and external memory that support planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting queries......, and insertions and deletions of points efficiently over an average case sequence of update operations. The external memory data structures find applications in constraint and temporal databases. In particular, we assume that the coordinates of the points are drawn from different probabilistic distributions...

  3. Structural Sparse Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-06-01

    Sparse representation has been applied to visual tracking by finding the best target candidate with minimal reconstruction error by use of target templates. However, most sparse representation based trackers only consider holistic or local representations and do not make full use of the intrinsic structure among and inside target candidates, thereby making the representation less effective when similar objects appear or under occlusion. In this paper, we propose a novel Structural Sparse Tracking (SST) algorithm, which not only exploits the intrinsic relationship among target candidates and their local patches to learn their sparse representations jointly, but also preserves the spatial layout structure among the local patches inside each target candidate. We show that our SST algorithm accommodates most existing sparse trackers with the respective merits. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging benchmark image sequences demonstrate that the proposed SST algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    of structural couplings between psychic and social systems (Luhmann 2002: 275, Tække 2011). In this way media are seen as a necessary third, making it possible for two different kinds of systems to process, using complexity from one another - leaving out the idea of direct transmission. In actor-network theory...... Danish to English, but to describe: “displacement, drift, invention, mediation, the creation of a link that did not exist before and that to some degree modifies two elements or agents” (Latour 1994, 32). The paper works with two aims. The first aim is to discuss what kinds of structural couplings...... to compare the semantics of their concepts. The paper first provides an analysis and discussion of language as the mechanism of structural coupling between the levels of psychic and social systems. Then the article provides an analysis and discussion of translation as a transformation process between actors...

  5. Freeform Honeycomb Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2014-07-01

    Motivated by requirements of freeform architecture, and inspired by the geometry of hexagonal combs in beehives, this paper addresses torsion-free structures aligned with hexagonal meshes. Since repetitive geometry is a very important contribution to the reduction of production costs, we study in detail “honeycomb structures”, which are defined as torsion-free structures where the walls of cells meet at 120 degrees. Interestingly, the Gauss-Bonnet theorem is useful in deriving information on the global distribution of node axes in such honeycombs. This paper discusses the computation and modeling of honeycomb structures as well as applications, e.g. for shading systems, or for quad meshing. We consider this paper as a contribution to the wider topic of freeform patterns, polyhedral or otherwise. Such patterns require new approaches on the technical level, e.g. in the treatment of smoothness, but they also extend our view of what constitutes aesthetic freeform geometry.

  6. Structural Evaluation Procedures for Heavy Wood Truss Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issa, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    .... An evaluation procedure for wood structures differs from conventional methods used in steel, concrete, and masonry structures because, in wood construction, the allowable stresses used in design...

  7. Vibration-based structural health monitoring of harbor caisson structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, So-Ra; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2011-04-01

    This study presents vibration-based structural health monitoring method in foundation-structure interface of harbor caisson structure. In order to achieve the objective, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, vibration-based response analysis method is selected and structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is designed for harbor caisson structure. Secondly, the performance of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is examined by FE analysis. Finally, the applicability of designed SHM technique for harbor structure is evaluated by dynamic tests on a lab-scaled caisson structure.

  8. Nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchaux, M.

    1992-11-01

    The present status of experimental measurements of the nucleon structure functions is reviewed. The results from nearly all deep inelastic experiments are in good mutual agreement. Principles of the analysis of these structure function data in the framework of QCD are described. The specific features of the perturbative QCD predictions are observed in the data. This provides quantitative tests of the validity of QCD as well as determinations of the various parton distributions in the nucleon and some of the most precise measurements of the strong coupling constant αs. The future of this field of experimental physics is sketched

  9. Structural mechanics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratory has a very broad structural capability. Work has been performed in support of reentry vehicles, nuclear reactor safety, weapons systems and components, nuclear waste transport, strategic petroleum reserve, nuclear waste storage, wind and solar energy, drilling technology, and submarine programs. The analysis environment contains both commercial and internally developed software. Included are mesh generation capabilities, structural simulation codes, and visual codes for examining simulation results. To effectively simulate a wide variety of physical phenomena, a large number of constitutive models have been developed

  10. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...... for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two...

  11. Space dissipative structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernousenko, V.M.; Kuklin, V.M.; Panachenko, I.P.; Vorob'yov, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a wide spectrum of oscillations that is excited due to the evolution instabilities, being in a weak above-threshold state, in the inequilibrium media with decaying spectrum. In this case the pumping, whose part is played by an intensive wave or occupation inversion in the active medium, synchronized the phases of excited modes and, thus, forms the space dissipative structure of the field. In dissipative nonlinear media with nondecaying spectrum the space structures, formed due to the development of instability, experience small-scale hexagonal modulation

  12. Dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Paultre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This book covers structural dynamics from a theoretical and algorithmic approach. It covers systems with both single and multiple degrees-of-freedom. Numerous case studies are given to provide the reader with a deeper insight into the practicalities of the area, and the solutions to these case studies are given in terms of real-time and frequency in both geometric and modal spaces. Emphasis is also given to the subject of seismic loading. The text is based on many lectures on the subject of structural dynamics given at numerous institutions and thus will be an accessible and practical aid to

  13. Structure defects in cementite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    After a presentation of experimental techniques (elaboration principles, elaboration techniques, and investigation techniques for cementite thin layers and iron-carbon massive alloys), the author of this research thesis reports the study of cementite structure (interatomic distance, description and representation), reports the study of iron-carbon thin layers (structure, influence of silicon, defects), reports the study of perfect and imperfect dislocations and of plane defects in cementite. The author also reports hardness measurements, and discusses the relationships between cementite and other iron carbides

  14. Structure - materials - production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Gammel, Peder; Busch, Jens

    2002-01-01

    For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies.......For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies....

  15. Integrated Structural Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the environment is broadly defined and includes not only quantifiable aspects, but also social conditions, scenic beauty, traffic, cultural heritage, and commercial development. A successful bridge design must comply with all of these demands according...... landscaping and structural design. The integrated courses create a setting for learning about the design of large-scale structures and involve geometry, statics, computer simulation, graphical design and landscape architecture. Together, they educate engineers who can take part in the early design phases...... of a project, function well in design teams, and comply with EU EIA demands....

  16. Kaolinite flocculation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbik, Marek S; Smart, Roger St C; Morris, Gayle E

    2008-12-01

    Effective flocculation and dewatering of mineral processing streams containing colloidal clays has become increasingly urgent. Release of water from slurries in tailings streams and dam beds for recycle water consumption, is usually slow and incomplete. To achieve fast settling and minimization of retained water, individual particles need to be bound, in the initial stages of thickening, into large, high-density aggregates, which may sediment more rapidly with lower intra-aggregate water content. Quantitative cryo-SEM image analysis shows that the structure of aggregates formed before flocculant addition has a determinative effect on these outcomes. Without flocculant addition, 3 stages occur in the mechanism of primary dewatering of kaolinite at pH 8: initially, the dispersed structures already show edge-edge (EE) and edge-face (EF) inter-particle associations but these are open, loose and easily disrupted; in the hindered settling region, aggregates are in adherent, chain-like structures of EE and stairstep face-face (FF) associations; this network structure slowly partially rearranges from EE chains to more compact face-face (FF) contacts densifying the aggregates with increased settling rates. During settling, the sponge-like network structure with EE and FF string-like aggregates, limits dewatering because the steric effects in the resulting partially-gelled aggregate structures are dominant. With flocculant addition, the internal structure and networking of the pre-aggregates is largely preserved but they are rapidly and effectively bound together by the aggregate-bridging action of the flocculant. The effects of initial pH and Ca ion addition on these structures are also analyzed. Statistical analysis from cryo-SEM imaging shows that there is an inverse correlation of intra-aggregate porosity with Darcian inter-aggregate permeability whereas there is a strong positive correlation of Darcian permeability with settling and primary dewatering rate as a function

  17. Determinants of capital structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, M J; Ozcan, Y A

    1992-01-01

    This study analyzes the determinants of hospital capital structure in a new market setting that are created by the financial pressures of prospective payment and the intense price competition among hospitals. Using California data, the study found hospital system affiliation, bed size, growth rate in revenues, operating risk, and asset structure affected both short- and long-term debt borrowings. In addition, percentage of uncompensated care, profitability, and payer mix influenced short-term borrowings while market conditions and ownership affected long-term borrowings. Most significant of all is the finding that smaller hospitals tend to borrow more, possibly because they cannot generate funds internally.

  18. Influence of Soil Structure Interaction in the Structural Behaviour of a Berthing Structure in Sloping Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P. E.; Beena, K. S.; Narayanan, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Berthing structures are constructed for embarking and disembarking of passengers and cargo on the berthing and mooring of vessels along the structure. Such structures are constructed in coastal area where ground is sloping towards the sea and soil having low shear strength value. Framed structure with flexible pile foundation is adopted for this type of structures. Behaviour of such structures is dependent on the stiffness properties of structure as well as the type of soil surrounding the structure. The present study focuses on the numerical investigations of a typical 2D berthing structure for various diameter of pile, soil modulus and bed slope.

  19. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  20. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness of kinetic structures. Robustness of structures has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. Especially for these types of structural syst...... systems, it is of interest to investigate how robust the structures are, or what happens if a structural element is added to or removed from the original structure. The present paper discusses this issue for kinetic structures in architecture.......The present paper considers robustness of kinetic structures. Robustness of structures has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. Especially for these types of structural...

  1. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  2. Smart Structures and Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of energy, must be able to modify their behaviour to create an envelope ... Biological structures or systems are the smartest, and in terms of energy consumption the most economical. Figure 1. The basic essen- tial configuration of a bio- ..... On being heated by solar energy in outer space, the SMA actuator converts itself.

  3. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    agreement about this), while Mn3–Mn8 are clearly ferro- magnetic (Pederson et al 1998; Nayak et al 1998), and the most stable bulk structure, α Mn, is an antiferromag- net. A recent Stern–Gerlach study by Knickelbein (2001) has added fresh interest to the study of Mn. The experi- mental results show that clusters in the ...

  4. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs

  5. GKZ Hypergeometric Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    This text is based on lectures by the author in the Summer School Algebraic Geometry and Hypergeometric Functions in Istanbul in June 2005. It gives a review of some of the basic aspects of the theory of hypergeometric structures of Gelfand, Kapranov and Zelevinsky, including Differential

  6. Structure of multidimensional patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of describing the structure of multidimensional data is important in exploratory data analysis, statistical pattern recognition, and image processing. A data set is viewed as a collection of points embedded in a high dimensional space. The primary goal of this research is to determine if the data have any clustering structure; such a structure implies the presence of class information (categories) in the data. A statistical hypothesis is used in the decision making. To this end, data with no structure are defined as data following the uniform distribution over some compact convex set in K-dimensional space, called the sampling window. This thesis defines two new tests for uniformity along with various sampling window estimators. The first test is a volume-based test which captures density changes in the data. The second test compares a uniformly distributed sample to the data by using the minimal spanning tree (MST) of the polled samples. Sampling window estimators are provided for simple sampling windows and use the convex hull of the data as a general sampling window estimator. For both of the tests for uniformity, theoretical results are provided on their size, and study their size and power against clustered alternatives is studied. Simulation is also used to study the efficacy of the sampling window estimators

  7. Land, Structure & Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.; van de Minne, A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model which enables us to disentangle the value of a residential property into the value of land and the value of structure, while controlling for depreciation and vintage effects. For given reconstruction costs we are able to estimate the impact of physical

  8. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello. Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms , Ludwig...van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses

  9. Odd Structures Are Odd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 1567-1580 ISSN 0188-7009 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : graded vector space * monoidal structure * Odd endomorphism operad Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00006-016-0720-8

  10. electronic and structural investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-30

    Mar 30, 2018 ... Indian Academy of Sciences https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-018-1572-8. Milling effect on the photo-activated properties of TiO2 nanoparticles: electronic and structural investigations. YOUCEF MESSAI1,2, BERTRAND VILENO2,4, DAVID MARTEL3, PHILIPPE TUREK2,4 and. DJAMEL EDDINE MEKKI1,∗.

  11. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, on 9±10 October 1998. The Structures Panel of the ... have pushed frontiers of technology to such extents that linear theories no longer suffice. This is the case in ... In the second paper, Krishnam Raju and Nagabhushanam extend the Integrated Force. Method (IFM) of ...

  12. Cell Structure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, James V.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students use microscopes and digital images to examine Elodea, a fresh water plant, before and after the process of plasmolysis, identify plant cellular structures before and after plasmolysis, and calculate the size of the plant's vacuole. (ASK)

  13. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  14. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  15. Geometric Dimensioning Sentence Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuistion, Patrick J.

    1991-01-01

    Explanations of geometric dimensioning symbols are provided to assist in the comprehension of the implied basic sentence structure of modern geometric dimensioning and tolerance. The proper identification and interpretation of the substantive language within several exemplary engineering drawings, otherwise called feature control frames, is…

  16. Bridgescaping - Contextual Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale infrastructural projects such as bridges used to be the monopoly of engineers. They were designed as – often very beautiful – expressions of how forces work in a structure, guided by the nature of materials and a rational construction process. However, in recent decades politicians...

  17. Hyphal structures in Hydnums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    In this paper descriptions are given of the hyphal structure in the hydnaceous genera Climacodon P. Karst., Creolophus P. Karst., Donkia Pilát, Hydnellum P. Karst., Mycoleptodonoides Nikol., Mycorrhaphium Maas G. (which is introduced as a new genus), Phellodon P. Karst., Sarcodon P. Karst., and

  18. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  19. Simulation of phase structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.

    1995-01-01

    This memo outlines a procedure developed by the author to extract information from phase measurements and produce a simulated phase structure for use in modeling optical systems, including characteristic optics for the Beamlet and NIF laser systems. The report includes an IDL program listing

  20. Structures of Feeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taking as its point of departure Raymond Williams' notion 'structure of feeling', this volume investigates how affectivity makes a difference in memory studies, performance studies, and the range of cultural studies across the humanities and social sciences today. It illustrates the importance...... of theorizing affectivity at a moment when social and cultural life are becoming increasingly affect-driven....

  1. Space-time structure

    CERN Document Server

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    1985-01-01

    In response to repeated requests this classic book on space-time structure by Professor Erwin Schrödinger is now available in the Cambridge Science Classics series. First published in 1950, and reprinted in 1954 and 1960, this lucid and profound exposition of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravitation still provides valuable reading for students and research workers in the field.

  2. Structural Stator Spacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andreasen, Jens H.; Pijanowski, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful new design aspect to reduce acoustic noise and vibration of electro-magnetic origin for electrical machines, by introducing improved slot wedges referred to as "Structural Stator Spacers". These spacers, by using a very stiff dielectric and non magnetic material, a ...

  3. Scour around coastal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Whiteouse, J. S.; Tørum, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the European Union Marine Science and Technology (EU MAST) III project "Scour Around Coastal Structures" (SCARCOST). The summary is presented under three headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Flow and scour processes with the subheadings: flow and scour processes...

  4. Communications Policies and Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeat, Henri; And Others

    These two papers discuss communications policies and structures in France and in the United States. The first paper reports that efforts to develop new electronic communication systems in France are hindered by rivalry between two public monopolies and by governmental protection against foreign influence. The second paper assesses ownership of…

  5. Structured Mechanical Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhe; Wang, Jiang; Fu, Hongbo; Lau, Rynson W H

    2014-07-01

    We present a method to build 3D structured mechanical collages consisting of numerous elements from the database given artist-designed proxy models. The construction is guided by some graphic design principles, namely unity, variety and contrast. Our results are visually more pleasing than previous works as confirmed by a user study.

  6. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the direct problem of determing the new response of a system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications ...

  7. Structures of Feeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taking as its point of departure Raymond Williams' notion 'structure of feeling', this volume investigates how affectivity makes a difference in memory studies, performance studies, and the range of cultural studies across the humanities and social sciences today. It illustrates the importance of...

  8. Teaching concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of concrete structures has been revised and a number of new approaches have been developed, implemented and evaluated. Inductive teaching, E-learning and “patches” have been found to be improvements and may be an inspiration and help for others development of the teaching and learning...

  9. Structure from interaction events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooy, W.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to the colloquium, I argue why and how I lost interest in the overall structure of social networks even though Big Data techniques are increasingly simplifying the collection, organisation, and analysis of ever larger networks. The challenge that Big Data techniques pose to the

  10. Hadron-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the space-time structure of the sub-atomic world and attempts to construct the fields of the constitutents of the hadrons. Then it is attempted to construct the fields of the hadrons from these micro-fields. (autho r). 24 refs

  11. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Artificially structured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, A.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in crystal growth methods such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) allow us to artifically structure new materials on an atomic scale. These structures may have electrical or optical properties that cannot be obtained in bulk crystals. There has been a dramatic increase in the study of layered structures during the past decade which has led to the discovery of many unexpected physical phenomena and opened a completely new branch of device physics. Since the advanced crystal growth techniques can tailor the compositions and doping profiles of the material to atomic scales, it pushes the frontier of devices to the ultimate imagination of device physicists and engineers. It is likely that for the next century the new generation of devices will rely heavily on artifically structured materials. This article will be limited to a discussion of recent developments in the area of semiconductor thin epitaxial films which may have technological impact. 21 refs., 12 figs

  13. Microscopy of femtoscale structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microscopy of femtoscale structures. P CHOWDHURY. Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell MA 01854, USA. Abstract. Advances in experimental techniques are discussed for the study of long-lived isomers using gammasphere. Spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei in the A. 180 region is made ...

  14. Capital Structure and Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes a firm's capital structure choice when assets have outside value. Valuable assets implicitly provide a collateral and increase tax shield exploitation. The key feature in this paper is asset value uncertainty, implying that it is unknown ex ante whether the equity holders ex...

  15. Nature teaching structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2002-01-01

    If one is looking for an example of a conceptual design which is extremely appropriate in its morphology, well adapted to the surroundings, structurally and functionally optimised, and has a refined and appropriate appearance - all in one single configuration - you have either an exceptional and ...

  16. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    computational models. Hence the lack of feedback about the impact of a design decision onto the design has been identified as source of problems. This paper reports on two speculative projects that integrate generative processes, based on natural growth patterns, with feedback from simulation in order...... to integrate the behaviour of networked systems into structures made from wooden material....

  17. STRUCTURE UROLOGICAL OUTPATIENT RECEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kulchavenya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the structure of the example receiving outpatient urological Cabinet city polyclinic №26 Novosibirsk. Revealed a clear predominance of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system, benign prostatic hyperplasia and urolithiasis. This group of diseases should be given due attention in the medical examination of the population. 

  18. Hydraulic Structures : Locks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.F.

    These lecture notes on locks are part of the study material belonging to the course 'Hydraulic Structures 1' (code CT3330), part of the Bachelor of Science and the Master of Science, the Hydraulic Engineering track, for civil engineering students at Delft University of Technology. Many of the

  19. synthesis and structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priya Saxena

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... complexes as well as for biological applications.16–24. Of particular mention here are the nickel and palladium complexes of ..... tion and indexing were performed with CrysAlisPro software suite.42 WinGX module was used to perform all the cal- culations.43 The structures were solved by direct methods.

  20. Adaptive building skin structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Grosso, A E; Basso, P

    2010-01-01

    The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method

  1. The Structure of Pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mort, Andrew [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2017-01-12

    At the beginning of this project we hypothesized that pectin, which is a major polysaccharide in primary plant cell walls, is composed of various distinct structural regions covalently linked together into a high molecular weight complex polymer. We also hypothesized that a considerable portion of xyloglucan, the major hemicellulose in most primary cell walls, is linked to the pectin. Our goal was to determine if these interconnections exist and to characterize the exact nature of the interactions. It seems imperative that we have a complete knowledge of the structure of pectin to be able to propose realistic models of cell walls. There is a lot of interest in the biosynthesis of pectin. I do not think it will be possible to completely understand the biosynthesis of pectin without knowing the structure of pectin and thus the sequence of reactions needed to put each sugar or ester in its correct position in the polymer. We made considerable progress in determining the detailed structure of pectin and within a year or so will be able to put forward a comprehensive model of it.

  2. Unsupervised Knowledge Structuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a conceptual framework for learning an ontological structure of domain knowledge, which combines Jaccard similarity coefficient with the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) by (Kemp et al. 2006) and its extended model, i.e. the normal-Infinite Relational Model (n-IRM) by (Herlau et...

  3. Structure, Reactivity and Dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of liquids and solids, structure and transport studies of binary systems, dissociation of endo and exo. 2-norbornyl chlorides and the effect of solvents on the dissociation processes. The ultimate aim of a chemist is to develop the understanding and the ability to alter the rates of chem- ical reactions leading to desired products.

  4. Hydraulic Structures : Caissons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Molenaar, W.F.; Bezuyen, K.G.

    These lecture notes on caissons are part of the study material belonging to the course 'Hydraulic Structures 1' (code CTB3355), part of the Bachelor of Science education and the Hydraulic Engineering track of the Master of Science education for civil engineering students at Delft University of

  5. Visual Narrative Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out…

  6. Deployable Composite Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking innovative structure technologies that will advance expandable modules for orbital and surface based habitats. These secondary structures must...

  7. Market structures in international telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures.......Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures....

  8. Strength characteristics for the structural assessment of existing concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, A.; Courage, W.; Steenbergen, R.

    2013-01-01

    For the assessment of the in situ compressive strength in structures and precast concrete components EN 13791 applies. Among others, this standard may be adopted when doubt arises about the compressive strength in the structure. However, for assessing the structural safety of existing structures of

  9. Soil Retaining Structures : Development of models for structural analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these

  10. COI Structural Analysis Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Todd; Stahl, H. Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the structural analysis of the Next Generation Space Telescope Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) developed by Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) in support of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) project. The mirror was submitted to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for cryogenic testing and evaluation. Once at MSFC, the mirror was lowered to approximately 40 K and the optical surface distortions were measured. Alongside this experiment, an analytical model was developed and used to compare to the test results. A NASTRAN finite element model was provided by COI and a thermal model was developed from it. Using the thermal model, steady state nodal temperatures were calculated based on the predicted environment of the large cryogenic test chamber at MSFC. This temperature distribution was applied in the structural analysis to solve for the deflections of the optical surface. Finally, these deflections were submitted for optical analysis and comparison to the interferometer test data.

  11. The Structured Assessment Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Bruun, Jesper; Nielsen, Sanne Schnell

    2018-01-01

    The two key purposes of assessment, formative and summative, are often in a contradictory position if they are used concurrently. The summative assessment of learning will often prevent the formative assessment for learning to be realised (Butler, J Educ Psychol 79(4):474, 1987), meaning...... that the learning potential of the assessment will often be minimal. It is therefore a central challenge to find ways to combine the dual use of assessment. The structured assessment dialogue (SAD) is a candidate for such a combination. This chapter introduces the structured assessment dialogue – a short ritualised...... assessment method involving three distinct phases: A 5-min student-teacher dialogue, a 5-min peer feedback phase and finally 2–3-min of student self-reflection. We describe the rationales for the SAD and analyse results from classroom implementations in Denmark and Finland. First, using focus group interview...

  12. Pairing in hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1981-08-01

    A many-body approach to hadron structure is presented, in which we consider two parton species: spin-0 (b-partons), and spin-1/2 (f-partons). We extend a boson and a fermion pairing scheme for the b-, and f-partons respectively, into a Yang-Mills gauge theory. The main feature of this theory is that the gauge field is not identified with the usual gluon field variable in QCD. We study the confinement problem of the hadron constituents, and obtain, for low temperatures, partons that are confined by energy gaps. As the critical temperatures for the corresponding phase transitions are approached, the energy gap gradually disappears, and confinement is lost. The theory goes beyond the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator quark model, in the sense of giving physical reasons why a non-relativistic approximation is adequate in describing the internal dynamics of hadron structure. (author)

  13. Radio structure in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, observational attention is given to the extended extragalactic radio sources associated with quasars. The isolated compact radio sources, often identified with quasars, are only included in the discussions. Three aspects of the radio structure in quasars and their cosmic evolution are considered: a study of the parsec scale morphology in quasar cores, in relation to the extended morphologies; an investigation of possible epoch dependent hotspot properties as well as a more detailed investigation of this fine scale structure; a VLA project was carried out to obtain morphological information on scales of 0.5 arcsec on high redshift quasars and to investigate possible epoch dependent morphological properties. MERLIN observations at 0.1 arcsec resolution to supplement the VLA data were initiated. (Auth.)

  14. Structural amorphous steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.P.; Liu, C.T.; Porter, W.D.; Thompson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed

  15. Resource Structuring and Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yucheng; Li, Peter Ping

    Focusing on how resource structuring mechanisms and managerial ties influence organizational ambidexterity of new ventures in emerging economy, this study explores the effects of resource structuring mechanisms (i.e., resource acquiring and resource accumulating) on organizational ambidexterity....... It further examines the moderating effects of managerial ties, (i.e., ties with other firms and ties with the government) on the above relationships. Survey data from China¡¯s 202 new ventures demonstrates that the resource acquiring has an inverted U-shaped effect whereas the resource accumulating has a U......-shaped effect on organizational ambidexterity in new ventures. Further, because of the traditional culture and economic transition characteristics, new ventures actively leverage managerial ties as key social relations to obtain special resources or nurture business transactions. We propose that ties with other...

  16. Air cathode structure manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  17. Generative Moire Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian – Mihail Marian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available “GRAPHIC ON COMPUTER” – the work of the Czech Petar Milojevic, published in Titus Mocanu’s book “THE MODERN ART’S MORPHOLOGY”, in 1973, had great influence on me. I tried to discover the algorithm that generated this work. It was not so difficult to do and in a short time I was able to draw 12 such structures. In time, with interruptions, I have returned to this kind of works. In my personal exhibition “CYBERNETIC DESIGN” that took place at “M4-1-13-etopa” gallery of Pitesti, in March 1981, I have presented 8 such structures. To my joy, they had an impact on art lovers.

  18. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  19. Teach us atom structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Suh Yeon

    2006-08-15

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  20. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5th Int. Modal Anal. Conf. (London) 2: 1538±1544. Sestieri A, D'Ambrogio W 1988 Why be model: i.e. how to avoid the use of modes in the modification of vibrating systems. Proc. 6th Int. Modal Anal. Conf. (Orlando) 2: 1100±1106. Sestieri A, D'Ambrogio W 1989 A modification method for vibration control of structures. Mech.

  1. Lightweight Structure in Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    1 1.2 A web page that lists electronic books available for downloading. . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 A web page from Yahoo...with some of its structure labeled. 1 2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION book title year author genre format Figure 1.2: A web page that lists electronic ... books available for downloading. advertisement user date hyperlink Figure 1.3: A web page from Yahoo. method type method name statement

  2. Birefringent phononic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Psarobas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.

  3. Foams structure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat, Isabelle; Graner, François; Pitois, Olivier; Höhler, Reinard; Elias, Florence; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Rouyer, Florence

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first to provide a thorough description of all aspects of the physico-chemical properties of foams. It sets out what is known about their structure, their stability, and their rheology. Engineers, researchers and students will find descriptions of all the key concepts, illustrated by numerous applications, as well as experiments and exercises for the reader. A solutions manual for lecturers is available via the publisher's web site.

  4. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Stereochemistry Structure of Odonicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao Lin; Li, Jin; Tong, Ling [Shaanxi Normal University, Xian (China); Pan, Yuan Jiang [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Yu, Kai Bei [Academia Sinica, Chengdu (China)

    2004-02-15

    Ent-kaurene diterpenoids have various biological activities, such as antitumor, antibacterial, anti-HIV activities etc. The plant of the genus Isodon used in Chinese traditional medicine is a major source of compounds of this structural class. Our investigations on the bitter diterpenoids constituents of the genus Isodon led to the first isolation of odonicin (1) from the leaves and tender branches of Isodon henryi obtained from Taibai Mountain, Shaanxi Province, P. R. China

  6. Design bases - Concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Llanos Ros, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most suitable title for Section 2 is 'Design Bases', which covers not only calculation but also the following areas: - Structural design concepts. - Project criteria. - Material specifications. These concepts are developed in more detail in the following sections. The numbering in this document is neither complete nor hierarchical since, for easier cross referencing, it corresponds to the paragraphs of Eurocode 2 Part 1 (hereinafter 'EUR-2') which are commented on. (author)

  7. Matrimonial ring structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hamberger, Klaus; Houseman, Michael; Daillant, Isabelle; White, Douglas R.; Barry, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with matrimonial rings, a particular kind of cycles in kinship networks which result when spouses are linked to each other by ties of consanguinity or affinity. By taking a network-analytic perspective, the paper endeavours to put this classical issue of structural kinship theory on a general basis, such as to allow conclusions which go beyond isolated discussions of particular ring types (like "cross-cousin marriage", "sister exchange", and so forth). The paper provides a def...

  8. Discrete computational structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korfhage, Robert R

    1974-01-01

    Discrete Computational Structures describes discrete mathematical concepts that are important to computing, covering necessary mathematical fundamentals, computer representation of sets, graph theory, storage minimization, and bandwidth. The book also explains conceptual framework (Gorn trees, searching, subroutines) and directed graphs (flowcharts, critical paths, information network). The text discusses algebra particularly as it applies to concentrates on semigroups, groups, lattices, propositional calculus, including a new tabular method of Boolean function minimization. The text emphasize

  9. Stellar structure and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippernhahn, R.; Weigert, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book introduces the theory of the internal structure of stars and their evolution in time. It presents the basic physics of stellar interiors, methods for solving the underlying equations, and the most important results necessary for understanding the wide variety of stellar types and phenomena. The evolution of stars is discussed from their birth through normal evolution to possibly spectacular final stages. Chapters on stellar oscillations and rotation are included

  10. Globalization and political structure

    OpenAIRE

    Gancia, Gino A.; Ponzetto, Giacomo A. M.; Ventura, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The first wave of globalization (1830-1914) witnessed a decline in the number of countries from 125 to 54. Political consolidation was often achieved through war and conquest. The second wave of globalization (1950-present) has led instead to an increase in the number of countries to a record high of more than 190. Political fragmentation has been accompanied by the creation of peaceful structures of supranational governance. This paper develops a theoretical model of the interaction between ...

  11. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure....

  12. Photothermal modification of plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    at least a portion of each of the plasmonic structures within the second plurality of plasmonic structures by irradiating, the plasmonic structures with incident electromagnetic radiation having an incident intensity in a plane of the second plurality of plasmonic structures, wherein said incident...

  13. Features and Recursive Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniya Nasukawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the cross-linguistic tendency that weak vowels are realized with a central quality such as ə, ɨ, or ɯ, this paper attempts to account for this choice by proposing that the nucleus itself is one of the three monovalent vowel elements |A|, |I| and |U| which function as the building blocks of melodic structure. I claim that individual languages make a parametric choice to determine which of the three elements functions as the head of a nuclear expression. In addition, I show that elements can be freely concatenated to create melodic compounds. The resulting phonetic value of an element compound is determined by the specific elements it contains and by the head-dependency relations between those elements. This concatenation-based recursive mechanism of melodic structure can also be extended to levels above the segment, thus ultimately eliminating the need for syllabic constituents. This approach reinterprets the notion of minimalism in phonology by opposing the string-based flat structure.

  14. Hypersonic Materials and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this presentation is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components.

  15. Ego-structuring psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemoes, Palle

    2002-01-01

    Psychoanalysis regards psychosis as an early disturbance in the development of the personality, specifically, of the ego. The disturbance occurs during that period prior to the castration complex and thus before the phase when the ordering of relations becomes oedipal. Responsible for this disturbance is, according to Freud, foreclosure (verwerfung) of an important factor that normally accomplishes the primal repression (urverdrängung) and which renders repression proper (verdrängung) out of the question. According to Lacan this factor is the Name of the Father, which instigates the metaphorical dimension as such and, thereby, makes language come into action through a pact between the subject and the Other. In psychosis, Lacan postulates a foreclosure of the Name of the Father, which hinders the unconscious, structured as a language, from safeguarding the ego and the world, that is, the imaginary. Ego-structuring psychotherapy brings the Name of the Father into effect, enabling the psychotic person to become linguistically structured; consequently, a world view develops in the person and he or she becomes a historically determined person engaged in fulfilling a plan for life.

  16. Interpenetrated Cage Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Marina; Johnstone, Mark D; Clever, Guido H

    2016-09-26

    This Review covers design strategies, synthetic challenges, host-guest chemistry, and functional properties of interlocked supramolecular cages. Some dynamic covalent organic structures are discussed, as are selected examples of interpenetration in metal-organic frameworks, but the main focus is on discrete coordination architectures, that is, metal-mediated dimers. Factors leading to interpenetration, such as geometry, flexibility and chemical makeup of the ligands, coordination environment, solvent effects, and selection of suitable counter anions and guest molecules, are discussed. In particular, banana-shaped bis-pyridyl ligands together with square-planar metal cations have proven to be suitable building blocks for the construction of interpenetrated double-cages obeying the formula [M4 L8 ]. The peculiar topology of these double-cages results in a linear arrangement of three mechanically coupled pockets. This allows for the implementation of interesting guest encapsulation effects such as allosteric binding and template-controlled selectivity. In stimuli-responsive systems, anionic triggers can toggle the binding of neutral guests or even induce complete structural conversions. The increasing structural and functional complexity in this class of self-assembled hosts promises the construction of intelligent receptors, novel catalytic systems, and functional materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Control component structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a control component structure comprising: a spider having a plurality of arms, at least one spider bore formed in said plurality of arms, said spider bore including an enlarged recess and a small recess with an upright truncated conical section forming a transition from the enlarged recess to the small recess, and a burnable poison rod including a tube terminating in transverse end, a plug with a chamfered end that leads into a cylindrical portion, said cylindrical portion of the plug snugly fitting within the tube and terminating in a radially protruding shoulder which engages the transverse end of the tube to which it is welded, and a stem protruding in the longitudinal direction from the central portion of the shoulder having a longitudinal stem bore extending through about half of the length of the stem, at least part of the stem which defines the stem bore being fixed within the truncated conical section, the enlarged recess and the small recess of the spider by outward deformation of that part of the stem in order to releasably attach the rod to the spider, said stem being adapted to substantially reshape itself by movement of the rod in a longitudinal direction with respect to the spider bore, while maintaining the structural integrity of the poison rod and maintaining the structural integrity of the spider

  18. Visual Structure Language; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; ESPINOZA, JUAN

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new language, Visual Structure Language (VSL), designed to describe the structure of a program and explain its pieces. This new language is built on top of a general-purpose language, such as C. The language consists of three extensions: explanations, nesting, and arcs. Explanations are comments explicitly associated with code segments. These explanations can be nested. And arcs can be inserted between explanations to show data- or control-flow. The value of VSL is that it enables a developer to better control a code. The developer can represent the structure via nested explanations, using arcs to indicate the flow of data and control. The explanations provide a ''second opinion'' about the code so that at any level, the developer can confirm that the code operates as it is intended to do. We believe that VSL enables a programmer to use in a computer language the same model-a hierarchy of components-that they use in their heads when they conceptualize systems

  19. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  20. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  1. Richat Structure, Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This prominent circular feature in the Sahara desert of Mauritania has attracted attention since the earliest space missions because it forms a conspicuous bull's-eye in the otherwise rather featureless expanse of the desert. Described by some as looking like an outsized ammonite in the desert, the structure [which has a diameter of almost 50 kilometers (30 miles)] has become a landmark for shuttle crews. Initially interpreted as a meteorite impact structure because of its high degree of circularity, it is now thought to be merely a symmetrical uplift (circular anticline) that has been laid bare by erosion. Paleozoic quartzites form the resistant beds outlining the structure. This image was acquired on October 7, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  2. Quaternary structure of methemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevion, M.; Ilan, Y.A.; Samuni, A.; Navok, T.; Czapski, G.

    1979-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis of solutions of adult human methemoglobin was used to reduce a single heme iron within the protein tetramers. The valence hybrids thus formed were reacted with oxygen. Kinetics of the reactions were studied. The effects of pH and inositol hexaphosphate were examined. The kinetics of the ligation of oxygen to stripped valence hybrids showed a single phase behavior at the pH range 6.5 to 9. As the pH was lowered below 6.5, a second, slower phase became apparent. In the presence of inositol hexaphosphate, above pH 8, the kinetics of oxygen binding was of a single phase. As the pH was lowered, a transition to a second, slower phase was noticed. Below pH 7, the slower phase was the only detectable one. On this basis, it is concluded that human adult stripped methemoglobin resides in an R quarternary structure, while the presence of IHP stabilizes the T structure at pH below 7.5. This transition between the quaternary structures of methemoglobin cannot be accounted for by the switch between the high spin and the low spin states of the ferric iron. This switch of spin state takes place at pH>8.2

  3. STRUCTURED CLINICAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabela Maria Barbosa Sampaio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a world experiencing profound technological and socio-political changes in areas of knowledge and capacity, healthcare can not remain static. A new kind of professional is required, whose practice is based on ethics, scientific standards, integrity, citizenship, and health promotion, who develops skills beyond healthcare, such as decision making, communication,leadership, management, and continuing education. No single method can assess all of these elements (knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and only a combination of methods is able to produce a valid evaluation. An alternative method exists: structured clinical assessments based on observation of "to do, or how to do" that aim to complete this evaluation by focusing attention on the performance of specific skills. In order to broaden the scope of evaluation methods that have been used in health education, this article, a literature review, intends to offer readers an overview of the diverse types of structured clinical evaluation, emphasizing Objective Structured Clinical Examination, the most widely used in Brazil, with a goal of advancing opportunities for health professionals to make use of this evaluative tool.

  4. Classifications of track structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    When ionizing particles interact with matter they produce random topological structures of primary activations which represent the initial boundary conditions for all subsequent physical, chemical and/or biological reactions. There are two important aspects of research on such track structures, namely their experimental or theoretical determination on one hand and the quantitative classification of these complex structures which is a basic pre-requisite for the understanding of mechanisms of radiation actions. This paper deals only with the latter topic, i.e. the problems encountered in and possible approaches to quantitative ordering and grouping of these multidimensional objects by their degrees of similarity with respect to their efficiency in producing certain final radiation effects, i.e. to their ''radiation quality.'' Various attempts of taxonometric classification with respect to radiation efficiency have been made in basic and applied radiation research including macro- and microdosimetric concepts as well as track entities and stopping power based theories. In this paper no review of those well-known approaches is given but rather an outline and discussion of alternative methods new to this field of radiation research which have some very promising features and which could possibly solve at least some major classification problems

  5. Aseismatic supporting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Hideo; Tachi, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    As one of the large subjects for putting FBRs to practical use, the increase of the economical efficiency is pointed out, and for this purpose, the reduction of the construction cost by the simplification of system and the rationalization of equipment structures becomes an important target of development. The operational condition of FBR cooling system is high temperature above 500 deg C at core exit, and low pressure below 6 kg-cm 2 g. Consequently, the effect of earthquake load in the structural strength design is relatively large, accordingly the reduction of earthquake load is effective from the viewpoint of structural rationalization. Hitachi Ltd. considered that earthquake isolation is an effective means to reduce earthquake response, and has examined the effect and feasibility of introducing earthquake isolation into FBR plants for three years from 1984. In this study, the mechanical characteristics and endurance of the system suitable to the earthquake isolation of FBRs were examined, the effect of reducing earthquake response by earthquake isolation was grasped, and the effect of plant rationalization brought about by the reduction of earthquake input was examined. The summary of these studies is shown. (Kako, I.)

  6. Structural Proteomics of Herpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Leroy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are highly prevalent viruses associated with numerous pathologies both in animal and human populations. Until now, most of the strategies used to prevent or to cure these infections have been unsuccessful because these viruses have developed numerous immune evasion mechanisms. Therefore, a better understanding of their complex lifecycle is needed. In particular, while the genome of numerous herpesviruses has been sequenced, the exact composition of virions remains unknown for most of them. Mass spectrometry has recently emerged as a central method and has permitted fundamental discoveries in virology. Here, we review mass spectrometry-based approaches that have recently allowed a better understanding of the composition of the herpesvirus virion. In particular, we describe strategies commonly used for proper sample preparation and fractionation to allow protein localization inside the particle but also to avoid contamination by nonstructural proteins. A collection of other important data regarding post-translational modifications or the relative abundance of structural proteins is also described. This review also discusses the poorly studied importance of host proteins in herpesvirus structural proteins and the necessity to develop a quantitative workflow to better understand the dynamics of the structural proteome. In the future, we hope that this collaborative effort will assist in the development of new strategies to fight these infections.

  7. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Malov, L.A.; Shilov, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  8. Radiation induced nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.M.; Kalanov, M.U.; Khakimov, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Nanometer-size silicon clusters have been attracting much attention due to their technological importance, in particular, as promising building blocks for nano electronic and nano photonic systems. Particularly, silicon wires are of great of interest since they have potential for use in one-dimensional quantum wire high-speed field effect transistors and light-emitting devices with extremely low power consumption. Carbon and metal nano structures are studied very intensely due to wide possible applications. Radiation material sciences have been dealing with sub-micron objects for a long time. Under interaction of high energy particles and ionizing radiation with solids by elastic and inelastic mechanisms, at first point defects are created, then they form clusters, column defects, disordered regions (amorphous colloids) and finally precipitates of another crystal phase in the matrix. Such irradiation induced evolution of structure defects and phase transformations was observed by X-diffraction techniques in dielectric crystals of quartz and corundum, which exist in and crystal modifications. If there is no polymorphism, like in alkali halide crystals, then due to radiolysis halogen atoms are evaporated from the surface that results in non-stoichiometry or accumulated in the pores formed by metal vacancies in the sub-surface layer. Nano-pores are created by intensive high energy particles irradiation at first chaotically and then they are ordered and in part filled by inert gas. It is well-known mechanism of radiation induced swelling and embrittlement of metals and alloys, which is undesirable for construction materials for nuclear reactors. Possible solution of this problem may come from nano-structured materials, where there is neither swelling nor embrittlement at gas absorption due to very low density of the structure, while strength keeps high. This review considers experimental observations of radiation induced nano-inclusions in insulating

  9. Aspects of hadronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the current phenomenological models of hadron structure, whose theoretical basis is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is presented. A short introduction to the QCD permits to focalize the relevant properties which are attached to those models. Following, bag-like models (in particular, MIT bag and chiral extensions) and potential-like models among them the Karl and Isgur non-relativistic model and a semi-relativistic model, free of the Klein paradox, with equal scalar-vetorial mixture of confinement potential are shortly studied. Enphasis is given to the baryons, treated, basically, as three-quarks systems. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Magnetic Structure of Erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob; Axe, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    We present a synchrotron x-ray scattering study of the magnetic phases of erbium. In addition to the magnetic scattering located at the fundamental wave vector τm we also observe scattering from magnetoelastically induced charge modulations at the fundamental wave vector, at twice the fundamental......, and at positions split symmetrically about the fundamental. As the temperature is lowered below 52 K the charge and magnetic scattering display a sequence of lock-in transitions to rational wave vectors. A spin-slip description of the magnetic structure is presented which explains the wave vectors...

  11. Risk, Resources and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng Jensen, Jesper; Ponsaing, Claus Due; Thrane, Sof

    2012-01-01

    have named Structural Risk. This effect is caused by the occurrence of a resource fluctuation which challenges the risk owner's ability to gain control of adequate resources, thus forcing the risk owner to prioritize and terminate other activities and projects. In this process value is destroyed...... to large risk events is to mitigate the consequences of the risk event through negotiating with the environment. If such negotiations fail, the subject will have no alternative but to let other activities and projects under direct control of the risk owner suffer. We end the article with conjectures...

  12. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  13. Linac 1, inner structure

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    This photo shows the inner structure of Linac 1. As injector to the PS, and later to the Booster, Linac 1 accelerated protons to 50 MeV, but it has also accelerated heavier ions. Fitted with a 520 keV RFQ pre-injector (instead of the original Cockcroft-Walton generator), it delivered protons and heavy ions to LEAR, from 1982 to 1992. After 33 years of faithful service, Linac 1 was dismantled in 1992 to make room for Linac 3 (Pb ions).

  14. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [fr

  15. Theory of convex structures

    CERN Document Server

    van de Vel, MLJ

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this monograph is the current state-of-the-art in the theory of convex structures. The notion of convexity covered here is considerably broader than the classic one; specifically, it is not restricted to the context of vector spaces. Classical concepts of order-convex sets (Birkhoff) and of geodesically convex sets (Menger) are directly inspired by intuition; they go back to the first half of this century. An axiomatic approach started to develop in the early Fifties. The author became attracted to it in the mid-Seventies, resulting in the present volume, in which graphs appear si

  16. Hydrodynamics around cylindrical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sumer, B Mutlu

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the subject of wave/current flow around a cylinder, the forces induced on the cylinder by the flow, and the vibration pattern of slender structures in a marine environment. The primary aim of the book is to describe the flow pattern and the resulting load which develops when waves or current meet a cylinder. Special attention is paid to circular cylinder. The development in the forces is related to the various flow patterns and is discussed in detail. Regular as well as irregular waves are considered, and special cases like wall proximities (pipelines) are also investigated

  17. Nuclear structure theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past ten months in the following areas of research: pion double charge exchange reactions, including a theory of the isotensor term in the pion-nucleus optical potential, and a study of meson exchange contributions to the reactions at low energies. Nuclear inelastic scattering, using quark models to calculate nuclear structure functions, and to test for sensitivity to the substructure of nucleons in nuclei. Fluctuation-free statistical spectroscopy including the theory and computer programs for interacting-particle densities, spin cutoff factors, occupancies, strength sums, and other expectation values

  18. Graphene ultracapacitors: structural impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weixin; Ji, Xiaobo; Deng, Wentao; Chen, Qiyuan; Shen, Chen; Banks, Craig E

    2013-04-07

    The structural effects of graphene on the electrochemical properties of graphene-based ultracapacitors are investigated for the first time, where the competitive impacts resulting from the edge content, specific surface area, edge/basal defects, oxygen-containing groups and metal oxides/surfactant impurities are taken into consideration, demonstrating that not one element, but all are responsible for the final behavior of graphene-based ultracapacitors. This work will be of wide importance to research producing graphene-based energy storage/generation devices.

  19. Term Structure Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbritti, M. (Mirko); Gil-Alana, L.A. (Luis A.); Lovcha, Y. (Yuliya); Moreno, A. (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    Stationary I(0) models employed in yield curve analysis typically imply an unrealistically low degree of volatility in long-run short-rate expectations due to fast mean reversion. In this paper we propose a novel multivariate affine term structure model with a two-fold source of persistence in the yield curve: Long-memory and short-memory. Our model, based on an I(d) specification, nests the I(0) and I(1) models as special cases and the I(0) model is decisively rejected by the data. Our model...

  20. Kelvin's ideal foam structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaire, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Among his many extraordinary accomplishments, Kelvin was a pioneer of crystallography, elasticity and materials science. These interests came together to inspire his speculation on the nature of the ether in 1887. He conceived it to be an ordered liquid foam, of minimal surface area. Kelvin's ideal structure of foam has been realised in the laboratory only recently. In the meantime it was surpassed (in terms of surface area minimisation) by the Weaire-Phelan foam, which is the basis for one of the main buildings of the Beijing Olympics.

  1. Work breakdown structure guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-06

    Utilization of the work breakdown structure (WBS) technique is an effective aid in managing Department of Energy (DOE) programs and projects. The technique provides a framework for project management by focusing on the products that are being developed or constructed to solve technical problems. It assists both DOE and contractors in fulfilling their management responsibilities. This document provides guidance for use of the WBS technique for product oriented work identification and definition. It is one in a series of policy and guidance documents supporting DOE's project manaagement system.

  2. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  3. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  4. Photoionization and molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, A.

    1983-01-01

    A presentation is here given of the theoretical work on photoionization and molecular structure carried out by the author and coworkers. The implications of the photoionization process on the molecular geometry are emphasized. In particular, the ionization effect on deep orbitals is considered and it is shown that, contrary to traditional thinking, these orbitals have relevant effects on the molecular geometry. The problem of calculating photoionization relative intensities for the full spectrum is also considered, and the results of the present model are compared with experimental and other theoretical results. (author)

  5. Chaos in Structural Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Awrejcewicz, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This volume introduces and reviews novel theoretical approaches to modeling strongly nonlinear behaviour of either individual or interacting structural mechanical units such as beams, plates and shells or composite systems thereof. The approach draws upon the well-established fields of bifurcation theory and chaos and emphasizes the notion of control and stability of objects and systems the evolution of which is governed by nonlinear ordinary and partial differential equations. Computational methods, in particular the Bubnov-Galerkin method, are thus described in detail.

  6. Generalized Quasiperiodic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Walter; Deloudi, Sofia

    This chapter is dedicated to the discussion of soft polymeric quasicrystals, which show dodecagonal symmetry, as well as photonic and phononic quasicrystals. On the example of transmission spectra, the characteristic features of one-, two- and three-dimensional phononic quasicrystals are illustrated. The high-symmetry of particular quasicrystals makes omnidirectional band-gaps possible even in low-contrast materials. The structures used for that purpose are the Fibonacci sequence, the octagonal tiling and the Ammann tiling. The consequences of soft and hard contrast as well as the role of resonant and Bragg scattering are discussed.

  7. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Data structures II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge

  9. Data structures I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures I includes scalar variables, arrays and records, elementary sorting, searching, linked lists, queues, and appendices of binary notation and subprogram parameter passi

  10. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  11. Conceptual structures in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Exploring fundamental research questions, Conceptual Structures in Practice takes you through the basic yet nontrivial task of establishing conceptual relations as the foundation for research in knowledge representation and knowledge mining. It includes contributions from leading researchers in both the conceptual graph and formal concept analysis (FCA) communities.This accessible, self-contained book begins by providing the formal background in FCA and conceptual graphs. It then describes various software tools for analysis and computation, including the ToscanaJ suite. Written by the origina

  12. Structure of algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, A A

    1939-01-01

    The first three chapters of this work contain an exposition of the Wedderburn structure theorems. Chapter IV contains the theory of the commutator subalgebra of a simple subalgebra of a normal simple algebra, the study of automorphisms of a simple algebra, splitting fields, and the index reduction factor theory. The fifth chapter contains the foundation of the theory of crossed products and of their special case, cyclic algebras. The theory of exponents is derived there as well as the consequent factorization of normal division algebras into direct factors of prime-power degree. Chapter VI con

  13. Structural Emergency Control Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    demand and hopefully stabilize the system. This traditional emergency control results in interrupted service with severe economic damage to customers. Also, such control is usually less effective due to the lack of coordination among protective devices. In this paper, we propose a novel structural......Power grids normally operate at some stable operating condition where power supply and demand are balanced. In response to emergency situations, load shedding is a prevailing approach where local protective devices are activated to cut a suitable amount of load to quickly rebalance the supply...

  14. Plasmodesmata: Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Geydan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata are channels that transverse the cell wall and membrane. These specialized and non passive channels act like gates that facilitate and regulate both communication and transportation of molecules such as water, nutrients, metabolites and macromolecules between plant cells. In the last decade a new point of view of plasmodesmata has emerged, and studies have  demonstrated that these channels are more complex. In this brief note, we pretend to expose the actual knowledge of plasmodesmata, focusing on their structure and function.

  15. Structural Optimization with Reliability Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1986-01-01

    During the last 25 years considerable progress has been made in the fields of structural optimization and structural reliability theory. In classical deterministic structural optimization all variables are assumed to be deterministic. Due to the unpredictability of loads and strengths of actual...... structures it is now widely accepted that structural problems are non-deterministic. Therefore, some of the variables have to be modelled as random variables/processes and a reliability-based design philosophy should be used, Comell [1], Moses [2], Ditlevsen [3] and Thoft-Christensen & Baker [ 4......]. In this paper we consider only structures which can be modelled as systems of elasto-plastic elements, e.g. frame and truss structures. In section 2 a method to evaluate the reliability of such structural systems is presented. Based on a probabilistic point of view a modern structural optimization problem...

  16. Structural Health Monitoring: Numerical Damage Predictor for Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lannamann, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    .... Wide use of composites is found in aircraft, armored vehicles, ships and civil structures This present research demonstrates the ability to numerically detect damage in a composite sandwich structure...

  17. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  18. Investigations of Nuclear Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, Demetrios [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Reviol, W. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The proposal addresses studies of nuclear structure at low-energies and development of instrumentation for that purpose. The structure studies deal with features of neutron-rich nuclei with unexplored shapes (football- or pear-shaped nuclei). The regions of interest are: neutron rich nuclei like 132-138Sn, or 48-54Ca, and the Zr, Mo, and Ru isotopes. The tools used can be grouped as follows: either Gammasphere or Gretina multi-gamma detector arrays and auxiliary detectors (Microball, Neutron Shell, and the newly completed Phoswich Wall).The neutron-rich nuclei are accessed by radioactive-beam binary reactions or by 252Cf spontaneous fission. The experiments with heavy radioactive beams aim at exciting the beam nuclei by pick-up or transfer a neutron or a proton from a light target like 13C, 9Be, 11B or 14N .For these binary-reaction studies the Phoswich Wall detector system is essential. It is based on four multi-anode photomultiplier tubes on which CsI and thin fast-timing plastic scintillators are attached. Their signals are digitized with a high density microchip system.

  19. Structured Pyramidal Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Alessandra M; Fernandes, Bruno J T; Bastos-Filho, Carmelo J A

    2017-02-09

    The Pyramidal Neural Networks (PNN) are an example of a successful recently proposed model inspired by the human visual system and deep learning theory. PNNs are applied to computer vision and based on the concept of receptive fields. This paper proposes a variation of PNN, named here as Structured Pyramidal Neural Network (SPNN). SPNN has self-adaptive variable receptive fields, while the original PNNs rely on the same size for the fields of all neurons, which limits the model since it is not possible to put more computing resources in a particular region of the image. Another limitation of the original approach is the need to define values for a reasonable number of parameters, which can turn difficult the application of PNNs in contexts in which the user does not have experience. On the other hand, SPNN has a fewer number of parameters. Its structure is determined using a novel method with Delaunay Triangulation and k-means clustering. SPNN achieved better results than PNNs and similar performance when compared to Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), but using lower memory capacity and processing time.

  20. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  1. Structural Pain Compensating Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. Designers must design the aircraft structure and the control architecture to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to build the structure with high margins, restrict control surface commands to known good combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage.

  2. Combinatorics of γ-Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Hillary Siwei; Li, Thomas Jiaxian; reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    to $\\gamma$, where composition means concatenation and nesting of such blocks. Our main result is the derivation of the generating function of $\\gamma$-structures via symbolic enumeration. $\\gamma$-structures are constructed via $\\gamma$-matchings. We compute an algebraic equation for the generating function......In this paper we study canonical $\\gamma$-structures, a class of RNA pseudoknot structures that plays a key role in the context of polynomial time folding of RNA pseudoknot structures. A $\\gamma$-structure is composed by specific building blocks, that have topological genus less than or equal...... of these matchings and prove that it is the unique solution. For $\\gamma=1$ and $\\gamma=2$ we compute the Puiseux-expansion of this power series at its unique, dominant singularity. This allows us to derive simple asymptotic formulas for the number of 1-structures and 2-structures....

  3. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on

  4. Dictionary of forest structural terminology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report lists and defines attributes (both functional and structural) that have been used in other structural classifications of forest vegetation. Field techniques are summarized. The recommended use of each attribute and technique is presented...

  5. Integrated materials–structural models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    of structural modelling and materials concepts will both operational in both identifying important research issues and in answering the ‘real’ needs of society. Integrated materials-structural models will allow synergy to develop between materials and structural research. On one side the structural modelling......Reliable service life models for load carrying structures are significant elements in the evaluation of the performance and sustainability of existing and new structures. Furthermore, reliable service life models are prerequisites for the evaluation of the sustainability of maintenance strategies...... should define a framework in which materials research results eventually should fit in and on the other side the materials research should define needs and capabilities in structural modelling. Integrated materials-structural models of a general nature are almost non-existent in the field of cement based...

  6. Ownership Structure in Agrifood Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); W.J.J. Bijman (Jos)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses the impact of ownership structure on investments in a three-party supply chain from an incomplete contracting perspective. Circumstances are determined in which a marketing cooperative is the unique first-best ownership structure.

  7. The structure of expanding metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.; Hensel, F.; Bodensteiner, T.; Glaeser, W.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid metal structure is investigated by neutron diffraction up to 2000 K and 200 bar by determining the structure factor SCQJ for liquid cesium and rubidium. The rather complicated experimental equipment is described. (BHO)

  8. Structural Nervous System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL's SNS technology aids in the operation of new or existing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems by integrating data and power pathways into the structure....

  9. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  10. System Reliability of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    For reduction of the risk of collapse in the event of loss of structural element(s), a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design a collapse-resistant structure that is insensitive to accidental circumstances e.g. by incorporating characteristics like redundancy, ties, ductility, key ...... elements, alternate load path(s) etc. in the structural design. In general these characteristics can have a positive influence on system reliability of a structure however, in Eurocodes ductility is only awarded for concrete and steel structures but not for timber structures. It is well......-called statical system effect, will usually increase the reliability of the whole structural system and give an extra safety margin compared to the deterministic code results. The aim of this fact sheet is to outline the relationship between system reliability and the characteristics ductility and redundancy....

  11. Theory of spiral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The density wave theory of galactic spirals has now developed into a form suitable for consideration by experts in Applied Mechanics. On the one hand, comparison of theoretical deductions with observational data has convinced astrophysicists of the validity of the basic physical picture and the calculated results. On the other hand, the dynamical problems of a stellar system, such as those concerning the origin of spiral structure in galaxies, have not been completely solved. This paper reviews the current status of such developments, including a brief summary of comparison with observations. A particularly important mechanism, currently called the mechanism of energy exchange, is described in some detail. The mathematical problems and the physical processes involved are similar to those occurring in certain instability mechanisms in the 'magnetic bottle' designed for plasma containment. Speculations are given on the future developments of the theory and on observational programs. (Auth.)

  12. Evolution of energy structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2005-01-01

    Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution. For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since 1973, the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis (IIASA) are discussed. (J.S.)

  13. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  14. Structured Analysis - IDEF0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    This note introduces the IDEF0 modelling language (semantics and syntax), and associated rules and techniques, for developing structured graphical representations of a system or enterprise. Use of this standard for IDEF0 permits the construction of models comprising system functions (activities...... that require a modelling technique for the analysis, development, re-engineering, integration, or acquisition of information systems; and incorporate a systems or enterprise modelling technique into a business process analysis or software engineering methodology.This note is a summary of the Standard...... for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0). I.e. the Draft Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 183, 1993, December 21, Announcing the Standard for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0)....

  15. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Potato starch granules consist primarily of two tightly packed polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which amount for 20-30%, is the principal linear component, but a fraction is in fact slightly branched. Amylopectin is typically the major component and is extensively branched......, containing short chains with an average length of 22-25 glucosyl residues. The branching pattern is not well known, but branch point clustering guides chains to determine the overall starch granule architecture and starch functionality. The clusters consist of 5-10 grouped short chains, which...... are interconnected by long chains with more than 36 residues. The clusters consist of still smaller, very tightly branched building blocks. The clusters direct the semicrystalline structures found inside the starch granules. The crystals, which are ~5.2. nm thick, contain double helices formed from the external...

  16. Structure of Bulat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Urtsev, V. N.; Shmakov, A. V.; Degtyarev, V. N.; Nakonechnyi, A. Ya.; Mokshin, E. D.; Yakovleva, I. L.

    2013-07-01

    Results of a chemical analysis of the metal of three antique blades are given, which, based on their chemical composition and the presence of patterns on their surface, can be classified as bulat arms. Alloys that contain 1.5-3.46% carbon have been melted, from which plates with a bulat pattern have been fabricated. The micro- and macrostructure of seven alloys containing 2.4-3.48% C have been studied in detail. The microhard-ness of the structural constituents of these alloys has been determined; the tensile stress-strain diagram of the alloy with 3.02% C has been constructed. The results obtained are compared with P.P. Anosov's data on bulats.

  17. High temperature structural silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi 2 -based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi 2 single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi 2 possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi 2 -Si 3 N 4 composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing

  18. Structure of sump pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Kaneo; Takahashi, Yukichi; Suzuki, Kunihiko.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a sump pit of a structure wherein the leaks of liquid wastes or underwater out of a sump pit storing radioactive liquid wastes can be readily detected. Constitution: A concrete pit is provided with a gap, in which a protective vessel is housed and installed. Furthermore, the protective vessel is provided at its inner side with a gap, in which a liquid waste storage container is installed. In the gap between the liquid waste storage container and the protective vessel there is provided a liquid waste leak detecting electrode. In a case where storage fails due to earthquake, corrosion or the like and the liquid wastes leak, the leak detecting electrode comes into contact with the liquid wastes, and detects the leak thereof. Furthermore, a detecting tube is installed in the gap between the concrete pit and the protective vessel thereby detecting the ingress of underwater. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Introduction to stellar structure

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, Walter J

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of this book, the author presents the basic properties of the stellar interior and describes them thoroughly, along with deriving the main stellar structure equations of temperature, density, pressure and luminosity, among others. The process and application of solving these equations is explained, as well as linking these results with actual observations.  The second part of the text describes what happens to a star over time, and how to determine this by solving the same equations at different points during a star’s lifetime. The fate of various stars is quite different depending on their masses, and this is described in the final parts of the book. This text can be used for an upper level undergraduate course or an introductory graduate course on stellar physics.

  20. Structural disorder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, P.K.; Vaid, B.A.; Sharma, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The structure disorder model, recently proposed to explain the thermodynamic properties near the transition of first order, is generalized to include the pressure-induced transitions in tetrahedrally coordinated tin and A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ compounds (with N = 2, 3). For Sn the calculated values of the change in thermodynamic quantities during the transition are found to be closer to the experimental values. For A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ compounds, the transition is explained in a satisfactory manner in terms of partial ionic bonds and covalent bonds. The change in compressibility near the transition is found to be in agreement with that obtained from experiments. (author)

  1. Structural color in Myxomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaussandague, Marina; Skigin, Diana; Carmaran, Cecilia; Rosenfeldt, Sonia

    2010-07-19

    In this paper we report evidence of structural color in Myxomycetes, a group of eukaryotic microorganisms with an uncertain taxonomic position. We investigated the Diachea leucopoda, which belongs to the Physarales order, Myxomycetes class, and found that its peridium -protective layer that encloses the mass of spores- is basically a corrugated layer of a transparent material, which produces a multicolored pointillistic effect, characteristic of this species. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy techniques have been employed to characterize the samples. A simple optical model of a planar slab is proposed to calculate the reflectance. The chromaticity coordinates are obtained, and the results confirm that the color observed is a result of an interference effect.

  2. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  3. Solid hydrogen structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W.; Unites, W.G.; Mapoles, E.R.; Magnotta, F.; Bernat, T.P.

    1994-11-01

    The J=0->2 Raman signal from solid J=0 D 2 or H 2 reveals HCP structure when deposited at a rate 0.1 ≤ R(μ/min) ≤ 40 onto MgF 2 at T d /T tp > 0.3, a mixture of HCP and FCC crystals at 0.2 d /T tp d /T tp tp is the triple point temperature. Non-HCP crystals transform to HCP continuously and irreversibly with increasing T. Finally, the crystal size decreases with decreasing T d and increasing R, from ∼ 1 mm at T d ∼ 0.8 T tp and R ∼ 2 μ/min to ∼ 1 μm at 0.25 T tp and R ∼ 40 μ/min

  4. Heterotic vacuum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmrigk, R.

    1989-01-01

    The vacuum structure of the Heterotic String is investigated. Methods from fleld theory and critical systems are being used to map out part of the moduli space of the (2,2)-configuration space of the Heterotic String. This configuration space breaks up into different Multidimensional spaces, each leading to a different physical particle spectrum. After explicitly constructing parts of the subspace of all (2,2)-vacua corresponding to complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds and tensor models of the N = 2 superconformal discrete minimal series, the spectrum of these models is computed and a search for phenomenological viable models is conducted. It turns out that there are only very few such models. In the second part of the thesis the construction of a new threegeneration model is explained and a detailed phenomenological analysis is presented

  5. Structure of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, C.K.

    1974-01-01

    Structure of neutron stars consisting of a cold and catalyzed superdense matter were investigated by integrating the equations for hydrostatic equilibrium based on the General Relativity theory. The equations of state were obtained with the help of semiempirical nuclear mass formulae. A large phase transition was found between the nuclear and subnuclear density regions. The density phase transition points were calculated as 6.2 x 10 11 and 3.8 x 10 13 g/cm 3 . Due to such a large phase transition, the equation of state practically consists of two parts: The nuclear and subnuclear phases wich are in contact under the thermodynamical equilibrium at the corresponding pressure. Some macroscopic properties of neutron stars are discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Structural violence and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2005-08-01

    Despite clear evidence of a substantial biological basis to schizophrenia, there is also evidence that social, economic and political factors have considerable relevance to the clinical features, treatment and outcome of the illness. Individuals from lower socio-economic groups have an earlier age at first presentation and longer durations of untreated illness, both of which are associated with poor outcome. Individuals with schizophrenia are over-represented in the homeless population. Migration is associated with increased rates of mental illness, including schizophrenia, and this relationship appears to be mediated by psycho-social factors, including difficulties establishing social capital in smaller migrant groups. Individuals with schizophrenia are substantially over-represented amongst prison populations, and imprisonment increases the disability and stigma associated with mental illness, and impedes long-term recovery. The adverse effects of these social, economic and societal factors, along with the social stigma of mental illness, constitute a form of 'structural violence' which impairs access to psychiatric and social services and amplifies the effects of schizophrenia in the lives of sufferers. As a result of these over-arching social and economic factors, many individuals with schizophrenia are systematically excluded from full participation in civic and social life, and are constrained to live lives that are shaped by stigma, isolation, homelessness and denial of rights. There are urgent needs for (1) the development of enhanced aetiological models of schizophrenia, which elucidate the interactions between genetic risk and social environment, and can better inform bio-psycho-social approaches to treatment; (2) a renewal of emphasis on the United Nations' "Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness" and related legislative measures in individual countries; and (3) continued study and examination of the impact of social, economic and

  7. ITER containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakov, S.; Fauser, F.; Nelson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the results and recommendations of the Containment Structures Design Unit (CSDU) on the containment structures for ITER, made in the context of the Conceptual Design Phase. The document describes the following subsystems: (1) the primary vacuum vessel (VV), (2) the attaching locks (AL) of the invessel components, (3) the plasma passive and active stabilizers, (4) the cryostat vessel, and (5) the machine gravity supports. Although for most components reference designs were selected, for some of these alternative design options were described, because unresolved problems necessitate further research and development. Conclusions and future needs are summarized for each of the above subsystems: (1) a reference VV design was selected, while most critical VV future needs are the feasibility studies of manufacturing, assembly, and the repair/disassembly/reassembly by remote handling. Alternative, thin-wall options appear attractive and should be studied further during the Engineering Design Activities; (2) no reference design solution was selected for the AL system, as AL design requirements are extremely difficult and internally contradictory, while there is no existing tokamak precedent, but instead, five different approaches will be further researched early in the Engineering Design Phase; (3) significant progress is reported on passive loops, for which the ''twin-loops'' concept is ready to be advanced into the Engineering Design Phase, and on active coils, where a new coil positioning prevents interference with the blanket removal paths, and the current joints are located in a secondary vacuum or in the atmosphere of the reactor hall, repairable by remote handling; (4) a full metallic welded cryostat design with increased toroidal resistance was chosen, but with a design based on concrete with a thin inner metallic liner as a back-up in case detailed nuclear shielding requirements would force the cryostat to act as biological shield; (5) out

  8. Fertile Soil for Structural Funds?

    OpenAIRE

    Sjef Ederveen; Henri L.F. de Groot; Richard Nahuis

    2002-01-01

    Structural funds are the most intensively used policy instrument by the EuropeanUnion to promote economic growth in its member states and to speed up the process ofconvergence. This paper empirically explores the effectiveness of European Structural Fundsby means of a panel data analysis for 13 countries in the European Union. We show that – onaverage – Structural Funds are ineffective. For countries with the ‘right’ institutions,however, Structural Funds are effective. The latter result is o...

  9. The Economics of Structured Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Coval; Jakub Jurek; Erik Stafford

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the spectacular rise and fall of structured finance. The essence of structured finance activities is the pooling of economic assets like loans, bonds, and mortgages, and the subsequent issuance of a prioritized capital structure of claims, known as tranches, against these collateral pools. As a result of the prioritization scheme used in structuring claims, many of the manufactured tranches are far safer than the average asset in the underlying pool. This ability of st...

  10. Improving RNA secondary structure prediction with structure mapping data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Michael F; Mathews, David H

    2015-01-01

    Methods to probe RNA secondary structure, such as small molecule modifying agents, secondary structure-specific nucleases, inline probing, and SHAPE chemistry, are widely used to study the structure of functional RNA. Computational secondary structure prediction programs can incorporate probing data to predict structure with high accuracy. In this chapter, an overview of current methods for probing RNA secondary structure is provided, including modern high-throughput methods. Methods for guiding secondary structure prediction algorithms using these data are explained, and best practices for using these data are provided. This chapter concludes by listing a number of open questions about how to best use probing data, and what these data can provide. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Structural Health Monitoring of Slender Structures Using Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Paulo; Travanca, Rui; Rodrigues, Hugo; Melo, José; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto; André, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the research activities at the Instituto de Telecomunicações—Pólo de Aveiro and University of Aveiro, in the field of fiber Bragg grating based sensors and their applications in dynamic measurements for Structural Health Monitoring of slender structures such as towers. In this work we describe the implementation of an optical biaxial accelerometer based on fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on optical fibers. The proof-of-concept was done with the dynamic monitoring of a reinforced concrete structure and a slender metallic telecommunication tower. Those structures were found to be suitable to demonstrate the feasibility of FBG accelerometers to obtain the structures' natural frequencies, which are the key parameters in Structural Health Monitoring and in the calibration of numerical models used to simulate the structure behavior. PMID:22778661

  12. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  13. Structure function measurements from HERA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structure function measurements from HERA. A MEHTA. Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool University, Liverpool, L69 7ZR, UK. Abstract. In this paper recent measurements of structure functions from the HERA Collaborations are presented. Keywords. Structure functions; HERA; F2; F3; FL. PACS No.

  14. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2nd Int. Modal Analysis Conference (Orlando) 2: 930±936. Natke H G (ed.) 1982 Identification of vibrating structures (New York: Springer Verlag, Wein). Rao S S 1989 Optimum design of structures under shock and vibration environment. Shock Vibr. Dig. 21(7):. Ravi S S A 1994 Structural dynamic modifications and design ...

  15. Organizational Structure and Teacher Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklos, Erwin

    Two major approaches to the analysis of the organizational structure of schools are described. The rational approach focuses on characteristics that are bureaucratic and relate to the hierarchical exercise of authority. The natural-system approach focuses on the social structure and attempts to identify the power structure through analyses of…

  16. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    test or a 'fingerprint' of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for. ½. O+ ѕј. Pb, using the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method and correct structure information, have been analysed.

  17. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of structural dynamic optimization techniques. A review of structural optimization in vibratory environments is given by Rao (1989). 2. SDM techniques. SDM methods may be broadly divided into two groups. Those which employ a model of the structure and those that use dynamic test data directly. The model used by the ...

  18. STRUCTURAL ENZYMOLOGY OF POLYKETIDE SYNTHASES

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shiou-Chuan (Sheryl); Ames, Brian Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes structural and associated enzymological studies of polyketide synthases, including isolated single domains and multidomain fragments. The sequence–structure–function relationship of polyketide biosynthesis, compared with homologous fatty acid synthesis, is discussed in detail. Structural enzymology sheds light on sequence and structural motifs that are important for the precise timing, substrate recognition, enzyme catalysis, and protein–protein interactions leading to ...

  19. Structural image and video understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we have discussed how to exploit the structures in several computer vision topics. The five chapters addressed five computer vision topics using the image structures. In chapter 2, we proposed a structural model to jointly predict the age, expression and gender of a face. By modeling

  20. The science of food structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food structuring is discussed from the viewpoints of soft matter physics and molecular gastronomy. Food is one of the most complex types of soft matter, with multiple dispersed phases and even hierarchical structure. Food structuring seems to be a kind of art, comprising a careful balance between

  1. Characterization of Injection Molded Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    and limitations. Therefore, it would be difficult to characterize complex, especially hierarchical structures by using only one method. Here we present a combined optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning probe microscopy study on injection molded structures. These structures are used......-properties relationship of the injection molded polymer samples. These results are very important in optimizing injection molding parameters....

  2. RNA Structural Alignments, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous alignment and secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences is often referred to as "RNA structural alignment." A class of the methods for structural alignment is based on the principles proposed by Sankoff more than 25 years ago. The Sankoff algorithm simultaneously folds and aligns...

  3. Structural rehabilitation of old buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, João; Varum, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The present book describes the different construction systems and structural materials and solutions within the main old buildings typologies, and it analyses the particularities of each of them, including mechanical properties, structural behaviour, typical damage patterns and collapse mechanisms. Common or pioneering intervention measures to repair and/or strengthen some of these structural elements are also reviewed.

  4. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are ...

  5. Perspectival Structure and Vestibular Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh

    2016-01-01

    I begin by contrasting a taxonomic approach to the vestibular system with the structural approach I take in the bulk of this commentary. I provide an analysis of perspectival structure. Employing that analysis and following the structural approach, I propose three lines of empirical investigation...

  6. Structural diversity of ABC transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Beek, Josy; Guskov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a large superfamily of ATP-dependent protein complexes that mediate transport of a vast array of substrates across membranes. The 14 currently available structures of ABC transporters have greatly advanced insight into the transport mechanism and revealed a tremendous structural diversity. Whereas the domains that hydrolyze ATP are structurally related in all ABC transporters, the membrane-embedded domains, where the substrates are translocated, adopt four different unrelated folds. Here, we review the structural characteristics of ABC transporters and discuss the implications of this structural diversity for mechanistic diversity. PMID:24638992

  7. Foam rigidized inflatable structural assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L. (Inventor); Schnell, Andrew R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An inflatable and rigidizable structure for use as a habitat or a load bearing structure is disclosed. The structure consists of an outer wall and an inner wall defining a containment member and a bladder. The bladder is pressurized to erect the structure from an initially collapsed state. The containment member is subsequently injected with rigidizable fluid through an arrangement of injection ports. Exhaust gases from the curing rigidizable fluid are vented through an arrangement of exhaust ports. The rate of erection can be controlled by frictional engagement with a container or by using a tether. A method for fabricating a tubular structure is disclosed.

  8. Offshore structure and installation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, J.W.

    1992-12-23

    An offshore structure particularly for use in arctic environments, and a method for installing this structure comprises a shield portion which rests on a seabed and primarily resists environmental loads, such as from ice, and a separate support portion which comprises a plurality of piles driven into the seabed to support a deck payload. The method for installing the structure comprises moving a shield portion of the structure to its intended location with piles pre-installed therein; setting the structure on the seabed; driving the piles into the seabed; and then severing any connection between the piles and the shield portion. (Author)

  9. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of a Norwegian sports arena with a structural system of glulam frames. The robustness evaluation is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling...... of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...

  10. A Molecular–Structure Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. A. Boeyens

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The self-similar symmetry that occurs between atomic nuclei, biological growth structures, the solar system, globular clusters and spiral galaxies suggests that a similar pattern should characterize atomic and molecular structures. This possibility is explored in terms of the current molecular structure-hypothesis and its extension into four-dimensional space-time. It is concluded that a quantum molecule only has structure in four dimensions and that classical (Newtonian structure, which occurs in three dimensions, cannot be simulated by quantum-chemical computation.

  11. Structural Sustainability - Heuristic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostański, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, we are faced with a challenge of having to join building structures with elements of nature, which seems to be the paradigm of modern planning and design. The questions arise, however, with reference to the following categories: the leading idea, the relation between elements of nature and buildings, the features of a structure combining such elements and, finally, our perception of this structure. If we consider both the overwhelming globalization and our attempts to preserve local values, the only reasonable solution is to develop naturalistic greenery. It can add its uniqueness to any building and to any developed area. Our holistic model, presented in this paper, contains the above mentioned categories within the scope of naturalism. The model is divided into principles, actions related, and possible effects to be obtained. It provides a useful tool for determining the ways and priorities of our design. Although it is not possible to consider all possible actions and solutions in order to support sustainability in any particular design, we can choose, however, a proper mode for our design according to the local conditions by turning to the heuristic method, which helps to choose priorities and targets. Our approach is an attempt to follow the ways of nature as in the natural environment it is optimal solutions that appear and survive, idealism being the domain of mankind only. We try to describe various natural processes in a manner comprehensible to us, which is always a generalization. Such definitions, however, called artificial by naturalists, are presented as art or the current state of knowledge by artists and engineers. Reality, in fact, is always more complicated than its definitions. The heuristic method demonstrates the way how to optimize our design. It requires that all possible information about the local environment should be gathered, as the more is known, the fewer mistakes are made. Following the unquestionable principles, we can

  12. Recurrent Structural Motifs in Non-Homologous Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guex

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have extracted an extensive collection of recurrent structural motifs (RSMs, which consist of sequentially non-contiguous structural motifs (4–6 residues, each of which appears with very similar conformation in three or more mutually unrelated protein structures. We find that the proteins in our set are covered to a substantial extent by the recurrent non-contiguous structural motifs, especially the helix and strand regions. Computational alanine scanning calculations indicate that the average folding free energy changes upon alanine mutation for most types of non-alanine residues are higher for amino acids that are present in recurrent structural motifs than for amino acids that are not. The non-alanine amino acids that are most common in the recurrent structural motifs, i.e., phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine and tyrosine and the less abundant methionine and tryptophan, have the largest folding free energy changes. This indicates that the recurrent structural motifs, as we define them, describe recurrent structural patterns that are important for protein stability. In view of their properties, such structural motifs are potentially useful for inter-residue contact prediction and protein structure refinement.

  13. Concrete structures. Contribution to the safety assessment of existing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COUTO

    Full Text Available The safety evaluation of an existing concrete structure differs from the design of new structures. The partial safety factors for actions and resistances adopted in the design phase consider uncertainties and inaccuracies related to the building processes of structures, variability of materials strength and numerical approximations of the calculation and design processes. However, when analyzing a finished structure, a large number of unknown factors during the design stage are already defined and can be measured, which justifies a change in the increasing factors of the actions or reduction factors of resistances. Therefore, it is understood that safety assessment in existing structures is more complex than introducing security when designing a new structure, because it requires inspection, testing, analysis and careful diagnose. Strong knowledge and security concepts in structural engineering are needed, as well as knowledge about the materials of construction employed, in order to identify, control and properly consider the variability of actions and resistances in the structure. With the intention of discussing this topic considered complex and diffuse, this paper presents an introduction to the safety of concrete structures, a synthesis of the recommended procedures by Brazilian standards and another codes, associated with the topic, as well a realistic example of the safety assessment of an existing structure.

  14. Solution structure of human prolactin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Hoch, Jeffrey C; Goffin, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    We report the solution structure of human prolactin determined by NMR spectroscopy. Our result is a significant improvement over a previous structure in terms of number and distribution of distance restraints, regularity of secondary structure, and potential energy. More significantly, the struct......We report the solution structure of human prolactin determined by NMR spectroscopy. Our result is a significant improvement over a previous structure in terms of number and distribution of distance restraints, regularity of secondary structure, and potential energy. More significantly......, the structure is sufficiently different that it leads to different conclusions regarding the mechanism of receptor activation and initiation of signal transduction. Here, we compare the structure of unbound prolactin to structures of both the homologue ovine placental lactogen and growth hormone. The structures...... of unbound and receptor bound prolactin/placental lactogen are similar and no noteworthy structural changes occur upon receptor binding. The observation of enhanced binding at the second receptor site when the first site is occupied has been widely interpreted to indicate conformational change induced...

  15. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...

  16. Dirac structures on Hilbert spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parsian

    1999-01-01

    shown that Dirac structures on H are in one-to-one correspondence with isometries on H, and, any two Dirac structures are isometric. It is, also, proved that any Dirac structure on a smooth manifold in the sense of [1] yields a Dirac structure on some Hilbert space. The graph of any densely defined skew symmetric linear operator on a Hilbert space is, also, shown to be a Dirac structure. For a Dirac structure L on H, every z∈H is uniquely decomposed as z=p1(l+p2(l for some l∈L, where p1 and p2 are projections. When p1(L is closed, for any Hilbert subspace W⊂H, an induced Dirac structure on W is introduced. The latter concept has also been generalized.

  17. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed.......This thesis is a study of plate shell structures -- a type of shell structure with a piecewise plane geometry, organized so that the load bearing system is constituted by distributed in-plane forces in the facets. The high stiffness-to-weight ratio of smoothly curved shell structures is mainly due...

  18. RHYTHM STRUCTURE IN NEWS READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Mas Manchón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm is central to news reading in radio and television programs. This paper proposes a three level structure for rhythm in news discourse. It gives a comprehensive definition of rhythm and types of rhythm. Firstly, the Base Rhythm Structure consists of semantic and pragmatic rhythmic accents, coincident with very specific words. Secondly, these accents are grouped together according to type, frequency and order, thereby configuring three types of “rhythmic units” (the Internal Rhythm Structure: starting, main and end units. A last structure level presents four discursive factors that are very important in integrating the overall time structure of news announcing (the Melodic Rhythm Structure. This integral structure for news announcing rhythm should be further tested in acoustic-experimental studies under the criterion of information transmission efficacy.

  19. Oscillating water column structural model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  20. Structural biology at York Structural Biology Laboratory; laboratory information management systems for structural genomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnálek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2005), s. 3 ISSN 1211-5894. [Meeting of Structural Biologists /4./. 10.03.2005-12.03.2005, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1K05008 Keywords : structural biology * LIMS * structural genomics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  1. Actinide structural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, N.W.; Flanders, D.J.; Brown, D.

    1985-01-01

    The crystal structures of the title compounds, [MO 2 (bipy)(NO 3 ) 2 ] [M = U (1) or Np (2)] and [MO 2 (bipy)(CH 3 COO) 2 ] [M = U (3) or Np (4)] (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) have been determined using X-ray diffraction techniques. Complexes (1) and (2) are isomorphous and isostructural crystallising in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c; (3) and (4) are also isomorphous and isostructural, crystallising in the monoclinic system, space group P2 1 /n. All four complexes exhibit hexagonal-bipyramidal co-ordination about the central metal atom. Values are presented for the following: the M-O bond lengths in the MO 2 2+ cations; the M-O distances in the bidentate oxy-anions; and the M-N distances for the bidentate 2,2'-pyridyl group. The anomalous increase in the M-N distance between complexes (3) and (4) is attributed to overcrowding around the NpO 2 2+ ion. (U.K.)

  2. The structure of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Von Weizsäcker, Carl Friedrich; Lyre, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker‘s "Aufbau der Physik", first published in 1985, was intended as an overview of his lifelong concern: an understanding of the unity of physics. That is, the idea of a quantum theory of binary alternatives (the so-called ur-theory), a unified quantum theoretical framework in which spinorial symmetry groups are considered to give rise to the structure of space and time. The book saw numerous reprints, but it was published in German only. The present edition, in English, provides a newly arranged and revised version, in which some original chapters and sections have been deleted, and a new chapter about further insights and results of ur-theoretic research of the late 1980’s and 1990’s, mainly by the work of Thomas Görnitz, has been included, as well as a general introduction to Weizsäcker’s Philosophy of Physics. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker also enjoys high esteem by a much broader audience for his socio-cultural, political and religious thoughts and writings. In him t...

  3. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  4. Scaling of structural failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  5. Solar structure without computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    We derive succinctly the equations of solar structure. We first present models of objects in hydrostatic equilibrium that fail as models of the sun in order to illustrate important physical requirements. Then by arguing physically that the pressure gradient can be matched to the simple function dP/dr = -kre/sup( -r//a) 2 , we derive a complete analytic representation of the solar interior in terms of a one-parameter family of models. Two different conditions are then used to select the appropriate value of the parameter specifying the best model within the family: (1) the solar luminosity is equated to the thermonuclear power generated near the center and/or (2) the solar luminosity is equated to the radiative diffusion of energy from a central region. The two methods of selecting the parameter agree to within a few percent. The central conditions of the sun are well calculated by these analytic formulas, all without aid of a computer. This is an original treatment, yielding much the best description of the solar center to be found by methods of differential and integral calculus, rendering it an excellent laboratory for applied calculus

  6. ECONGAS - model structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a numerical simulation model of the natural gas market in Germany, France, the Netherlands and Belgium. It is a part of a project called ''Internationalization and structural change in the gas market'' aiming to enhance the understanding of the factors behind the current and upcoming changes in the European gas market, especially the downstream part of the gas chain. The model takes European border prices of gas as given, adds transmission and distribution cost and profit margins as well as gas taxes to calculate gas prices. The model includes demand sub-models for households, chemical industry, other industry, the commercial sector and electricity generation. Demand responses to price changes are assumed to take time, and the long run effects are significantly larger than the short run effects. For the household sector and the electricity sector, the dynamics are modeled by distinguishing between energy use in the old and new capital stock. In addition to prices and the activity level (GDP), the model includes the extension of the gas network as a potentially important variable in explaining the development of gas demand. The properties of numerical simulation models are often described by dynamic multipliers, which describe the behaviour of important variables when key explanatory variables are changed. At the end, the report shows the results of a model experiment where the costs in transmission and distribution were reduced. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  7. North Atlantic Energy Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Derradji, A. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2005-07-01

    North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc. is in the process of designing a tidal fence for a site near the Straits of Belle Isle. This presentation provided details of both the design and the location in which the wave energy plant will be installed. Design constraints included a short seasonal work window, and a harsh but pristine environment. Design specifications of the paddlewheels and caissons were presented. The paddlewheel is iceberg and slab ice resistant, and has portals below the wheel axis, a water-free upper chamber, and bi-directional power generation. The planned installation sequence was presented, as well as details of a hydrodynamic simulation examining torque on the turbines in the tidal energy chamber. Results of the study indicated that 20 paddlewheels per caisson provided the equivalent of 12 MW of energy. A tidal fence of 70 to 80 caissons provided the equivalent of 1.2 GW of energy. A slab ice simulation study was outlined, and details of the pumping station, inlet and hydro-generation station were provided. A map of the proposed siting of the tidal fence was presented. It was concluded that financing for the pilot project has been granted. However, further financing for research and development is required. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. ECONGAS - model structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report documents a numerical simulation model of the natural gas market in Germany, France, the Netherlands and Belgium. It is a part of a project called ``Internationalization and structural change in the gas market`` aiming to enhance the understanding of the factors behind the current and upcoming changes in the European gas market, especially the downstream part of the gas chain. The model takes European border prices of gas as given, adds transmission and distribution cost and profit margins as well as gas taxes to calculate gas prices. The model includes demand sub-models for households, chemical industry, other industry, the commercial sector and electricity generation. Demand responses to price changes are assumed to take time, and the long run effects are significantly larger than the short run effects. For the household sector and the electricity sector, the dynamics are modeled by distinguishing between energy use in the old and new capital stock. In addition to prices and the activity level (GDP), the model includes the extension of the gas network as a potentially important variable in explaining the development of gas demand. The properties of numerical simulation models are often described by dynamic multipliers, which describe the behaviour of important variables when key explanatory variables are changed. At the end, the report shows the results of a model experiment where the costs in transmission and distribution were reduced. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Structural design by CAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Shim, Jae Ku; Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Kyu Sup; Choi, In Kil; Lee, Dong Yong

    1988-12-01

    CAD systems are now widely used for the design of many engineering problems involving static, dynamic and thermal stress analyses of structures. In order to apply CAD systems to the structural analysis and design, the function of hardwares and softwares necessary for the CAD systems must be understood. The purpose of this study is to introduce the basic elements that are indispensible in the application of CAD systems to the analysis and design of structures and to give a thorough understanding of CAD systems to design engineers, so as to participate in the further technological developments of CAD systems. Due to the complexity and variety of the shape and size of the nowa-days structures, the need of new design technologies is growing for more efficient, accurate and economical design of structures. The application of CAD systems to structural engineering fields enables to improve structural engineering analysis and design technologies and also to obtain the standardization of the design process. An active introduction of rapidly developing CAD technologies will contribute to analyzing and designing structures more efficiently and reliably. Based on this report of the current status of the application of CAD systems to the structural analysis and design, the next goal is to develop the expert system which enables to perform the design of structures by CAD systems from the preliminary conceptual design to the final detail drawings automatically. (Author)

  10. Decision analysis for deteriorating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, Dimitri V.; Stewart, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Measures that improve durability of a structure usually increase its initial cost. Thus, in order to make a decision about a cost-effective solution the life-cycle cost of a structure including cost of structural failure needs to be considered. Due to uncertainties associated with structural properties, loads and environmental conditions the cost of structural failure is a random variable. The paper derives probability distributions of the cost of failure of a single structure and a group of identical structures when single or multiple failures are possible during the service life of a structure. The probability distributions are based on cumulative probabilities of failure of a single structure over its service life. It is assumed that failures occur at discrete points in time, the cost of failure set at the time of decision making remains constant for a particular design solution and the discount rate is a deterministic parameter not changing with time. The probability distributions can be employed to evaluate the expected life-cycle cost or the expected utility, which is then used in decision making. An example, which considers the selection of durability specifications for a reinforced concrete structure built on the coast, illustrates the use of the derived probability distributions

  11. Offshore concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas Pardo, M.; Carral Couce, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shiphuidling industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built

  12. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  13. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M ampersand S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M ampersand S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry

  14. Shape morphing hinged truss structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofla, A Y N; Elzey, D M; Wadley, H N G

    2009-01-01

    Truss structures are widely used for the support of structural loads in applications where minimum mass solutions are required. Their nodes are normally constructed to resist rotation to maximize their stiffness under load. A multi-link node concept has recently been proposed that permits independent rotation of tetrahedral trusses linked by such a joint. High authority shape morphing truss structures can therefore be designed by the installation of linear displacement actuators within the truss mechanisms. Examples of actuated structures with either linear or planar shapes are presented and their ability to bend, twist and undulate is demonstrated. An experimental device has been constructed using one-way shape memory wire actuators in antagonistic configurations that permit reversible actuated structures. It is shown that the actuated structure displacement response is significantly amplified by use of a mechanically magnified design

  15. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with „removal of a limited part of the structure‟ in order to document that an extensive failure...... of the structure will not occur if a limited part of the structure fails, or c) demonstrating sufficient safety of key elements, such that the entire structure with one or more key elements has the same reliability as a structure where robustness is documented by b). Based on investigations with respect...

  16. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2012-01-01

    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility maximization......Retail structured products regularly receive much criticism from financial experts but seem to remain popular with investors. This article considers a generic structured product: the principal-protected index-linked note (structured bond), which resembles a portfolio insurance contract. The purpose...... and consider different utility functions and trading strategies. Our results show that investors should include structured bonds in their optimal portfolio only if they cannot access the index underlying the option directly and only if the products then provide sufficient diversification to compensate...

  17. Water's quantum structures and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses several clues pointing to the spontaneous quantum origin of the recently discovered dissipative structures induced in liquid water by low-energy physical perturbations. These structures show an astonishing permanence, so much that large ponderal quantities of supramolecular aggregates of water - at ambient pressure and temperature - subsist even in the solid phase, strongly suggesting the possibility that these structures are the matrix itself of life.

  18. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  19. Dynamic testing of cable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.

  20. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction...... are just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  1. State spaces of orthomodular structures

    OpenAIRE

    Navara, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    We present several known and one new description of orthomodular structures (orthomodular lattices, orthomodular posets and orthoalgebras). Originally, orthomodular structures were viewed as pasted families of Boolean algebras. Here we introduce semipasted families of Boolean algebras as an alternative description which is not as detailed, but substantially simplex. Semipasted families of Boolean algebras correspond to orthomodular structures in such a way that states and evaluation functiona...

  2. Mass drivers. 2: Structural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    Various structural and dynamical problems related to both small-scale forces between the drive coils and within the bucket structure as well as the overall combined large-scale dynamical interaction of the bucket stream and MDRE (Mass Drive Reaction Engine) structure are examined. The large-scale dynamics appear weakly stable. Finally, MDRE operation in an inverse-square-law gravitational field is discussed and the required curved shape of the guideway is computed.

  3. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...... decisive for choosing the form of trusses, arches and cable-stayed bridges are outlined, and several examples show bridges designed without giving priority to the structural aspects....

  4. Structure of Protoplanetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michal

    2000-01-01

    Our research focused on the structure and composition of the disks in the T Tau and Haro 6-10 multiple star systems and on the nature of the 'infrared companions' that these systems contain. This work has resulted in two papers, one on T Tau, presently under review at the Astrophysical Journal, and the other, on Haro 6-10, about to be submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics. In the paper 'Evidence for Extinction and Accretion Variability in T Tau S' by Tracy L. Beck, L. Prato, and M. Simon, we present angularly resolved spectra of T Tau N (the visible star) and T Tau S (the infrared companion, IRC) in the three micrometer water ice-feature and the K-band. Most of the water ice absorption lies along the line of sight to T Tau S, confirming it is seen through stronger obscuration. A decrease in the ice-band absorption toward T Tau S between 12/98 and 1/00, significant, at the two-sigma level, was associated with an increase in its near IR flux. Bracket gamma emission is detected in T Tau N and S, and H2 (2.12 micrometer) emission only toward T Tau S, consistent with previous studies of IRCs. Our results suggest that the near IR variability of T Tau S is probably caused by both variations in accretion rate and extinction. Our paper on Haro 6-10, 'The Near IR and Ice Band Variability of Haro, 6-10' by Ch. Leinert, T.L. Beck, S. Ligori, M. Simon, J. Woitas, and R.R. Howell, represents a fusion of originally independent efforts at the Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) and Stony Brook. Our combined observations demonstrate that both Haro 6-10 S (the visible star) and Haro 6-10 N (the IRC) vary significantly in near IR flux on time scales as short as a month. The substantial decrease of Haro 6-10 S in the last four years carries the photometric signature of increased extinction. However, a comparable K-band flux increase of the IRC is associated with a dimming at H so cannot be explained by lower extinction. Absorption in the 3.1 micrometer ice band was

  5. Line structures in recurrence plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Recurrence plots exhibit line structures which represent typical behaviour of the investigated system. The local slope of these line structures is connected with a specific transformation of the time scales of different segments of the phase-space trajectory. This provides us a better understanding of the structures occurring in recurrence plots. The relationship between the time-scales and line structures are of practical importance in cross recurrence plots. Using this relationship within cross recurrence plots, the time-scales of differently sampled or time-transformed measurements can be adjusted. An application to geophysical measurements illustrates the capability of this method for the adjustment of time-scales in different measurements

  6. Study of a viscoplastic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahbouhi, A.F.; Cousin, M.; Jullien, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    This study concerns the thermoplastic behavior of metallic structures under cyclic thermal loading. This work aims to bring about a contribution to the experimental plan as well as to the numerical modelisation aspect of the viscoplastic behavior of the structures. This experimental device allows the variation of the thermal loading story especially the duration of the cycle and the fixed temperature time. The numerical analysis of the viscoplastic behavior of the structures was carried out by treating the plastic strains independently of the creep strains. The comparison of the experimental and numerical results brings about important elements concerning the numerical analysis of the viscoplastic behavior of such structures. (orig.)

  7. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  8. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...... opportunities consist of a risky reference fund, a risk-free asset and a structured bond. Key model elements are the trading strategy and utility function of the investor. Our numerical results indicate structured bonds do have basis for consideration in the optimal portfolio. The product holdings...

  9. Multifunctional Hot Structure Heat Shield

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is performing preliminary development of a Multifunctional Hot Structure (HOST) heat shield for planetary entry. Results of this development will...

  10. The electronic structures of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, B R

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  11. Open data structures an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Morin, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Offered as an introduction to the field of data structures and algorithms, Open Data Structures covers the implementation and analysis of data structures for sequences (lists), queues, priority queues, unordered dictionaries, ordered dictionaries, and graphs. Analyzed and implemented in Java, with a mathematically rigorous approach, Morin clearly and briskly presents instruction along with source code. A modern treatment of an essential computer science topic, this text is a measured balance between classical topics and state-of-the-art structures that will serve the needs of all undergraduate

  12. Self deployable deorbiting space structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    -active or heavy device has to be brought on board the spacecraft for deploying the space structure. Allows the deployed flexible sheet surface higher than the case when SDSS is rigidly linked at the short distance from carrier structure. Ensures a reliable unfolding of deorbiting structures in zero gravity....... Provides the strain energy provoking the deployment without the need of addition of energy to the system. Eliminates the issues around successful unfolding known from other technical solutions as the frame unfolds automatically without using external energy for unfolding by using the accumulated strain...... energy in stressed configuration. Ensures that deorbiting space structure can be efficiently folded without intervention of active unfolding device....

  13. Giga-Voxel Structural Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2017-01-01

    The optimal topology of large structural systems has until now been concerned with the design of individual parts and not that of complete assemblies. However, due to recent advances in numerical algorithms tailored for large scale structural optimization this limitation can now be circumvented....... In this work we present several examplesdisplaying how high resolution topology optimization can be used to obtain new, as well as already known, insight within the field of structural optimization. To demonstrate the capabilities of the developed framework we apply it to the design of the supporting structure...... topology optimization provides new insight and possible weight savings forfuture aircraft designs....

  14. Structure Mapping for Social Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Stella

    2017-07-01

    Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures-such as kinships and social hierarchies-forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool for acquiring social relations and structures. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. LMSD: LIPID MAPS structure database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Manish; Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Brown, Alex; Dennis, Edward A.; Glass, Christopher K.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Murphy, Robert C.; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Russell, David W.; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    The LIPID MAPS Structure Database (LMSD) is a relational database encompassing structures and annotations of biologically relevant lipids. Structures of lipids in the database come from four sources: (i) LIPID MAPS Consortium's core laboratories and partners; (ii) lipids identified by LIPID MAPS experiments; (iii) computationally generated structures for appropriate lipid classes; (iv) biologically relevant lipids manually curated from LIPID BANK, LIPIDAT and other public sources. All the lipid structures in LMSD are drawn in a consistent fashion. In addition to a classification-based retrieval of lipids, users can search LMSD using either text-based or structure-based search options. The text-based search implementation supports data retrieval by any combination of these data fields: LIPID MAPS ID, systematic or common name, mass, formula, category, main class, and subclass data fields. The structure-based search, in conjunction with optional data fields, provides the capability to perform a substructure search or exact match for the structure drawn by the user. Search results, in addition to structure and annotations, also include relevant links to external databases. The LMSD is publicly available at PMID:17098933

  16. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    .... From bench to bedside, Dynein: Structure, Biology and Disease offers research on fundamental cellular processes to researchers and clinicians across developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, biophysics, biomedicine...

  17. Uncertainties of Molecular Structural Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Császár, Attila G.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The most fundamental property of a molecule is its three-dimensional (3D) structure formed by its constituent atoms (see, e.g., the perfectly regular hexagon associated with benzene). It is generally accepted that knowledge of the detailed structure of a molecule is a prerequisite to determine most of its other properties. What nowadays is a seemingly simple concept, namely that molecules have a structure, was introduced into chemistry in the 19th century. Naturally, the word changed its meaning over the years. Elemental analysis, simple structural formulae, two-dimensional and then 3D structures mark the development of the concept to its modern meaning. When quantum physics and quantum chemistry emerged in the 1920s, the simple concept associating structure with a three-dimensional object seemingly gained a firm support. Nevertheless, what seems self-explanatory today is in fact not so straightforward to justify within quantum mechanics. In quantum chemistry the concept of an equilibrium structure of a molecule is tied to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation but beyond the adiabatic separation of the motions of the nuclei and the electrons the meaning of a structure is still slightly obscured. Putting the conceptual difficulties aside, there are several experimental, empirical, and theoretical techniques to determine structures of molecules. One particular problem, strongly related to the question of uncertainties of “measured” or “computed” structural parameters, is that all the different techniques correspond to different structure definitions and thus yield different structural parameters. Experiments probing the structure of molecules rely on a number of structure definitions, to name just a few: r 0 , r g , r a , r s , r m , etc., and one should also consider the temperature dependence of most of these structural parameters which differ from each other in the way the rovibrational motions of the molecules are treated and how the averaging is

  18. Data Mining of Macromolecular Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beusekom, Bart; Perrakis, Anastassis; Joosten, Robbie P

    2016-01-01

    The use of macromolecular structures is widespread for a variety of applications, from teaching protein structure principles all the way to ligand optimization in drug development. Applying data mining techniques on these experimentally determined structures requires a highly uniform, standardized structural data source. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) has evolved over the years toward becoming the standard resource for macromolecular structures. However, the process selecting the data most suitable for specific applications is still very much based on personal preferences and understanding of the experimental techniques used to obtain these models. In this chapter, we will first explain the challenges with data standardization, annotation, and uniformity in the PDB entries determined by X-ray crystallography. We then discuss the specific effect that crystallographic data quality and model optimization methods have on structural models and how validation tools can be used to make informed choices. We also discuss specific advantages of using the PDB_REDO databank as a resource for structural data. Finally, we will provide guidelines on how to select the most suitable protein structure models for detailed analysis and how to select a set of structure models suitable for data mining.

  19. Magic Numbers in Protein Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Bohr, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    A homology measure for protein fold classes has been constructed by locally projecting consecutive secondary structures onto a lattice. Taking into account hydrophobic forces we have found a mechanism for formation of domains containing magic numbers of secondary structures and multipla of these ......A homology measure for protein fold classes has been constructed by locally projecting consecutive secondary structures onto a lattice. Taking into account hydrophobic forces we have found a mechanism for formation of domains containing magic numbers of secondary structures and multipla...

  20. Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Gordon H.

    1999-07-01

    This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure. The "best" Lewis structures are those that, when combined with the VSEPR model, allow the accurate prediction of molecular properties, such as polarity, bond length, bond angle, and bond strength. These structures are achieved by minimizing formal charges within the molecule, even if it requires an expanded octet on atoms beyond the second period. Lewis structures that show an expanded octet do not imply full d-orbital involvement in the bonding. They suggest that the presence of low-lying d-orbitals is important in producing observed molecular structures. Based on this work, the presence of electron density, not a large separation in charge, is responsible for the short bond lengths and large angles in species containing nonmetal atoms from beyond the second period. This result contradicts results obtained from natural population analysis, a method that attempts to derive Lewis structures from molecular orbital calculations.

  1. Capital Structure Determinants and Governance Structure Variety in Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jiang (Tao)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis investigates two questions: the determinants of capital structure in franchising and its subsequent impact on the franchise financing decisions; and the efficient governance structure choice in franchising. We posit that firms franchise in order to benefit from the reduced

  2. Structural stability and electronic structure of YCu ductile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate the structural, elastic and electronic properties of cubic YCu intermetallic compound. Which crystallize in the CsCl- B2 type structure, the investigated using the first principle full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within density functional Theory (DFT). We used generalized ...

  3. Modified structure of graphene oxide by investigation of structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (GO) has been studied previously using various analyses and computer simulations. Although some oxygen functional groups (OFGs) are accepted as the main functionalities in GO, the structure of GO has remained elusive. In this regard, GO was produced using the ...

  4. Medial structure generation for registration of anatomical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Sergio; Gil, Debora; Kjer, Hans Martin

    2017-01-01

    Medial structures (skeletons and medial manifolds) have shown capacity to describe shape in a compact way. In the field of medical imaging, they have been employed to enrich the description of organ anatomy, to improve segmentation, or to describe the organ position in relation to surrounding...... structures. Methods for generation of medial structures, however, are prone to the generation of medial artifacts (spurious branches) that traditionally need to be pruned before the medial structure can be used for further computations. The act of pruning can affect main sections of the medial surface......, hindering its performance as shape descriptor. In this work, we present a method for the computation of medial structures that generates smooth medial surfaces that do not need to be explicitly pruned. Additionally, we present a validation framework for medial surface evaluation. Finally, we apply...

  5. Structural footprinting in protein structure comparison: the impact of structural fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur W John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One approach for speeding-up protein structure comparison is the projection approach, where a protein structure is mapped to a high-dimensional vector and structural similarity is approximated by distance between the corresponding vectors. Structural footprinting methods are projection methods that employ the same general technique to produce the mapping: first select a representative set of structural fragments as models and then map a protein structure to a vector in which each dimension corresponds to a particular model and "counts" the number of times the model appears in the structure. The main difference between any two structural footprinting methods is in the set of models they use; in fact a large number of methods can be generated by varying the type of structural fragments used and the amount of detail in their representation. How do these choices affect the ability of the method to detect various types of structural similarity? Results To answer this question we benchmarked three structural footprinting methods that vary significantly in their selection of models against the CATH database. In the first set of experiments we compared the methods' ability to detect structural similarity characteristic of evolutionarily related structures, i.e., structures within the same CATH superfamily. In the second set of experiments we tested the methods' agreement with the boundaries imposed by classification groups at the Class, Architecture, and Fold levels of the CATH hierarchy. Conclusion In both experiments we found that the method which uses secondary structure information has the best performance on average, but no one method performs consistently the best across all groups at a given classification level. We also found that combining the methods' outputs significantly improves the performance. Moreover, our new techniques to measure and visualize the methods' agreement with the CATH hierarchy, including the

  6. Study of quark structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, F.T.; Flaminio, E.; Lai, K.; Metcalf, M.; Wang, L.

    1977-01-01

    The quark structure functions of the proton are determined through a combined analysis of the reactions pN → ll-barX and eN → eX. The valence-quark structure function of the pion is also given by analyzing the πN → μμ-barX data measured by the Branson et al

  7. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the construction of Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures whose fundamental form is closed. In particular, we find 10 new examples of 8-dimensional nilmanifolds that admit an invariant closed 4-form with stabiliser Sp(2) Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We...

  8. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational...

  9. Structure of molten iron chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hashimoto, Shinya; Moss, S.C. (Houston Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-01

    The structure of molten FeCl[sub 3] at 320[sup degrees]C has been measured with neutron diffraction at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. Results indicate that melting in FeCl[sub 3]is accompanied by a change in local structure from the octahedral environment of the Fe[sup 3[plus

  10. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    . On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  11. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the p...... and the properties of lime mortar....

  12. The discovery of structural form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2008-08-05

    Algorithms for finding structure in data have become increasingly important both as tools for scientific data analysis and as models of human learning, yet they suffer from a critical limitation. Scientists discover qualitatively new forms of structure in observed data: For instance, Linnaeus recognized the hierarchical organization of biological species, and Mendeleev recognized the periodic structure of the chemical elements. Analogous insights play a pivotal role in cognitive development: Children discover that object category labels can be organized into hierarchies, friendship networks are organized into cliques, and comparative relations (e.g., "bigger than" or "better than") respect a transitive order. Standard algorithms, however, can only learn structures of a single form that must be specified in advance: For instance, algorithms for hierarchical clustering create tree structures, whereas algorithms for dimensionality-reduction create low-dimensional spaces. Here, we present a computational model that learns structures of many different forms and that discovers which form is best for a given dataset. The model makes probabilistic inferences over a space of graph grammars representing trees, linear orders, multidimensional spaces, rings, dominance hierarchies, cliques, and other forms and successfully discovers the underlying structure of a variety of physical, biological, and social domains. Our approach brings structure learning methods closer to human abilities and may lead to a deeper computational understanding of cognitive development.

  13. Fertile Soil for Structural Funds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederveen, Sjef; Groot, de Henri L.F.; Nahuis, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Structural funds are the most intensively used policy instrument by the EuropeanUnion to promote economic growth in its member states and to speed up the process ofconvergence. This paper empirically explores the effectiveness of European Structural Fundsby means of a panel data analysis for 13

  14. Incomplete contract and divisional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which

  15. Understanding Content-and-Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Marx, M.J.; de Rijke, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Trotman, A.; Lalmas, M.; Fuhr, N.

    2005-01-01

    Document-centric XML is a mixture of text and structure. +With the increased availability of document-centric XML content comes a need for query facilities in which both structural constraints and constraints on the content of the documents can be expressed. This has generated considerable interest

  16. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough...

  17. Tachyarrhythmias in structural heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiès, Philippine

    2006-01-01

    Ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the major cause of sudden unexpected cardiac arrest, occur specifically in patients with structural heart disease. In general, all types of structural heart disease may lead to chronic heart failure, a severe condition with an additional high risk of atrial- and

  18. Density estimation from local structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, Christiaan M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a hyper-ellipsoid clustering algorithm that grows clusters from local structures in a dataset and estimates the underlying geometrical structure of data with a set of hyper-ellipsoids. The clusters are used to estimate a Gaussian...

  19. Wave Overtopping of Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    During the past 50 years tools for predicting wave overtopping of sea defense structures have continuously been refined. However, developers of wave energy converters have raised questions about how to predict the overtopping of structures with layouts significantly different from those of sea de...

  20. Diabatic orbitals in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Tord.

    1989-09-01

    The importance of wavefunctions in detailed nuclear structure calculations is emphasized. A scheme to enable studies of the development of wavefunctions as the hamiltonian gradually changes is presented. By using this scheme, nuclear structure properties can be calculated with great detail. (author)

  1. Mathematical structures of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michael; Szybka, Sebastian J

    2014-01-01

    The book contains a collection of essays on mathematical structures that serve us to model the Universe. The authors discuss such topics as: the interplay between mathematics and physics, geometrical structures in physical models, observational and conceptual aspects of cosmology. The reader can also contemplate the scientific method on the verge of its limits.

  2. Collaborative problem structuring using MARVEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, G.A.; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Logtens, T.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    When faced with wicked and messy problems, practitioners can rely on a variety of problem structuring methods (PSMs). Although previous efforts have been made to combine such methods with simulation, currently, few exist that integrate a simulation capability within problem structuring. Our

  3. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chain, that is, after 34 A. The distance of a phosphorus atom from the fibre axis is 10. A. As the phosphates are on the outside, cations have easy access to them. The structure is an open one, and its water content is rather high. At lower water contents we would expect the bases to tilt so that the structure could become more.

  4. Information Structure in Sign Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Pfau, R.; Féry, C.; Ishihara, S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that the Information Structure notions Topic and Focus are relevant for sign languages, just as they are for spoken languages. Data from various sign languages reveal that, across sign languages, Information Structure is encoded by syntactic and prosodic strategies, often

  5. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a 'fingerprint' of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled ...

  6. Fostering Leadership through Organizational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Brantley P.

    2012-01-01

    This case study discusses the postindustrial paradigm of leadership and its influence on the field of leadership and also the higher education leadership literature. Furthermore, this case study examines the structure of one university honor society to discuss how the structure allows for the development of multiple leaders within the…

  7. Probabilistic modeling of timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2007-01-01

    The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) [Joint Committee of Structural Safety. Probabilistic Model Code, Internet Publ...

  8. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously. Keywords. Heavy ion fusion; fusion barrier distributions; nuclear structure; coupled reaction chan- nel calculations. PACS Nos 25.70.Bc; 25.70.

  9. Intermetallics structures, properties, and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Steurer, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this book is clearly on the statistics, topology, and geometry of crystal structures and crystal structure types. This allows one to uncover important structural relationships and to illustrate the relative simplicity of most of the general structural building principles. It also allows one to show that a large variety of actual structures can be related to a rather small number of aristotypes. It is important that this book is readable and beneficial in the one way or another for everyone interested in intermetallic phases, from graduate students to experts in solid-state chemistry/physics/materials science. For that purpose it avoids using an enigmatic abstract terminology for the classification of structures. The focus on the statistical analysis of structures and structure types should be seen as an attempt to draw the background of the big picture of intermetallics, and to point to the white spots in it, which could be worthwhile exploring. This book was not planned as a textbook; rather, it...

  10. Real Assets and Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campello, M.; Giambona, E.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the relation between asset structure and capital structure by exploiting variation in the salability of corporate assets. To establish this link, we distinguish across different assets in firms’ balance sheets (machinery, land, and buildings) and use an instrumental approach that

  11. Axiomatic Testing of Structure Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, axiomatic testing of software metrics is described. The testing is based on representation axioms from the measurement theory. In a case study, the axioms are given for the formal relational structure and the empirical relational structure. Two approaches of axiomatic testing are

  12. Axiomatic Testing of Structure Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    In this paper, axiomatic testing of software metrics will be described. The testing is based on representation axioms from the measurement theory. In a case study, the axioms are given for the formal relational structure and the empirical relational structure. Two approaches of axiomatic testing are

  13. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  14. Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1978-08-01

    The use of the Nuclear Structure References file by the Nuclear Data Project at ORNL is described. Much of the report concerns format information of interest only to those preparing input to the system or otherwise needing detailed knowledge of its internal structure. 17 figures

  15. Generalized Double Ring Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Patel, A.; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    2004-01-01

    ) structures. Results on the Generalized Petersen Graphs provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a N2R(p; q) structure to be node or edge symmetric, and a table free routing scheme always determining a shortest path between any pair of nodes is presented. Next, the performance in terms of average...

  16. Bayesian Classification of Image Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Dibyendu; Kalkan, Sinan; Krüger, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe work on Bayesian classi ers for distinguishing between homogeneous structures, textures, edges and junctions. We build semi-local classiers from hand-labeled images to distinguish between these four different kinds of structures based on the concept of intrinsic...... dimensionality. The built classi er is tested on standard and non-standard images...

  17. The Structures & Properties of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Olivia M.; Lisensky, George C.; Ehrlich, Jennifer; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    The four main forms of carbon--diamond, graphite, buckyballs, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)--are an excellent vehicle for teaching fundamental principles of chemical bonding, material structure, and properties. Carbon atoms form a variety of structures that are intrinsically connected to the properties they exhibit. Educators can take advantage of…

  18. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling and Corey [1]. They kindly made'their manuscript available to us in advance of publication. Their model consists of three inter-twined chains, with the phosphates near the fibre axis, and the bases on the outside. In our opinion, this structure is unsatisfactory ...

  19. Event Structure and Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jason F.; Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Armendarez, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research has demonstrated that although everyday experience is continuous in nature, it is parsed into separate events. The aim of the present study was to examine whether event structure can influence the effectiveness of cognitive control. Across 5 experiments we varied the structure of events within the AX-CPT by…

  20. Steel structures for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the guide the requirements concerning design and fabrication of steel structures for nuclear facilities and documents to be submitted to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are presented. Furthermore, regulations concerning inspection of steel structures during construction of nuclear facilities and during their operation are set forth