Sample records for structure zone diagram

  1. Zone diagrams in compact subsets of uniformly convex normed spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, Eva; Reem, D.; Reich, S.


    Roč. 188, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-23 ISSN 0021-2172 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : zone diagrams Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.646, year: 2012

  2. From structure diagrams to visual chemical patterns. (United States)

    Schomburg, Karen; Ehrlich, Hans-Christian; Stierand, Katrin; Rarey, Matthias


    The intuitive way of chemists to communicate molecules is via two-dimensional structure diagrams. The straightforward visual representations are mostly preferred to the often complicated systematic chemical names. For chemical patterns, however, no comparable visualization standards have evolved so far. Chemical patterns denoting descriptions of chemical features are needed whenever a set of molecules is filtered for certain properties. The currently available representations are constrained to linear molecular pattern languages which are hardly human readable and therefore keep chemists without computational background from systematically formulating patterns. Therefore, we introduce a new visualization concept for chemical patterns. The common standard concept of structure diagrams is extended to account for property descriptions and logic combinations of chemical features in patterns. As a first application of the new concept, we developed the SMARTSviewer, a tool that converts chemical patterns encoded in SMARTS strings to a visual representation. The graphic pattern depiction provides an overview of the specified chemical features, variations, and similarities without needing to decode the often cryptic linear expressions. Taking recent chemical publications from various fields, we demonstrate the wide application range of a graphical chemical pattern language.

  3. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning (United States)

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.


    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  4. RNA secondary structure diagrams for very large molecules: RNAfdl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Wiegels, Tim; Torda, Andrew E.


    There are many programs that can read the secondary structure of an RNA molecule and draw a diagram, but hardly any that can cope with 10 3 bases. RNAfdl is slow but capable of producing intersection-free diagrams for ribosome-sized structures, has a graphical user interface for adjustments...

  5. The Metric Lens : Visualizing Metrics and Structure on Software Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Hassan, AE; Zaidman, A; DiPenta, M


    We present the metric lens, a new visualization of method-level code metrics atop UML class diagrams, which allows performing metric-metric and metric-structure correlations on large diagrams. Me demonstrate air interactive visualization tool in which users can quickly specify a wide palette of

  6. Temperature control in continuous furnace by structural diagram method (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Hartley, Tom T.


    The fundamentals of the structural diagram method for distributed parameter systems (DPSs) are presented and reviewed. An example is given to illustrate the application of this method for control design.

  7. Reactome diagram viewer: data structures and strategies to boost performance. (United States)

    Fabregat, Antonio; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Viteri, Guilherme; Marin-Garcia, Pablo; Ping, Peipei; Stein, Lincoln; D'Eustachio, Peter; Hermjakob, Henning


    Reactome is a free, open-source, open-data, curated and peer-reviewed knowledgebase of biomolecular pathways. For web-based pathway visualization, Reactome uses a custom pathway diagram viewer that has been evolved over the past years. Here, we present comprehensive enhancements in usability and performance based on extensive usability testing sessions and technology developments, aiming to optimize the viewer towards the needs of the community. The pathway diagram viewer version 3 achieves consistently better performance, loading and rendering of 97% of the diagrams in Reactome in less than 1 s. Combining the multi-layer html5 canvas strategy with a space partitioning data structure minimizes CPU workload, enabling the introduction of new features that further enhance user experience. Through the use of highly optimized data structures and algorithms, Reactome has boosted the performance and usability of the new pathway diagram viewer, providing a robust, scalable and easy-to-integrate solution to pathway visualization. As graph-based visualization of complex data is a frequent challenge in bioinformatics, many of the individual strategies presented here are applicable to a wide range of web-based bioinformatics resources. Reactome is available online at: The diagram viewer is part of the Reactome pathway browser ( and also available as a stand-alone widget at: The source code is freely available at: or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. RNA secondary structure diagrams for very large molecules: RNAfdl. (United States)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Wiegels, Tim; Torda, Andrew E


    There are many programs that can read the secondary structure of an RNA molecule and draw a diagram, but hardly any that can cope with 10(3) bases. RNAfdl is slow but capable of producing intersection-free diagrams for ribosome-sized structures, has a graphical user interface for adjustments and produces output in common formats. Source code is available under the GNU General Public License v3.0 at for Linux and similar systems or Windows using MinGW. RNAfdl is implemented in C, uses the Cairo 2D graphics library and offers both command line and graphical user interfaces.

  9. Collapsing cycloidal structures in the magnetic phase diagram of erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; Simpson, J.A.


    approximately 20 K, the application of a field is found to favor cycloidal structures with modulation wave vectors of q(c) = (6/23)c*, (4/15)c*, and (2/7)c*. For fields above almost-equal-to 40 kOe, the (2/7) structure dominates the phase diagram. From a detailed study of this most stable cycloid, we determine...... how it distorts as the field is increased. In low fields, there is a spin reorientation, so that the plane of the cycloid becomes perpendicular to the applied field, while in larger fields, the cycloid collapses through a series of fanlike structures. At lower temperatures, as the field is increased...

  10. Reconstructing Data Flow Diagrams from Structure Charts Based on the Input and Output Relationship


    YAMAMOTO, Shuichiro


    The traceability of data flow diagrams against structure charts is very important for large software development. Specifying if there is a relationship between a data flow diagram and a structure chart is a time consuming task. Existing CASE tools provide a way to maintain traceability. If we can extract the input-output relationship of a system from a structure chart, the corresponding data flow diagram can be automatically generated from the relationship. For example, Benedusi et al. propos...

  11. Development of structural response diagram approach to evaluation of thermal stress caused by thermal striping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Yacumpai, Apisara [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Takasho, Hideki


    At incomplete mixing area of high temperature and low temperature fluids near the surface of structures, temperature fluctuation of fluid gives thermal fatigue damage to wall structures. This thermohydraulic and thermomechanical coupled phenomenon is called thermal striping, which has so complex mechanism and sometimes causes crack initiation on the structural surfaces that rational evaluation methods are required for screening rules in design codes. In this study, frequency response characteristics of structures and its mechanism were investigated by both numerical and theoretical methods. Based on above investigation, a structural response diagram was derived, which can predict stress amplitude of structures from temperature amplitude and frequency of fluids. Furthermore, this diagram was generalized to be the Non-dimensional structural response diagram by introducing non-dimensional parameters such as Biot number, non-dimensional frequency, and non-dimensional stress. The use of the Non-dimensional structural response diagram appears to evaluate thermal stress caused by thermal striping, rapidly without structural analysis, and rationally with considering attenuation by non-stationary heat transfer and thermal unloading. This diagram can also give such useful information as sensitive frequency range to adjust coupled thermohydraulic and thermomechanical analysis models taking account of four kinds of attenuation factors: turbulent mixing, molecular diffusion, non-stationary heat transfer, and thermal unloading. (author)

  12. Segregation of receptor-ligand complexes in cell adhesion zones: phase diagrams and the role of thermal membrane roughness (United States)

    Różycki, B.; Lipowsky, R.; Weikl, T. R.


    The adhesion zone of immune cells, the 'immunological synapse', exhibits characteristic domains of receptor-ligand complexes. The domain formation is probably caused by a length difference of the receptor-ligand complexes, and has been investigated in experiments in which T cells adhere to supported membranes with anchored ligands. For supported membranes with two types of anchored ligands, MHCp and ICAM1, which bind to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the receptor LFA1 in the cell membrane, the coexistence of domains of the TCR-MHCp and LFA1-ICAM1 complexes in the cell adhesion zone has been observed for a wide range of ligand concentrations and affinities. For supported membranes with long and short ligands that bind to the same cell receptor CD2, in contrast, domain coexistence has been observed for a quite narrow ratio of ligand concentrations. In this paper, we determine detailed phase diagrams for cells adhering to supported membranes with a statistical-physical model of cell adhesion. We find a characteristic difference between the adhesion scenarios in which two types of ligands in a supported membrane bind (i) to the same cell receptor or (ii) to two different cell receptors, which helps us to explain the experimental observations. Our phase diagrams fully include thermal shape fluctuations of the cell membranes on nanometer scales, which lead to a critical point for the domain formation and to a cooperative binding of the receptors and ligands.

  13. Using a Semantic Diagram to Structure a Collaborative Problem Solving Process in the Classroom (United States)

    Cai, Huiying; Lin, Lin; Gu, Xiaoqing


    This study provides an in-depth look into the implementation process of visualization-based tools for structuring collaborative problem solving (CPS) in the classroom. A visualization-based learning platform--the semantic diagram for structuring CPS in a real classroom was designed and implemented. Metafora, the preliminary vehicle of the semantic…

  14. The ternary system Zr-Cr-O. Equilibrium diagrams in the zirconium rich zone at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Ruben O.; Gribaudo, Luis M.


    Equilibria among hcp α, bcc β solid solutions and cubic C 15 type intermetallic ZrCr 2 are represented graphically over Gibbs triangles in the Zr-rich zone of the ternary Zr-Cr-O system. Experimental results are obtained from zirconium-based alloys containing different oxygen compositions (0,24 and 0,62 % at.). Phase boundaries of the ternary system are extrapolated to the Zr-O and Zr-Cr binaries. The obtained values are compared to recently published evaluated diagrams of these two systems. Chromium compositions of the studied alloys were 0,3 - 1 - 2 - 4 and 15 at. %. Thermal treatment temperatures in order to allow equilibria in alloys were 840, 860, 900 and 960 C degrees. (author)

  15. Quasi-brittle fracture diagram of structured bodies in the presence of edge cracks (United States)

    Kornev, V. M.; Demeshkin, A. G.


    The Neuber-Novozhilov approach is used to obtain necessary and sufficient fracture criteria. Using a modified Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale model, simple relations for the critical fracture parameters are derived for opening mode edge cracks for the case where the diameter of the prefracture zone coincides with the diameter of the plasticity zone. These relations are suitable for studying fracture where the crack length is negligibly small. A fracture diagram using critical stresses under both criteria is proposed for a wide range of crack length. At a certain level of loading, three regions are identified, in the first of which the crack is stable, in the second, the crack extends but remains stable, and in the third, the crack is unstable. Experimental data on the fracture of specimens with edge cracks are obtained. It is established that the theoretical critical fracture curves are in good agreement with the obtained critical parameters for flat tensile specimens with two collinear edge cracks.

  16. Summation of Parquet diagrams as an ab initio method in nuclear structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergli, Elise; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten


    Research highlights: → We present a Green's function based approach for doing ab initio nuclear structure calculations. → In particular the sum the subset of so-called Parquet diagrams. → Applying the theory to a simple but realistic model, results in good agreement with other ab initio methods. → This opens up for ab initio calculations for medium-heavy nuclei. - Abstract: In this work we discuss the summation of the Parquet class of diagrams within Green's function theory as a possible framework for ab initio nuclear structure calculations. The theory is presented and some numerical details are discussed, in particular the approximations employed. We apply the Parquet method to a simple model, and compare our results with those from an exact solution. The main conclusion is that even at the level of approximation presented here, the results shows good agreement with other comparable ab initio approaches.

  17. Global structure of curves from generalized unitarity cut of three-loop diagrams (United States)

    Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Huang, Rijun; Mehta, Dhagash; Zhang, Yang


    This paper studies the global structure of algebraic curves defined by generalized unitarity cut of four-dimensional three-loop diagrams with eleven propagators. The global structure is a topological invariant that is characterized by the geometric genus of the algebraic curve. We use the Riemann-Hurwitz formula to compute the geometric genus of algebraic curves with the help of techniques involving convex hull polytopes and numerical algebraic geometry. Some interesting properties of genus for arbitrary loop orders are also explored where computing the genus serves as an initial step for integral or integrand reduction of three-loop amplitudes via an algebraic geometric approach.

  18. Global structure of curves from generalized unitarity cut of three-loop diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Huang, Rijun; Mehta, Dhagash; Zhang, Yang


    This paper studies the global structure of algebraic curves defined by generalized unitarity cut of four-dimensional three-loop diagrams with eleven propagators. The global structure is a topological invariant that is characterized by the geometric genus of the algebraic curve. We use the Riemann-Hurwitz formula to compute the geometric genus of algebraic curves with the help of techniques involving convex hull polytopes and numerical algebraic geometry. Some interesting properties of genus for arbitrary loop orders are also explored where computing the genus serves as an initial step for integral or integrand reduction of three-loop amplitudes via an algebraic geometric approach.

  19. Study on structural seismic margin and probabilistic seismic risk. Development of a structural capacity-seismic risk diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Masato; Ohtori, Yasuki; Hirata, Kazuta


    Seismic margin is extremely important index and information when we evaluate and account seismic safety of critical structures, systems and components quantitatively. Therefore, it is required that electric power companies evaluate the seismic margin of each plant in back-check of nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic margin of structures is usually defined as a structural capacity margin corresponding to design earthquake ground motion. However, there is little agreement as to the definition of the seismic margin and we have no knowledge about a relationship between the seismic margin and seismic risk (annual failure probability) which is obtained in PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). The purpose of this report is to discuss a definition of structural seismic margin and to develop a diagram which can identify a relation between seismic margin and seismic risk. The main results of this paper are described as follows: (1) We develop seismic margin which is defined based on the fact that intensity of earthquake ground motion is more appropriate than the conventional definition (i.e., the response-based seismic margin) for the following reasons: -seismic margin based on earthquake ground motion is invariant where different typed structures are considered, -stakeholders can understand the seismic margin based on the earthquake ground motion better than the response-based one. (2) The developed seismic margin-risk diagram facilitates us to judge easily whether we need to perform detailed probabilistic risk analysis or only deterministic analysis, given that the reference risk level although information on the uncertainty parameter beta is not obtained. (3) We have performed numerical simulations based on the developed method for four sites in Japan. The structural capacity-risk diagram differs depending on each location because the diagram is greatly influenced by seismic hazard information for a target site. Furthermore, the required structural capacity

  20. The use of Ternary Diagrams in the Analysis and the Mathematical Modeling of Bank Assets Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA


    Full Text Available The objectives pursued in this paper are: to obtain by means of ternary diagrams imagistic representations of the structure of assets in credit banking institutions operating in Romania in case of stability, turbulence and intense manifestation of the crisis; identifying functional discontinuities and achieve a comparative database. The ultimate goal of this paper is reporting the results obtained from comparative database to find out what signals preceding a turbulent situation in the banking sector and how far away is the banking system by the normal situation.

  1. Meaning and Abduction as Process-Structure: A Diagram of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Semetsky


    Full Text Available This paper is informed by Charles Sanders Peirce’s philosophy as semiotics or the doctrine of signs. The paper’s purpose is to explore Peirce’s category of abduction as not being limited to the inference to the best explanation. In the context of the logic of discovery, abduction is posited as a necessary although not sufficient condition for the production of meanings. The structure of a genuine sign is triadic and represents a synthesis between precognitive ideas and conceptual representations. The novel model of reasoning is offered, based on the mathematical formalism borrowed from Gauss’ interpretation of the complex number. It is suggested that this model in a form of a diagram not only represents a semiotic process-structure but also overcomes the long-standing paradox of new knowledge. For Peirce, it is a diagram as a visual representation that may yield solutions to the otherwise unsolvable logical problems. What appears to us as a paradox is the very presence of abductive, or hypothetical, inference, as Peircean generic category of Firstness within the Thirdness of the total thought-process. Firstness (feeling, Secondness (action, and Thirdness (reason together constitute a dynamic structure of experience.

  2. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan


    trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management.......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...

  3. A Hybrid Vector Quantization Combining a Tree Structure and a Voronoi Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen


    Full Text Available Multimedia data is a popular communication medium, but requires substantial storage space and network bandwidth. Vector quantization (VQ is suitable for multimedia data applications because of its simple architecture, fast decoding ability, and high compression rate. Full-search VQ can typically be used to determine optimal codewords, but requires considerable computational time and resources. In this study, a hybrid VQ combining a tree structure and a Voronoi diagram is proposed to improve VQ efficiency. To efficiently reduce the search space, a tree structure integrated with principal component analysis is proposed, to rapidly determine an initial codeword in low-dimensional space. To increase accuracy, a Voronoi diagram is applied to precisely enlarge the search space by modeling relations between each codeword. This enables an optimal codeword to be efficiently identified by rippling an optimal neighbor from parts of neighboring Voronoi regions. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach improved VQ performance, outperforming other approaches. The proposed approach also satisfies the requirements of handheld device application, namely, the use of limited memory and network bandwidth, when a suitable number of dimensions in principal component analysis is selected.

  4. Structural state diagram of concentrated suspensions of jammed soft particles in oscillatory shear flow (United States)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Cloitre, Michel; Bonnecaze, Roger T.


    In a recent study [Khabaz et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093301 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093301], we showed that jammed soft particle glasses (SPGs) crystallize and order in steady shear flow. Here we investigate the rheology and microstructures of these suspensions in oscillatory shear flow using particle-dynamics simulations. The microstructures in both types of flows are similar, but their evolutions are very different. In both cases the monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions form crystalline and layered structures, respectively, at high shear rates. The crystals obtained in the oscillatory shear flow show fewer defects compared to those in the steady shear. SPGs remain glassy for maximum oscillatory strains less than about the yield strain of the material. For maximum strains greater than the yield strain, microstructural and rheological transitions occur for SPGs. Polydisperse SPGs rearrange into a layered structure parallel to the flow-vorticity plane for sufficiently high maximum shear rates and maximum strains about 10 times greater than the yield strain. Monodisperse suspensions form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the maximum shear rate is low and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure when the maximum shear rate is high. In steady shear, the transition from a glassy state to a layered one for polydisperse suspensions included a significant induction strain before the transformation. In oscillatory shear, the transformation begins to occur immediately and with different microstructural changes. A state diagram for suspensions in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow is found to be in close but not exact agreement with the state diagram for steady shear flow. For more modest amplitudes of around one to five times the yield strain, there is a transition from a glassy structure to FCC and HCP crystals, at low and high frequencies, respectively, for monodisperse suspensions. At moderate frequencies, the transition is from glassy to HCP via

  5. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio


    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10 -4 Pa to 10 2 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  6. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  7. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan


    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian network...... analysis with operational safety management.......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...

  8. Magnetic structures, phase diagram and spin waves of magneto-electric LiNiPO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius


    LiNiPO4 is a magneto-electric material, having co-existing antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases when suitable magnetic fields are applied at low temperatures. Such systems have received growing interest in recent years, but the nature of the magneticelectric couplings is yet to be fully...... understand. Hopefully, studying LiNiPO4 will shed further light on the subject, especially since the crystal structure of LiNiPO4 is rather simple compared to most relevant multiferroic materials. Although the study of the magnetic-electric couplings is of main interest to the many scientists guiding me...... through the last three years, it is not the primary subject of this thesis. The objective of the phD project has been to provide groundwork that may be beneficiary to future studies of LiNiPO4. More specifically, we have mapped out the magnetic HT phase diagram with magnetic fields below 14.7 T applied...

  9. Phase diagrams and crystal growth (United States)

    Venkrbec, Jan


    Phase diagrams are briefly treated as generalized property-composition relationships, with respect to crystal technology optimization. The treatment is based on mutual interaction of three systems related to semiconductors: (a) the semiconducting material systems, (b0 the data bank, (c) the system of crystallization methods. A model is proposed enabling optimatization on the path from application requirements to the desired material. Further, several examples of the selection as to the composition of LED and laser diode material are given. Some of molten-solution-zone methods are being successfully introduced for this purpose. Common features of these methods, the application of phase diagrams, and their pecularities compared with other crystallization methods are illustrated by schematic diagrams and by examples. LPE methods, particularly the steady-state LPE methods such as Woodall's ISM and Nishizawa's TDM-CVP, and the CAM-S (Crystallization Method Providing Composition Autocontrol in Situ) have been chosen as examples. Another approach of exploiting phase diagrams for optimal material selection and for determination of growth condition before experimentation through a simple calculation is presented on InP-GaP solid solutions. Ternary phase diagrams are visualized in space through calculation and constructions based on the corresponding thermodynamic models and anaglyphs. These make it easy to observe and qualitatively analyze the crystallization of every composition. Phase diagrams can be also used as a powerful tool for the deduction of new crystallization methods. Eutectic crystallization is an example of such an approach where a modified molten-solution-zone method can give a sandwich structure with an abrupt concentration change. The concentration of a component can range from 0 to 100% in the different solid phases.

  10. Predicting structures in the Zone of Avoidance (United States)

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Colless, Matthew; Kraan-Korteweg, Renée C.; Gottlöber, Stefan


    The Zone of Avoidance (ZOA), whose emptiness is an artefact of our Galaxy dust, has been challenging observers as well as theorists for many years. Multiple attempts have been made on the observational side to map this region in order to better understand the local flows. On the theoretical side, however, this region is often simply statistically populated with structures but no real attempt has been made to confront theoretical and observed matter distributions. This paper takes a step forward using constrained realizations (CRs) of the local Universe shown to be perfect substitutes of local Universe-like simulations for smoothed high-density peak studies. Far from generating completely `random' structures in the ZOA, the reconstruction technique arranges matter according to the surrounding environment of this region. More precisely, the mean distributions of structures in a series of constrained and random realizations (RRs) differ: while densities annihilate each other when averaging over 200 RRs, structures persist when summing 200 CRs. The probability distribution function of ZOA grid cells to be highly overdense is a Gaussian with a 15 per cent mean in the random case, while that of the constrained case exhibits large tails. This implies that areas with the largest probabilities host most likely a structure. Comparisons between these predictions and observations, like those of the Puppis 3 cluster, show a remarkable agreement and allow us to assert the presence of the, recently highlighted by observations, Vela supercluster at about 180 h-1 Mpc, right behind the thickest dust layers of our Galaxy.

  11. Criteria for evaluating programme theory diagrams in quality improvement initiatives: a structured method for appraisal. (United States)

    Issen, Laurel; Woodcock, Thomas; McNicholas, Christopher; Lennox, Laura; Reed, Julie E


    Despite criticisms that many quality improvement (QI) initiatives fail due to incomplete programme theory, there is no defined way to evaluate how programme theory has been articulated. The objective of this research was to develop, and assess the usability and reliability of scoring criteria to evaluate programme theory diagrams. Criteria development was informed by published literature and QI experts. Inter-rater reliability was tested between two evaluators. About 63 programme theory diagrams (42 driver diagrams and 21 action-effect diagrams) were reviewed to establish whether the criteria could support comparative analysis of different approaches to constructing diagrams. Components of the scoring criteria include: assessment of overall aim, logical overview, clarity of components, cause-effect relationships, evidence and measurement. Independent reviewers had 78% inter-rater reliability. Scoring enabled direct comparison of different approaches to developing programme theory; action-effect diagrams were found to have had a statistically significant but moderate improvement in programme theory quality over driver diagrams; no significant differences were observed based on the setting in which driver diagrams were developed. The scoring criteria summarise the necessary components of programme theory that are thought to contribute to successful QI projects. The viability of the scoring criteria for practical application was demonstrated. Future uses include assessment of individual programme theory diagrams and comparison of different approaches (e.g. methodological, teaching or other QI support) to produce programme theory. The criteria can be used as a tool to guide the production of better programme theory diagrams, and also highlights where additional support for QI teams could be needed.

  12. Structure, thermodynamic properties, and phase diagrams of few colloids confined in a spherical pore (United States)

    Paganini, Iván E.; Pastorino, Claudio; Urrutia, Ignacio


    We study a system of few colloids confined in a small spherical cavity with event driven molecular dynamics simulations in the canonical ensemble. The colloidal particles interact through a short range square-well potential that takes into account the basic elements of attraction and excluded-volume repulsion of the interaction among colloids. We analyze the structural and thermodynamic properties of this few-body confined system in the framework of inhomogeneous fluids theory. Pair correlation function and density profile are used to determine the structure and the spatial characteristics of the system. Pressure on the walls, internal energy, and surface quantities such as surface tension and adsorption are also analyzed for a wide range of densities and temperatures. We have characterized systems from 2 to 6 confined particles, identifying distinctive qualitative behavior over the thermodynamic plane T - ρ, in a few-particle equivalent to phase diagrams of macroscopic systems. Applying the extended law of corresponding states, the square well interaction is mapped to the Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures. We link explicitly the temperature of the confined square-well fluid to the equivalent packing fraction of polymers in the Asakura-Oosawa model. Using this approach, we study the confined system of few colloids in a colloid-polymer mixture.

  13. Structure, thermodynamic properties, and phase diagrams of few colloids confined in a spherical pore. (United States)

    Paganini, Iván E; Pastorino, Claudio; Urrutia, Ignacio


    We study a system of few colloids confined in a small spherical cavity with event driven molecular dynamics simulations in the canonical ensemble. The colloidal particles interact through a short range square-well potential that takes into account the basic elements of attraction and excluded-volume repulsion of the interaction among colloids. We analyze the structural and thermodynamic properties of this few-body confined system in the framework of inhomogeneous fluids theory. Pair correlation function and density profile are used to determine the structure and the spatial characteristics of the system. Pressure on the walls, internal energy, and surface quantities such as surface tension and adsorption are also analyzed for a wide range of densities and temperatures. We have characterized systems from 2 to 6 confined particles, identifying distinctive qualitative behavior over the thermodynamic plane T - ρ, in a few-particle equivalent to phase diagrams of macroscopic systems. Applying the extended law of corresponding states, the square well interaction is mapped to the Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures. We link explicitly the temperature of the confined square-well fluid to the equivalent packing fraction of polymers in the Asakura-Oosawa model. Using this approach, we study the confined system of few colloids in a colloid-polymer mixture.

  14. Structural and magnetic states in layered manganites: An expanding view of the phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J. F.; Millburn, J. E.; Ling, C.; Argyriou, D. N.; Bordallo, H. N.


    Colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganites display a spectacular range of structural, magnetic, and electronic phases as a function of hole concentration, temperature, magnetic field, etc. A1though the bulk of research has concentrated on the 3-D perovskite manganites, the ability to study anisotropic magnetic and electronic interactions made available in reduced dimensions has accelerated interest in the layered Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) phases of the manganite class. The quest for understanding the coupling among lattice, spin, and electronic degrees of freedom (and dimensionality) is driven by the availability of high quality materials. In this talk, the authors will present recent results on synthesis and magnetic properties of layered manganites from the La 2-2x Sr 1+2x Mn 2 O 7 series in the Mn 4+ -rich regime x >0.5. This region of the composition diagram is populated by antiferromagnetic structures that evolve from the A-type layered order to G-type ''rocksalt'' order as x increases. Between these two regimes is a wide region (0.7 3+ /Mn 4+ sites

  15. Nitrogen-hydrogen-oxygen ternary phase diagram: New phases at high pressure from structural prediction (United States)

    Shi, Jingming; Cui, Wenwen; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.


    Using an ab initio evolutionary structural search, we predict two novel crystalline phases in the H-N-O ternary phase diagram at high pressure, namely, NOH4 and HNO3 (nitric acid). Our calculations show that the C 2 /m phase of NOH4 becomes stable at 71 GPa, while the P 21/m phase of HNO3 stabilizes at 39 GPa. Both phases remain thermodynamically stable at least up to 150 GPa, the maximum pressure we considered. The C 2 /m phase of NOH4 contains two O-H layers and one dumbbell cluster layer, formed by two NH3 molecules linked by a N-N covalent bond. The P 21/m phase of HNO3 contains a surprising quasiclover layer formed of H-N-O covalent bonds. Further calculations show that both phases are semiconducting, with band gaps of 6.0 and 2.6 eV for NOH4 and NHO3, respectively. Our calculations also confirm that the compound NOH5(NH3H2O ) becomes unstable at pressures above 122 GPa, decomposing into NH3 and H2O .

  16. Constraining Influence Diagram Structure by Generative Planning: An Application to the Optimization of Oil Spill Response


    Agosta, John Mark


    This paper works through the optimization of a real world planning problem, with a combination of a generative planning tool and an influence diagram solver. The problem is taken from an existing application in the domain of oil spill emergency response. The planning agent manages constraints that order sets of feasible equipment employment actions. This is mapped at an intermediate level of abstraction onto an influence diagram. In addition, the planner can apply a surveillance operator that...

  17. Some aspects of fracture assessment diagrams, plastic zone size corrections and contour integrals in post-yield fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.


    The CEGB failure assessment route is briefly described and is shown to be consistent with a plastic zone size correction method. Modifications to the assessment route which have recently been suggested for describing the effects of thermal and residual stresses are examined. It is shown that the plastic zone size correction method may be used to include local thermal and residual stresses in the assessment route in a simple manner. The assessment route is compared with finite-element solutions for a thermal stress problem and with strip-yield model solutions for a residual stress problem. In using finite-element solutions there are different contour integral methods available for calculating a post-yield fracture parameter. The J-integral of Rice and the J*-integral of Blackburn are examined and compared and the appropriate parameter is identified. (author)

  18. Segregation of receptor-ligand complexes in cell adhesion zones: Phase diagrams and role of thermal membrane roughness


    Rozycki, Bartosz; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R.


    The adhesion zone of immune cells, the 'immunological synapse', exhibits characteristic domains of receptor-ligand complexes. The domain formation is likely caused by a length difference of the receptor-ligand complexes, and has been investigated in experiments in which T cells adhere to supported membranes with anchored ligands. For supported membranes with two types of anchored ligands, MHCp and ICAM1, that bind to the receptors TCR and LFA1 in the cell membrane, the coexistence of domains ...

  19. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan


    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...

  20. Temperature and composition dependent structural evolution of AgPd bimetallic nanoparticle: phase diagram of (AgPd)151 nanoparticle. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Hyuck Mo


    We study the structural evolution of a 151 atom Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle with composition and temperature. The solid-to-liquid transition region was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with an improved collision method, and the solid-state structure of the nanoparticle was explored with a combination of molecular dynamics and density functional theory. Results show that an fcc-to-icosahedron transformation occurs at high temperature in all composition range and that a composition of nanoparticles concerns the atomic distribution of the (AgPd)151 nanoparticle. As a result, we constructed a phase diagram of the (AgPd)151 nanoparticle. Our phase diagram offers guidance on the application of Ag-Pd nanoparticles.

  1. Improvement of the mathematical model of the diagram of deformation of the compressed composite steel and concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomin Stanislav


    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the stress-strain ratio of compressed concrete at elevated temperatures for composite structures described in Eurocode EN 1994-1-2:2005 Eurocode 4 divided in two stages: Stage 1 - represents the ascending branch and is defined by two parameters: compressive strength fc, θ and corresponding deformations εcu,θ, stage II - the descending branch which is accepted for numerical methods. The design practice showed deficiencies in the provisions on models of deformation diagrams given in Eurocode 2. Part 1-2 General provisions. Structural Fire Design. (EN 1992-1-2:2004, (ENV 1992-1-2:1995, which were reflected in the national standards in the process of harmonization. A technique for determining the refined diagrams “σc,θ – εc,θ” was developed for the design of composite reinforced concrete structures in case of fire. Diagram parameter values were adjusted for concretes based on silicate filler at high temperatures, the mathematical stress-strain model of the concrete under compression and high temperatures was specified.

  2. Parametric diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders


    This paper will introduce the PhD research into applied 3d modeling and parametric design outlining the idea of a parametric diagram linked to philosophical and applied examples.......This paper will introduce the PhD research into applied 3d modeling and parametric design outlining the idea of a parametric diagram linked to philosophical and applied examples....

  3. The CsBr-AlBr3 Phase Diagram and The Crystal Structure of CsAlBr4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    The phase diagram in the CsBr-AlBr3 system has been reinvestigated. An adjusted liquidus diagram is given, showing the compound CsAlBr4 which melts congruently at 360 oC. The lack of consistency among previous results is presumably due to the presence of oxide impurities formed by attack of bromide...... on the silica ampul walls. Some molten salt density data are given. The CsAlBr4 crystal structure has been solved in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, no. 62 (D2h16), with a = 12.2137(20) , b = 7.5304(14) and c = 9.9293(16) Å, by means of X-ray powder diffraction and full-profile Rietveld refinements...

  4. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A


    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  5. Revision of the Ge–Ti phase diagram and structural stability of the new phase Ge4Ti5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, Roland W.; Colinet, Catherine; Tedenac, Jean-Claude; Richter, Klaus W.


    Highlights: •New compound Ge 4 Ti 5 found by experiments and by DFT ground state calculations. •Enthalpies of formation calculated for different Ge–Ti compounds. •Modifications of the Ge–Ti phase diagram suggested. -- Abstract: The binary phase diagram Ge–Ti was investigated experimentally by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy including EDX analysis, and differential thermal analysis. Total energies of the compounds GeTi 3 , GeTi 2 , Ge 3 Ti 5 , Ge 4 Ti 5 , Ge 5 Ti 6 , GeTi and Ge 2 Ti were calculated for various structure types employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT). Experimental studies as well as electronic calculations show the existence of a new phase Ge 4 Ti 5 (Ge 4 Sm 5 -type, oP36, Pnma) which is formed in a solid state reaction Ge 3 Ti 5 + Ge 5 Ti 6 = Ge 4 Ti 5 . In addition, a significant homogeneity range was observed for the compound Ge 3 Ti 5 and the composition of the liquid phase in the eutectic reaction L = Ge + Ge 2 Ti was found to be at significant higher Ge-content (97.5 at.% Ge) than reported in previous studies. Based on these new results, a modified phase diagram Ge–Ti is suggested. The zero-temperature lattice parameters and the formation enthalpies determined by DTF calculations were found to be in good agreement with experimental data

  6. Band diagram determination of MOS structures with different gate materials on 3C-SiC substrate (United States)

    Piskorski, K.; Przewlocki, H.; Esteve, R.; Bakowski, M.


    MOS capacitors were fabricated on 3C-SiC n-type substrate (001) with a 10-μm N-type epitaxial layer. An SiO2 layer of the thickness tOX ≈55 nm was deposited by PECVD. Circular Al, Ni, and Au gate contacts 0.7 mm in diameter were formed by ion beam sputtering and lift-off. Energy band diagrams of the MOS capacitors were determined using the photoelectric, electric, and optical measurement methods. Optical method (ellipsometry) was used to determine the gate and dielectric layer thicknesses and their optical indices: the refraction n and the extinction k coefficients. Electrical method of C = f(VG) characteristic measurements allowed to determine the doping density ND and the flat band voltage VFB in the semiconductor. Most of the parameters which were necessary for the construction of the band diagrams and for determination of the basic physical properties of the structures (e.g. the effective contact potential difference ϕMS) were measured by several photoelectric methods and calculated using the measurement data. As a result, complete energy band diagrams have been determined for MOS capacitors with three different gate materials and they are demonstrated for two different gate voltages VG: for the flat-band in the semiconductor (VG = VFB) and for the flat-band in the dielectric (VG = VG0).

  7. SCADA Diagram


    Rose, Matthew


    Matthew Rose worked at the Naval Postgraduate School as a graphic designer from February 2002-November 2011. His work for NPS included logos, brochures, business packs, movies/presentations, posters, the CyberSiege video game and many other projects. This material was organized and provided by the artist, for inclusion in the NPS Archive, Calhoun. Includes these files:; powerline.jpg; SCADA; SCADA diagram.pdf; SCADA diagramsmall.pdf; SCADA2.pdf

  8. Structural Phase Diagram for Multi-lamellar Tubular Deformations of Lipid Mesophases (United States)

    Tayebi, Lobat; Parikh, Atul


    Stable multi-lamellar cylindrical tubules protrude readily from concentrated mass of amphiphilic molecules in response to a variety of external stresses. Using energetic considerations, we have developed an phase diagram, predicting various types of morphologies of equilibrium multilamellar tubular deformations that stabilize for a broad range of their bending rigidity and surface tension values. Tubular morphologies are described in terms of core radius(rc) and number of lamellae(N). Results of the calculations reveal that emergent tubular morphologies can be classified into three major classes: (1) thin tethers (small rc and low N); (2) solid tubes (high N); and (3) hollow tubes (large rc and and low N). Experimental validation of these predictions is obtained in experiments involving hydration of dry stack lipids Here, tubular deformations, referred to as myelin figures, of all predicted morphologies form in separate populations. Furthermore, the phase diagram also sheds light on a long-standing question of the determinants of the thickness of such myelin figures.

  9. Structural breaks in mean temperature over agroclimatic zones in India. (United States)

    Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Birthal, P S; Khokhar, Ankit


    Amongst Asian countries India is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. During the past century, surface temperature in India has shown a significant increasing trend. In this paper, we have investigated behavior of mean monthly temperature during the period 1901-2001 over four agroclimatic zones of India and also tried to detect structural change in the temperature series. A structural break in the series has been observed at the national as well regional levels between 1970 and 1980. An analysis of trends before and after the structural break shows a significant increase in July temperature in the arid zone since 1972.

  10. Delimiting diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, V. van


    We introduce the unifying notion of delimiting diagram. Hitherto unrelated results such as: Minimality of the internal needed strategy for orthogonal first-order term rewriting systems, maximality of the limit strategy for orthogonal higher-order pattern rewrite systems (with maximality of the

  11. Identification of high school students' ability level of constructing free body diagrams to solve restricted and structured response items in force matter (United States)

    Rahmaniar, Andinisa; Rusnayati, Heni; Sutiadi, Asep


    While solving physics problem particularly in force matter, it is needed to have the ability of constructing free body diagrams which can help students to analyse every force which acts on an object, the length of its vector and the naming of its force. Mix method was used to explain the result without any special treatment to participants. The participants were high school students in first grade totals 35 students. The purpose of this study is to identify students' ability level of constructing free body diagrams in solving restricted and structured response items. Considering of two types of test, every student would be classified into four levels ability of constructing free body diagrams which is every level has different characteristic and some students were interviewed while solving test in order to know how students solve the problem. The result showed students' ability of constructing free body diagrams on restricted response items about 34.86% included in no evidence of level, 24.11% inadequate level, 29.14% needs improvement level and 4.0% adequate level. On structured response items is about 16.59% included no evidence of level, 23.99% inadequate level, 36% needs improvement level, and 13.71% adequate level. Researcher found that students who constructed free body diagrams first and constructed free body diagrams correctly were more successful in solving restricted and structured response items.

  12. Magnetic and structural phase diagram of the solid solution LaCoxMn1-xO3 (United States)

    Bull, C. L.; Playford, H. Y.; Knight, K. S.; Stenning, G. B. G.; Tucker, M. G.


    We present a structural and magnetic phase diagram of the solid solution LaCoxMn1-xO3 . We show by neutron diffraction that the monoclinic structure previously observed for the elpasolite form La2CoMnO6 (LaCo0.5Mn0.5O3 ) is also observed for another member of the solid solution x =0.35 . We also present the transition temperatures for the orthorhombic/monoclinic structures of the series to the rhombohedral structure and determine the expected transition temperatures from rhombohedral to cubic symmetry. We present the magnetic structures as determined by neutron diffraction for materials with lower cobalt content and provide evidence, including ac and dc susceptibility measurements, for the possible glassy nature of the magnetism in the cobalt-rich materials in the series. Based on high-resolution neutron diffraction, we also suggest that there is a limit to the LaCoxMn1-xO3 solid solution at x =0.85 . Finally we present a possible, previously unreported, low-temperature monoclinic structure for the sample LaCo0.75Mn0.25O3 .

  13. The Cascadia Subduction Zone: two contrasting models of lithospheric structure (United States)

    Romanyuk, T.V.; Blakely, R.; Mooney, W.D.


    The Pacific margin of North America is one of the most complicated regions in the world in terms of its structure and present day geodynamic regime. The aim of this work is to develop a better understanding of lithospheric structure of the Pacific Northwest, in particular the Cascadia subduction zone of Southwest Canada and Northwest USA. The goal is to compare and contrast the lithospheric density structure along two profiles across the subduction zone and to interpet the differences in terms of active processes. The subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America changes markedly along the length of the subduction zone, notably in the angle of subduction, distribution of earthquakes and volcanism, goelogic and seismic structure of the upper plate, and regional horizontal stress. To investigate these characteristics, we conducted detailed density modeling of the crust and mantle along two transects across the Cascadia subduction zone. One crosses Vancouver Island and the Canadian margin, the other crosses the margin of central Oregon.

  14. Macrofaunal community structure in the littoral zone of a freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidimensional scaling (MDS) indicated that there were no significant spatial patterns in the macrofaunal community structure within the four zones which could be related to the predominance of euryhaline species, including Marphysa sanguinea (estuarine wonder worm), Arcuatula capensis (estuarine mussel), Macoma ...

  15. Fine-tuning structural RNA alignments in the twilight zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Stefanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A widely used method to find conserved secondary structure in RNA is to first construct a multiple sequence alignment, and then fold the alignment, optimizing a score based on thermodynamics and covariance. This method works best around 75% sequence similarity. However, in a "twilight zone" below 55% similarity, the sequence alignment tends to obscure the covariance signal used in the second phase. Therefore, while the overall shape of the consensus structure may still be found, the degree of conservation cannot be estimated reliably. Results Based on a combination of available methods, we present a method named planACstar for improving structure conservation in structural alignments in the twilight zone. After constructing a consensus structure by alignment folding, planACstar abandons the original sequence alignment, refolds the sequences individually, but consistent with the consensus, aligns the structures, irrespective of sequence, by a pure structure alignment method, and derives an improved sequence alignment from the alignment of structures, to be re-submitted to alignment folding, etc.. This circle may be iterated as long as structural conservation improves, but normally, one step suffices. Conclusions Employing the tools ClustalW, RNAalifold, and RNAforester, we find that for sequences with 30-55% sequence identity, structural conservation can be improved by 10% on average, with a large variation, measured in terms of RNAalifold's own criterion, the structure conservation index.

  16. Effect of lipid composition on the structure and theoretical phase diagrams of DC-Chol/DOPE-DNA lipoplexes. (United States)

    Muñoz-Ubeda, Mónica; Rodríguez-Pulido, Alberto; Nogales, Aurora; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Aicart, Emilio; Junquera, Elena


    Lipoplexes constituted by calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and mixed cationic liposomes consisting of varying proportions of the cationic lipid 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]cholesterol hydrochloride (DC-Chol) and the zwitterionic lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoetanolamine (DOPE) have been analyzed by means of electrophoretic mobility, SAXS, and fluorescence anisotropy experiments, as well as by theoretically calculated phase diagrams. Both experimental and theoretical studies have been run at several liposome and lipoplex compositions, defined in terms of cationic lipid molar fraction, α, and either the mass or charge ratios of the lipoplex, respectively. The experimental electrochemical results indicate that DC-Chol/DOPE liposomes, with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of around (120 ± 10) nm, compact and condense DNA fragments at their cationic surfaces by means of a strong entropically driven electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, the positive charges of cationic liposomes are compensated by the negative charges of DNA phosphate groups at the isoneutrality L/D ratio, (L/D)(ϕ), which decreases with the cationic lipid content of the mixed liposome, for a given DNA concentration. This inversion of sign process has been also studied by means of the phase diagrams calculated with the theoretical model, which confirms all the experimental results. SAXS diffractograms, run at several lipoplex compositions, reveal that, irrespectively of the lipoplex charge ratio, DC-Chol/DOPE-DNA lipoplexes show a lamellar structure, L(α), when the cationic lipid content on the mixed liposomes α ≥ 0.4, while for a lower content (α = 0.2) the lipoplexes show an inverted hexagonal structure, H(II), usually related with improved cell transfection efficiency. A similar conclusion is reached from fluorescence anisotropy results, which indicate that the fluidity on liposome and lipoplexes membrane, also related with better transfection results, increases as long as the

  17. Review on symmetric structures in ductile shear zones (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumyajit


    Symmetric structures in ductile shear zones range widely in shapes and geneses. Matrix rheology, its flow pattern, its competency contrast with the clast, degree of slip of the clast, shear intensity and its variation across shear zone and deformation temperature, and degree of confinement of clast in shear zones affects (independently) the degree of symmetry of objects. Kinematic vorticity number is one of the parameters that govern tail geometry across clasts. For example, symmetric and nearly straight tails develop if the clast-matrix system underwent dominantly a pure shear/compression. Prolonged deformation and concomitant recrystallization can significantly change the degree of symmetry of clasts. Angular relation between two shear zones or between a shear zone and anisotropy determines fundamentally the degree of symmetry of lozenges. Symmetry of boudinaged clasts too depends on competency contrast between the matrix and clast in some cases, and on the degrees of slip of inter-boudin surfaces and pure shear. Parasitic folds and post-tectonic veins are usually symmetric.

  18. Spinning geodesic Witten diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, Ethan; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sully, James; McGill University, Montreal, QC


    We present an expression for the four-point conformal blocks of symmetric traceless operators of arbitrary spin as an integral over a pair of geodesics in Anti-de Sitter space, generalizing the geodesic Witten diagram formalism of Hijano et al. to arbitrary spin. As an intermediate step in the derivation, we identify a convenient basis of bulk threepoint interaction vertices which give rise to all possible boundary three point structures. Lastly, we highlight a direct connection between the representation of the conformal block as geodesic Witten diagram and the shadow operator formalism.

  19. Phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol phase diagrams. (United States)

    Thewalt, J L; Bloom, M


    Two mono-cis-unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid molecules, having very different gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures as a consequence of the relative positions of the double bond, exhibit PC:cholesterol phase diagrams that are very similar to each other and to that obtained previously for a fully saturated PC:cholesterol mixture (Vist, M. R., and J. H. Davis. 1990. Biochemistry 29:451-464). This leads to the conjecture that PC:cholesterol membrane phase diagrams have a universal form which is relatively independent of the precise chemical structure of the PC molecule. One feature of this phase diagram is the observation over a wide temperature range of a fluid but highly conformationally ordered phase at bilayer concentrations of more than approximately 25 mol% cholesterol. This ;liquid ordered' phase is postulated to be the relevant physical state for many biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, that contain substantial amounts of cholesterol or equivalent sterols.

  20. Development of structural diagram of automated dispatch control system for power consumption at non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises (United States)

    Klyuev, R. V.; Bosikov, I. I.; Madaeva, M. Z.; A-V Turluev, R.


    The structural scheme of the automated control system of power consumption at the industrial enterprise is developed in the article. At the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprise, an energy inspection and a rank analysis of the electrical energy consumption of the main processing equipment were carried out. It is established that the enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy are a complex process system consisting of a set of thousands of jointly functioning technological facilities. For the most effective estimation of power consumption of enterprises, it is reasonable to use the automated system of dispatching control of power consumption (ASDCPC). The paper presents the results of the development of the ASDCPC structural diagram that allows one to perform on-line control and management of the energy and process parameters of the main production units and the enterprise as a whole. As a result of the introduction of ASDCPC at the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprise, the consumed active power was reduced during the peak hours of the load by 20%, the specific electricity consumption - by 14%, the cost of the energy component in the cost of production of hard alloys - by 3%.

  1. Structural and magnetic phase diagram of CrAs and its relationship with pressure-induced superconductivity (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Wang, Qisi; Hao, Yiqing; Pan, Bingying; Feng, Yu; Huang, Qingzhen; Harriger, L. W.; Leao, J. B.; Zhao, Yang; Chisnell, R. M.; Lynn, J. W.; Cao, Huibo; Hu, Jiangping; Zhao, Jun


    We use neutron diffraction to study the structure and magnetic phase diagram of the newly discovered pressure-induced superconductor CrAs. Unlike most magnetic unconventional superconductors where the magnetic moment direction barely changes upon doping, here we show that CrAs exhibits a spin reorientation from the a b plane to the a c plane, along with an abrupt drop of the magnetic propagation vector at a critical pressure (Pc≈0.6 GPa). This magnetic phase transition, accompanied by a lattice anomaly, coincides with the emergence of bulk superconductivity. With further increasing pressure, the magnetic order completely disappears near the optimal Tc regime (P ≈0.94 GPa). Moreover, the Cr magnetic moments tend to be aligned antiparallel between nearest neighbors with increasing pressure toward the optimal superconductivity regime. Our findings suggest that the noncollinear helimagnetic order is strongly coupled to structural and electronic degrees of freedom, and that the antiferromagnetic correlations between nearest neighbors might be essential for superconductivity.

  2. Anthropogenic structures in the geosystems (landscapes) of the permafrost zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov-Druzhinin, V.P.


    Problems created by oil and gas field development in Arctic regions attract much attention in the discussion of the interaction of civil and industrial buildings and structures with permafrost. The investigations carried out must permit the evaluation of changes in the natural environment and single out the anthropogenic component of these changes, must ensure accident-free operation of oil and gas transport units, safety of people and environmental control in the mineral resource production regions of the Arctic. Taking the pipeline-environment system example, this report characterizes the spatial-temporal structure of the gas transport geotechnical system as a natural-anthropogenic, physico-geographical object. The natural sub-system of this object consists of several structures (referred to as areas and zones). These structures are characterized by different dynamics of regeneration processes of anthropogenic disturbances. It is found that the most negative ecological consequences during the development of the regions at the boundary of tundra and forest-tundra are associated with the disturbances of pre-tundra forests. The least perceptible ecological changes are typical for anthropogenic transformation of bog geo-systems. The anthropogenic structures, which are formed here, are characterized by a state most similar to the initial conditions and, often, by an increase of biomass in the landscapes. All these data are presented according to the author's investigations in the permafrost zone of Western Siberia

  3. Automated service quality and its behavioural consequences in CRM Environment: A structural equation modeling and causal loop diagramming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi


    Full Text Available Information technology induced communications (ICTs have revolutionized the operational aspects of service sector and have triggered a perceptual shift in service quality as rapid dis-intermediation has changed the access-mode of services on part of the consumers. ICT-enabled services further stimulated the perception of automated service quality with renewed dimensions and there subsequent significance to influence the behavioural outcomes of the consumers. Customer Relationship Management (CRM has emerged as an offshoot to technological breakthrough as it ensured service-encapsulation by integrating people, process and technology. This paper attempts to explore the relationship between automated service quality and its behavioural consequences in a relatively novel business-philosophy – CRM. The study has been conducted on the largest public sector bank of India - State bank of India (SBI at Kolkata which has successfully completed its decade-long operational automation in the year 2008. The study used structural equation modeling (SEM to justify the proposed model construct and causal loop diagramming (CLD to depict the negative and positive linkages between the variables.

  4. Time-dependent structural transformation analysis to high-level Petri net model with active state transition diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Ayumu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an accumulation of in silico data obtained by simulating large-scale biological networks, a new interest of research is emerging for elucidating how living organism functions over time in cells. Investigating the dynamic features of current computational models promises a deeper understanding of complex cellular processes. This leads us to develop a method that utilizes structural properties of the model over all simulation time steps. Further, user-friendly overviews of dynamic behaviors can be considered to provide a great help in understanding the variations of system mechanisms. Results We propose a novel method for constructing and analyzing a so-called active state transition diagram (ASTD by using time-course simulation data of a high-level Petri net. Our method includes two new algorithms. The first algorithm extracts a series of subnets (called temporal subnets reflecting biological components contributing to the dynamics, while retaining positive mathematical qualities. The second one creates an ASTD composed of unique temporal subnets. ASTD provides users with concise information allowing them to grasp and trace how a key regulatory subnet and/or a network changes with time. The applicability of our method is demonstrated by the analysis of the underlying model for circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Conclusions Building ASTD is a useful means to convert a hybrid model dealing with discrete, continuous and more complicated events to finite time-dependent states. Based on ASTD, various analytical approaches can be applied to obtain new insights into not only systematic mechanisms but also dynamics.

  5. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz


    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time co...

  6. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang


    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  7. Diagram Size vs. Layout Flaws: Understanding Quality Factors of UML Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald


    , though, is our third goal of extending our analysis aspects of diagram quality. Method: We improve our definition of diagram size and add a (provisional) definition of diagram quality as the number of topographic layout flaws. We apply these metrics on 60 diagrams of the five most commonly used types...... of UML diagram. We carefully analyze the structure of our diagram samples to ensure representativeness. We correlate diagram size and layout quality with modeler performance data obtained in previous experiments. The data set is the largest of its kind (n-156). Results: We replicate earlier findings......, and extend them to two new diagram types. We provide an improved definition of diagram size, and provide a definition of topographic layout quality, which is one more step towards a comprehensive definition of diagram quality as such. Both metrics are shown to be objectively applicable. We quantify...

  8. Construction of Architectural Structures in Cultural Heritage Protection Zones (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek; Gawryluk, Dorota


    The article raises issues of constructing contemporary architectural structures in cultural heritage protection zones, using the case study of a building located within the campus of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland. Questions revolving around the construction of this building arise from the need to preserve the surrounding historic heritage, and deal with landscaping, architectural and construction solutions as well as interior design. All these problems grow in importance when dealing with such unique buildings like the discussed example of a laboratory building for the Civil Engineering Department, built on a site within a conservation zone of the university campus. The specific character of the building and the specialist equipment with which it was to be furnished (a resistance testing machine, a 17-meter-long wave flume) necessitated a series of analyses. In turn, the fact that the new building was to be erected in the conservation zone meant that collaboration with the Heritage Conservation Office had to be undertaken at the stage of making the plan and continued during the construction works. The Heritage Officer’s recommendations concerning the building’s shape, divisions, dimensions, materials used, etc., created a situation where the team of designers and architects had to become engaged in the process of landscape and spatial management. The above requirements concerned the functions of the building and its siting on a land parcel that was difficult to handle, also because of the protected trees growing there. Other constraints included the small size of this site, the developed surroundings, and the pre-defined programme of functions and use of the new building. All the above circumstances made the task difficult and demanded good coordination between individual teams of engineers and architects, both at the stage of making the plan and during the construction works. Many of the heritage protection zones are spoilt with

  9. Deep electrical resistivity structure of Costa Rican Subduction Zone (United States)

    Worzewski, T.; Jegen, M.; Brasse, H.; Taylor, W.


    The water content and its distribution play an important role in the subduction process. Water is released from the subducting slab in a series of metamorphic reactions and the hydration of the mantle wedge may trigger the onset of melting, weakening and changes in the dynamics and thermal structure of subduction zones. However, the amount of water carried into the subduction zone and its distribution are not well constrained by existing data and are subject of vigorous current research in SFB574 (Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones: Climate Feedback and Trigger Mechanisms for Natural Disasters). We will show numerical modeling studies which are used to determine the resolution and sensitivity of the MT response to fluids in the crust and subducting slab under the special condition of a coastal setting. In 2007-2008 we conducted a long-period magnetotelluric investigations in northwestern Costa Rica on- and offshore, where the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the Carribean plate. Eleven marine magnetotelluric Stations newly developed and constructed by IFM-GEOMAR and University of Kiel were deployed on the 200 km long marine extension of the profile for several months. We will present the data and its processing, as well as our attempts to eliminate motion induced noise observed on some stations on the cliffy shelf due to tidal waves hitting the shelf and trench parallel- and perpendicular currents. The marine profile was extended landwards by the Free University of Berlin over length of 160 kilometers with further 18 stations. We present preliminary modeling results of land data, which revealed interesting features, inter alia a possible image of fluid release from the downgoing slab in the forearc, as well as ongoing modeling of the combined on- and offshore data sets.

  10. Moessbauer spectroscopy characterization and electrochemical study of the kinetics of oxidation of iron in chlorinated aqueous media: structure and equilibrium diagram of green rust one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, J.M.R.; Rezel, D.; Bauer, Ph.; Olowe, A.; Beral, A.


    Moessbauer spectroscopy allows to precise the structure of akaganeite, lepidocrocite, green rust I and initial hydroxide of a simulated corrosion process of iron in chlorinated aqueous media. The characterization of the compounds during the process is coupled with E - pH recordings, yielding the kinetics of the various reactions (order and activation energy) as well as the Pourbaix diagram of Green Rust I by scanning the [Cl - ]/[OH - ] ratio. (author) 16 refs., 15 figs

  11. Peircean diagrams of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter


    Some very good arguments can be given in favor of the Augustinean wisdom, according to which it is impossible to provide a satisfactory definition of the concept of time. However, even in the absence of a proper definition, it is possible to deal with conceptual problems regarding time. It can...... be done in terms of analogies and metaphors. In particular, it is attractive to make use of Peirce's diagrams by means of which various kinds of conceptual experimentation can be carried out. This paper investigates how Peircean diagrams can be used within the study of time. In particular, we discuss 1......) the topological properties of time, 2) the implicative structure in tense logic, 3) the notions of open future and branching time models, and finally 4) tenselogical alternatives to branching time models....

  12. Seismic attenuation structure associated with episodic tremors and slip zones, southwestern Japan, in the Nankai subduction zone (United States)

    Kita, S.; Matsubara, M.


    We imaged the seismic attenuation structure (frequency- independent Qp) beneath southwestern Japan using t* estimated by the S coda wave spectral ratio method to the waveform data from the Kiban nationwide seismic network. The seismic attenuation (Qp-1) structure was clearly imaged for the region beneath Shikoku, the Kii peninsula, and eastern Kyushu at depths down to 50 km. At depths of 5 to 35 km, the seismic attenuation structure changes at the Median Tectonic Line and other geological boundaries beneath Shikoku and the southwestern Kii peninsula. High-Qp zones within the lower crust of the overlying plate were found just above the slip regions at the centers and deeper parts of the long-term slow-slip events (SSEs) beneath the Bungo and Kii channels and central Shikoku. Beneath central Shikoku, within the overlying plate, a high-Qp zone bounded by low-Qp zones was located from the top of the overlying plate to the plate interface of the subducting plate. The high-Qp zone and low-Qp zones correspond to high-Vp and low-Vp zones of previous study by Matsubara et al. [2009], respectively. The boundaries of the high-Qp zone and the low-Qp zones were located at the segment boundaries of tremors. The heterogeneity of the seismic attenuation and velocity structures also appeared to correspond to the characteristics of geography (uplifting map by Ohmori [1990]) beneath Shikoku. The results indicated that the locations of the long- and short-term SSEs could be limited by the inhomogeneous distribution of the materials and/or condition of the overlying plate, which is considered to be formed due to geological and geographical process. The heterogeneity of materials and/or condition within the forearc crust possibly made an effect on inhomogeneous rheological strength distribution on the interface.

  13. Concentration-Discharge Relations in the Critical Zone: Implications for Resolving Critical Zone Structure, Function, and Evolution (United States)

    Chorover, Jon; Derry, Louis A.; McDowell, William H.


    Critical zone science seeks to develop mechanistic theories that describe critical zone structure, function, and long-term evolution. One postulate is that hydrogeochemical controls on critical zone evolution can be inferred from solute discharges measured down-gradient of reactive flow paths. These flow paths have variable lengths, interfacial compositions, and residence times, and their mixing is reflected in concentration-discharge (C-Q) relations. Motivation for this special section originates from a U.S. Critical Zone Observatories workshop that was held at the University of New Hampshire, 20-22 July 2015. The workshop focused on resolving mechanistic CZ controls over surface water chemical dynamics across the full range of lithogenic (e.g., nonhydrolyzing and hydrolyzing cations and oxyanions) and bioactive solutes (e.g., organic and inorganic forms of C, N, P, and S), including dissolved and colloidal species that may cooccur for a given element. Papers submitted to this special section on "concentration-discharge relations in the critical zone" include those from authors who attended the workshop, as well as others who responded to the open solicitation. Submissions were invited that utilized information pertaining to internal, integrated catchment function (relations between hydrology, biogeochemistry, and landscape structure) to help illuminate controls on observed C-Q relations.

  14. Structural kinematics based damage zone prediction in gradient structures using vibration database (United States)

    Talha, Mohammad; Ashokkumar, Chimpalthradi R.


    To explore the applications of functionally graded materials (FGMs) in dynamic structures, structural kinematics based health monitoring technique becomes an important problem. Depending upon the displacements in three dimensions, the health of the material to withstand dynamic loads is inferred in this paper, which is based on the net compressive and tensile displacements that each structural degree of freedom takes. These net displacements at each finite element node predicts damage zones of the FGM where the material is likely to fail due to a vibration response which is categorized according to loading condition. The damage zone prediction of a dynamically active FGMs plate have been accomplished using Reddy's higher-order theory. The constituent material properties are assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to the power-law behavior. The proposed C0 finite element model (FEM) is applied to get net tensile and compressive displacement distributions across the structures. A plate made of Aluminum/Ziconia is considered to illustrate the concept of structural kinematics-based health monitoring aspects of FGMs.

  15. Hydraulic structure of a fault zone at seismogenic depths (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps) (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Mittempergher, Silvia; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Garofalo, Paolo; Vho, Alice


    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps) was exhumed from c. 8 km depth, where it was characterized by seismic activity (pseudotachylytes), but also by hydrous fluid flow (alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites). Thanks to glacier-polished outcrops exposing the fault zone over a continuous area > 1 km2, the fault zone architecture has been quantitatively described with an unprecedented detail (Bistacchi 2011, PAGEOPH; Smith 2013, JSG; Mittempergher 2016, this meeting), providing a rich dataset to generate 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and simulate the fault zone hydraulic properties. Based on field and microstructural evidence, we infer that the opening and closing of fractures resulted in a toggle-switch mechanism for fluid flow during the seismic cycle: higher permeability was obtained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when the largest number of fractures was (re)opened by off-fault deformation, then permeability dropped due to hydrothermal mineral precipitation and fracture sealing. Since the fracture network that we observe now in the field is the result of the cumulative deformation history of the fault zone, which probably includes thousands of earthquakes, a fundamental parameter that cannot be directly evaluated in the field is the fraction of fractures-faults that were open immediately after a single earthquake. Postseismic permeability has been evaluated in a few cases in the world thanks to seismological evidences of fluid migration along active fault systems. Therefore, we were able to develop a parametric hydraulic model of the GLFZ and calibrate it, varying the fraction of faults/fractures that were open in the postseismic period, to obtain on one side realistic fluid flow and permeability values, and on the other side a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern. The fraction of open fractures is very close to the percolation threshold

  16. Revision of the Ge–Ti phase diagram and structural stability of the new phase Ge{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Roland W. [University of Vienna, Department of Inorganic Chemistry/Materials Chemistry, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Wien (Austria); Colinet, Catherine [Science et Ingénierie des Matériaux et Procédés, Grenoble INP, UJF, CNRS, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex (France); Tedenac, Jean-Claude [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux I.C.G., UMR-CNRS 5253, Université Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Richter, Klaus W., E-mail: [University of Vienna, Department of Inorganic Chemistry/Materials Chemistry, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Wien (Austria)


    Highlights: •New compound Ge{sub 4}Ti{sub 5} found by experiments and by DFT ground state calculations. •Enthalpies of formation calculated for different Ge–Ti compounds. •Modifications of the Ge–Ti phase diagram suggested. -- Abstract: The binary phase diagram Ge–Ti was investigated experimentally by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy including EDX analysis, and differential thermal analysis. Total energies of the compounds GeTi{sub 3}, GeTi{sub 2}, Ge{sub 3}Ti{sub 5}, Ge{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}, Ge{sub 5}Ti{sub 6}, GeTi and Ge{sub 2}Ti were calculated for various structure types employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT). Experimental studies as well as electronic calculations show the existence of a new phase Ge{sub 4}Ti{sub 5} (Ge{sub 4}Sm{sub 5}-type, oP36, Pnma) which is formed in a solid state reaction Ge{sub 3}Ti{sub 5} + Ge{sub 5}Ti{sub 6} = Ge{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}. In addition, a significant homogeneity range was observed for the compound Ge{sub 3}Ti{sub 5} and the composition of the liquid phase in the eutectic reaction L = Ge + Ge{sub 2}Ti was found to be at significant higher Ge-content (97.5 at.% Ge) than reported in previous studies. Based on these new results, a modified phase diagram Ge–Ti is suggested. The zero-temperature lattice parameters and the formation enthalpies determined by DTF calculations were found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  17. Structural phase transition and phase diagram of half doped organometallic compound [(CH3)2NH2]Mn0.5Ni0.5(HCOO)3 (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Swain, Diptikanta; Yadav, Ruchika; Row, T. N. Guru; Elizabeth, Suja


    Structural phase transition in half doped compound [(CH3)2NH2]Mn0.5Ni0.5(HCOO)3 is investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry data indicated this to be a distinct transition with enthalpy 465.6 J/mol. Powder X-ray diffraction at different temperature shows structural phase transition from trigonal R-3c to monoclinic Cc through co-existing mixed phase. Based on the experimental results, a phase diagram has been proposed. This phase transition is confirmed to be of first order nature by specific heat measurement. Entropy change and latent heat of the phase transition are also calculated from specific heat which are found to be 2.53 J/mol-K and 412 J/mol respectively.

  18. Building Path Diagrams for Multilevel Models (United States)

    Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.


    Multilevel models have come to play an increasingly important role in many areas of social science research. However, in contrast to other modeling strategies, there is currently no widely used approach for graphically diagramming multilevel models. Ideally, such diagrams would serve two functions: to provide a formal structure for deriving the…

  19. New Mexico structural zone - An analogue of the Colorado mineral belt (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Stein, H.J.; Finn, C.A.


    Updated aeromagnetic maps of New Mexico together with current knowledge of the basement geology in the northern part of the state (Sangre de Cristo and Sandia-Manzano Mountains)-where basement rocks were exposed in Precambrian-cored uplifts-indicate that the northeast-trending Proterozoic shear zones that controlled localization of ore deposits in the Colorado mineral belt extend laterally into New Mexico. The shear zones in New Mexico coincide spatially with known epigenetic precious- and base-metal ore deposits; thus, the mineralized belts in the two states share a common inherited basement tectonic setting. Reactivation of the basement structures in Late Cretaceous-Eocene and Mid-Tertiary times provided zones of weakness for emplacement of magmas and conduits for ore-forming solutions. Ore deposits in the Colorado mineral belt are of both Late Cretaceous-Eocene and Mid-Tertiary age; those in New Mexico are predominantly Mid-Tertiary in age, but include Late Cretaceous porphyry-copper deposits in southwestern New Mexico. The mineralized belt in New Mexico, named the New Mexico structural zone, is 250-km wide. The northwest boundary is the Jemez subzone (or the approximately equivalent Globe belt), and the southeastern boundary was approximately marked by the Santa Rita belt. Three groups (subzones) of mineral deposits characterize the structural zone: (1) Mid-Tertiary porphyry molybdenite and alkaline-precious-metal deposits, in the northeast segment of the Jemez zone; (2) Mid-Tertiary epithermal precious-metal deposits in the Tijeras (intermediate) zone; and (3) Late Cretaceous porphyry-copper deposits in the Santa Rita zone. The structural zone was inferred to extend from New Mexico into adjacent Arizona. The structural zone provides favorable sites for exploration, particularly those parts of the Jemez subzone covered by Neogene volcanic and sedimentary rocks. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels of seismic waves to fault zone structures (United States)

    Allam, A. A.; Tape, C.; Ben-Zion, Y.


    We analyse the volumetric sensitivity of fault zone seismic head and trapped waves by constructing finite-frequency sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels for these phases using a suite of idealized and tomographically derived velocity models of fault zones. We first validate numerical calculations by waveform comparisons with analytical results for two simple fault zone models: a vertical bimaterial interface separating two solids of differing elastic properties, and a `vertical sandwich' with a vertical low velocity zone surrounded on both sides by higher velocity media. Establishing numerical accuracy up to 12 Hz, we compute sensitivity kernels for various phases that arise in these and more realistic models. In contrast to direct P body waves, which have little or no sensitivity to the internal fault zone structure, the sensitivity kernels for head waves have sharp peaks with high values near the fault in the faster medium. Surface wave kernels show the broadest spatial distribution of sensitivity, while trapped wave kernels are extremely narrow with sensitivity focused entirely inside the low-velocity fault zone layer. Trapped waves are shown to exhibit sensitivity patterns similar to Love waves, with decreasing width as a function of frequency and multiple Fresnel zones of alternating polarity. In models that include smoothing of the boundaries of the low velocity zone, there is little effect on the trapped wave kernels, which are focused in the central core of the low velocity zone. When the source is located outside a shallow fault zone layer, trapped waves propagate through the surrounding medium with body wave sensitivity before becoming confined. The results provide building blocks for full waveform tomography of fault zone regions combining high-frequency head, trapped, body, and surface waves. Such an imaging approach can constrain fault zone structure across a larger range of scales than has previously been possible.

  1. Directions for Determining Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation with Methyl Bromide (United States)

    Buffer zones for commodity and food handling structural applications are distributed across numerous tables. This document provides directions for determining the factors to use to identify the correct table for a given application.

  2. Logical reasoning with diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Allwein, Gerard


    PART A: Theoretical Issues. 1. Visual Information and Valid Reasoning, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 2. Operational Constraints in Diagrammatic Reasoning, Atsushi Shimojima. 3. Diagrams and the Concept of Logical System, Jon Barwise and Eric Hammer. PART B: Case Studies. 4. Situation-Theoretic Account of Valid Reasoning with Venn Diagrams, Sun-Joo Shin. 5. Towards a Model Theory of Venn Diagrams, eric Hammer and Norman Danner. 6. Peircean Graphs for Propositional Logic, Eric Hammer. 7. A Diagrammatic Subsystem of Hilbert''s Geometry, Isabel Luengo. PART C: Heterogenous Systems. 8. Heterogenous Logic, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 9. Toward the Rigorous Use of Diagrams in Reasoning about Hardware, Steven D. Johnson, Jon Barwise, and Gerard Allwein. 10. Exploiting the Potential of Diagrams in Guiding Hardware Reasoning, Kathi D. Fisler

  3. The CsBr-AlBr3 Phase Diagram and The Crystal Structure of CsAlBr4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.


    on the silica ampul walls. Some molten salt density data are given. The CsAlBr4 crystal structure has been solved in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, no. 62 (D2h16), with a = 12.2137(20) , b = 7.5304(14) and c = 9.9293(16) Å, by means of X-ray powder diffraction and full-profile Rietveld refinements...... structure determinations....

  4. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises and high-angle reverse faults. The structure (basement trough) has a length of ...

  5. Three Types of Flower Structures in a Divergent-Wrench Fault Zone (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang


    Flower structures are typical features of wrench fault zones. In conventional studies, two distinct kinds of flower structures have been identified based on differences in their internal structural architecture: (1) negative flower structures characterized by synforms and normal separations and (2) positive flower structures characterized by antiforms and reverse separations. In addition to negative and positive flower structures, in this study, a third kind of flower structure was identified in a divergent-wrench fault zone, a hybrid characterized by both antiforms and normal separations. Negative flower structures widely occur in divergent-wrench fault zones, and their presence indicates the combined effects of extensional and strike-slip motion. In contrast, positive and hybrid flower structures occur only in fault restraining bends and step overs. A hybrid flower structure can be considered as product of a kind of structural deformation typical of divergent-wrench zones; it is the result of the combined effects of extensional, compressional, and strike-slip strains under a locally appropriate compressional environment. The strain situation in it represents the transition stage that in between positive and negative flower structures. Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the hybrid flower structures indicate the salient features of structural deformation in restraining bends and step overs along divergent-wrench faults, including the coexistence of three kinds of strains (i.e., compression, extension, and strike-slip) and synchronous presence of compressional (i.e., typical fault-bend fold) and extensional (normal faults) deformation in the same place. Hybrid flower structures are also favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons because of their special structural configuration in divergent-wrench fault zones.

  6. First-Principles Predictions of Yet-Unobserved Ordered Structures in the Ag-Pd Phase Diagram (United States)

    Müller, Stefan; Zunger, Alex


    The complexity of first-principles total energy calculations limits the pool of structure types considered for a ground-state search for a binary alloy system to a rather small, O(10), group of ``usual suspects.'' We conducted an unbiased search of fcc-based Ag1-xPdx structures consisting of up to many thousand atoms by using a mixed-space cluster expansion. We find an unsuspected ground state at 50%-50% composition-the L11 structure, currently known in binary metallurgy only for the Cu0.5Pt0.5 alloy system. We also provide predicted short-range-order profiles and mixing enthalpies for the high temperature, disordered alloy.

  7. The Sealing Zone in Osteoclasts: A Self-Organized Structure on the Bone. (United States)

    Takito, Jiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masanori


    Osteoclasts form a specialized cell-matrix adhesion structure, known as the "sealing zone", during bone resorption. The sealing zone is a dynamic actin-rich structure that defines the resorption area of the bone. The detailed dynamics and fine structure of the sealing zone have been elusive. Osteoclasts plated on glass do not form a sealing zone, but generate a separate supra-molecular structure called the "podosome belt". Podosomes are integrin-based adhesion complexes involved in matrix adhesion, cell migration, matrix degradation, and mechanosensing. Invadopodia, podosome-like protrusions in cancer cells, are involved in cell invasion into other tissues by promoting matrix degradation. Both podosomes and invadopodia exhibit actin pattern transitions during maturation. We previously found that Arp2/3-dependent actin flow occurs in all observed assembly patterns of podosomes in osteoclasts on glass. It is known that the actin wave in Dictyostelium cells exhibits a similar pattern transition in its evolution. Because of significant advances in our understanding regarding the mechanism of podosomes/invadopodia formation over the last decade, we revisited the structure and function of the sealing zone in this review, highlighting the possible involvement of self-organized actin waves in the organogenesis of the sealing zone.

  8. Seismic structure of the Rivera subduction zone - the MARS experiment (United States)

    Grand, S. P.; Yang, T.; Sudharja, S.; Wilson, D.; Guzman Speziale, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, J.; Leon-Soto, G.; Ni, J.; Dominguez Reyes, T.


    The subduction zone of western Mexico is a unique region on Earth where microplate capture and overriding plate disruption are occurring today. The small Rivera plate is subducting beneath western most Mexico primarily beneath Jalisco state while to the east it is the Cocos plate that is subducting. Above the Rivera plate the Jalisco block of Mexico is bounded by the north trending Colima Rift and the northwest trending Tepic-Chapala Rift and may form a microplate in its own right. Magmatism is present throughout the region and is unusual for a subduction zone in that geochemical analyses indicate an ocean island basalt component to some of the lavas. Also, Colima volcano is offset trenchward from other volcanoes in the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Little is known of the subducting Rivera plate geometry due to the paucity of seismicity within the plate yet the geometry of the Rivera and Cocos plates at depth are likely critical for understanding the tectonic evolution of western Mexico. The MARS (MApping the Rivera Subduction zone) project consists of the deployment of 50 broadband seismometers covering the Jalisco block from the coast to the Tepic-Chapala rift in the north and about 150 km to the west of the Colima rift. The instruments were deployed in January, 2006 and will be removed in June, 2007. The goal of the project is to seismically image the subducting Rivera and Cocos plates at depth as well as the mantle wedge above the plates. A number of different analyses of MARS data are underway including teleseismic tomography, receiver function analysis, and shear wave splitting analysis. The preliminary tomography results clearly show both subducting plates with a sharp change in dip to the east of the Colima rift probably indicating a tear between the two plates along a trend more eastward than the trend of the rift. The images also show extremely slow shallow mantle velocities beneath the Tepic-Chapala rift but not beneath the Colima rift. Receiver functions

  9. Structural Health Monitoring of Railway Transition Zones Using Satellite Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Wang


    Full Text Available Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material properties and structure behavior. Without timely maintenance, the differential settlement may lead to the damage of track components and loss of passenger’s comfort. To ensure the safety of railway operations and reduce the maintenance costs, it is necessary to consecutively monitor the structural health condition of the transition zones in an economical manner and detect the changes at an early stage. However, using the current in situ monitoring of transition zones is hard to achieve this goal, because most in situ techniques (e.g., track-measuring coaches are labor-consuming and usually not frequently performed (approximately twice a year in the Netherlands. To tackle the limitations of the in situ techniques, a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR system is presented in this paper, which provides a potential solution for a consecutive structural health monitoring of transition zones with bi-/tri-weekly data update and mm-level precision. To demonstrate the feasibility of the InSAR system for monitoring transition zones, a transition zone is tested. The results show that the differential settlement in the transition zone and the settlement rate can be observed and detected by the InSAR measurements. Moreover, the InSAR results are cross-validated against measurements obtained using a measuring coach and a Digital Image Correlation (DIC device. The results of the three measuring techniques show a good correlation, which proves the applicability of InSAR for the structural health monitoring of transition zones in railway track.

  10. Structural Health Monitoring of Railway Transition Zones Using Satellite Radar Data. (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Chang, Ling; Markine, Valeri


    Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material properties and structure behavior. Without timely maintenance, the differential settlement may lead to the damage of track components and loss of passenger's comfort. To ensure the safety of railway operations and reduce the maintenance costs, it is necessary to consecutively monitor the structural health condition of the transition zones in an economical manner and detect the changes at an early stage. However, using the current in situ monitoring of transition zones is hard to achieve this goal, because most in situ techniques (e.g., track-measuring coaches) are labor-consuming and usually not frequently performed (approximately twice a year in the Netherlands). To tackle the limitations of the in situ techniques, a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) system is presented in this paper, which provides a potential solution for a consecutive structural health monitoring of transition zones with bi-/tri-weekly data update and mm-level precision. To demonstrate the feasibility of the InSAR system for monitoring transition zones, a transition zone is tested. The results show that the differential settlement in the transition zone and the settlement rate can be observed and detected by the InSAR measurements. Moreover, the InSAR results are cross-validated against measurements obtained using a measuring coach and a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) device. The results of the three measuring techniques show a good correlation, which proves the applicability of InSAR for the structural health monitoring of transition zones in railway track.

  11. A Simple Approach for Boundary Improvement of Euler Diagrams. (United States)

    Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Scheidegger, Carlos


    General methods for drawing Euler diagrams tend to generate irregular polygons. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that smoother contours make these diagrams easier to read. In this paper, we present a simple method to smooth the boundaries of any Euler diagram drawing. When refining the diagram, the method must ensure that set elements remain inside their appropriate boundaries and that no region is removed or created in the diagram. Our approach uses a force system that improves the diagram while at the same time ensuring its topological structure does not change. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach through case studies and quantitative evaluations.

  12. The Voronoi diagram of half-balls and its application to the prediction of the 3D structure of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, François; Hamelryck, Thomas


    The calculation of the overlap volume of half-spheres or ellipsoids is of direct interest in structural bioinformatics, which is concerned with the computational study of biological macromolecules on a genomic scale. We present an algorithm for computing the Delaunay graph and the overlap volume...

  13. Hydrologic Synthesis Across the Critical Zone Observatory Network: A Step Towards Understanding the Coevolution of Critical Zone Function and Structure (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Harman, C. J.; Molotch, N. P.


    The physical and biological architecture of the Earth's Critical Zone controls hydrologic partitioning, storage, and chemical evolution of precipitated water. The Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) Network provides an ideal platform to explore linkages between catchment structure and hydrologic function across a gradient of geologic and climatic settings. A legacy of hypothesis-motivated research at each site has generated a wealth of data characterizing the architecture and hydrologic function of the critical zone. We will present a synthesis of this data that aims to elucidate and explain (in the sense of making mutually intelligible) variations in hydrologic function across the CZO network. Top-down quantitative signatures of the storage and partitioning of water at catchment scales extracted from precipitation, streamflow, and meteorological data will be compared with each other, and provide quantitative benchmarks to assess differences in perceptual models of hydrologic function at each CZO site. Annual water balance analyses show that CZO sites span a wide gradient of aridity and evaporative partitioning. The aridity index (PET/P) ranges from 0.3 at Luquillo to 4.3 at Reynolds Creek, while the evaporative index (E/P) ranges from 0.3 at Luquillo (Rio Mamayes) to 0.9 at Reynolds Creek (Reynolds Creek Outlet). Snow depth and SWE observations reveal that snowpack is an important seasonal storage reservoir at three sites: Boulder, Jemez, Reynolds Creek and Southern Sierra. Simple dynamical models are also used to infer seasonal patterns of subsurface catchment storage. A root-zone water balance model reveals unique seasonal variations in plant-available water storage. Seasonal patterns of plant-available storage are driven by the asynchronicity of seasonal precipitation and evaporation cycles. Catchment sensitivity functions are derived at each site to infer relative changes in hydraulic storage (the apparent storage reservoir responsible for modulating streamflow

  14. Inductively generating Euler diagrams. (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi


    Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  15. Geological and structural characterization and microtectonic study of shear zones Colonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, V.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Spoturno, J.; Wemmer, K.


    The “Colonia Shear Zone System”, characterized by a transcurrent system of predominant sinistral shear sense, is defined by two approximately parallel shear zones, denominated Isla San Gabriel-Juan Lacaze Shear Zone (ISG-JL S.Z.) and Islas de Hornos-Arroyo Riachuelo Shear Zone (IH-AºR S. Z.). Represented by rocks with ductile and brittle deformation, are defined as a strike slip fault system, with dominant subvertical foliation orientations: 090-100º (dip-direction 190º) and 090-100º (dip-direction 005º). The K/Ar geochronology realized, considering the estimates temperatures conditions for shear zones (450-550º), indicate that 1780-1812 Ma should be considered a cooling age and therefore a minimum deformation age. The observed microstructures suggest deformation conditions with temperatures between 450-550º overprinted by cataclastic flow structures (reactivation at lower temperature)

  16. On Methods of Establishing Design Diagrams for Structural Integrity of Slender Complex Types of Breakwater Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Howell, Gary J.


    Many of the recent dramatic failures of a number of large rubble mound breakwaters armoured with Dolosse and Tetrapods were caused by breakage of the concrete armour units. Breakage took place before the hydraulic stability of intact units in the armour layers expired. Thus there was not a balance...... between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layer. Although the relative strength of the units decreases with increasing size (Burcharth 1980) the shape of the units was kept constant and not related to the size...... of the units and the size was not increased beyond the demand dictated by the hydraulic stability.While the hydraulic stability can be roughly estimated by formulae and further evaluated in conventional hydraulic model tests, it is much more complicated to assess the structural integrity of the armour units...

  17. Dynamic calculation of structures in seismic zones. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, Alain; Davidovici, Victor


    The aims of this book are both didactic and practical. It is therefore addressed to both experienced engineers and students. Some general information about earthquakes and their occurrence is first given. The problem of a simple oscillator is presented. In this way, the reader is provided with an insight into undestanding the dynamic phenomena taking place and is introduced to the concept of response spectra and to an intuitive comprehension of the behavior of structures during earthquakes. The next chapter is devoted to the cases most frequently encountered with multiple oscillator structures. Theoretical studies are based on the usual modal decomposition method. The various practical methods of calculation employed are then examined, emphasis being given to the various different stages involved and to which of them is the best suited for a particular type of structure. Advise is given on how to select the model whose behavior best describes the real structure, both manual and computer methods of calculation being envisaged [fr

  18. Subsurface structures of the active reverse fault zones in Japan inferred from gravity anomalies. (United States)

    Matsumoto, N.; Sawada, A.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Okada, S.; Tanaka, T.; Honda, R.


    The object of our study is to examine subsurface features such as continuity, segmentation and faulting type, of the active reverse fault zones. We use the gravity data published by the Gravity Research Group in Southwest Japan (2001), the Geographical Survey Institute (2006), Yamamoto et al. (2011), Honda et al. (2012), and the Geological Survey of Japan, AIST (2013) in this study. We obtained the Bouguer anomalies through terrain corrections with 10 m DEM (Sawada et al. 2015) under the assumed density of 2670 kg/m3, a band-pass filtering, and removal of linear trend. Several derivatives and structural parameters calculated from a gravity gradient tensor are applied to highlight the features, such as a first horizontal derivatives (HD), a first vertical derivatives (VD), a normalized total horizontal derivative (TDX), a dip angle (β), and a dimensionality index (Di). We analyzed 43 reverse fault zones in northeast Japan and the northern part of southwest Japan among major active fault zones selected by Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. As the results, the subsurface structural boundaries clearly appear along the faults at 21 faults zones. The weak correlations appear at 13 fault zones, and no correlations are recognized at 9 fault zones. For example, in the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line, the subsurface structure boundary seems to extend further north than the surface trace. Also, a left stepping structure of the fault around Hakuba is more clearly observed with HD. The subsurface structures, which detected as the higher values of HD, are distributed on the east side of the surface rupture in the north segments and on the west side in the south segments, indicating a change of the dip direction, the east dipping to the west dipping, from north to south. In the Yokote basin fault zone, the subsurface structural boundary are clearly detected with HD, VD and TDX along the fault zone in the north segment, but less clearly in the south segment. Also, Di

  19. Structural health monitoring of railway transition zones using satellite radar data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haoyu; Chang, L.; Markine, V.L.


    Transition zones in railway tracks are locationswith considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material

  20. The Sealing Zone in Osteoclasts: A Self-Organized Structure on the Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takito


    Full Text Available Osteoclasts form a specialized cell–matrix adhesion structure, known as the “sealing zone”, during bone resorption. The sealing zone is a dynamic actin-rich structure that defines the resorption area of the bone. The detailed dynamics and fine structure of the sealing zone have been elusive. Osteoclasts plated on glass do not form a sealing zone, but generate a separate supra-molecular structure called the “podosome belt”. Podosomes are integrin-based adhesion complexes involved in matrix adhesion, cell migration, matrix degradation, and mechanosensing. Invadopodia, podosome-like protrusions in cancer cells, are involved in cell invasion into other tissues by promoting matrix degradation. Both podosomes and invadopodia exhibit actin pattern transitions during maturation. We previously found that Arp2/3-dependent actin flow occurs in all observed assembly patterns of podosomes in osteoclasts on glass. It is known that the actin wave in Dictyostelium cells exhibits a similar pattern transition in its evolution. Because of significant advances in our understanding regarding the mechanism of podosomes/invadopodia formation over the last decade, we revisited the structure and function of the sealing zone in this review, highlighting the possible involvement of self-organized actin waves in the organogenesis of the sealing zone.

  1. Childhood obesity in transition zones: an analysis using structuration theory. (United States)

    Chan, Christine; Deave, Toity; Greenhalgh, Trisha


    Childhood obesity is particularly prevalent in areas that have seen rapid economic growth, urbanisation, cultural transition, and commodification of food systems. Structuration theory may illuminate the interaction between population and individual-level causes of obesity. We conducted in-depth ethnographies of six overweight/obese and four non-overweight preschool children in Hong Kong, each followed for 12-18 months. Analysis was informed by Stones' strong structuration theory. Risk factors played out differently for different children as social structures were enacted at the level of family and preschool. The network of caregiving roles and relationships around the overweight/obese child was typically weak and disjointed, and the primary caregiver appeared confused by mixed messages about what is normal, expected and legitimate behaviour. In particular, external social structures created pressure to shift childcare routines from the logic of nurturing to the logic of consumption. Our findings suggest that threats to what Giddens called ontological security in the primary caregiver may underpin the poor parenting, family stress and weak mealtime routines that mediate the relationship between an obesogenic environment and the development of obesity in a particular child. This preliminary study offers a potentially transferable approach for studying emerging epidemics of diseases of modernity in transition societies.

  2. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    trough) has a length of about 150 km and deepens by up to 1 km from its regional trend (northward dipping). The basement trough includes a .... lower sedimentary layers follow the basement trend of the structure on its slopes and abut .... Keeping the spatial deformation activity in view, the early Pliocene age is assigned to ...

  3. Multi-scale velocity structure of an active seismogenic normal fault zone (Central Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Fondriest, M.; Mitchell, T. M.; Vassallo, M.; Di Giulio, G.; Fabrizio, B.; Passelegue, F. X.; Pischiutta, M.; Di Toro, G.


    The petrophysical characterization of fault zones (e.g., ultrasonic velocities, porosity and fracture intensity of the fault zone rocks) is a relevant topic in reservoir geology (exploration and exploitation) and fault mechanics (for both long-term quasi-static and fast dynamic fault evolution). Here we characterized the shallow subsurface velocity structure of the active Vado di Corno normal fault zone (Campo Imperatore, Central Apennines, Italy). Based on a detailed structural mapping of the fault footwall block, four main structural units separated by principal fault strands were recognized: (i) cataclastic unit, (ii) breccia unit, (iii) high-strain damage zone, (iv) low-strain damage zone. The single units were systematically sampled along a transect ( 200 m) orthogonal to the average strike of the fault and characterized in the laboratory in terms of petrophysical properties (i.e., Vp, Vs and He-porosity). The cataclastic and breccia units (Vp = 4.68±0.43 kms-1, Vs = 2.68±0.24 kms-1) were significantly "slower" compared to the damage zone units (Vp = 5.43±0.53 kms-1, Vs = 3.20±0.29 kms-1). A general negative correlation between ultrasonic velocity and porosity values was reported; moreover measured acoustic anisotropies were related to deformation fabrics (i.e., open fractures, veins) observed at the sample scale. A Vp - Vsseismic refraction tomography was performed in the field along a profile ( 90 m) across the fault zone. The tomographic results clearly illuminated fault-bounded rock bodies characterized by different velocities (i.e., elastic properties) and geometries which match with the ones deduced from the structural analysis of the fault zone exposures. Fracture intensity measurements (both at the sample and outcrop scale) were performed to investigate the scaling relation between laboratory and field measurements. These results were then coupled with ultrasonic velocity vs. confining pressure (0-30 MPa) profiles measured in the laboratory to

  4. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications (United States)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny


    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  5. Typologie Et Structure Des Parcs Agroforestiers Dans La Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La structure en diamètre des ligneux a été ajustée à la distribution de Weibull à trois paramètres. Bien que les deux espèces caractéristiques (néré et karité) représentent 71 à 76 % de l'effectif total des ligneux épargnés dans les champs et jachères, les parcs agroforestiers du milieu d'étude ne sont pas uniformes. Quatre ...

  6. A comparative study of linear and region based diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Gottfried


    Full Text Available There are two categories of objects spatial information science investigates: actual objects and their spatial properties, such as in geography, and abstract objects which are employed metaphorically, as for visual languages. A prominent example of the latter are diagrams that model knowledge of some domain. Different aspects of diagrams are of interest, including their formal properties or how human users work with them, for example, with diagrams representing sets. The literature about diagrammatic systems for the representation of sets shows a dominance of region-based diagrams like Euler circles and Venn diagrams. The effectiveness of these diagrams, however, is limited because region-based diagrams become quite complex for more then three sets. By contrast, linear diagrams are not equally prevalent but enable the representation of a greater number of sets without getting cluttered. Cluttered diagrams exhibit inherent complexity due to overlapping objects, irrelevant details, or other reasons that impinge upon their legibility. This study contrasts both types of diagrammatic systems and investigates whether the performance of users differs for both kinds of diagrams. A significant difference can be shown regarding the number of diagrams that can be drawn within a fixed period of time and regarding the number of errors made. The results indicate that linear diagrams are more effective by being more restrictive and because region based diagrams show much clutter due to overlapping, coincident, and tangentially touching contours, as well as an overwhelming number of empty zones. Linear diagrams are less prone to errors and do not suffer from clutter.

  7. Analysis of the Fracture Zones and Structural Lineament Using Multi-offset VSP in the KURT Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hun


    We identified the geologic structure and fracture zones using multi-offset VSP at DB-1 in KURT site. The fracture zones at 154 m and 220 m depth in DB-1 were confirmed and the fracture zone near 780 m was expected. The deep-angle fracture found in previous survey also checked


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, T. [Also at University of Applied Sciences, Nagy Lajos kir. útja 1-9, H-1148 Budapest, Hungary. (Hungary); Regály, Zs. [Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)


    The circular restricted three-body problem is investigated in the context of accretion and scattering processes. In our model, a large number of identical non-interacting mass-less planetesimals are considered in the planar case orbiting a star-planet system. This description allows us to investigate the gravitational scattering and possible capture of the particles by the forming planetary embryo in a dynamical systems approach. Although the problem serves a large variety of complex motions, the results can be easily interpreted because of the low dimensionality of the phase space. We show that initial conditions define isolated regions of the disk, where planetesimals accrete or escape, which have, in fact, a fractal structure. The fractal geometry of these ''basins'' implies that the dynamics is very complex. Based on the calculated escape rates and escape times, it is also demonstrated that the planetary accretion rate is exponential for short times and follows a power law for longer integration. A new numerical calculation of the maximum mass that a planet can reach (described by the expression of the isolation mass) is also derived.

  9. Structural phase diagram and equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of YBa2Cu3O6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.H.; Lebech, B.; Poulsen, H.F.


    near equilibrium conditions at 350 points in (x,T)-space with 0.15 ideal gas law in connection with iodiometric titration and structural analyses. The temperature......An experimental technique by which in-situ gas volumetric measurements are carried out on a neutron powder diffractometer, is presented and used for simultaneous studies of oxygen equilibrium partial pressure and the structural phase diagram of YBa2Cu3O6 + x. Experimental data was collected under...

  10. Pool Structures: A New Type of Interaction Zones of Lithospheric Plate Flows (United States)

    Garetskyi, R. G.; Leonov, M. G.


    Study of tectono-geodynamic clusters of the continental lithosphere (the Sloboda cluster of the East European Platform and the Pamir cluster of Central Asia) permitted identification of pool structures, which are a specific type of zone of intraplate interaction of rock masses.

  11. Internal structure of fault zones in geothermal reservoirs: Examples from palaeogeothermal fields and potential host rocks (United States)

    Leonie Philipp, Sonja; Reyer, Dorothea; Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Afşar, Filiz


    Fault zones commonly have great effects on fluid transport in geothermal reservoirs. During fault slip all the pores and small fractures that meet with the slip plane become interconnected so that the inner part of the fault, the fault core, consisting of breccia or gouge, may suddenly develop a very high permeability. This is evidenced, for example by networks of mineral veins in deeply eroded fault zones in palaeogeothermal fields. Inactive faults, however, may have low permeabilities and even act as flow barriers. In natural and man-made geothermal reservoirs, the orientation of fault zones in relation to the current stress field and their internal structure needs be known as accurately as possible. One reason is that the activity of the fault zone depends on its angle to the principal stress directions. Another reason is that the outer part of a fault zone, the damage zone, comprises numerous fractures of various sizes. Here we present field examples of faults, and associated joints and mineral veins, in palaeogeothermal fields, and potential host rocks for man-made geothermal reservoirs, respectively. We studied several localities of different stratigraphies, lithologies and tectonic settings: (1) 58 fault zones in 22 outcrops from Upper Carboniferous to Upper Cretaceous in the Northwest German Basin (siliciclastic, carbonate and volcanic rocks); (2) 16 fault zones in 9 outcrops in Lower Permian to Middle Triassic (mainly sandstone, limestone and granite) in the Upper Rhine Graben; and (3) 74 fault zones in two coastal sections of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age (mudstones and limestone-marl alternations) in the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. (1) and (2) are outcrop analogues of geothermal reservoir horizons, (3) represent palaeogeothermal fields with mineral veins. The field studies in the Northwest German Basin (1) show pronounced differences between normal-fault zones in carbonate and clastic rocks. In carbonate rocks clear damage zones occur that are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Semakin


    Full Text Available In terms of tectonics, the Sea of Okhotsk (Fig.1 is the epi-Mesozoic Okhotsk plate comprising the heterogeneous basement that is mainly pre-Cenozoic (the lower structural stage and the sedimentary cover that is mainly represented by the Paleogenic-Neogenic-Quaternary deposits with the Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks observed locally without a visible hiatus (the upper structural stage.Results of tectonic zoning of the sedimentary cover based on  lithophysical indicators (Fig. 2 are represented in the format of maps showing lithophysical complexes (LC within the limits of four regional seismo-stratigraphic complexes/structural layers (RSSC I-IV corresponding to the following time intervals: the pre-Oligocene К2-P1-2 (RSSC I, the Oligocene – Lower Miocene P3-N11 (RSSC II, the Lower-Mid Miocene N11-2 (RSSC III, and the Upper Miocene – Pliocene N13-N2 (RSSC IV. Diverse lithological-facies associations composing the RSSCs are grouped into the following lithophysical complexes (LC: 1 - coal-bearing silty-clayey-sandy terrigenous, 2 - sandy-silty-clayey terrigenous, 3 - silty-clayey-siliceous, and 4 - sandy-silty-clayey volcanic [Sergeyev, 2006].Tectonic zoning of the sedimentary cover based on structural indicators is carried out with reference to the sediment-thickness map [Sergeyev, 2006], including a significantly revised segment showing the area of the Deryugin basin [Semakin, Kochergin, 2013]. Results of such zoning are represented in the format of a structural-tectonic map (Fig. 3 showing orientations and morphology of the structural elements of the sedimentary cover, the thickness of the sedimentary cover, and amplitudes of relative uplifts and troughs.With reference to the structural-tectonic map (see Fig 3, the structural elements of different orders are grouped by their sizes, spatial positions and orientations and thus comprise tectonic sistems (Fig. 4, structural zones (Fig. 5 that unclude relative uplifts and troughs that are

  13. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  14. Enhancing the Diagramming Method in Informal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The argument diagramming method developed by Monroe C. Beardsley in his (1950 book Practical Logic, which has since become the gold standard for diagramming arguments in informal logic, makes it possible to map the relation between premises and conclusions of a chain of reasoning in relatively complex ways. The method has since been adapted and developed in a number of directions by many contemporary informal logicians and argumentation theorists. It has proved useful in practical applications and especially pedagogically in teaching basic logic and critical reasoning skills at all levels of scientific education. I propose in this essay to build on Beardsley diagramming techniques to refine and supplement their structural tools for visualizing logical relationships in a number of categories not originally accommodated by Beardsley diagramming, including circular reasoning, reductio ad absurdum arguments, and efforts to dispute and contradict arguments, with applications and analysis.

  15. Structural Mapping Along the Central San Andreas Fault-zone Using Airborne Electromagnetics (United States)

    Zamudio, K. D.; Bedrosian, P.; Ball, L. B.


    Investigations of active fault zones typically focus on either surface expressions or the associated seismogenic zones. However, the largely aseismic upper kilometer can hold significant insight into fault-zone architecture, strain partitioning, and fault-zone permeability. Geophysical imaging of the first kilometer provides a link between surface fault mapping and seismically-defined fault zones and is particularly important in geologically complex regions with limited surface exposure. Additionally, near surface imaging can provide insight into the impact of faulting on the hydrogeology of the critical zone. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods offer a unique opportunity to collect a spatially-large, detailed dataset in a matter of days, and are used to constrain subsurface resistivity to depths of 500 meters or more. We present initial results from an AEM survey flown over a 60 kilometer long segment of the central San Andreas Fault (SAF). The survey is centered near Parkfield, California, the site of the SAFOD drillhole, which marks the transition between a creeping fault segment to the north and a locked zone to the south. Cross sections with a depth of investigation up to approximately 500 meters highlight the complex Tertiary and Mesozoic geology that is dismembered by the SAF system. Numerous fault-parallel structures are imaged across a more than 10 kilometer wide zone centered on the surface trace. Many of these features can be related to faults and folds within Plio-Miocene sedimentary rocks found on both sides of the fault. Northeast of the fault, rocks of the Mesozoic Franciscan and Great Valley complexes are extremely heterogeneous, with highly resistive volcanic rocks within a more conductive background. The upper 300 meters of a prominent fault-zone conductor, previously imaged to 1-3 kilometers depth by magnetotellurics, is restricted to a 20 kilometer long segment of the fault, but is up to 4 kilometers wide in places. Elevated fault-zone

  16. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)


    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  17. Itataia's deposit - Structural zoning of a pit until the level 480 meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.C.G.S.


    This work is part of Itataia Project-Geotechnics; in it are introduced several comments concerning the structural zoning of a pit in Itataias' phosphorous-uranipherous deposit, until the level 480 meters. The structural parameters (fractures, faults, foliations) obtained in surface and underground works were statistically treated. Stereographic projection was used to define eventual slipping into the pit. All the data were arranged in tables to make it easy the comparison with experimental pits. (author) [pt

  18. Phase diagram and structural evolution of tin/indium (Sn/In) nanosolder particles: from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state. (United States)

    Shu, Yang; Ando, Teiichi; Yin, Qiyue; Zhou, Guangwen; Gu, Zhiyong


    A binary system of tin/indium (Sn/In) in the form of nanoparticles was investigated for phase transitions and structural evolution at different temperatures and compositions. The Sn/In nanosolder particles in the composition range of 24-72 wt% In were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted chemical reduction method under ambient conditions. The morphology and microstructure of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). HRTEM and SAED identified InSn 4 and In, with some Sn being detected by XRD, but no In 3 Sn was observed. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermographs of the as-synthesized nanoparticles exhibited an endothermic peak at around 116 °C, which is indicative of the metastable eutectic melting of InSn 4 and In. When the nanosolders were subjected to heat treatment at 50-225 °C, the equilibrium phase In 3 Sn appeared while Sn disappeared. The equilibrium state was effectively attained at 225 °C. A Tammann plot of the DSC data of the as-synthesized nanoparticles indicated that the metastable eutectic composition is about 62% In, while that of the DSC data of the 225 °C heat-treated nanoparticles yielded a eutectic composition of 54% In, which confirmed the attainment of the equilibrium state at 225 °C. The phase boundaries estimated from the DSC data of heat-treated Sn/In nanosolder particles matched well with those in the established Sn-In equilibrium phase diagram. The phase transition behavior of Sn/In nanosolders leads to a new understanding of binary alloy particles at the nanoscale, and provides important information for their low temperature soldering processing and applications.

  19. Critical evaluation and optimization of data on the Bi-Te-Se phase diagram and crystal structure of Bi2Te4-Bi2Se3 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhevskaya, S.N.; Shelimova, L.E.; Shestakov, V.A.


    Critical analysis of published experimental data on the diagram of the Bi-Te-Se ternary system state is accomplished. The refined version of the diagram of the Bi 2 Te 3 -Bi 2 Se 3 quasi-binary system is plotted. The sub-solidus area of this diagram is plotted for the first time on the basis of experimental data and thermo-dynamical calculations. The stratification cupola in a solid state is outlined and the supposition is made on the Bi 2 Te 2 Se compound formation by syntetic reaction. The crystallographic data on the solid solutions of the Bi 2 Te 3 -Bi 2 Se 3 cross section and Bi 2 Te 2 Se compound are generalized [ru

  20. Environmental drivers of soil microbial community structure and function at the Avon River Critical Zone Observatory. (United States)

    Gleeson, Deirdre; Mathes, Falko; Farrell, Mark; Leopold, Matthias


    The Critical Zone is defined as the thin, permeable layer from the tops of the trees to the bottom of the bedrock that sustains terrestrial life on Earth. The geometry and shape of the various weathering zones are known as the critical zone architecture. At the centre of the Critical Zone are soils and the microorganisms that inhabit them. In Western Australia, the million-year-old stable weathering history and more recent lateral erosion during the past hundreds of thousands of years have created a geomorphic setting where deep weathering zones are now exposed on the surface along the flanks of many lateritic hills. These old weathering zones provide diverse physical and chemical properties that influence near surface pedologic conditions and thus likely shape current surface microbiology. Here, we present data derived from a small lateritic hill on the UWA Farm Ridgefield. Spatial soil sampling revealed the contrasting distribution patterns of simple soil parameters such as pH (CaCl2) and electric conductivity. These are clearly linked with underlying changes of the critical zone architecture and show a strong contrast with low values of pH3.3 at the top of the hill to pH5.3 at the bottom. These parameters were identified as major drivers of microbial spatial variability in terms of bacterial and archaeal community composition but not abundance. In addition, we used sensitive (14)C labelling to assess turnover of three model organic nitrogen compounds - an important biogeochemical functional trait relating to nutrient availability. Though generally rapid and in the order of rates reported elsewhere (t½10h). In conclusion, we have shown that the weathering and erosion history of ancient Western Australia affects the surface pedology and has consequences for microbial community structure and function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Structural Architecture and Tectonic Inheritance of the Vlora-Elbasan Transfer Zone in Albanides-Albania (United States)

    Abus, E. D.; Dilek, Y.


    The Albanides in the Balkan Peninsula are part of the Alpine orogenic belt and host one of the most significant oil fields in SE Europe. The late Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Albanides has been strongly controlled by the relative movements of Adria or Apulia, a microcontinent with a West Gondwana affinity with respect to Eurasia. In northeastern Albania, the Internal Albanides consist of Paleozoic - Jurassic basement rocks, which involved subduction zone tectonics of the Pindos-Mirdita ocean basin. The External Albanides, on the other hand, represent a fold-and-thrust belt with deformation in a broad zone of oblique convergence. This tectonic domain is divided, from east to west, into five major structural zones: the Krasta-Cukali Zone, the Kruja Zone, the Peri-Adriatic Depression, the Ionian Zone, and the Sazani Zone, which is represented by the Apulian platform carbonates. The zone is characterized by NW-SE-running and SW-verging thrust fault systems that involve a thick series of Mesozoic - Tertiary passive margin carbonates, unconformably overlain by Oligocene clastic units. These two tectonic zones are dissected by the NE-SW-striking Vlora-Elbasan Transfer Zone, which extends eastwards into the Internal Albanides, affecting the structural architecture and the tectonic evolution of the entire mountain belt. This fault zone that has been tectonically active from the Triassic to recent have display diapiric structures along it.

  2. Two-phase modeling of DDT: Structure of the velocity-relaxation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapila, A.K.; Son, S.F.; Bdzil, J.B.; Menikoff, R.; Stewart, D.S.


    The structure of the velocity relaxation zone in a hyperbolic, nonconservative, two-phase model is examined in the limit of large drag, and in the context of the problem of deflagration-to-detonation transition in a granular explosive. The primary motivation for the study is the desire to relate the end states across the relaxation zone, which can then be treated as a discontinuity in a reduced, equivelocity model, that is computationally more efficient than its parent. In contrast to a conservative system, where end states across thin zones of rapid variation are determined principally by algebraic statements of conservation, the nonconservative character of the present system requires an explicit consideration of the structure. Starting with the minimum admissible wave speed, the structure is mapped out as the wave speed increases. Several critical wave speeds corresponding to changes in the structure are identified. The archetypal structure is partly dispersed, monotonic, and involves conventional hydrodynamic shocks in one or both phases. The picture is reminiscent of, but more complex than, what is observed in such (simpler) two-phase media as a dusty gas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression. (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W


    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined.

  4. Phase diagram of the La-Si binary system under high pressure and the structures of superconducting LaSi 5 and LaSi 10 (United States)

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Izumi, Satoshi; Maekawa, Shoichi; Umemoto, Keita


    The La-Si binary phase diagram under a high pressure of 13.5 GPa was experimentally constructed. New superconducting silicides LaSi 5 and LaSi 10 were found, which have peritectic decomposition temperatures at 1000 and 750 °C, respectively. The single crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed that there are two polymorphs in LaSi 5. The α-form obtained by heating a molar mixture of LaSi 2 and 3 Si at about 700 °C or by a rapid cooling from 1000 °C under pressure crystallizes with the space group C2 /m and the lattice parameters a=15.11(3), b=4.032(6), c=8.26(1) Å, and β=109.11(1)°. The β-form obtained by a slow cooling from 800-950 °C to 600 °C under pressure has the same space group but with slightly different lattice parameters, a=14.922(7), b=3.906(2), c=8.807(4) Å, and β=107.19(1)°. The β-form is formed during the incomplete transformation of the α-form on cooling, and has always been obtained as a mixture with the α-form. The compound can be characterized as a Zintl phase with a polyanionic framework ∞3[Si] with large tunnels running along the b axis hosting lanthanum ions. In the β-form, three of the five Si sites are disordered. The two polymorphs contain one dimensional sila-polyacene ribbons, Si ladder polymer, running along the b axis. The α-form showed superconductivity with the transition temperature T c of 11.5 K. LaSi 10 crystallizes with the space group 6 3/ mmc and the lattice parameters a=9.623(4), c=4.723(3) Å. It is composed of La containing Si 18 polyhedra (La@Si 18) of hexagonal beer-barrel shape, which form straight columns by stacking along the c-axis via face sharing. One-dimensional columns of La@Si 18 barrels are edge-shared, and bundled with infinite Si trigonal bipyramid chains via corner sharing. The Si atoms in the straight chains have a five-fold coordination. LaSi 10 became a superconductor with T c=6.7 K. The ab initio calculation of the electric band structures showed that α-LaSi 5 and LaSi 10 are metallic

  5. The amplituhedron from momentum twistor diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuntao [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); He, Song [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ, 08540 (United States); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)


    We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM, dubbed the “momentum-twistor diagrams”. These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular the latter involve isolated bubble-structures for loop variables arising from forward limits, or the entangled removal of particles. From each diagram, the generalized “boundary measurement” directly gives the C, D matrices, thus a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and we expect that our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude provide triangulations of the amplituhedron. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.

  6. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter


    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  7. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  8. Microbial community structure across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone in the southeastern coastal plain. (United States)

    Ducey, T F; Johnson, P R; Shriner, A D; Matheny, T A; Hunt, P G


    Riparian buffer zones are important for both natural and developed ecosystems throughout the world because of their ability to retain nutrients, prevent soil erosion, protect aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, and filter pollutants. Despite their importance, the microbial community structures of riparian buffer zones remains poorly defined. Our objectives for this study were twofold: first, to characterize the microbial populations found in riparian buffer zone soils; and second, to determine if microbial community structure could be linked to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). To achieve these objectives, we investigated the microbial populations of a riparian buffer zone located downslope of a pasture irrigated with swine lagoon effluent, utilizing DNA sequencing of the 16S rDNA, DEA, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the denitrification genes nirK, nirS, and nosZ. Clone libraries of the 16S rDNA gene were generated from each of twelve sites across the riparian buffer with a total of 986 partial sequences grouped into 654 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The Proteobacteria were the dominant group (49.8% of all OTUs), with the Acidobacteria also well represented (19.57% of all OTUs). Analysis of qPCR results identified spatial relationships between soil series, site location, and gene abundance, which could be used to infer both incomplete and total DEA rates.

  9. Comprehending 3D Diagrams: Sketching to Support Spatial Reasoning. (United States)

    Gagnier, Kristin M; Atit, Kinnari; Ormand, Carol J; Shipley, Thomas F


    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams. Generating sketches that predicated the internal structure of a model led to greater improvement in diagram understanding than visualizing the interior of the model without sketching, or sketching the model without attempting to predict unseen spatial relations. In addition, we found a positive correlation between sketched diagram accuracy and improvement on the diagram comprehension measure. Results suggest that generating a predictive diagram facilitates students' abilities to make inferences about spatial relationships in diagrams. Implications for use of sketching in supporting STEM learning are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Automation of Feynman diagram evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentyukov, M.N.


    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language can be used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general

  11. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina


    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr 87 / Sr 86 initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 ± 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 ± 15 Ma.)

  12. MT data inversion and sensitivity analysis to image electrical structure of Zagros collision zone (United States)

    Layegh Haghighi, T.; Montahaei, M.; Oskooi, B.


    Magnetotelluric (MT) data from 46 stations on a 470-km-long profile across the Zagros fold-thrust belt (ZFTB) that marks the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone were inverted to derive 2-D electrical resistivity structure between Busher on the coast of Persian Gulf and Posht-e-Badam, 160 km north east of Yazd. The model includes prominent anomalies in the upper and lower crust, beneath the brittle-ductile transition depth and mostly related to the fluid distribution and sedimentary layers beneath the profile. The conductivities and dimensions of the fault zone conductors (FZCs) and high conductivity zones (HCZs) as the major conductive anomalies in a fault zone conceptual model vary significantly below the different faults accommodated in this region. The enhanced conductivity below the site Z30 correlates well with the main Zagros thrust (MZT), located at the western boundary of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) and known as the transition between the two continents. The depth extent of the huge conductor beneath the south west of the profile, attributed to the thick sedimentary columns of the Arabian crust, cannot be resolved due to the smearing effect of the smoothness constraint employed in the regularized inversion procedure and the sensitivity of MT data to the conductance of the subsurface. We performed different tests to determine the range of 2-D models consistent with the data. Our approach was based on synthetic studies, comprising of hypothesis testing and the use of a priori information throughout the inversion procedure as well as forward modeling. We conclude that the minimum depth extent of the conductive layer beneath the southwest of the profile can be determined as approximately deeper than 15 km and also the screening effect of the conductive overburden is highly intense in this model and prevents the deep structures from being resolved properly.

  13. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and migration in a fence lizard hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Leaché

    Full Text Available A hybrid zone between two species of lizards in the genus Sceloporus (S. cowlesi and S. tristichus on the Mogollon Rim in Arizona provides a unique opportunity to study the processes of lineage divergence and merging. This hybrid zone involves complex interactions between 2 morphologically and ecologically divergent subspecies, 3 chromosomal groups, and 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA clades. The spatial patterns of divergence between morphology, chromosomes and mtDNA are discordant, and determining which of these character types (if any reflects the underlying population-level lineages that are of interest has remained impeded by character conflict. The focus of this study is to estimate the number of populations interacting in the hybrid zone using multi-locus nuclear data, and to then estimate the migration rates and divergence time between the inferred populations. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and gene flow were obtained from 12 anonymous nuclear loci sequenced for 93 specimens of Sceloporus. Population structure estimates support two populations, and this result is robust to changes to the prior probability distribution used in the Bayesian analysis and the use of spatially-explicit or non-spatial models. A coalescent analysis of population divergence suggests that gene flow is high between the two populations, and that the timing of divergence is restricted to the Pleistocene. The hybrid zone is more accurately described as involving two populations belonging to S. tristichus, and the presence of S. cowlesi mtDNA haplotypes in the hybrid zone is an anomaly resulting from mitochondrial introgression.

  14. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.R.


    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs

  15. Towards a Detailed Seismic Structure of the Valley of Mexico's Xochimilco Lake Zone. (United States)

    Rabade, S.; Sanchez-Sanchez, J.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Macias, M. A.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Alcántara, L.; Almora Mata, D.; Castro Parra, G.; Delgado, R.; Leonardo Suárez, M.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Perez-Yanez, C.; Ruiz, A. L.; Sandoval, H.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.; Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Aguirre, J.; Ramirez-Guzmán, L.


    Six centuries of gradual, intentional sediment filling in the Xochimilco Lake Zone have drastically reduced the size of the lake. The basin structure and the lake's clay limits and thickness are poorly constrained, and yet, essential to explain the city's anomalous ground motion. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to define the 3D velocity model of Mexico's capital; the CDMX-E3D. The initial phase involved the deployment of a moving set of 18-broadband stations with an interstation distance of 500m over a period of 19 weeks. We collected the data and analyzed the results for the Xochimilco Lake Zone using H/V Spectral Ratios (Nakamura, 1989), which provided an improved fundamental period map of the region. Results show that periods in the former lake zone have larger variability than values previously estimated. In order to obtain group velocity maps at different periods, we estimated Green's functions from ambient noise cross-correlations following standard methodologies to invert Rayleigh wave travel times (Bensen et al., 2007). Preliminary result show very low-velocity zones (100 m/s) and thick sediment layers in most of the former Xochimilco Lake area. This Project was funded by the Secretaria de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SECITI) of Mexico City. Project SECITI/073/2016.

  16. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches? (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.


    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  17. Structure of zone-cast HBC-C12H25 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag Werner; Bunk, Oliver; Pisula, W.


    The structure of a thin zone-cast film of the hexa-n-dodecyl-substituted hexa-peri-benzocoronene (HBC) has been investigated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. A model with an orthorhombic unit cell containing two molecules accounts well for the observations. The molecules are arranged...... in a "herringbone" structure resembling the packing observed for unsubstituted HBC. The molecular disk planes are oriented perpendicularly to the substrate, rotated by approximately 39 degrees about the film normal. The relatively long side chains of dodecyl were found to be in an ordered interdigitated state...

  18. Petersen diagram revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolec Radoslaw


    Full Text Available Over the recent years, the Petersen diagram for classical pulsators, Cepheids and RR Lyr stars, populated with a few hundreds of new multiperiodic variables. We review our analyses of the OGLE data, which resulted in a significant extension of the known, and in the discovery of a few new and distinct forms of multiperiodic pulsation. The showcase includes not only radial mode pulsators, but also radial-non-radial pulsators and stars with significant modulation observed on top of the beat pulsation. First theoretical models explaining the new forms of stellar variability are briefly discussed.

  19. Pulse-Like Rupture Induced by Three-Dimensional Fault Zone Flower Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian


    © 2014, Springer Basel. Faults are often embedded in low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) caused by material damage. Previous 2D dynamic rupture simulations (Huang and Ampuero, 2011; Huang et al., 2014) showed that if the wave velocity contrast between the LVFZ and the country rock is strong enough, ruptures can behave as pulses, i.e. with local slip duration (rise time) much shorter than whole rupture duration. Local slip arrest (healing) is generated by waves reflected from the LVFZ–country rock interface. This effect is robust against a wide range of fault zone widths, absence of frictional healing, variation of initial stress conditions, attenuation, and off-fault plasticity. These numerical studies covered two-dimensional problems with fault-parallel fault zone structures. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and geometries that are more typical of natural fault zones, including complexities such as flower structures with depth-dependent velocity and thickness, and limited fault zone depth extent. This investigation requires high resolution and flexible mesh generation, which are enabled here by the high-order accurate arbitrary high-order derivatives discontinuous Galerkin method with an unstructured tetrahedral element discretization (Peltieset al., 2012). We show that the healing mechanism induced by waves reflected in the LVFZ also operates efficiently in such three-dimensional fault zone structures and that, in addition, a new healing mechanism is induced by unloading waves generated when the rupture reaches the surface. The first mechanism leads to very short rise time controlled by the LVFZ width to wave speed ratio. The second mechanism leads to generally longer, depth-increasing rise times, is also conditioned by the existence of an LVFZ, and persists at some depth below the bottom of the LVFZ. Our simulations show that the generation of slip pulses by these two mechanisms is robust to the depth extent of the LVFZ and to the position of the hypocenter

  20. Seismic attenuation structure beneath Nazca Plate subduction zone in southern Peru (United States)

    Jang, H.; Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.


    We estimate seismic attenuation in terms of quality factors, QP and QS using P and S phases, respectively, beneath Nazca Plate subduction zone between 10°S and 18.5°S latitude in southern Peru. We first relocate 298 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 4.0-6.5 and depth ranges of 20-280 km. We measure t*, which is an integrated attenuation through the seismic raypath between the regional earthquakes and stations. The measured t* are inverted to construct three-dimensional attenuation structures of southern Peru. Checkerboard test results for both QP and QS structures ensure good resolution in the slab-dip transition zone between flat and normal slab subduction down to a depth of 200 km. Both QP and QS results show higher attenuation continued down to a depth of 50 km beneath volcanic arc and also beneath the Quimsachata volcano, the northernmost young volcano, located far east of the main volcanic front. We also observe high attenuation in mantle wedge especially beneath the normal subduction region in both QP and QS (100-130 in QP and 100-125 in QS) and slightly higher QP and QS beneath the flat-subduction and slab-dip transition regions. We plan to relate measured attenuation in the mantle wedge to material properties such as viscosity to understand the subduction zone dynamics.

  1. Microbial functional diversity alters the structure and sensitivity of oxygen deficient zones (United States)

    Penn, Justin; Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis


    Oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) below the ocean surface regulate marine productivity by removing bioavailable nitrogen (N). A complex microbial community mediates N loss, but the interplay of its diverse metabolisms is poorly understood. We present an ecosystem model of the North Pacific ODZ that reproduces observed chemical distributions yet predicts different ODZ structure, rates, and climatic sensitivity compared to traditional geochemical models. An emergent lower O2 limit for aerobic nitrification lies below the upper O2 threshold for anaerobic denitrification, creating a zone of microbial coexistence that causes a larger ODZ but slower total rates of N loss. The O2-dependent competition for the intermediate nitrite produces gradients in its oxidation versus reduction, anammox versus heterotrophic denitrification, and the net ecological stoichiometry of N loss. The latter effect implies that an externally driven ODZ expansion should favor communities that more efficiently remove N, increasing the sensitivity of the N cycle to climate change.

  2. Fault Zone Resistivity Structure and Monitoring at the Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project (TCDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang


    Full Text Available The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault drilling project (TCDP has undertaken scientific drilling and directly sampled the sub-surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT measurements were used to investigate electrical resistivity structure at the TCDP site from 2004 - 2006. These data show a geoelectric strike direction of N15°E to N30°E. Inversion and forward modeling of the AMT data were used to generate a 1-D resistivity model that has a prominent low resistivity zone (< 10 ohm-m between depths of 1100 and 1500 m. When combined with porosity measurements, theAMT measurements imply that the ground water has a resistivity of 0.55 ohm-m at the depth of the fault zone.

  3. Repair of Partly Misspecified Causal Diagrams. (United States)

    Oates, Chris J; Kasza, Jessica; Simpson, Julie A; Forbes, Andrew B


    Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed," meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram. The overall procedure is cast as a preprocessing technique that is agnostic to subsequent causal inferences. Results based on simulated data and data derived from an observational cohort illustrate the potential for data-assisted elicitation in epidemiologic applications. See video abstract at,

  4. Imaging the internal structure of fluid upflow zones with detailed digital Parasound echosounder surveys (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Schwenk, T.


    Sites of venting fluids both with continuous and episodic supply often reveal complex surface and internal structures, which are difficult to image and cause problems to transfer results from local sampling towards a structural reconstruction and a quantification of (average) flux rates. Detailed acoustic and seismic surveys would be required to retrieve this information, but also an appropriate environment, where fluid migration can be properly imaged from contrasts to unaffected areas. Hemipelagic sediments are most suitable, since typically reflectors are coherent and of low lateral amplitude variation and structures are continuous over distances much longer than the scale of fluid migration features. During RV Meteor Cruise M473 and RV Sonne Cruise SO 149 detailed studies were carried out in the vicinity of potential fluid upflow zones in the Lower Congo Basin at 5oS in 3000 m water depth and at the Northern Cascadia Margin in 1000 m water depth. Unexpected sampling of massive gas hydrates from the sea floor as well as of carbonate concretions, shell fragments and different liveforms indicated active fluid venting in a typically hemipelagic realm. The acoustic signature of such zones includes columnar blanking, pockmark depressions at the sea floor, association with small offset faults (ParaDigMA System for further processing and display, to image the spatial structure of the upflow zones. Due to the high data density amplitudes and other acoustic properties could be investigated in a 3D volume and time slices as well as reflector surfaces were analyzed. Pronounced lateral variations of reflection amplitudes within a complex pattern indicate potential pathways for fluid/gas migration and occurrences of near-surface gas hydrate deposits, which may be used to trace detailed surface evidence from side scan sonar imaging down to depth and support dedicated sampling.

  5. The Dual Role of Vegetation as a Constraint on Mass and Energy Flux into the Critical Zone and as an Emergent Property of Geophysical Critical Zone Structure (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; Swetnam, T. L.; Barnard, H. R.; Singha, K.; Harpold, A.; Litvak, M. E.


    Spatial patterns in vegetation long have been used to scale both landsurface-atmosphere exchanges of water and carbon as well as to infer subsurface structure. These pursuits typical proceed in isolation and rarely do inferences gained from one community propagate to related efforts in another. Perhaps more importantly, vegetation often is treated as an emergent property of landscape-climate interactions rather than an active modifier of both critical zone structure and energy fluxes. We posit that vegetation structure and activity are under utilized as a tool towards understanding landscape evolution and present examples that begin to disentangle the role of vegetation as both an emergent property and an active control on critical zone structure and function. As climate change, population growth, and land use changes threaten water resources worldwide, the need for the new insights vegetation can provide becomes not just a basic science priority, but a pressing applied science question with clear societal importance. This presentation will provide an overview of recent efforts to address the dual role of vegetation in both modifying and reflecting critical zone structure in the western North American forests. For example, interactions between topography and stand scale vegetation structure influence both solar radiation and turbulence altering landscape scale partitioning of evaporation vs transpiration with major impacts of surface water supply. Similarly, interactions between topographic shading, lateral redistribution of plant available water, and subsurface storage create a mosaic of drought resistance and resilience across complex terrain. These complex interactions between geophysical and vegetation components of critical zone structure result in predictable patterns in catchment scale hydrologic partitioning within individual watersheds while simultaneously suggesting testable hypotheses for why catchments under similar climate regimes respond so

  6. Sintering diagrams of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, A.; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.


    Ashby's method (see Acta Met., vol. 22, p. 275, 1974) of constructing sintering diagrams has been modified to obtain contribution diagrams directly from the computer. The interplay of sintering variables and mechanisms are studied and the factors that affect the participation of mechanisms in UO 2 are determined. By studying the physical properties, it emerges that the order of inaccuracies is small in most cases and do not affect the diagrams. On the other hand, even a 10% error in activation energies, which is quite plausible, would make a significant difference to the diagram. The main criticism of Ashby's approach is that the numerous properties and equations used, communicate their inaccuracies to the diagrams and make them unreliable. The present study has considerably reduced the number of factors that need to be refined to make the sintering diagrams more meaningful. (Auth.)

  7. Cohesive Zone Model Based Numerical Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Structure Push-Out Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lin


    Full Text Available Push-out tests were widely used to determine the shear bearing capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors in steel-concrete composite structures. The finite element method was one efficient alternative to push-out testing. This paper focused on a simulation analysis of the interface between concrete slabs and steel girder flanges as well as the interface of the shear connectors and the surrounding concrete. A cohesive zone model was used to simulate the tangential sliding and normal separation of the interfaces. Then, a zero-thickness cohesive element was implemented via the user-defined element subroutine UEL in the software ABAQUS, and a multiple broken line mode was used to define the constitutive relations of the cohesive zone. A three-dimensional numerical analysis model was established for push-out testing to analyze the load-displacement curves of the push-out test process, interface relative displacement, and interface stress distribution. This method was found to accurately calculate the shear capacity and shear stiffness of shear connectors. The numerical results showed that the multiple broken lines mode cohesive zone model could describe the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the interface between steel and concrete and that a discontinuous deformation numerical simulation could be implemented.

  8. Romania's road to Euro zone. From structural balance to structural balance corrected for absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura-Gabriela SOCOL


    Full Text Available The sovereign-debt crisis in the European Union has determined the necessity to reform the signal indicators for the analysis of the public finances' sustainability. In this context, many of the developing/emerging countries consider that the informational value provided by the structural budget balance indicator is insufficient, especially during the periods characterized by absorption. The present study suggests the transition from classical structural budget balance (CAB in the structural balance corrected for absorption (CAAB and supports the use of an improved indicator of the structural budget balance with a superior informational relevance for the macro-economic policies decision makers. Based on the economic literature we will demonstrate that the structural budget balance indicator should be improved, in order to also take into consideration the deviation of the current account balance from its sustainable level, particularly in the stage of the economic cycle characterized by high absorption.

  9. Comparative microanatomical structure of gills and skin of remainers and skippers from Gunung Kidul intertidal zone (United States)

    Putri, Rizka Apriani; Sukiya


    One type of adaptation needed in fish that live in Intertidal Zone is morphological adaptation. When the tide is low, oxygen circulation in this area is limited, causing tidepools that occurred during this time hypoxic for species that live inside. This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in intertidal zone and to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobiusfuscus of remainers group and Blenniellabilitonensis of skippers, respectively), were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin analyzed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae) is occurred as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capillaries were counted to investigate whether it can also be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analyzed using Student's T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skin showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capillaries compared to remainers' skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills.

  10. Modeling process flow using diagrams


    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.


    In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improvement projects. The paper finds that traditional diagrams, such as the flowchart, the VSM, and OR-type of diagrams, have severe limitations, miss certain elements, or are based on implicit but cons...

  11. Plant Invasions Associated with Change in Root-Zone Microbial Community Structure and Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The importance of plant-microbe associations for the invasion of plant species have not been often tested under field conditions. The research sought to determine patterns of change in microbial communities associated with the establishment of invasive plants with different taxonomic and phenetic traits. Three independent locations in Virginia, USA were selected. One site was invaded by a grass (Microstegium vimineum, another by a shrub (Rhamnus davurica, and the third by a tree (Ailanthus altissima. The native vegetation from these sites was used as reference. 16S rRNA and ITS regions were sequenced to study root-zone bacterial and fungal communities, respectively, in invaded and non-invaded samples and analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME. Though root-zone microbial community structure initially differed across locations, plant invasion shifted communities in similar ways. Indicator species analysis revealed that Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs closely related to Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Ascomycota increased in abundance due to plant invasions. The Hyphomonadaceae family in the Rhodobacterales order and ammonia-oxidizing Nitrospirae phylum showed greater relative abundance in the invaded root-zone soils. Hyphomicrobiaceae, another bacterial family within the phyla Proteobacteria increased as a result of plant invasion, but the effect associated most strongly with root-zones of M. vimineum and R. davurica. Functional analysis using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt showed bacteria responsible for nitrogen cycling in soil increased in relative abundance in association with plant invasion. In agreement with phylogenetic and functional analyses, greater turnover of ammonium and nitrate was associated with plant invasion. Overall, bacterial and fungal communities changed congruently across plant invaders, and support the hypothesis that

  12. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)


    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  13. Structural analysis of cataclastic rock of active fault damage zones: An example from Nojima and Arima-Takatsuki fault zones (SW Japan) (United States)

    Satsukawa, T.; Lin, A.


    Most of the large intraplate earthquakes which occur as slip on mature active faults induce serious damages, in spite of their relatively small magnitudes comparing to subduction-zone earthquakes. After 1995 Kobe Mw7.2 earthquake, a number of studies have been done to understand the structure, physical properties and dynamic phenomenon of active faults. However, the deformation mechanics and related earthquake generating mechanism in the intraplate active fault zone are still poorly understood. The detailed, multi-scalar structural analysis of faults and of fault rocks has to be the starting point for reconstructing the complex framework of brittle deformation. Here, we present two examples of active fault damage zones: Nojima fault and Arima-Takatsuki active fault zone in the southwest Japan. We perform field investigations, combined with meso-and micro-structural analyses of fault-related rocks, which provide the important information in reconstructing the long-term seismic faulting behavior and tectonic environment. Our study shows that in both sites, damage zone is observed in over 10m, which is composed by the host rocks, foliated and non-foliated cataclasites, fault gouge and fault breccia. The slickenside striations in Asano fault, the splay fault of Nojima fault, indicate a dextral movement sense with some normal components. Whereas, those of Arima-Takatsuki active fault shows a dextral strike-slip fault with minor vertical component. Fault gouges consist of brown-gray matrix of fine grains and composed by several layers from few millimeters to a few decimeters. It implies that slip is repeated during millions of years, as the high concentration and physical interconnectivity of fine-grained minerals in brittle fault rocks produce the fault's intrinsic weakness in the crust. Therefore, faults rarely express only on single, discrete deformation episode, but are the cumulative result of several superimposed slip events.

  14. Velocity Structure in the West Bohemia Seismic Zone: Velocity Models Retrieved from different Earthquake Swarms (United States)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Löberich, E.; Kieslich, A.; Calo, M.; Vavrycuk, V.; Buske, S.


    Earthquake swarms, fluid migration and gas springs are indications of the ongoing geodynamic processes within the West Bohemia seismic zone located at the Czech-German border. The possible relationship between the fluids, gas and seismicity is of particular interest and has motivated numerous past, ongoing and future studies, including a multidisciplinary monitoring proposal through the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The most seismically active area within the West Bohemia seismic zone is located at the Czech town Nový Kostel. The Nový Kostel zone experiences frequent swarms of several hundreds to thousands of earthquakes over a period of weeks to several months. The seismicity is always located in the same area and depth range (~5-15 km), however the activated fault segments and planes differ. For example, the 2008 swarm activated faults along the southern end of the seismic zone, the 2011 swarm activated the northern segment, and the recent 2014 swarm activated the middle of the seismic zone. This indicates changes to the local stress field, and may relate to fluid migration and/or the complicated tectonic situation. The West Bohemia Seismic Network (WEBNET) is ideally located for studying the Nový Kostel swarm area and provides good azimuthal coverage. Here, we use the high quality P- and S-wave arrival picks recorded by WEBNET to calculate swarm-dependent velocity models for the 2008 and 2011 swarms, and an averaged (swarm independent) model using earthquakes recorded between 1991 and 2011. To this end, we use double-difference tomography to calculate P- and S-wave velocity models. The models are compared and examined in terms of swarm-dependent velocities and structures. Since the P-to-S velocity ratio is particularly sensitive to the presence of pore fluids, we derive ratio models directly from the inverted P- and S-wave models in order to investigate the potential influence of fluids on the seismicity. Finally, clustering

  15. Seismic structure and stratigraphy of northern edge of Bahaman-Cuban collision zone (United States)

    Ball, M.M.; Martin, R.G.; Bock, W.D.; Sylwester, R.E.; Bowles, R.M.; Taylor, D.; Coward, E.L.; Dodd, J.E.; Gilbert, L.


    Common-depth-point (CDP) seismic reflection data in the southwestern Bahamas reveal the northern edge of the tectonized zone that resulted from the late Mesozoic-early Cenozoic collision of Cuba and the Bahamas. Two seismic facies are present. A 10-km broad anticline occurs at the south end of Santaren Channel. Platform carbonates in the core of this structure overlie Early Cretaceous and older basinal carbonate deposits and are onlapped by Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic basinal facies. The structure is inferred to be a hanging-wall anticline at the northern limit of the Cuban fold-thrust belt formed in the Late Cretaceous. A deeper water embayment extended northward into the Straits of Florida, around northern Cay Sal Bank, and back into Santaren Channel during the Early Cretaceous.

  16. Determination of recombinant hirudin structural deviants by capillary zone electrophoresis augmented with buffer additives. (United States)

    Dönges, Reiner; Brazel, Dieter


    The polypeptide hirudin is a potent and specific thrombin inhibitor used in anticoagulant therapy and naturally occurring in medicinal leech. Using gene-technology methods, recombinant (r) hirudin can be produced on a large scale. Purity evaluation of the synthesized r-hirudin is essential to monitor co-expressed structural deviants and degradation products before therapeutic use. Although the well established RP-HPLC analysis appears to be the method of choice, in the case of r-hirudin baseline separation of the structural deviants is not necessarily achieved. Capillary zone electrophoresis augmented with buffer additives was used as a complementary technique to separate r-hirudin successfully from several similar species, in order to provide characterization information, as well as performing purity control and stability studies.

  17. Structure and phase diagram of an adhesive colloidal dispersion under high pressure: a small angle neutron scattering, diffusing wave spectroscopy, and light scattering study. (United States)

    Vavrin, R; Kohlbrecher, J; Wilk, A; Ratajczyk, M; Lettinga, M P; Buitenhuis, J; Meier, G


    We have applied small angle neutron scattering (SANS), diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to investigate the phase diagram of a sterically stabilized colloidal system consisting of octadecyl grafted silica particles dispersed in toluene. This system is known to exhibit gas-liquid phase separation and percolation, depending on temperature T, pressure P, and concentration phi. We have determined by DLS the pressure dependence of the coexistence temperature and the spinodal temperature to be dP/dT=77 bar/K. The gel line or percolation limit was measured by DWS under high pressure using the condition that the system became nonergodic when crossing it and we determined the coexistence line at higher volume fractions from the DWS limit of turbid samples. From SANS measurements we determined the stickiness parameter tau(B)(P,T,phi) of the Baxter model, characterizing a polydisperse adhesive hard sphere, using a global fit routine on all curves in the homogenous regime at various temperatures, pressures, and concentrations. The phase coexistence and percolation line as predicted from tau(B)(P,T,phi) correspond with the determinations by DWS and were used to construct an experimental phase diagram for a polydisperse sticky hard sphere model system. A comparison with theory shows good agreement especially concerning the predictions for the percolation threshold. From the analysis of the forward scattering we find a critical scaling law for the susceptibility corresponding to mean field behavior. This finding is also supported by the critical scaling properties of the collective diffusion.

  18. Potential-pH Diagrams. (United States)

    Barnum, Dennis W.


    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  19. Diagram Techniques in Group Theory (United States)

    Stedman, Geoffrey E.


    Preface; 1. Elementary examples; 2. Angular momentum coupling diagram techniques; 3. Extension to compact simple phase groups; 4. Symmetric and unitary groups; 5. Lie groups and Lie algebras; 6. Polarisation dependence of multiphoton processes; 7. Quantum field theoretic diagram techniques for atomic systems; 8. Applications; Appendix; References; Indexes.

  20. Modeling process flow using diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.


    In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process

  1. Impact decision support diagrams (United States)

    Boslough, Mark


    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  2. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams. (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico


    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  3. A proposed phase equilibrium diagram for Pt-Zr system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.E.; Gribaudo, L.


    A revision of the phase diagram of the Pt-Zr system is presented using up to date information from recent publications. The proposed change concerning the invariant transformation in the Pt-rich zone is supported by simplified thermodynamic evaluations. (author). 12 refs., 1 fig

  4. A Critical Appraisal of the `Day' Diagram (United States)

    Roberts, A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Heslop, D.


    The `Day' diagram [Day et al., 1977; doi:10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X] is used widely to infer the mean domain state of magnetic mineral assemblages. The Day plot coordinates are the ratios of the saturation remanent magnetization to saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) and the coercivity of remanence to coercivity (Bcr/Bc), as determined from a major hysteresis loop and a backfield demagnetization curve. Based on theoretical and empirical arguments, Day plots are typically demarcated into stable single domain (SD), `pseudosingle domain' (`PSD'), and multidomain (MD) zones. It is a simple task to determine Mrs/Ms and Bcr/Bc for a sample and to assign a mean domain state based on the boundaries defined by Day et al. [1977]. Many other parameters contribute to variability in a Day diagram, including surface oxidation, mineral stoichiometry, stress state, magnetostatic interactions, and mixtures of magnetic particles with different sizes and shapes. Bulk magnetic measurements usually lack detailed independent evidence to constrain each free parameter, which makes the Day diagram fundamentally ambiguous. This raises questions about its usefulness for diagnosing magnetic particle size variations. The Day diagram is also used to make inferences about binary mixing of magnetic particles, where, for example, mixtures of SD and MD particles give rise to a bulk `PSD' response even though the concentration of `PSD' grains could be zero. In our assessment of thousands of hysteresis measurements of geological samples, binary mixing occurs in a tiny number of cases. Ternary, quaternary, and higher order mixing are usually observed. Also, uniaxial SD and MD end-members are nearly always inappropriate for considering mixing because uniaxial SD particles are virtually non-existent in igneous rocks. Thus, use of mixing lines in Day diagrams routinely provides unsatisfactory representations of particle size variations. We critically appraise the Day diagram and argue that its many

  5. The influence of the Precambrian Mughese Shear Zone structures on strain accommodation in the northern Malawi Rift (United States)

    Dawson, Sam M.; Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.


    Precambrian shear zones have been recognized as regions that affect the propagation, segmentation, and location of continental rifts. However, it is still unclear how the orientation of these shear zones influence strain accommodation along the rifts. In this study, we investigated the influence of the Mughese Shear Zone (MSZ) on strain accommodation within the young magma-poor Malawi Rift, a seismically-active segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Models (DEM), aeromagnetic data, and mapped mesoscopic-scale structures within the Precambrian MSZ and younger rocks in the Karonga area. We found that in the northern portion of the Karonga Fault Zone, a fault zone that accommodates the majority of extension in this region, one major fault is oriented 32°/59° SE and cuts across the Precambrian foliation that has an orientation of 301°/79° NE. South of the city of Karonga, the Precambrian foliation is sub-vertical and has a strike of 321°. Here, the Karonga fault splays from a main fault with a 2 km damage zone to several distinct E-and W-dipping faults over a 10 km zone that strike in the general direction of the foliation planes of the MSZ. Recent seismicity is distributed within this zone. The faults formed in reactivated foliation planes of the MSZ. The N-striking Karoo rift horsts and grabens and their associated rock formations might have also been reactivated in this area. These relationships suggest that within the northern Malawi Rift, extension was accommodated differently based on the nature and orientation of the pre-existing structures. The orientation of the Precambrian MSZ influences strain accommodation in the Karonga area and has important implications for seismic hazards. We conclude that the Karonga area is an important seismically active zone based on favorably-oriented and reactivated pre-existing structures.

  6. Long wavelength mantle transition zone structure beneath Europe as seen by Pds receiver functions (United States)

    Cottaar, Sanne; Deuss, Arwen


    The mantle is delineated by seismic discontinuities between 300 and 800 km depth. Variations in topography, width and occurrence of the discontinuities indicate lateral variations in temperature, composition and water content, as these variations influence the mantle phase transitions. Seismic studies of the conversions of pressure to shear waves (Pds phases) are an important tool to observe lateral variations in these discontinuities. Here we collect a Pds data set across all European seismic stations since 2000 that are available through ORFEUS or IRIS; resulting in ~500,000 event-station pairs. We deconvolve the radial component by the vertical component - assumed to represent the source component- using the iterative deconvolution method to obtain receiver functions. We assess the quality of a receiver function by the signal-to-noise ratio and by evaluating how well the radial component is reproduced when reconvolving the receiver function with the vertical component. This results in ~45,000 high quality receiver functions across Europe. Here we present the large scale variations in the discontinuities around 410 and 660 km across Europe. The seismic discontinuities beneath the Eastern European craton show little topography and the mantle transition zone thickness is thinner compared to the thickness beneath the rest of Europe. Observing discontinuities within the mantle transition zone is complicated by arriving reverberations from strong shallow structure of the craton. The mantle transition zone around the Mediterranean is thicker and a lot more complexities are observed. The main discontinuities are generally weaker, and other discontinuities around 300 km and a negative jump around 600 km are observed.

  7. Regional P wave velocity structure of the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone (United States)

    Ramachandran, K.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.


    This paper presents the first regional three-dimensional, P wave velocity model for the Northern Cascadia Subduction. Zone (SW British Columbia and NW Washington State) constructed through tomographic inversion of first-arrival traveltime data from active source experiments together with earthquake traveltime data recorded at permanent stations. The velocity model images the structure of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, megathrust, and the fore-arc crust and upper mantle. Beneath southern Vancouver Island the megathrust above the Juan de Fuca plate is characterized by a broad zone (25-35 km depth) having relatively low velocities of 6.4-6.6 km/s. This relative low velocity zone coincides with the location of most of the episodic tremors recently mapped beneath Vancouver Island, and its low velocity may also partially reflect the presence of trapped fluids and sheared lower crustal rocks. The rocks of the Olympic Subduction Complex are inferred to deform aseismically as evidenced by the lack of earthquakes withi the low-velocity rocks. The fore-arc upper mantle beneath the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound is characterized by velocities of 7.2-7.6 km/s. Such low velocities represent regional serpentinization of the upper fore-arc mantle and provide evidence for slab dewatering and densification. Tertiary sedimentary basins in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Lowland imaged by the velocity model lie above the inferred region of slab dewatering and densification and may therefore partly result from a higher rate of slab sinking. In contrast, sedimentary basins in the Strait of Juan de Fuca lie in a synclinal depression in the Crescent Terrane. The correlation of in-slab earthquake hypocenters M>4 with P wave velocities greater than 7.8 km/s at the hypocenters suggests that they originate near the oceanic Moho of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Complex fragmentation and silicification structures in fault zones: quartz crystallization and repeated fragmentation in the Rusey fault zone (Cornwall/UK) (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tim I.; Blenkinsop, Tom; Duschl, Florian; Kruhl, Jörn H.


    Silicified fault rocks typically show structures resulting from various stages of fragmentation and quartz crystallization. Both processes interact episodically and result in complex structures on various scales, which require a wide spectrum of analysis tools. Based on field and microstructural data, the spatial-temporal connection between deformation, quartz crystallization and fluid and material flow along the Rusey fault zone was investigated. The fault can be examined in detail in three dimensions on the north Cornwall coast, UK. It occurs within Carboniferous sandstones, siltstones, mudstones and slates of the Culm basin, and is likely to have had a long history. The fault rocks described here formed during the younger events, possibly due to Tertiary strike-slip reactivation. Frequent fragmentation, flow and crystallization events and their interaction led to various generations of complex-structured quartz units, among them quartz-mantled and partly silicified wall-rock fragments, microcrystalline quartz masses of different compositions and structures, and quartz vein patterns of various ages. Lobate boundaries of quartz masses indicate viscous flow. Fragments are separated by quartz infill, which contains cm-sized open pores, in which quartz crystals have pyramidal terminations. Based on frequent occurrence of feathery textures and the infill geometry, quartz crystallization from chalcedony appears likely, and an origin from silica gel is discussed. Fragmentation structures are generally fractal. This allows differentiation between various processes, such as corrosive wear, wear abrasion and hydraulic brecciation. Material transport along the brittle shear zone, and displacement of the wall-rocks, were at least partly governed by flow of mobile fluid-quartz-particle suspensions. The complex meso- to microstructures were generated by repeated processes of fragmentation, quartz precipitation and grain growth. In general, the brittle Rusey fault zone

  9. Combined structural and magnetotelluric investigation across the West Fault Zone in northern Chile (United States)

    Hoffmann-Rothe, Arne


    The characterisation of the internal architecture of large-scale fault zones is usually restricted to the outcrop-based investigation of fault-related structural damage on the Earth's surface. A method to obtain information on the downward continuation of a fault is to image the subsurface electrical conductivity structure. This work deals with such a combined investigation of a segment of the West Fault, which itself is a part of the more than 2000 km long trench-linked Precordilleran Fault System in the northern Chilean Andes. Activity on the fault system lasted from Eocene to Quaternary times. In the working area (22°04'S, 68°53'W), the West Fault exhibits a clearly defined surface trace with a constant strike over many tens of kilometers. Outcrop condition and morphology of the study area allow ideally for a combination of structural geology investigation and magnetotelluric (MT) / geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) experiments. The aim was to achieve an understanding of the correlation of the two methods and to obtain a comprehensive view of the West Fault's internal architecture. Fault-related brittle damage elements (minor faults and slip-surfaces with or without striation) record prevalent strike-slip deformation on subvertically oriented shear planes. Dextral and sinistral slip events occurred within the fault zone and indicate reactivation of the fault system. Youngest deformation increments mapped in the working area are extensional and the findings suggest a different orientation of the extension axes on either side of the fault. Damage element density increases with approach to the fault trace and marks an approximately 1000 m wide damage zone around the fault. A region of profound alteration and comminution of rocks, about 400 m wide, is centered in the damage zone. Damage elements in this central part are predominantly dipping steeply towards the east (70-80°). Within the same study area, the electrical conductivity image of the subsurface was

  10. Generalized transmission line method to study the far-zone radiation of antennas under a multilayer structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xuan Hui


    This book gives a step-by-step presentation of a generalized transmission line method to study the far-zone radiation of antennas under a multilayer structure. Normally, a radiation problem requires a full wave analysis which may be time consuming. The beauty of the generalized transmission line method is that it transforms the radiation problem for a specific type of structure, say the multilayer structure excited by an antenna, into a circuit problem that can be efficiently analyzed. Using the Reciprocity Theorem and far-field approximation, the method computes the far-zone radiation due to

  11. Seamount subduction at seismogenic depths: structural and metamorphic evidence from the Zagros suture zone (United States)

    Bonnet, G.; Agard, P.; Angiboust, S.; Fournier, M.; Omrani, J.


    Large-scale seafloor topographic features, such as seamounts, are for the most part subducted with the downgoing oceanic plate. They are expected to critically impact the seismogenic and mechanic behavior of subduction zones, but their exact role is strongly debated (i.e., as to whether they represent barriers to propagation or asperities promoting nucleation). Rare natural examples of metamorphosed seamounts, which got sliced off the slab along the plate interface and escaped recycling into the mantle, are therefore precious witnesses to document processes operating at depths of 0-30 km. We herein report the existence of a large-scale oceanic topographic structure sandwiched in the Zagros suture zone (Siah Kuh - SK - unit), most probably a former seamount, along with other blueschist units (Angiboust et al., EPSL 2016). The main criteria for identifying this seamount are its: (1) shape: the SK unit is a 1.5-2 km thick, rounded-shaped body with a 15-20 km diameter, (2) lithologies: it is made mainly of a regular succession of massive basaltic flows, commonly as pillow basalts, minor ophiolite-type gabbros and serpentinite, together with subordinate more differenciated volcanic and plutonic rocks. (3) sedimentary cover: basalts are overlain by shallowly deposited reef limestone and deepening-up sediments with the occurrence of cherts and pelagic limestones (which points to possible subsidence). Basalts have been analyzed for trace elements and have usually a N-MORB to OIB signature, which might be explained by its potential origin as a mid-oceanic ridge seamount. HP-LT minerals (lawsonite, aragonite, blue amphiboles) found across the whole structure, particularly in zones of localized compressive deformation, indicate that this seamount was shallowly subducted at 20 km. This deformation, interpreted to be syn-subduction, is assisted by a décollement rooting in serpentinite and/or oceanic metasediments and is associated with rare cataclase in magmatic rocks. We

  12. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong


    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  13. Compilative Fe - Ni phase diagram with author's correction (United States)

    Silman, G. I.


    Apart of a complex study of the effect of nickel on structure formation in iron-base alloys is presented. An accurate enough phase diagram for alloys of the Fe - Ni system is still lacking. Compilation of the data of some works and subsequent analysis of the known anomalies of structure and properties in alloys of the system are used by the author for correcting the phase diagram. The corrected diagram is used to explain the special features of Fe - Ni alloys, the well-known "invar" effect in particular.

  14. Crustal structure in high deformation zones: Insights from gravimetric and magnetometric studies in the Guacha Corral shear zone (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina) (United States)

    Radice, Stefania; Lince Klinger, Federico; Maffini, M. Natalia; Pinotti, Lucio P.; Demartis, Manuel; D´Eramo, Fernando J.; Giménez, Mario; Coniglio, Jorge E.


    The Guacha Corral shear zone (GCSZ) is represented by mylonites that were developed under amphibolites facies conditions from migmatitic protoliths. In this contribution, geophysical, petrological and structural data were combined to determine the 3D geometry of the GCSZ. New gravimetric, magnetometric and structural studies, along an E-W profile, were integrated with existing magnetotelluric and seismological data from a representative regional database of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The zonation of different fabrics across the GCSZ suggests that the pre-existing heterogeneities of the protoliths played a key role in governing the degree of metamorphism of different regions. The low gravity anomalies observed in the GCSZ suggest a transitional boundary zone between the migmatitic and mylonitic domains, where highly deformed shear bands are interspersed with undeformed rocks, presenting gradual contacts. The mylonites in this shear zone show a considerably reduced density when compared to the migmatite protoliths. The density of the rocks gradually increases with depth until it reaches that of the protolith. These changes in the gravity values in response to density changes allowed us to infer a listric geometry at depth of the GCSZ. Low gravity anomalies in the profiles, in regions where high density rocks (migmatites) outcrop at the surface, modeled as buried granitic plutons.

  15. Investigation of the La2O3-Nb2O5-WO3 ternary phase diagram: Isolation and crystal structure determination of the original La3NbWO10 material

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, T.D.


    In the course of the exploration of the La2O3-WO3-Nb2O5 ternary phase diagram, a new compound with the formula La3NbWO10 was discovered. Its structure was determined from a combination of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P42/nmc (no. 137) with the lattice parameters: a=10.0807(1) Å; c=12.5540(1) Å. The structure is built up from infinite ribbons of octahedra (W/Nb)O5 which are perpendicular to each other, lanthanum ions being distributed around these ribbons. The electrical properties of this compound were investigated on sintered pellets by means of complex impedance spectroscopy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ņikiforova Oksana


    Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.

  17. Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan


    Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...... the management and maintenance of these systems. Safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....... Networks is discussed. Important advantages of safety-barrier diagrams as compared to other graphical risk-analysis methods are, firstly, the relative simplicity that supports communication with non-expert stakeholders and, secondly, the focus on deliberately inserted safety systems that supports...

  18. Efficient computation of clipped Voronoi diagram for mesh generation

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming


    The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometric structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact domain (i.e. a bounded and closed 2D region or a 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite or partially outside of the domain, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm to compute the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 2D region or a 3D volume. We also apply the proposed method to optimal mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic structure and phase diagram of the frustrated spinel Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loudghiri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Belayachi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco)], E-mail:; Nogues, M. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et d' Optique de l' Universite de Versailles (URA 1531), Batiment, Fermat, 45 Avenue des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Taibi, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux associe a l' AUF (LAF 502), Ecole Normale, Superieure Takadoum, B.P. 5118 Rabat (Morocco); Cruz, M.M.; Godinho, M. [Dept. Fisica/CFMC-UL, Fac. Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed.C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)


    In attempt to characterise the magnetic ordering in the whole composition range of the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} system, various magnetic measurements were performed on both crystalline and polycrystalline samples with 0{<=}x{<=}1. The magnetic properties of the system are typical of a ferromagnet below x=0.4 and of a complex antiferromagnet one above x=0.6. In this work the intermediate region was carefully studied. The variations of both M(T) and {chi}{sub ac} at low fields suggest that transitions from ferromagnetic to Gabay-Toulouse ferromagnetic-spin-glass mixed phase at low temperature occur in the range 0.41{<=}x{<=}0.58. The high-temperature susceptibility measurements show that for the whole concentration range the system obeys Curie-Weiss laws. The results can be explained by the coexistence of competing interactions (ferromagnetic between nearest neighbours and antiferromagnetic between higher order neighbours) and disorder due to the random substitution between zinc and cadmium ions in the tetrahedral sites of the spinel lattice. An experimental magnetic phase diagram of the system is established.

  20. Investigation of durability of silica fume concretes in coastal structures within tidal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjian, E.; Sadeghi Pouya, H.


    In recent decade use of silica fume has been become greater in coastal concrete structures in the persona gulf, to increase durability of those establishments. In this research the durability of cement passers and concrete cubes with use of 7 and 10 percent of silica fume as a cement replacement have been investigated in three curing conditions (fresh water, coast of sea and simulation bonds) by measuring compressive strengths and capillary absorption. Silica fume specimens under wetting and drying condition showed more strength loss after 180 days compare to samples without silica fume or cured in the fresh water. In addition the greater silica fume amount in specimens cured within tidal zone and under wetting and drying simulation, the more water absorption by capillary. According to the results, good correspondence between simulated condition and real site exposure was obtained

  1. Simulated heat affected zone hardness limits of C-Mn steels used in offshore structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihi, A.; Benbouta, R.; Abbassi, A. [Corrosion Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering Science, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Cottis, R. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)


    The detrimental effect which hydrogen produces in metals, generally known as hydrogen embrittlement (HE), has always been one of the central problems of practical material technology of corrosion and protection of metals. In the present research, the influence of simulated heat affected zone (HAZ) hardness on susceptibility of a structural steel to hydrogen embrittlement was investigated mainly under slow strain rate testing (SSRT), although limited tests were carried out by means of small amplitude, cyclic (ripple) loading. These tests have been supported by detailed scanning electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A good correlation is observed between the degree of embrittlement in slow strain rate tests and the steady state hydrogen permeation current density. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  3. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  4. Elastic Wavespeed Images of Northern Chile Subduction Zone from the Joint Inversion of Body and Surface Waves: Structure of the Andean Forearc and the Double Seismic Zone (United States)

    Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Peyrat, S.; Arriaza, R.; Chi, R. K.; Baeza, S.


    Partly in anticipation of an imminent megathrust earthquake, a significant amount of seismic data has been collected over the past several years in northern Chile by local deployments of seismometers. In this study we generate elastic wavespeed images of the crust and upper mantle using a combination of body wave arrival times and surface wave dispersion curves. The body wave data set consists of 130000 P and 108000 S wave arrival times generated by 12000 earthquakes recorded locally over a period of 25 years by networks comprising about 360 stations. The surface wave data set consists of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves determined from ambient noise recorded by 60 broad band stations from three different networks over a period of three years. Transit time biases due to an uneven distribution of noise were estimated using a technique based on that of Yao and van der Hilst (2009) and found to be as high as 5% for some station pairs. We jointly invert the body and surface wave observations to both improve the overall resolution of the crustal images and reduce the trade-off between shallow and deep structures in the images of the subducted slab. Of particular interest in these images are three regions of anomalous Vp/Vs: (1) An extensive zone of low Vp/Vs (1.68) correlates with trench-parallel magmatic belts emplaced in the upper continental crust. In the region of the coast and continental slope, low Vp/Vs corresponds to batholithic structures in the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc. Between the central depression and Domeyko Cordillera, low Vp/Vs correlates with the distribution of magmatic arcs of Paleocene-Oligocene and Eocene-Oligocene age. Low Vp/Vs also correlates with the location of the Mejillones Peninsula. (2) A region of high Vp/Vs occurs in what is most likely the serpentinized wedge of the subduction zone. (3) An additional zone of low Vp/Vs is located in the middle of the double seismic zone at depths of 90-110 km. This region may exist all along the

  5. Effects of Pre-existing Structures on the Seismicity of the Charlevoix Seismic Zone (United States)

    Fadugba, O. I.; Choi, E.; Powell, C. A.


    The Charlevoix Seismic Zone (CSZ) occurs along the early Paleozoic St. Lawrence rift zone in southeastern Quebec at the location of a major Devonian impact crater. The crater superimposed major, steeply dipping basement faults trending N35°E. Many earthquakes are recorded each year in the CSZ and are concentrated within and beneath the impact crater. Some large-magnitude earthquakes associated with the rift faults occurred outside the crater. The primary goal of this research is to investigate combined effects of the pre-existing structures and regional stresses on earthquake activity in the CSZ. We set up some models using PyLith, an open-source finite-element code for simulations of crustal deformation. Our models will be compared with those of Baird et al. (2010), which took a different numerical approach for the same purpose of relating the regional structures, stresses, and seismicity. Adopting the results from recent hypocenter relocation study, we will modify the locations and dips of the rift faults and assess the effect of the new fault geometries on stress distributions. Finally, we will discuss whether modeled stress distributions can explain the seismicity distribution in the CSZ and published focal mechanism solutions. As a part of our efforts to enhance the reproducibility of these types of complex geodynamic models, selected models in this study will be made available in the form of sharable and reproducible packages. Such packaging is enabled by GeoTrust, an EarthCube-funded project that aims to automate the creation of a self-contained metadata package that provides a complete description of all data elements associated with a computational experiment.

  6. Critical zone structure controls concentration-discharge relationships and solute generation in forested tropical montane watersheds (United States)

    Wymore, Adam S.; Brereton, Richard L.; Ibarra, Daniel E.; Maher, Kate; McDowell, William H.


    Concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships are poorly known for tropical watersheds, even though the tropics contribute a disproportionate amount of solutes to the global ocean. The Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico offer an ideal environment to examine C-Q relationships across a heterogeneous tropical landscape. We use 10-30 years of weekly stream chemistry data across 10 watersheds to examine C-Q relationships for weathering products (SiO2(aq), Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+) and biologically controlled solutes (dissolved organic carbon [DOC], dissolved organic nitrogen [DON], NH4+, NO3-, PO43-, K+, and SO42-). We analyze C-Q relationships using power law equations and a solute production model and use principal component analysis to test hypotheses regarding how the structure of the critical zone controls solute generation. Volcaniclastic watersheds had higher concentrations of weathering solutes and smaller tributaries were approximately threefold more efficient at generating these solutes than larger rivers. Lithology and vegetation explained a significant amount of variation in the theoretical maximum concentrations of weathering solutes (r2 = 0.43-0.48) and in the C-Q relationships of PO43- (r2 = 0.63) and SiO2(aq) (r2 = 0.47). However, the direction and magnitude of these relationships varied. Across watersheds, various forms of N and P displayed variable C-Q relationships, while DOC was consistently enriched with increasing discharge. Results suggest that PO43- may be a useful indicator of watershed function. Relationships between C-Q and landscape characteristics indicate the extent to which the structure and function of the Critical zone controls watershed solute fluxes.

  7. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale


    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  8. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction? (United States)

    De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie


    To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.

  9. Hydrothermal quartz formation during fluctuations of brittle shear-zone activity and fluid flow: grain growth and deformation structures of the Pfahl shear zone (Germany) (United States)

    Yilmaz, T.; Prosser, G.; Liotta, D.; Kruhl, J. H.


    The Bavarian Pfahl shear zone is a WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip shear zone at the SW margin of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe). It was discontinuously active during decreasing PT-conditions, i.e. from ductile to brittle, from the late-Carboniferous to the late-Cretaceous - Paleocene times. Triassic hydrothermal activity produced a 150 km long and 30-100 m wide quartz dyke along the main fault, surrounded by sheared basement rocks. Within a zone of >10 m metasomatism transformed the wall rocks to mostly kaolinite, chlorite and phyllosilicates. The quartz dyke exhibits a layered to lenticular and partly symmetric structure with different types of quartz masses, transected by a complex quartz vein network. This already indicates pulses of fluid flux and fragmentation during the lifetime of the shear zone. Analyses by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) and SEM-EDX reveal at least four subsequent stages of quartz crystallization and fragmentation. (i) The oldest generation of quartz is represented by a homogeneous dark grey to reddish quartz mass made up by ~10-20 μm-sized crystals. It contains mm- to cm-sized angular wall-rock fragments, completely altered to kaolinite, indicating intense wall-rock alteration prior to the earliest event of silica precipitation. This rules out the possibility that the quartz mass developed from silicification of the wall rocks. This first type of quartz occurs as cm- to dm-large angular fragments in (ii) a light grey to pink quartz mass formed by ~10-50 μm-sized crystals. The different colours result from variable types and amounts of inclusions. Quartz of both generations shows random crystallographic orientations and complex inclusion structures. It probably developed during two fragmentation events and possibly from a silica gel precursor that crystallized after precipitation. (iii) The third quartz generation formed as a set of mm- to dm-wide veins roughly parallel to the trend of the Pfahl zone

  10. Role of low flow and backward flow zones on colloid transport in pore structures derived from real porous media. (United States)

    Li, Xiqing; Li, Zhelong; Zhang, Dongxiao


    To examine the relevance of low flow zones and flow vortices to colloid transport in real porous media, lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations were combined with X-ray microtomography (XMT) to simulate flow fields in glass beads and quartz sand. Backward flow zones were demonstrated to be widely present in both porous media, with a greater volume fraction in the former relative to the latter porous media. Glass beads in the XMT images were approximated as spheres and their coordinates and radii were extracted to allow reconstruction of pore structures. LB simulations were again performed and the simulated flow fields in the reconstructed pore structures were coupled to a three-dimensional particle tracking algorithm. Particle tracking simulations demonstrated that significant amounts of colloids stayed in the simulated domains for long periods (up to 50 pore volumes). The percentages of colloids with long residence time increased as the depth of the secondary energy minimum increased. The majority of the colloids with long residence time were translated to low flow zones while being associated with grain surfaces via secondary minima. A small fraction of colloids entered low flow zones without being associated with the grains surfaces. Backward flow zones were also found to trap a small fraction of colloids for significantly long time (up to 10 pore volumes). In overall, however, backward flow zones trapped fewer colloids for shorter durations than low flow zones. In summary, this work demonstrates the importance of temporary trapping of colloids by the low flow and backward flow zones in real porous media. This trapping process can explain a number of intriguing experimental observations.

  11. Structural control and origin of volcanism in the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Cole, J. W.


    Taupor volcanic zone (TVZ) is the currently active volcanic arc and back-arc basin of the Taupo-Hikurangi arc-trench system, North Island, New Zealand. The volcanic arc is best developed at the southern (Tongariro volcanic centre) end of the TVZ, while on the eastern side of the TVZ it is represented mainly by dacite volcanoes, and in the Bay of Plenty andesite/dacite volcanoes occur on either side of the Whakatane graben. The back-arc basin is best developed in the central part of the TVZ and comprises bimodal rhyolite and high-alumina basalt volcanism. Widespread ignimbrite eruptions have occurred from this area in the past 0.6 Ma. Normal faults occur in both arc and back-arc basin. They are generally steeply dipping (>40°) and strike between 040° and 080°. In the back-arc basin, fault zones are en echelon and have the same trend as alignments of rhyolite domes and basalt vents. Open fissures have formed during historic earthquakes along some of the faults, and geodetic measurements on the north side of Lake Taupo suggest extension of 14±4 mm/year. In the Bay of Plenty and ML=6.3 earthquake occurred on 2 March 1987. Modelling of known structure in the area together with data derived from this earthquake suggests block faulting with faults dipping 45°±10° NW and a similar dip is suggested by seismic profiling of faults offshore of the Bay of Plenty where extension is estimated to be 5±2 mm/year. To the east of the TVZ, the North Island shear belt (NISB) is a zone of reverse-dextral, strike-slip faults, the surface expression of which terminates at the eastern end of the TVZ. On the opposite side of the TVZ in the offshore western Bay of Plenty and on line with the NISB is the Mayor Island fault belt. If the two fault belts were once continuous, as seems likely, strike-slip faults probably extend through the basement of the TVZ. When extension associated with the arc and back-arc basin is combined with these strike-slip faults, the resulting transtension

  12. Random matrix models for phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderheyden, B; Jackson, A D


    We describe a random matrix approach that can provide generic and readily soluble mean-field descriptions of the phase diagram for a variety of systems ranging from quantum chromodynamics to high-T c materials. Instead of working from specific models, phase diagrams are constructed by averaging over the ensemble of theories that possesses the relevant symmetries of the problem. Although approximate in nature, this approach has a number of advantages. First, it can be useful in distinguishing generic features from model-dependent details. Second, it can help in understanding the 'minimal' number of symmetry constraints required to reproduce specific phase structures. Third, the robustness of predictions can be checked with respect to variations in the detailed description of the interactions. Finally, near critical points, random matrix models bear strong similarities to Ginsburg-Landau theories with the advantage of additional constraints inherited from the symmetries of the underlying interaction. These constraints can be helpful in ruling out certain topologies in the phase diagram. In this Key Issues Review, we illustrate the basic structure of random matrix models, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and consider the kinds of system to which they can be applied.

  13. Soil respiration across a permafrost transition zone: spatial structure and environmental correlates (United States)

    Stegen, James C.; Anderson, Carolyn G.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Crump, Alex R.; Chen, Xingyuan; Hess, Nancy


    Soil respiration is a key ecosystem function whereby shifts in respiration rates can shift systems from carbon sinks to sources. Soil respiration in permafrost-associated systems is particularly important given climate change driven permafrost thaw that leads to significant uncertainty in resulting ecosystem carbon dynamics. Here we characterize the spatial structure and environmental drivers of soil respiration across a permafrost transition zone. We find that soil respiration is characterized by a non-linear threshold that occurs at active-layer depths greater than 140 cm. We also find that within each season, tree basal area is a dominant driver of soil respiration regardless of spatial scale, but only in spatial domains with significant spatial variability in basal area. Our analyses further show that spatial variation (the coefficient of variation) and mean-variance power-law scaling of soil respiration in our boreal system are consistent with previous work in other ecosystems (e.g., tropical forests) and in population ecology, respectively. Comparing our results to those in other ecosystems suggests that temporally stable features such as tree-stand structure are often primary drivers of spatial variation in soil respiration. If so, this provides an opportunity to better estimate the magnitude and spatial variation in soil respiration through remote sensing. Combining such an approach with broader knowledge of thresholding behavior - here related to active layer depth - would provide empirical constraints on models aimed at predicting ecosystem responses to ongoing permafrost thaw.

  14. Geometry Helps to Compare Persistence Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Michael; Morozov, Dmitriy; Nigmetov, Arnur


    Exploiting geometric structure to improve the asymptotic complexity of discrete assignment problems is a well-studied subject. In contrast, the practical advantages of using geometry for such problems have not been explored. We implement geometric variants of the Hopcroft--Karp algorithm for bottleneck matching (based on previous work by Efrat el al.), and of the auction algorithm by Bertsekas for Wasserstein distance computation. Both implementations use k-d trees to replace a linear scan with a geometric proximity query. Our interest in this problem stems from the desire to compute distances between persistence diagrams, a problem that comes up frequently in topological data analysis. We show that our geometric matching algorithms lead to a substantial performance gain, both in running time and in memory consumption, over their purely combinatorial counterparts. Moreover, our implementation significantly outperforms the only other implementation available for comparing persistence diagrams.

  15. Research principles and the construction of mnemonic diagrams (United States)

    Venda, V. F.; Mitkin, A. A.


    Mnemonic diagrams are defined as a variety of information display devices, the essential element of which is conventional graphical presentation of technological or functional-operational links in a controlled system or object. Graphically displaying the operational structure of an object, the interd dependence between different parameters, and the interdependence between indicators and control organs, the mneomonic diagram reduces the load on the operator's memory and facilitates perception and reprocessing of information and decision making, while at the same time playing the role of visual support to the information activity of the operator. The types of mnemonic diagrams are listed.

  16. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh


    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action...

  17. 3D multi-scale velocity structure of an active seismogenic normal fault zone (Central Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Fondriest, Michele; Mitchell, Tom; Vassallo, Maurizio; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Passelegue, Francois; Pischiutta, Marta; Di Toro, Giulio


    The characterization of physical properties of fault zones (e.g., ultrasonic velocities, elastic moduli, porosity and fracture intensity of the fault zone rocks) is a relevant topic in reservoir geology (exploration and exploitation) and fault mechanics, for the modelling of both long-term quasi-static and fast dynamic fault zone evolution with time. Here we characterized the shallow subsurface velocity-elastic structure of the active Vado di Corno normal fault zone (Campo Imperatore, Central Apennines, Italy) which is up to > 300 m thick. Based on a detailed structural mapping of the fault footwall block covering a 2 km long fault segment, four main structural units separated by principal fault strands were recognized: (i) cataclastic unit, (ii) breccia unit, (iii) high-strain damage zone, (iv) low-strain damage zone. The single units were systematically sampled along a transect ( 200 m) orthogonal to the average strike of the fault and characterized in the laboratory in terms of petrophysical properties (i.e., Vp, Vs, static and dynamic elastic moduli, porosity). The cataclastic and breccia units (Vp = 4.68±0.43 kms-1, Vs = 2.68±0.24 kms-1) were significantly "slower" compared to the damage zone units (Vp = 5.43±0.53 kms-1, Vs = 3.20±0.29 kms-1). A general negative correlation between ultrasonic velocity and porosity values was reported. Moreover three dimensional acoustic anisotropy was quantified within the different units with respect to the mapped fault strands, and related to the deformation fabrics (i.e., open fractures, veins) observed at the sample scale. A Vp - Vs seismic refraction tomography was then performed in the field along a profile ( 90 m) across the fault zone. The tomographic results clearly illuminated fault-bounded rock bodies characterized by different velocities (i.e., elastic properties) and geometries which match with the ones deduced from the structural analysis of the fault zone exposures. Fracture intensity measurements (both at

  18. Paleoseismology of the 1966 Varto Earthquake (Ms 6.8) and Structure of the Varto Fault Zone, Eastern Turkey (United States)

    Isik, V.; Caglayan, A.; Saber, R.; Yesilyurt, N.


    Turkey is a region of active faulting and contains several strike-slip fault zones, which have generated both historical and recent large earthquakes. Two active fault zones in Turkey, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), divide the area into the Anatolian micro-plate accommodating WSW-directed movement. The southeastern continuation of the NAFZ is often referred to the Varto Fault Zone (VFZ). The VFZ cuts mainly Pliocene volcano-sedimentary units and/or Quaternary deposits and is characterized by multiple fault strands and multiple, closely spaced, active seismogenic zones. Fault motions in the zone are primarily right-lateral, with a subordinate component of NNW-SSE shortening. Study area is Varto region in which indications of active faulting are very well preserved. We recognized three coseismic ruptures from five trench exposures. It is referred to these as events 1 (youngest) through 3 (oldest). The best evidence of event 3 comes from fault traces and its upward terminations. The major components of this fault are fault core and damage zone. The fault is not just one plane of discontinuity and bifurcates and creates additional slip surfaces, which propagate out of the plane of the original fault. Event 2 and event 1, referring to 1946 and 1966 earthquakes, are characterized primarily by discrete, regularly spaced normal faults with and 55-80 cm and 105-270 cm throws, respectively and geometry of growth strata. The VFZ in the study area include typical structures of strike-slip fault zone. It forms a number of parallel and slightly sub-parallel strands striking N50°-72°W including contractional and extensional brittle structures. Several meters to tens of meters wavelength active folds with ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE trending fold axis. These folds deform the Plio-Quaternary units and show classic asymmetry associated with both a south- and north-vergent fault propagation fold. Meso-scale normal faults are also well

  19. Dynamic fracture of adhesively bonded composite structures using cohesive zone models (United States)

    Makhecha, Dhaval P.

    Using experimental data obtained from standard fracture test configurations, theoretical and numerical tools are developed to mathematically describe non-self-similar progression of cracks without specifying an initial crack. A cohesive-decohesive zone model, similar to the cohesive zone model known in the fracture mechanics literature as the Dugdale-Barenblatt model, is adopted to represent the degradation of the material ahead of the crack tip. This model unifies strength-based crack initiation and fracture-mechanics-based crack progression. The cohesive-decohesive zone model is implemented with an interfacial surface material that consists of an upper and a lower surface that are connected by a continuous distribution of normal and tangential nonlinear elastic springs that act to resist either Mode I opening, Mode II sliding, Mode III sliding, or a mixed anode. The initiation of fracture is determined by the interfacial strength and the progression of the crack is determined by the critical energy release rate. The adhesive is idealized with an interfacial surface material to predict interfacial fracture. The interfacial surface material is positioned within the bulk material to predict discrete cohesive cracks. The interfacial surface material is implemented through an interface element, which is incorporated in ABAQUS using the user defined element (UEL) option. A procedure is established to formulate a rate dependent model based on experiments carried out on compact tension test specimens. The rate dependent model is incorporated into the interface element approach to capture the unstable crack growth observed in experiments under quasi-static loading conditions. The compact tension test gives the variation of the fracture toughness with the rate of loading, this information is processed and a relationship between the fracture toughness and the rate of the opening displacement is established. The cohesive-decohesive zone model is implemented through a

  20. Magnetotelluric imaging of the crustal structure of the Great Slave Lake shear zone in Northwest Alberta (United States)

    WANG, E.; Unsworth, M. J.; Chacko, T.


    The Alberta basement is part of the North American craton - Laurentia, which was assembled in the Paleoproterozoic era. The Great Slave Lake shear zone (GSLsz) is the major crustal-scale right-lateral strike-slip feature in northwest Laurentia. Because of the extensive coverage of the rocks of the WCSB, geological studies in northern Alberta are limited to studies of drill core samples. The crustal structures of northern Alberta were defined from potential field in combination with isotopic studies. Magnetotelluric method is helpful in this case, because it is sensitive to conductive bodies. New Broadband magnetotelluric data were collected across the GSLsz to give a clear image of the crustal structure. Dimensionality analyses showed that the data are two-dimensional at the crustal depth, even though 3-D effects are present at the lowest frequencies. Consequently, 2-D inversions were applied and a preferred resistivity model was achieved. The WCSB was imaged as a conductive layer on the top of the resistive Precambrian basement rocks. Four conductive bodies associate with terrane boundaries were identified. The largest conductor - KC is located coincident with the Kiskatinaw terrane at the mid-crustal depth. The second conductor - KCC is located at the boundary of the Ksituan and Chinchaga terranes at upper-crustal depth. The KC and KCC are suspected to be linear conductors that are consistent along the strikes of the Kiskatinaw terrane and the western boundary of the Chinchaga terrane, respectively. This is concluded when considering the result of this study in combination with the potential field data, a previously proposed 3-D resistivity model and a 2-D seismic reflection result. Both of the KC and KCC corresponds to seismically reflective zones. The third conductor - HC is imaged beneath the Hottah terrane. The GSLsz is close to the HC and they may be related in origin. The fourth conductor - CBHC is imaged at the boundary of the Chinchaga and Buffalo Head

  1. Soil macrofauna community structure along a gradient of land use intensification in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madong à Birang,


    The impact of land use systems on soil macrofauna community structures is described as well as their relationships with the vegetation and soil parameters in the humid forest zone of southernCameroon

  2. Controls on fault zone structure and brittle fracturing in the foliated hanging wall of the Alpine Fault (United States)

    Williams, Jack N.; Toy, Virginia G.; Massiot, Cécile; McNamara, David D.; Smith, Steven A. F.; Mills, Steven


    Three datasets are used to quantify fracture density, orientation, and fill in the foliated hanging wall of the Alpine Fault: (1) X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of drill core collected within 25 m of its principal slip zones (PSZs) during the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project that were reoriented with respect to borehole televiewer images, (2) field measurements from creek sections up to 500 m from the PSZs, and (3) CT images of oriented drill core collected during the Amethyst Hydro Project at distances of ˜ 0.7-2 km from the PSZs. Results show that within 160 m of the PSZs in foliated cataclasites and ultramylonites, gouge-filled fractures exhibit a wide range of orientations. At these distances, fractures are interpreted to have formed at relatively high confining pressures and/or in rocks that had a weak mechanical anisotropy. Conversely, at distances greater than 160 m from the PSZs, fractures are typically open and subparallel to the mylonitic or schistose foliation, implying that fracturing occurred at low confining pressures and/or in rocks that were mechanically anisotropic. Fracture density is similar across the ˜ 500 m width of the field transects. By combining our datasets with measurements of permeability and seismic velocity around the Alpine Fault, we further develop the hierarchical model for hanging-wall damage structure that was proposed by Townend et al. (2017). The wider zone of foliation-parallel fractures represents an outer damage zone that forms at shallow depths. The distinct inner damage zone. This zone is interpreted to extend towards the base of the seismogenic crust given that its width is comparable to (1) the Alpine Fault low-velocity zone detected by fault zone guided waves and (2) damage zones reported from other exhumed large-displacement faults. In summary, a narrow zone of fracturing at the base of the Alpine Fault's hanging-wall seismogenic crust is anticipated to widen at shallow depths, which is

  3. Structural variation along the southwestern Nankai seismogenic zone related to various earthquake phenomena (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Kashiwase, K.; Fujimori, H.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.


    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture area of the Nankai megathrust event, it is important to know the geometry of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and deep subduction structure along the Nankai Trough. To obtain the deep subduction structure of the coseismic rupture area of the Nankai earthquake in 1946 off Shikoku area, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle seismic study was conducted in 2009 and 2010. In this study, 201 and 200 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed off the Shikoku Island and the Kii channel respectively. A tuned airgun system (7800 cu. in.) shot every 200m along 13 profiles. Airgun shots were also recorded along an onshore seismic profile (prepared by ERI, univ. of Tokyo and NIED) prolonged from the offshore profile off the Kii Peninsula. Long-term observation was conducted for ~9 months by 21 OBSs off the Shikoku area and 20 OBSs off the Kii channel.This research is part of 'Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Structural images of the overriding plate indicate the old accreted sediments (the Cretaceous-Tertiary accretionary prism) with the velocity greater than 6km/s extend seaward from off the Shikoku to the Hyuga-nada. Moreover, the young accreted sediments become relatively thinner eastward from off the cape Ashizuri to Muroto. These structural variations might be related to the different rupture pattern of the Nankai event. Structural image of the deep low frequency earthquakes and tremors is shown by using the airgun shots recorded at onshore

  4. A (T-P) phase diagram of hydrogen storage on (N4C3H)6Li6. (United States)

    Das, Ranjita; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar


    Temperature-pressure phase diagrams are generated through the study of hydrogen adsorption on the (N(4)C(3)H)(6)Li(6) cluster at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory. The possibility of hydrogen storage in an associated 3D functional material is also explored. Electronic structure calculations are performed to generate temperature-pressure phase diagrams so that the temperature-pressure zones are identified where the Gibbs free energy change associated with the hydrogen adsorption process on (N(4)C(3)H)(6)Li(6) cluster becomes negative and hence thermodynamically favorable. Both adsorption and desorption processes are likely to be kinetically feasible as well.

  5. New detectors for powders diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convert, P.


    During the last few years, all the classical neutron diffractometers for powders have used one or maybe a few counters. So, it takes a long time to obtain a diagram which causes many disadvantages: 1) very long experiments: one or two days (or flux on the sample about 10 6 n/cm 2 /a); 2) necessity of big samples: many cm 3 ; 3) necessity of having the whole diagram before changing anything in the experiment: magnetic field, temperature, quality of the sample; 4) necessity of having collimators of a few times ten minutes to obtain correct statistics in the diagram. Because of these disadvantages, several attempts have been made to speed up the experimental procedure such as using more counters, the detection of neutrons on a resistive wire, etc. In Grenoble, new position-sensitive detectors have been constructed using a digital technique

  6. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn V.


    When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption that the......When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption...... that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the influence diagram framework. The extension allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a linear conversion function between the currencies...

  7. The southern Sierra Nevada Frontal Fault Zone: what longitudinal stream profiles tell us about fault evolution and the presence of relay zone structures (United States)

    Koehler, K.; Krugh, W. C.


    The mechanical linkage of normal faults can result in spatial variations in fault displacement. In this study we use ArcGIS®, Matlab®, and software from to perform stream profile analysis along the southern Sierra Nevada Frontal Fault Zone (SNFFZ). This work aims to constrain the pattern of rock uplift and identify potential relay zone structures associated with fault evolution. Stream profile analysis is suitable for this investigation since the fluvial network upholds a continuous connection to the driving forces of tectonics. For this study we expect to find higher channel steepness indices and rates of rock uplift where the processes of mechanical fault linkage have occurred most recently. Using a 10m digital elevation model from the USGS, watershed boundaries and longitudinal stream profiles were extracted for divide reaching, and select non-divide reaching, drainages along the footwall of the southern SNFFZ. The relationship between channel slope and contributing drainage area for each watershed was then used to determine an average channel concavity, and to specify a regional reference concavity of θref = 0.695. This information was used to calculate the normalized steepness index for each watershed. Preliminary findings, using an initial θref = 0.45, indicated that the max channel steepness occurs at Cottonwood Creek, which drains much of the relay zone, with ksn values decreasing in both directions along strike. With further analyses using θref = 0.695, it is evident that anomalous values of ksn are present around the Cottonwood Creek drainage, and near Sawmill Creek to the north. Knickpoint examination shows that a prominent trend exists within the southern catchments, while north of Cottonwood Creek knickpoint elevations are highly erratic. Interpretation of this suggests that the southern knickpoints hold greater value for tectonic analyses. The findings of this study provide evidence that relay zone structures are potentially

  8. Uranium phase diagram from first principles (United States)

    Yanilkin, Alexey; Kruglov, Ivan; Migdal, Kirill; Oganov, Artem; Pokatashkin, Pavel; Sergeev, Oleg


    The work is devoted to the investigation of uranium phase diagram up to pressure of 1 TPa and temperature of 15 kK based on density functional theory. First of all the comparison of pseudopotential and full potential calculations is carried out for different uranium phases. In the second step, phase diagram at zero temperature is investigated by means of program USPEX and pseudopotential calculations. Stable and metastable structures with close energies are selected. In order to obtain phase diagram at finite temperatures the preliminary selection of stable phases is made by free energy calculation based on small displacement method. For remaining candidates the accurate values of free energy are obtained by means of thermodynamic integration method (TIM). For this purpose quantum molecular dynamics are carried out at different volumes and temperatures. Interatomic potentials based machine learning are developed in order to consider large systems and long times for TIM. The potentials reproduce the free energy with the accuracy 1-5 meV/atom, which is sufficient for prediction of phase transitions. The equilibrium curves of different phases are obtained based on free energies. Melting curve is calculated by modified Z-method with developed potential.

  9. Phase diagram of heteronuclear Janus dumbbells (United States)

    O'Toole, Patrick; Giacometti, Achille; Hudson, Toby

    Using Aggregation-Volume-Bias Monte Carlo simulations along with Successive Umbrella Sampling and Histogram Re-weighting, we study the phase diagram of a system of dumbbells formed by two touching spheres having variable sizes, as well as different interaction properties. The first sphere ($h$) interacts with all other spheres belonging to different dumbbells with a hard-sphere potential. The second sphere ($s$) interacts via a square-well interaction with other $s$ spheres belonging to different dumbbells and with a hard-sphere potential with all remaining $h$ spheres. We focus on the region where the $s$ sphere is larger than the $h$ sphere, as measured by a parameter $1\\le \\alpha\\le 2 $ controlling the relative size of the two spheres. As $\\alpha \\to 2$ a simple fluid of square-well spheres is recovered, whereas $\\alpha \\to 1$ corresponds to the Janus dumbbell limit, where the $h$ and $s$ spheres have equal sizes. Many phase diagrams falling into three classes are observed, depending on the value of $\\alpha$. The $1.8 \\le \\alpha \\le 2$ is dominated by a gas-liquid phase separation very similar to that of a pure square-well fluid with varied critical temperature and density. When $1.3 \\le \\alpha \\le 1.8$ we find a progressive destabilization of the gas-liquid phase diagram by the onset of self-assembled structures, that eventually lead to a metastability of the gas-liquid transition below $\\alpha=1.2$.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, and TEM analysis of Sr19Li44 and Sr3Li2: a reinvestigation of the Sr-Li phase diagram. (United States)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Kienle, Lorenz; Duppel, Viola; Simon, Arndt


    Two intermetallic phases in the Sr-Li system have been synthesized and structurally characterized. According to single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, Sr(19)Li(44) and Sr(3)Li(2) crystallize with tetragonal unit cells (Sr(19)Li(44), I-42d, a = 15.9122(7) Å, c = 31.831(2) Å, Z = 4, V = 8059(2) Å(3); Sr(3)Li(2), P42/mnm, a = 9.803(1) Å, c = 8.784(2) Å, Z = 4, V = 844.2(2) Å(3)). The first compound is isostructural with the recently discovered Ba(19)Li(44). Sr in Sr(19)Li(44) can be fully replaced by Ba with no changes to the crystal structure, whereas the substitution of Sr by Ca is only possible within a limited concentration range. Sr(3)Li(2) can be assigned to the Al(2)Zr(3) structure type. The crystal structure determination of Sr(19)Li(44) was complicated by multiple twinning. As an experimental highlight, an electron microscopy investigation of the highly moisture- and electron-beam-sensitive crystals was performed, enabling high-resolution imaging of the defect structure.

  11. Internal tectonic structure of the Central American Wadati-Benioff zone based on analysis of aftershock sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří; Běhounková, Marie


    Roč. 112, B9 (2007), B09304/1-B09304/18 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Wadati-Benioff zone * aftershocks sequences * internal tectonic structure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2007

  12. Structure et stratigraphie du secteur oriental de la Sierra Almijara (zone alpujarride, Cordilleres Betiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Galdeano, C.


    Full Text Available La série stratigraphique de la Sierra Almijara est formée. a sa base, par des schistes et des quarzites, sur lesquels se trouve une puissante formation divisée en trois terms. Deux d’entre eux sont de marbres et ils sont séparés par un troisème de schistes, calcoschistes et marbres. La structure montre des plis serrés, de direction N70 et d'autres qui semblent postérieurs de direction NNW-SSE. D'importants décrochements et failles inverses les coupent. On distingue seulement une nappe dans la zone étudiée: celle d’Almijara.
    La serie estratigráfica de Sierra Almijara está formada en su base por esquistos y cuarcitas sobre los que se sitúa una potente formación dividida en tres tramos. Dos de ellos son de mármoles y están separados por otro de esquistos, calcosquistos y mármoles. La estructura muestra apretados pliegues de dirección N70 y otros aparentemente posteriores de dirección NNW-SSE. Importantes fallas de desgarre e inversas los cortan. Sólo se distingue un manto en el área estudiada: el de Almijara

  13. SOFIA-EXES: Probing the Thermal Structure of M Supergiant Wind Acceleration Zones (United States)

    Harper, Graham M.; O'Gorman, Eamon; Guinan, Edward F.; EXES Instrument Team, EXES Science Team


    There is no standard model for mass loss from cool evolved stars, particularly for non-pulsating giants and supergiants. For the early-M supergiants, radiation pressure, convective ejections, magnetic fields, and Alfven waves have all been put forward as potential mass loss mechanisms. A potential discriminator between these ideas is the thermal structure resulting from the heating-cooling balance in the acceleration zone - the most important region to study mass loss physics.We present mid-IR [Fe II] emission line profiles of Betelgeuse and Antares obtained with NASA-DLR SOFIA-EXES and NASA IRTF-TEXES that were obtained as part of a GO program (Harper: Cycle 2-0004) and EXES instrument commissioning observations. The intra-term transitions sample a range of excitation conditions, Texc=540K, 3,400K, and 11,700K, i.e., from the warm chromospheric plasma, that also emits in the cm-radio and ultraviolet, to the cold inner circumstellar envelope. The spectrally-resolved profiles, when combined with VLA cm-radio observations, provide new constraints on the temperature and flow velocity in the outflow accelerating region. The semi-empirical energy balance can be used to test theoretical predictions of wind heating.

  14. Soil Structure Evaluation Across Geologic Transition Zones Using 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine C Anukwu


    Full Text Available This study utilizes the electrical resistivity values obtained using 2-D Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI technique to evaluate the subsurface lithology across different geological units. The primary objective was to determine the effect of subsurface lithology on the integrity of a road pavement, which had developed cracks and potholes at various locations. The dipole-dipole configuration was utilized and a total of nine traverses were established in the study area, whose geology cuts across both the basement and sedimentary complexes. The inverted resistivity section obtained showed significant variation in resistivity along established traverses and also across the different rock units, with the resistivity value ranging from about 4 ohm-m to greater than 7000 ohm- m. The lithology as interpreted from the resistivity section revealed the presence topsoil, clay, sandy clay, sand, sand stones/basement rocks, with varying vertical and horizontal arrangements to a depth of 40m. Results suggest that the geologic sequence and structure might have contributed to the observed pavement failure. The capability of the 2D ERI as an imaging tool is observed, especially across the transition zones as depicted in this study. The study further stressed the ability of this technique if properly designed and implemented, to be capable of providing a wealth of information that could complement other traditional geotechnical and geologic techniques.

  15. Special Economic Zones as a Nanoindustry Development Institute: the Nature, Structure, and Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakov Oleg Vasilyevich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature, specificity and tasks of Russia’s special economic zones (SEZ as an institution of national nanoindustry. Statuses and procedures, preferences, benefits, guarantees and privileges of Russian SEZ, which contribute to the creation of favorable starting conditions for the residents’ innovative projects implementation are generally described. Types and parameters of the SEZ are distinguish, their potentials, trends of formation and multiplication, experience and problems of their formation and operation are defined. It is shown that not only technology-innovative SEZ, but also industrial production SEZ are included in the development of the national nanoindustry: the first ones – through the development and implementation of nanotechnology, the second ones – by serial and mass production of goods and services with nanosigns. The notion of the life cycle of the SEZ, based on the understanding of the Kondratieff wave structure, dynamics and boundaries and model representation of technological mode evolution is given. On this methodological basis, an original substantial characteristic of the life cycle of SEZ is suggested and logic of phase change is justified, providing for the division of exogenous and endogenous factors affecting them. The slowness of development, lack of stakeholders’ responsibility, and of the activity of residents and their related groups, the uncertainty of achieving profitability and effectiveness of SEZs in the process of construction and performance of their tasks are identified. The conclusions are confirmed with monitoring materials held by Ministry of Economic Development of Russia.

  16. Pourbaix Diagram, Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer, and Decay Kinetics of a Protein Tryptophan Radical: Comparing the Redox Properties of W32• and Y32• Generated Inside the Structurally Characterized α3W and α3Y Proteins. (United States)

    Glover, Starla D; Tyburski, Robin; Liang, Li; Tommos, Cecilia; Hammarström, Leif


    Protein-based "hole" hopping typically involves spatially arranged redox-active tryptophan or tyrosine residues. Thermodynamic information is scarce for this type of process. The well-structured α 3 W model protein was studied by protein film square wave voltammetry and transient absorption spectroscopy to obtain a comprehensive thermodynamic and kinetic description of a buried tryptophan residue. A Pourbaix diagram, correlating thermodynamic potentials (E°') with pH, is reported for W 32 in α 3 W and compared to equivalent data recently presented for Y 32 in α 3 Y ( Ravichandran , K. R. ; Zong , A. B. ; Taguchi , A. T. ; Nocera , D. G. ; Stubbe , J. ; Tommos , C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017 , 139 , 2994 - 3004 ). The α 3 W Pourbaix diagram displays a pK OX of 3.4, a E°'(W 32 (N •+ /NH)) of 1293 mV, and a E°'(W 32 (N • /NH); pH 7.0) of 1095 ± 4 mV versus the normal hydrogen electrode. W 32 (N • /NH) is 109 ± 4 mV more oxidizing than Y 32 (O • /OH) at pH 5.4-10. In the voltammetry measurements, W 32 oxidation-reduction occurs on a time scale of about 4 ms and is coupled to the release and subsequent uptake of one full proton to and from bulk. Kinetic analysis further shows that W 32 oxidation likely involves pre-equilibrium electron transfer followed by proton transfer to a water or small water cluster as the primary acceptor. A well-resolved absorption spectrum of W 32 • is presented, and analysis of decay kinetics show that W 32 • persists ∼10 4 times longer than aqueous W • due to significant stabilization by the protein. The redox characteristics of W 32 and Y 32 are discussed relative to global and local protein properties.

  17. Verification of structural control on landforms in the transition zone between Pannonian Basin and Eastern Alps (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor; Fodor, László; Kövér, Szilvia; Molnár, Gábor; Székely, Balázs; Timár, Gábor; Telbisz, Tamás


    partly follow this line of combined methodology, but use different subsurface and surface data sets. The success of the study of Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger et al. (2009) mainly depended on the availability of industrial seismic profiles. However, this is not the case in the presented study area. Instead of seismic data, we used other types of geophysical methods, namely 2D geoelectric tomography, 1D vertical electric sounding. Relatively dense network of shallow boreholes permitted the construction of cross sections and could be compared to geophysical data. Finally, surface fault-slip data was important for characterisation of fault geometry and fault kinematics. All these data permitted to build a 3D model for a particular drainage anomaly located in the western Pannonian Basin, its transition to the Eastern Alps. The combined data set suggest that en echelon normal or oblique-normal faults controlled linear ENE trending segments of the Arany creek, which is almost perpendicular to the general flow direction. The en echelon faults could be part of a sinistral shear zone, which occur between the Rechnitz and Eisenberg windows of the Penninicum. If this fault was kinematically connected to others at the window's margin, their tectonic exhumation might have continued after the main early to mid-Miocene phase. The fault zone could be initiated in the late Miocene (Pannonian) around 9 Ma, and was active afterword. Exact timing of this deformation was not determined neither neotectonic activity proved. However, our study shows that the Late Miocene basin fill of the Pannonian Basin was deformed considerably. The other issue of our work is that the combination of diverse methods is useful, sometimes inevitable for checking the potential structural control and landform and landscape evolution. Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Z.; Fodor, L. & Horváth, E. 2007: Neotectonic and landscape evolution of the Gödöllő Hills, Central Pannonian Basin. - Global and Planetary Change, 58, 181

  18. Geology and structure of major uranium-bearing zones in India and their exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushana, J.C.; Vasudeva Rao, M.; Sahasrabudhe, G.H.; Krishnamoorthy, B.; Suryanarayana Rao, C.; Rama Rao, Y.N.


    Radiogeologic, lithostratigraphic, tectonic, and crustal evolutionary considerations have enabled the recognition of three major uranium provinces in India: the Singhbhum Province in the north-east; the Rajasthan Province in the north-west; and the Madhya Pradesh Province in central India. The paper describes the salient features of the three uranium provinces, with particular emphasis on their structural set-up, magmatectonics, and the controls of uranium mineralization, and presents a few recent case histories of individual deposits (Bagjata and Turamdih in Singhbhum, and Dhabi-Dumhat in Madhya Pradesh) discovered by integrated exploration techniques. The three uranium provinces are related to major deep-seated faults: the Singhbhum Province lies at the arcuate north-east end of the deep fault of the Eastern Ghats; the Rajasthan Province parallels the great boundary fault; and the Madhya Pradesh Province aligns with the Mahanadi-Son rift system. Some of the plausible explanations for these remarkable features are: localization of uranium ore during episodes of crustal fracturing in Precambrian times; reactivation and rejuvenation of favourable basement structures; and the role of local 'hot spots' (aided by compressional and vertical tectonics) in crustal zones anomalously enriched in the heat-producing elements. Uranium exploration strategy in India during the last three decades reveals two significant trends - the application of conventional radiometric techniques during the period 1950-65; and introduction of sophisticated methodology comprising non-radiometric geophysical techniques, emanometry, aerial and car-borne gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical surveys, and photogeological techniques as supplements to conventional radiometry, during the period 1965-75. It is concluded that extension of such integrated exploration techniques to favourable virgin terrains in India would lead to newer and richer uranium ore discoveries. (author)

  19. Metallurgical interpretation of the change of notched bar impact strength in the heat-affected zone of weldable structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forch, K.; Forch, U.; Piehl, K.H.


    Notched bar impact energy in the heat-affected zone of joint welds of the steels StE 36, StE 51 and 20 MnMoNi55. Manual arc welding and submerged arc welding with heat input between 10,000 and 35,000 J/cm, stress relieving between 530 and 600 0 C. Significance of the structure in the heat-affected zone, the effect of heat treatment, the precipitation processes and of temper embrittlement. (orig.) [de

  20. Chitinolytic and pectinolytic community in the vertical structure of chernozem's zone ecosystems (United States)

    Lukacheva, E.; Manucharova, N.


    Chitin is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine and is found in many places throughout the natural world. Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. Roots of the plants and root crops contain pectin. Chitin and pectin are widely distributed throughout the natural world. For this reason it is important to investigate the structural and functional properties of complex organisms, offering degradation of these biopolymers in the terrestrial and soil ecosystems. It is known that ecosystems have their own structure. It is possible to allocate some vertical tiers: phylloplane, litter (soil covering), soil. We investigated chitinolytic and pektinolytic microbial communities dedicated to different layers of the ecosystem of the chernozem zone. Quantity of eukaryote and procaryote organisms increased in the test samples with chitin and pectin. Increasing of eukaryote in samples with pectin was more then in samples with chitin. Also should be noted the significant increasing of actinomycet`s quantity in the samples with chitin in comparison with samples with pectin. The variety and abundance of bacteria in the litter samples increased an order of magnitude as compared to other options investigated. Further prokaryote community was investigated by method FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). FISH is a cytogenetic technique developed that is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. Quantity of Actinomycets and Firmicutes was the largest among identified cells with metabolic activity in soil samples. Should be noted significant increasing of the quantity of Acidobateria and Bacteroidetes in pectinolytic community and Alphaproteobacteria in chitinolytic community. In considering of the phylogenetic structure investigated communities in samples of the litter should be noted increase in the segment of Proteobacteria. Increasing of this group of

  1. Uppermost oceanic crust structure and properties from multichannel seismic data at the Alaska subduction zone (United States)

    Becel, A.; Carton, H. D.; Shillington, D. J.


    The most heterogeneous, porous and permeable layer within a subducting oceanic crust is the uppermost layer called Layer 2A. This layer, made of extrusive basalts, forms at the ridge axis and persists as a thin ( 600 m) low-velocity cap in old crust. Nearing the trench axis, when oceanic plate bends, normal faults can be formed or reactivated at the outer-rise allowing a more vigorous hydrothermal circulation to resume within this layer. Porosity and heterogeneity within this layer are important to assess because these parameters might have a profound impact on subduction zone processes. However, conventional refraction data quality is rarely good enough to look into detail into the properties of the uppermost oceanic layer. Here we use 2D marine long-offset multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected offshore of the Alaska Peninsula during the ALEUT Program. The dataset was acquired aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth with a 636-channels, 8-km long streamer. We present initial results from three 140 km long profiles across the 52-56Myr old incoming Pacific oceanic crust formed at fast spreading rate: two perpendicular margin and one parallel margin profiles. Those profiles are located outboard of the Shumagin gaps. Outboard of this subduction zone segment, abundant bending related normal faults are imaged and concentrated within 50-60 km of the trench. Long-offset MCS data exhibit a prominent triplication that includes postcritical reflections and turning waves within the upper crust at offsets larger than 3 km. The triplication suggests the presence of a velocity discontinuity within the upper oceanic crust. We follow a systematic and uniform approach to extract upper crustal post-critical reflections and add them to them to the vertical incidence MCS images. Images reveal small-scale variations in the thickness of the Layer 2A and the strength of its base along the profiles. The second step consists of the downward continuation followed by travel

  2. Structural evolution of the La Trocha fault zone: Oblique collision and strike-slip basins in the Cuban Orogen (United States)

    Cruz-Orosa, Israel; Sã Bat, Francesc; Ramos, Emilio; Rivero, LluíS.; VáZquez-Taset, Yaniel M.


    The La Trocha fault zone acted as a major left-lateral transfer zone and is bounded by the La Trocha (LTF), Zaza-Tuinicú (ZTF), Cristales (CTF) and Taguasco (TGF) faults. These faults were consistent with the clockwise rotation of convergence and shortening in central Cuba. From the Paleocene to the Early Eocene (65-48 Ma), a SSW-NNE shortening produced transtension in the LTF and transpression in the ZTF. Subsequently, during the Middle Eocene (48-37 Ma), shortening shifted to a SW-NE direction, resulting in the normal component of the LTF and transpression in the ZTF and CTF. Since the Late Eocene (37 Ma), central Cuba has been welded to the North American Plate. The post-welding deformation gave rise to transtension of the LTF and TGF. This deformation is consistent with a WSW-ENE shortening and reflects activity in the transform boundary of the Cayman Trough. Both the normal and thrust displacements of these previous faults are corroborated by structural data whereas left-lateral displacement is deduced from the concordance between oblique collision and structural features. Plate-kinematics and the structural evolution of the La Trocha fault zone indicate that the related Central Basin is a strike-slip polygenetic basin and that the formation of this system (i.e., fault zone - strike-slip basin) was a consequence of the Paleogene oblique collision between the Caribbean Volcanic Arc and the Bahamas Borderland (North American plate).

  3. Phase diagram of Hertzian spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pàmies, J.C.; Cacciuto, A.; Frenkel, D.


    We report the phase diagram of interpenetrating Hertzian spheres. The Hertz potential is purely repulsive, bounded at zero separation, and decreases monotonically as a power law with exponent 5/2, vanishing at the overlapping threshold. This simple functional describes the elastic interaction of

  4. Diagrams in the polaron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smondyrev, M.A.


    The perturbation theory for the polaron energy is systematically treated on the diagrammatic basis. Feynman diagrams being constructed allow to calculate the polaron energy up to the third order in powers of the coupling constant. Similar calculations are performed for the average number of virtual phonons

  5. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner


    that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the Influence Diagram framework, which allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a conversion function between the currencies, discovers...

  6. Electrical elementary diagrams and operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Inc., Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail:


    After 40 years of reading and interrupting electrical elementary logic drawings, I have concluded that we need to make a change. We need to write and express our nuclear power plant logic in some other language than relay ladder logic, solid state logic or computer mnemonics. The language should be English, or your native language, and the format should be Descriptive Block Diagrams. (author)

  7. Crustal structure at the western end of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from deep seismic sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baier


    Full Text Available The first deep seismic sounding experiment in Northwestern Anatolia was carried out in October 1991 as part of the "German - Turkish Project on Earthquake Prediction Research" in the Mudurnu area of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. The experiment was a joint enterprise by the Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics of Frankfurt University, the Earthquake Research Institute (ERI in Ankara, and the Turkish Oil Company (TPAO. Two orthogonal profiles, each 120 km in length with a crossing point near Akyazi, were covered in succession by 30 short period tape recording seismograph stations with 2 km station spacing. 12 shots, with charge sizes between 100 and 250 kg, were fired and 342 seismograms out of 360 were used for evaluation. By coincidence an M b = 4.5 earthquake located below Imroz Island was also recorded and provided additional information on Moho and the sub-Moho velocity. A ray tracing method orginally developed by Weber (1986 was used for travel time inversion. From a compilation of all data two generalized crustal models were derived, one with velocity gradients within the layers and one with constant layer velocities. The latter consists of a sediment cover of about 2 km with V p » 3.6 km/s, an upper crystalline crust down to 13 km with V p » 5.9 km/s, a middle crust down to 25 km depth with V p » 6.5 km/s, a lower crust down to 39 km Moho depth with V p » 7.0 km/s and V p » 8.05 km/s below the Moho. The structure of the individual profiles differs slightly. The thickest sediment cover is reached in the Izmit-Sapanca-trough and in the Akyazi basin. Of particular interest is a step of about 4 km in the lower crust near Lake Sapanca and probably an even larger one in the Moho (derived from the Imroz earthquake data. After the catastrophic earthquake of Izmit on 17 August 1999 this significant heterogeneity in crustal structure appears in a new light with regard to the possible cause of the Izmit earthquake. Heterogeneities in

  8. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints (United States)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.


    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  9. Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu


    A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show

  10. The influence of Critical Zone structure on runoff paths, seasonal water storage, and ecosystem composition (United States)

    Hahm, W. J.; Dietrich, W. E.; Rempe, D.; Dralle, D.; Dawson, T. E.; Lovill, S.; Bryk, A.


    Understanding how subsurface water storage mediates water availability to ecosystems is crucial for elucidating linkages between water, energy, and carbon cycles from local to global scales. Earth's Critical Zone (the CZ, which extends from the top of the vegetation canopy downward to fresh bedrock) includes fractured and weathered rock layers that store and release water, thereby contributing to ecosystem water supplies, and yet are not typically represented in land-atmosphere models. To investigate CZ structural controls on water storage dynamics, we intensively studied field sites in a Mediterranean climate where winter rains arrive months before peak solar energy availability, resulting in strong summertime ecosystem reliance on stored subsurface water. Intra-hillslope and catchment-wide observations of CZ water storage capacity across a lithologic boundary in the Franciscan Formation of the Northern California Coast Ranges reveal large differences in the thickness of the CZ and water storage capacity that result in a stark contrast in plant community composition and stream behavior. Where the CZ is thick, rock moisture storage supports forest transpiration and slow groundwater release sustains baseflow and salmon populations. Where the CZ is thin, limited water storage is used by an oak savanna ecosystem, and streams run dry in summer due to negligible hillslope drainage. At both sites, wet season precipitation replenishes the dynamic storage deficit generated during the summer dry season, with excess winter rains exiting the watersheds via storm runoff as perched groundwater fracture flow at the thick-CZ site and saturation overland flow at the thin-CZ site. Annual replenishment of subsurface water storage even in severe drought years may lead to ecosystem resilience to climatic perturbations: during the 2011-2015 drought there was not widespread forest die-off in the study area.

  11. A Diagram of the Structure Evolution of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3 O3-9%PbTiO3 Relaxor Ferroelectric Crystals with Excellent Piezoelectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric properties are of significant importance to medical ultrasound, actuators, sensors, and countless other device applications. The mechanism of piezoelectric properties can be deeply understood in light of structure evolutions. In this paper, we report a diagram of the structure evolutions of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/30.91Ti0.09O3 (PZN-9PT crystals with excellent piezoelectric properties among orthorhombic, tetragonal, and cubic phases, with a temperature increasing from room temperature to 220 °C. Through fitting the temperature-dependent XRD curves with Gauss and Lorenz functions, we obtained the evolutions of the content ratio of three kinds of phases (orthorhombic, tetragonal and cubic and the lattice parameters of the PZN-9PT system with the changes of temperature. The XRD fitting results together with Raman and dielectric spectra show that the phase transitions of PZN-9PT are a typical continuous evolution process. Additionally, resonance and anti-resonance spectra show the excellent piezoelectric properties of these crystals, which probably originate from the nano twin domains, as demonstrated by TEM images. Of particular attention is that the thickness electromechanical coupling factor kt is up to 72%.

  12. Bacterioplankton communities of Crater Lake, OR: Dynamic changes with euphotic zone food web structure and stable deep water populations (United States)

    Urbach, E.; Vergin, K.L.; Larson, G.L.; Giovannoni, S.J.


    The distribution of bacterial and archaeal species in Crater Lake plankton varies dramatically over depth and with time, as assessed by hybridization of group-specific oligonucleotides to RNA extracted from lakewater. Nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of relative bacterial phylotype densities revealed complex relationships among assemblages sampled from depth profiles in July, August and September of 1997 through 1999. CL500-11 green nonsulfur bacteria (Phylum Chloroflexi) and marine Group I crenarchaeota are consistently dominant groups in the oxygenated deep waters at 300 and 500 m. Other phylotypes found in the deep waters are similar to surface and mid-depth populations and vary with time. Euphotic zone assemblages are dominated either by ??-proteobacteria or CL120-10 verrucomicrobia, and ACK4 actinomycetes. MDS analyses of euphotic zone populations in relation to environmental variables and phytoplankton and zooplankton population structures reveal apparent links between Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton population densities and microbial community structure. These patterns may reflect food web interactions that link kokanee salmon population densities to community structure of the bacterioplankton, via fish predation on Daphnia with cascading consequences to Daphnia bacterivory and predation on bacterivorous protists. These results demonstrate a stable bottom-water microbial community. They also extend previous observations of food web-driven changes in euphotic zone bacterioplankton community structure to an oligotrophic setting. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Spatial Relationship Between Crustal Structure and Mantle Seismicity in the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone of Romania (United States)

    Knapp, C. C.; Enciu, D. M.; Knapp, J. H.


    Active crustal deformation and subsidence in the Southeast Carpathian foreland has previously been attributed to active foundering of thickened continental lithosphere beneath the Carpathian bend region (Knapp et al, 2005). The present study involves integration of active and passive-source seismic data in order to place constraints on the duration, timing, and scale of crustal deformation in the Carpathian foreland, and in particular to assess the genetic relationship with the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismogenic zone (VSZ). Relocated crustal earthquakes and focal mechanisms were correlated with four deep industry seismic profiles, the reprocessed DACIA PLAN deep seismic profile, and the DRACULA (Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity) II and III profiles. Projection of foreland crustal hypocenters onto the deep seismic lines correlates well with previously identified crustal faults such as the Trotus and Sinaia, as well as the newly identified Ialomita Fault. Specifically, results of this study (1) image the full crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the Focsani Basin in the close proximity of the VSZ, (2) show evidence for a sub-horizontal, slightly east-dipping Moho in the vicinity of the VSZ and thinning of the crust towards the Carpathian orogen, (3) illustrate the conspicuous absence of west-dipping fabrics or structures in the crust and across the Moho, (4) present evidence that the Trotus Fault is a crustal-scale active fault with a dextral sense of motion, (5) suggest that the Paleozoic age Peceneaga-Camena and Capidava-Ovidiu Faults have not been active in post-Paleozoic time, and (6) show evidence for a new active crustal scale sinistral fault, named the Ialomita fault. Both the seismogenic Vrancea body and deformation in the Focsani Basin appear to be concentrically bound by the Trotus Fault in the north and east and the Sinaia-Ialomita Fault in the south, suggesting a coupled deformation between the VSZ and the

  14. Impacts of Quaternary History on Critical Zone Structure and Processes: Examples and a Conceptual Model From the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Anders


    Full Text Available The concept of a critical zone (CZ supporting terrestrial life has fostered groundbreaking interdisciplinary science addressing complex interactions among water, soil, rock, air, and life near Earth's surface. Pioneering work has focused on the CZ in areas with residual soils and steady-state or erosional topography. CZ evolution in these areas is conceptualized as progressive weathering of local bedrock (e.g., in the flow-through reactor model. However, this model is not applicable to areas in which weathering profiles form in transported materials including the formerly glaciated portion of the Central Lowland of North America. We present a new conceptual model of CZ evolution in landscapes impacted by continental glaciation based on investigations at three study sites in the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO The IML-CZO is devoted to the study of CZ processes in a region characterized by thick surficial deposits resulting from multiple continental glaciations, with bedrock at depths of up to 150 m. Here the physical (glacial ice, loess, developing soil profiles and biological (microbes, tundra, forest, prairie components of the CZ vary significantly in time. Moreover, the spatial relationships between mineral components of the CZ record a history of glacial-interglacial cycles and landscape evolution. We present cross-sections from IML-CZO sites to provide specific examples of how environmental change is recorded by the structure of the mineral components of the CZ. We build on these examples to create an idealized model of CZ evolution through a glacial cycle that represents the IML-CZO sites and other areas of low relief that have experienced continental glaciation. In addition, we identify two main characteristics of CZ structure which should be included in a conceptual model of CZ development in the IML-CZO and similar settings: (1 mineral components have diverse origins and transport trajectories including

  15. Large-scale hydraulic structure of a seismogenic fault at 10 km depth (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps) (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Mittempergher, Silvia; Garofalo, Paolo


    The definition of hydraulic properties of fault zones is a major issue in structural geology, seismology, and in several applications (hydrocarbons, hydrogeology, CO2 sequestration, etc.). The permeability of fault rocks can be measured in laboratory experiments, but its upscaling to large-scale structures is not straightforward. For instance, typical permeability of fine-grained fault rock samples is in the 10-18-10-20 m2 range, but, according to seismological estimates, the large-scale permeability of active fault zones can be as high as 10-10 m2. Solving this issue is difficult because in-situ measurements of large-scale permeability have been carried out just at relatively shallow depths - mainly in oil wells and exceptionally in active tectonic settings (e.g. SAFOD at 3 km), whilst deeper experiments have been performed only in the stable continental crust (e.g. KTB at 9 km). In this study, we apply discrete fracture-network (DFN) modelling techniques developed for shallow aquifers (mainly in nuclear waste storage projects like Yucca Mountain) and in the oil industry, in order to model the hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps). This fault, now exposed in world-class glacier-polished outcrops, has been exhumed from ca. 8 km, where it was characterized by a well-documented seismic activity, but also by hydrous fluid flow evidenced by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and along cataclasites. The GLFZ does not show a classical seal structure that in other fault zones corresponds to a core zone characterized by fine-grained fault rocks. However, permeability is heterogeneous and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic due to fracture preferential orientation. We will show with numerical experiments that this hydraulic structure results in a channelized fluid flow (which is consistent with the observed hydrothermal alteration pattern). This results in a counterintuitive situation

  16. Visualising Knowledge from Chat Debates in Argument Diagrams (United States)

    Salminen, T.; Marttunen, M.; Laurinen, L.


    This study investigates whether combining chat discussion and construction of an argument diagram stimulates students to formulate new ideas in practising argumentation. In this study, 16 secondary school students discussed vivisection and gender equality in pairs using both free and structured chat tools. In structured chat, the students selected…

  17. Cretaceous to Miocene fault zone evolution in the Eastern Alps constrained by multi-system thermochronometry and structural data. (United States)

    Wölfler, Andreas; Frisch, Wolfgang; Danišík, Martin; Fritz, Harald; Wölfler, Anke


    Fault zones that display both, ductile and brittle deformation stages offer perfect sites to study the evolution of the earth's crust over a wide range of temperatures and possibly over long time spans. This study combines structural- geo- and thermochronologcial data to evaluate the tectonic evolution of a fault zone to the southeast of the Tauern Window in the Eastern Alps. This fault zone comprises a mylonitic part, the so-called "Main Mylonitic Zone" (MMZ) that has been reworked by brittle faulting, the so-called "Ragga-Teuchl fault" (RTF). Structural data of the MMZ demonstrate ductile deformation with top-to-the NW transport in the Late Cretaceous under greenschist facies conditions. Subsequent SE-directed extension occurred under semi-brittle to brittle conditions during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. The Polinik Block to the north of the RTF revealed Late Cretaceous Ar/Ar ages, which reflect cooling subsequent to the thermal peak of Eo-alpine metamorphism. In contrast, the Kreuzeck Block to the south of the RTF shows early Permian Ar/Ar ages that reflect cooling related to both, late Variscan collapse in the late Carboniferous and post-Variscan extension in the Permian. Zircon and apatite fission track ages and thermal history modeling results suggest that the Polinik Block cooled rapidly to near surface temperatures in the middle Miocene. The Kreuzeck Block, in contrast, cooled and exhumed to near surface conditions already in the Oligocene and early Miocene. Thermal history modeling and apatite fission track ages of 23.3±0.8 and 11.5±1.0 suggest that brittle deformation along the RTF occurred in the middle- and late Miocene. Our results demonstrate that one single fault zone may comprise information about the evolution of the Eastern Alps from Late Cretaceous to Miocene time and that low-temperature thermochronology is a viable tool to resolve the timing of brittle faulting and accompanied fluid activity.

  18. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

     Probabilistic networks, also known as Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, have become one of the most promising technologies in the area of applied artificial intelligence, offering intuitive, efficient, and reliable methods for diagnosis, prediction, decision making, classification......, troubleshooting, and data mining under uncertainty. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. Intended...... primarily for practitioners, this book does not require sophisticated mathematical skills or deep understanding of the underlying theory and methods nor does it discuss alternative technologies for reasoning under uncertainty. The theory and methods presented are illustrated through more than 140 examples...

  19. Anatomy of geodesic Witten diagrams (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Kuo, En-Jui; Kyono, Hideki


    We revisit the so-called "Geodesic Witten Diagrams" (GWDs) [1], proposed to be the holographic dual configuration of scalar conformal partial waves, from the perspectives of CFT operator product expansions. To this end, we explicitly consider three point GWDs which are natural building blocks of all possible four point GWDs, discuss their gluing procedure through integration over spectral parameter, and this leads us to a direct identification with the integral representation of CFT conformal partial waves. As a main application of this general construction, we consider the holographic dual of the conformal partial waves for external primary operators with spins. Moreover, we consider the closely related "split representation" for the bulk to bulk spinning propagator, to demonstrate how ordinary scalar Witten diagram with arbitrary spin exchange, can be systematically decomposed into scalar GWDs. We also discuss how to generalize to spinning cases.

  20. Morphosedimentary expression of the Giant Pock Mark structure known as the "Gran Burato" (Transitional Zone, Galicia continental margin) (United States)

    Lopez, Angel Enrique; Rubio, Belén; Rey, Daniel; Mohamed, Kais; Alvarez, Paula; Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Bernabeu, Ana; Druet, Maria; Martins, Virginia


    This paper presents the characterization of the sedimentary environment and other sedimentological features of the Transitional Zone of the Galicia continental margin, in the vicinity of the giant pock -mark structure known as the Gran Burato. The area is characterized by marginal platforms and a horst-graben system controlled by NW-SE oriented normal faults. In this zone, three giant pockmark structures, one of them known as the Gran Burato, were reported as associated to large-scale fluid escapes. The study area is located on the Transitional Zone (TZ) of the Galicia passive continental margin, which extends from Cape Finisterre (43o N) in the North to around 40oN in the South. This margin shows a complex structural configuration, which is reflected in the seabed, owing to tectonic movements from Mesozoic rifting phases and Eocene compression (Pyrennean Orogeny). Sedimentological, geochemical and physical properties analysis and 14C AMS-dating of a 4 m piston core extracted in the vicinity of the Gran Burato complemented by multibeam and TOPAS surveys allowed characterizing of the sedimentary environment in the study area. The interpretation of these data showed that the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the area controlled by the activity of fluid dynamics.

  1. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion


    Kirshner, Robert P.


    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...

  2. Detailed inner structure of methane hydrate concentrated zone of lobe type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Saeki, T.; Inamori, T.; Fujii, T.; Shimoda, N. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan)


    Large gas hydrate deposits are located in ocean regions close to Japan. This paper discussed a research project conducted by a Japanese company as part of a national program to assess gas hydrates as energy sources. Seismic data from drilling surveys and velocity analyses were used to determine methane hydrate zones. Seismic geomorphology analyses showed that the hydrates were concentrated within turbidite sand layers in channels and lobes. A detailed analysis of the methane hydrate-concentrated zone of a lobe configuration was conducted using waves from methane hydrate-concentrated zones identified in the seismic studies. Reflectors at wells were correlated to the tops of the methane hydrate-bearing sand layers. The amplitude variation of the reflected waves was correlated to the sand layers. Results from the study will be used to characterize the distribution of sand layers and determine their relationship to methane hydrates. 11 figs.

  3. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.


    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  4. Direct observation of the point-defect structure of depleted-zones in ion-irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, C.


    The point-defect structure of individual depleted zones has been studied systematically. Four-pass zone-refined tungsten field-ion microscope (FIM) specimens were irradiated in-situ at 10 K with 30 keV Cr/sup +/, Mo/sup +/, or W/sup +/ ions to a total dose of (2 to 10) x 10/sup 12/ ion cm/sup -2/ and examined by the pulse field-evaporation technique at 10 K. The experimental conditions were such that each depleted zone was created by a single incident-ion. The number of vacant lattice sites within a depleted zone was compared with a modified Kinchin--Pease model. The radial distribution function was determined for each depleted zone; it was found that the vacant lattice sites within the volume of each depleted zone tended to exist in a highly clustered state. It was found that the diameter D of each depleted zone was described by the equation D approximately equal to (y/sup 2/)/sup /sup 1///sub 2// where (y/sup 2/)/sup /sup 1///sub 2// is the second moment of the theoretical distribution curve, of the fraction of incident ion energy deposited in atom motion, transverse to the direction of the incident ion-beam. The spatial distribution of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in a specimen irradiated with 30 keV Cr/sup +/ ions and in a specimen irradiated with 18 keV Au/sup +/ ions, at 10 K, was determined. A low bound to the average range of replacement collision sequences (RCSs) was found to be 175 +- 85 A. A detailed FIM study was also made of the vacancy structure of a (220) platelet created by a single 30 keV W/sup +/ ion in a platinum-4.0 at. % gold alloy; the specimen was irradiated at 40 K and then isochronally warmed to 100 K. The (220) platelet was found to consist of 31 vacant lattice sites, lying in four (220) planes, and clustered in a disc-shaped region which is approximately 20 A in diameter. It was suggested that prismatic dislocation loops lying on (220) type planes in ion or fast neutron irradiated platinum can form as a result of the direct collapse of

  5. Lithospheric Structure of the Incoming Nazca Plate Adjacent to the 2014 Iquique Earthquake Rupture Zone (United States)

    Myers, E. K.; Trehu, A. M.; Davenport, K. K.; Roland, E. C.


    The 2014 Iquique Mw 8.1 earthquake occurred within a 500-km long segment of the Peru-Chile subduction zone that had not experienced a significant earthquake since 1877. This event did not fill the entire seismic gap and details of the deformation, along with local gravity anomalies, point to a geologic control on slip behavior. To better constrain along-strike changes in geologic or morphologic features and the correlation with earthquake rupture, the 2016 PICTURES (Pisagua-Iquique Crustal Tomography to Understand the Region of the Earthquake Source) experiment collected multichannel seismic (MCS) and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data from across the deformation front and incoming Nazca plate within the area of the 2014 earthquake. Here, we provide a first look at MCS reflection data from this experiment that images the Nazca plate along an uninterrupted 170 km line perpendicular to the region of greatest slip, acquired using the R/V Langseth's 12.5 km streamer and 6600 cc gun array. We summarize structural features of the incoming oceanic lithosphere and present a preliminary 2D velocity model that spans the Nazca outer rise to the trench along the Iquique Ridge (IR). The IR represents a broad, high oceanic feature (HOF) that roughly spans the entire seismic gap. The source of buoyancy and reduced seismic velocities of the IR swell are thought to be produced by isostatically compensated, overthickened crust or anomalously low density mantle due to heating or serpentinization, and we explore these two hypotheses using our preliminary velocity model. Past outer rise deformation modeling suggests a significant bending moment and vertical force at the trench axis, a source for broad, homogenous coupling as the HOF converges the margin. However, decreased incoming sediment and rough topography associated with numerous large seamounts may also lead to a thin subduction channel, influencing heterogeneous rupture behavior. Seaward of the Iquique 2014 event, our initial

  6. S-velocity structure in Cimandiri fault zone derived from neighbourhood inversion of teleseismic receiver functions (United States)

    Syuhada; Anggono, T.; Febriani, F.; Ramdhan, M.


    The availability information about realistic velocity earth model in the fault zone is crucial in order to quantify seismic hazard analysis, such as ground motion modelling, determination of earthquake locations and focal mechanism. In this report, we use teleseismic receiver function to invert the S-velocity model beneath a seismic station located in the Cimandiri fault zone using neighbourhood algorithm inversion method. The result suggests the crustal thickness beneath the station is about 32-38 km. Furthermore, low velocity layers with high Vp/Vs exists in the lower crust, which may indicate the presence of hot material ascending from the subducted slab.

  7. Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif


    or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...... similarities between the two circuits that are compared. These properties make BEDs suitable for verifying the equivalence of combinational circuits. BEDs can be seen as an intermediate representation between circuits (which are compact) and OBDDs (which are canonical).Based on a large number of combinational...

  8. Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif


    The combinational logic-level equivalence problem is to determine whether two given combinational circuits implement the same Boolean function. This problem arises in a number of CAD applications, for example when checking the correctness of incremental design changes (performed either manually...... or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...

  9. Structure of the subduction zone beneath the Wellington region, New Zealand , from passive seismic recordings (United States)

    Karalliyadda, S.; Savage, M. K.; Hall, C.; Stern, T. A.; Henrys, S. A.; Wech, A.; Townend, J.; Carrizales, A.


    The Seismic Array on the HiKurangi Experiment I consisted of 50 2-Hz seismometers deployed in a two-dimensional array and ten broadband seismometers deployed in a line above the Hikuangi Subduction Zone throughout the Wellington/Wairarapa region of New Zealand. Wellington is the capital and second largest city in New Zealand. Continuous signals were recorded between November 2009 and March 2010 on the short period sensors and up to 18 months on the broadband sensor. These stations densified the GeoNet network of two broadband and 11 1-Hz seismometers. Airgun shots and earthquakes were extracted for analysis. The E-W line was also occupied at several times with a high-density array of geophones deployed to record airgun shots and explosives. Here we summarize the results of preliminary analysis of earthquakes and seismic noise. Receiver function images of the plate boundary reveal similar structures to the results of active source analysis, suggesting that at long wavelength the S velocity and P velocity change at the same boundaries. A low velocity layer at the top of the plate and the within-slab Moho is well imaged. Deeper features are less clearly imaged but, like the controlled source reflectors, suggest that some converters are dipping in the same direction as the slab and some in the opposite direction. We use SKS phases recorded on the broadband array and permanent stations in the eastern part of our study area to investigate the deep anisotropic structure. Preliminary SKS splitting measurements display NE/SW fast polarization azimuths sub-parallel to Hikurangi trench and the predominant upper plate fault strike. Delay times of these splitting measurements range from 1.30 - 4.9 s (+/- 0.46 s) and SKS phases with large periods ( > 12 s) tend to show higher delay times ( > 2 s). Shear wave splitting on local earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 yield mostly NE-SW polarization azimuths, consistent with previously determined local and SKS anisotropy at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper suggests that the structure known as "Beypazarı flexure / monocline" in the Turkish geology literature should be named as "Beypazarı fault-propagation folds". Beypazarı, Kilci and Başören blind thrusts together with Erenler back thrust constitute the Beypazarı Blind Thrust Zone which is an active neotectonic structure as indicated by earthquake activity. NW-SE contraction created by the interaction between the North Anatolian Fault Zone, the Kırıkkale-Erbaa Fault Zone and the Eskişehir Fault Zone produced the Eldivan-Elmadağ Pinched Crustal Wedge, the Abdüsselam Pinched Crustal Wedge and the Beypazarı Blind Thrust Zone. These structures take up the internal deformation of the Anatolian Plate.



    Hässig, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Topuz, G.; Çelik, Ö.; Sosson, Marc


    International audience; In order to better understand the tectonic evolution of the Sevan-Akera suture zone, particularly its connection westward into the Ankara-Erzincan suture, field observations and sampling were carried out on the Erzincan suture zone (near Erzincan). The goal of this study is to solve the problem of linking both odbucted ophiolitic domains. As in Armenia, the structures in Turkey are complex and have been reworked and reactivated because of post-obduction collision stage...

  12. Kinematics of the 2015 San Ramon, California earthquake swarm: Implications for fault zone structure and driving mechanisms (United States)

    Xue, Lian; Bürgmann, Roland; Shelly, David R.; Johnson, Christopher W.; Taira, Taka'aki


    Earthquake swarms represent a sudden increase in seismicity that may indicate a heterogeneous fault-zone, the involvement of crustal fluids and/or slow fault slip. Swarms sometimes precede major earthquake ruptures. An earthquake swarm occurred in October 2015 near San Ramon, California in an extensional right step-over region between the northern Calaveras Fault and the Concord-Mt. Diablo fault zone, which has hosted ten major swarms since 1970. The 2015 San Ramon swarm is examined here from 11 October through 18 November using template matching analysis. The relocated seismicity catalog contains ∼4000 events with magnitudes between - 0.2 swarm illuminated three sub-parallel, southwest striking and northwest dipping fault segments of km-scale dimension and thickness of up to 200 m. The segments contain coexisting populations of different focal-mechanisms, suggesting a complex fault zone structure with several sets of en échelon fault orientations. The migration of events along the three planar structures indicates a complex fluid and faulting interaction processes. We searched for correlations between seismic activity and tidal stresses and found some suggestive features, but nothing that we can be confident is statistically significant.

  13. Anthropometric assessment of cervical neurovascular structures using CTA to determine zone-specific vulnerability to penetrating fragmentation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeze, J.; West, A.; Clasper, J.


    Aim: To determine military-specific cervical neurovascular and external anthropometric data to scale future numerical injury models of the neck and improve body armour design with a view to prevention or mitigation of combat neck injury. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) angiograms of 50 UK servicemen were analysed. Mean diameters and distances from the skin surface were determined for the carotid artery (CA), internal jugular vein (IJV), vertebral artery (VA) and spinal cord (SC) at the three surgical neck zones. Horizontal neck circumference at C6 and three potential vertical cervical anthropometric measurements were analysed to determine which had the least variability between subjects. Results: The diameters of cervical vascular structures are greater and the vessels more superficial as the anatomical plane moves caudally. The SC and VA are better protected than the IJV and CA due to their greater depth and bony coverage, except for the VA in zone 1. Conclusion: Future cervical anthropometric assessments should use the vertical angle of mandible to mid-claviclular distance in combination with the horizontal neck circumference as these demonstrated the least variability. Cervical neurovascular structures are least vulnerable posterosuperiorly and therefore extending the posterior aspect of a ballistic helmet inferiorly or adding a nape protector would appear to be less justified. Cervical vessels are most vulnerable in zone 1 and a circumferential collar of ballistic material at least 75 mm high would cover this area in 95% of this population.

  14. Structural evidence for strike-slip deformation in the Izmir-Balikesir transfer zone and consequences for late Cenozoic evolution of western Anatolia (Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzel, B.; Sözbilir, H.; Özkaymak, T.; Kaymakci, N.; Langereis, C.G.


    The Izmir-Balikesir transfer zone (IBTZ) is a recently recognized strike-slip dominated shear zone that accommodates the differential deformation between the Cycladic and Menderes core complexes within the Aegean Extensional System. Here, we present new structural and kinematic data obtained from

  15. Effect of deformation on the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of steel 32CRB4


    Kawulok, R.; Schindler, I.; Kawulok, P.; Rusz, S.; Opěla, P.; Solowski, Z.; Čmiel, K. M.


    CCT and DCCT steel diagrams of the steel 32CrB4 were determined by the universal plastometer GLEEBLE 3 800 on the basis of dilatometric tests. Dilatometric analysis showed that compared to the diagram provided by the software QTSteel th e noses of individual curves are in fact shifted towards shorter times. Preceding deformation significantly affected the decay diagram of the investigated steel. Shorter times, which were available for recovery of the deformed structure during more...

  16. Layer dividing and zone dividing of physical property of crust and deep structure in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Yang Yaxin; Gong Yuling; Huang Linping


    On the base of summing experiences both at home and abroad, the Bugar gravitative anomalies are studied by major means of data processing. According to the anomalous character, three layer crust models (surface layer, middle layer in region and material layer under crust) are built up, depth of upper and bottom surfaces for every layer is calculated quantitatively, their varied characters of depth are studied and deep geological tectonics are outlined. The 'density' and 'mass' of every layer are calculated, and according to these two parameters, the shallow geological tectonics are researched. The relation-factor R between the surface altitude and Bugar gravitative anomalies are calculated and the stable or unstable crust zones are divided. The favorable mine zones for uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are outlined

  17. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes (United States)

    Sang, E. T. K.


    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  18. Grid diagrams and Khovanov homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droz, Jean-Marie; Wagner, Emmanuel


    We explain how to compute the Jones polynomial of a link from one of its grid diagrams and we observe a connection between Bigelow’s homological definition of the Jones polynomial and Kauffman’s definition of the Jones polynomial. Consequently, we prove that the Maslov grading on the Seidel–Smith...... symplectic link invariant coincides with the difference between the homological grading on Khovanov homology and the Jones grading on Khovanov homology. We give some evidence for the truth of the Seidel–Smith conjecture....

  19. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Stoltze, Per


    We discuss surface alloy phases and their stability based on surface phase diagrams constructed from the surface energy as a function of the surface composition. We show that in the simplest cases of pseudomorphic overlayers there are four generic classes of systems, characterized by the sign...... is based on density-functional calculations using the coherent-potential approximation and on effective-medium theory. We give self-consistent density-functional results for the segregation energy and surface mixing energy for all combinations of the transition and noble metals. Finally we discuss...

  20. Towards cardinality-based service feature diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Assad


    Full Text Available To provide efficient services to end-user it is essential to manage variability among services. Feature modelling is an important approach to manage variability and commonalities of a system in product line. Feature models are composed of feature diagrams. Service feature diagrams (an extended form of feature diagrams changed the basic framework of feature diagrams by proposing new feature types and their relevance. Service feature diagrams provide selection rights for variable features. In this paper we argue that it is essential to put cardinalities on service feature diagrams. That is, the selection of features should be done under some constraints, to provide a lower and upper limit for the selection of features. The use of cardinalities on service feature diagrams reduces the types of features to half, while keeping the integrity of all features.

  1. Structural setting and magnetic properties of pseudotachylyte in a deep crustal shear zone, western Canadian shield (United States)

    Orlandini, O. F.; Mahan, K. H.; Brown, L. L.; Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.


    Seismic slip commonly produces pseudotachylytes, a glassy vein-filling substance that is typically interpreted as either a frictional melt or an ultra-triturated cataclasite. In either form, pseudotachylytes are commonly magnetite enriched, even in magnetite-free host rocks, and therefore are potentially useful as high fidelity recorders of natural magnetic fields at the time of slip in a wide array of lithologies. Pseudotachylytes generally have high magnetic susceptibility and thus should preserve the dominant field present as the material passes the Curie temperatures of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite. Two potential sources have been proposed for the dominant magnetic field recorded: the earth's magnetic field at the time of slip or the temporary and orders of magnitude more intense field created by the presence of coseismic currents along the failure plane. Pseudotachylytes of the Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) in the Athabasca Granulite Terrain, western Canadian shield, are consistently hosted in high strain ultramylonitic orthogneiss. Sinistral and extensional oblique-slip in the CLsz occurred at high-pressure granulite-grade conditions of ~1.0 GPa and >800°C and may have persisted to somewhat lower P-T conditions (~0.8 GPa, 700 °C) during ductile deformation. Pseudotachylyte-bearing slip surfaces have sinistral offset, matching the larger shear zone, and clasts of wall rock in the more brecciated veins display field evidence for ductile shear along the same plane prior to brittle failure. The presence of undeformed pseudotachylyte in kinematically compatible fracture arrays localized in ultramylonite indicates that brittle failure may have occurred in the waning stages of shear zone activity and at similar deep crustal conditions. Field-documented occurrences of pseudotachylyte include 2 cm-thick veins that run subparallel to mylonitic foliation and contain small flow-aligned clasts and large, heavily brecciated foliation-crosscutting zones up to

  2. Lava Flow Morphologies and Structural Features Along the Axis of the South Rift Zone of Loihi Seamount, Hawaii (United States)

    Deemer, J. L.; Kurz, M. D.; Fornari, D. J.


    In an effort to document the morphology of the deep South Rift Zone of the Loihi Seamount, we report new observations collected in 2008 using ROV Jason2 on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson (C. Moyer and K. Edwards, chief scientists). The South Rift Zone extends more than 20 kilometers from 4950 meters depth at its base to Loihi’s summit at 980 meters. To date, there are few studies of the deep Loihi South Rift Zone and this work provides important geologic context for ongoing microbiological studies of Loihi (Fe-Oxidizing Microbial Observatory Project). Existing EM300 multibeam bathymetry provides the broader context necessary for interpreting smaller-scale Loihi South Rift features mapped using Jason2. Three Jason2 dives included continuous low-altitude (indicated by the ubiquitous presence of glassy flows and a complete absence of sediment cover, with the exception of microbial mats in the deepest section (FeMO Deep). Flows are predominantly lobate and pillow types. Pyroclastic deposits are expressed as loose volcanic sand in localized depressions, and are found at depths as great as 4909 meters. Distinct meter-scale flow morphologies were identified and constrained, and this information can be used to determine rudimentary stratigraphic relationships of individual flows. The compilation of lava flow morphologies from the ROV data, in conjunction with along-axis structure, bathymetry, and distribution of talus and pyroclastic deposits, will be presented.

  3. Structural analysis of the Hasan-Robat marbles as traces of folded basement in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran (United States)

    Nadimi, Alireza


    Cherty marbles of Hasan-Robat area, northwest of Isfahan, in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone of Iran preserves evidences of multiple deformational events. The Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone is the inner crystalline zone of the Zagros Orogen, which has been highly deformed and exhumed during continental collision between the Arabian Plate and Central Iran. The Hasan-Robat area is an example of the exposed Precambrian-Paleozoic basement rocks that stretched along two NW-SE-trending faults and located in the inner part of the HasanRobat positive flower strcuture. The Hasan-Robat marbles record a complex shortening and shearing history. This lead to the development of disharmonic ptygmatic folds with vertical to sub-vertical axes and some interference patterns of folding that may have been created from deformations during the Pan-African Orogeny and later phases. Based on this research, tectonic evolution of the Hasan-Robat area is interpreted as the product of three major geotectonic events that have been started after Precambrian to Quaternary: (1) old deformation phases (2) contractional movements and (3) strike-slip movements. Different sets and distributions of joints, faults and folds are confirmed with effect of several deformational stages of the area and formation of the flower structure.

  4. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone. (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J


    Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between

  5. Generalized balanced power diagrams for 3D representations of polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas; Brieden, Andreas; Gritzmann, Peter


    Characterizing the grain structure of polycrystalline material is an important task in material science. The present paper introduces the concept of generalized balanced power diagrams as a concise alternative to voxelated mappings. Here, each grain is represented by (measured approximations of...

  6. Effects of Rainfall-Induced Topsoil Structure Changes on Root-Zone Moisture Regime during the Dry Period (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Jiazhou; Lin, Lirong


    Rainfall erosion and subsequent intermittent drought are serious barriers for agricultural production in the subtropical red soil region of China. Although it is widely recognized that rainfall-induced soil structure degradation reduced soil water storage and water-holding capacity, the effects of variation of the rainfall-induced topsoil structure on the subsequent soil water regime during the dry period is still rarely considered. The objective of this study was to ascertain the way of rainfall-induced topsoil structure changes on the subsequent soil water regime during the dry period. In a three-year-long experiment, six practices (CK, only crop; SM, straw mulching; PAM, polyacrylamide surface application; B, contour Bahia-grass strip; SPAM, straw mulching and polyacrylamide surface application; and BPAM, contour Bahia-grass strip and polyacrylamide surface application) were conducted at an 8° farmland with planting summer maize resulting in different topsoil structure and root-zone moisture, to establish and reveal the quantitatively relationship between the factors of topsoil structure and soil drought. Rainfall erosion significantly increased the soil crust coverage, and decreased the WSA 0.25, 0-30 mm soil porosity and mean pore size. There was no significant difference during the raining stage of root-zone water storage between CK and other practices. An index of soil drought intensity ( I) and degree ( D) was established using soil water loss rate and soil drought severity. The larger value of I means a higher rate of water loss. The larger value of D means more severe drought. During the dry period, I and D were significantly higher in CK than in other practices. I and D had significantly positively correlation with the crust size and crust coverage, and negatively with WSA 0.25, 15-30 mm soil porosity and mean pore size. Among of soil structure factors, the soil porosity had the largest effect on I and D. The rainfall-induced topsoil structure changes

  7. Safe Zone for Neural Structures in Medial Displacement Calcaneal Osteotomy: A Cadaveric and Radiographic Investigation. (United States)

    Talusan, Paul G; Cata, Ezequiel; Tan, Eric W; Parks, Brent G; Guyton, Gregory P


    We aimed to define reference lines on standard lateral ankle radiographs that could be used intraoperatively to minimize iatrogenic nerve injury risk in medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy. Forty cadaveric specimens were used. In 20 specimens, the sural, medial plantar (MP), and lateral plantar (LP) nerves were sutured to radiopaque wire, and a lateral ankle radiograph was obtained. On the radiograph, a line was drawn from the posterior superior apex of the calcaneal tuberosity to the origin of the plantar fascia and labeled as the "landmark line." A parallel line was drawn 2 mm posterior to the most posterior nerve, and the area between these lines was defined as the safe zone. In 20 additional specimens, an osteotomy was performed 1 cm anterior to the landmark line using a percutaneous or open technique. Dissection was performed to assess for laceration of the sural, MP, LP, medial calcaneal (MC), or lateral calcaneal (LC) nerves. The safe zone was determined to be within the area 11.2 ± 2.7 mm anterior to the landmark line. After open osteotomy, lacerations were found in 3 of 10 MC nerves and 3 of 10 LC nerves. After percutaneous osteotomy, lacerations were found in 2 of 10 MC nerves and 1 of 10 LC nerves. No lacerations of the sural, MP, or LP nerves were found with either osteotomy. The safe zone extended 11.2 ± 2.7 mm anterior to the described landmark line. The MC and LC nerves were always at risk during medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy. Nerve injury to both major and minor sensory nerves is likely underrecognized as a source of morbidity after calcaneal osteotomy. The current study provides a ready intraoperative guideline for minimizing this risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Structural controls, fluid focussing and age of gold bearing quartz-breccia zones in Archean metaturbidites of the Gordon Lake region, Slave Province, NWT, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, T.R.; Zentilli, M.; Culshaw, N.


    Detailed surface and underground geological mapping, lithochemistry, fluid inclusion, and 40 Ar - 39 Ar geochronological studies pose restrictions on possible ore deposit models to explain the concentration of gold bearing quartz-breccia zones at Gordon Lake near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Metamorphic fluids were focussed into a fractured zone in the hinge of a sub-vertically plunging, regional refold structure. Carbon-rich metasiltstones probably exerted and important structural and geochemical control on the localization of quartz-breccia zones and gold deposition respectively. (author)

  9. Structural analysis of superposed fault systems of the Bornholm horst block, Tornquist Zone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole


    towards the SE and ESE respectively. The Mesozoic faulting was associated with the development of a horst-graben framework in the Bornholm-Skåne segment of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone. Mesozoic fault subsidence started in the Rønne Graben in the Triassic. In the Jurassic the Arnager-Sose block became...... and the Lobbæk block (new) along with subsidence of the Holsterhus block and renewed subsidence of the Arnager-Sose block. The Mesozoic series are dipping towards the southwest.The Palaeozoic fault systems were associated with two-dimensional plane strain during ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW extension. By contrast...

  10. The limit shape problem for ensembles of Young diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Akihito


    This book treats ensembles of Young diagrams originating from group-theoretical contexts and investigates what statistical properties are observed there in a large-scale limit. The focus is mainly on analyzing the interesting phenomenon that specific curves appear in the appropriate scaling limit for the profiles of Young diagrams. This problem is regarded as an important origin of recent vital studies on harmonic analysis of huge symmetry structures. As mathematics, an asymptotic theory of representations is developed of the symmetric groups of degree n as n goes to infinity. The framework of rigorous limit theorems (especially the law of large numbers) in probability theory is employed as well as combinatorial analysis of group characters of symmetric groups and applications of Voiculescu's free probability. The central destination here is a clear description of the asymptotic behavior of rescaled profiles of Young diagrams in the Plancherel ensemble from both static and dynamic points of view.

  11. Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.


    Single scattering events recorded in surface seismic data do not fully illuminate the subsurface structure, especially if it is complicated. In such cases, multiple internal scatterings (internal multiples) can help improve the illumination. We devise a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure that maps internal multiple energy to their true location with a relatively mild addition to the computational cost. GIMI theory relies heavily on seismic interferometry, which often involves cumbersome algebra, especially when one is dealing with high-order terms in the perturbation series. To make the derivations, and inference of the results easier, we introduce Feynman-like diagrams to represent different terms of the perturbation series (solution to the Lippman–Schwinger equation). The rules we define for the diagrams allow operations like convolution and cross-correlation in the series to be compressed in diagram form. The application of the theory to a double scattering example demonstrates the power of the method.

  12. Insights into Shallow Anisotropic Structure in the Forearc Hikurangi Subduction Zone, New Zealand via Splitting of Teleseisms (United States)

    Karalliyadda, S.; Savage, M. K.


    We use a recent transect that consists of 10 broadband stations across the northeast of Wellington region to explore the anisotropic structure of the forearc of the Hikurangi subduction zone in the southern North Island (NI), New Zealand from shear-wave splitting of SKS, ScS and teleseismic S phases. These measurements are then integrated with the previous splitting measurements in northwest of the transect. Splitting parameters from teleseismic S-phases revealed an abrupt lateral variation in the anisotropic structure. The general trend of splitting agrees well with the previous studies around this area, with NE-SW trench-parallel fast direction (φ). The range of delay times ( 0.5 - 3.0 s) and slightly varying SKS φ across the southeast of NI suggest a laterally varying anisotropic structure. As inferred by splitting variations from long period (>7 s) phases across the profile, the upper-plate Wairarapa fault and basin area appear to be characterized by a distinct anisotropic structure that is possibly localized at crustal depths. The sharp change in delay time (δt) around this fault zone divides the region in to two distinct domains of eastern and western sides. The average δt on the eastern side (2.05 × 0.45 s) is ~0.6 s higher than that measured in the western side (1.44 × 0.24 s) of the Wairarapa fault. This change takes place between two stations that are separated by ~3 km. Clear frequency dependent splitting from ScS and teleseismic S-phases suggests that the anisotropic structure is either stratified or governed by more complex anisotropy. Multilayer models are unable to explain the observations adequately, suggesting a more complex structure. We think that this complex structure is governed in part by the laterally-varying crustal contribution of anisotropy and this lateral variation is likely associated with the multilayer anisotropy to form a more complex structure. We suggest that the subduction structure is dominated by the mantle flow in the

  13. A simplified method to track long-term changes in Jupiter's belt/zone structure (United States)

    Kardasis, E.


    Jupiter atmosphere is extremely dynamic, showing a variety of phenomena generally organized in dark belts and bright zones which often change in color, width and latitude. It is not unusual that some disappear or reappear. Long-term changes (e.g annual) in this banded pattern need to be tracked by measuring the latitude of belts and zones and examining their coloring. Digital observations with planetary cameras in recent years have introduced many new ways of exploring the planets. In this work we present a methodology and some results of "Averaged Filtered Observations (AFO)", a simple way to measure the bands edges in order of latitude and view the overall contrast or color of the bands. A series of such AFO over several years would give a good record of the changes in latitude, the darkness/brightness/color of the bands, and their shift through time. This work may trigger average observations of this type by amateurs in different spectral bands and not only in Jupiter.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang


    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  15. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

    Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...... sections, in addition to fully-updated examples, tables, figures, and a revised appendix. Intended primarily for practitioners, this book does not require sophisticated mathematical skills or deep understanding of the underlying theory and methods nor does it discuss alternative technologies for reasoning...... under uncertainty. The theory and methods presented are illustrated through more than 140 examples, and exercises are included for the reader to check his or her level of understanding. The techniques and methods presented on model construction and verification, modeling techniques and tricks, learning...

  16. Process Flow Diagrams for Training and Operations (United States)

    Venter, Jacobus

    This paper focuses on the use of process flow diagrams for training first responders who execute search and seizure warrants at electronic crime scenes. A generic process flow framework is presented, and the design goals and layout characteristics of process flow diagrams are discussed. An evaluation of the process flow diagrams used in training courses indicates that they are beneficial to first responders performing searches and seizures, and they speed up investigations, including those conducted by experienced personnel.

  17. Geophysical constraints on the deep structure of a limited ocean-continent subduction zone at the North Iberian Margin (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; MartíNez CataláN, J. R.; Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Zeyen, H.; Juhlin, C.


    Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic convergence between Iberia and Europe led to the partial closure of the Bay of Biscay with limited southward subduction of oceanic crust below the North Iberian Margin. Inclined sub-Moho reflections and diffractions observed in deep seismic reflection profiles shot across the margin are especially well represented in two reflection profiles: ESCIN-3.2 and ESCIN-3.3. These two profiles have been chosen to test if the sub-Moho reflections correspond to true primary deep events and, provided that they are reflecting off the subduction zone, to investigate its deep structure. Spectral analysis together with travel time estimation and migration allow us to characterize a number of these sub-Moho events as deep-source, low-frequency (˜19 Hz), reflections and diffractions. Synthetic seismograms were generated by three-dimensional seismic modeling of a sub-Moho southward dipping surface, interpreted to correspond to the top of subducted oceanic crust. Comparison between the real and synthetic data show that inclined, low-frequency sub-Moho reflections in both, ESCIN-3.2 and ESCIN-3.3 profiles may correspond to reflections from southward subducted Bay of Biscay oceanic crust. Geoid, free-air gravity, and absolute topography modeling provides additional constraints on the lithospheric-scale structure of this limited ocean-continent subduction zone beneath the North Iberian Margin.

  18. Structural Analysis of Technical-Tactical Elements in Table Tennis and their Role in Different Playing Zones (United States)

    Munivrana, Goran; Petrinović, Lidija Zekan; Kondrič, Miran


    For the purpose of determining the overall structure of technical-tactical elements in table tennis and evaluating their role in different playing zones around the table, a new measuring instrument (a questionnaire) was formulated that took advantage of the expert knowledge of top, world class table tennis coaches. The results of the hierarchical taxonomic (cluster) analysis showed that the overall structure of the technical-tactical elements forming the table tennis technique could be divided into three basic groups; a group of technical-tactical elements (A) used in the phase of preparing one’s own and disabling the opponent’s attack; a group of technical-tactical elements (B) used in the phase of attack and counterattack; and a group of technical-tactical elements (C) used in the phase of defense. The differences among the obtained groups of table tennis elements were determined by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test, while relations between the groups and their role in different playing zones around the table were analyzed by comparing the average values of the experts’ scores. PMID:26557204

  19. Structural Analysis of Technical-Tactical Elements in Table Tennis and their Role in Different Playing Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munivrana Goran


    Full Text Available For the purpose of determining the overall structure of technical-tactical elements in table tennis and evaluating their role in different playing zones around the table, a new measuring instrument (a questionnaire was formulated that took advantage of the expert knowledge of top, world class table tennis coaches. The results of the hierarchical taxonomic (cluster analysis showed that the overall structure of the technical-tactical elements forming the table tennis technique could be divided into three basic groups; a group of technical-tactical elements (A used in the phase of preparing one’s own and disabling the opponent’s attack; a group of technical-tactical elements (B used in the phase of attack and counterattack; and a group of technical-tactical elements (C used in the phase of defense. The differences among the obtained groups of table tennis elements were determined by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test, while relations between the groups and their role in different playing zones around the table were analyzed by comparing the average values of the experts’ scores.

  20. Structural Analysis of Technical-Tactical Elements in Table Tennis and their Role in Different Playing Zones. (United States)

    Munivrana, Goran; Petrinović, Lidija Zekan; Kondrič, Miran


    For the purpose of determining the overall structure of technical-tactical elements in table tennis and evaluating their role in different playing zones around the table, a new measuring instrument (a questionnaire) was formulated that took advantage of the expert knowledge of top, world class table tennis coaches. The results of the hierarchical taxonomic (cluster) analysis showed that the overall structure of the technical-tactical elements forming the table tennis technique could be divided into three basic groups; a group of technical-tactical elements (A) used in the phase of preparing one's own and disabling the opponent's attack; a group of technical-tactical elements (B) used in the phase of attack and counterattack; and a group of technical-tactical elements (C) used in the phase of defense. The differences among the obtained groups of table tennis elements were determined by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test, while relations between the groups and their role in different playing zones around the table were analyzed by comparing the average values of the experts' scores.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Pospeev


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at discussion of geological and geophysical aspects of the ‘asthenospheric’ interpretation of the ‘anomalous’ mantle layer that is revealed in the Baikal rift zone by deep seismic sounding (DSS methods. Based on the analysis of the geoelectrical model, estimations of rheological properties, regional geothermal and deep petrological data, it is concluded that the ‘anomalous’ mantle phenomenon should be interpreted within the framework of solid-phase models. It is shown that the actual minimum depth to the top of the asthenosphere is about 60–70 km in the region under study, and temperatures at the surface of the Earth’s mantle varies from 600 to 900 °С. It is most probable that velocities are reduced in the ‘anomalous’ mantle layer due to the presence of hightemperature spinel-pyroxene facies of the mantle rocks.

  2. Heat flow and thermal structure of the lithosphere across the Baltic Shield and northern Tornquist Zone (United States)

    Balling, Niels


    Terrestrial heat-flow data from Archean and Proterozoic Provinces of the Baltic Shield, its southwestern margin, and the tectonic transition to the younger tectonic units of Central Europe (northern segment of the European Geotraverse) are compiled and examined for local and regional variations. A 2-D numerical lithospheric temperature and heat-flux model is presented covering 1800 km of the deep seismic FENNOLORA profile across the Baltic Shield and 500 km of EUGENO-S/ northern EUGEMI seismic lines across the northern Tornquist Zone and the Danish and North German basins. Thermal lithosphere, defined as the outer layer with relatively low temperatures ( T Earthquake focal depth data and information on crustal strength show Baltic Shield seismicity to be limited generally to the upper 20-25 km brittle part of the crust at temperatures less than 300-400°C. Maximum source depth of magnetic anomalies at temperatures near 600°C is in the deepest part of the crust near the crust-mantle boundary in the southern region (about 25 km depth along the Tornquist Zone and about 35-40 km in southern shield areas) and in the uppermost mantle (60-70 km depth) in the northern shield areas. Some petrologic implications are discussed. The present deep crust is supposed to be at lower temperature-pressure conditions than at early stages of formation. However, also the present deepest parts of the shield crust (> 35-40 km) are within the stability field of eclogites. The general absence of significant gravity anomalies in areas of marked crustal thickness variations indicate high-density eclogites to be present in significant amounts in the deep shield crust.

  3. New Dutch Mineral Planning Act in a structural outline plan: from zoning to import

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; Woltjer, J.

    According to the proposed Mineral Planning Act the state draws up a Structural Outline Plan on Surface Minerals (1994). In this article the state policy described in the plan will be focused on. The Dutch surface minerals and the context of the structural outline plan will briefly be dealt with.

  4. Structure and function of nematode communities across the Indian western continental margin and its oxygen minimum zone (United States)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B. S.


    We studied patterns of nematode distribution along the western Indian continental margin to determine the influence of habitat heterogeneity and low oxygen levels on the community's taxonomic and functional structure. A single transect, perpendicular to the coast at 14° N latitude was sampled from 34 to 2546 m depth for biological and environmental variables during August 2007. The oxygen minimum zone extended from 102 to 1001 m. Nematodes (described and undescribed) were identified to species and classified according to biological and functional traits. A total of 110 nematode species belonging to 24 families were found along the transect. Three depth zones were identified: the shelf (depth range: 34-102 m; highest nematode mean density: 176.6 ± 37 ind 10 cm-2), the slope (525-1524 m; 124.3 ± 16 ind 10 cm-2), and the basin (2001-2546 m; 62.9 ± 2 ind 10 cm-2). Across the entire study area, the dominant species were Terschellingia longicaudata, Desmodora sp. 1, Sphaerolaimus gracilis, and Theristus ensifer; their maximum density was at shelf stations. Nematode communities in different zones differed in species composition. Chromadorita sp. 2 (2.78 %) and Sphaerolaimus gracilis (2.21 %) were dominant on the shelf, whereas Terschellingia longicaudata (4.73 %) and Desmodora sp. 1 (4.42 %) were dominant on the slope, but in the basin, Halalaimus sp. 1(1.11 %) and Acantholaimus elegans (1.11 %) were dominant. The information in a particular functional group was not a simple reflection of the information in species abundance. Ecological information captured by adult length, adult shape, and life-history strategy was less site-specific and thus differed notably from information contained in other taxonomic groups. The functional composition of nematodes was strongly linked to the organic-carbon and dissolved-oxygen concentration. Seven species were found exclusively in the oxygen minimum zone: Pselionema sp. 1, Choanolaimus sp. 2, Halichoanolaimus sp. 1, Cobbia dentata


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour


    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of peninsular Malaysia was selected as case study to evaluate the capability of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data for structural geology mapping in tropical environments. The structural elements in the BRSZ were enhanced using multi-polarization configuration of PALSAR data at a regional scale. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detailed structural mapping. Numerous tectonic lineaments with consistent variation in trend, length and density were detected in the study area. Structural analysis of the BRSZ reveals that two distinct parts can be defined, a western part affected mainly by ductile fabrics in the Cameron Highlands and an eastern part affected mainly by brittle deformation in the BRSZ. Ductile deformation indicates several generation of folding in the Cameron Highlands. Several faults, joints and fractures represent brittle deformation events in the BRSZ. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of PALSAR satellite remote sensing data for mapping geological structures in tropical environments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stepashko


    Full Text Available  The evolution and specific features of seismogynamics of the Baikal zones are reviewed in the context of interactions between deep deformation waves and the regional structure of the lithospheric mantle. The study is based on a model of the mantle structure with reference to chemical compositions of mantle peridotites from ophiolotic series located in the south-western framing of the Siberian craton (Fig. 1. The chemical zonation of the lithospheric mantle at the regional scale is determined from results of analyses of the heterogeneity of compositions of peridotites (Fig. 2, Table 1 and variations of contents of whole rock major components, such as iron, magnesium and silica (Fig. 3. According to spatial variations of the compositions of peridotites, the mantle has the concentric zonal structure, and the content of SiO2 is regularly decreasing, while concentrations of FeO∑ and MgO are increasing towards the centre of such structure (Fig. 4. This structure belongs to the mantle of the Siberian craton, which deep edge extends beyond the surface contour of the craton and underlies the north-western segment of the Central Asian orogenic belt.Results of the studies of peridotites of the Baikal region are consistent with modern concepts [Snyder, 2002; O’Reilly, Griffin, 2006; Chen et al., 2009] that suggest that large mantle lenses underlie the Archaean cratons (Fig. 5. The lenses are distinguished by high-density ultrabasic rocks and compose high-velocity roots of cratons which have remained isolated from technic processes. Edges of the mantle lenses may extend a few hundred kilometers beyond the limits of the cratons and underlie orogenic belts that frame the cratons, and this takes place in the south-western segment of the Siberian craton.The revealed structure of the lithospheric mantle is consistent with independent results of seismic and magmatectonical studies of the region. The Angara geoblock is located above the central part of the

  7. Strukturisasi Entity Relationship Diagram dan Data Flow Diagram Berbasis Business Event-Driven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suroto Adi


    Full Text Available Entity relationship diagram (ERD and data flow diagram (DFD modeling are necessary parts in analysis and design of structured information systems in business. Definition of entities in the ERD, the process, and datastore in the DFD have well described in a lot of literatures. However, practically it is not easy to explain how to design ERD and DFD models so that the students well understand the modeling steps, especially in business applications. This study discussed step-by-step systematic approach to ERD and DFD modeling using "business event-driven" approach that is represented by the REA model, through structuring REA-ERD and REA-DFD. From the results we concluded that the logical design of ERD should be done before designing DFD, so that there would be perfect "balancing" between the entities in the ERD and data stores in the DFD. Consequently, the implementation of these steps needed to be tested both qualitatively and quantitatively in advanced researches

  8. Minerals of Fe in the oxidation zone of massive sulfide ore in the South Pechenga structure zone, Kola region: Identification by the Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kompanchenko A. A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the study of iron-bearing minerals formed in the oxidation zone of massive sulfide ores. The minerals are represented by two groups: oxides, i. e. goethite and lepidocrocite, and sulfates, i. e. melanterite and rozenit. Mineral identification has been produced by Raman spectroscopy, these data have been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The resulting Raman spectra have been compared with the spectra of the known database and the results of previous studies of these minerals. Goethite and lepidocrocite are polymorphic modifications formed under the specific conditions by the influence of special solutions. Goethite has diagnostic bands at 243 cm–1, 300 cm–1, 391 cm–1, 480 cm–1, 552 cm–1, 681 cm–1 , and 995 cm–1, diagnostic bands of lepidocrocite – 252 cm–1, 381 cm–1, 528 cm–1, and 652 cm–1. Discovered small crystals in the lepidocrocite veins have been diagnosed as magnetite, with diagnostic bands at 678 cm–1, 549 cm–1 , and 316 cm–1. Goethite and lepidocrocite are formed on the surface of a complex pyrrhotite-marcasite aggregate with "bird's-eye" structure. The presence of pyrite and marcasite is confirmed by Raman spectrum which has pyrite bands (343 cm–1 and 403 cm–1 and marcasite bands (323 cm–1 and 386 cm–1. Melanterite and rozenite are formed under the influence of surface water on sulfide ores or other readily degradable iron-bearing minerals, as well as in confined spaces with high humidity. Raman spectra of these minerals well differ from each other allowing them reliably diagnose. There are sulfate anion [SO4]2– vibrations in the range of 990–1010 cm–1, and vibrations of the H–O–H in the range of 3 000–4000 cm–1 and 1 500–1700 cm–1 on the spectra. As a result of the research the authors can certainly confirm that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a reliable method for mineral identification

  9. Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.


    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  10. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074806777; Ooms, J.C.L.


    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  11. Simultaneous determination of aquifer parameters and zone structures with fuzzy c-means clustering and meta-heuristic harmony search algorithm (United States)

    Ayvaz, M. Tamer


    This study proposes an inverse solution algorithm through which both the aquifer parameters and the zone structure of these parameters can be determined based on a given set of observations on piezometric heads. In the zone structure identification problem fuzzy c-means ( FCM) clustering method is used. The association of the zone structure with the transmissivity distribution is accomplished through an optimization model. The meta-heuristic harmony search ( HS) algorithm, which is conceptualized using the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony, is used as an optimization technique. The optimum parameter zone structure is identified based on three criteria which are the residual error, parameter uncertainty, and structure discrimination. A numerical example given in the literature is solved to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Also, a sensitivity analysis is performed to test the performance of the HS algorithm for different sets of solution parameters. Results indicate that the proposed solution algorithm is an effective way in the simultaneous identification of aquifer parameters and their corresponding zone structures.

  12. Genetic structure of Leptopilina boulardi populations from different climatic zones of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyahooei, M.A.; van Alphen, J.J.M.; Kraaijeveld, K.


    Background The genetic structure of populations can be influenced by geographic isolation (including physical distance) and ecology. We examined these effects in Leptopilina boulardi, a parasitoid of Drosophila of African origin and widely distributed over temperate and (sub) tropical climates.

  13. Fault zone structure and kinematics from lidar, radar, and imagery: revealing new details along the creeping San Andreas Fault (United States)

    DeLong, S.; Donnellan, A.; Pickering, A.


    Aseismic fault creep, coseismic fault displacement, distributed deformation, and the relative contribution of each have important bearing on infrastructure resilience, risk reduction, and the study of earthquake physics. Furthermore, the impact of interseismic fault creep in rupture propagation scenarios, and its impact and consequently on fault segmentation and maximum earthquake magnitudes, is poorly resolved in current rupture forecast models. The creeping section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in Central California is an outstanding area for establishing methodology for future scientific response to damaging earthquakes and for characterizing the fine details of crustal deformation. Here, we describe how data from airborne and terrestrial laser scanning, airborne interferometric radar (UAVSAR), and optical data from satellites and UAVs can be used to characterize rates and map patterns of deformation within fault zones of varying complexity and geomorphic expression. We are evaluating laser point cloud processing, photogrammetric structure from motion, radar interferometry, sub-pixel correlation, and other techniques to characterize the relative ability of each to measure crustal deformation in two and three dimensions through time. We are collecting new and synthesizing existing data from the zone of highest interseismic creep rates along the SAF where a transition from a single main fault trace to a 1-km wide extensional stepover occurs. In the stepover region, creep measurements from alignment arrays 100 meters long across the main fault trace reveal lower rates than those in adjacent, geomorphically simpler parts of the fault. This indicates that deformation is distributed across the en echelon subsidiary faults, by creep and/or stick-slip behavior. Our objectives are to better understand how deformation is partitioned across a fault damage zone, how it is accommodated in the shallow subsurface, and to better characterize the relative amounts of fault creep

  14. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.S.


    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, δ-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal

  15. A contribution to better understanding of structural characteristics and tectonic phases of the Boč region, Periadriatic Fault Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Žibret


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine properties of the tectonic contact between Permian/Mesozoic limestones and less competent Miocene clastites on the northeastern foothill of the Boč Mt. Because fault planes signifiantly mark the relief, this contact was studied by a detailed structural mapping, which showed that the Boč Mt. is limited by subvertical faults in its northeastern part. To ensure that mapped subvertical contact is compatible with regional geodynamics of the area, additionally paleostress analysis of fault-slip data was performed. Four individual paleostress tensor groups were documented in a wider Boč area and compared by published structural data from the border zone between Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian Basin. The oldest paleostress tensor group (Phase 1 is likely of Lower and Middle Miocene age and indicates SW-NE extension accommodated by W-E to WNW-ESE striking normal faults. Phase 2 can be correlated with Middle to Late Miocene NW-SE to WNWESE directed extension accommodated by NNE-SSW striking normal faults. Phase 3 is correlated with Late Miocene W-E directed contraction accommodated by N-S striking sinistral faults and NNE-SSW to NE-SW striking dextral faults. The youngest paleostress tensor group (Phase 4 fis well with Pliocene to Quaternary NNW-SSE to N-S directed contraction accommodated by NW-SE to W-E striking dextral faults and NE-SW striking reverse faults. Since the documented paleostress phases fis well with the geodynamic processes of the Alps-Dinarides-Carpathians territory the subvertical border in the northeastern part of Boč Mt. seems to be an acceptable structural solution. The study is important because the study area is located at interaction zone between two major Alpine fault systems: the Periadriatic and the Lavanttal faults.

  16. Genetic differentiation, structure, and a transition zone among populations of the pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D Stephens

    Full Text Available Pitcher plant bogs, or carnivorous plant wetlands, have experienced extensive habitat loss and fragmentation throughout the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, resulting in an estimated reduction to <3% of their former range. This situation has lead to increased management attention of these habitats and their carnivorous plant species. However, conservation priorities focus primarily on the plants since little information currently exists on other community members, such as their endemic arthropod biota. Here, we investigated the population structure of one of these, the obligate pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene sequences. Examination of 221 individuals from 11 populations across eight southeastern US states identified 51 unique haplotypes. These haplotypes belonged to one of two divergent (∼1.9-3.0% lineages separated by the Mississippi alluvial plain. Populations of the West Gulf Coastal Plain exhibited significant genetic structure, contrasting with similarly distanced populations east of the Mississippi alluvial plain. In the eastern portion of the Coastal Plain, an apparent transition zone exists between two regionally distinct population groups, with a well-established genetic discontinuity for other organisms coinciding with this zone. The structure of E. semicrocea appears to have been influenced by patchy pitcher plant bog habitats in the West Gulf Coastal Plain as well as impacts of Pleistocene interglacials on the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. These findings, along with potential extirpation of E. semicrocea at four visited, but isolated, sites highlight the need to consider other endemic or associated community members when managing and restoring pitcher plant bog habitats.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Vladimir Aleksandrovich


    Full Text Available This article presents the main options of improved and newly devised designs and process diagrams for installation of foundations made of driven, or jack, piles in the penetrated wells with expanded shoe, mainly in weak wet (waterlogged and water-saturated soils. The article presents six options of process diagrams for installation of driven piles in penetrated wells, listing the main procedures: for well-compacted weak soils, for the case when the water ingress is excluded, for the case when it is necessary to increase the load-bearing capacity of pile's bearing face in the waterlogged soils, for the case when the load-bearing capacity of the pile shall be increased both for the end and for the sides, for the case when peat or other biogenous water-saturated soils are present at the bottom of the well, and for the case when there is no contracted zone nor practical possibility to ensure the stability of the walls. The proposed six options of process diagrams for installation of the driven piles in penetrated wells provide expansion of their area of application regarding the soil conditions, increase of load-bearing capacity, and possibility of using jack systems for driving the piles under conditions of dense urban development.

  18. Trophic structure of the benthic invertebrate community in the littoral zone of a mountain cascade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prus


    Full Text Available The cascade of Solina/Myczkowce dam reservoirs situated in the West Carpathian Mts was investigated. The cascade consists of two reservoirs, the upper one built 35 yr ago on the San and Solinka Rivers of 2100 ha area separated from another one, of 190 ha area, with hypolimnion cold water supplied from the upper one.

    The offshore zone was investigated monthly (6 sites of upper, 3 sites of lower reservoir using a tube bottom sampler. Besides numbers, biomass and biodiversity indices, the proportion of predators, plant/detritus-feeders and filter-feeders was assessed.

    In upper reservoir Solina, with a lack of filter-feeders, a clear preponderance of plant-detritus feeders was observed. Predators, consisting mostly of leeches and hydranchnellids were present. In lower reservoir Myczkowce, all three trophic classes were present in the first year of study in almost equal proportions and in 1998 with slight preponderance of plant/detritus feeders was observed.

    The Oligochaeta/Chironomidae index in both reservoirs was low, indicating low degree of eutrophication. Only one site in Solina reservoir (near a fish culture and one in Myczkowce (influenced by tourist activity showed a high value of this index.

  19. An Ad-hoc Satellite Network to Measure Filamentary Current Structures in the Auroral Zone (United States)

    Nabong, C.; Fritz, T. A.; Semeter, J. L.


    An ad-hoc cubesat-based satellite network project known as ANDESITE is under development at Boston University. It aims to develop a dense constellation of easy-to-use, rapidly-deployable low-cost wireless sensor nodes in space. The objectives of the project are threefold: 1) Demonstrate viability of satellite based sensor networks by deploying an 8-node miniature sensor network to study the filamentation of the field aligned currents in the auroral zones of the Earth's magnetosphere. 2) Test the scalability of proposed protocols, including localization techniques, tracking, data aggregation, and routing, for a 3 dimensional wireless sensor network using a "flock" of nodes. 3) Construct a 6U Cube-sat running the Android OS as an integrated constellation manager, data mule and sensor node deplorer. This small network of sensor nodes will resolve current densities at different spatial resolutions in the near-Earth magnetosphere using measurements from magnetometers with 1-nT sensitivities and 0.2 nT/√Hz self-noise. Mapping of these currents will provide new constraints for models of auroral particle acceleration, wave-particle interactions, ionospheric destabilization, and other kinetic processes operating in the low-beta plasma of the near Earth magnetosphere.

  20. CERPHASE: Computer-generated phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruys, A.J.; Sorrell, C.C.; Scott, F.H.


    CERPHASE is a collection of computer programs written in the programming language basic and developed for the purpose of teaching the principles of phase diagram generation from the ideal solution model of thermodynamics. Two approaches are used in the generation of the phase diagrams: freezing point depression and minimization of the free energy of mixing. Binary and ternary phase diagrams can be generated as can diagrams containing the ideal solution parameters used to generate the actual phase diagrams. Since the diagrams generated utilize the ideal solution model, data input required from the operator is minimal: only the heat of fusion and melting point of each component. CERPHASE is menu-driven and user-friendly, containing simple instructions in the form of screen prompts as well as a HELP file to guide the operator. A second purpose of CERPHASE is in the prediction of phase diagrams in systems for which no experimentally determined phase diagrams are available, enabling the estimation of suitable firing or sintering temperatures for otherwise unknown systems. Since CERPHASE utilizes ideal solution theory, there are certain limitations imposed on the types of systems that can be predicted reliably. 6 refs., 13 refs

  1. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés


    Affinity diagramming is a technique used to externalize, make sense of, and organize large amounts of unstructured, far-ranging, and seemingly dissimilar qualitative data. HCI and interaction design practitioners have adopted and used affinity diagrams for different purposes. This paper discusses...

  2. Automatically extracting class diagrams from spreadsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.


    The use of spreadsheets to capture information is widespread in industry. Spreadsheets can thus be a wealthy source of domain information. We propose to automatically extract this information and transform it into class diagrams. The resulting class diagram can be used by software engineers to

  3. Lubrication modes and the transition diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Dirk J.; de Gee, A.W.J.


    The relationship between a Lubrication Mode Diagram (LMD) for concentrated contacts (LCC's) and the IRG transition diagram has been studied. In addition, scuffing results, obtained by the IRG (International Research Group) have been analysed, as well as the results of scuffing tests performed by

  4. Towards a fully probabilistic reconstruction of the elastic, thermal and petrological structure of the Earth's mantle transition zone (United States)

    Tauzin, Benoit; Afonso, Juan-Carlos; Sambridge, Malcolm; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Kim, Seongryong; Bodin, Thomas


    An enigmatic patchwork of seismologically observed low-seismic velocity zones (LVZs) has been reported at various scales and locations above the 410-km discontinuity and in the mantle transition zone (TZ). Geodynamical models suggest that this is possibly a distinctive feature of a convective mantle that preserves small-scale chemical heterogeneities. However, its geographical correlation with tectonic environments remains elusive. Our objective is to study the multi-scale physical properties of the TZ in relation with the global distribution, shape, internal structure, and nature of these LVZs. We develop a novel geophysical inversion relying on Bayesian inference. This probabilistic framework is multidisciplinary, with the production of multi-scale elastic TZ models through partition modeling of raw seismic data, and the use of secondary seismic observables (410 and 660 topography, number of seismic interfaces, elastic profile in the TZ) to constrain thermo-physical parameters for a range of plausible mineralogical models and pressure-temperature conditions. Taking a probabilistic approach does not simply mean that we look for a maximum probability solution but rather, within uncertainties and through probabilistic sampling, for an ensemble of compatible solutions. We illustrate the feasibility of using such a framework on data from dense seismic arrays in the US (Transportable Array), NE China (NECESSArray), Japan (F-Net), Australia (WOMBAT), from permanent networks in Korea, and on a global dataset of SS-precursors. We aim at quantifying in a probabilistic sense how previously published mantle-mixing models and laboratory-based data fit seismological observations.

  5. Middle Jurassic Radiolaria from a siliceous argillite block in a structural melange zone near Viqueque, Timor Leste: Paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Haig, David W.; Bandini, Alexandre Nicolas


    Thin-bedded siliceous argillite forming a large block within a structural melange zone at Viqueque, Timor Leste, has yielded a Middle Jurassic (late Bathonian-early Callovian) radiolarian assemblage belonging to Unitary Association Zone 7. Fifty-five species are recognized and illustrated, forming the most diverse radiolarian fauna yet documented from the Jurassic of Timor. The fauna shows little similarity in species content to the few other assemblages previously listed from the Middle or Late Jurassic of Timor, and also has few species in common with faunas known elsewhere in the region from Rotti, Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Sula. Based on lithofacies similarities and age, the siliceous argillite succession in the melange block at Viqueque is included in the Noni Group originally described as the lower part of the Palelo Series in West Timor. In terms of lithofacies, the Noni Group is distinct from other stratigraphic units known in Timor. It may be associated with volcanic rocks but age relationships are uncertain, although some of the radiolarian cherts in the Noni Group in West Timor have been reported to include tuffaceous sediment. The deep-water character of the siliceous hemipelagite-pelagite facies, the probable volcanic association, and an age close to that of continental breakup in the region suggest deposition in a newly rifted Indian Ocean. In Timor's tectonostratigraphic classification scheme, the Noni Group is here placed in the "Indian Ocean Megasequence".

  6. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone. (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J


    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  7. Trophic Structure Over the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: The Bathypelagic Zone Really Matters (United States)

    We present preliminary results and ongoing efforts to characterize the trophic structure and energy flow of the pelagic ecosystems of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), from Iceland to the Azores. This study is one component of the international CoML field project MAR-ECO (ww...

  8. Velocity structure and the role of fluids in the West Bohemia Seismic Zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexandrakis, C.; Calò, M.; Bouchaala, F.; Vavryčuk, Václav


    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2014), s. 863-872 ISSN 1869-9510 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/12/1491 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 230669 - AIM Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : seismic tomography * Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region * WEBNET Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.270, year: 2014

  9. Shallow seismic structure of Kunlun fault zone in northern Tibetan Plateau, China: Implications for the 2001 M s8.1 Kunlun earthquake (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Mooney, W.D.; Ding, Z.; Yang, J.; Yao, Z.; Lou, H.


    The shallow seismic velocity structure of the Kunlun fault zone (KLFZ) was jointly deduced from seismic refraction profiling and the records of trapped waves that were excited by five explosions. The data were collected after the 2001 Kunlun M s8.1 earthquake in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Seismic phases for the in-line record sections (26 records up to a distance of 15 km) along the fault zone were analysed, and 1-D P- and S-wave velocity models of shallow crust within the fault zone were determined by using the seismic refraction method. Sixteen seismic stations were deployed along the off-line profile perpendicular to the fault zone. Fault-zone trapped waves appear clearly on the record sections, which were simulated with a 3-D finite difference algorithm. Quantitative analysis of the correlation coefficients of the synthetic and observed trapped waveforms indicates that the Kunlun fault-zone width is 300 m, and S-wave quality factor Q within the fault zone is 15. Significantly, S-wave velocities within the fault zone are reduced by 30-45 per cent from surrounding rocks to a depth of at least 1-2 km, while P-wave velocities are reduced by 7-20 per cent. A fault-zone with such P- and S-low velocities is an indication of high fluid pressure because Vs is affected more than Vp. The low-velocity and low-Q zone in the KLFZ model is the effect of multiple ruptures along the fault trace of the 2001 M s8.1 Kunlun earthquake. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  10. The Importance of Southern Hemisphere CZOs for Evaluating Spatial Patterns of Chemical Structure in the Critical Zone and Assisting Human Development (United States)

    Chadwick, O.


    The US Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) is a network of sites designed to provide a better understanding of the integrated Earth surface system. The capacity of the critical zone to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state, which in turn depends on the time evolution of the critical zone. Many temperate and/or tectonically active critical zones contain a relatively short history due to rapid erosion but tectonically quiescent, tropical regions of the planet contain much longer records that need to be understood to cover the full suite of critical zone processes. Southern Hemisphere Critical Zone Observatories such as those proposed for Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa and for portions of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australa will allow us to extend our temporal understanding of development of spatial heterogeneity in the chemical and physical structure of the critical zone. In addition to considering Earth and climate boundary conditions, these sites incorporate the roles that humans play in driving critical zone processes. For instance along the edges of KNP there is strong evidence of soil erosions due to periurbanization and small-scale agriculture. The existence of KNP provides an important contrast between a "natural" and "human-dominated" landscape that can be exploited to evaluate human impacts on critical zone resources and to develop targeted mitigation strategies. Western Australia has an exploitive economy that relies on large-scale agriculture and mineral extraction, both are intensive users of water which is scarce. The proposed CZO there will be partly focused on managing water under intense economic pressures. It is evident that if funding can be found for these sites they will enhance both critical zone science and practical applied science.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  12. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  14. Interaction of Structure and Physical Properties in Accretionary Wedges: Examples from the Cascadia and Nankai Trough Subduction Zones (United States)

    Webb, Susanna I.

    Subduction zones are capable of producing large, megathrust earthquakes that are sometimes tsunamigenic. Structure and physical properties in the accretionary wedge play a role in how far rupture can propagate and how the wedge deforms coseismically. In this dissertation, I use seismic reflection data and velocity models from the Cascadia subduction zone and logging data from the Nankai Trough, Japan, to interpret structure, link structure to the broader wedge deformation history, and investigate the material properties at depth. I present a full structural interpretation of newly acquired seismic reflection data in the central Cascadia margin, which is characterized by dominantly landward vergent faulting in the outer wedge, a very low wedge taper angle, and a broad, lightly deformed lower slope terrace. Two decollements are active: an upper decollement within the sedimentary section, and a basal decollement at the sediment-basement interface. These interpretations help delineate the spatial extent of decollements and suggest that supra-wedge sedimentation may influence the development of the wedge, including the formation of the lower slope terrace and out of sequence fault activity. I use velocity models from central Cascadia to estimate excess pore fluid pressure and overpressure ratio at depth, which do not exceed 5 MPa and 0.15, respectively. No excess pore pressure is documented in the underthrust sediment section, but modest overpressure is likely present in the incoming sediment section and the footwalls of thrust sheets. The analysis of pore pressure shows that (1) if the base of the wedge is weak, it is due to mechanical properties of the sediments or a relatively thin underthrust layer and (2) the Cascadia wedge is relatively well-drained, and thus potentially strong, which can lead to a low wedge taper angle. In the Nankai Trough, Japan, I reprocessed sonic log data to obtain P-wave and S-wave velocity values and estimate elastic moduli. The logs

  15. [The characteristics of microstructure and chemical compositions of K-feldspar, sphene and zircon with zoning structure]. (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hua; Wu, Cai-Lai; Lei, Min; Qin, Hai-Peng; Li, Ming-Ze


    K-feldspar, sphene and zircon in quartz monzonite from Shahewan, south Qinling, showing strong zoning structure. Characteristics of microstructure and chemical compositions of K-feldspar, sphene and zircon with zoning structure were investigated using advanced instruments of electron probe micro analyses equipped with wavelength dispersive spectrometer (EPM-WDS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and laser ablation--inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Our study suggests that K+ could be substituted by small amounts of Na+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Fe2+ and Ce3+. Ca2+ in sphene could be replaced by V3+, Ce3+, Ba2+ and Ti4+ could be substituted by both Fe2+ and Al3+. Zircon contains trace elements like Fe, Th, U, Nb, Ta, Y, Hf, Yb and Pb. Concentration of Si, Al, K, Ca, Na, Mg and Ba in K-feldspar ranked from high to low, among which the contents of K and Na are negatively correlated, the lighter part of BSE images featuring K-feldspar is attributed to comparably higher Ba content, additionally, Si and K contents are elevated while Na content decreased rimward. Ca, Si, Ti, Ba, V, Ce, Al and Fe concentration listed downward, among which higher iron content corresponds to brighter portion of BSE images. Element concentration of zircon could be ranked from high to low as Zr, Si, Nd, Ce, Hf, U, Pb and Th, in which Hf and Zr exhibit negatively correlated. Zr concentration increased while Hf, U and Th concentration decreased from core to rim.

  16. 3-D crustal structure along the North Anatolian Fault Zone in north-central Anatolia revealed by local earthquake tomography (United States)

    Yolsal-Ćevikbilen, Seda; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Taymaz, Tuncay; Adıyaman, Hande E.; Özacar, A. Arda


    3-D P-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs variations in the crust along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in north-central Anatolia were investigated by the inversion of local P- and S-wave traveltimes, to gain a better understanding of the seismological characteristics of the region. The 3-D local earthquake tomography inversions included 5444 P- and 3200 S-wave readings obtained from 168 well-located earthquakes between 2006 January and 2008 May. Dense ray coverage yields good resolution, particularly in the central part of the study area. The 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs tomographic images reveal clear correlations with both the surface geology and significant tectonic units in the region. We observed the lower limit of the seismogenic zone for north-central Anatolia at 15 km depth. Final earthquake locations display a distributed pattern throughout the study area, with most of the earthquakes occurring on the major splays of the NAFZ, rather than its master strand. We identify three major high-velocity blocks in the mid-crust separated by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture and interpret these blocks to be continental basement fragments that were accreted onto the margin following the closure of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. These basement blocks may have in part influenced the rupture propagations of the historical 1939, 1942 and 1943 earthquakes. In addition, large variations in the Vp/Vs ratio in the mid-crust were observed and have been correlated with the varying fluid contents of the existing lithologies and related tectonic structures.

  17. Structure of the mantle lithosphere in continental collision zones of Europe, North America and China from S-receiver functions (United States)

    Kind, R.; Shen, X.


    Seismic tomography and receiver functions are the most common methods to study the structure of the mantle lithosphere. We use S-receiver functions to study continent-continent collision zones in Europe, North America and China. In order to avoid possible numerical problems caused by filtering effects (side lobes) we process the data practically without filtering (also excluding deconvolution). Side lobes are still a fundamental question to check the reality of the Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD). We use openly available data of mostly permanent seismic broadband stations from the European portal EIDA, from IRIS and from the Chinese Seismic Network. We obtained several ten thousands of useful records in each region by visual and fully automatic processing. We observed the MLD in all cratonic regions near 100 km depth and the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) partly in cratonic regions near 200 km depth. The observation of the cratonic LAB with converted waves requires a relatively sharp discontinuity which excludes temperature as only cause of the LAB. In younger tectonic active regions we observed the LAB near 100 km depth. TheLAB and MLD are in collision zones significantly structured. In central Europe we observed the deep cratonic LAB reaching far to the west of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone below Phanerozoic cover. Below the northern edge of the Bohemian Massif seems to be a tear in the LAB leading to a jump in its depth of about 100 km. In North America we see north of Yellowstone a smooth deepening of the western LAB from about 100 km depth to 200 km depth at the Mid-Continental Rift System. Similarly to the LAB jump below the Bohemian Massif in Europe, we see below the Sevier Thrust Belt also a jump of about 100 km in the LAB depth. In China we see the cratonic LAB deepening to the south-west far below eastern Tibet. Below the craton in north-east China is only the shallow LAB/MLD visible. These observations in three continents show that the

  18. Integrating hydrogeophysics and hydrological tracers to characterise the spatial structure of groundwater storage in the critical zone of montane environments (United States)

    Dick, J.; Tetzlaff, D.; Bradford, J.; Soulsby, C.


    It is increasingly recognised that groundwater (GW) in montane watersheds has a major influence on the distribution of vegetation communities and ecosystem function, as well as sustaining downstream river flows. In glaciated landscapes, complex and heterogenous drift deposits can have a dominant influence on GW stores and fluxes, and form a poorly understood component of the critical zone. Given the logistical problems and limitations of drilling observation wells in such terrain, hydrogeophysics has outstanding potential to help characterise aquifer structure and understand shallow GW in the critical zone of montane environments. We present the results of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in an intensively monitored 3.2km2 watershed in the Scottish Highlands with a strong glacial past. We sought to characterise the structure and spatial organisation of GW stores in diverse quaternary drift deposits. This utilized distributed ERT transects that provided a basis for spatial interpolation using geostatistical methods and high resolution LiDAR surveys. Some transects coincided with shallow observation wells that were used to "ground-truth" the inversion of resistivity data. The surveys showed that the drifts covered around 70% of the catchment and varied from 5m deep on the hillslopes to 40m in the valleys. The water table was within 0.2m of the soil surface in the valley bottom areas and about 1.5m deep on steeper hillslopes. The water content of drifts inferred by the ERT surveys and characterisation of the aquifer properties showed highest water content in the peat (~80%) and basal till (20-30%), and low storage in moraine deposits (10%). Upscaling these estimates of inferred storage to the catchment scale indicated around ~2-3 m of GW storage, equivalent to around 4-6 years of effective precipitation. This generally compared well with independent storage estimates inferred from long-term stable isotope time series collected from the aquifers

  19. Syn- and Post-Accretionary Structures in the Neoproterozoic Central Allaqi-Heiani Suture Zone, Southeastern Egypt (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Abdelghaffar, A. A.


    The Allaqi-Heiani suture (AHS) is the western part of the main Allaqi-Heiani-Gerf-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu suture and represents one of the Neoproterozoic, arc-arc sutures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). It separates the ca. 750 Ma South Eastern Desert terrane in the north from the ca. 830-720 Ma Gabgaba terrane in the south. The AHS is a deformed belt of ophiolitic rocks, syn-tectonic granitoids and metasediments. The central AHS zone is divided into three structural domains. The western domain (Ι) is characterized by NNE low thrusts and SSW-vergent folds. The central domain (ΙΙ) includes upright tight to isoclinal NNW-SSE oriented folds and transpressional faults. The eastern domain (ΙΙΙ) shows NNW-SSE oriented open folds. Structural analysis indicates that the area has a poly-phase deformation history involving at least two events. Event D1 was an N-S to NNE-SSW regional shortening generating the SSW-verging folds and the NNE dipping thrusts. Event D2 was an ENE-WSW shortening producing NNW-SSE oriented folds in the central and eastern parts of the study area and reactivating older thrusts with oblique-slip reverse fault movement. The tectonic evolution of the area involves two episodes of collision: an early collision between the South Eastern Desert terrane and the Gabgaba terrane along the AHS after the consumption of a basin floored by oceanic crust above a north-dipping subduction zone; and a later collision between East- and West-Gondwanas at ca. 750-650 Ma, leading to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. This collision deformed the AHS along N-S trending shortening zones and produced NW-SE and NE-SW oriented sinistral and dextral transpressional faults, respectively. The early collision episode is related to the terrane accretion during the early Pan-African orogen, while the later phase is related to a late Pan-African or Najd orogen.

  20. Airborne & SAR Synergy Reveals the 3D Structure of Air Bubble Entrainment in Internal Waves and Frontal Zones (United States)

    da Silva, J. C. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.; Batista, M.; Gostiaux, L.; Gerkema, T.; New, A. L.


    Internal waves are now recognised as an important mixing mechanism in the ocean. Mixing at the base of the mixed layer and in the seasonal thermocline affects the properties of those water masses which define the exchange of heat and freshwater between the atmosphere and ocean. The breaking of Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs) contributes significantly to turbulent mixing in the near-surface layers, through the continual triggering of instabilities as they propagate and shoal towards the coast or shallow topography. Here we report some results of the EU funded project A.NEW (Airborne observations of Nonlinear Evolution of internal Waves generated by internal tidal beams). The airborne capabilities to observe small scale structure of breaking internal waves in the near-shore zone has been demonstrated in recent studies (e.g. Marmorino et al., 2008). In particular, sea surface thermal signatures of shoaling ISWs have revealed the turbulent character of these structures in the form of surface “boil” features. On the other hand, some in situ measurements of internal waves and theoretical work suggest subsurface entrainment of air bubbles in the convergence zones of ISWs (Serebryany and Galybin, 2009; Grimshaw et al., 2010). We conducted airborne remote sensing observations in the coastal zone off the west Iberian Peninsula (off Lisbon, Portugal) using high resolution imaging sensors: LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), hyperspectral cameras (Eagle and Hawk) and thermal infrared imaging (TABI-320). These measurements were planned based on previous SAR observations in the region, which included also near-real time SAR overpasses (ESA project AOPT-2423 and TerraSAR-X project OCE-0056). The airborne measurements were conducted from board the NERC (Natural Environmental Research Centre) Do 228 aircraft in the summer of 2010. The TABI-320 thermal airborne broadband imager can distinguish temperature differences as small as one-twentieth of a degree and operates in the

  1. Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to present the fiscal year (FY) 2007 results of characterization activities and recommended remedial actions (RAs) for 11 exposure units (EUs) in Zone 2 (Z2-01, Z2-03, Z2-08, Z2-23, Z2-24, Z2-28, Z2-34, Z2-37, Z2-41, Z2-43, and Z2-44) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), which is located in the northwest corner of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Fig. 1). ETTP encompasses a total land area of approximately 5000 acres that has been subdivided into three zones--Zone 1 ({approx}1400 acres), Zone 2 ({approx}800 acres), and the Boundary Area ({approx}2800 acres). Zone 2, which encompasses the highly industrialized portion of ETTP shown in Fig. 1, consists of all formerly secured areas of the facility, including the large processing buildings and direct support facilities; experimental laboratories and chemical and materials handling facilities; materials storage and waste disposal facilities; secure document records libraries; and shipping and receiving warehouses. The Zone 2 Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005) (Zone 2 ROD) specifies the future end use for Zone 2 acreage as uncontrolled industrial for the upper 10 ft of soils. Characterization activities in these areas were conducted in compliance with the Zone 2 ROD and the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS) and data quality objectives (DQOs) presented in the Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2007) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document DVS characterization results for the accessible EUs in FY 2007; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation for each EU, and determine if the EU met the Zone 2 ROD requirements

  2. Phase diagram of compressively strained nickelate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disa, Ankit S [Yale University; Kumah, D. [Yale University; Ngai, J H [Yale University; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Arena, D.A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Walker, Frederick J. [Yale University; Ahn, Charles H. [Yale University


    The complex phase diagrams of strongly correlated oxides arise from the coupling between physical and electronic structure. This can lead to a renormalization of the phase boundaries when considering thin films rather than bulk crystals due to reduced dimensionality and epitaxial strain. The well-established bulk RNiO3 phase diagram shows a systematic dependence between the metal-insulator transition and the perovskite A-site rare-earth ion, R. Here, we explore the equivalent phase diagram for nickelate thin films under compressive epitaxial strain. We determine the metalinsulator phase diagram for the solid solution of Nd1-yLayNiO3 thin films within the range 0 y 1. We find qualitative similarity between the films and their bulk analogs, but with an overall renormalization in the metal-insulator transition to lower temperature. A combination of x-ray diffraction measurements and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that the renormalization is due to increased Ni O bond hybridization for coherently strained thin films.

  3. Validation of Temperature Histories for Structural Steel Welds Using Estimated Heat-Affected-Zone Edges (United States)


    possibly not convenient. A classification of steels that can be characterized for quantitative estimation of solidification and HAZ edge boundaries is...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6394--16-9690 Validation of Temperature Histories for Structural Steel Welds Using...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF

  4. The structuring role of microhabitat type in coral degradation zones: a case study with marine nematodes from Kenya and Zanzibar (United States)

    Raes, M.; de Troch, M.; Ndaro, S. G. M.; Muthumbi, A.; Guilini, K.; Vanreusel, A.


    Nematode genus assemblages were identified from four locations in coral degradation zones (CDZs) along the African east coast: Watamu and Tiwi Beach (Kenya) and Matemwe and Makunduchi (Zanzibar). Three microhabitat types were distinguished: coralline sediment, coral gravel and coral fragments. Nematode community composition was comparable to that of other studies dealing with the same habitat. The presence of a common genus pool in CDZs was reflected in the considerable similarities between samples. The addition of coral fragments as a habitat for nematodes resulted in an increased importance of taxa typical for coarse sediments and large substrata. Local and regional turnover were of the same order of magnitude. The structuring effect of microhabitat type clearly overrode the effect on a local and regional scale. Differences in sediment characteristics were more important in structuring the nematode assemblages than differences between the coralline sediment and coral fragments. No effect related to the three-dimensional structure of coral fragments was found. Differences between nematode assemblages in the coralline sediment and on coral fragments were attributed to the exposed nature of the latter habitat, its large surface area and its microbial or algal cover. Differences in available food sources were reflected in nematode trophic composition.

  5. Use of Large-Scale Multi-Configuration EMI Measurements to Characterize Subsurface Structures of the Vadose Zone. (United States)

    Huisman, J. A.; Brogi, C.; Pätzold, S.; Weihermueller, L.; von Hebel, C.; Van Der Kruk, J.; Vereecken, H.


    Subsurface structures of the vadose zone can play a key role in crop yield potential, especially during water stress periods. Geophysical techniques like electromagnetic induction EMI can provide information about dominant shallow subsurface features. However, previous studies with EMI have typically not reached beyond the field scale. We used high-resolution large-scale multi-configuration EMI measurements to characterize patterns of soil structural organization (layering and texture) and their impact on crop productivity at the km2 scale. We collected EMI data on an agricultural area of 1 km2 (102 ha) near Selhausen (NRW, Germany). The area consists of 51 agricultural fields cropped in rotation. Therefore, measurements were collected between April and December 2016, preferably within few days after the harvest. EMI data were automatically filtered, temperature corrected, and interpolated onto a common grid of 1 m resolution. Inspecting the ECa maps, we identified three main sub-areas with different subsurface heterogeneity. We also identified small-scale geomorphological structures as well as anthropogenic activities such as soil management and buried drainage networks. To identify areas with similar subsurface structures, we applied image classification techniques. We fused ECa maps obtained with different coil distances in a multiband image and applied supervised and unsupervised classification methodologies. Both showed good results in reconstructing observed patterns in plant productivity and the subsurface structures associated with them. However, the supervised methodology proved more efficient in classifying the whole study area. In a second step, we selected hundred locations within the study area and obtained a soil profile description with type, depth, and thickness of the soil horizons. Using this ground truth data it was possible to assign a typical soil profile to each of the main classes obtained from the classification. The proposed methodology was

  6. Variation of Seismic Velocity Structure around the Mantle Transition Zone and Conjecture of Deep Water Transport by Subducted Slabs (United States)

    Tajima, F. C.; Stahler, S. C.; Ohtani, E.; Yoshida, M.; Sigloch, K.


    Seismic tomography models published in the past two decades determined common long-wavelength features of subducting plates as high velocity anomalies and upwelling plumes as low velocity anomalies, and have led to a new class of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) modeling of global mantle convection with a link to tomography models [e.g., Becker and Boschi, 2002; Ritsema et al., 2007; Schuberth et al., 2009a,b]. However, even such high resolution numerical models do not account for the variation associated with different behaviors of subducting plates as they enter the mantle transition zone (MTZ), i.e., some flatten to form stagnant slabs with a large lateral extent and others descend further into the lower mantle. There are conventional interpretations applied for the cause of variation of the subducted slab behaviors, i.e., temperature difference due to different plate age, different geochemical compositions, different water content and subsequent possible reduction of viscosity etc., which could be taken as non-unique and somewhat equivocal. These parameters and conditions have been tested in two-dimensional numerical simulations, while the water content in the MTZ or the mechanisms of hydration and dehydration through subduction process are still in the realm of conjecture. Recent models of seismic P- and SH-wave velocities derived for the mantle structure beneath northeast China [Wang and Niu, 2010; Ye et al., 2011] using reflectivity synthetics with data from the dense Chinese networks of broadband seismic instruments, show a broader 660 km discontinuity (by about 30 to 70 km) and slower shear velocities above the MTZ than a global standard model iasp91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). These features were interpreted with a mixture of different chemical properties which show delayed phase transformation, and effects of water above the flattened slab. Nonetheless, the SH-wave model has a structure similar to model TNA above the MTZ, which was derived for the

  7. Lithosphere Structure of the Rivera Plate - Jalisco Block Contact Zone: Septentrional Region of the Islas Marías (Mexico) (United States)

    Madrigal-Ávalos, L. A.; Nunez, D.; Escalona-Alcazar, F. D. J.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Danobeitia, J.


    The western margin of Mexico is a tectonic complex region where large earthquakes occurred with very destructive consequences, including the generation of big tsunamis. This fact is mainly the result of the Rivera plate subduction beneath the North American plate and the Jalisco Block implying a high potential seismic risk. In the north, between the Tamayo Fracture Zone and the Mesoamerican Trench, the Islas Marías region is a complex tectonic limit within the interaction of the Rivera plate oceanic crust and the Jalisco Block continental crust. In order to know the shallow and deep structure of the Rivera plate - Jalisco Block contact zone and to be able to determine these potential seismic sources, the TSUJAL geophysical experiment was carried out from 2012 to 2016. As part of this project, we present the results of the processed and analyzed MCS and WAS data along the TS09 and RTSIM01 seismic transects, respectively, across the septentrional region of Islas Marías. These marine seismic lines are coincident with 110 km length for MCS and 240 km for WAS, and perpendicular to the coastline with SW-NE orientation. The seismic sources used in this work aboard RRS James Cook consisted of 12 guns with a total capacity for WAS data of 5800 in3 every 120 s and 3540 in3 every 50 m for MCS data. The MCS data were acquired with a 5.85 km length streamer with a 468 active channels, while the WAS data were recorded by a network of 4 OBS and 27 land seismic stations. After data processing and joint interpretation, it was possible to determine that shallow structure is mainly constituted by normal faults associated to graben structures forming sedimentary basins with non-deformed sediments in the basement. While the deep structure is characterized by depths from 9 to 12 km in the oceanic crust and 18 to 21 km in the continental crust. The deepest layers of the upper mantle were determined up to 35 km depth. In this study, it was possible to calculate a dip angle between 6

  8. Mapping Isobaric Aging onto the Equilibrium Phase Diagram. (United States)

    Niss, Kristine


    The linear volume relaxation and the nonlinear volume aging of a glass-forming liquid are measured, directly compared, and used to extract the out-of-equilibrium relaxation time. This opens a window to investigate how the relaxation time depends on temperature, structure, and volume in parts of phase space that are not accessed by the equilibrium liquid. It is found that the temperature dependence of relaxation time is non-Arrhenius even in the isostructural case-challenging the Adam-Gibbs entropy model. Based on the presented data and the idea that aging happens through quasiequilibrium states, we suggest a mapping of the out-of-equilibrium states during isobaric aging to the equilibrium phase diagram. This mapping implies the existence of isostructural lines in the equilibrium phase diagram. The relaxation time is found to depend on the bath temperature, density, and a just single structural parameter, referred to as an effective temperature.

  9. Strain and displacement in the harts range detachment zone: a structural study of the Bruna Gneiss from the western margin of the Entia Dome, central Australia (United States)

    James, P. R.; Macdonald, P.; Parker, M.


    A detailed structural and strain study has been carried out on the Bruna granitic gneiss and its bounding thrusts from the western margin of the Entia Dome in the eastern Harts Ranges. The zone containing the Bruna Gneiss has been described recently as comprising the Harts Range Detachment Zone (HRDZ), a major low-angle lithospheric detachment along which both major extensional and contractional movements have occurred. The Bruna Gneiss contains a ductile fabric which varies from an augen streaky foliation through a ribbon gneiss to protomylonite and mylonite, in what is predominantly a granitic gneiss. Conformably overlying the Bruna Gneiss is a distinctive dark-coloured megacrystic gneiss layer which intruded independently from the bulk of the Bruna Gneiss and followed a different subsequent strain history. Principal stretch lineations are consistently north plunging or horizontal N-S except where folded. The Bruna Gneiss fabrics are complexly folded about axes in an asymmetric manner which suggests interruption of ductile slip and crumpling of the fabrics followed by continuing slip on other discrete surfaces and shear zones. Strain measurements of elongated feldspars and aggregates indicate moderate to high strains with predominantly plane-strain symmetries. Strain is partitioned into planar parallel zones and suggests dominant heterogeneous simple shear as the main non-coaxial flow mechanism. Flattening strains occur near the bases of two major zones and constrictional strains occur within some zones. A strain integration profile across the detachment zone produces total displacements of only a few kilometres, suggesting that much of the overall indicated displacement is partitioned into the discrete bounding thrusts. Asymmetric augen, pressure shadows and shear bands provide kinematic indicators in the Bruna Gneiss. Most show reverse sense displacement of the overlying Harts Range Cover in a southerly direction over the Entia Gneiss basement. Opposite

  10. Vadose zone microbial community structure and activity in metal/radionuclide contaminated sediments. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkwill, David L.


    This final technical report describes the research carried out during the final two months of the no-cost extension ending 11/14/01. The primary goals of the project were (1) to determine the potential for transformation of Cr(VI) (oxidized, mobile) to Cr(III) (reduced, immobile) under unsaturated conditions as a function of different levels and combinations of (a) chromium, (b) nitrate (co-disposed with Cr), and (c) molasses (inexpensive bioremediation substrate), and (2) to determine population structure and activity in experimental treatments by characterization of the microbial community by signature biomarker analysis and by RT-PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. It was determined early in the one-year no-cost extension period that the T-RFLP approach was problematic in regard to providing information on the identities of microorganisms in the samples examined. As a result, it could not provide the detailed information on microbial community structure that was needed to assess the effects of treatments with chromium, nitrate, and/or molasses. Therefore, we decided to obtain the desired information by amplifying (using TR-PCR, with the same primers used for T-RFLP) and cloning 16S rRNA gene sequences from the same RNA extracts that were used for T-RFLP analysis. We also decided to use a restriction enzyme digest procedure (fingerprinting procedure) to place the clones into types. The primary focus of the research carried out during this report period was twofold: (a) to complete the sequencing of the clones, and (b) to analyze the clone sequences phylogenetically in order to determine the relatedness of the bacteria detected in the samples to each other and to previously described genera and species.

  11. Structural features of silver-doped phosphate glasses in zone of femtosecond laser-induced modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, A.A.; Nazarov, I.A.; Olshin, P.K.; Povolotskiy, A.V.; Sokolov, I.A.; Manshina, A.A.


    Femtosecond (fs) laser writing of two-dimensional microstructures (waveguides) is demonstrated in bulk phosphate glasses doped with silver ions. Silver-content phosphate and silver-content niobium–phosphate glasses with high concentration of silver oxide 55 mol% were used as samples for fs laser writing. The chemical network structure of the synthesized samples is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy and was found to be strongly sensitive to Nb incorporation. It was found that the direct laser writing process enables not only reorganization of glass network, but also formation of color centers and silver nanoparticles that are revealed in appearance of luminescence signal and plasmon absorption. The process of NPs' formation is more efficient for Nb-phosphate glass, while color centers are preferably formed in phosphate glass. - Graphical abstract: Formation of silver NPs on the surface of 0.5Ag 2 O–0.4P 2 O 5 –0,1Nb 2 O 5 glass induced by CW laser irradiation. - Highlights: • The structure of 0.5Ag 2 O–0.1Nb 2 O 5 –0.4P 2 O 5 and 0.55Ag 2 O–0.45P 2 O 5 glasses was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. • Fs laser writing induces formation of silver NPs in investigated glasses. • Surface plasmon resonance in the absorption spectra confirms the formation of NP. • The possibility of CW laser induced formation of silver NPs on the surface of sample with niobium is shown

  12. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun


    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  13. Structural and Geomorphic Controls on Dryland Salinity and Regolith Distribution in the Critical Zone, North-east Tasmania, Australia. (United States)

    Sweeney, M. E.; Moore, C. L.


    Salinity occurs in the drier and flatter Australian landscapes because there is insufficient rain to flush salts from critical zone. Changes in land use due to agriculture and urbanisation can accelerate salinity effects, leading to soil and water degradation and threatening infrastructure and ecosystems. The dominant lithology in the salt affected regions of North-east Tasmania is dolerite. The geochemistry of dolerite regolith has been examined in order to understand the association between salinity and weathered dolerite. The electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-waters is higher in the more weathered material (maximum 4.9 dS/m). This confirms field observations that highly weathered dolerite can serve as a significant store for salt in the landscape. However, the clay content and salinity varies, depending on the local geomorphic context. Dolerite weathering on well-drained slopes has favoured the formation of 1:1 kaolinite clays, and sometimes bauxite formation. Kaolinite-bearing regolith can store salt via matrix diffusion processes. However, there are fault-bounded pockets of colluvium and highly-weathered in situmaterial, where the supply of cations has not been diminished and 2:1 montmorillonite clays dominate. These regions have the capacity to store large volumes of salts. The geomorphology also affects the volume of rain and flux of salt from windblown dust and oceanic aerosols. The chemistry of rainwater from an array of bulk deposition collectors was studied from Spring 2013 to Winter 2014. The average salt flux was 79± 10 kg/ha/yr in the study region, ranging from 170± 12 kg/ha/yr in the north to 42 ± 6 kg/ha/yr inland. To assist in understanding why salt is found in certain parts of the landscape but not in others, it is essential to model how water moves through the critical zone and geological structures. By exploring the complex interactions of geomorphology and other biophysical parameters the study area has been divided into Hydrogeological

  14. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping. (United States)

    Cunningham, Sarah; Guzman, Hector M; Bates, Richard


    The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125 km2 was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot (flat topped seamount), which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76 km2 and is 14.4 km long and 7.1 km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests (elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles), rugose areas (on crests, top of seamount and slope), gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333 m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6 km2 of the bank and sediment 37.8 km2. The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the highest

  15. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cunningham


    Full Text Available The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125km² was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler BTM extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot flat topped seamount, which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76km² and is 14.4km long and 7.1km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles, rugose areas on crests, top of seamount and slope, gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6km² of the bank and sediment 37.8km². The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the

  16. Assessing reactivation of the Pourewa Landslide Zone, Auckland, New Zealand, using Structure-from-Motion, LiDAR, and geophysics (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Liu, Shanshan; Richards, Nick; Bevan, David; Prebble, Warwick


    Landslides pose significant risks to communities and infrastructure particularly in urban areas, and mitigating these risks relies on understanding landslide triggering processes that may cause reactivation. Previous work has shown that landslides are often complex, multiphase processes where gradual deterioration of shear strength within the subsurface precedes slope failure and the appearance of surface morphological features. Here, we combine a suite of remote sensing and direct invasive testing techniques to assess reactivation of the Pourewa Landslide Zone (PLZ), located in Auckland, New Zealand. The PLZ is located on the inner wall of the north-eastern flank of the Orakei volcano, 4 km east of Auckland CBD. The landslide zone occupies slopes above the east bank of the tidal Pourewa Creek, which lies within a residential area. Four landslides are located within the PLZ (from west to east): Ngapipi Road Landslide, Kepa Road Landslide, St Josephs Landslide, and Pourewa Landslide. Inward collapse of the crater walls since the initial eruption (>85 ka) has enlarged the crater to c. 1000 m diameter, with some slopes prone to ongoing mass movements. Indeed, reactivation during the 20th century led to the realignment of Kepa Road, and surface cracking of roads in the vicinity is ongoing. LiDAR imagery was used to develop high resolution geomorphological maps, and this data was compared with more recent Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry, obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The digital surface models and derived cross-sections developed from these data allow both the initial failure, and subsequent reactivations to be assessed in detail. Geophysical surveys included Electromagnetic Induction (EMI), augmented by information relating to lithological, moisture and strength variation with depth, allowing initial interpretation of zones likely to be prone to reactivation. Ongoing slope deformation includes shallow, retrogressive failure on the upper

  17. Structure of the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon and Palos Verdes Fault Zones and Implications for Current Fault Models (United States)

    Sahakian, V. J.; Bormann, J. M.; Klotsko, S.; Holmes, J. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G.; Wesnousky, S. G.


    Faulting in the Inner California Borderlands is complex. In the past, this region has undergone various deformational events such as extensional and rotational deformation to variable strike-slip deformation; this has imparted the geomorphology and fault structures observed offshore Southern California. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the current fault structures and the hazards they pose to populated coastal regions. The geometry and architecture of these structures can have significant implications for ground motions in the event of a rupture, and therefore impact working models of hazard assessment. Here, focusing on the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon (NI/RC) and Palos Verdes (PV) fault zones, we use new and existing multibeam, CHIRP and Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) data to describe the geometry of the fault system. We interpret reprocessed (prestack time migration) MCS data collected in 1979, 1986, and 2006 as well as newly acquired high-res MCS datasets collected offshore San Diego County. Combining these high and intermediate resolution datasets with very high resolution CHIRP data, we define structures that show distinct changes in the style of deformation through time, and place constraints on the segmentation of faults in this system. The timing of the most recent deformation on the NI/RC appears to vary along-strike. Likewise, the NI/RC fault's dip direction and angle appears to vary along-strike, and these changes in dip seem to mark the boundaries of restraining and releasing bends. Additionally, the NI/RC fault appears to die away to the north, possibly partitioning its strain on to the PV fault. We will present interpretations of the faults' current deformational activity as well as likelihood of rupture propagating across releasing/restraining bends, and discuss how this impacts current fault models that are employed for hazard assessment for Los Angeles and San Diego counties.

  18. Spatial relationships between crustal structures and mantle seismicity in the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone of Romania: Implications for geodynamic evolution (United States)

    Enciu, Dana-Mihaela

    Integration of active and passive-source seismic data is employed to study the relationships between crustal structures and seismicity in the SE Carpathian foreland of Romania, and the connection with the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone. Relocated crustal epicenters and focal mechanisms are correlated with industry seismic profiles Comanesti, Ramnicu Sarat, Braila and Buzau, the reprocessed DACIA PLAN profile and the DRACULA (Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity) II and III profiles in order to understand the link between neo-tectonic foreland deformation and Vrancea mantle seismicity. Projection of crustal foreland hypocenters onto deep seismic profiles identified active crustal faults suggesting a mechanical coupling between sedimentary, crustal and upper mantle structures on the Trotus, Sinaia and newly observed Ialomita Faults. Seismic reflection imaging revealed the absence of west dipping reflectors in the crust and an east dipping to horizontal Moho in the proximity of the Vrancea area. These findings argue against both 'subduction-in-place' and 'slab break-off' as viable mechanisms for generating Vrancea mantle seismicity.

  19. A comparative study of the structural organization of spheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone and glioblastoma biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vik-Mo, Einar Osland; Sandberg, Cecilie; Joel, Mrinal; Stangeland, Biljana; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Moe, Morten Carstens; Murrell, Wayne; Langmoen, Iver Arne


    Sphere forming assays have been useful to enrich for stem like cells in a range of tumors. The robustness of this system contrasts the difficulties in defining a stem cell population based on cell surface markers. We have undertaken a study to describe the cellular and organizational composition of tumorspheres, directly comparing these to neurospheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone (SVZ). Primary cell cultures from brain tumors were found to contain variable fractions of cells positive for tumor stem cell markers (CD133 (2-93%)/SSEA1 (3-15%)/CXCR4 (1-72%)). All cultures produced tumors upon xenografting. Tumorspheres contained a heterogeneous population of cells, but were structurally organized with stem cell markers present at the core of spheres, with markers of more mature glial progenitors and astrocytes at more peripheral location. Ultrastructural studies showed that tumorspheres contained a higher fraction of electron dense cells in the core than the periphery (36% and 19%, respectively). Neurospheres also contained a heterogeneous cell population, but did not have an organization similar to tumorspheres. Although tumorspheres clearly display irregular and neoplastic cells, they establish an organized structure with an outward gradient of differentiation. We suggest that this organization is central in maintaining the tumor stem cell pool.

  20. The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Oehr


    Full Text Available We hypothesize a mechanistic model of how negatively-charged exclusion zones (EZs are created. While the growth of EZs is known to be associated with the absorption of ambient photonic energy, the molecular dynamics giving rise to this process need greater elucidation. We believe they arise due to the formation of oxy-subhydride structures (OH−(H2O4 with a tetrahedral (sp3 (OH−(H2O3 core. Five experimental data sets derived by previous researchers were assessed in this regard: (1 water-derived EZ light absorbance at specific infrared wavelengths, (2 EZ negative potential in water and ethanol, (3 maximum EZ light absorbance at 270 nm ultraviolet wavelength, (4 ability of dimethyl sulphoxide but not ether to form an EZ, and (5 transitory nature of melting ice derived EZs. The proposed tetrahedral oxy-subhydride structures (TOSH appear to adequately account for all of the experimental evidence derived from water or other polar solvents.

  1. Fish assemblage structure in the hypoxic zone in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent waters (United States)

    Shan, Xiujuan; Jin, Xianshi; Yuan, Wei


    Fish assemblage structure in the hypoxic zone in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent waters were analyzed based on data from bottom trawl surveys conducted on the R/V Beidou in June, August and October 2006. Four fish assemblages were identified in each survey using two-way indicator species analysis (TWIA). High fish biomass was found in the northern part, central part and coastal waters of the survey area; in contrast, high fish diversity was found in the southern part of the survey area and the Changjiang estuary outer waters. Therefore, it is difficult to maintain high fishery production when high fish diversity is evenly distributed in the fish community. Fish became smaller and fish size spectra tended to be narrower because of fish species variations and differences in growth characteristics. Fish diversity increased, the age to maturity was reduced and some migrant species were not collected in the surveys. Fish with low economic value, small size, simple age structure and low tropic level were predominant in fish assemblages in the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent waters. The lowest hypoxic value decreased in the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent waters.

  2. Phase diagrams of Pr-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, V.N.; Velikanova, T.Ya.; Gordijchuk, O.V.


    Results of the X-ray phase, metallographic and high-temperature differential thermal analysis are used for the first time to plot a diagram of the Pr-C system state. Carbides are formed in the system: Pr 2 C 3 with the bcc-structure of the Pu 2 C 3 type and with the period a 0 = 0.85722+-0.00026 within the phase region + 2 C 3 >, a 0 0.86078+-0.00016 nm - within the region 2 C 3 >+α-PrC 2 ; dimorphous PrC 2 : α-PrC 2 with the bct-structure of the CaC 2 type and periods a 0.38517+-0.00011, c 0 = 0.64337+-0.00019 nm; β-PrC 2 with the fcc-structure, probably, of KCN type. Dicarbide melts congruently at 2320 grad. C, forming eutectics with graphite at 2254+-6 grad. C and composition of 71.5% (at.)C. It is polymorphously transformed in the phase region 2 C 3 > + 2 > at 1145+-4 grad. C, and in the region 2 >+C at 1134+-4 grad. C. Sesquicarbide melts incongruently at 1545+-4 grad. C. The eutectic reaction L ↔ + 2 C 3 > occurs at 800+-4 grad. C, the eutectic composition ∼ 15% (at.)C. The temperature of the eutectoid reaction ↔ + 2 C 3 > is 675+-6 grad C. The limiting carbon solubility in β-Pr is about 8 and in α-Pr it is about 5% (at.)

  3. Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development (United States)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Smith, P. J.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.


    Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

  4. A novel decision diagrams extension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shumin; Si, Shubin; Dui, Hongyan; Cai, Zhiqiang; Sun, Shudong


    Binary decision diagram (BDD) is a graph-based representation of Boolean functions. It is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) based on Shannon's decomposition. Multi-state multi-valued decision diagram (MMDD) is a natural extension of BDD for the symbolic representation and manipulation of the multi-valued logic functions. This paper proposes a decision diagram extension method based on original BDD/MMDD while the scale of a reliability system is extended. Following a discussion of decomposition and physical meaning of BDD and MMDD, the modeling method of BDD/MMDD based on original BDD/MMDD is introduced. Three case studies are implemented to demonstrate the presented methods. Compared with traditional BDD and MMDD generation methods, the decision diagrams extension method is more computationally efficient as shown through the running time

  5. Astrophysics implication of dense matter phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrakian, A.


    I will discuss the ways that astrophysics can help us to understand the phase diagram of dense matter. The examples will include gravitational wave from compact stars, cooling of compact stars, and effects on vorticity on compact star dynamics. (author)

  6. Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF:PMMA


    Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.


    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made by melting, ice quenching, and subsequent annealing above the glass transition temperature of PMMA, close to the melting temperature of PVDF. Addition of PMMA suppresses the crystallizatio...

  7. Enhancing the Diagramming Method in Informal Logic




    The argument diagramming method developed by Monroe C. Beardsley in his (1950) book Practical Logic, which has since become the gold standard for diagramming arguments in informal logic, makes it possible to map the relation between premises and conclusions of a chain of reasoning in relatively complex ways. The method has since been adapted and developed in a number of directions by many contemporary informal logicians and argumentation theorists. It has proved useful in practical applicatio...

  8. The application of diagrams in architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulić Olivera


    Full Text Available Diagrams in architecture represent the visualization of the thinking process, or selective abstraction of concepts or ideas translated into the form of drawings. In addition, they provide insight into the way of thinking about and in architecture, thus creating a balance between the visual and the conceptual. The subject of research presented in this paper are diagrams as a specific kind of architectural representation, and possibilities and importance of their application in the design process. Diagrams are almost old as architecture itself, and they are an element of some of the most important studies of architecture during all periods of history - which results in a large number of different definitions of diagrams, but also very different conceptualizations of their features, functions and applications. The diagrams become part of contemporary architectural discourse during the eighties and nineties of the twentieth century, especially through the work of architects like Bernard Tschumi, Peter Eisenman, Rem Koolhaas, SANAA and others. The use of diagrams in the design process allows unification of some of the essential aspects of the profession: architectural representation and design process, as well as the question of the concept of architectural and urban design at a time of rapid changes at all levels of contemporary society. The aim of the research is the analysis of the diagram as a specific medium for processing large amounts of information that the architect should consider and incorporate into the architectural work. On that basis, it is assumed that an architectural diagram allows the creator the identification and analysis of specific elements or ideas of physical form, thereby constantly maintaining concept of the integrity of the architectural work.

  9. Feynmann diagrams in a finite dimensional setting


    Neiss, Daniel


    This article aims to explain and justify the use of Feynmann diagrams as a computational tool in physics. The integrals discussed may be seen as a toybox version of the real physical case. It starts out with the basic one-dimensional Gaussian integral and then proceeds with examples of multidimensional cases. Correlators and their solutions through generating functions and Wick's theorem are shown, as well as some examples of how to relate the computations to diagrams and the corresponding ru...

  10. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley


    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  11. Beyond Feynman Diagrams (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    For decades the central theoretical tool for computing scattering amplitudes has been the Feynman diagram. However, Feynman diagrams are just too slow, even on fast computers, to be able to go beyond the leading order in QCD, for complicated events with many jets of hadrons in the final state. Such events are produced copiously at the LHC, and constitute formidable backgrounds to many searches for new physics. Over the past few years, alternative methods that go beyond ...

  12. Size really does matter: effects of filter fractionation on microbial community structure in a model oxygen minimum zone. (United States)

    Torres Beltran, M.


    The Scientific Committee on Oceanographic Research (SCOR) Working Group 144 "Microbial Community Responses to Ocean Deoxygenation" workshop held in Vancouver, British Columbia in July 2014 had the primary objective of kick-starting the establishment of a minimal core of technologies, techniques and standard operating procedures (SOPs) to enable compatible process rate and multi-molecular data (DNA, RNA and protein) collection in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and other oxygen starved waters. Experimental activities conducted in Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on Vancouver Island British Columbia, were designed to compare and cross-calibrate in situ sampling devices (McLane PPS system) with conventional bottle sampling and incubation methods. Bottle effects on microbial community composition, and activity were tested using different filter combinations and sample volumes to compare PPS/IPS (0.4 µm) versus Sterivex (0.22 µm) filtration methods with and without prefilters (2.7 µm). Resulting biomass was processed for small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing across all three domains of life on the 454 platform followed by downstream community structure analyses. Significant community shifts occurred within and between filter fractions for in situ versus on-ship processed samples. For instance, the relative abundance of several bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Delta and Gammaproteobacteria decreased five-fold on-ship when compared to in situ filtration. Similarly, experimental mesocosms showed similar community structure and activity to in situ filtered samples indicating the need to cross-calibrate incubations to constrain bottle effects. In addition, alpha and beta diversity significantly changed as function of filter size and volume, as well as the operational taxonomic units identified using indicator species analysis for each filter size. Our results provide statistical support that microbial community structure is systematically biased

  13. Crustal Structure Across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Initial Results From the PRIDE-SEISORZ Active-Source Seismic Profile (United States)

    Canales, J. P.; Moffat, L.; Lizarralde, D.; Laletsang, K.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Modisi, M.


    The PRIDE project aims to understand the processes of continental rift initiation and evolution by analyzing along-axis trends in the southern portion of the East Africa Rift System, from Botswana through Zambia and Malawi. The SEISORZ active-source seismic component of PRIDE focused on the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana, with the main goal of imaging the crustal structure across the ORZ. This will allow us to estimate total crustal extension, determine the pattern and amount of thinning, assess the possible presence of melt within the rift zone, and assess the contrasts in crustal blocks across the rift, which closely follows the trend of a fold belt. In November 2014 we conducted a crustal-scale, 450-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile consisting of 19 sources (shots in 30-m-deep boreholes) spaced ~25 km apart from each other, and 900 receivers (IRIS/PASSCAL "Texan" dataloggers and 4.5Hz geophones) with ~500 m spacing. From NW to SE, the profile crosses several tectonic domains: the Congo craton, the Damara metamorphic belt and the Ghanzi-Chobe fold belt where the axis of the ORZ is located, and continues into the Kalahari craton. The record sections display clear crustal refraction (Pg) and wide-angle Moho reflection (PmP) phases for all 17 of the good-quality shots, and a mantle refraction arrival (Pn), with the Pg-PmP-Pn triplication appearing at 175 km offset. There are distinct changes in the traveltime and amplitude of these phases along the transect, and on either side of the axis, that seem to correlate with sharp transitions across tectonic terrains. Initial modeling suggests: (1) the presence of a sedimentary half-graben structure at the rift axis beneath the Okavango delta, bounded to the SE by the Kunyere-Thamalakane fault system; (2) faster crustal Vp in the domains to the NW of the ORZ; and (3) thicker crust (45-50 km) at both ends of the profile within the Congo and Kalahari craton domains than at the ORZ and

  14. Variability in Rock Thermal Properties in the Late Archean Crust of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone and Implications for its Thermal Structure and Metamorphic History. (United States)

    Merriman, J. D.; Whittington, A. G.; Hofmeister, A. M.


    The thermal properties of rocks such as internal heat production and thermal diffusivity (α) play a key role in determining the thermal structure of the lithosphere, and consequently, the rates and styles of metamorphism within the crust. Over the last decade, measurements of α using the method laser flash analysis have shown the ability of a rock to conduct heat can vary by as much as a factor of 5 between common rock types, and decrease by up to a factor of 10 for the same rock between 25-1000°C. Here we present a preliminary model for the variability in rock throughout the crust based on measurements of the α of a suite of 100 samples from late Archean crust exposed in and around the Kapuskasing Structural Zone in Ontario, Canada. Preliminary results suggest that α is controlled primarily by mineralogy, and can vary not only between different rock types as described above, but also within the same rock by a factor of 1.5 (or more). Thermal diffusivity results were combined with heat producing element concentrations measured with ICP-MS to create a thermal model of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone prior its uplift and exposure. To provide additional constraints for P-T conditions within the pre-uplift KSZ crust, a combination of trace-element and pseudosection thermobarometry was used to estimate metamorphic temperatures during an extended period of crustal stability at the end of the Archean. Preliminary results were compared to finite-difference numerical models of the steady-state geothermal gradient using heat production back-calculated to 2.6 Ga. Results suggest a minimum thickness of the continental lithosphere during the late Archean of at least 150 km. To test the response of the crust to the effects of large thermal events such as pluton emplacement, we also performed time-dependent models of the thermal structure of the pre-uplift KSZ crust. These models suggest that heat from thermal events in the upper and middle crust result in a more insulating

  15. U-Pb age of zircons from rocks of Keret granite-greenstone system in the junction zone of Karelian and Belomorian structure of the Baltic Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Slabunov, A.I.; Kirnozova, T.I.; Makarov, V.A.; Kevlich, V.I.


    The U-Pb isotope analyses on accessory zircons from the three rock samples, reflecting various stages of the evolution structure, are carried out with the purpose of determining the time of the green-stone system formation and its tectonic-thermal retreatment in the junction zone of the Karelian granite-greenstone area and Belomorian traversing belt

  16. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers


    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  17. An integrated approach to the seismic activity and structure of the central Lesser Antilles subduction megathrust seismogenic zone (United States)

    Hirn, Alfred; Laigle, Mireille; Charvis, Philippe; Flueh, Ernst; Gallart, Josep; Kissling, Edi; Lebrun, Jean-Frederic; Nicolich, Rinaldo; Sachpazi, Maria


    In order to increase the understanding of plate boundaries that show currently low seismic activity, as was the Sumatra-Andaman subduction before the major earthquake in 2004, a cluster of surveys and cruises has been carried out in 2007 and coordinated under the European Union THALES WAS RIGHT project on the Lesser Antilles subduction zone of the Carribean-America plate boundary. A segment of the corresponding transform boundary just tragically ruptured in the 2010 January 12, Haïti earthquake. This cluster is composed by the German cruise TRAIL with the vessel F/S M. A. MERIAN, the French cruise SISMANTILLES II with the IFREMER vessel N/O ATALANTE), and French cruise OBSANTILLES with the IRD vessel N/O ANTEA. During these cruises and surveys, 80 OBS, Ocean Bottom Seismometers, 64 of which with 3-components seismometers and hydrophones, and 20 OBH with hydrophones have been brought together from several pools (Geoazur Nice, INSU/IPGP Paris, IfM-GEOMAR Kiel, AWI Bremerhaven), with up to 30 land stations (CSIC Barcelona, IPG Paris, INSU-RLBM and -Lithoscope, ETH Zurich). The deployment of all these instruments has been supported principally in addition by ANR Catastrophes Telluriques et Tsunamis (SUBSISMANTI), by the EU SALVADOR Programme of IFM-GEOMAR, as well as by the EU project THALES WAS RIGHT. The main goal of this large seismic investigation effort is the understanding of the behaviour of the seismogenic zone and location of potential source regions of mega-thrust earthquakes. Specific goals are the mapping of the subduction interplate in the range where it may be seismogenic along the Lesser Antilles Arc from Antigua to Martinique Islands, as a contribution to identification and localisation in advance of main rupture zones of possible future major earthquakes, and to the search for transient signals of the activity. The forearc region, commonly considered as a proxy to the seismogenic portion of the subduction mega-thrust fault plane, and which is here the

  18. Impact of fuel composition on the recirculation zone structure and its role in lean premixed flame anchoring

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck


    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. We investigate the dependence of the recirculation zone (RZ) size and structure on the fuel composition using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and chemiluminescence measurements for C3H8/H2/air lean premixed flames stabilized in a backward-facing step combustor. Results show an intricate coupling between the flame anchoring and the RZ structure and length. For a fixed fuel composition, at relatively low equivalence ratios, the time-averaged RZ is comprised of two counter rotating eddies: a primary eddy (PE) between the shear layer and the bottom wall; and a secondary eddy (SE) between the vertical step wall and the PE. The flame stabilizes downstream of the saddle point of the dividing streamline between the two eddies. As equivalence ratio is raised, the flame moves upstream, pushing the saddle point with it and reducing the size of the SE. Higher temperature of the products reduces the velocity gradient in the shear layer and thus the reattachment length. As equivalence ratio approaches a critical value, the saddle point reaches the step and the SE collapses while the flame starts to exhibit periodic flapping motions, suggesting a correlation between the RZ structure and flame anchoring. The overall trend in the flow field is the same as we add hydrogen to the fuel at a fixed equivalence ratio, demonstrating the impact of fuel composition on the flow field. We show that the reattachment lengths (LR), which are shown to encapsulate the mean RZ structure, measured over a range of fuel composition and equivalence ratio collapse if plotted against the strained consumption speed (Sc). Results indicate that for the flame to remain anchored, the RZ structure should satisfy lR,isothermal/L R,reacting · S c/U ∞ ∼ 0.1. If this criterion cannot be met, the flame blows off, flashes back or becomes thermoacoustically unstable, suggesting a Damköhler-like criterion for

  19. Structure-Property-Fracture Mechanism Correlation in Heat-Affected Zone of X100 Ferrite-Bainite Pipeline Steel (United States)

    Li, Xueda; Ma, Xiaoping; Subramanian, S. V.; Misra, R. D. K.; Shang, Chengjia


    Structural performance of a weld joint primarily depends on the microstructural characteristics of heat-affected zone (HAZ). In this regard, the HAZ in X100 ferrite-bainite pipeline steel was studied by separating the HAZ into intercritically reheated coarse-grained (ICCG) HAZ containing and non-containing regions. These two regions were individually evaluated for Charpy impact toughness and characterized by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). Low toughness of ~50 J was obtained when the notch of impact specimen encountered ICCGHAZ and high toughness of ~180 J when the notch did not contain ICCGHAZ. Fracture surface was ~60 pct brittle in the absence of ICCGHAZ, and 95 pct brittle (excluding shear lip) in the presence of ICCGHAZ in the impact tested samples. The underlying reason is the microstructure of ICCGHAZ consisted of granular bainite and upper bainite with necklace-type martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent along grain boundaries. The presence of necklace-type M-A constituent notably increases the susceptibility of cleavage microcrack nucleation. ICCGHAZ was found to be both the initiation site of the whole fracture and cleavage facet initiation site during brittle fracture propagation stage. Furthermore, the study of secondary microcracks beneath CGHAZ and ICCGHAZ through EBSD suggested that the fracture mechanism changes from nucleation-controlled in CGHAZ to propagation-controlled in ICCGHAZ because of the presence of necklace-type M-A constituent in ICCGHAZ. Both fracture mechanisms contribute to the poor toughness of the sample contained ICCGHAZ.

  20. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties of ferrimagnetic quantum paraelectric BaFe12O19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Cao


    Full Text Available High quality single crystals of BaFe12O19 were grown using the floating zone technique in 100 atm of flowing oxygen. Single crystal neutron diffraction was used to determine the nuclear and magnetic structures of BaFe12O19 at 4 K and 295 K. At both temperatures, there exist local electric dipoles formed by the off-mirror-plane displacements of magnetic Fe3+ ions at the bipyramidal sites. The displacement at 4 K is about half of that at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the specific heat shows no anomaly associated with long range polar ordering in the temperature range from 1.90 to 300 K. The inverse dielectric permittivity, 1/ε, along the c-axis shows a T2 temperature dependence between 10 K and 20 K, with a significantly reduced temperature dependence displayed below 10 K. Moreover, as the sample is cooled below 1.4 K there is an anomalous sharp upturn in 1/ε. These features resemble those of classic quantum paraelectrics such as SrTiO3. The presence of the upturn in 1/ε indicates that BaFe12O19 is a critical quantum paraelectric system with Fe3+ ions involved in both magnetic and electric dipole formation.

  1. Towards an estimation of water masses formation areas from SMOS-based TS diagrams (United States)

    Klockmann, Marlene; Sabia, Roberto; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig; Font, Jordi


    density flux (i.e., the change in density induced by surface heat and freshwater fluxes) is computed, characterizing how the buoyancy of a water parcel is being transformed, by increasing or decreasing its density. Afterwards, integrating over a certain time/space and deriving with respect to density, the formation (in Sv) of water masses themselves can be computed, pinpointing the range of SST and SSS in the TS diagrams where a specific water mass is formed. A geographical representation of these points, ultimately, allows to provide a relevant temporal series of the spatial extent of the water masses formation areas (in the specific test zones chosen). This can be then extended over challenging ocean regions, also evaluating the sensitivity of the performances to the datasets used. With this approach, known water masses can be identified and their formation traced in time and space. Longer time series will give further insights by helping to identify inter-annual water mass formation variability and trends in the TS/geographical domains. Future work aims at exploring additional datasets and at connecting the surface information to the vertical structure and to buoyancy-driven ocean circulation processes. References [1] Sabia, R., J. Ballabrera, G. Lagerloef, E. Bayler, M. Talone, Y. Chao, C. Donlon, D. Fernández-Prieto, J. Font, "Derivation of an Experimental Satellite-based T-S Diagram", In Proceedings of IGARSS '12 , Munich, Germany, pp. 5760-5763, 2012. [2] Font, J., A. Camps, A. Borges, M. Martín-Neira, J. Boutin, N. Reul, Y. H. Kerr, A. Hahne, and S. Mecklenburg, "SMOS: The challenging sea surface salinity measurement from space," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 98, pp. 649-665, 2010. [3] Le Vine, D.M.; Lagerloef, G.S.E.; Torrusio, S.E.; "Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space," Proceedings of the IEEE , vol.98, no.5, pp.688-703, May 2010, doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2040550. [4] Sabia, R., M. Klockmann, D. Fernández-Prieto, C. Donlon, E

  2. Joint inversion of ambient noise surface wave and gravity data to image the upper crustal structure of the Tanlu fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, China (United States)

    Wang, K.; Gu, N.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, G.


    The Tanlu fault is a major fault located in the eastern China, which stretches 2400 km long from Tancheng in the north to Lujiang in the south. It is generally believed that the Tanlu fault zone was formed in Proterozoic era and underwent a series of complicated processes since then. To understand the upper crustal structure around the southern segment of the Tanlu fault zone, in 2017 we deployed 53 short period seismic stations around the fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, capital city of Anhui province. The temporary array continuously recorded the data for about one month from 17 March to 26 April 2017. The seismic array spans an area of about 30km x 30Km with an average station spacing of about 5-6km. The vertical component data were used for extracting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion data for the period of 0.2 to 5 seconds. To improve imaging the upper crustal structure of the fault zone, we jointly inverted the surface wave dispersion data and the gravity data because they have complementary strengths. To combine surface wave dispersion data and gravity observations into a single inversion framework, we used an empirical relationship between seismic velocity and density of Maceira and Ammon (2009). By finding the optimal relative weighting between two data types, we are able to find a shear wave velocity (Vs) model that fits both data types. The joint inversion can resolve the upper crustal fault zone structure down to about 7 km in depth. The Vs model shows that in this region the Tanlu fault is associated with high velocity anomalies, corresponding well to the Feidong complex seen on the surface. This indicates that the Tanlu fault zone may provide a channel for the intrusion of hot materials.

  3. Comparative mapping of soil physical-chemical and structural parameters at field scale to identify zones of enhanced leaching risk. (United States)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Olsen, Preben; Vendelboe, Anders L; Iversen, Bo V; Greve, Mogens H; Kjaer, Jeanne; de Jonge, Lis W


    Preferential flow and particle-facilitated transport through macropores contributes significantly to the transport of strongly sorbing substances such as pesticides and phosphorus. The aim of this study was to perform a field-scale characterization of basic soil physical properties like clay and organic carbon content and investigate whether it was possible to relate these to derived structural parameters such as bulk density and conservative tracer parameters and to actual particle and phosphorus leaching patterns obtained from laboratory leaching experiments. Sixty-five cylindrical soil columns of 20-cm height and 20-cm diameter and bulk soil were sampled from the topsoil in a 15-m × 15-m grid in an agricultural loamy field. Highest clay contents and highest bulk densities were found in the northern part of the field. Leaching experiments with a conservative tracer showed fast 5% tracer arrival times and high tracer recovery percentages from columns sampled from the northern part of the field, and the leached mass of particles and particulate phosphorus was also largest from this area. Strong correlations were obtained between 5% tracer arrival time, tracer recovery, and bulk density, indicating that a few well-aligned and better connected macropores might change the hydraulic conductivity between the macropores and the soil matrix, triggering an onset of preferential flow at lower rain intensities compared with less compacted soil. Overall, a comparison mapping of basic and structural characteristics including soil texture, bulk density, dissolved tracer, particle and phosphorus transport parameters identified the northern one-third of the field as a zone with higher leaching risk. This risk assessment based on parameter mapping from measurements on intact samples was in good agreement with 9 yr of pesticide detections in two horizontal wells and with particle and phosphorus leaching patterns from a distributed, shallow drainage pipe system across the field

  4. Geophysical perspective on the structural interference zone along the Neoproterozoic Brasília and Ribeira fold belts in West Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Motta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Brasília and Ribeira fold belts have been established in south-southwestern São Francisco Craton during the Brasiliano-Pan African orogeny (0.9-0.5 Ga - Tonian to Cambrian, and played an important role in West Gondwana continent assembly. The region is given by a complex regional fold and thrust belt superposed by shearing during the orogeny late times, with superposing stress fields forming a structural interference zone. These thrust sheets encompasses assemblies from lower- to upper-crust from different major tectonic blocks (Paranapanema, São Francisco, and newly created metamorphic rocks. Re-evaluation of ground gravity datasets in a geologically constrained approach including seismology (CRUST1 model and magnetic data (EMAG2 model unveiled details on the deep- crust settings, and the overall geometry of the structural interference zone. The Simple Bouguer Anomaly map shows heterogeneous density distribution in the area, highlighting the presence of high-density, high metamorphic grade rocks along the Alterosa suture zone in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, lying amid a series of metasedimentary thrust scales in a regional nappe system with important verticalization along regional shear zones. Forward gravity modeling favors interpretations of structural interference up North into Guaxupé Nappe. Comparison to geotectonic models shows similarities with modern accretionary belts, renewing the discussion.

  5. Project of neural network for steel grade selection with the assumed CCT diagram


    S. Malara; L.A. Dobrzański; J. Trzaska


    Purpose: The aim of this paper was developing a project of neural network for selection of steel grade with the specified CCT diagramstructure and of harness after heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The goal has been achieved in the following stages: at the first stage characteristic points of CCT diagram have been determined. At the second stage neural network has been developed and optimized.Findings: The neural network was developed in this paper, that allowed selection of stee...

  6. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James


    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  7. Structural analysis of the Gachsar sub-zone in central Alborz range; constrain for inversion tectonics followed by the range transverse faulting (United States)

    Yassaghi, A.; Naeimi, A.


    Analysis of the Gachsar structural sub-zone has been carried out to constrain structural evolution of the central Alborz range situated in the central Alpine Himalayan orogenic system. The sub-zone bounded by the northward-dipping Kandovan Fault to the north and the southward-dipping Taleghan Fault to the south is transversely cut by several sinistral faults. The Kandovan Fault that controls development of the Eocene rocks in its footwall from the Paleozoic-Mesozoic units in the fault hanging wall is interpreted as an inverted basin-bounding fault. Structural evidences include the presence of a thin-skinned imbricate thrust system propagated from a detachment zone that acts as a footwall shortcut thrust, development of large synclines in the fault footwall as well as back thrusts and pop-up structures on the fault hanging wall. Kinematics of the inverted Kandovan Fault and its accompanying structures constrain the N-S shortening direction proposed for the Alborz range until Late Miocene. The transverse sinistral faults that are in acute angle of 15° to a major magnetic lineament, which represents a basement fault, are interpreted to develop as synthetic Riedel shears on the cover sequences during reactivation of the basement fault. This overprinting of the transverse faults on the earlier inverted extensional fault occurs since the Late Miocene when the south Caspian basin block attained a SSW movement relative to the central Iran. Therefore, recent deformation in the range is a result of the basement transverse-fault reactivation.

  8. Imaging San Jacinto Fault damage zone structure using dense linear arrays: application of ambient noise tomography, Rayleigh wave ellipticity, and site amplification (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, F. C.; Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.


    The San Jacinto fault is presently the most seismically active component of the San Andreas Transform system in Southern California. To study the damage zone structure, two dense linear geophone arrays (BS and RR) were deployed across the Clark segment of the San Jacinto Fault between Anza and Hemet during winter 2015 and Fall 2016, respectively. Both arrays were 2 km long with 20 m station spacing. Month-long three-component ambient seismic noise data were recorded and used to calculate multi-channel cross-correlation functions. All three-component noise records of each array were normalized simultaneously to retain relative amplitude information between different stations and different components. We observed clear Rayleigh waves and Love waves on the cross-correlations of both arrays at 0.3 - 1 s period. The phase travel times of the Rayleigh waves on both arrays were measured by frequency-time analysis (FTAN), and inverted for Rayleigh wave phase velocity profiles of the upper 500 m depth. For both arrays, we observe prominent asymmetric low velocity zones which narrow with depth. At the BS array near the Hemet Stepover, an approximately 250m wide slow zone is observed to be offset by 75m to the northeast of the surface fault trace. At the RR array near the Anza segment of the fault, a similar low velocity zone width and offset are observed, along with a 10% across-fault velocity contrast. Analyses of Rayleigh wave ellipticity (H/V ratio), Love wave phase travel times, and site amplification are in progress. By using multiple measurements from ambient noise cross-correlations, we can obtain strong constraints on the local damage zone structure of the San Jacinto Fault. The results contribute to improved understanding of rupture directivity, maximum earthquake magnitude and more generally seismic hazard associated with the San Jacinto fault zone.

  9. Model FORC diagrams for hybrid magnetic elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaganov, M.V.; Linke, J.; Odenbach, S.; Raikher, Yu.L.


    We propose a model of hybrid magnetic elastomers filled with a mixture of magnetically soft and magnetically hard microparticles. The magnetically hard particles are described by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, the magnetically soft phase obeys the Fröhlich–Kennelly equation. The interaction between the two types of particles is described by the mean-field approach. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams were calculated for different values of the elastomer matrix elasticity. We demonstrate that the diagrams display specific new features, which identify the presence of both a deformable matrix and the two types of magnetic particles. - Highlights: • A model of hybrid magnetic elastomers is proposed. • The magnetically hard particles are described by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. • The magnetically soft phase obeys the Fröhlich–Kennelly equation. The interaction between the phases is described by the mean-field approach. • FORC diagrams are calculated for different values of the elastomer matrix elasticity.

  10. Tadpole diagrams in constant electromagnetic fields (United States)

    Karbstein, Felix


    We show how all possible one-particle reducible tadpole diagrams in constant electromagnetic fields can be constructed from one-particle irreducible constant-field diagrams. The construction procedure is essentially algebraic and involves differentiations of the latter class of diagrams with respect to the field strength tensor and contractions with derivatives of the one-particle irreducible part of the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian in constant fields. Specific examples include the two-loop addendum to the Heisenberg-Euler effective action as well as a novel one-loop correction to the charged particle propagator in constant electromagnetic fields discovered recently. As an additional example, the approach devised in the present article is adopted to derive the tadpole contribution to the two-loop photon polarization tensor in constant fields for the first time.

  11. A Logarithmic-Amplitude Polar Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Andresen


    Full Text Available A polar diagram where the amplitude of the transfer function is on a logarithmic scale, is presented. This gives a one-size-fits-all diagram with no need for zooming in and out, and no need for additional reasoning about infinite-radius encirclements when there are poles on the imaginary axis - as opposed to what is usually neccessary with the standard polar (Nyquist- diagram. All properties needed for stability considerations are upheld, such as encirclements, gain and phase margins. The path for s in the loop transfer function is carefully chosen with regard to possible poles on the imaginary axis. Small excursions into the right half plane in the form of arcs of different-sized logarithmic spirals result in corresponding large but finite arcs that do not overlap in the logarithmic polar plots.

  12. MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zheng; Pu, Geguang; Li, Jianwen


    systems are widely used in the above-mentioned safety-critical embedded domains, there is lack of domain-specific formal modelling languages for such systems in the relevant industry. To address this problem, we propose a formal visual modeling framework called mode diagram as a concise and precise way...... to specify and analyze such systems. To capture the temporal properties of periodic control systems, we provide, along with mode diagram, a property specification language based on interval logic for the description of concrete temporal requirements the engineers are concerned with. The statistical model...... checking technique can then be used to verify the mode diagram models against desired properties. To demonstrate the viability of our approach, we have applied our modelling framework to some real life case studies from industry and helped detect two design defects for some spacecraft control systems....

  13. Bifurcation Diagrams and Heteroclinic Networks of Octagonal H-Planforms (United States)

    Faye, Grégory; Chossat, Pascal


    This paper completes the classification of bifurcation diagrams for H-planforms in the Poincaré disc {D} whose fundamental domain is a regular octagon. An H-planform is a steady solution of a PDE or integro-differential equation in {D}, which is invariant under the action of a lattice subgroup Γ of U(1,1), the group of isometries of {{D}}. In our case Γ generates a tiling of {D} with regular octagons. This problem was introduced as an example of spontaneous pattern formation in a model of image feature detection by the visual cortex where the features are assumed to be represented in the space of structure tensors. Under `generic' assumptions the bifurcation problem reduces to an ODE which is invariant by an irreducible representation of the group of automorphisms {G} of the compact Riemann surface {D}/\\varGamma . The irreducible representations of {G} have dimensions one, two, three and four. The bifurcation diagrams for the representations of dimensions less than four have already been described and correspond to well-known group actions. In the present work we compute the bifurcation diagrams for the remaining three irreducible representations of dimension four, thus completing the classification. In one of these cases, there is generic bifurcation of a heteroclinic network connecting equilibria with two different orbit types.

  14. Cuprate phase diagram and the influence of nanoscale inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, N.; Yang, H. -B.; Rameau, J. D.; Johnson, P. D.; Claus, H.; Hinks, D. G.


    The phase diagram associated with high-Tc superconductors is complicated by an array of different ground states. The parent material represents an antiferromagnetic insulator but with doping superconductivity becomes possible with transition temperatures previously thought unattainable. The underdoped region of the phase diagram is dominated by the so-called pseudogap phenomena, whereby in the normal state the system mimics superconductivity in its spectral response but does not show the complete loss of resistivity associated with the superconducting state. An understanding of this regime presents one of the great challenges for the field. In the present study we revisit the structure of the phase diagram as determined in photoemission studies. By careful analysis of the role of nanoscale inhomogeneities in the overdoped region, we are able to more carefully separate out the gaps due to the pseudogap phenomena from the gaps due to the superconducting transition. Within a mean-field description, we are thus able to link the magnitude of the doping-dependent pseudogap directly to the Heisenberg exchange interaction term, J Sigma s(i)s(j), contained in the t - J model. This approach provides a clear indication that the pseudogap is associated with spin singlet formation.

  15. ZrC zone structure and features of electronic structure of solid solutions on the base ZrC, ZrN, TiC and TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhracheva, L.P.; Gel'd, P.V.; Tskhaj, V.A.


    The results of ZrC zone structure calculation conducted using the strong bond method in the three-centre variant are given. Essentially higher degree of M-C chemical bond ionicity than in TiC is shown to take place for it. Solid solution formation in TiC-ZrC, TiN-ZrC and ZrC-ZrN systems differing from TiC-TiN, TiN-ZrN and TiC-TiN is stated to be followed by essential deformation of component zone structures that, obviously, should prevent formation of solid solutions without vacancies in sublatices in these systems

  16. Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.


    , the parameter range in which it is possible to achieve a given task (e.g. O-mode current drive for stabilizing a neoclassical tearing mode) appears as a region. With also the Greenwald density limit shown, this diagram condenses the information on operational possibilities, facilitating the overview required...... at the design phase. At the operations phase it may also prove useful in setting up experimental scenarios by showing operational possibilities, avoiding the need for survey type ray-tracing at the initial planning stages. The diagram may also serve the purpose of communicating operational possibilities to non...

  17. Computer generated timing diagrams to supplement simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, A W


    The ISPS computer description language has been used in a simulation study to specify the components of a high speed data acquisition system and its protocols. A facility has been developed for automatically generating timing diagrams from the specification of the data acquisition system written in the ISPS description language. Diagrams can be generated for both normal and abnormal working modes of the system. They are particularly useful for design and debugging in the prototyping stage of a project and can be later used for reference by maintenance engineers. (11 refs).

  18. State diagram of Pr-Bi system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulkhaev, V.L.; Ganiev, I.N.


    By means of thermal differential analysis, X-ray and microstructural analysis the state diagram of Pr-Bi system was studied. Following intermetallic compounds were defined in the system: Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 , Pr Bi, PrBi 2 , Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 and PrBi 2 . The data analysis on Ln-Bi diagram allowed to determine the regularity of change of properties of intermetallic compounds in the line of rare earth elements of cerium subgroup.

  19. Cytotype distribution patterns, ecological differentiation, and genetic structure in a diploid-tetraploid contact zone of Cardamine amara

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zozomová-Lihová, J.; Malánová-Krásná, I.; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Senko, D.; Svitok, M.; Kempa, M.; Marhold, K.


    Roč. 102, č. 8 (2015), s. 1380-1395 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : contact zone * cytotype coexistence * microsatelites Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2015

  20. Thermal Structure of the Cascadia Subduction Zone on the Washington Margin (AT26-04, EM122) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We propose to conduct a comprehensive study of the thermal environment of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) within the NSF GeoPRISM Corridor off the Washington...

  1. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, E-mail: [Graduate Research on Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT), Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia); Hananto, Nugroho D.; Handayani, Lina [Research Centre for Geotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Sangkuriang (Kompleks LIPI) Bandung 40135 (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi [Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering ITB, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Anggono, Titi [Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia)


    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  2. Early Paleozoic tectonic reactivation of the Shaoxing-Jiangshan fault zone: Structural and geochronological constraints from the Chencai domain, South China (United States)

    Sun, Hanshen; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Xin, Yujia; Yu, Yingqi


    The Shaoxing-Jiangshan fault zone (SJFZ), as a fundamental Neoproterozoic block boundary that separates the Yangtze Block from the Cathaysia Block, is the key to understanding the evolution of South China from Neoproterozoic block amalgamation to early Paleozoic crustal reworking. New structural observations coupled with geochronological ages from the Chencai domain indicate that intense ductile deformation and metamorphism along the SJFZ occurred at ∼460-420 Ma, in response to the early Paleozoic orogeny in South China. To the east of the SJFZ, the deformation involves widespread generations of NE-striking foliation, intrafolial folds, and local development of sinistral-oblique shear zones. The shearing deformation occurred under amphibolite facies conditions at temperatures of >550 °C (locally even >650 °C). To the west of the SJFZ, the deformation corresponds to sinistral-oblique shearing along NE-striking, steep-dipping zones under greenschist facies conditions at temperatures of 400-500 °C. These deformation styles, as typical mid-crustal expressions of continental reworking, reflect tectonic reactivation of the pre-existing, deeply rooted Neoproterozoic block boundary in the early Paleozoic. We infer that the tectonic reactivation, possibly induced by oblique underthrusting of north Cathaysia, facilitated ductile shearing and burial metamorphic reactions, giving rise to the high-strain zones and high-grade metamorphic rocks. With respect to pre-existing mechanical weakness, our work highlights the role of tectonic reactivation of early structures in localizing later deformation before it propagates into yet undeformed domains.

  3. Imaging the deep structures of the convergent plates along the Ecuadorian subduction zone through receiver function analysis (United States)

    Galve, A.; Charvis, P.; Regnier, M. M.; Font, Y.; Nocquet, J. M.; Segovia, M.


    The Ecuadorian subduction zone was affected by several large M>7.5 earthquakes. While we have low resolution on the 1942, 1958 earthquakes rupture zones extension, the 2016 Pedernales earthquake, that occurs at the same location than the 1942 earthquake, give strong constraints on the deep limit of the seismogenic zone. This downdip limit is caused by the onset of plasticity at a critical temperature (> 350-450 °C for crustal materials, or serpentinized mantle wedge, and eventually > 700 °C for dry mantle). However we still don't know exactly where is the upper plate Moho and therefore what controls the downdip limit of Ecuadorian large earthquakes seismogenic zone. For several years Géoazur and IG-EPN have maintained permanent and temporary networks (ADN and JUAN projects) along the margin to register the subduction zone seismological activity. Although Ecuador is not a good place to perform receiver function due to its position with respect to the worldwide teleseismic sources, the very long time deployment compensate this issue. We performed a frequency dependent receiver function analysis to derive (1) the thickness of the downgoing plate, (2) the interplate depth and (3) the upper plate Moho. These constraints give the frame to interpretation on the seismogenic zone of the 2016 Pedernales earthquake.

  4. Internal structure of the San Jacinto fault zone in the trifurcation area southeast of Anza, California, from data of dense seismic arrays (United States)

    Qin, L.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Qiu, H.; Share, P.-E.; Ross, Z. E.; Vernon, F. L.


    We image the internal structure of the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ) in the trifurcation area southeast of Anza, California, with seismic records from dense linear and rectangular arrays. The examined data include recordings from more than 20 000 local earthquakes and nine teleseismic events. Automatic detection algorithms and visual inspection are used to identify P and S body waves, along with P- and S-types fault zone trapped waves (FZTW). The location at depth of the main branch of the SJFZ, the Clark fault, is identified from systematic waveform changes across lines of sensors within the dense rectangular array. Delay times of P arrivals from teleseismic and local events indicate damage asymmetry across the fault, with higher damage to the NE, producing a local reversal of the velocity contrast in the shallow crust with respect to the large-scale structure. A portion of the damage zone between the main fault and a second mapped surface trace to the NE generates P- and S-types FZTW. Inversions of high-quality S-type FZTW indicate that the most likely parameters of the trapping structure are width of ˜70 m, S-wave velocity reduction of 60 per cent, Q value of 60 and depth of ˜2 km. The local reversal of the shallow velocity contrast across the fault with respect to large-scale structure is consistent with preferred propagation of earthquake ruptures in the area to the NW.

  5. Crustal structure, heat flux and mass transfer within a continental back-arc basin: Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Stern, T. A.; Benson, A.; Greve, A.


    New seismic crustal structure data combined with gravity analysis provide constraints on mass and heat transfer processes in a continental back-arc basin. A recent high resolution seismic refraction, wide-angle experiment across the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, shows the lower crust is dominated by a ~ 10 km thick, lozenge-shaped body with seismic P-wave velocities of 6.8-7.1 km/s. Seismic reflections define the top and bottom surface of the body at depths of ~ 15 and 25 km, respectively. This "rift-pillow" we interpret as a mafic under-plate that will be in various stages of cooling. Heat fluxes from the TVZ at a rate of about 4GW, and the area is extending at a rate of 10-16 mm/y. To sustain 4GW in steady state for this extension rate requires the continuous intrusion, then cooling, of a molten -layer about 10-15 km thick. Thus the rift pillow is likely to be the main source of heat and rhyolite volcanism that dominates the surface processes within the TVZ. On the southeastern margin of the TVZ lies the active volcanic arc of andesite and dacitic volcanoes. Directly beneath the arc at a depth of ~ 32 km we detect a bright seismic reflection of limited lateral extent (~ 18 km wide). The relative amplitude and negative phase of this reflection suggests a melt body of unknown thickness. We relate this melt body to corner of an upwelling of the mantle asthenosphere, which feeds the primary melts into the active volcanic arc, and also may supply melt to rift pillow structure in the central TVZ. Gravity anomalies across the central North Island are dominated by a long wavelength signal related to subduction. We remove this regional effect with 2-way, third-order polynomial to leave a residual that is largely due to the rifting process in the back arc basin. The residual signal has a classical rift signature of a central low of -55 mgals and gravity highs of about +10 mgals over the flanks of the TVZ. Using the detailed seismic data as a constraint we account

  6. Rheological structure of a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary zone, decoded from EBSD analysis of mantle xenoliths from Ichinomegata, NE Japan (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Ozawa, K.


    Mantle xenoliths are fragments of mantle materials entrapped in alkali basalts or kimberlites and transported to the surface (Nixon, 1987). They provide information on rheological, thermal, chemical, petrological structures of the upper mantle (e.g. Green et al., 2010; McKenzie and Bickle, 1988; O'Reilly and Griffin, 1996). They potentially represent materials from a boundary zone of lithosphere and asthenosphere (LABZ), where the heat transportation mechanism changes from convection to conduction (Sleep, 2005, 2006). However, difficulties in geobarometry for spinel peridotite (e.g. O'Reilly et al., 1997) have hampered our understanding of shallow LABZ. Ichinomegata located in the back-arc side of NE Japan is a latest Pleistocene andesitic-dacitic volcano yielding spinel peridotite xenoliths (Katsui et al., 1979). Through our works (Sato and Ozawa, 2016, 2017a, 2017b), we have overcome difficulties in geobarometry of spinel peridotites and gained accurate thermal structure (0.74-1.60 GPa, 832-1084 °C) from eight of the nine examined xenoliths. The rheological and chemical features suggest drastic changes: undeformed (granular), depleted, subsolidus mantle representing lithospheric mantle (ca. 28-35 km) and deformed (porphyroclastic), fertile, hydrous supersolidus mantle representing rheological LABZ (ca. 35-54 km). We investigate depth dependent variation of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of constituent minerals of the xenoliths by electron back-scattered diffraction analysis (using JSM-7000F with a CCD detector and the CHANNEL5 software at the University of Tokyo). A shallower (ca. 32 km) sample with tabulargranular texture and coarse olivine size (0.92 mm) has A-type olivine CPO with [100] maximum as reported by Satsukawa and Michibayashi (2014) (hereafter SM14), whereas a deep (ca. 51 km) sample with porphyroclastic texture and finer olivine size (0.46 mm) has CPO with weaker fabric intensity characterized by a [100] girdle similar to AG-type and

  7. Transitions in pedestrian fundamental diagrams of straight corridors and T-junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Klingsch, W; Schadschneider, A; Seyfried, A


    Many observations of pedestrian dynamics, including various self-organization phenomena, have been reproduced successfully by different models. But the empirical databases for quantitative calibration are still insufficient, e.g. the fundamental diagram as one of the most important relationships displays non-negligible differences among various studies. To improve this situation, experiments in straight corridors and T-junctions are performed. Four different measurement methods are defined to study their effects on the fundamental diagram. It is shown that they have minor influences for ρ −2 but only the Voronoi method is able to resolve the fine structure of the fundamental diagram. This enhanced measurement method permits us to observe the occurrence of a boundary-induced phase transition. For corridors of different widths we found that the specific flow concept works well for ρ −2 . Moreover, we illustrate the discrepancies between the fundamental diagrams of a T-junction and a straight corridor

  8. Effect of deformation on the continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagram of steel 32CRB4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawulok


    Full Text Available CCT and DCCT steel diagrams of the steel 32CrB4 were determined by the universal plastometer GLEEBLE 3 800 on the basis of dilatometric tests. Dilatometric analysis showed that compared to the diagram provided by the software QTSteel th e noses of individual curves are in fact shifted towards shorter times. Preceding deformation significantly affected the decay diagram of the investigated steel. Shorter times, which were available for recovery of the deformed structure during more rapid cooling, resulted in a significant shift of the curves in the DCCT diagram towards shorter times. At low cooling rates the effect of deformation was practically negligible, since recrystallization took place between the deformation and beginning of the phase transformation.

  9. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.


    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  10. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.


    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  11. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun


    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition

  12. Weight diagram construction of Lax operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.


    We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case

  13. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.


    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  14. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package (United States)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  15. Diagram of a LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia


    This diagram gives a schematic representation of the superconducting radio-frequency cavities at LEP. Liquid helium is used to cool the cavity to 4.5 degrees above absolute zero so that very high electric fields can be produced, increasing the operating energy of the accelerator. Superconducting cavities were used only in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  16. Muonium and the Breit-Rabi diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.


    This chapter introduces the study of muonium, as opposed to that of unbound muons. The properties and behaviour of muonium are compared and contrasted with those of hydrogen and of positronium. The special significance of muonium in atomic and molecular physics is explained, and its utility as a lightweight or radioactive isotope of hydrogen in solid state physics and chemistry illustrated. The identification of atomic muonium by means of its ground state magnetic properties is described with reference to the Breit-Rabi diagram. This diagram is invaluable for interpreting or predicting MuSR observations, both in transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields, so its construction and properties are explained in some detail. The precession signals observed in transverse-field MuSR correspond to transitions allowed between the energy levels in this diagram; particular attention is paid to the spectra characteristic of the high and low field regimes. The different states of muonium observed in dielectric, semiconducting and metallic materials are introduced. The influence of the host medium on the spectral parameters, hyperfine interaction and linewidth, is considered both for atomic muonium and for muonium which is chemically bound in paramagnetic molecules, for which the Breit-Rabi diagram also applies. (orig.)

  17. Diagrams in Second or Foreign Language Learning??!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld-de Smet, Leonie; Barker-Plummer, D.; Cox, R.; Swoboda, N.


    Existing diagrams for tense use as presented in grammar surveys for foreign learners have been analyzed from a semantic theoretic point of view. The analysis reveals that the notational systems used in the diagrammatic representations of the tense rules dealt with are defective in that they can give

  18. Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.


    Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and

  19. Magnetic phase diagram of a nanocone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, O; Vargas, P; Escrig, J; Landeros, P; Albir, D; Laroze, D


    In this work we analyze the magnetic properties of truncated conical nanoparticles. Based on the continuous magnetic model we find expressions for the total energy in three different magnetic configurations. Finally, we calculate the magnetic phase diagram as function of the geometrical parameters.

  20. Magnetic phase diagram of a nanocone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, O; Vargas, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, P. O. Box 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Escrig, J; Landeros, P; Albir, D [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Depatamento de Fisica, Casilla 307, Correo 2, Santiago (Chile); Laroze, D [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, P. O. Box 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail:


    In this work we analyze the magnetic properties of truncated conical nanoparticles. Based on the continuous magnetic model we find expressions for the total energy in three different magnetic configurations. Finally, we calculate the magnetic phase diagram as function of the geometrical parameters.

  1. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Analise estrutural e caracterizacao do magmatismo da zona de cisalhamento Major Gercino, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina


    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 {+-} 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 {+-} 15 Ma.) 220 refs., 107 figs., 18 tabs., 4 maps

  2. Genetic population structure of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) supports the presence of multiple hybrid zones for marine fishes in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Nielsen, P.H.; Meldrup, Dorte


    Sea, suggesting high gene flow among populations in these areas. In contrast, there was a sharp cline in genetic differentiation going from the low saline Baltic Sea to the high saline North Sea. The data were explained best by two divergent populations connected by a hybrid zone; however......Genetic population structure of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) in the Northeast Atlantic was investigated using eight highly variable microsatellite loci. In total 706 individuals from eight locations with temporal replicates were assayed, covering an area from the French Bay of Biscay......, a mechanical mixing model could not be ruled out. A significant part of the genetic variance could be ascribed to variation among years within locality. Nevertheless, the population structure was relatively stable over time, suggesting that the observed pattern of genetic differentiation is biologically...

  3. ER2OWL: Generating OWL Ontology from ER Diagram (United States)

    Fahad, Muhammad

    Ontology is the fundamental part of Semantic Web. The goal of W3C is to bring the web into (its full potential) a semantic web with reusing previous systems and artifacts. Most legacy systems have been documented in structural analysis and structured design (SASD), especially in simple or Extended ER Diagram (ERD). Such systems need up-gradation to become the part of semantic web. In this paper, we present ERD to OWL-DL ontology transformation rules at concrete level. These rules facilitate an easy and understandable transformation from ERD to OWL. The set of rules for transformation is tested on a structured analysis and design example. The framework provides OWL ontology for semantic web fundamental. This framework helps software engineers in upgrading the structured analysis and design artifact ERD, to components of semantic web. Moreover our transformation tool, ER2OWL, reduces the cost and time for building OWL ontologies with the reuse of existing entity relationship models.

  4. The diamond rule for multi-loop Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijl, B.; Ueda, T.; Vermaseren, J.A.M.


    An important aspect of improving perturbative predictions in high energy physics is efficiently reducing dimensionally regularised Feynman integrals through integration by parts (IBP) relations. The well-known triangle rule has been used to achieve simple reduction schemes. In this work we introduce an extensible, multi-loop version of the triangle rule, which we refer to as the diamond rule. Such a structure appears frequently in higher-loop calculations. We derive an explicit solution for the recursion, which prevents spurious poles in intermediate steps of the computations. Applications for massless propagator type diagrams at three, four, and five loops are discussed

  5. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body (United States)


    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  6. Phase diagram of Fe1-xCox ultrathin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Voytenko, A.P.


    Concentration-driven reorientation phase transitions in ultrathin magnetic films of FeCo alloy have been studied. It is established that, in addition to the easy-axis and easy-plane phases, a spatially inhomogeneous phase (domain structure), a canted phase, and also an 'in-plane easy-axis' phase can exist in the system. The realization of the last phase is associated with the competition between the single-ion anisotropy and the magnetoelastic interaction. The critical values of Co concentration corresponding to the phase transitions are evaluated, the types of phase transitions are determined, and the phase diagrams are constructed

  7. Investigation of the fluid flow dynamic parameters for Newtonian and non-Newtonian materials: an approach to understanding the fluid flow-like structures within fault zones (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Shiomi, Y.; Ma, K.-F.


    To understand the fault zone fluid flow-like structure, namely the ductile deformation structure, often observed in the geological field (e.g., Ramsay and Huber The techniques of modern structure geology, vol. 1: strain analysis, Academia Press, London, 1983; Hobbs and Ord Structure geology: the mechanics of deforming metamorphic rocks, Vol. I: principles, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015), we applied a theoretical approach to estimate the rate of deformation, the shear stress and the time to form a streak-line pattern in the boundary layer of viscous fluids. We model the dynamics of streak lines in laminar boundary layers for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluids and compare the results to those obtained via laboratory experiments. The structure of deformed streak lines obtained using our model is consistent with experimental observations, indicating that our model is appropriate for understanding the shear rate, flow time and shear stress based on the profile of deformed streak lines in the boundary layer in Newtonian and pseudoplastic viscous materials. This study improves our understanding of the transportation processes in fluids and of the transformation processes in fluid-like materials. Further application of this model could facilitate understanding the shear stress and time history of the fluid flow-like structure of fault zones observed in the field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Diapir versus along-channel ascent of crustal material during plate convergence: constrained by the thermal structure of subduction zones (United States)

    Liu, M. Q.; Li, Z. H.


    Crustal rocks can be subducted to mantle depths, interact with the mantle wedge, and then exhume to the crustal depth again, which is generally considered as the mechanism for the formation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in nature. The crustal rocks undergo dehydration and melting at subarc depths, giving rise to fluids that metasomatize and weaken the overlying mantle wedge. There are generally two ways for the material ascent from subarc depths: one is along subduction channel; the other is through the mantle wedge by diapir. In order to study the conditions and dynamics of these contrasting material ascent modes, systematic petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models are constructed with variable thicknesses of the overriding and subducting continental plates, ages of the subducting oceanic plate, as well as the plate convergence rates. The model results suggest that the thermal structures of subduction zones control the thermal condition and fluid/melt activity at the slab-mantle interface in subcontinental subduction channels, which further strongly affect the material transportation and ascent mode. Thick overriding continental plate and low-angle subduction style induced by young subducting oceanic plate both contribute to the formation of relatively cold subduction channels with strong overriding mantle wedge, where the along-channel exhumation occurs exclusively to result in the exhumation of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks. In contrast, thin overriding lithosphere and steep subduction style induced by old subducting oceanic plate are the favorable conditions for hot subduction channels, which lead to significant hydration and metasomatism, melting and weakening of the overriding mantle wedge and thus cause the ascent of mantle wedge-derived melts by diapir through the mantle wedge. This may corresponds to the origination of continental arc volcanism from mafic to ultramafic metasomatites in the bottom of the mantle wedge. In addition, the plate

  9. Lateral Variations of the Mantle Transition Zone Structure beneath the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau Revealed by P-wave Receiver Functions (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Ai, Y.; Jiang, M.; He, Y.; Chen, Q.


    The deep structure of the southeastern Tibetan plateau is of great scientific importance to a better understanding of the India-Eurasia collision as well as the evolution of the magnificent Tibetan plateau. In this study, we collected 566 permanent and temporary seismic stations deployed in SE Tibet, with a total of 77853 high quality P-wave receiver functions been extracted by maximum entropy deconvolution method. On the basis of the Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking technique, we mapped the topography of the 410km and 660km discontinuities (hereinafter called the `410' and the `660'), and further investigated the lateral variation of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness beneath this region. The background velocity model deduced from H-κ stacking results and a previous body-wave tomographic research was applied for the correction of the crustal and upper mantle heterogeneities beneath SE Tibet for CCP stacking. Our results reveal two significantly thickened MTZ anomalies aligned nearly in the south-north direction. The magnitude of both anomalies are 30km above the global average of 250km. The southern anomaly located beneath the Dianzhong sub-block and the Indo-China block is characterized by a slightly deeper `410' and a greater-than-normal `660', while the northern anomaly beneath western Sichuan has an uplifted `410' and a depressed `660'. Combining with previous studies in the adjacent region, we suggest that slab break-off may occurred during the eastward subduction of the Burma plate, with the lower part of the cold slab penetrated into the MTZ and stagnated at the bottom of the `660' which may cause the southern anomaly in our receiver function images. The origin of the Tengchong volcano is probably connected to the upwelling of the asthenospheric material caused by the slab break-off or to the ascending of the hot and wet material triggered by the dehydration of stagnant slab in the MTZ. The anomaly in the north, on the other hand, might be

  10. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Neprochnov, Y.P.

    . Ship tracks of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection pro les in the deformation zone of the central Indian Ocean. Striped and dotted (about the Ninetyeast Ridge) zones are di use lithospheric plate boundaries in which divergent and convergent... the ODP Leg 116 sites and DSDP Site 215 were acquired in the central Indian Ocean dur- ing the 10th cruise (February { March 1995) of A. A. Sidorenko (AS 10). Two long N-S pro les (AS 10-03 and 10-05) along 83:7 E and 87 E run within the convergent di...

  11. Application of the pM'-pCH diagrams in the determination of hydrolysis constants of the lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, H.; Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.


    The pM ' -pC H diagrams allowed to determine the saturation and non-saturation zones of Lu(OH) 3 in solid phase and those were applied for determining the hydrolysis and lutetium solubility constants, using the radioactive isotope Lu-177. The first constant of hydrolysis was also determined by the potentiometric method in absence of solid phase. (Author)

  12. A Legal Negotiatiton Support System Based on A Diagram (United States)

    Nitta, Katsumi; Shibasaki, Masato; Yasumura, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ryuzo; Fujita, Hiroshi; Koshimura, Miyuki; Inoue, Katsumi; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Hiroshi

    We present an overview of a legal negotiation support system, ANS (Argumentation based Negotiation support System). ANS consists of a user interface, three inference engines, a database of old cases, and two decision support modules. The ANS users negotiates or disputes with others via a computer network. The negotiation status is managed in the form of the negotiation diagram. The negotiation diagram is an extension of Toulmin’s argument diagram, and it contains all arguments insisted by participants. The negotiation protocols are defined as operations to the negotiation diagram. By exchanging counter arguments each other, the negotiation diagram grows up. Nonmonotonic reasoning using rule priorities are applied to the negotiation diagram.

  13. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams


    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde


    International audience; Learning environments for object-oriented modelling in UML which offer a rich interaction usually impose, in return, strong restrictions on the range of exercises they can address. We propose to overcome this limit by including a diagnostic module that compares the student diagram with a reference diagram. This approach enables to combine the advantages of an open environment (in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size ...

  14. Band structure of cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhymzhanov, A. M.; Utegulov, Z. N., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Optics Laboratory, National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Astana 10000 (Kazakhstan); Gueddida, A. [Institut d' Electronique, Microélectronique et Nanotechnologie, 59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); LPMR, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed I, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Alonso-Redondo, E. [Max Planck Institute of Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Perevoznik, D.; Kurselis, K. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 30419 Hannover (Germany); Chichkov, B. N. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 30419 Hannover (Germany); Institute of Laser and Information Technologies RAS, Moscow, 142092 Troitsk (Russian Federation); El Boudouti, E. H. [LPMR, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed I, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Djafari-Rouhani, B. [Institut d' Electronique, Microélectronique et Nanotechnologie, 59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Fytas, G., E-mail:, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute of Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Materials Science, University of Crete and FORTH, 71110 Heraklion (Greece)


    The phononic band diagram of a periodic square structure fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse-induced two photon polymerization is recorded by Brillouin light scattering (BLS) at hypersonic (GHz) frequencies and computed by finite element method. The theoretical calculations along the two main symmetry directions quantitatively capture the band diagrams of the air- and liquid-filled structure and moreover represent the BLS intensities. The theory helps identify the observed modes, reveals the origin of the observed bandgaps at the Brillouin zone boundaries, and unravels direction dependent effective medium behavior.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Semakin


    Full Text Available In terms of tectonics, the Deryugin basin (Fig. 1 is a part of the epi-Mesozoic Okhotsk plate comprising the heterogeneous basement that is mainly pre-Cenozoic (the lower structural stage and the sedimentary cover that is mainly represented by the Paleogenic-Neogenic-Quaternary deposits with the Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks observed locally without a visible hiatus (the upper structural stage.The acoustic basement (AB is composed of the metamorphosed Upper Cretaceous-Paleogenic silty-clayey-siliceous deposits (the western part of the region, amphibolites, gneisses, crystalline schists, weakly metamorphosed sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones (often siliceous, as well as intrusive and effusive rocks of basic, intermediate, and rarely persilic composition (the eastern part of the region. AB is generally dated as Mesozoic–Paleozoic.Results of tectonic zoning of the sedimentary cover based on material (lithophysical indicators (Fig. 2 are represented in the format of maps showing lithophysical complexes (LC within the limits of four regional seismo-stratigraphic complexes/structural layers (RSSC I-IV corresponding to the following time intervals: the pre-Oligocene К2–P1-2 (RSSC I, the Oligocene – Lower Miocene P3–N11 (RSSC II, the Lower – Mid Miocene N11–2 (RSSC III, and the Upper Miocene – Pliocene N13–N2 (RSSC IV. Diverse lithological-facies associations composing the RSSCs are grouped into the following lithophysical complexes (LC: 1 - coal-bearing silty-clayey-sandy terrigenous, 2 - sandy-silty-clayey terrigenous, 3 - silty-clayey-siliceous, and 4 - sandy-silty-clayey volcanic [Sergeyev, 2006]. In the studied area (Fig. 2, the deposits of the pre-Oligocene RSSC are identified in limited areas within its northern, northwestern, and southwestern parts; they are represented by coal-bearing silty-clayey-sandy terrigenous and silty-clayey-siliceous LCs. Other RSSCs (II, III, and IV in this area represented mostly by sandy

  16. Students Mental Representation of Biology Diagrams/Pictures Conventions Based on Formation of Causal Network (United States)

    Sampurno, A. W.; Rahmat, A.; Diana, S.


    Diagrams/pictures conventions is one form of visual media that often used to assist students in understanding the biological concepts. The effectiveness of use diagrams/pictures in biology learning at school level has also been mostly reported. This study examines the ability of high school students in reading diagrams/pictures biological convention which is described by Mental Representation based on formation of causal networks. The study involved 30 students 11th grade MIA senior high school Banten Indonesia who are studying the excretory system. MR data obtained by Instrument worksheet, developed based on CNET-protocol, in which there are diagrams/drawings of nephron structure and urinary mechanism. Three patterns formed MR, namely Markov chain, feedback control with a single measurement, and repeated feedback control with multiple measurement. The third pattern is the most dominating pattern, differences in the pattern of MR reveal the difference in how and from which point the students begin to uncover important information contained in the diagram to establish a causal networks. Further analysis shows that a difference in the pattern of MR relate to how complex the students process the information contained in the diagrams/pictures.

  17. Overview of the phase diagram of ionic magnetic colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, F.; Dubois, E.; Cabuil, V.; Boue, F.; Perzynski, R.


    We study ionic magnetic colloidal dispersions, which are constituted of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles dispersed in water, and stabilized with electrostatic interparticle repulsion. The phase diagram PV versus Φ (P: osmotic pressure, V: particle volume, Φ: particle volume fraction) is explored, especially in the range of high Π and high Φ. The osmotic pressure P of the colloidal dispersion is known either by a measurement either because it is imposed during the sample preparation by osmotic compression. The structure of the colloidal dispersion is determined from Small Angle Neutron Scattering. Two regimes can be distinguished. At high pressure, fluid and solid phases can exist. Their structure is governed by strong electrostatic repulsion, the range of which is here evaluated. At low pressure, gas, liquid and glassy solids can exist. Their structure results from a sticky hard sphere potential. (author)

  18. Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Tobin


    Full Text Available Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave. With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were

  19. Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.; Maennel, M.; Schreiber, M.


    We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data

  20. Worldline Green functions for multiloop diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.G.; Heidelberg Univ.; Schubert, C.


    We propose a multiloop generalization of the Bern-Kosower formalism, based on Strassler's approach of evaluating worldline path integrals by worldline Green functions. Those Green functions are explicitly constructed for the basic two-loop graph, and for a loop with an arbitrary number of propagator insertions. For scalar and abelian gauge theories, the resulting integral representations allow to combine whole classes of Feynman diagrams into compact expressions. (orig.)

  1. Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.


    The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras

  2. Stability diagrams for disconnected capillary surfaces (United States)

    Slobozhanin, Lev A.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.


    Disconnected free surfaces (or interfaces) of a connected liquid volume (or liquid volumes) occur when the boundary of the liquid volume consists of two or more separate surface components Γi (i=1,…,m) that correspond to liquid-gas (or liquid-liquid) interfaces. We consider disconnected surfaces for which each component Γi is axisymmetric and crosses its own symmetry axis. In most cases, the stability problem for an entire disconnected equilibrium capillary surface subject to perturbations that conserve the total liquid volume reduces to the same set of problems obtained when separately considering the stability of each Γi to perturbations that satisfy a fixed pressure constraint. For fixed pressure perturbations, the stability of a given axisymmetric Γi can be found through comparison of actual and critical values of a particular boundary parameter. For zero gravity, these critical values are found analytically. For non-zero gravity, an analytical representation of the critical values is not generally possible. In such cases, a determination of stability can be accomplished by representing all possible equilibrium surface profiles on a dimensionless "height-radius" diagram. This diagram is contoured with critical values of the boundary parameter. The stability diagram can, in most cases, be used to determine the stability of a disconnected surface (subject to perturbations that conserve the total volume) that is composed of components that are represented by given equilibrium profiles on the diagram. To illustrate this approach, solutions of stability problems for systems consisting of a set of sessile or pendant drops in contact with smooth planar walls or with the edges of equidimensional perforated holes in a horizontal plate are presented.

  3. Diagram of the uranium prospection perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.


    We call diagrams to the drawn up one continuous of parameters physicists of the formation trimmed by a perforation based on the depth. The method is interesting not only for the putting in evidence of the mineralized levels but also it stops to determine the variations of lithology had by one part to the intrinsic properties of minerals (quartz, clays, carbonates) and to their variation of tenor and by another one, to variations of porosity and permeability of the formation

  4. Seismicity and velocity structure of the Southern Chilean subduction zone (between 37° and 39°S) revealed by the TIPTEQ local seismic network (United States)

    Haberland, C.; Rietbrock, A.; Lange, D.; Bataille, K.; Dahm, T.


    The largest earthquakes are being generated at convergent plate boundaries, where oceanic plates subduct beneath other tectonic plates. Understanding the factors leading to these earthquakes in the coupling zone of convergent margins and their interrelation with surface deformation are the main aims of the international and interdisciplinary research initiative TIPTEQ (From The Incoming Plate To megaThrust EarthQuake Processes). High resolution images of the seismogenic zone and the forearc structure form the base for identifying the processes involved. Within this project a large temporary seismological network was installed in southern Chile between November 2004 and October 2005, covering the forearc between 37° and 39°~S. In this region the Mw=9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, the worldwide largest instrumentally ever recorded earthquake, nucleated. The network consisted of up to 120 digitally recording and continuously running seismic stations equipped with short period sensors. The onshore network was complemented by 10 ocean bottom seismometers/hydrophones. In total we observed 544 local earthquakes (with local magnitudes between 1 and 5.2) and numerous regional and teleseismic events. A high-quality subset of 213 local earthquakes with 14.754 P and S onset times (occurring in the interseismic cycle) was used for a simultaneous inversion for the 1-D velocity model and precise earthquake locations. By relocating artificial shots we estimated the accuracy of the earthquake hypocenter to about 1~km horizontally and 500~m vertically. In a second step, locations and 1-D model were used for the simultaneous inversion for the 3-D velocity structure and hypocenters (tomography). The events are found in the crustal forearc, the downgoing plate, and at the interface between both plates. Crustal events along NW and NNW striking, deep-reaching faults reflect the interseismic transpressional deformation of the forearc crust due to the subduction of the Nazca plate. The

  5. Forearc structure from legacy multichannel seismic data linked to mechanical variability and rupture segmentation on the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone (United States)

    Roland, E. C.; von Huene, R.; Miller, J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Scholl, D. W.; Ryan, H. F.; Kirby, S. H.


    The historical earthquake record, geodetic observations, and modern interseismic seismicity patterns indicate along-strike variability in the mechanical behavior of the subduction zone extending from the central Alaska peninsula west to the eastern Aleutian Islands. This region spans the rupture areas of several historical megathrust earthquakes, including the 1938 M8.3 Semidi Islands event, the 1946 M8.5 earthquake near Unimak Pass, and the 1957 M8.6 Andreanof Islands earthquake. Each of these events produced tsunamis that affected Alaska and/or far-field coastal regions in Hawaii and the mainland U.S. The '38 and '46 rupture areas are separated by a segment of the subduction zone in the vicinity of the Shumagin Islands where, based on plate velocities from GPS, plate coupling decreases from nearly fully locked in the east, to very low coupling in the western Shumagins, indicating an important change in seismic style along-strike. Changes in the degree of interseismic coupling are often attributed to variability in the mechanical strength of the thrust interface, influenced by heterogeneity in the material properties and subducted topographic relief. Furthermore, the expression of forearc structural features along the margin may indicate the width and up-dip limit of the locked zone. We explore structural characteristics of the shallow portion of the subduction system related to variations in the mechanical properties of the megathrust and interseismic coupling using legacy multichannel seismic (MCS) data from several segments along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Critical images were reprocessed with modern seismic processing systems. We characterize structural features of the downgoing plate and forearc, including the variation in thickness and character of subducted sediment, the geometry of the upper plate wedge, the distribution of imbricate thrust faults, the transition from outer prism to margin rock framework and extensional faulting. These

  6. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke [College of Physics and Electronic information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yu, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dou, Xianghua, E-mail:, E-mail: [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)


    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.

  7. MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang


    Full Text Available Periodic control systems used in spacecrafts and automotives are usually period-driven and can be decomposed into different modes with each mode representing a system state observed from outside. Such systems may also involve intensive computing in their modes. Despite the fact that such control systems are widely used in the above-mentioned safety-critical embedded domains, there is lack of domain-specific formal modelling languages for such systems in the relevant industry. To address this problem, we propose a formal visual modeling framework called mode diagram as a concise and precise way to specify and analyze such systems. To capture the temporal properties of periodic control systems, we provide, along with mode diagram, a property specification language based on interval logic for the description of concrete temporal requirements the engineers are concerned with. The statistical model checking technique can then be used to verify the mode diagram models against desired properties. To demonstrate the viability of our approach, we have applied our modelling framework to some real life case studies from industry and helped detect two design defects for some spacecraft control systems.

  8. Temperature-field phase diagram of extreme magnetoresistance. (United States)

    Fallah Tafti, Fazel; Gibson, Quinn; Kushwaha, Satya; Krizan, Jason W; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Cava, Robert Joseph


    The recent discovery of extreme magnetoresistance (XMR) in LaSb introduced lanthanum monopnictides as a new platform to study this effect in the absence of broken inversion symmetry or protected linear band crossing. In this work, we report XMR in LaBi. Through a comparative study of magnetotransport effects in LaBi and LaSb, we construct a temperature-field phase diagram with triangular shape that illustrates how a magnetic field tunes the electronic behavior in these materials. We show that the triangular phase diagram can be generalized to other topological semimetals with different crystal structures and different chemical compositions. By comparing our experimental results to band structure calculations, we suggest that XMR in LaBi and LaSb originates from a combination of compensated electron-hole pockets and a particular orbital texture on the electron pocket. Such orbital texture is likely to be a generic feature of various topological semimetals, giving rise to their small residual resistivity at zero field and subject to strong scattering induced by a magnetic field.

  9. On-shell diagrams for N=8 supergravity amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heslop, Paul; Lipstein, Arthur E. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Lower Mountjoy, Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    We define recursion relations for N=8 supergravity amplitudes using a generalization of the on-shell diagrams developed for planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills. Although the recursion relations generically give rise to non-planar on-shell diagrams, we show that at tree-level the recursion can be chosen to yield only planar diagrams, the same diagrams occurring in the planar N=4 theory. This implies non-trivial identities for non-planar diagrams as well as interesting relations between the N=4 and N=8 theories. We show that the on-shell diagrams of N=8 supergravity obey equivalence relations analogous to those of N=4 super-Yang-Mills, and we develop a systematic algorithm for reading off Grassmannian integral formulae directly from the on-shell diagrams. We also show that the 1-loop 4-point amplitude of N=8 supergravity can be obtained from on-shell diagrams.

  10. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic (United States)

    Tucker, D. S.


    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  11. Complex fragmentation and silicification structures in fault zones: quartz mineralization and repeated fragmentation along the Fountain Range Fault (Mt. Isa Inlier, Australia) (United States)

    Seybold, Lina; Blenkinsop, Tom; Heuss, Soraya; Ord, Alison; Kruhl, Jörn H.


    In large-scale fault zones fracture networks are commonly generated by high volumes of pressurized fluids, followed by quartz precipitation. In this way large amounts of quartz are formed as microcrystalline masses and as complex vein systems, with partly highly different textures, as a result of different formation processes. Based on field and microstructural data and the quantification of vein patterns, the spatial and temporal connection between fragmentation, quartz crystallization and fluid and material flow along the Fountain Range Fault at Fountain Springs was investigated. Dextral strike-slip led to up to 25 km horizontal displacement along the fault. Due to various fragmentation and quartz formation processes, a ca. 100 m high, 80 - 100 m wide and km-long quartz ridge with numerous vein systems and variable microfabrics was formed. Locally, lenses of highly altered metamorphic wall-rocks occur in the quartz zone. Where exposed, the contact to wall rocks is sharp. Millimetre- to decimetre-thick quartz veins penetrate the wall-rocks only within metre distance from the contact. Several clearly distinguishable fine-grained reddish, brownish to dark and pigment-rich quartz masses form up to 50 m wide and up to several 100 m long steep lenses that build the major part of the silicified fault zone. A chronology can be established. Some of these lenses are oriented slightly oblique to the general trend of the quartz zone, in agreement with the supposed dextral strike slip along the fault. Numerous generations of typically µm-cm thick quartz veins transect the microcrystalline quartz masses and, locally, form anisotropic networks. In the quartz masses, angular fragments often composed of quartz with, again, internal fragmentation structures, indicate earlier fracturing and silicification events. Within the veins, quartz forms geodes, locally filled with fine-grained reddish quartz and palisade structures with feathery textures and fluid-inclusion zoning

  12. Small-scale Forearc Structure from Residual Bathymetry and Vertical Gravity Gradients at the Cocos-North America Subduction Zone offshore Mexico (United States)

    Garcia, E. S. M.; Ito, Y.


    The subduction of topographic relief on the incoming plate at subduction zones causes deformation of the plate interface as well as the overriding plate. Whether the resulting geometric irregularities play any role in inhibiting or inducing seismic rupture is a topic of relevance for megathrust earthquake source studies. A method to discern the small-scale structure at subduction zone forearcs was recently developed by Bassett and Watts (2015). Their technique constructs an ensemble average of the trench-perpendicular topography, and the removal of this regional tectonic signal reveals the short-wavelength residual bathymetric anomalies. Using examples from selected areas at the Tonga, Mariana, and Japan subduction zones, they were able to link residual bathymetric anomalies to the subduction of seamount chains, given the similarities in wavelength and amplitude to the morphology of seamounts that have yet to subduct. We focus here on an analysis of forearc structures found in the Mexico segment of the Middle America subduction zone, and their potential mechanical interaction with areas on the plate interface that have been previously identified as source regions for earthquake ruptures and aseismic events. We identified several prominent residual bathymetric anomalies off the Guerrero and Oaxaca coastlines, mainly in the shallow portion of the plate interface and between 15 and 50 kilometers away from the trench axis. The residual amplitude of these bathymetric anomalies is typically in the hundreds of meters. Some of the residual bathymetric anomalies offshore Oaxaca are found landward of seamount chains on the incoming Cocos Plate, suggesting that these anomalies are associated with the prior subduction of seamounts at the margin. We also separated the residual and regional components of satellite-based vertical gravity gradient data using a directional median filter to isolate the possible gravity signals from the seamount edifices.

  13. Application of quaternary phase diagrams to compound semiconductor processing. Progress report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzman, A.


    This paper considers the application of quaternary phase diagrams to understanding and predicting the behavior of II-VI thin film interfaces in photovoltaic devices under annealing conditions. Examples, listed in a table, include semiconductor/insulator/semiconductor (SIS) layered structures, II-VI/II-VI and III-V/II-VI epitaxial heterojunctions and oxidation of ternary compounds. Solid solubility is taken into account for quaternary phase diagrams of semiconductor systems. Using free energies of formation, a method to calculate the quaternary phase diagrams was developed. The Ga-As-II-VI and Cd-Te-Zn-O phase diagrams are reviewed as examples of quaternary phase diagrams without and with solid solubility.

  14. Quarks and gluons in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welzbacher, Christian Andreas


    In this dissertation we study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by approaching the theory of quantum chromodynamics in the functional approach of Dyson-Schwinger equations. With these quantum (field) equations of motions we calculate the non-perturbative quark propagator within the Matsubara formalism. We built up on previous works and extend the so-called truncation scheme, which is necessary to render the infinite tower of Dyson-Schwinger equations finite and study phase transitions of chiral symmetry and the confinement/deconfinement transition. In the first part of this thesis we discuss general aspects of quantum chromodynamics and introduce the Dyson-Schwinger equations in general and present the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation together with its counterpart for the gluon. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is introduced which is necessary to perform two-body bound state calculations. A view on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics is given, including the discussion of order parameter for chiral symmetry and confinement. Here we also discuss the dependence of the phase structure on the masses of the quarks. In the following we present the truncation and our results for an unquenched N{sub f} = 2+1 calculation and compare it to previous studies. We highlight some complementary details for the quark and gluon propagator and discus the resulting phase diagram, which is in agreement with previous work. Results for an equivalent of the Columbia plot and the critical surface are discussed. A systematically improved truncation, where the charm quark as a dynamical quark flavour is added, will be presented in Ch. 4. An important aspect in this investigation is the proper adjustment of the scales. This is done by matching vacuum properties of the relevant pseudoscalar mesons separately for N{sub f} = 2+1 and N f = 2+1+1 via a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. A comparison of the resulting N{sub f} = 2+1 and N{sub f} = 2+1+1 phase diagram indicates

  15. Statistical Evaluation of Classification Diagrams for Altered Igneous Rocks




    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has proposed recommendations for the classification of relatively fresh volcanic rocks, but with no specific instructions for altered volcanic rocks, other than discouraging the use of the total alkalis versus silica diagram. The Nb/Y-Zr/TiO2 diagram has been in use for the classification of altered rocks now for over 30 years. Recently (during 2007) another diagram (Co-Th) has been proposed to replace this old diagram, particularly for al...

  16. Structural Insight Into the Role of Mutual Polymorphism and Conservatism in the Contact Zone of the NFR5–K1 Heterodimer With the Nod Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Igolkina


    Full Text Available Sandwich-like docking configurations of the heterodimeric complex of NFR5 and K1 Vicia sativa receptor-like kinases together with the putative ligand, Nod factor (NF of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, were modeled and two of the most probable configurations were assessed through the analysis of the mutual polymorphisms and conservatism. We carried out this analysis based on the hypothesis that in a contact zone of two docked components (proteins or ligands the population polymorphism or conservatism is mutual, i.e., the variation in one component has a reflected variation in the other component. The population material of 30 wild-growing V. sativa (leaf pieces was collected from a large field (uncultivated for the past 25-years and pooled; form this pool, 100 randomly selected cloned fragments of NFR5 gene and 100 of K1 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. Congruence between population trees of NFR5 and K1 haplotypes allowed us to select two respective haplotypes, build their 3D structures, and perform protein–protein docking. In a separate simulation, the protein-ligand docking between NFR5 and NF was carried out. We merged the results of the two docking experiments and extracted NFR5–NF–K1 complexes, in which NF was located within the cavity between two receptors. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated two out of six complexes as stable. Regions of mutual polymorphism in the contact zone of one complex overlapped with known NF structural variations produced by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. A total of 74% of the contact zone of another complex contained mutually polymorphic and conservative areas. Common traits of the obtained two stable structures allowed us to hypothesize the functional role of three-domain structure of plant LysM-RLKs in their heteromers.

  17. Spatial structures of optical parameters in the California current, as measured with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner.


    McMurtrie, John T., Jr


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Optical variability across the continental slope and shelf off Central California was studied using Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. CZCS estimates of It (490), the irradiance attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, were expressed as optical depth 1/k(490). k modified atmospheric correction algorithm was used to account for water radiance at 670 nm. Time sequences of 1/k(490) were assembled and partitio...

  18. Stability field diagrams for Ln–O–Cl systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: Keywords. Predominance area diagram; Kellogg diagram; lanthanide oxychloride; rare-earth mineral processing; thermodynamic properties. Abstract. Isothermal stability field diagrams for Ln−O−Cl systems (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, ...

  19. Diagrams for certain quotients of PSL(2,Z[i])

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Actions of the Picard group PSL(2, Z[i]) on PL(Fp), where p ≡ 1(mod 4), are investigated through diagrams. Each diagram is composed of fragments of three types. A technique is developed to count the number of fragments which frequently occur in the diagrams for the action of the Picard group on PL(Fp).

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  1. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert


    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  2. Developing Tool Support for Problem Diagrams with CPN and VDM++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard


    In this paper, we describe ongoing work on the development of tool support for formal description of domains found in Problem Diagrams. The purpose of the tool is to handle the generation of a CPN model based on a collection of Problem Diagrams. The Problem Diagrams are used for representing the ...

  3. The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Jan; Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, Anjo Allert


    An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header

  4. Detailed Structure and Thickness of Upper Mantle Discontinuities in the Tonga Subduction Zone From Regional Broadband Arrays (United States)

    Tibi, R.; Wiens, D. A.


    Recordings of deep Tonga earthquakes from two arrays of 12 broadband seismographs each in the Fiji and Tonga islands are stacked and searched for reflections and conversions from upper mantle discontinuities in the Tonga subduction zone. The arrays operated as part of the Seismic Arrays in Fiji and Tonga (SAFT) experiment from July 2001 to August 2002. In comparison with the commonly used teleseismic approaches, the short path lengths for the regional data provide smaller Fresnel zones and high frequency content for precise mapping of discontinuity topography and sharpness. This is particularly important for a subduction zone, where variations in temperature and water content may be expected which should cause changes in the elevation and sharpness of the discontinuities. We studied the phases s410p, P660p and S660p. To enhance these low-amplitude phases, deconvolved seismograms from each event/array pair are aligned on the maximum amplitude of the direct P wave and subsequently slant-stacked. For the 410-km discontinuity, the results show no systematic variations in depth with distance to the cold slab. The 660-km discontinuity varies between 656 and 714 km in depth. For the southern and central parts of the subduction zone, the largest depths occur in the core of the Tonga slab. For the northern part, two separate depressions of the 660 are observed. These anomalies are interpreted as being induced by the active, steeply subducting Tonga deep zone and a subhorizontally lying remnant of subducted lithosphere from the fossil Vityaz trench, respectively. Interpreting the deflections of the 660 in terms of local temperatures implies a thermal anomaly at 660 km depth of -800 to -1200oK for the Tonga slab, and -600 to -950oK for the piece of the Vityaz lithosphere. Except for the southern region where it thickens, the Tonga slab seems to penetrate the 660 with little deformation. Waveform modeling susggests that both the 410 and 660 discontinuities are sharp. The 410

  5. The complex of looped diagrams and natural operations on Hochschild homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamt, Angela

    In this thesis natural operations on the (higher) Hochschild complex of a given family of algebras are investigated. We give a description of all formal operations (in the sense of Wahl) for the class of commutative algebras using Loday's lambda operation, Connes' boundary operator and shue...... products. Furthermore, we introduce a dg-category of looped diagrams and show how to generate operations on the Hochschild complex of commutative Frobenius algebras out of these. This way we recover all operations known for symmetric Frobenius algebras (constructed via Sullivan diagrams), all the formal...... operations for commutative algebras (as computed in the rst part of the thesis) and a shifted BV structure which has been investigated by Abbaspour earlier. We prove that this BV structure comes from a suspended Cacti operad sitting inside the complex of looped diagrams. Last, we eneralize the setup...

  6. Elevation Certificates for Flood Prone Structures, Building Dept has required elevation certs when house falls inside flood zone - paper copies only, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Elevation Certificates for Flood Prone Structures dataset current as of 2010. Building Dept has required elevation certs when house falls inside flood zone - paper...

  7. Performance evaluation of enterprise architecture using fuzzy sequence diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atasheneh


    Full Text Available Developing an Enterprise Architecture is a complex task and to control the complexity of the regulatory framework we need to measure the relative performance of one system against other available systems. On the other hand, enterprise architecture cannot be organized without the use of a logical structure. The framework provides a logical structure for classifying architectural output. Among the common architectural framework, the C4ISR framework and methodology of the product is one of the most popular techniques. In this paper, given the existing uncertainties in system development and information systems, a new version of UML called Fuzzy-UML is proposed for enterprise architecture development based on fuzzy Petri nets. In addition, the performance of the system is also evaluated based on Fuzzy sequence diagram.

  8. Representing causal knowledge in environmental policy interventions: Advantages and opportunities for qualitative influence diagram applications. (United States)

    Carriger, John F; Dyson, Brian E; Benson, William H


    This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation. Policy interventions on social-environmental systems can be intuitively diagrammed for representing knowledge of critical relationships among economic, environmental, and social attributes. Examples relevant to coastal resiliency issues in the U.S. Gulf Coast region are developed to illustrate model structures for developing qualitative influence diagrams useful for clarifying important policy intervention issues and enhancing transparency in decision making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-dimensional model of plate geometry and velocity model for Nankai Trough seismogenic zone based on results from structural studies (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.


    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture zone of the Nankai megathrust event based on the knowledge of realistic earthquake cycle and variation of magnitude, it is important to know the geometry and property of the plate boundary of the subduction seismogenic zone. To improve a physical model of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation has been conducted since 2008. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km every year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found that several strong lateral variations of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and overriding plate corresponding to margins of coseismic rupture zone of historical large event occurred along the Nankai Trough. Particularly a possible prominent reflector for the forearc Moho is recently imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km which is shallower than those of other area along the Nankai Trough. Such a drastic variation of the overriding plate might be related to the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. Based on our results derived from seismic studies, we have tried to make a geometrical model of the Philippine Sea plate and a three-dimensional velocity structure model of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone. In this presentation, we will summarize major results of out seismic studies, and

  10. The high Andes, gene flow and a stable hybrid zone shape the genetic structure of a wide-ranging South American parrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer H Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Andes (here up to 6,900 m may constitute a formidable barrier to dispersal. In addition, this region was affected by cycles of intercalating arid/moist periods during the Upper/Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These factors may have been crucial in driving the phylogeographic structure of the vertebrate fauna of the region. Here we test these hypotheses in the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves, Psittaciformes across its wide distributional range in Chile and Argentina. Results Our data show a Chilean origin for this species, with a single migration event across the Andes during the Upper/Late Pleistocene, which gave rise to all extant Argentinean mitochondrial lineages. Analyses suggest a complex population structure for burrowing parrots in Argentina, which includes a hybrid zone that has remained stable for several thousand years. Within this zone, introgression by expanding haplotypes has resulted in the evolution of an intermediate phenotype. Multivariate regressions show that present day climatic variables have a strong influence on the distribution of genetic heterogeneity, accounting for almost half of the variation in the data. Conclusions Here we show how huge barriers like the Andes and the regional environmental conditions imposed constraints on the ability of a parrot species to colonise new habitats, affecting the way in which populations diverged and thus, genetic structure. When contact between divergent populations was re-established, a stable hybrid zone was formed, functioning as a channel for genetic exchange between populations.

  11. Biogeochemical anomaly above oil-containing structures in an arid zone. [Growth stimulation of plants by sodium naphthenate used for prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, O.M.


    Visual biological anomalies above the oil-containing structures are characterized by bright green coloring of the vegetation cover, gigantism of the plants, extended vegetation period of the plants, deformity of the plants, etc. Biological anomalies are associated with geological features and are observed only above the zone of fault disorders of the earth's crust, above deep faults. A conclusion is drawn about the presence above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone of a biogeochemical anomaly whose origin is explained by the biological activity of oil and its derivatives. The petroleum growth matter is the sodium salt of naphthene acid, a growth stimulator of plants and animals. The oils of the USSR contain 0.8-4.8% naphthene acids, which effuse through the faults into the root area levels of the soil. As a result of stimulation of growth and development by the petroleum growth matter, the vegetation period of the plants is prolonged. Under the influence of natural petroleum growth substances, the height and productivity of the anomalous plants increases 2-3-fold. Formation and manifestation of signs of biogeochemical anomalies above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone predetermine the following conditions: presence of fault disorders of the earth's crust; salinity of the root area of the soil layer necessary for neutralization of the naphthene acids with subsequent formation of the biologically active naphthenates; aridity of the desert landscape; plain relief excluding color diversity in vegetation cover because of nonuniform wetting, etc. The established biogeochemical anomaly can be used in prospecting and exploration of oil, gas and bitumen, and also in determining the fault disorders of the earth's crust.

  12. Sinc function representation and three-loop master diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Guralnik, Gerald; Hahn, Stephen


    We test the Sinc function representation, a novel method for numerically evaluating Feynman diagrams, by using it to evaluate the three-loop master diagrams. Analytical results have been obtained for all these diagrams, and we find excellent agreement between our calculations and the exact values. The Sinc function representation converges rapidly, and it is straightforward to obtain accuracies of 1 part in 10 6 for these diagrams and with longer runs we found results better than 1 part in 10 12 . Finally, this paper extends the Sinc function representation to diagrams containing massless propagators

  13. Rift brittle deformation of SE-Brazilian continental margin: Kinematic analysis of onshore structures relative to the transfer and accommodation zones of southern Campos Basin (United States)

    Savastano, Vítor Lamy Mesiano; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Araújo, Mário Neto Cavalcanti de; Inocêncio, Leonardo Campos


    High-resolution drone-supported mapping and traditional field work were used to refine the hierarchy and kinematics of rift-related faults in the basement rocks and Early Cretaceous mafic dikes onshore of the Campos Basin, SE-Brazil. Two sets of structures were identified. The most significant fault set is NE-SW oriented with predominantly normal displacement. At mesoscale, this fault set is arranged in a rhombic pattern, interpreted here as a breached relay ramp system. The rhombic pattern is a penetrative fabric from the thin-section to regional scale. The second-order set of structures is an E-W/ESE-WNW system of normal faults with sinistral component. These E-W structures are oriented parallel with regional intrabasinal transfer zones associated with the earliest stages of Campos Basin's rift system. The crosscutting relationship between the two fault sets and tholeiitic dikes implies that the NE-SW fault set is the older feature, but remained active until the final stages of rifting in this region as the second-order fault set is older than the tholeiitic dikes. Paleostresses estimated from fault slip inversion method indicated that extension was originally NW-SE, with formation of the E-W transfer, followed by ESE-WNW oblique opening associated with a relay ramp system and related accommodation zones.

  14. Neoproterozoic Evolution and Najd‒Related Transpressive Shear Deformations Along Nugrus Shear Zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt (Implications from Field‒Structural Data and AMS‒Technique) (United States)

    Hagag, W.; Moustafa, R.; Hamimi, Z.


    The tectonometamorphic evolution of Nugrus Shear Zone (NSZ) in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt was reevaluated through an integrated study including field-structural work and magnetofabric analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique, complemented by detailed microstructural investigation. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust within this high strain zone suffered an impressive tectonic event of left-lateral transpressional regime, transposed the majority of the earlier formed structures into a NNW to NW-directed wrench corridor depicts the northwestern extension of the Najd Shear System (NSS) along the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The core of the southern Hafafit dome underwent a high metamorphic event ( M 1) developed during the end of the main collisional orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The subsequent M 2 metamorphic event was retrogressive and depicts the tectonic evolution and exhumation of the Nugrus-Hafafit area including the Hafafit gneissic domes, during the origination of the left-lateral transpressive wrench corridor of the NSS. The early tectonic fabric within the NSZ and associated highly deformed rocks was successfully detected by the integration of AMS-technique and microstructural observations. Such fabric grain was checked through a field-structural work. The outcomes of the present contribution advocate a complex tectonic evolution with successive and overlapped deformation events for the NSZ.

  15. Near-horizon Structure of Escape Zones of Electrically Charged Particles around Weakly Magnetized Rotating Black Hole (United States)

    Kopáček, Ondřej; Karas, Vladimír


    An interplay of magnetic fields and gravitation drives accretion and outflows near black holes. However, a specific mechanism is still a matter of debate; it is very likely that different processes dominate under various conditions. In particular, for the acceleration of particles and their collimation in jets, an ordered component of the magnetic field seems to be essential. Here we discuss the role of large-scale magnetic fields in transporting the charged particles and dust grains from the bound orbits in the equatorial plane of a rotating (Kerr) black hole and the resulting acceleration along trajectories escaping the system in a direction parallel to the symmetry axis (perpendicular to the accretion disk). We consider a specific scenario of destabilization of circular geodesics of initially neutral matter by charging (e.g., due to photoionization). Some particles may be set on escaping trajectories and attain relativistic velocity. The case of charged particles differs from charged dust grains by their charge-to-mass ratio, but the acceleration mechanism operates in a similar manner. It appears that the chaotic dynamics controls the outflow and supports the formation of near-horizon escape zones. We employ the technique of recurrence plots to characterize the onset of chaos in the outflowing medium. We investigate the system numerically and construct the basin-boundary plots, which show the location and the extent of the escape zones. The effects of black hole spin and magnetic field strength on the formation and location of escape zones are discussed, and the maximal escape velocity is computed.

  16. Two-stage structural development of a Paleozoic auriferous shear zone at the Globe-Progress deposit, Reefton, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milham, L.; Craw, D.


    The Globe-Progress gold deposit at Reefton is hosted in a curvilinear mineralised zone that cuts Paleozoic Greenland Group basement metagreywackes. Two discrete phases of mineralisation have resulted in the formation of five different ore types along the shear. An initial phase of mineralisation formed hydrothermal quartz veins and associated Au, As, and S enrichment, with low-grade mineralised host rock. These quartz veins and mineralised host rocks form the outer regions of the mineralised zone. A second hydrothermal phase introduced Sb, Au, As, and S during brittle shear deformation focused on the pre-existing mineralised rocks. This deformation and mineralisation resulted in the formation of metre-scale cataclasite ore and quartz breccia from mineralised host rock and hydrothermal quartz veins, respectively. Cataclasite was derived from argillite layers in the host rock, from which Na, Fe, and Mg have been leached during mineralisation; Al, Ti, and Cr have been conserved; and there has been minor enrichment in Sr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. No quartz was added to the cataclasite or quartz breccia during mineralisation, but some quartz recrystallisation occurred locally, and quartz clasts were physically incorporated into the cataclasite during deformation. The presence of euhedral sulfides in the cataclasite (40% of total sulfides), late-stage undeformed stibnite veins infilling breccia (1-5 cm 3 scale), and undeformed free gold in quartz breccia, imply that the second phase of mineralisation persisted both during and after cataclasis and brecciation. Antimony deposition is greatest in the central cataclasite, up to 6 wt%, and locally in the quartz breccia where stibnite veins are present. Concentrations of Sb decrease with distance from the shear zone. The second, Sb-rich phase of mineralisation in the Globe-Progress deposit resembles similar Sb-rich overprints in the correlative Victorian goldfield of Australia. (author). 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Essential Magnesium Alloys Binary Phase Diagrams and Their Thermochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mezbahul-Islam


    Full Text Available Magnesium-based alloys are becoming a major industrial material for structural applications because of their potential weight saving characteristics. All the commercial Mg alloys like AZ, AM, AE, EZ, ZK, and so forth series are multicomponent and hence it is important to understand the phase relations of the alloying elements with Mg. In this work, eleven essential Mg-based binary systems including Mg-Al/Zn/Mn/Ca/Sr/Y/Ni/Ce/Nd/Cu/Sn have been reviewed. Each of these systems has been discussed critically on the aspects of phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. All the available experimental data has been summarized and critically assessed to provide detailed understanding of the systems. The phase diagrams are calculated based on the most up-to-date optimized parameters. The thermodynamic model parameters for all the systems except Mg-Nd have been summarized in tables. The crystallographic information of the intermetallic compounds of different binary systems is provided. Also, the heat of formation of the intermetallic compounds obtained from experimental, first principle calculations and CALPHAD optimizations are provided. In addition, reoptimization of the Mg-Y system has been done in this work since new experimental data showed wider solubility of the intermetallic compounds.

  18. Highly Accurate Calculations of the Phase Diagram of Cold Lithium (United States)

    Shulenburger, Luke; Baczewski, Andrew

    The phase diagram of lithium is particularly complicated, exhibiting many different solid phases under the modest application of pressure. Experimental efforts to identify these phases using diamond anvil cells have been complemented by ab initio theory, primarily using density functional theory (DFT). Due to the multiplicity of crystal structures whose enthalpy is nearly degenerate and the uncertainty introduced by density functional approximations, we apply the highly accurate many-body diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method to the study of the solid phases at low temperature. These calculations span many different phases, including several with low symmetry, demonstrating the viability of DMC as a method for calculating phase diagrams for complex solids. Our results can be used as a benchmark to test the accuracy of various density functionals. This can strengthen confidence in DFT based predictions of more complex phenomena such as the anomalous melting behavior predicted for lithium at high pressures. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Transformation of UML Behavioral Diagrams to Support Software Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos


    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is currently accepted as the standard for modeling (object-oriented software, and its use is increasing in the aerospace industry. Verification and Validation of complex software developed according to UML is not trivial due to complexity of the software itself, and the several different UML models/diagrams that can be used to model behavior and structure of the software. This paper presents an approach to transform up to three different UML behavioral diagrams (sequence, behavioral state machines, and activity into a single Transition System to support Model Checking of software developed in accordance with UML. In our approach, properties are formalized based on use case descriptions. The transformation is done for the NuSMV model checker, but we see the possibility in using other model checkers, such as SPIN. The main contribution of our work is the transformation of a non-formal language (UML to a formal language (language of the NuSMV model checker towards a greater adoption in practice of formal methods in software development.

  20. Detailed structure and sharpness of upper mantle discontinuities in the Tonga subduction zone from regional broadband arrays (United States)

    Tibi, Rigobert; Wiens, Douglas A.


    Recordings of deep Tonga earthquakes from two arrays of 12 broadband seismographs each in the Fiji and Tonga islands are stacked and searched for reflections and conversions from upper mantle discontinuities in the Tonga subduction zone. The arrays operated as part of the Seismic Arrays in Fiji and Tonga (SAFT) experiment from July 2001 to August 2002. In comparison with the commonly used teleseismic approaches, the short path lengths for the local data provide smaller Fresnel zones and high-frequency content for precise mapping of discontinuity topography and sharpness. To enhance the low-amplitude discontinuity phases s410p, P660p and S660p, deconvolved seismograms from each event/array pair are aligned on the maximum amplitude of the direct P wave and subsequently slant stacked. For the 410-km discontinuity, the results show no systematic variations in depth with distance to the cold slab. The 660-km discontinuity varies between 656 and 714 km in depth. For the southern and central parts of the subduction zone, the largest depths occur in the core of the Tonga slab. For the northern part, two separate depressions of the 660-km discontinuity are observed. These anomalies are interpreted as being induced by the active, steeply subducting Tonga deep zone and a subhorizontally lying remnant of subducted lithosphere from the fossil Vityaz trench, respectively. Interpreting the deflections of the 660-km discontinuity in terms of local temperatures implies a thermal anomaly of -800°K to -1200°K at 660 km depth. Except for the southern region where it may thicken, the width of the depressed 660-km discontinuity region implies that the Tonga slab seems to penetrate the 660-km discontinuity with little deformation. Waveform modeling suggests that both the 410- and 660-km discontinuities are sharp. The 660-km discontinuity is at most 2 km thick in many parts of the region, and a first-order discontinuity cannot be precluded. The 410-km discontinuity thickness shows

  1. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Bersini

    Full Text Available It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE, describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.

  2. Confidence regions for fabric shape diagrams (United States)

    Ringrose, Trevor J.; Benn, Douglas I.


    Fabric shape is often quantified using the three eigenvalues from the 'orientation tensor' method applied to a sample of directions. Several studies have used eigenvalues plotted on fabric shape diagrams to distinguish sedimentary facies or strain histories. However, such studies seldom consider how well the sample eigenvalues represent the true fabric shape. In this paper, we use 'bootstrapping' techniques to define confidence regions for sample eigenvalues, and show that sample and population eigenvalues may differ substantially. Confidence regions are often very large for small sample sizes, and we recommend that sample sizes should be at least 50.

  3. The iron-niobium phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelaya Bejarano, J.M. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia); Gama, S. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin); Ribeiro, C.A. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin); Effenberg, G. (Materials Science International Services GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany))


    This work presents an experimental study of the binary Fe-Nb phase diagram, using techniques al optical metallography, X-ray diffraction. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and electron microprobe. Our results re-define the existence range for the phases Fe[sub 2]Nb and Fe[sub 21]Nb[sub 19], point out the peritectic nature of the latter phase, and indicate the metastability of the Fe[sub 2]Nb[sub 3] phase and the non-existence of a high-temperature phase with stoichiometry Fe[sub 11]Nb[sub 89] in this system. (orig.)

  4. Influence diagrams for speed profile optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Václav; Vomlel, Jiří


    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2017), s. 567-586 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Influence diagrams * Optimal control * Vehicle control Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016

  5. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Stathopoulos, Andreas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Yoon, Boram [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)


    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  6. Twistor diagrams and massless Moeller scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, A.P.


    The theory of twistor diagrams, as devised by Penrose, is intended to lead to a manifestly finite account of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The theory is here extended to a more general type of interaction between massless fields than has hitherto been described. It is applied to the example of first-order massless Moeller scattering in quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that earlier studies of this example have failed to render a correct account, in particular by overlooking an infrared divergency, but that the scattering data can nevertheless be represented within the twistor formalism. (author)

  7. A practical guide to Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, K.C.


    These lectures serve as an introduction to the basic ideas of relativistic quantum theory, perturbation theory and the Feynman diagram calculus, in the context of electromagnetic interactions. The main objective is to get the student as rapidly as possible to the point where he can calculate the lowest order cross-sections for a variety of two-body electromagnetic processes. The techniques are considered under the headings: relativistic wave equations, electrodynamics of spinless particles, and electrodynamics of spin-1/2 particles. A selection of problems and exercises is included. (U.K.)

  8. Influence Diagrams for Optimal Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Andreas


    Over the last two decades Bayesian networks and influence diagrams have received notable attention within the field of artificial intelligence and expert systems. During the last few years the technology has been further developed for problem solving within other engineering fields. The objective...... methods FORM/SORM. The Bayesian network model is argumented by decision and utility nodes, thus forming a full decision model for inspection planning. With the applied program package the optimal inspection plan is easily obtained. Moreover, the updating facilities allow for fast changes of the inspection...

  9. More on boundary holographic Witten diagrams (United States)

    Sato, Yoshiki


    In this paper we discuss geodesic Witten diagrams in general holographic conformal field theories with boundary or defect. In boundary or defect conformal field theory, two-point functions are nontrivial and can be decomposed into conformal blocks in two distinct ways; ambient channel decomposition and boundary channel decomposition. In our previous work [A. Karch and Y. Sato, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2017) 121., 10.1007/JHEP09(2017)121] we only consider two-point functions of same operators. We generalize our previous work to a situation where operators in two-point functions are different. We obtain two distinct decomposition for two-point functions of different operators.

  10. Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.


    Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru

  11. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng


    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  12. Employment of neural networks for analysis of chemical composition and cooling rate effect on CCT diagrams shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Trzaska, J.


    The paper presents possibility of employment of the original supercooled austenite transformation anisothermic diagrams forecasting method for analysis of the chemical composition effect on the CCT diagrams shape. The developed model makes it possible to substitute computer simulation for the costly and time consuming experiments. The information derived from calculations make it possible to plot diagrams illustrating the effects of the particular elements or pairs of elements, as well as cooling rate and/or austenitizing temperature, on any temperature or time describing transformations in steel during its continuous cooling. Evaluation is also possible of the effect of the aforementioned factors on hardness and fractions of the particular structural constituents. (author)

  13. P and SH velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath Northeast China: Evidence for a stagnant slab in hydrous mantle transition zone (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiujiao; Yuen, David A.


    Using high-dense regional body waves for three deep earthquakes that occurred around Russia-China border, we investigate both S and P wave velocity structures in the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast China and northern part of North China Craton, where the northwestern Pacific plate is imaged to subhorizontally lie above the 660-km discontinuity. We observe an increasing trend of S-P travel time residuals along the epicentral distance within a distance range of 11-16.5°, indicating a velocity anomaly in MTZ. We seek the simplest model that explains the observed broadband waveforms and relative travel times of triplication for a confined azimuth sector. Both SH and P data suggest a ˜140±20 km high velocity layer lying above a slightly depressed and broad 660-km discontinuity. Shear velocity reduction of ˜2.5% in the deeper part of the transition zone is required to compensate for the significantly large relative time between AB and CD triplicate branches and the increased trending of S-P travel time residuals as well. The MTZ, as a whole, is featured by low shear velocity and high Vp/Vs ratio. A water-rich mantle transition zone with 0.2-0.4 wt% of H2O may account for the discrepancy between the observed Vp and Vs velocity structures. Our result supports the scenario of a viscosity-dominated stagnant slab with an increased thickness of ˜140 km, which was caused by the large viscosity contrast between the lower and upper mantles. The addition of water and eastward trench retreat might facilitate stagnation of the subducting Pacific slab beneath Northeast China.

  14. VennDiagram: a package for the generation of highly-customizable Venn and Euler diagrams in R. (United States)

    Chen, Hanbo; Boutros, Paul C


    Visualization of orthogonal (disjoint) or overlapping datasets is a common task in bioinformatics. Few tools exist to automate the generation of extensively-customizable, high-resolution Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment. To fill this gap we introduce VennDiagram, an R package that enables the automated generation of highly-customizable, high-resolution Venn diagrams with up to four sets and Euler diagrams with up to three sets. The VennDiagram package offers the user the ability to customize essentially all aspects of the generated diagrams, including font sizes, label styles and locations, and the overall rotation of the diagram. We have implemented scaled Venn and Euler diagrams, which increase graphical accuracy and visual appeal. Diagrams are generated as high-definition TIFF files, simplifying the process of creating publication-quality figures and easing integration with established analysis pipelines. The VennDiagram package allows the creation of high quality Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment.

  15. Phase Diagram of Spiking Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed eSeyed-Allaei


    Full Text Available In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probablilty of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations. but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution. I simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable by nature. Networks which are configured according to the common values, have the best dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is more robust in respect to synaptic weights. In fact, evolution has favored networks of best dynamic range. I present a phase diagram that shows the dynamic ranges of different networks of different parameteres. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters -- excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. It may serve as a guideline to decide about the values of parameters in a simulation of spiking neural network.

  16. Magnetic phase diagrams of UNiGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakotte, H.; Torikachvili, M.S.; Lacerda, A.H.


    UNiGe undergoes two magnetic transitions in zero field. Here, the magnetic diagrams of UNiGe for B parallel b and B parallel c are reported. We performed temperature scans of the magnetization in static magnetic fields up to 19.5 T applied along the b and c axes. For both orientations three magnetic phases have been identified in the B-T diagrams. We confirmed the previously reported phase boundaries for B parallel c, and in addition we determined the location of the phase boundaries for B parallel b. We discuss a possible relationship of the two zero-field antiferromagnetic phases (commensurate: T<42 K; incommensurate: 42 K< T<50 K) and the field-induced phase, which at low temperatures, occurs between 18 and 25 T or 4 and 10 T for B parallel b or B parallel c, respectively. Finally, we discuss the field dependence of the electronic contribution γ to the specific heat for B parallel c up to 17.5 T, and we find that its field dependence is similar to the one found in more itinerant uranium compounds. (orig.)

  17. Phase Coexistence in a Dynamic Phase Diagram. (United States)

    Gentile, Luigi; Coppola, Luigi; Balog, Sandor; Mortensen, Kell; Ranieri, Giuseppe A; Olsson, Ulf


    Metastability and phase coexistence are important concepts in colloidal science. Typically, the phase diagram of colloidal systems is considered at the equilibrium without the presence of an external field. However, several studies have reported phase transition under mechanical deformation. The reason behind phase coexistence under shear flow is not fully understood. Here, multilamellar vesicle (MLV)-to-sponge (L3 ) and MLV-to-Lα transitions upon increasing temperature are detected using flow small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Coexistence of Lα and MLV phases at 40 °C under shear flow is detected by using flow NMR spectroscopy. The unusual rheological behavior observed by studying the lamellar phase of a non-ionic surfactant is explained using (2) H NMR and diffusion flow NMR spectroscopy with the coexistence of planar lamellar-multilamellar vesicles. Moreover, a dynamic phase diagram over a wide range of temperatures is proposed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Magnetic phase diagrams of UNiGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakotte, H.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.


    UNiGe undergoes two magnetic transitions in zero field. Here, the magnetic diagrams of UNiGe for B parallel b and B parallel c are reported. We performed temperatures scans of the magnetization in static magnetic fields up to 19.5T applied along the b and c axes. For both orientations 3 magnetic phases have been identified in the B-T diagrams. We confirmed the previously reported phase boundaries for B parallel c, and in addition we determined the location of the phase boundaries for B parallel b. We discuss a possible relationship of the two zero-field antiferromagnetic phases (commensurate: T<42K; incommensurate: 42K< T<50K) and the field-induced phase, which, at low temperatures, occurs between 18 and 25T or 4 and 10T for B parallel b or B parallel c, respectively. Finally, we discuss the field dependence of the electronic contribution γ to the specific heat for B parallel c up to 17.5T, and we find that its field dependence is similar to the one found in more itinerant uranium compounds

  19. The structural phase diagram and oxygen equilibrium partial pressure of YBa2CU3O6+x studied by neutron powder diffraction and gas volumetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.H.; Lebech, B.; Poulsen, H.F.


    observations lend strong support to a recent two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour Ising model calculation (the ASYNNNI model) of the basal plane oxygen ordering based of first principle interaction parameters. Simultaneous measurements of the oxygen equilibrium partial pressure show anomalies......, one of which proves the thermodynamic stability of the orthorhombic OII double cell structure. Striking similarity with predictions of recent model calculations support that another anomaly may be interpreted to result from local one-dimensional fluctuations in the distribution of oxygen atoms...

  20. Spectroscopy, crystal structure, valance molecular orbital energy level diagram and DFT study of cis-[Cr(2,2'-bipy) 2Cl 2](Cl) 0.38(PF 6) 0.62 (United States)

    Kar, Tapas; Liao, Meng-Sheng; Biswas, Susobhan; Sarkar, Saikat; Dey, Kamalendu; Yap, Glenn P. A.; Kreisel, Kevin


    A new octahedral chromium(III) complex having 2,2'-bipyridine as ligand system was synthesized in methanol. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that it possesses non-stoichiometry in its anionic primary covalency. It has also been studied by elemental analyses, optical spectroscopy (UV-vis, IR) and magnetic susceptibility data. DFT calculations (with B3LYP functional and double-ξ quality LANLDZ(D95V) basis set) were carried out to interpret the electronic and infrared spectra of the complex. The DFT optimized geometric structure for the complex is compared with the X-ray crystallographic data; the theory-experiment agreement is satisfactory.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan ESAT


    Full Text Available The Eskişehir Fault Zone is one of the prominent neotectonic structures of Turkey. It separates the west  Anatolian extensional province and the strike-slip induced northwest central Anatolian contractional area in the Anatolian Block. Its southeastern part is generally divided into three branches, namely the Ilıca, Yeniceoba, and Cihanbeyli from north to south, respectively. The right lateral strike-slip Ilıca branch (IB is an approximately 100-km-long fault and it is composed of several segments in a northwest-southeast direction. The slickensides, subsidiary fractures, cataclastic zone, fracture-controlled drainage pattern, right lateral stream deflections, deformation in the Quaternary unit observing in the seismic reflection sections, and seismicity of the region all indicate that the IB is an active right lateral strike-slip fault. The IB has also a regional tectonic importance as a boundary fault between the contractional and the extensional regions in central Anatolia considering that it is the southern limit of the contraction-related structures in the west-southwest of Ankara.

  2. The influence of the road layout on the Network Fundamental Diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; De Jong, D.M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    The Macroscopic or Network Fundamental Diagram (NFD) describes the relationship between the network flow and the number of travellers within the network. The shape of the NFD is important for control purposes like perimeter control or routing. However, it is unknown how the network structure

  3. The influence of the road layout on the Network Fundamental Diagram (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; De Jong, D.M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    It is analyzed what the effect is of the exact network structure on the shape of the Network Fundamental Diagram (NFD). In order to do so, a tool is developed which can create random networks for which the aggregated properties are the same. Using this tool, different urban networks with the same

  4. On the Impact of Layout Quality to Understanding UML Diagrams: Diagram Type and Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald


    Practical experience suggests that the use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. In previous work, we have presented evidence supporting this intuition. This contrasts with earlier experiments that yielded weak or inconclusive evidence only. In the ...

  5. Dykes and structures of the NE rift of Tenerife, Canary Islands: a record of stabilisation and destabilisation of ocean island rift zones (United States)

    Delcamp, A.; Troll, V. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Carracedo, J. C.; Petronis, M. S.; Pérez-Torrado, F. J.; Deegan, F. M.


    Many oceanic island rift zones are associated with lateral sector collapses, and several models have been proposed to explain this link. The North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) of Tenerife Island, Spain offers an opportunity to explore this relationship, as three successive collapses are located on both sides of the rift. We have carried out a systematic and detailed mapping campaign on the rift zone, including analysis of about 400 dykes. We recorded dyke morphology, thickness, composition, internal textural features and orientation to provide a catalogue of the characteristics of rift zone dykes. Dykes were intruded along the rift, but also radiate from several nodes along the rift and form en échelon sets along the walls of collapse scars. A striking characteristic of the dykes along the collapse scars is that they dip away from rift or embayment axes and are oblique to the collapse walls. This dyke pattern is consistent with the lateral spreading of the sectors long before the collapse events. The slump sides would create the necessary strike-slip movement to promote en échelon dyke patterns. The spreading flank would probably involve a basal decollement. Lateral flank spreading could have been generated by the intense intrusive activity along the rift but sectorial spreading in turn focused intrusive activity and allowed the development of deep intra-volcanic intrusive complexes. With continued magma supply, spreading caused temporary stabilisation of the rift by reducing slopes and relaxing stress. However, as magmatic intrusion persisted, a critical point was reached, beyond which further intrusion led to large-scale flank failure and sector collapse. During the early stages of growth, the rift could have been influenced by regional stress/strain fields and by pre-existing oceanic structures, but its later and mature development probably depended largely on the local volcanic and magmatic stress/strain fields that are effectively controlled by the rift zone growth

  6. Solution electrostatic levitator for measuring surface properties and bulk structures of an extremely supersaturated solution drop above metastable zone width limit (United States)

    Lee, Sooheyong; Jo, Wonhyuk; Cho, Yong chan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Lee, Geun Woo


    We report on the first integrated apparatus for measuring surface and thermophysical properties and bulk structures of a highly supersaturated solution by combining electrostatic levitation with real-time laser/x-ray scattering. Even today, a proper characterization of supersaturated solutions far above their solubility limits is extremely challenging because heterogeneous nucleation sites such as container walls or impurities readily initiate crystallization before the measurements can be performed. In this work, we demonstrate simultaneous measurements of drying kinetics and surface tension of a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) aqueous solution droplet and its bulk structural evolution beyond the metastable zone width limit. Our experimental finding shows that the noticeable changes of the surface properties are accompanied by polymerizations of hydrated monomer clusters. The novel electrostatic levitation apparatus presented here provides an effective means for studying a wide range of highly concentrated solutions and liquids in deep metastable states.

  7. Characteristics of the Lithology, Fault-Related Rocks and Fault Zone Structures in TCDP Hole-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Rong Song


    Full Text Available The main objective of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP was to conduct an in-depth probe into a fault zone of recent major activity so as to gain a better understanding of and more insight into the physical, mechanical and chemical properties involved. By the end of 2004, with the completion of the drilling of Hole-A, cuttings from 0 to 431.34 m and cores from a 431.34- to 2003.26-m depth had been obtained. Stratigraphically, the Pliocene to Pleistocene Cholan Formation is found from the surface to a 1029-m depth and is predominantly composed of sandstone and sandstone-siltstone alternations with weak to intense bioturbation. The Pliocene Chinshui Formation is observed from a depth of 1029- to 1303-m and predominantly consists of siltstone with weak bioturbation. From 1303- to 1712-m down there is the late Miocene to early Pliocene Kueichulin Formation which is predominantly composed of massive sandstone with minor siltstone. Below 1712 m, the Formation again resembles the younger Cholan Formation with mollusca-rich, thick, layered shale and heavy bioturbated sandstone. Four types of fault-related rocks are identified in the cores. They are the fault breccia, gouges, foliated and non-foliated cataclasites and pseudotachylytes. At least six major fault zones are found in the cores: FZ1111, FZ1153, FZ1220, FZ1580, FZ1712, and FZ1812. Among these, FZ1111 most probably corresponds to the slip surface of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the Chelungpu fault, while FZ1712 very likely represents the Sanyi fault.

  8. Etude de la structure d'une population de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. dans une zone à barbeau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Au total 16 espèces de poissons, dont la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. ont été recensées par pêche électrique dans le cours aval de la rivière Colmont, classée rivière à salmonidés dominants, et un de ses affluents. La présence de gros cyprins d'eaux vives (barbeau, Barbus barbus L., et chevaine, Leuciscus cephalus L. et de quelques espèces de cyprins d'eaux lentes est une caractéristique de la zone à barbeau. Parmi les cyprins, les espèces les plus abondantes sont le goujon (Gobio gobio L. et le chevaine présent dans tous les types d'habitats de la rivière. La population de truites se caractérise par : — une faible densité dans la rivière et l'affluent et par une bonne croissance. Ces deux paramètres montrent des variations annuelles. — une ségrégation spatiale des classes d'âge ; les truites 0+ sont localisées principalement dans l'affluent, alors que dans la rivière les truites sont âgées d'au moins 1 an et sont présentes uniquement dans les zones rapide-radier. Les caractéristiques de cette population de truite sont discutées en considérant l'interaction possible avec les autres populations pisciaires dans un milieu dont l'habitat est dégradé.

  9. Investigation of the Thermodynamic Process of the Refrigerator Compressor Based on the m-θ Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang


    Full Text Available The variation of refrigerant mass in the cylinder of refrigerator compressor has a great influence on the compressor’s thermodynamic process. In this paper, the m-θ diagram, which represents the variation of refrigerant mass in compressor cylinder (m and the crank angle (θ, is proposed to investigate the thermodynamic process of the refrigerator compressor. Comparing with the traditional pressure-Volume (p-V indicator diagram, the refrigerant’s backflow trigged by the delayed closure of valve can be clearly expressed in the m-θ diagram together with the mass flow rate. A typical m-θ diagram was obtained by experimental and theoretical investigations. To improve the thermodynamic model of the compressor, a 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI FEA model has been introduced to find out the effective flow area of the valves. Based on the m-θ diagram, the effect of rotating speed on the backflow through the valve, which depends on the movement of the valve, has been investigated. Specific to the compressor used in this study, the maximum backflow through the suction valve and discharge valve occur at 3500 r·min−1 and 5500 r·min−1, respectively.

  10. Darwin's diagram of divergence of taxa as a causal model for the origin of species. (United States)

    Bouzat, Juan L


    On the basis that Darwin's theory of evolution encompasses two logically independent processes (common descent and natural selection), the only figure in On the Origin of Species (the Diagram of Divergence of Taxa) is often interpreted as illustrative of only one of these processes: the branching patterns representing common ancestry. Here, I argue that Darwin's Diagram of Divergence of Taxa represents a broad conceptual model of Darwin's theory, illustrating the causal efficacy of natural selection in producing well-defined varieties and ultimately species. The Tree Diagram encompasses the idea that natural selection explains common descent and the origin of organic diversity, thus representing a comprehensive model of Darwin's theory on the origin of species. I describe Darwin's Tree Diagram in relation to his argumentative strategy under the vera causa principle, and suggest that the testing of his theory based on the evidence from the geological record, the geographical distribution of organisms, and the mutual affinities of organic beings can be framed under the hypothetico-deductive method. Darwin's Diagram of Divergence of Taxa therefore represents a broad conceptual model that helps understanding the causal construction of Darwin's theory of evolution, the structure of his argumentative strategy, and the nature of his scientific methodology.

  11. Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Yves [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Mija, Alice [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne; Felder, Eric [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas, E-mail: [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)


    Highlights: {yields} Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. {yields} The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. {yields} Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

  12. An improved synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, NMR) study and DFT computational analysis (IR, NMR, UV-Vis, MEP diagrams, NBO, NLO, FMO) of the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole core structure (United States)

    Uludağ, Nesimi; Serdaroğlu, Goncagül


    This study examines the synthesis of azocino[4,3-b]indole structure, which constitutes the tetracyclic framework of uleine, dasycarpidoneand tubifolidineas well as ABDE substructure of the strychnosalkaloid family. It has been synthesized by Fischer indolization of 2 and through the cylization of 4 by 2,3-dichlor-5-6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ). 1H and 1C NMR chemical shifts have been predicted with GIAO approach and the calculated chemical shifts show very good agreement with observed shifts. FT-IR spectroscopy is important for the analysis of functional groups of synthesized compounds and we also supported FT-IR vibrational analysis with computational IR analysis. The vibrational spectral analysis was performed at B3LYP level of the theory in both the gas and the water phases and it was compared with the observed IR values for the important functional groups. The DFT calculations have been conducted to determine the most stable structure of the 1,2,3,4,5,6,7-Hexahydro-1,5-methanoazocino [4,3-b] indole (5). The Frontier Molecular Orbital Analysis, quantum chemical parameters, physicochemical properties have been predicted by using the same theory of level in both gas phase and the water phase, at 631 + g** and 6311++g** basis sets. TD- DFT calculations have been performed to predict the UV- Vis spectral analysis for this synthesized molecule. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis have been performed at B3LYP level of theory to elucidate the intra-molecular interactions such as electron delocalization and conjugative interactions. NLO calculations were conducted to obtain the electric dipole moment and polarizability of the title compound.

  13. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig


    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  14. Prediction of Continuous Cooling Diagrams for the Precision Forged Tempering Steel 50CrMo4 by Means of Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Nürnberger


    Full Text Available Quenching and tempering of precision forged components using their forging heat leads to reduced process energy and shortens the usual process chains. To design such a process, neither the isothermal transformation diagrams (TTT nor the continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams from literature can be used to predict microstructural transformations during quenching since the latter diagrams are significantly influenced by previous deformations and process-related high austenitising temperatures. For this reason, deformation CCT diagrams for several tempering steels from previous works have been investigated taking into consideration the process conditions of precision forging. Within the scope of the present work, these diagrams are used as input data for predicting microstructural transformations by means of artificial neural networks. Several artificial neural network structures have been examined using the commercial software MATLAB. Predictors have been established with satisfactory capabilities for predicting CCT diagrams for different degrees of deformation within the analyzed range of data.

  15. Can structural and functional characteristics be used to identify riparian zone width in southern Appalachian headwater catchments? (United States)

    Barton Clinton; James Vose; Jennifer Knoepp; Katherine Elliott; Barbara Reynolds; Stanley Zarnock


    We characterized structural and functional attributes along hillslope gradients in headwater catchments. We endeavored to identify parameters that described significant transitions along the hillslope. On each of four catchments, we installed eight 50 m transects perpendicular to the stream. Structural attributes included woody and herbaceous vegetation; woody debris...

  16. Hydration Phase Diagram of Clay Particles from Molecular Simulations. (United States)

    Honorio, Tulio; Brochard, Laurent; Vandamme, Matthieu


    Adsorption plays a fundamental role in the behavior of clays. Because of the confinement between solid clay layers on the nanoscale, adsorbed water is structured in layers, which can occupy a specific volume. The transition between these states is intimately related to key features of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. In this article, we consider the hydration states of clays as phases and the transition between these states as phase changes. The thermodynamic formulation supporting this idea is presented. Then, the results from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of sodium montmorillonite are used to derive hydration phase diagrams. The stability analysis presented here explains the coexistence of different hydration states at clay particle scale and improves our understanding of the irreversibilities of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. Our results provide insights into the mechanics of the elementary constituents of clays, which is crucial for a better understanding of the macroscopic behavior of clay-rich rocks and soils.

  17. Phase diagrams and heterogeneous equilibria a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Predel, Bruno; Pool, Monte


    This graduate-level textbook provides an introduction to the practical application of phase diagrams. It is intended for students and researchers in chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy, and materials science as well as in engineering and physics. Heterogeneous equilibria are described by a minimum of theory illustrated by practical examples and realistic case discussions from the different fields of application. The treatment of the physical and energetic background of phase equilibria leads to the discussion of the thermodynamics of mixtures and the correlation between energetics and composition. Thus, tools for the prediction of energetic, structural, and physical quantities are provided. The authors treat the nucleation of phase transitions, the production and stability of technologically important metastable phases, and metallic glasses. Furthermore, the text also concisely presents the thermodynamics and composition of polymer systems.

  18. Phase diagrams of rare earth metals with gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsenko, S.P.; Semyannikov, A.A.; Semenov, B.G.; Chuntonov, K.A.


    From the results obtained by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction, the state diagrams of the binary systems R-Ga where R=Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu are proposed. The liquidus line near Ga has been determined using the solubility data of R in liquid gallium. The previously unknown compounds Sc 5 Ga 4 , ScGa 2 , ScGa 3 , EuGa, DyGa 3 , Er 2 Ga 3 , Tm 2 Ga 3 , TmGa 2 , YbGa, Lu 2 Ga 3 and LuGa 2 are found. ScGa 3 crystallizes in a cubic structure of the AuCu 3 type. A short discussion of the change in the thermal stability of the intermediate phase and its dependence on the order number of the component R is given. (Auth.)

  19. A particle tracking velocimetry algorithm based on the Voronoi diagram (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Bin; He, Wenbo


    Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) algorithms have great applications in tracking discrete particles across successive images. In managing complex flows, classic PTV algorithms typically follow delicate concepts that may lead to a higher risk of disturbance caused by the parameter settings. To avoid such a ‘closure problem’, a PTV algorithm based on the Voronoi diagram (VD-PTV) is developed. This algorithm has a simple structure, as it is designed to possess only one controlling parameter. The VD-PTV is tested using two types of synthetic flows. The result shows that the VD-PTV exhibits a stable performance with good accuracy level and is independent of parameter pre-setting. Moreover, the VD-PTV demonstrates satisfactory computing speed.

  20. Decomposition of business process models into reusable sub-diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewski Piotr


    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to automatic decomposition of business process models is proposed. According to our method, an existing BPMN diagram is disassembled into reusable parts containing the desired number of elements. Such elements and structure can work as design patterns and be validated by a user in terms of correctness. In the next step, these component models are categorised considering their parameters such as resources used, as well as input and output data. The classified components may be considered a repository of reusable parts, that can be further applied in the design of new models. The proposed technique may play a significant role in facilitating the business process redesign procedure, which is of a great importance regarding engineering and industrial applications.