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Sample records for structural insulated panel

  1. Lightweight, Thermally Insulating Structural Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard J.; Hickey, Gregory; Wen, Liang-Chi; Layman, William E.; Rainen, Richard A.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight, thermally insulating panels that also serve as structural members developed. Honeycomb-core panel filled with low-thermal-conductivity, opacified silica aerogel preventing convection and minimizes internal radiation. Copper coating on face sheets reduces radiation. Overall thermal conductivities of panels smaller than state-of-art commercial non-structurally-supporting foam and fibrous insulations. On Earth, panels suitable for use in low-air-pressure environments in which lightweight, compact, structurally supporting insulation needed; for example, aboard high-altitude aircraft or in partially evacuated panels in refrigerators.

  2. Manufacturing and Structural Feasibility of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Structural Insulated Panels for Panelized Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are emerging in the fields of automobile and aerospace industries to replace the parts such as body panels, seats, and other parts subjected to higher bending strength. In the construction industries, they have the potential to replace the wood and oriented strand boards (OSB laminates in the structural insulated panels (SIPs. They possess numerous advantages over traditional OSB SIPs such as being environmental friendly, recyclable, energy efficient, inherently flood resistant, and having higher strength and wind resistance. This paper mainly focuses on the manufacturing feasibility and structural characterization of natural fiber reinforced structural insulated panels (NSIPs using natural fiber reinforced polymeric (NFRP laminates as skin. To account for the use of natural fibers, the pretreatments are required on natural fibers prior to use in NFRP laminates, and, to address this issue properly, the natural fibers were given bleaching pretreatments. To this end, flexure test and low-velocity impact (LVI tests were carried out on NSIPs in order to evaluate the response of NSIPs under sudden impact loading and uniform bending conditions typical of residential construction. The paper also includes a comparison of mechanical properties of NSIPs with OSB SIPs and G/PP SIPs. The results showed significant increase in the mechanical properties of resulting NSIP panels mainly a 53% increase in load-carrying capacity compared to OSB SIPs. The bending modulus of NSIPs is 190% higher than OSB SIPs and 70% weight reduction compared to OSB SIPs.

  3. Panels of microporous insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.J.

    1990-08-07

    Microporous thermal insulation materials have a lattice structure in which the average interstitial dimension is less than the mean free path of the molecules of air or other gas in which the material is arranged. This results in a heat flow which is less than that attributable to the molecular heat diffusion of the gas. According to this invention, a method is provided for manufacturing panels of microporous thermal insulation, in particular such panels in which the insulation material is bonded to a substrate. The method comprises the steps of applying a film of polyvinyl acetate emulsion to a non-porous substrate, and compacting powdery microporous thermal insulation material against the film so as to cause the consolidated insulation material to bond to the substrate and form a panel. The polyvinyl acetate may be applied by brushing or spraying, and is preferably allowed to dry prior to compacting the insulation material. 1 fig.

  4. Screening life cycle assessment study of a sisal fibre reinforced micro-concrete structural insulated panel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available First international conference on composites, biocomposites and nanocomposites, DUT, Durban, South Africa, 2-4 December 2013 SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT STUDY OFA SISAL FIBRE REINFORCED MICRO-CONCRETE STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL Naa Lamkai Ampofo...

  5. Seismic Evaluation of Structural Insulated Panels in Comparison with Wood-Frame Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Terentiuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural Insulated Panel (SIP wall systems have been used in residential and light commercial buildings for the past sixty years. Lack of sufficient published research on racking load performance and limited understanding of the influence of fastener types on seismic response has been a deterrent in widespread use of the wall system in seismically active areas. This paper presents the results of a study involving a total of twenty one 2.4 m × 2.4 m shear walls tested under monotonic and cyclic loading. Four different 114 mm thick SIP panel configurations and one traditional wood frame wall were tested under monotonic loading according to ASTM E 564-06; and thirteen 114 mm thick SIP panels and three wood frame walls were tested under the CUREE loading protocol according to ASTM E 2126-11. Parameters such as fastener type; spline design; hold-down anchor location; and sheathing bearing were adjusted throughout the testing in order to determine their effects on the SIP’s performance. Performance parameters such as peak load and displacement; energy dissipation; allowable drift load capacity and seismic compatibility were determined for all of the specimens. Such parameters were then used to demonstrate the SIP walls’ compatibility with the wood frame walls and to determine the efficiency of the different SIP wall configuration and spline systems employed.

  6. Creep Behavior of Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS): Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight McDonald; Marshall Begel; C. Adam Senalik; Robert Ross; Thomas D. Skaggs; Borjen Yeh; Thomas Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Structural insulated panels (SIPs) have been recognized as construction materials in the International Residential Code (IRC) since 2009. Although most SIPs are used in wall applications, they can also be used as roof or floor panels that are subjected to long-term transverse loading, for which SIP creep performance may be critical in design. However, limited...

  7. Thermal insulating panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.T.

    1985-09-11

    A panel of thermal insulation material has at least one main portion which comprises a dry particulate insulation material compressed within a porous envelope so that it is rigid or substantially rigid and at least one auxiliary portion which is secured to and extends along at least one of the edges of the main portions. The auxiliary portions comprise a substantially uncompressed dry particulate insulation material contained within an envelope. The insulation material of the auxiliary portion may be the same as or may be different from the insulation material of the main portion. The envelope of the auxiliary portion may be made of a porous or a non-porous material. (author).

  8. Structure, Mechanism, and Application of Vacuum Insulation Panels in Chinese Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhai Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is one of the most used approaches to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs are new thermal insulation materials that have been used in the domestic and overseas market in the last 20 years. Due to the vacuum thermal insulation technology of these new materials, their thermal conductivity can be as low as 0.004 W/(m·K at the center of panels. In addition, VIPs that are composites with inorganic core and an envelope out of commonly three metallized PET layers and a PE sealing layer can provide B class fire resistance (their core materials are not flammable and are classified as A1. Compared with other conventional thermal insulation materials, the thermal insulation and fire resistance performances form the foundation of VIP’s applications in the construction industry. The structure and thermal insulation mechanism of VIP and their application potential and problems in Chinese buildings are described in detail.

  9. Design Considerations for Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panels for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2016-01-01

    Simplified thermal/structural sizing equations were derived for the in-plane loading of a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Equations were developed for the strain in the inner and outer face sheets of a sandwich subjected to uniaxial mechanical loads and differences in face sheet temperatures. Simple equations describing situations with no viable solution were developed. Key design parameters, material properties, and design principles are identified. A numerical example illustrates using the equations for a preliminary feasibility assessment of various material combinations and an initial sizing for minimum mass of a sandwich panel.

  10. Reflecting variable opening insulating panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a reflecting variable opening insulating panel assembly, comprising a static panel assembly of reflecting insulation sheets forming a cavity along one side of the panel and a movable panel opening out by sliding from the cavity of the static panel, and a locking device for holding the movable panel in a position extending from the cavity of the static panel. This can apply to a nuclear reactor of which the base might require maintenance and periodical checking and for which it is desirable to have available certain processes for the partial dismantling of the insulation [fr

  11. Structure, Mechanism, and Application of Vacuum Insulation Panels in Chinese Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Changhai; Yang, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation is one of the most used approaches to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) are new thermal insulation materials that have been used in the domestic and overseas market in the last 20 years. Due to the vacuum thermal insulation technology of these new materials, their thermal conductivity can be as low as 0.004 W/(m·K) at the center of panels. In addition, VIPs that are composites with inorganic core and an envelope out of commonly three me...

  12. Análisis de ciclo de vida simplificado aplicado a viviendas de paneles SIP (structural insulated panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cárdenas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A medida que los asuntos ambientales se vuelven más importantes, las construcciones se han enfocado en su eficiencia energética y la energía necesaria para construir y producir los materiales. Esta investigación muestra un estudio de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida simplificado de energía operacional y energía contenida de cuatro viviendas nuevas ubicadas en Temuco, Chile, estructuradas con paneles SIP (Structural insulated panel para cuantificar la energía en cada etapa de este sistema de construcción. Para obtener la energía contenida, fueron utilizadas dos bases de datos internacionales para cuantificar la energía de cada material y se determinó la energía contenida en el proceso relacionado a la estructura de paneles SIP a través de mediciones en una compañía especializada en construcción de paneles SIP. Para la energía operacional, se llevaron a cabo modelos computacionales con el software Design Builder y se proyectó esta energía con una vida útil de 50 años. El análisis de la información obtenida muestra que la energía contenida por procesos de construcción representa cerca del 1.7% de la energía contenida y mientras que el total de energía contenida representa el 11% de la energía del ciclo de vida total de las viviendas, el remanente 89% representa la energía de operación. Por otro lado, observamos que las viviendas con paneles SIP generan cifras cercanas al 60% en ahorro en demanda energética, comparadas a las viviendas de mampostería estructural normalmente construidas en esta ciudad.

  13. Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, David [Home Innovation Research Labs; Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs

    2018-03-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a roof/attic energy retrofit solution using nail-base insulated panels for existing homes where traditional attic insulation approaches are not effective or feasible. Nail-base insulated panels (retrofit panels) consist of rigid foam insulation laminated to one face of a wood structural panel. The prefabricated panels are installed above the existing roof deck during a reroofing effort.

  14. Failure mode prediction for composite structural insulated panels with MgO board facings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakosz, Łukasz; Kreja, Ireneusz

    2018-01-01

    Sandwich panels are readily used in civil engineering due to their high strength to weight ratio and the ease and speed of assembly. The idea of a sandwich section is to combine thin and durable facings with a light-weight core and the choice of materials used allows obtaining the desired behaviour. Panels in consideration consist of MgO (magnesium oxide) board facings and expanded polystyrene core and are characterized by immunity to biological corrosion, a high thermal insulation and a relatively low impact on environment. Customizing the range of panels to meet market needs requires frequent size changes, leading to different failure modes, which are identified in a series of costly full-scale laboratory tests. A nonlinear numerical model was created with a use of a commercial ABAQUS code and a user-defined procedure, which is able to reproduce observed failure mechanisms; its parameters were established on the basis of small-scale tests and numerical experiments. The model was validated by a comparison with the results of the full-scale bending and compression tests. The results obtained were in satisfactory agreement with the test data.

  15. FEA of the Variations in Sound Insulation in Nominally Identical Prefabricated Lightweight Timber Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The measurements of sound propagation in buildings usually show a variation between nominally identical constructed structures. These variations can be due to variations in structural properties, measurement uncertainties or workmanship related factors. Better knowledge about the source...... for these variations can lead to lowered production costs. The present paper presents a numerical analysis of the variations in sound propagation of norminally identical prefabricated lightweight timber panel structues. By using the commercial FEA software ABAQUS, a parameter study is carried out regarding variation...

  16. Economical evaluation of damaged vacuum insulation panels in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. M.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, G. S.; Kang, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In Korea, thermal insulation standard of buildings have been tightened annually to satisfy the passive house standard from the year 2009. The current domestic policies about disseminating green buildings are progressively conducted. All buildings should be the zero energy building in the year 2025, obligatorily. The method is applied to one of the key technologies for high-performance insulation for zero energy building. The vacuum insulation panel is an excellent high performance insulation. But thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels is reduced significantly. In this paper, the thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels was compared and analyzed. The measurement result of thermal performance depends on the core material type. The insulation of building envelope is usually selected by economic feasibility. To evaluate the economic feasibility of VIPs, the operation cost was analyzed by simulation according to the types and damaged ratio of VIPs

  17. The Improvement of Thermal Insulating Concrete Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Nasser Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Iraqi houses flattening the roof by a concrete panel, and because of the panels on the top directly exposed to the solar radiation become unbearably hot and cold during the summer and winter. The traditional concrete panel components are cement, sand, and aggregate, which have a poor thermal property. The usage of materials with low thermal conductivity with no negative reflects on its mechanical properties gives good improvements to the thermal properties of the concrete panel. The practical part of this work was built on a multi-stage mixing plan. In the first stage the mixing ratio based on the ratios of the sand to cement. The second stage mixing ratios based on replacing the coarse aggregate quantities with the Alabaster aggregates, and the third stage the mixing ratios based on the replacement of wood ash instead of the sand. While the fourth stage mixing ratios based on decreasing the thermal conductivity and increasing mechanical properties by adding a multilayer of a plastic net. The result shows that using a concrete panel with components (cement, sand, coarse aggregate, wood ash, and Alabaster aggregates with a mass ratio of (1:1:2:1:1 and 3-plastic layers, gives the best improvement of the thermal properties. Where, the thermal conductivity is reduced by 42% and the specific heat increased by 41.2% as compared to the traditional concrete panel mixing ratio, with mechanical properties are agreed with the Iraqi standards.

  18. Vacuum insulation panels for building applications: A review and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetens, Ruben [Department of Building Materials and Structures, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Laboratory of Building Physics, Department of Civil Engineering, Catholic University of Leuven (KUL), BE-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Jelle, Bjoern Petter [Department of Building Materials and Structures, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Thue, Jan Vincent [Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Tenpierik, Martin J. [Faculty of Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Grynning, Steinar; Uvsloekk, Sivert [Department of Building Materials and Structures, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Gustavsen, Arild [Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-02-15

    Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) are regarded as one of the most promising high performance thermal insulation solutions on the market today. Thermal performances three to six times better than still-air are achieved by applying a vacuum to an encapsulated micro-porous material, resulting in a great potential for combining the reduction of energy consumption in buildings with slim constructions. However, thermal bridging due to the panel envelope and degradation of thermal performance through time occurs with current technology. Furthermore, VIPs cannot be cut on site and the panels are fragile towards damaging. These effects have to be taken into account for building applications as they may diminish the overall usability and thermal performance. This paper is as far as the authors know the first comprehensive review on VIPs. Properties, requirements and possibilities of foil encapsulated VIPs for building applications are studied based on available literature, emphasizing thermal bridging and degradation through time. An extension is made towards gas-filled panels and aerogels, showing that other high performance thermal insulation solutions do exist. Combining the technology of these solutions and others may lead to a new leap forward. Feasible paths beyond VIPs are investigated and possibilities such as vacuum insulation materials (VIMs) and nano insulation materials (NIMs) are proposed. (author)

  19. Insulation structure of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Usami, Saburo; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an insulating structure of a thermonuclear device, in which insulation materials between toroidal coils are not broken even if superconductive toroidal coils are used. Namely, a tokamak type thermonuclear device of an insulating structure type comprises superconductive toroidal coils for confining plasmas arranged in a circular shape directing the center each at a predetermined angle, and the toroidal coils are insulated from each other. The insulation materials are formed by using a biaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics. The contact surface of the toroidal coils and the insulating materials are arranged so that they are contact at a woven surface of the fiber reinforced plastics. Either or both of the contact surfaces of the fiber reinforced plastics and the toroidal coils are coated with a high molecular compound having a low friction coefficient. With such a constitution, since the interlayer shearing strength of the biaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics is about 1/10 of the compression strength, the shearing stress exerted on the insulation material is reduced. Since a static friction coefficient on the contact surface is reduced to provide a structure causing slipping, shearing stress does not exceeds a predetermined limit. As a result, breakage of the insulation materials between the toroidal coils can be prevented. (I.S.)

  20. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes. PMID:25177718

  1. Composite Behavior of a Novel Insulated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panel Reinforced with GFRP Shear Grids: Effects of Insulation Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JunHee; You, Young-Chan

    2015-03-03

    A full-scale experimental program was used in this study to investigate the structural behavior of novel insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (SWPs) reinforced with grid-type glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) shear connectors. Two kinds of insulation-expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) with 100 mm thickness were incased between the two concrete wythes to meet the increasing demand for the insulation performance of building envelope. One to four GFRP shear grids were used to examine the degree of composite action of the two concrete wythes. Ten specimens of SWPs were tested under displacement control subjected to four-point concentrated loads. The test results showed that the SWPs reinforced with GFRP grids as shear connectors developed a high degree of composite action resulting in high flexural strength. The specimens with EPS foam exhibited an enhanced load-displacement behavior compared with the specimens with XPS because of the relatively stronger bond between insulation and concrete. In addition, the ultimate strength of the test results was compared to the analytical prediction with the mechanical properties of only GRFP grids. The specimens with EPS insulation presented higher strength-based composite action than the ones with XPS insulation.

  2. Detection of insulation flaws and thermal bridges in insulated truck box panels

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Lei; Bortolin, Alessandro; Bison, Paolo ©; Maldague, X.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection of defects and thermal bridges in insulated truck box panels, utilising infrared thermography. Unlike the traditional way in which passive thermography is applied, this research uses both heating and cooling methods in active thermography configurations. Lamp heating is used as the hot external stimulation, while a compressed air jet is applied as the cold external stimulation. A thermal camera captures the whole process. In addition, numerical simulations ...

  3. Advances in Thermal Insulation. Vacuum Insulation Panels and Thermal Efficiency to Reduce Energy Usage in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsell, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    We are coming to realize that there is an urgent need to reduce energy usage in buildings and it has to be done in a sustainable way. This thesis focuses on the performance of the building envelope; more precisely thermal performance of walls and super insulation material in the form of vacuum insulation. However, the building envelope is just one part of the whole building system, and super insulators have one major flaw: they are easily adversely affected by other problems in the built environment. Vacuum Insulation Panels are one fresh addition to the arsenal of insulation materials available to the building industry. They are composite material with a core and an enclosure which, as a composite, can reach thermal conductivities as low as 0.004 W/(mK). However, the exceptional performance relies on the barrier material preventing gas permeation, maintaining a near vacuum into the core and a minimized thermal bridge effect from the wrapping of barrier material round the edge of a panel. A serpentine edge is proposed to decrease the heat loss at the edge. Modeling and testing shows a reduction of 60 % if a reasonable serpentine edge is used. A diffusion model of permeation through multilayered barrier films with metallization coatings was developed to predict ultimate service life. The model combines numerical calculations with analytical field theory allowing for more precise determination than current models. The results using the proposed model indicate that it is possible to manufacture panels with lifetimes exceeding 50 years with existing manufacturing. Switching from the component scale to the building scale; an approach of integrated testing and modeling is proposed. Four wall types have been tested in a large range of environments with the aim to assess the hydrothermal nature and significance of thermal bridges and air leakages. The test procedure was also examined as a means for a more representative performance indicator than R-value (in USA). The

  4. Vacuum insulation - Panel properties and building applications. HiPTI - High Performance Thermal Insulation - IEA/ECBCS Annex 39 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb, M. (ed.)

    2005-12-15

    This paper takes a look at the properties of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) that have already been developed some time ago for use in appliances such as refrigerators and deep-freezers. Their insulation performance is a factor of five to ten times better than that of conventional insulation. The paper discusses the use of such panels in buildings to provide thin, highly-insulating constructions for walls, roofs and floors. The motivation for examining the applicability of high performance thermal insulation in buildings is discussed, including solutions where severe space limitations and other technical and aesthetic considerations exist. The use of nano-structured materials and laminated foils is examined and discussed. The questions arising from the use of such panels in buildings is discussed and the open questions and risks involved are examined. Finally, an outlook on the introduction of VIP technology is presented and quality assurance aspects are examined. This work was done within the framework of the Task 39 'High Performance Thermal Insulation' of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA.

  5. Sound transmission through triple-panel structures lined with poroelastic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, previous theories on the prediction of sound transmission loss for a double-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials are extended to address the problem of a triple-panel structure. Six typical configurations are considered for a triple-panel structure based on the method of coupling the porous layers to the facing panels which determines critically the sound insulation performance of the system. The transfer matrix method is employed to solve the system by applying app...

  6. Eco-balance of a vacuum insulation panel (VIP); Oekobilanz eines Vakuum-Isolations-Paneels (VIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonhardt, U.; Binz, A.; Wohler, M.; Dott, R. [Institut fuer Energie - Fachhochschule beider Basel, Muttenz (Switzerland); Frischknecht, R. [ESU-services, Uster (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Institute for Energy at the University of Applied Sciences in Muttenz and ESU Services in Uster, Switzerland, presents the results of an eco-balance made on the ecological impact of vacuum insulation panels. These panels are being used more and more instead of bulky, traditional insulation materials. The three eco-balance models used - Eco-Indicator 99, Ecological Scarcity UBP 97 and Cumulative Energy Use KEA - are introduced. Comparisons were made between vacuum insulation systems and glass-fibre and polystyrene insulation materials. The methods used are described and the results of the eco-balance analyses made are presented for the three types of insulation. In an appendix to the report, the influence of power generation methods and transport services on the eco-balance is discussed.

  7. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  8. Experimental and numerical study of heat transfer across insulation wall of a refrigerated integral panel van

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glouannec, Patrick; Michel, Benoit; Delamarre, Guillaume; Grohens, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical design study of an insulation wall for refrigerated vans. The thermophysical properties of the insulating multilayer panel, the external environment impact (solar irradiation, temperature, etc.) and durability are taken into account. Different tools are used to characterize the thermal performances of the insulation walls and the thermal properties of the insulation materials are measured. In addition, an experiment at the wall scale is carried out and a 2D FEM model of heat and mass transfer within the wall is formulated. Three configurations are studied with this design approach. Multilayer insulation walls containing reflective multi-foil insulation, aerogel and phase change materials (PCM) are tested. Promising results are obtained with these materials, especially the reduction of peak heat transfer and energy consumption during the daytime period. Furthermore, the major influence of solar irradiation is highlighted as it can increase the peak heat transfer crossing the insulation wall by up to 43%. Nevertheless, we showed that the use of reflective multi-foil insulation and aerogel layers allowed decreasing this impact by 27%. - Highlights: • A design study of an insulation wall for a refrigerated van is carried out. • Experimental and numerical studies of multilayer insulation walls are performed. • The major influence of solar irradiation is highlighted. • New insulation materials (reflective multi-foil, aerogel and PCM) are tested

  9. Use of Polyurethane Insulated Panel for Heat Infiltration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the overall heat transfer coefficient of reinforced composite panel ... K thermal conductivity value W/m2k ... fabricated from epoxy resin and E-glass fibre and the ... Table 1: Parameters used in calculation.

  10. Vacuum maintenance in vacuum insulation panels exemplified with a staggered beam VIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Jang, Choong Hyo; Jung, Haeyong; Song, Tae-Ho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong 373-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Thermal insulation performance of a vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is highly dependent on the inner pressure of the VIP. Long-term vacuum maintenance characteristics are investigated in this study for a VIP with an example of polymer staggered beam structure as the core material. Various gas sources deteriorating the vacuum level in the VIP are investigated based on theoretical models and experiments. Gas permeation occurring through heat-sealed flanges and pinholes in the barrier envelope is the largest gas leakage source. The calculated gas permeation rate is in accordance with the experimental result. To reduce these permeations, a three-side sealing envelope and double enveloping are proposed. Outgassing from the core material and inner surface of the envelope is also critical. It is significantly reduced by a baking pre-treatment in vacuum. When the estimated total gas load exceeds the allowable limit within a few years, a getter material may be applied. Double enveloping structure with a getter is promising as it ensures a lifetime of more than 20 years. (author)

  11. Energy conservation through thermally insulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Dayyeh, Ayoub

    2006-01-01

    The propose of this paper is to explicate its title through investigating the different available thermal insulating materials and the various techniques of application, as practiced in Jordan, in particular, and as practiced in many parts of the world in general, which will satisfy Jordanian standards in terms of heat transmittance and thermal comfort. A brief comparison with international standards will shed some light on the stringent measures enforced in the developed world and on our striving aspirations to keep pace. The paper consists of four main parts, pseudoally divided. The first part will deal with the mechanism of heat loss and heat gain in structures during summer and winter. It will also explain the Time-lag phenomenon which is vital for providing thermal comfort inside the dwellings. The second part will evaluate the damages induced by the temperature gradients on the different elements of the structure, particularly next to exterior opening. The paper will also demonstrate the damages induced by water condensation and fungus growth on the internal surfaces of the structure and within its skeleton. A correlation between condensation and thermal insulation will be established. The third part of the paper will evaluate the different available thermal insulating materials and the application techniques which will satisfy the needs for thermal insulating and thermal comfort at the least cost possible. The criteria of an economical design shall be established. As a conclusion, the paper infers answers to the following different criteria discussed throughout the different parts of the paper. The main theme of questions can be summarized as follows: 1)How energy conservation is possible due to thermal insulation? 2)The feasibility of investing in thermal insulation? 3)Is thermal comfort and a healthy atmosphere possible inside the dwellings during all season! What are the conditions necessary to sustain them? 4)What environmental impacts can exist due to

  12. Building America Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings, Albany, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness and affordability of integrating retrofit insulated panels into a re-siding project. The Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI) teamed with New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the Albany Housing Authority (AHA), and the New York State Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) administered by Albany Community Action Partnership to demonstrate an energy retrofit and siding upgrade on a two-story, seven unit, multifamily building in Albany New York (CZ 5). The project focused on accomplishing three goals - doubling the existing wall thermal resistance (from approximately R-13 to a weighted average of R-27), reduction of building air leakage, and completion of the retrofit within a budget where the additional cost for upgrading wall's thermal resistance is equal to the cost of the standard re-siding effort (i.e., the total cost of the energy efficient re-siding scope of work is not more than double the cost of the standard re-siding effort). Lessons learned from the project strongly indicate that the retrofit panel technology can be installed using common installation practices and with minimal training. Other lessons learned include limitation on the use of standard air sealing materials during cold weather installations and the need to develop better installation guidance for trades working with the level of tolerances that may be present in the existing structure. This technology demonstration showed that exterior retrofit panels provide a viable and reasonable option for the siding trades to increase market opportunities and achieve synergistic benefits for aesthetic upgrades to a building's exterior.

  13. VIP A B C. Vacuum Insulation Panels Applied in Building Constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenpierik, M.J.

    2010-02-01

    Due to sustainability and due to international treaties, it is desired and required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions drastically. One contributor to these emissions is the burning of fossil fuels for generating power and electricity to be used in and for buildings. Buildings and building-related processes are responsible for about 40% of the primary energy consumption in the European Union. More than half of this energy is applied for heating systems in dwellings and commercial buildings. The European Union therefore has laid down new energy performance requirements for buildings in the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. Moreover, a reduction of energy losses of buildings during their occupational phase is important for facilitating the implementation of sustainable energy sources in the built environment. Increasing the insulation value of the envelope of buildings may contribute to this reduction of primary energy use. Two strategies can be followed. The first strategy is to increase the thickness of the thermal insulation layer. Until recently, this strategy has primarily been adopted. If, however, German or Swiss Passivhaus standard is applied, the thickness of this insulation layer would increase to beyond 30 cm, resulting in very thick building enclosures. The second, more innovative, strategy for reducing energy losses through the building skin would be the application of more effective thermal insulators. One such more effective thermal insulator is a vacuum insulation panel, abbreviated as VIP. A VIP consists of an open-celled core material which is evacuated and then tightly sealed into a barrier envelope to maintain this vacuum. The vacuum inside the pores of the core material reduces the thermal conductivity of the product significantly, as a result of which the thickness of the insulation layer can be reduced to obtain a certain performance. This reduction of thickness is among the most promising features for large

  14. F-15B in on ramp with close-up of test panels covered with advanced spray-on foam insulation materia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Test panels covered with an advanced foam insulation material for the Space Shuttle's giant external fuel tank were test flown aboard an F-15B research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Six panels were mounted on the left side of a heavily instrumented Flight Text Fixture mounted underneath the F-15B's fuselage. Insulation on this panel was finely machined over a horizontal rib structure to simulate in-line airflow past the tank; other panels had the ribs mounted vertically or had the insulation left in a rough as-sprayed surface. The tests were part of an effort by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to determine why small particles of the new insulation flaked off the tank on recent Shuttle missions. The tests with Dryden's F-15B were designed to replicate the pressure environment the Shuttle encounters during the first minute after launch. No noticeable erosion of the insulation material was noted after the flight experiment at Dryden.

  15. Composite Behavior of Insulated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels Subjected to Wind Pressure and Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insub Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A full-scale experimental test was conducted to analyze the composite behavior of insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (ICSWPs subjected to wind pressure and suction. The experimental program was composed of three groups of ICSWP specimens, each with a different type of insulation and number of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP shear grids. The degree of composite action of each specimen was analyzed according to the load direction, type of the insulation, and number of GFRP shear grids by comparing the theoretical and experimental values. The failure modes of the ICSWPs were compared to investigate the effect of bonds according to the load direction and type of insulation. Bonds based on insulation absorptiveness were effective to result in the composite behavior of ICSWP under positive loading tests only, while bonds based on insulation surface roughness were effective under both positive and negative loading tests. Therefore, the composite behavior based on surface roughness can be applied to the calculation of the design strength of ICSWPs with continuous GFRP shear connectors.

  16. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  17. Sound transmission through triple-panel structures lined with poroelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, previous theories on the prediction of sound transmission loss for a double-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials are extended to address the problem of a triple-panel structure. Six typical configurations are considered for a triple-panel structure based on the method of coupling the porous layers to the facing panels which determines critically the sound insulation performance of the system. The transfer matrix method is employed to solve the system by applying appropriate types of boundary conditions for these configurations. The transmission loss of the triple-panel structures in a diffuse sound field is calculated as a function of frequency and compared with that of corresponding double-panel structures. Generally, the triple-panel structure with poroelastic linings has superior acoustic performance to the double-panel counterpart, remarkably in the mid-high frequency range and possibly at low frequencies, by selecting appropriate configurations in which those with two air gaps in the structure exhibit the best overall performance over the entire frequency range. The poroelastic lining significantly lowers the cut-on frequency above which the triple-panel structure exhibits noticeably higher transmission loss. Compared with a double-panel structure, the wider range of system parameters for a triple-panel structure due to the additional partition provides more design space for tuning the sound insulation performance. Despite the increased structural complexity, the triple-panel structure lined with poroelastic materials has the obvious advantages in sound transmission loss while without the penalties in weight and volume, and is hence a promising replacement for the widely used double-panel sandwich structure.

  18. Mass loss and flammability of insulation materials used in sandwich panels during the pre-flashover phase of fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giunta d'Albani, A.W.; de Kluiver, L.L.; de Korte, A.C.J.; van Herpen, R.; Weewer, R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, buildings contain more and more synthetic insulation materials in order to meet the increasing energy-performance demands. These synthetic insulation materials have a different response to fire. In this study, the mass loss and flammability limits of different sandwich panels and their

  19. High-performance insulator structures for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Sanders, D.M.; Stoddard, R.D.; Trimble, D.O.; Elizondo, J.; Krogh, M.L.; Wieskamp, T.F.

    1997-05-01

    A new, high gradient insulator technology has been developed for accelerator systems. The concept involves the use of alternating layers of conductors and insulators with periods of order 1 mm or less. These structures perform many times better (about 1.5 to 4 times higher breakdown electric field) than conventional insulators in long pulse, short pulse, and alternating polarity applications. We describe our ongoing studies investigating the degradation of the breakdown electric field resulting from alternate fabrication techniques, the effect of gas pressure, the effect of the insulator-to-electrode interface gap spacing, and the performance of the insulator structure under bi-polar stress

  20. Vacuum Insulation Panels - Study on VIP-components and panels for service life prediction of VIP in building applications (Subtask A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Brunner, S. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Garching (Germany); Kumaran, K.; Mukhopadhyaya, P. [National Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC), Ottawa (Canada); Quenard, D.; Sallee, H. [Scientific and Technical Centre for Construction (CSTB), Marne la Vallee (France); Noller, K.; Kuecuekpinar-Niarchos, E.; Stramm, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV), Freising (Germany); Tenpierik, M.; Cauberg, H. [Technical University of Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Erb, M. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive paper takes a look at the properties of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and was presented as a contribution to the IEA's ECBCS (Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems) Annex 39. The various institutions in Switzerland, Germany, Canada, France, Sweden and the Netherlands participating in the task and their activities are listed. The paper describes the concept of vacuum insulation for buildings and examines the physics involved and core materials that can be used. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the core materials are examined and the requirements placed on the envelope of the panels are looked at. Tests made on materials as well as on the complete vacuum insulation panels are described in detail. The results obtained are presented and reviewed. Service-life and quality assurance aspects are also discussed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  1. Technology Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    For this project with the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Home Innovation Research Labs, the retrofit insulated panels relied on an enhanced expanded polystyrene (EPS) for thermal resistance of R-4.5/inch, which is an improvement of 10% over conventional (white-colored) EPS. EPS, measured by its life cycle, is an alternative to commonly used extruded polystyrene and spray polyurethane foam. It is a closed-cell product made up of 90% air, and it requires about 85% fewer petroleum products for processing than other rigid foams.

  2. High insulation foam glass material from waste cathode ray tube panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    . In general CRT consists of two types of glasses: barium/strontium containing glass (panel glass) and lead containing glass (funnel and panel glass). In this work we present the possibility to produce high performance insulation material from the recycled lead-free glass. We studied the influence of foaming...... between 750 and 850°C. We investigated the influence of milling time, particle size, foaming and oxidizing agent concentrations, temperature and time on the foaming process, foam density, foam porosity and homogeneity. Only moderate foaming was observed in carbon containing samples, while the addition...... of the oxidizing agent greatly improved the foaming quality. The results showed that the amount of oxygen available from the glass is not sufficient to combust all of the added carbon, therefore, additional oxygen was supplied via manganese reduction. In general, a minimum in the foam glass density was observed...

  3. Valorization of Tunisian alfa fibres and sumac tannins for the elaboration of biodegradable insulating panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Houda; Charrier, Bertrand; Ayed, Naceur; Charrier-El-Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-10-01

    Alfa leaves are important renewable raw materials in Tunisia where they are used basically in handcrafts and paper industry. Sumac is also an abundant species in Tunisia known for its high tannin content and is basically used in traditional medicine. To valorize these natural resources, we studied, for the first time, the possibility of making insulating panels based on alfa fibres and sumac tannins based adhesive. Firstly, alfa leaves were treated with an alkali solution as it is one of the standard procedures commonly used in the paper industry to extract cellulosic fibres. Mercerization effects were studied by characterizing fibres thermal properties and fibres surface morphology. Secondly, the sumac tannin based resin was formulated and characterized. Finally, the insulating panel was elaborated and characterized by determining its thermal conductivity. The thermal gravimetric analysis results show improvement in the thermal stability of fibres after alkali treatment. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy showed changes on treated alfa surface which could promote the fibre-matrix adhesion. The reactivity of sumac tannins to formaldehyde test (Stiasny number) showed the possible use of sumac tannins in wood adhesive formulation. Thermomechanical analysis and strength analysis of sumac tannin/hexamin based resin highlighted acceptable bonding properties. The thermal conductivity measurement showed an average value equal to 0.110 W/m K. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  4. Panel Resonance Control and Cavity Control in Double-Panel Structures for Active Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of panel resonance control and cavity control in a double-panel structure is presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its low

  5. Noise Reduction in Double‿Panel Structures by Cavity and Panel Resonance Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‿panel structure. The double‿panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  6. Noise reduction in double-panel structures by cavity and panel resonance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.-H.; Berkhoff, A.P

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‐panel structure. The double‐panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  7. Cavity Control and Panel Control Strategies in Double-Panel Structures for Transmitted Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation and comparisons of the cavity control and the panel control in a double-panel structure are presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which comprises two panels with air in the gap, provides the advantages of low sound-transmission at high frequency, low heat-transmission

  8. Comparisons between various cavity and panel noise reduction control in double-panel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons between various panel and cavity resonance control methods to reduce the transmitted sound in a double-panel structure. The double-panel, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, has the advantages of low weight and effective transmission-loss at high

  9. Sustainable New Brick and Thermo-Acoustic Insulation Panel from Mineralization of Stranded Driftwood Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest recently in by-products for application in green buildings. These materials are widely used as building envelope insulators or blocks. In this study, an experimental study was conducted to test stranded driftwood residues as raw material for possible thermo-acoustic insulation panel and environmentally sustainable brick. The thermal and acoustic characteristics of such a natural by-product were examined. Part of samples were mineralized by means of cement-based additive to reinforce the material and enhance its durability as well as fire resistance. Several mixtures with different sizes of ground wood chips and different quantities of cement were investigated. The thermo-acoustic in-lab characterization was aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat, and acoustic transmission loss. All samples were tested before and after mineralization. Results from this study indicate that it is possible to use stranded driftwood residues as building materials with competitive thermo-acoustic properties. In fact, the thermal conductivity was shown to be always around 0.07 W/mK in the unbound samples, and around double that value for the mineralized samples, which present a much higher volumetric specific heat (1.6 MJ/m3K and transmission loss capability. The lignin powder showed a sort of intermediate behavior between the unbound and the mineralized samples.

  10. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A; Steinke, G

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  11. Insulating Structural Ceramics Program, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Mark J.; Tandon, Raj; Ott, Eric; Hind, Abi Akar; Long, Mike; Jensen, Robert; Wheat, Leonard; Cusac, Dave; Lin, H. T.; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Ferber, Mattison K.; Lee, Sun Kun; Yoon, Hyung K.; Moreti, James; Park, Paul; Rockwood, Jill; Boyer, Carrie; Ragle, Christie; Balmer-Millar, Marilou; Aardahl, Chris; Habeger, Craig; Rappe, Ken; Tran, Diana; Koshkarian, Kent; Readey, Michael

    2005-11-22

    New materials and corresponding manufacturing processes are likely candidates for diesel engine components as society and customers demand lower emission engines without sacrificing power and fuel efficiency. Strategies for improving thermal efficiency directly compete with methodologies for reducing emissions, and so the technical challenge becomes an optimization of controlling parameters to achieve both goals. Approaches being considered to increase overall thermal efficiency are to insulate certain diesel engine components in the combustion chamber, thereby increasing the brake mean effective pressure ratings (BMEP). Achieving higher BMEP rating by insulating the combustion chamber, in turn, requires advances in material technologies for engine components such as pistons, port liners, valves, and cylinder heads. A series of characterization tests were performed to establish the material properties of ceramic powder. Mechanical chacterizations were also obtained from the selected materials as a function of temperature utilizing ASTM standards: fast fracture strength, fatique resistance, corrosion resistance, thermal shock, and fracture toughness. All ceramic materials examined showed excellent wear properties and resistance to the corrosive diesel engine environments. The study concluded that the ceramics examined did not meet all of the cylinder head insert structural design requirements. Therefore we do not recommend at this time their use for this application. The potential for increased stresses and temperatures in the hot section of the diesel engine combined with the highly corrosive combustion products and residues has driven the need for expanded materials capability for hot section engine components. Corrosion and strength requirements necessitate the examination of more advanced high temperture alloys. Alloy developments and the understanding of processing, structure, and properties of supperalloy materials have been driven, in large part, by the gas

  12. Electronic structure and insulating gap in epitaxial VO2 polymorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinbuhm Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the origin of the insulating gap in the monoclinic V O2(M1 is a long-standing issue. The difficulty of this study arises from the simultaneous occurrence of structural and electronic transitions upon thermal cycling. Here, we compare the electronic structure of the M1 phase with that of single crystalline insulating V O2(A and V O2(B thin films to better understand the insulating phase of VO2. As these A and B phases do not undergo a structural transition upon thermal cycling, we comparatively study the origin of the gap opening in the insulating VO2 phases. By x-ray absorption and optical spectroscopy, we find that the shift of unoccupied t2g orbitals away from the Fermi level is a common feature, which plays an important role for the insulating behavior in VO2 polymorphs. The distinct splitting of the half-filled t2g orbital is observed only in the M1 phase, widening the bandgap up to ∼0.6 eV. Our approach of comparing all three insulating VO2 phases provides insight into a better understanding of the electronic structure and the origin of the insulating gap in VO2.

  13. Airborne sound insulation of new composite wall structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Yonka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection against noise is one of the essential requirements of the European Construction Product directive. In buildings, airborne sound insulation is used to define the acoustical quality between rooms. In order to develop wall structures with optimal sound insulation, an understanding of the physical origins of sound transmission is necessary. To develop a kind of knowledge that is applicable to the improvement of real walls and room barriers is the motive behind this study. The purpose of the work is to study the sound insulation of new composite wall structure.

  14. Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) for building construction industry - A review of the contemporary developments and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Singh, H.; Limbachiya, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIP), a high thermal resistance building insulation. → Review of research into VIPs for building applications. → High cost and uncertainty of service life are two barriers for VIP use in buildings. → SiO 2 /SiN x coated PET laminate- candidate for high barrier VIP envelope. → The optimum combination of VIP core and envelope yet to be determined. -- Abstract: Demand for energy efficient buildings has increased drastically in recent years and this trend will continue in the future. Insulating building elements will play a key role in meeting this demand by reducing heat losses through the building fabric. Due to their higher thermal resistance, Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) would be a more energy efficient alternative to conventional building insulation materials. Thus, efforts to develop VIPs with characteristics suitable for applications to new and existing buildings are underway. This paper provides a review of important contemporary developments towards producing VIPs using various materials such as glass fibre, foams, perlite and fibre/powder composites. The limitations of the materials currently used to fabricate VIPs have not been emphasised in detail in previous review papers published. Selection criteria, methods to measure important properties of VIPs and analytical and numerical models presented in the past have been detailed. Limitations of currently employed design tools along with potential future materials such as Nano/microcellular foams and SiO x /SiN x coatings for use in VIPs are also described.

  15. A NOTE ON METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF THE AIRBORNE SOUND INSULATION OF TIMBER FRAME STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šlechta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic behavior of structures with wooden elements is nowadays of great interest. At the same time, the estimation of the airborne sound insulation of timber frame structures is a complex procedure which includes the prediction of several resonances and the analysis of a significant decrease of the transmission loss in the low frequency range. Three case studies are presented in the paper. The emphasis is put on the transmission loss in 1/3 octave frequency bands of double leaf structures with gypsum panels, wood studs and a well-damped cavity. Methods of Sharp and Davy are used for the transmission loss prediction. Particular issues are discussed for an asymmetrically sheathed timber frame structure, wood studs with resilient channels and staggered studs. The paper also presents that the weighted sound reduction index is not sufficient quantity for characterizing the airborne sound insulation of timber frame structures. Various methods are employed for the calculation of the transmission loss of a traditional structure on a silicate base. Characteristic differences between a silicate based structure and a timber frame structure are highlighted. The usage of the spectrum adaptation terms is encouraged. The paper intends to be helpful in the field of the transmission loss estimation of double leaf structures with wood studs. Since the acoustic behavior of double leaf structures with wood studs is certainly a complex phenomenon, there is a further need for an improvement of methods for the transmission loss estimation and single number quantities for the evaluation of the sound insulation.

  16. Noise Reduction in Double‿Panel Structures by Cavity and Panel Resonance Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‿panel structure. The double‿panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective transmission‿loss at high frequency. However, the resonance of the cavity and the poor transmission‿loss at low frequency limit its noise control performance. Applying active control forces on the panels or utili...

  17. Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973

  18. The Structural Heat Intercept-Insulation-Vibration Evaluation Rig (SHIVER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Zoeckler, J. G.; Best-Ameen, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating methods to reduce the boil-off rate on large cryogenic upper stages. Two such methods to reduce the total heat load on existing upper stages are vapor cooling of the cryogenic tank support structure and integration of thick multilayer insulation systems to the upper stage of a launch vehicle. Previous efforts have flown a 2-layer MLI blanket and shown an improved thermal performance, and other efforts have ground-tested blankets up to 70 layers thick on tanks with diameters between 2 3 meters. However, thick multilayer insulation installation and testing in both thermal and structural modes has not been completed on a large scale tank. Similarly, multiple vapor cooled shields are common place on science payload helium dewars; however, minimal effort has gone into intercepting heat on large structural surfaces associated with rocket stages. A majority of the vapor cooling effort focuses on metallic cylinders called skirts, which are the most common structural components for launch vehicles. In order to provide test data for comparison with analytical models, a representative test tank is currently being designed to include skirt structural systems with integral vapor cooling. The tank is 4 m in diameter and 6.8 m tall to contain 5000 kg of liquid hydrogen. A multilayer insulation system will be designed to insulate the tank and structure while being installed in a representative manner that can be extended to tanks up to 10 meters in diameter. In order to prove that the insulation system and vapor cooling attachment methods are structurally sound, acoustic testing will also be performed on the system. The test tank with insulation and vapor cooled shield installed will be tested thermally in the B2 test facility at NASAs Plumbrook Station both before and after being vibration tested at Plumbrooks Space Power Facility.

  19. Thermal performance of an insulating structure for a reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranovitch, E.; Crutzen, S.; LeDet, M.; Denis, R.

    This report describes the installations used to test the HTGR reactor vessel insulating structure called ''Casali'' and details the experimental results in 3 groups: general experiments, systematic study, and technological experiments. The results obtained make it possible to satisfactorily predict the behavior of the structure in a practical application

  20. Structural Continuum Modeling of Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeve, Brian; Ayala, Sam; Purlee, T. Eric; Shaw, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation reporting on work in modeling the foam insulation of the Space Shuttle External Tank. An analytical understanding of foam mechanics is required to design against structural failure. The Space Shuttle External Tank is covered primarily with closed cell foam to: Prevent ice, Protect structure from ascent aerodynamic and engine plume heating, and Delay break-up during re-entry. It is important that the foam does not shed unacceptable debris during ascent environment. Therefore a modeling of the foam insulation was undertaken.

  1. Large thermal protection system panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  2. Transmission loss of orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures with cavity absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2011-04-01

    The transmission loss of sound through infinite orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures having cavity-filling fibrous sound absorptive materials is theoretically investigated. The propagation of sound across the fibrous material is characterized using an equivalent fluid model, and the motions of the rib-stiffeners are described by including all possible vibrations, i.e., flexural displacements, bending, and torsional rotations. The effects of fluid-structure coupling are account for by enforcing velocity continuity conditions at fluid-panel interfaces. By taking full advantage of the periodic nature of the double-panel, the space-harmonic approach and virtual work principle are applied to solve the sets of resultant governing equations, which are eventually truncated as a finite system of simultaneous algebraic equations and numerically solved insofar as the solution converges. To validate the proposed model, a comparison between the present model predictions and existing numerical and experimental results for a simplified version of the double-panel structure is carried out, with overall agreement achieved. The model is subsequently employed to explore the influence of the fluid-structure coupling between fluid in the cavity and the two panels on sound transmission across the orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structure. Obtained results demonstrate that this fluid-structure coupling affects significantly sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies and cannot be ignored when the rib-stiffeners are sparsely distributed. As a highlight of this research, an integrated optimal algorithm toward lightweight, high-stiffness and superior sound insulation capability is proposed, based on which a preliminary optimal design of the double-panel structure is performed.

  3. A dosemeter with a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digoy, J.-L.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a semiconducting device for measuring irradiation doses, this device being a Mosfet structure, field effect and insulated-gate device of revolution, with a cylindrical effective surface and ring-shaped source and drain. This can be applied to the measurement of doses up to 10 4 rads, for radiations of a few keV, in the field of in-vivo biology, in a flowing fluid [fr

  4. Fabrication of highly insulating foam glass made from CRT panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    We prepared low-density foam glasses from cathode-ray-tube panel glass using carbon and MnO2 as the foaming agents. We investigated the influence of the carbon and MnO2 concentrations, the glass-powder preparation and the foaming conditions on the density and homogeneity of the pore structure...... and the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the foam density. The results show that the moderate foaming effect of the carbon is greatly improved by the addition of MnO2. A density as low as 131 kg m-3 can be achieved with fine glass powder. The foam density has a slight dependence on the carbon and MnO2...... concentrations, but it is mainly affected by the foaming temperature and the time. The thermal conductivity of the foam-glass samples is lower than that of commercial foam glasses with the same density. The lowest value was determined to be 42 mW m-1 K-1 for a foam glass with a density of 131 kg m-3. A further...

  5. Application of water flowing PVC pipe and EPS foam bead as insulation for wall panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Umi Nadiah; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Yusuf, Mohammed Alias; Othman, Maidiana; Yahya, Muhamad Azani

    2018-02-01

    Malaysia located in tropical climate which have a typical temperature range between 21 °C to 36 °C. Due to this, air-conditioning system for buildings become a necessity to provide comfort to occupants. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the air-conditioning system, the transmission of heat from outdoor to indoor space should be kept as minimum as possible. This article discuss about a technology to resist heat transfer through concrete wall panel using a hybrid method. In this research, PVC pipe was embedded at the center of concrete wall panel while the EPS foam beads were added about 1% of the cement content in the concrete mix forming the outer layer of the wall panel. Water is regulated in the PVC pipe from the rainwater harvesting system. The aim of this study is to minimize heat transfer from the external environment into the building. Internal building temperature which indicated in BS EN ISO 7730 or ASHRAE Standard 55 where the comfort indoor thermal is below 25°C during the daytime. Study observed that the internal surface temperature of heat resistance wall panel is up to 3°C lower than control wall panel. Therefore, we can conclude that application of heat resistance wall panel can lead to lower interior building temperature.

  6. Electronic structure properties of UO2 as a Mott insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, Samira; Payami, Mahmoud

    2018-06-01

    In this work using the density functional theory (DFT), we have studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of uranium dioxide with antiferromagnetic 1k-, 2k-, and 3k-order structures. Ordinary approximations in DFT, such as the local density approximation (LDA) or generalized gradient approximation (GGA), usually predict incorrect metallic behaviors for this strongly correlated electron system. Using Hubbard term correction for f-electrons, LDA+U method, as well as using the screened Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional for the exchange-correlation (XC), we have obtained the correct ground-state behavior as an insulator, with band gaps in good agreement with experiment.

  7. Total dose hardening of buried insulator in implanted silicon-on-insulator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, B.Y.; Chen, C.E.; Pollack, G.; Hughes, H.L.; Davis, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Total dose characteristics of the buried insulator in implanted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates have been studied using MOS transistors. The threshold voltage shift of the parasitic back channel transistor, which is controlled by charge trapping in the buried insulator, is reduced by lowering the oxygen dose as well as by an additional nitrogen implant, without degrading the front channel transistor characteristics. The improvements in the radiation characteristics of the buried insulator are attributed to the decrease in the buried oxide thickness or to the presence of the interfacial oxynitride layer formed by the oxygen and nitrogen implants

  8. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Arun

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  9. Controlled modification of resonant tunneling in metal-insulator-insulator-metal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, I. Z.; Weerakkody, A. D.; Sedghi, N.; Ralph, J. F.; Hall, S.; Dhanak, V. R.; Luo, Z.; Beeby, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present comprehensive experimental and theoretical work on tunnel-barrier rectifiers comprising bilayer (Nb2O5/Al2O3) insulator configurations with similar (Nb/Nb) and dissimilar (Nb/Ag) metal electrodes. The electron affinity, valence band offset, and metal work function were ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, and electrical measurements on fabricated reference structures. The experimental band line-up parameters were fed into a theoretical model to predict available bound states in the Nb2O5/Al2O3 quantum well and generate tunneling probability and transmittance curves under applied bias. The onset of strong resonance in the sub-V regime was found to be controlled by a work function difference of Nb/Ag electrodes in agreement with the experimental band alignment and theoretical model. A superior low-bias asymmetry of 35 at 0.1 V and a responsivity of 5 A/W at 0.25 V were observed for the Nb/4 nm Nb2O5/1 nm Al2O3/Ag structure, sufficient to achieve a rectification of over 90% of the input alternate current terahertz signal in a rectenna device.

  10. Accuracy of Dynamic and Acoustic Analysis of Lightweight Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    in such buildings is important. In the lowfrequency range, prediction of sound and vibration in building structures may be achieved by finite-element analysis (FEA). The aim of this paper is to compare the two commercial codes ABAQUS and ANSYS for FEA of an acoustic-structural coupling in a timber lightweight panel...

  11. Process and a device for manufacturing a composite building panel for use in a building structure cladding system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetu, B

    1991-06-11

    A process and device are disclosed for manufacturing a composite panel used for cladding a building. The panel comprises a facing layer made from a plurality of facing elements, such as brick slices, retained in a spaced-apart relationship, and magnetically attractible particulate material disposed between the facing elements to imitate mortar. A rigid backing layer is provided, spaced from the spacing layer, and the space between the facing and the backing layers is filled with an insulation/bonding layer, made of urethane foam. The device for manufacturing the panel comprises a facing element holder in the form of a structure with a plurality of recesses for receiving facing elements, also including spacers between the recesses in order to retain the facing elements in a spaced-apart relationship. Ceramic magnets are provided on the spacers for temporarily retaining the particulate material against gravity until the insulation/bonding layer is built which retains all the panel elements together. The invention enables manufacture of non-planar panels, such as those used on corners of buildings, thereby eliminating the need for a corner joint. 9 figs.

  12. Heat insulating structure for use in transporting and handling gas of high temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathusima, T.; Sato, T.; Uenishi, A.

    1980-01-01

    A heat insulating structure is described that has a heat-resistant tube disposed in a tubular cylindrical body and defining a passage for a high temperature gas, a heat insulating material disposed between the tube and the tubular cylindrical body and adapted to prevent the heat possessed by the gas from being transmitted to the tubular cylindrical body, and a spring adapted to bias the heat insulating material toward the inner surface of the tubular cylindrical body, so as to prevent the formation of a bypass passage for the gas including the gap between the tubular cylindrical body and the heat insulating material. The heat insulating material consists of a plurality of fibrous heat insulating materials mainly consisting of bulky fibrous materials and a plurality of shaped fibrous heat insulating materials. These fibrous heat insulating materials and the shaped fibrous heat insulating materials are arranged alternatingly and independently in the axial direction. In each of the bulky fibrous heat insulating material, disposed is a spring for biasing the shaped fibrous heat insulating material in the axial direction

  13. Optimization of the contents of hollow glass microsphere and sodium hexametaphosphate for glass fiber vacuum insulation panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. D.; Chen, Z. F.; Zhou, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, various additive amounts of hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) powders were blended with flame attenuated glass wool (FAGW) to form hybrid core materials (HCMs) through the wet method. Among them, the SHMP was dissolved in the glass fiber suspension and coated on the surface of glass fibers while the HGMs were insoluble in the glass fiber suspension and filled in the fiber-fiber pores. The average pore diameter of the FAGW/HGM HCMs was 8-11 μm which was near the same as that of flame attenuated glass fiber mats (FAGMs, i.e., 10.5 µm). The tensile strength of the SHMP coated FAGMs was enhanced from 160 N/m to 370 N/m when SHMP content increased from 0 wt.% to 0.2 wt.%. By contrast, the tensile strength of the FAGW/HGM HCMs decreased from 160 N/m to 40 N/m when HGM content increased from 0 wt.% to 50 wt.%. Both the FAGW/HGM HCMs and SHMP coated FAGMs were vacuumed completely to form vacuum insulation panels (VIPs). The results showed that both the addition of SHMP and HGM led a slight increase in the thermal conductivity of the corresponding VIPs. To obtain a high-quality VIP, the optimal SHMP content and HGM content in glass fiber suspension was 0.12-0.2 wt.% and 0 wt.%.

  14. Stressed skin panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.

  15. Comparing fixed effects and covariance structure estimators for panel data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Holm, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare the traditional econometric fixed effect estimator with the maximum likelihood estimator implied by covariance structure models for panel data. Their findings are that the maximum like lipoid estimator is remarkably robust to certain types of misspecifications...

  16. An open-structure sound insulator against low-frequency and wide-band acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Zhang, Hui; Li, Xiao-juan; Ding, Jin

    2015-10-01

    To block sound, i.e., the vibration of air, most insulators are based on sealed structures and prevent the flow of the air. In this research, an acoustic metamaterial adopting side structures, loops, and labyrinths, arranged along a main tube, is presented. By combining the accurately designed side structures, an extremely wide forbidden band with a low cut-off frequency of 80 Hz is produced, which demonstrates a powerful low-frequency and wide-band sound insulation ability. Moreover, by virtue of the bypass arrangement, the metamaterial is based on an open structure, and thus air flow is allowed while acoustic waves can be insulated.

  17. Linear particle accelerator with seal structure between electrodes and insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, John H.

    1989-01-01

    An electrostatic linear accelerator includes an electrode stack comprised of primary electrodes formed or Kovar and supported by annular glass insulators having the same thermal expansion rate as the electrodes. Each glass insulator is provided with a pair of fused-in Kovar ring inserts which are bonded to the electrodes. Each electrode is designed to define a concavo-convex particle trap so that secondary charged particles generated within the accelerated beam area cannot reach the inner surface of an insulator. Each insulator has a generated inner surface profile which is so configured that the electrical field at this surface contains no significant tangential component. A spark gap trigger assembly is provided, which energizes spark gaps protecting the electrodes affected by over voltage to prevent excessive energy dissipation in the electrode stack.

  18. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator–sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of

  19. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of

  20. Structural and proximity-induced ferromagnetic properties of topological insulator-magnetic insulator heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry can lead to the formation of an energy gap in the Dirac spectrum of the surface states of a topological insulator (TI which can consequently give rise to a variety of interesting phenomena potentially useful for spintronics. In this work, we couple a non-magnetic TI to a high Curie temperature TC magnetic insulator to induce strong exchange interaction via the proximity effect. We have successfully grown 5 quintuple layer thick ternary TI (BixSb1-x2Te3 films on atomically flat yttrium iron garnet (YIG film with the combination of molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition, in which the Fermi level position relative to the Dirac point is varied by controlling the Bi:Sb ratio. The anomalous Hall effect (AHE and suppressed weak antilocalization (WAL measured under out of plane magnetic fields reveal that the TI surface in contact with YIG is magnetized. Our high-quality (BixSb1-x2Te3/Y IG heterostructure provides a tunable system for exploring the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE at higher temperatures in TI-based spintronic devices.

  1. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncé, S., E-mail: samuel.pon@gmail.com; Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Chemin des étoiles 8, bte L07.03.01, B-1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Marini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Salaria Km 29.3, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Verstraete, M. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Physique des matériaux et nanostructures, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  2. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  3. Lightweight Hybrid Ablator Incorporating Aerogel-Filled Open-Cell Foam Structural Insulator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In previous work for NASA and DoD, Ultramet developed lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a...

  4. Electrohydrodynamic Direct-Write Orderly Micro/Nanofibrous Structure on Flexible Insulating Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Yi Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AC pulse-modulated electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW was utilized to direct-write orderly micro/nanofibrous structure on the flexible insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. During the EDW process, AC electrical field induced charges to reciprocate along the jet and decreased the charge repulsive force that applied on charged jet. Thanks to the smaller charge repulsive force, stable straight jet can be built up to direct-write orderly micro/nanofibrous structures on the insulating substrate. The minimum motion velocity required to direct-write straight line fibrous structure on insulating PET substrate was 700 mm/s. Moreover, the influences of AC voltage amplitude, frequency, and duty cycle ratio on the line width of fibrous structures were investigated. This work proposes a novel solution to overcome the inherent charge repulsion emerging on the insulating substrate, and promotes the application of EDW technology on the flexible electronics.

  5. High pressure metallization of Mott Insulators: Magnetic, structural and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.P.; Hearne, G.; Sterer, E.; Taylor, R.D.; Jeanloz, R.

    1993-01-01

    High pressure studies of the insulator-metal transition in the (TM)I 2 (TM = V, Fe, Co and Ni) compounds are described. Those divalent transition-metal iodides are structurally isomorphous and classified as Mott Insulators. Resistivity, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy were employed to investigate the electronic, structural, and magnetic properties as a function of pressure both on the highly correlated and on the metallic regimes

  6. Thermal performances of an insulating structure for a reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranovitch, E.; Crutzen, S.; Le Det, M.; Denis, R.

    1974-12-01

    This report describes the thermal and technological tests performed on a multilayer thermal insulation system for high temperature gas reactors. It includes the description of test facilities, global tests, interpretation of data, and technological tests. Results obtained make it possible to predetermine with a satisfactory precision thermal performances under various nominal conditions

  7. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob

    2005-01-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel

  8. Structural health monitoring of high voltage electrical switch ceramic insulators in seismic areas

    OpenAIRE

    REBILLAT, Marc; BARTHES, Clément; MECHBAL, Nazih; MOSALAM, Khalid M.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; High voltage electrical switches are crucial components to restart rapidly the electrical network right after an earthquake. But there currently exists no automatic procedure to check if these ceramic insulators have suffered after an earthquake, and there exists no method to recertify a given switch. To deploy a vibration-based structural health monitoring method on ceramic insulators a large shake table able to generate accelerations up to 3 g was used. The idea unde...

  9. Thermal test of the insulation structure for LH 2 tank by using the large experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, S.; Onishi, K.; Konshima, N.; Nishigaki, K.

    Conceptual designs of large mass LH 2 (liquid hydrogen) storage systems, whose capacity is 50,000 m3, have been studied in the Japanese hydrogen project, World Energy Network (WE-NET) [K. Fukuda, in: WE-NET Hydrogen Energy Symposium, 1999, P1-P41]. This study has concluded that their thermal insulation structures for the huge LH 2 tanks should be developed. Their actual insulation structures comprise not only the insulation material but also reinforced members and joints. To evaluate their thermal performance correctly, a large test specimen including reinforced members and joints will be necessary. After verifying the thermal performance of a developed large experimental apparatus [S. Kamiya, Cryogenics 40 (1) (2000) 35] for measuring the thermal conductance of various insulation structures, we tested two specimens, a vacuum multilayer insulation (MLI) with a glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) support and a vacuum solid insulation (microtherm ®) with joints. The thermal background test for verifying the thermal design of the experimental apparatus showed that the background heat leak is 0.1 W, small enough to satisfy apparatus performance requirement. The thermal conductance measurements of specimens also showed that thermal heat fluxes of MLI with a GFRP support and microtherm ® are 8 and 5.4 W/m2, respectively.

  10. Peculiarities of electronic structure of silicon-on-insulator structures and their interaction with synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Terekhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SOI (silicon-on-insulator structures with strained and unstrained silicon layers were studied by ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy with the use of synchrotron radiation techniques. Analysis of X-ray data has shown a noticeable transformation of the electron energy spectrum and local partial density of states distribution in valence and conduction bands in the strained silicon layer of the SOI structure. USXES Si L2,3 spectra analysis revealed a decrease of the distance between the L2v′ и L1v points in the valence band of the strained silicon layer as well as a shift of the first two maxima of the XANES first derivation spectra to the higher energies with respect to conduction band bottom Ec. At the same time the X-ray standing waves of synchrotron radiation (λ~12–20 nm are formed in the silicon-on-insulator structure with and without strains of the silicon layer. Moreover changing the synchrotron radiation grazing angle θ by 2° leads to a change of the electromagnetic field phase to the opposite.

  11. Electrical and structural R&D activities on high voltage dc solid insulator in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilan, N., E-mail: nicola.pilan@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rizzolo, A.; Grando, L.; Gambetta, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Rosa, S. Dalla [Umicore – Italbras S.p.A., Strada del Balsego, n.6, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Kraemer, V.; Quirmbach, T. [FRIATEC Ceramics Division, Steinzeugstrasse 50, 68229 Mannheim (Germany); Chitarin, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Gobbo, R.; Pesavento, G. [DII, Università di Padova, v. Gradenigo 6/A, I-35131 Padova (Italy); De Lorenzi, A.; Lotto, L.; Rizzieri, R.; Fincato, M.; Romanato, L.; Trevisan, L.; Cervaro, V.; Franchin, L. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A thorough R&D activity on the MITICA post insulator prototypes is being carried out. • The design has been numerically verified considering both mechanical and electrical aspects. • Experimental validation has been started, with positive results in both involved fields. • Alternative design solutions thickness have been proposed and successfully tested. - Abstract: This paper describes the R&D work performed in support of the design of the alumina insulators for the MITICA Neutral Beam Injector. The ceramic insulators are critical elements, both from the structural and electrical point of view, of the 1 MV electrostatic accelerator of the MITICA injector, as they are required to sustain both the mechanical loads due to the cantilevered weight of the ion source and the high electric field between the accelerator grids. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests on prototypes that have been carried out to validate the insulator design under realistic operating conditions.

  12. Electrical and structural R&D activities on high voltage dc solid insulator in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Rizzolo, A.; Grando, L.; Gambetta, G.; Rosa, S. Dalla; Kraemer, V.; Quirmbach, T.; Chitarin, G.; Gobbo, R.; Pesavento, G.; De Lorenzi, A.; Lotto, L.; Rizzieri, R.; Fincato, M.; Romanato, L.; Trevisan, L.; Cervaro, V.; Franchin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A thorough R&D activity on the MITICA post insulator prototypes is being carried out. • The design has been numerically verified considering both mechanical and electrical aspects. • Experimental validation has been started, with positive results in both involved fields. • Alternative design solutions thickness have been proposed and successfully tested. - Abstract: This paper describes the R&D work performed in support of the design of the alumina insulators for the MITICA Neutral Beam Injector. The ceramic insulators are critical elements, both from the structural and electrical point of view, of the 1 MV electrostatic accelerator of the MITICA injector, as they are required to sustain both the mechanical loads due to the cantilevered weight of the ion source and the high electric field between the accelerator grids. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests on prototypes that have been carried out to validate the insulator design under realistic operating conditions.

  13. Sound transmission through stiffened double-panel structures lined with elastic porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Gopal P.; Tran, Boi N.; Bolton, J. S.; Shiau, Nae-Ming

    This paper presents transmission loss prediction models for a periodically stiffened panel and stiffened double-panel structures using the periodic structure theory. The inter-panel cavity in the double-panels structures can be modeled as being separated by an airspace or filled with an elastic porous layer in various configurations. The acoustic behavior of elastic porous layer is described by a theory capable of accounting fully for multi-dimensional wave propagation in such materials. The predicted transmission loss of a single stiffened panel is compared with the measured data.

  14. Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Rigid Panel Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.

  15. Electron drag in ferromagnetic structures separated by an insulating interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, V. I.; Muradov, M. I.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2018-06-01

    We consider electron drag in a system of two ferromagnetic layers separated by an insulating interface. The source of it is expected to be magnon-electron interactions. Namely, we assume that the external voltage is applied to the "active" layer stimulating electric current through this layer. In its turn, the scattering of the current-carrying electrons by magnons leads to a magnon drag current within this layer. The 3-magnons interactions between magnons in the two layers (being of non-local nature) lead to magnon drag within the "passive" layer which, correspondingly, produce electron drag current via processes of magnon-electron scattering. We estimate the drag current and compare it to the phonon-induced one.

  16. Acoustic contributions of a sound absorbing blanket placed in a double panel structure: Absorption Versus Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doutres , Olivier; Atalla , Noureddine

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this paper is to propose a simple tool to estimate the absorption vs. transmission loss contributions of a multilayered blanket unbounded in a double panel structure and thus guide its optimization. The normal incidence airborne sound transmission loss of the double panel structure, without structure-borne connections, is written in terms of three main contributions; (i) sound transmission loss of the panels, (ii) sound transmission loss of the blanket...

  17. Development of Structure and Characteristics Calculation Method for Γ- shape Rope Vubration Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Yury K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the design of rope vibration insulators with elastic elements of the center line in the form of two rectilinear and one curved section. In the Russian-language scientific literature this type of rope vibration insulators received a stable name "Γ-shaped vibration insulators” by analogy with the shape of the letter “gamma-Γ" of the Greek alphabet and a similar letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. Despite the wide using of vibration insulators designed on this shape, its mathematical calculation model has not yet been developed. In this connection, in this article, for the first time on the basis of the “Method of Forces” and the “Mohr Method”, an analytical technique has been developed for calculating the characteristics of a vibration insulator in the directions of three mutually perpendicular axes. In addition, the article proposes a new structure of a vibration insulator consisting of several tiers of elements of this type, based on a new patented technology for manufacturing quasi-continuous woven rings, proposed by the author of this article in co-authorship with several employees of the Samara National Research University. Simple formulas are obtained for calculating the load characteristics in three mutually perpendicular directions. This makes it possible to calculate the corresponding stiffness and natural frequencies of mechanical vibration protection systems. It is established that the stiffness of the vibration insulator in the direction of the Z axis is greater than the stiffness in the X and Y axis directions, however, if a vibration insulator with equal, or close to equal characteristics, along three axes has to be designed according to the technical specification, this can be done by selecting the parameters included in the equations given in article for load characteristics.

  18. Experimental Study for Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Panel (PLP) Under Flexural Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, W. I.; Mohamad, N.; Tay, Y. L.; Rahim, N. H. A.; Jhatial, A. A.; Samad, A. A. A.; Abdullah, R.

    2017-06-01

    Precast lightweight concrete slab is first fabricated in workshop or industrial before construction and then transported to site and installed by skilled labour. It can reduce construction time by minimizing user delay and time for cast-in-situ to increase workability and efficiency. is environmental friendly and helps in resource reduction. Although the foamed concrete has low compressive strength compared to normal weight concrete but it has excellent thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is environmental friendly and helps in resource reduction. To determine the material properties of foamed concrete, nine cubes and six cylindrical specimens were fabricated and the results were recorded. In this study, structural behaviour of precast lightweight panel (PLP) with dry density of 1800 kg/m3 was tested under flexural load. The results were recorded and analysed in terms of ultimate load, crack pattern, load-deflection profiles and strain distribution. Linear Voltage Displacement Transducers (LVDT) and strain gauges were used to determine the deflection and strain distribution of PLP. The theoretical and experimental ultimate load of PLP was analysed and recorded to be 70 and 62 kN respectively, having a difference of 12.9%. Based on the results, it can be observed that PLP can resist the adequate loading. Thus, it can be used in precast industry for construction purposes.

  19. Design considerations and data for gas-insulated high voltage structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    This paper is intended to benefit the person faced with the occasional task of designing gas insulated high-voltage structures or spark gaps and who must decide upon the proper geometry, spacings, gas type, and pressure for reliable voltage-holding. An approach is presented along with a summary of how various factors affect voltage breakdown. The design procedures described apply to situations where the influence of nearby insulators is negligible. The accuracy of the data is estimated to be within 10 to 15 percent, a value usually attained in practice only when one follows the cautionary advice discussed in the paragraphs on materials preparation, gas properties, and conditioning

  20. Control source development for reduction of noise transmitted through a double panel structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, J.

    2014-01-01

    A double panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in between, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace, automotive industries, and buildings due to its low sound transmission at high frequencies, low heat transmission, and low weight. Nevertheless, the resonance of the cavity and the poor sound transmission loss at low frequencies limit the double panel’s noise control performance. Applying active structural acoustic control to the panels or active noise control ...

  1. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low sound transmission at high frequencies, low heat transmission, and low weight. The double panel structure is widely used, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nevertheless, the resonance of the cavity and the poor sound transmission loss at low frequencies limit the double panel's noise control performance. Applying active structural acoustic control to the panels or active noise control to the cavity has been discussed in many papers. In this paper, the resonances of the panels and the cavity are considered simultaneously to further reduce the transmitted noise through an existing double panel structure. A structural-acoustic coupled model is developed to investigate and compare various structural control and cavity control methods. Numerical analysis and real-time control results show that structural control should be applied to both panels. Three types of cavity control sources are presented and compared. The results indicate that the largest noise reduction is obtained with cavity control by loudspeakers modified to operate as incident pressure sources.

  2. Sandwich-panels based on penopolisocyanurate and mineral wool

    OpenAIRE

    Burtzeva M.; Mednikova E.

    2017-01-01

    Sandwich panel is a self-supporting structure consisting of two steel zinc-coated profiles with a layer of heat retainer. It is used as roofing and walling material. Widely is used in industrial construction, shopping centres, sports complexes, chilling and freezing chambers, storage buildings and quickly erectable housing. The classical basis of heat-insulating layer (core panel) products is used mineral wool insulation materials. This material is resistant to deformation, non-flammable,...

  3. Topological Classification of Crystalline Insulators through Band Structure Combinatorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruthoff, Jorrit; de Boer, Jan; van Wezel, Jasper; Kane, Charles L.; Slager, Robert-Jan

    2017-10-01

    We present a method for efficiently enumerating all allowed, topologically distinct, electronic band structures within a given crystal structure in all physically relevant dimensions. The algorithm applies to crystals without time-reversal, particle-hole, chiral, or any other anticommuting or anti-unitary symmetries. The results presented match the mathematical structure underlying the topological classification of these crystals in terms of K -theory and therefore elucidate this abstract mathematical framework from a simple combinatorial perspective. Using a straightforward counting procedure, we classify all allowed topological phases of spinless particles in crystals in class A . Employing this classification, we study transitions between topological phases within class A that are driven by band inversions at high-symmetry points in the first Brillouin zone. This enables us to list all possible types of phase transitions within a given crystal structure and to identify whether or not they give rise to intermediate Weyl semimetallic phases.

  4. Chern structure in the Bose-insulating phase of Sr2RuO4 nanofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukane, Hiroyoshi; Matsuyama, Toyoki; Tanda, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the symmetry, for example the parity and the chirality, in the quantization leads to a physical quantity with a topological Chern invariant. We report the observation of a Chern structure in the Bose-insulating phase of Sr2RuO4 nanofilms by employing electric transport. We observed the superconductor-to-insulator transition by reducing the thickness of Sr2RuO4 single crystals. The appearance of a gap structure in the insulating phase implies local superconductivity. Fractional quantized conductance was observed without an external magnetic field. We found an anomalous induced voltage with temperature and thickness dependence, and the induced voltage exhibited switching behavior when we applied a magnetic field. We suggest that there was fractional magnetic-field-induced electric polarization in the interlayer. These anomalous results are related to topological invariance. The fractional axion angle Θ = π/6 was determined by observing the topological magneto-electric effect in the Bose-insulating phase of Sr2RuO4 nanofilms.

  5. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  6. Characterisation of fluid-structure interaction for water impact of composite panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Battley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic loads can be very significant for high performance marine vessels. Water impact of panels, known as "slamming", typically generates high magnitude short duration pressure pulses that move across the structure. In the case of compliant panels there can be significant coupling between the pressures and the structural responses. While there has been significant development of numerical methods to simulate this type of fluid-structure interaction there is only very limited experimental data available for validation of the simulation approaches. This paper describes an experimental study of sandwich composite panels subjected to water slamming impacts. The results demonstrate that compliant panels subjected to water slamming impacts experience different pressures than rigid panels, and have different structural responses than predicted by traditional uniform pressure based analysis approaches. The study also characterizes the significant effects that the dimensions of pressure transducers and data acquisition sampling rates have on the measured pressures.

  7. Fabrication of metallic honeycomb panels for reusable TPS - structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabernig, B.; Thierfelder, W.; Alber, H.; Sudmeijer, K.

    2001-01-01

    The manufacturing technology with specific regard to high temperature brazing was developed to fabricate a honeycomb panel consisting of a thin-sectioned PM 2000 core material sandwiched on both sides with PM 1000 face sheets. For brazing the PM 1000 / PM 2000 panel the braze alloy PdNi was selected due to the best oxidation behavior while good mechanical properties and wetting behavior compared with other tested filler alloys. To examine the concept of a hybrid PM 1000/2000 panel as a stiffened skin panel a number of engineering test samples of sub-scale and two full-size panels were fabricated at Plansee AG and supplied to Fokker Space for testing under representative in-service conditions. Engineering tests showed that the test samples were rather insensitive to temperature gradients even at temperature differences between the face sheets of 550 o C. The engineering test samples exhibited no plastic deformation after testing at different heating rates ranging from 5 to 40 o C/s and at temperature profiles representative for two flights. The requirement for the designed application regarding impact properties at low as well as high speed were met. Impact at low speed with an energy of 8 J did not cause any cracks. Hail tests where ice bullets were fired with speeds to 208 m/s at different angles from 25 o to 90 o C against the test piece showed no damage at 25 o and caused slight indentation at 45 o and cracks at 90 o , which demonstrated a good performance for the fly through a hail cloud without any problems. In tests to determine the response of a full-size panel to a number of simulated thermo-mechanical flight load cycles the panel passed 50 cycles successfully without damage. (author)

  8. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF WOOD-LEATHER PANELS BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Grünewald,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides other ligno-cellulosic materials such as straw, rice husks, or bagasse, wet blue particles from leather production are a promising new raw material stock for wood-based panels, as they offer not only a high availability, but increase the properties of the panel with regard to fire resistance or mechanical characteristics. A panel with a mixture of 42.5% wood fibers, 42.5% wet blue leather particles, and 15% lignin adhesive was produced, and an inhomogeneous sample was prepared. An area of 9 x 10 mm was rasterized and scanned by means of Raman Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the reference spectra of the constituents, i.e. wood fiber, wet blue leather particle, and lignin powder were recorded. The obtained data were treated and analyzed using chemometric methods (principal components analysis PCA and cluster analysis. An important finding was that the reference data were not directly represented in the panels’ spectra, and the correlation matrix of the PCA was not applicable to the panel data. This indicated that chemical changes might take place during the pressing. After processing the panel Raman spectra with the help of PCA and cluster analysis, three distinctive clusters were obtained, discriminating wood, leather, and mixed regions. With the assigned spectral information, it was possible to create a spectral image of the surface.

  9. Ripple-modulated electronic structure of a 3D topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Zhou, Wenwen; Walkup, D; Dhital, Chetan; Wilson, Stephen D; Madhavan, V

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators host linearly dispersing states with unique properties and a strong potential for applications. An important ingredient in realizing some of the more exotic states in topological insulators is the ability to manipulate local electronic properties. Direct analogy to the Dirac material graphene suggests that a possible avenue for controlling local properties is via a controlled structural deformation such as the formation of ripples. However, the influence of such ripples on topological insulators is yet to be explored. Here we use scanning tunnelling microscopy to determine the effects of one-dimensional buckling on the electronic properties of Bi(2)Te(3.) By tracking spatial variations of the interference patterns generated by the Dirac electrons we show that buckling imposes a periodic potential, which locally modulates the surface-state dispersion. This suggests that forming one- and two-dimensional ripples is a viable method for creating nanoscale potential landscapes that can be used to control the properties of Dirac electrons in topological insulators.

  10. A ceramic radial insulation structure for a relativistic electron beam vacuum diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Tao; Yang, Hanwu; Zhang, Jiande; Liu, Zhenxiang; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Yansong

    2008-06-01

    For one kind of a high current diode composed of a small disk-type alumina ceramic insulator water/vacuum interface, the insulation structure was designed and experimentally investigated. According to the theories of vacuum flashover and the rules for radial insulators, a "cone-column" anode outline and the cathode shielding rings were adopted. The electrostatic field along the insulator surface was obtained by finite element analysis simulating. By adjusting the outline of the anode and reshaping the shielding rings, the electric fields were well distributed and the field around the cathode triple junction was effectively controlled. Area weighted statistical method was applied to estimate the surface breakdown field. In addition, the operating process of an accelerator based on a spiral pulse forming line (PFL) was simulated through the PSPICE software to get the waveform of charging and diode voltage. The high voltage test was carried out on a water dielectric spiral PFL accelerator with long pulse duration, and results show that the diode can work stably in 420 kV, 200 ns conditions. The experimental results agree with the theoretical and simulated results.

  11. Control source development for reduction of noise transmitted through a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.

    2014-01-01

    A double panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in between, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace, automotive industries, and buildings due to its low sound transmission at high frequencies, low heat transmission, and low weight. Nevertheless, the resonance of the

  12. Electronic Structure Evolution across the Peierls Metal-Insulator Transition in a Correlated Ferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bhobe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal compounds often undergo spin-charge-orbital ordering due to strong electron-electron correlations. In contrast, low-dimensional materials can exhibit a Peierls transition arising from low-energy electron-phonon-coupling-induced structural instabilities. We study the electronic structure of the tunnel framework compound K_{2}Cr_{8}O_{16}, which exhibits a temperature-dependent (T-dependent paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic-metal transition at T_{C}=180  K and transforms into a ferromagnetic insulator below T_{MI}=95  K. We observe clear T-dependent dynamic valence (charge fluctuations from above T_{C} to T_{MI}, which effectively get pinned to an average nominal valence of Cr^{+3.75} (Cr^{4+}∶Cr^{3+} states in a 3∶1 ratio in the ferromagnetic-insulating phase. High-resolution laser photoemission shows a T-dependent BCS-type energy gap, with 2G(0∼3.5(k_{B}T_{MI}∼35  meV. First-principles band-structure calculations, using the experimentally estimated on-site Coulomb energy of U∼4  eV, establish the necessity of strong correlations and finite structural distortions for driving the metal-insulator transition. In spite of the strong correlations, the nonintegral occupancy (2.25 d-electrons/Cr and the half-metallic ferromagnetism in the t_{2g} up-spin band favor a low-energy Peierls metal-insulator transition.

  13. Structurally triggered metal-insulator transition in rare-earth nickelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, Alain; Bieder, Jordan; Íñiguez, Jorge; Ghosez, Philippe

    2017-11-22

    Rare-earth nickelates form an intriguing series of correlated perovskite oxides. Apart from LaNiO 3 , they exhibit on cooling a sharp metal-insulator electronic phase transition, a concurrent structural phase transition, and a magnetic phase transition toward an unusual antiferromagnetic spin order. Appealing for various applications, full exploitation of these compounds is still hampered by the lack of global understanding of the interplay between their electronic, structural, and magnetic properties. Here we show from first-principles calculations that the metal-insulator transition of nickelates arises from the softening of an oxygen-breathing distortion, structurally triggered by oxygen-octahedra rotation motions. The origin of such a rare triggered mechanism is traced back in their electronic and magnetic properties, providing a united picture. We further develop a Landau model accounting for the metal-insulator transition evolution in terms of the rare-earth cations and rationalizing how to tune this transition by acting on oxygen rotation motions.

  14. The Insulation Structure of the 1 Megavolt Transmission Line for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzi, A. de; Grando, L.; Gobbo, R; Pesavento, G.; Bettini, P.; Specogna, R.; Trevisan, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the studies and the tests for the development of the insulation structure of the 1 MV-50 A Gas Insulated (SF 6 ) Line of the ITER NBI in the SINGAP configuration. Basically, the Transmission Line for the SinGap configuration consists of a coaxial conductor with the inner electrode polarized at the negative value of 1 MV dc. Despite Transmission Line belongs to the Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) family, whose technology is nowadays mature, the design of spacers (usually epoxy post and conical type) for High Voltage DC with the same degree of reliability of spacer for High Voltage AC is far away to be attained, due to the substantial difference between AC and DC voltage electric field configuration and insulation behavior at Epoxy-SF 6 interface. Furthermore, the occurrence of very frequent short circuits during the NBI operation introduces further elements of uncertainty in the design of the insulation structure. The first step was then to assess the capability of standard epoxy spacers to withstand DC voltage with frequent short circuits, in order to determine if the choice of the material is suitable for such an application; a test circuit was set up, with the possibility to generate 200 kV DC and to produce a short-circuit every 15'. The system with the spacers was pressurized with SF 6 at 0.3 MPa. For the interpretation of the experimental results, the spacer has been modeled with commercial (ANSYS TM FEM) and research (Cell Method) numerical codes in order to evaluate both the capacitive and resistive electric field distributions. Once assessed the possibility of using epoxy compounds for the spacer construction, the post and cone spacers have been designed taking into consideration various cases, like electrostatic field configuration, resistive distribution for homogeneous and skin conductivity of the spacer, and for high SF 6 conductivity. In these cases the optimization of the triple point screening has been evaluated, leading to

  15. The electronic structure and metal-insulator transitions in vanadium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossanek, Rodrigo Jose Ochekoski

    2010-01-01

    The electronic structure and metal-insulator transitions in vanadium oxides (SrVO_3, CaVO_3, LaVO_3 and YVO_3) are studied here. The purpose is to show a new interpretation to the spectra which is coherent with the changes across the metal-insulator transition. The main experimental techniques are the X-ray photoemission (PES) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The spectra are interpreted with cluster model, band structure and atomic multiplet calculations. The presence of charge-transfer satellites in the core-level PES spectra showed that these vanadium oxides cannot be classified in the Mott-Hubbard regime. Further, the valence band and core-level spectra presented a similar behavior across the metal insulator transition. In fact, the structures in the spectra and their changes are determined by the different screening channels present in the metallic or insulating phases. The calculated spectral weight showed that the coherent fluctuations dominate the spectra at the Fermi level and give the metallic character to the SrVO_3 and CaVO_3 compounds. The vanishing of this charge fluctuation and the replacement by the Mott-Hubbard screening in the LaVO_3 and YVO_3 systems is ultimately responsible for the opening of a band gap and the insulating character. Further, the correlation effects are, indeed, important to the occupied electronic structure (coherent and incoherent peaks). On the other hand, the unoccupied electronic structure is dominated by exchange and crystal field effects (t2g and eg sub-bands of majority and minority spins). The optical conductivity spectrum was obtained by convoluting the removal and addition states. It showed that the oxygen states, as well as the crystal field and exchange effects are necessary to correctly compare and interpret the experimental results. Further, a correlation at the charge-transfer region of the core-level and valence band optical spectra was observed, which could be extended to other transition metal oxides

  16. Active structural acoustic control of noise transmission through double panel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneal, James P.; Fuller, Chris R.

    1995-04-01

    A preliminary parametric study of active control of sound transmission through double panel systems has been experimentally performed. The technique used is the active structural acoustic control (ASAC) approach where control inputs, in the form of piezoelectric actuators, were applied to the structure while the radiated pressure field was minimized. Results indicate the application of control inputs to the radiating panel resulted in greater transmission loss due to its direct effect on the nature of the structural-acoustic coupling between the radiating panel and the receiving chamber. Increased control performance was seen in a double panel system consisting of a stiffer radiating panel with a lower modal density. As expected, more effective control of a radiating panel excited on-resonance is achieved over one excited off-resonance. In general, the results validate the ASAC approach for double panel systems and demonstrate that it is possible to take advantage of double panel behavior to enhance control performance, although it is clear that further research must be done to understand the physics involved.

  17. Heat transfer performance of multi-layer insulation structure under roof-slab of pool-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, I.; Yoshida, K.; Uotani, M.; Fukada, T.

    1988-01-01

    At the normal operation of the pool-type LMFBR, the free surface of liquid sodium at about 500 0 C is present below the roof-slab, separated by a space of the argon cover gas. The temperature of the roof-slab has to be maintained low and uniform in the horizontal direction for sufficient strength of the structure. Therefore, thermal insulation structures must be installed on the lower surface of the roof-slab. In addition to the installation of thermal insulator, forced cooling of the roof-slab is required for assured structural integrity of the roof-slab. The capacity of cooling equipment can be reduced by installation of structures with high thermal insulating performance. The objective of this study is to evaluate the thermal insulation characteristics of multi-layer type insulator installed below the roof-slab by analytically and experimentally. The analytical study is intended to evaluate the effect of number, distance and emissivity of layers on the heat transfer performances. This is treated as the one-dimensional heat transfer with natural convection, conduction and thermal radiation. In the experiments, we have evaluated effects of gap distances between adjacent thermal insulators placed below the roof-slab on the thermal insulation performances

  18. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOUND INSULATION OF APARTMENTS’ ENCLOSING STRUCTURES TO MEET NOISE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: an important task in the design of internal enclosing structures of apartments is the establishment of their required soundproofing ability. At present, there is no reliable method for determining the required sound insulation and in this regard internal enclosures are designed without proper justification for noise protection. Research objectives: development of a technique for determining the required sound insulation of apartment’s internal enclosures to ensure an acceptable noise regime in the apartments’ rooms under the action of intra-apartment noise sources. Materials and methods: the methodology was developed on the basis of a statistical method for noise calculation in the apartments, treated as systems of acoustically coupled proportionate rooms, and with the help of a computer program that implements this method. Results: the technique makes it possible to generate, with the use of computer technologies, a targeted selection of internal enclosures of the apartment to meet their soundproofing requirements. Conclusions: the technique proposed in the article can be used at the design stage of apartments when determining the required soundproofing of partitions and doors. Using this technique, it is possible to harmonize the sound insulation ratio of individual elements among themselves and thereby guarantee a selection of internal structures for their acoustic and economic efficiency.

  19. On the sound insulation of acoustic metasurface using a sub-structuring approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Lu, Zhenbo; Cheng, Li; Cui, Fangsen

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of using an acoustic metasurface (AMS) with acoustic stop-band property to realize sound insulation with ventilation function is investigated. An efficient numerical approach is proposed to evaluate its sound insulation performance. The AMS is excited by a reverberant sound source and the standardized sound reduction index (SRI) is numerically investigated. To facilitate the modeling, the coupling between the AMS and the adjacent acoustic fields is formulated using a sub-structuring approach. A modal based formulation is applied to both the source and receiving room, enabling an efficient calculation in the frequency range from 125 Hz to 2000 Hz. The sound pressures and the velocities at the interface are matched by using a transfer function relation based on ;patches;. For illustration purposes, numerical examples are investigated using the proposed approach. The unit cell constituting the AMS is constructed in the shape of a thin acoustic chamber with tailored inner structures, whose stop-band property is numerically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The AMS is shown to provide effective sound insulation of over 30 dB in the stop-band frequencies from 600 to 1600 Hz. It is also shown that the proposed approach has the potential to be applied to a broad range of AMS studies and optimization problems.

  20. Mitigation of Flanking Noise in Double-Plate Panel Structures by Periodic Stiffening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Andersen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    , the air enclosed in the cavities within the structure is taken into consideration, whereas the external air has been disregarded. A fully coupled analysis is performed in which solid finite elements are adopted for the structure, whereas the acoustic medium within the panel is discretized into fluid...... continuum elements. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the range below 500 Hz and the load acts as a concentrated force on one side of one of the panels. The responses of the same panel as well as the adjacent wall are studied. The position of the load relative to the stiffeners...

  1. On results of tests of thermal insulation structural fragments for in-vessel equipment and pipelines of the VG-400 plant on vibrational and acoustic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenko, S.A.; Andreev, V.A.; Mirenkov, A.F.; Zakharov, V.A.; Suvorov, V.E.; Prokimnov, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Results of vibrostrength and acoustic fatigue tests of the fragments of thermal insulation for in-vessel equipment and pipelines of the VG-400 reactor are presented. The insulation structure is based on the insulation layer made of steel foil and carbon materials. Weak points in the insulation structure, namely - the welded joints of stiffening ribs - are detected in the course of testing. A conclusion is made on the possibility of vibrational test substitution for the acoustic ones

  2. Electronic structure of ferromagnet-insulator interfaces: Fe/MgO and Co/MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.

    2007-07-11

    In this thesis the electronic structure of Fe/MgO{sub x} and Co/MgO{sub x} ferromagnet-insulator interfaces, representing material systems which are widely used in magnetic tunnel junctions, is studied by means of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The photoemission studies focus particularly on the response of the ferromagnetic electronic system in contact with MgO of varying stoichiometries, as this reflects the mechanisms of metal-oxide bonding at real ferromagnet-insulator interfaces. The correlation between chemical bonding and electronic structure formation is analyzed by combining information from core- and valence-band photoemission spectroscopy. The spectral features are compared to band structure calculations, which are performed using the SPR-KKR method. The Fe/MgO and Co/MgO systems are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions on well-defined (4 x 6) GaAs(001) substrates. A structural analysis by means of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) reveals their body-centered cubic crystalline structure, whereas the chemical characterization by Auger electron spectroscopy is used to quantify the chemical environment at the sample surfaces. The magnetic analysis, using the magneto-optical Kerr effect, reveals the uniaxial anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layers. A crucial parameter is given by the MgO degree of oxidation, which is addressed by means of core-level spectroscopy and quantified by suitable fitting procedures of the Mg 2p core level. The results of the photoemission experiments show, that the electronic structure of the Fe/MgO and Co/MgO ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and, consequently, the interfacial spin polarization are sensitively controlled by the interface chemistry. In particular, three distinct scenarios are identified: the nearly stoichiometric, the oxygen-deficient and the over-oxidized ferromagnet/MgO interface. Each case is defined by innate characteristics of the electronic structure at

  3. Properties of silica fume procured from natural diatomite and its usage in the production of vacuum insulation panels

    OpenAIRE

    V.P. Selyaev; V.A. Neverov; O.G. Mashtaev; A.V. Kolotushkin

    2013-01-01

    The article shows the results of the research of silica fume particles procured from diatomite from Atemar deposit by means of separating silicic acid from colloidal dissolved state into the sediment. The objective of the work was to define thermal-physical and structural characteristics of the silica fume. The research included IR-spectrometry, granulometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray structural analysis, optical microscopy, and small angle X-Ray scattering. As a result of the resea...

  4. Gravity sag of sandwich panel assemblies as applied to precision cathode strip chamber structural design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between gravity sag of a precision cathode strip chamber and its sandwich panel structural design is explored parametrically. An algorithm for estimating the dominant component of gravity sag is defined. Graphs of normalized gravity sag as a function of gap frame width and material, sandwich core edge filler width and material, panel skin thickness, gap height, and support location are calculated using the gravity sag algorithm. The structural importance of the sandwich-to-sandwich ''gap frame'' connection is explained

  5. The Structural Insulated Panel SIP Hut: Preliminary Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-19

    Shade Disk Kit (SDK) is mounted on the SMT tracker to measure diffuse solar radiation using a Black & White pyranometer . Each sensor reading is...Pyrheliometer SNIP Direct beam solar radiation Eppley Black & White Pyranometer 8-48 Diffuse solar radiation Eppley Standard Precision Pyranometer SPP Global

  6. Evaluating a Small Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) Designed Solar Kiln in Southwestern New Mexico - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Ted E.M. Bilek

    2012-01-01

    With increasing energy costs, using small dry kilns for drying lumber for small-volume value-added wood products has become more of an option when compared with conventional drying. Small solar kilns are one such option, and a number of solar kiln designs exist and are in use. However, questions remain about the design and operation of solar kilns, particularly during...

  7. Local structural distortion and electronic modifications in PrNiO3 across the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piamonteze, C.; Tolentino, H.C.N.; Ramos, A.Y.; Massa, N. E.; Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Casais, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Local electronic and structural properties of PrNiO3 perovskite were studied by means of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at Ni K and L edges. The EXAFS results at Ni K edge show a structural transition from three different Ni-O bond-lengths at the insulating phase to two Ni-O bond-lengths above TMI. These results were interpreted as being due to a transition from a structure with two different Ni sites at the insulating phase to one distorted Ni site at the metallic phase. The Ni L edge spectra show a remarkable difference between the spectra measured at the insulating and metallic phases that indicates a decreasing degree of hybridization between Ni3d and O2p bands from the metallic to the insulating phase

  8. Tracking of Nuclear Cable Insulation Polymer Structural Changes using the Gel Fraction and Uptake Factor Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Miguel; Huang, Qian; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2018-04-11

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation samples were exposed to heat and gamma radiation at a series of temperatures, dose rates, and exposure times to evaluate the effects of these variables on material degradation. The samples were tested using the solvent incubation method to collect gel fraction and uptake factor data in order to assess the crosslinking and chain scission occurring in polymer samples with aging. Consistent with previous reports, gel fraction values were observed to increase and uptake factor values to decrease with radiation and thermal exposure. The trends seen were also more prominent as exposure time increased, suggesting this to be a viable method of tracking structural changes in the XLPE-insulated cable material over extended periods. For the conditions explored, the cable insulation material evaluated did not indicate signs of anomalous aging such as inverse temperature effect in which radiation-induced aging is more severe at lower temperature. Ongoing aging under identical radiation conditions and at lower temperature will further inform conclusions regarding the importance of inverse temperature effects for this material under these conditions.

  9. In-field implementation of impedance-based structural health monitoring for insulated rail joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakri, Mohammad I.; Malladi, V. V. N. Sriram; Woolard, Americo G.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-04-01

    Track defects are a major safety concern for the railroad industry. Among different track components, insulated rail joints, which are widely used for signaling purposes, are considered a weak link in the railroad track. Several joint-related defects have been identified by the railroad community, including rail wear, torque loss, and joint bar breakage. Current track inspection techniques rely on manual and visual inspection or on specially equipped testing carts, which are costly, timeconsuming, traffic disturbing, and prone to human error. To overcome the aforementioned limitations, the feasibility of utilizing impedance-based structural health monitoring for insulated rail joints is investigated in this work. For this purpose, an insulated joint, provided by Koppers Inc., is instrumented with piezoelectric transducers and assembled with 136 AREA rail plugs. The instrumented joint is then installed and tested at the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing, Transportation Technology Center Inc. The effects of environmental and operating conditions on the measured impedance signatures are investigated through a set of experiments conducted at different temperatures and loading conditions. The capabilities of impedance-based SHM to detect several joint-related damage types are also studied by introducing reversible mechanical defects to different joint components.

  10. Unravelling the local structure of topological crystalline insulators using hyperfine interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Phenomena emerging from relativistic electrons in solids have become one the main topical subjects in condensed matter physics. Among a wealth of intriguing new phenomena, several classes of materials have emerged including graphene, topological insulators and Dirac semi-metals. This project is devoted to one such class of materials, in which a subtle distortion of the crystalline lattice drives a material through different topological phases: Z$_{2}$ topological insulator (Z$_{2}$-TI), topological crystalline insulator (TCI), or ferroelectric Rashba semiconductor (FERS). We propose to investigate the local structure of Pb$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te and Ge$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te (with $\\textit{x}$ from 0 to 1) using a combination of experimental techniques based on hyperfine interactions: emission Mössbauer spectroscopy (eMS) and perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC). In particular, we propose to study the effect of composition ($\\textit{x}$ in Pb$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te and Ge$_{1-x}$Sn$_{x}$Te) on: \\\\ \\\\(1) the mag...

  11. Stability of polarization in organic ferroelectric metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbitz, Rene; Fruebing, Peter; Gerhard, Reimund [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Taylor, Martin [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor Gwynedd, LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) offer the prospect of an organic-based memory device. Since the charge transport in such devices is confined to the interface between the insulator and the semiconductor, the focus of the present study was on the investigation of this region. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of all-organic MIS devices with poly(vinylidenefluoride- trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) as gate insulator and poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as semiconductor were carried out. When the structure was driven into depletion, a positive flat-band voltage shift was observed arising from the change in polarization state of the ferroelectric insulator. When driven into accumulation, the polarization was reversed. It is shown that both polarization states are stable. However, negative charge trapped at the interface during the depletion cycle masks the negative shift in flat-band voltage expected during the sweep to accumulation voltages. Measurements on P(VDF-TrFE)/P3HT based FeFETs yield further evidence for fixed charges at the interface. Output characteristics suggest the injection of negative charges into the interface region when a depletion voltage is applied between source and gate contact.

  12. Development of Dynamic Loudspeakers Modified as Incident Pressure Sources for Noise Reductiuon in a Double Panel Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified loudspeaker source for decentralized feedback cavity control in a double panel structure to reduce the noise transmission. The double panel structure con-sists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low weight, low sound transmission at high

  13. Development of dynamic loudspeakers modified as incident pressure sources for noise reduction in a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Crocker, Malcolm J.; Pawelczyk, Marek; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified loudspeaker source for decentralized feedback cavity control in a double panel structure to reduce the noise transmission. The double panel structure con-sists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low weight, low sound transmission at high

  14. Modification and structuring of conducting polymer films on insulating substrates by ion beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, T.; Wolf, Gerhard K.

    2000-01-01

    Besides the commonly used procedures of UV-, X-ray and electron beam lithography, surface structuring by ion beam processes represents an alternative route to receive patterns in the nanometre-micrometre scale. In this work we focused on changes of surface properties of the polymer materials induced by ion irradiation and on reproducing hexagonal and square patterns in the micrometre scale. To achieve a better understanding of modification and structuring of insulating and conducting polymers by ion beam treatment we investigated effects of 14 keV Ar + bombardment on thin films of doped conducting polyethoxithiophene (PEOT) and polyethylenedioxithiophene (PEDT) on polyethersulfone (PES) as insulating substrate within the fluence range from 10 14 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 . Changes of surface properties like wettability, solubility, topology and electrochemical behaviour have been studied by contact angle technique, AFM/LFM, cyclovoltammetry and electrochemical microelectrode. By irradiation through copper masks structured patterns were achieved. These patterns can be converted by galvanic or electroless copper deposition in structured metal layers

  15. Implantation of oxygen ions for the realization of SOS (silicon on insulator) structures: SIMOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margail, J.

    1987-03-01

    Highdose oxygen implantation is becoming a serious candidate for SOI (silicon on insulator) structure realization. The fabrication condition study of these substrates allowed to show up the implantation and annealing parameter importance for microstructure, and particularly for crystal quality of silicon films. It has been shown that the use of high temperature annealings leads to high quality substrates: monocrystal silicon film without any precipitate, at the card scale; Si/Si O 2 interface formation. After annealing at 1340 O C, Hall mobilities have been measured in silicon film, and its residual doping is very low. First characteristics and performance of submicron CMOS circuits prooves the electric quality of these substrates [fr

  16. Electronic heat, charge and spin transport in superconductor-ferromagnetic insulator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, Sebastian [Materials Physics Center (CFM-CSIC), San Sebastian (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), San Sebastian (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    It is known for some time that a superconducting (S) film in contact with a ferromagnetic insulator (FI) exhibits a spin-splitting in the density of states (DoS). Recently we have explored different S-FI hybrid structures and predicted novel effects exploiting such spin-splitting of the DoS. In this talk I will briefly discuss (i) a heat valve based on a FI-S-I-S-FI Josephson junction; (ii) a thermoelectric transistor and (iii) the occurrence of a giant thermophase in a thermally-biased Josephson junction.

  17. Estimation of carrier mobility at organic semiconductor/insulator interface using an asymmetric capacitive test structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Agarwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobility of carriers at the organic/insulator interface is crucial to the performance of organic thin film transistors. The present work describes estimation of mobility using admittance measurements performed on an asymmetric capacitive test structure. Besides the advantage of simplicity, it is shown that at low frequencies, the measured capacitance comes from a large area of channel making the capacitance-voltage characteristics insensitive to contact resistances. 2-D numerical simulation and experimental results obtained with Pentacene/Poly(4-vinyphenol system are presented to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique.

  18. Improved vertical MOSFET performance using an epitaxial channel and a stacked silicon-insulator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, T; Gili, E; Ashburn, P; Tan, L; Buiu, O; Hall, S

    2012-01-01

    A vertical MOSFET (VMOST) incorporating an epitaxial channel and a drain junction in a stacked silicon-insulator structure is presented. In this device structure, an oxide layer near the drain junction edge (referred to as a junction stop) acts as a dopant diffusion barrier and consequently a shallow drain junction is formed to suppress short channel effects. To investigate the scalability of this device, a simulation study in the sub-100 nm regime calibrated to measured results on the fabricated devices is carried out. The use of an epitaxial channel delivers 50% higher drive current due to the higher mobility of the retrograde channel and the junction stop structure delivers improvements of threshold voltage roll-off and drain-induced barrier lowering compared with a conventional VMOST. (fast track communication)

  19. The determinants of capital structure: evidence from Dutch panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Linda H.; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of capital structure choice of Dutch firms. Our main objective is to investigate whether and to what extent the main capital structure theories can explain capital structure choice of Dutch firms. A better understanding of the capital structure determinants in a rela-tively small yet open industrialized economy is essential not only for enrich-ing empirical studies in this field, but also for the purpose of cross country asset evaluation. By estimating a pa...

  20. Sound Transmission Through Multi-Panel Structures Lined with Elastic Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, J. S.; Shiau, N.-M.; Kang, Y. J.

    1996-04-01

    Theory and measurements related to sound transmission through double panels lined with elastic porous media are presented. The information has application to the design of noise control barriers and to the optimization of aircraft fuselage transmission loss, for example. The major difference between the work described here and earlier research in this field relates to the treatment of the porous material that is used to line the cavity between the two panels of the double panel structure. Here we have used the porous material theory proposed by Biot since it takes explicit account of all the wave types known to propagate in elastic porous materials. As a result, it is possible to use the theory presented here to calculate the transmission loss of lined double panels at arbitrary angles of incidence; results calculated over a range of incidence angles may then be combined to yield the random incidence transmission loss. In this paper, the equations governing wave propagation in an elastic porous material are first considered briefly and then the general forms for the stresses and displacements within the porous material are given. Those solutions are expressed in terms of a number of constants that can be determined by application of appropriate boundary conditions. The boundary conditions required to model double panels having linings that are either directly attached to the facing panels or separated?!from them by air gaps are presented and discussed. Measurements of the random incidence transmission loss of aluminium double-panel structures lined with polyurethane foam are presented and have been found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Both the theoretical predictions and the measured results have shown that the method by which an elastic porous lining material is attached to the facing panels can have a profound influence on the transmission loss of the panel system. It has been found, for example, that treatments in which the lining material

  1. Electronic structure and transport on the surface of topological insulator attached to an electromagnetic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Chen Xiongwen; Zhou Xiaoying; Zhang Lebo; Zhou Guanghui

    2012-01-01

    We study the electronic structure and transport for Dirac electron on the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator attached to an electromagnetic superlattice. It is found that, by means of the transfer-matrix method, the number of electronic tunneling channels for magnetic barriers in antiparallel alignment is larger than that in parallel alignment, which stems to the energy band structures. Interestingly, a remarkable semiconducting transport behavior appears in this system with a strong magnetic barrier due to low energy band nearly paralleling to the Fermi level. Consequently, there is only small incident angle transport in the higher energy region when the system is modulated mainly by the higher electric barriers. We further find that the spatial distribution of the spin polarization oscillates periodically in the incoming region, but it is almost in-plane with a fixed direction in the transmitting region. The results may provide a further understanding of the nature of 3D TI surface states, and may be useful in the design of topological insulator-based electronic devices such as collimating electron beam.

  2. Radiant Heat Transfer in Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Chmitt, R. J.; Christensen, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    During radiant testing of mullite panels, temperatures in the insulation and support structure exceeded those predicted on the basis of guarded hot plate thermal conductivity tests. Similar results were obtained during arc tunnel tests of mullite specimens. The differences between effective conductivity and guarded hot plate values suggested that radiant transfer through the mullite was occurring. To study the radiant transport, measurements were made of the infrared transmission through various insulating materials and fibers of interest to the shuttle program, using black body sources over the range of 780 to 2000 K. Experimental data were analyzed and scattering coefficients were derived for a variety of materials, fiber diameters, and source temperature.

  3. Bending analyses for 3D engineered structural panels made from laminated paper and carbon fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Zhiyong Cai; Xianyan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of a 3-dimensional engineered structural panel (3DESP) having a tri-axial core structure made from phenolic impregnated laminated-paper composites with and without high strength composite carbon-fiber fabric laminated to the outside of both faces. Both I-beam equations and finite element method were used to analyze four-point bending of the...

  4. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S.; Ordonez, E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Open cell metallic foam core sandwich panel structures are of interest for application in spacecraft micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields due to their novel form and advantageous structural and thermal performance. Repeated shocking as a result of secondary impacts upon individual foam ligaments during the penetration process acts to raise the thermal state of impacting projectiles ; resulting in fragmentation, melting, and vaporization at lower velocities than with traditional shielding configurations (e.g. Whipple shield). In order to characterize the protective capability of these structures, an extensive experimental campaign was performed by the Johnson Space Center Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility, the results of which are reported in this paper. Although not capable of competing against the protection levels achievable with leading heavy shields in use on modern high-risk vehicles (i.e. International Space Station modules), metallic foam core sandwich panels are shown to provide a substantial improvement over comparable structural panels and traditional low weight shielding alternatives such as honeycomb sandwich panels and metallic Whipple shields. A ballistic limit equation, generalized in terms of panel geometry, is derived and presented in a form suitable for application in risk assessment codes.

  5. Characterization of TBP containing polysiloxane membrane/insulator/semiconductor structures for hexavalent chromium detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazoua, A. [Universite de Jijel, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria); Kherrat, R.; Samar, M.H. [Universite de Annaba, BP 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba (Algeria); Errachid, A. [Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, CIBER, Parc Cientific de Barcelona (PCB)-Departament d' Electronica. Universitat de Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jaffrezic-Renault, N. [LSA - UMR 5180 CNRS - Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)], E-mail: nicole.jaffrezic@univ-lyon1.fr; Bessueille, F.; Leonard, D. [LSA - UMR 5180 CNRS - Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    A hexavalent chromium-sensitive EMIS sensor (electrolyte membrane insulator semiconductor sensor) is prepared by deposition of a tributylphosphate (TBP) ionophore-containing siloprene membrane on a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} structure. The developed EMIS sensor was studied by means of impedance spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and FT-IR spectroscopy. From the flat-band shift of the EMIS structure, the nersntian response to the anionic species Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup -} was demonstrated. The linear range of detection is 10{sup -4} M to 10{sup -1} M and the detection limit is 10{sup -5} M. Sulfate and chloride anions are shown not to be interfering whereas carbonate ions present a pK{sup pot} equal to 0.19.

  6. The insulation structure of the 1 MV transmission line for the ITER neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzi, A.; Grando, L.; Gobbo, R.; Pesavento, G.; Bettini, P.; Specogna, R.; Trevisan, F.

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the studies and the tests for the development of the insulation structure of the 1 MV-50 A gas insulated (SF 6 ) line of the ITER NBI in the SinGap configuration characterized by two kinds of spacers: at least a couple of disk-shaped spacers, designed to be gas tight, and a larger number (several tens) of inner conductor post spacers. To this aim a test campaign has been carried out to assess the capability of standard epoxy spacers to withstand a high dc voltage with frequent short circuits, simulating the operational condition for the ITER NBI. Two computational tools, the first for the epoxy spacer shape optimization under electrostatic distribution and the other for the nonlinear time variant evolution of the electric field and surface charge, have been developed specifically for designing epoxy spacer under dc voltage stress. The results on the optimization of the disk spacer and on the electric field-surface charge time evolution of the post spacer are reported and discussed. The effects of the SF 6 radiation induced conductivity on the post spacer are also reported

  7. The insulation structure of the 1 MV transmission line for the ITER neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzi, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-Enea sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: antonio.delorenzi@igi.cnr.it; Grando, L. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-Enea sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Gobbo, R.; Pesavento, G. [DIE, Universita di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6A, I-35100 Padova (Italy); Bettini, P.; Specogna, R.; Trevisan, F. [DIEGM, Universita di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The paper describes the studies and the tests for the development of the insulation structure of the 1 MV-50 A gas insulated (SF{sub 6}) line of the ITER NBI in the SinGap configuration characterized by two kinds of spacers: at least a couple of disk-shaped spacers, designed to be gas tight, and a larger number (several tens) of inner conductor post spacers. To this aim a test campaign has been carried out to assess the capability of standard epoxy spacers to withstand a high dc voltage with frequent short circuits, simulating the operational condition for the ITER NBI. Two computational tools, the first for the epoxy spacer shape optimization under electrostatic distribution and the other for the nonlinear time variant evolution of the electric field and surface charge, have been developed specifically for designing epoxy spacer under dc voltage stress. The results on the optimization of the disk spacer and on the electric field-surface charge time evolution of the post spacer are reported and discussed. The effects of the SF{sub 6} radiation induced conductivity on the post spacer are also reported.

  8. Recessed insulator and barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT: A novel structure for improving DC and RF characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S. M.; Zahiri, S. H.; Hosseini, S. E.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with recessed insulator and barrier is reported. In the proposed structure, insulator is recessed into the barrier at the drain side and barrier is recessed into the buffer layer at the source side. We study important device characteristics such as electric field, breakdown voltage, drain current, maximum output power density, gate-drain capacitance, short channel effects and DC transconductance using two-dimensional and two-carrier device simulator. Recessed insulator in the drain side of the proposed structure reduces maximum electric field in the channel and therefore increases the breakdown voltage and maximum output power density compared to the conventional counterpart. Also, gate-drain capacitance value in the proposed structure is less than that of the conventional structure. Overall, the proposed structure reduces short channel effects. Because of the recessed regions at both the source and the drain sides, the average barrier thickness of the proposed structure is not changed. Thus, the drain current of the proposed structure is almost equivalent to that of the conventional transistor. In this work, length ( L r) and thickness ( T r) of the recessed region of the barrier at the source side are the same as those of the insulator at the drain side.

  9. Application of the thermal step method to space charge measurements in inhomogeneous solid insulating structures: A theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernomorcenco, Andrei; Notingher, Petru Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal step method is a nondestructive technique for determining electric charge distribution across solid insulating structures. It consists in measuring and analyzing a transient capacitive current due to the redistribution of influence charges when the sample is crossed by a thermal wave. This work concerns the application of the technique to inhomogeneous insulating structures. A general equation of the thermal step current appearing in such a sample is established. It is shown that this expression is close to the one corresponding to a homogeneous sample and allows using similar techniques for calculating electric field and charge distribution

  10. Concepts for improving the damage tolerance of composite compression panels. [aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The residual strength of specimens with damage and the sensitivity to damage while subjected to an applied inplane compression load were determined for flatplate specimens and blade-stiffened panels. The results suggest that matrix materials that fail by delamination have the lowest damage tolerance capability. Alternate matrix materials or laminates which are transversely reinforced suppress the delamination mode of failure and change the failure mode to transverse shear crippling which occurs at a higher strain value. Several damage-tolerant blade-stiffened panel design concepts are evaluated. Structural efficiency studies conducted show only small mass penalties may result from incorporating these damage-tolerant features in panel design. The implication of test results on the design of aircraft structures was examined with respect to FAR requirements.

  11. Structural acoustic response of a shape memory alloy hybrid composite panel (lessons learned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2002-07-01

    This study presents results from an effort to fabricate a shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) panel specimen and test the structure for dynamic response and noise transmission characteristics under the action of thermal and random acoustic loads. A method for fabricating a SMAHC laminate with bi-directional SMA reinforcement is described. Glass-epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape and Nitinol ribbon comprise the material system. Thermal activation of the Nitinol actuators was achieved through resistive heating. The experimental hardware required for mechanical support of the panel/actuators and for establishing convenient electrical connectivity to the actuators is presented. Other experimental apparatus necessary for controlling the panel temperature and acquiring structural acoustic data are also described. Deficiency in the thermal control system was discovered in the process of performing the elevated temperature tests. Discussion of the experimental results focuses on determining the causes for the deficiency and establishing means for rectifying the problem.

  12. The influence of finite cavities on the sound insulation of double-plate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2005-06-01

    Lightweight walls are often designed as frameworks of studs with plates on each side--a double-plate structure. The studs constitute boundaries for the cavities, thereby both affecting the sound transmission directly by short-circuiting the plates, and indirectly by disturbing the sound field between the plates. The paper presents a deterministic prediction model for airborne sound insulation including both effects of the studs. A spatial transform technique is used, taking advantage of the periodicity. The acoustic field inside the cavities is expanded by means of cosine-series. The transmission coefficient (angle-dependent and diffuse) and transmission loss are studied. Numerical examples are presented and comparisons with measurement are performed. The result indicates that a reasonably good agreement between theory and measurement can be achieved.

  13. Electronic Structure of the Pyrochlore-Type Ru Oxides through the Metal--Insulator Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, J.; Fujimori, S.I.; Okane, T.; Fujimori, A.; Abbate, M.; Yoshii, S.; Sato, M.

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structures of the pyrochlore-type Ru oxides Sm 2-x Ca x Ru 2 O 7 and Sm 2-x Bi x Ru 2 O 7 , which show metal-insulator transition with increasing Ca or Bi concentration, have been studied by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Spectral changes near the Fermi level are different but reflect the tendency of their transport properties in both systems. The Sm 2-x Ca x Ru 2 O 7 system shows an energy shift, which is expected from the increase of hole in the Ru 4d t 2g band and the Sm 2 - x Bi x Ru 2 O 7 system shows spectral weight transfer within the Ru 4d t 2g band, which is expected to be observed in bandwidth-control Mott-Hubbard system. (author)

  14. Light extraction from GaN-based LED structures on silicon-on-insulator substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, S.; Teo, S.L.; Lin, V.K.X.; Chen, M.F. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), 117602 (Singapore); Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Institut fuer Exerimentelle Physik, Otto-von Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 1, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany); AZZURRO Semiconductors AG, Universitaetsplatz 1, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Christen, J. [Institut fuer Exerimentelle Physik, Otto-von Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 1, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Nano-patterning of GaN-based devices is a promising technology in the development of high output power devices. Recent researches have been focused on the realization of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) structure to improve light extraction efficiency and to control the direction of emission. In this study, we have demonstrated improved light extraction from green light emitting diode (LED) structures on thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using surface nanopatterning. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to probe the size, shape, and etch depth of nano-patterns on the LED surfaces. Different types of nanopatterns were created by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. The LED structures after post processing are studied by photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The GaN nanophotonic structures formed by ICP etching led to more than five-fold increase in the intensity of the green emission. The improved light extraction is due to the combination of SOI substrate reflectivity and photonic structures on top GaN LED surfaces. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Sound transmission through lined, composite panel structures: Transversely isotropic poro-elastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Woo

    A joint experimental and analytical investigation of the sound transmission loss (STL) and two-dimensional free wave propagation in composite sandwich panels is presented here. An existing panel, a Nomex honeycomb sandwich panel, was studied in detail. For the purpose of understanding the typical behavior of sandwich panels, a composite structure comprising two aluminum sheets with a relatively soft, poro-elastic foam core was also constructed and studied. The cores of both panels were modeled using an anisotropic (transversely isotropic) poro-elastic material theory. Several estimation methods were used to obtain the material properties of the honeycomb core and the skin plates to be used in the numerical calculations. Appropriate values selected from among the estimates were used in the STL and free wave propagation models. The prediction model was then verified in two ways: first, the calculated wave speeds and STL of a single poro-elastic layer were numerically verified by comparison with the predictions of a previously developed isotropic model. Secondly, to physically validate the transversely isotropic model, the measured STL and the phase speeds of the sandwich panels were compared with their predicted values. To analyze the actual treatment of a fuselage structure, multi-layered configurations, including a honeycomb panel and several layers such as air gaps, acoustic blankets and membrane partitions, were formulated. Then, to find the optimal solution for improving the sound barrier performance of an actual fuselage system, air layer depth and glass fiber lining effects were investigated by using these multi-layer models. By using the free wave propagation model, the first anti-symmetric and symmetric modes of the sandwich panels were characterized to allow the identification of the coincidence frequencies of the sandwich panel. The behavior of the STL could then be clearly explained by comparison with the free wave propagation solutions. By performing a

  16. Alternative Shear Panel Configurations for Light Wood Construction. Development, Seismic Performance, and Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoski, James; Fischer, Chad; Allison, Tim; Malach, Kelly Jo

    2002-04-01

    Shear panels are used in light wood construction to resist lateral loads resulting from earthquakes or strong winds. These panels are typically made of wooden sheathing nailed to building frame members, but this standard panel design interferes with the installation of sheet insulation. A non-insulated shear panel conducts heat between the building interior and exterior wasting considerable amounts of energy. Several alternative shear panel designs were developed to avoid this insulation-mounting problem and sample panels were tested according to standard cyclic test protocols. One of the alternative designs consisted of diagonal steel straps nailed directly to the structural framing. Several others consisted of sheathing nailed to 2 x 4 framing then set into a larger 2 x 6 structural frame in such a way that no sheathing protruded beyond the edge of the 2 x 6 members. Also samples of industry-standard shear panels were constructed and tested in order to establish a performance baseline. Analytical models were developed to size test panels and predict panel behavior. A procedure was developed for establishing design capacities based on both test data and established baseline panel design capacity. The behavior of each panel configuration is documented and recommended design capacities are presented.

  17. Acoustic contributions of a sound absorbing blanket placed in a double panel structure: absorption versus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a simple tool to estimate the absorption vs. transmission loss contributions of a multilayered blanket unbounded in a double panel structure and thus guide its optimization. The normal incidence airborne sound transmission loss of the double panel structure, without structure-borne connections, is written in terms of three main contributions; (i) sound transmission loss of the panels, (ii) sound transmission loss of the blanket and (iii) sound absorption due to multiple reflections inside the cavity. The method is applied to four different blankets frequently used in automotive and aeronautic applications: a non-symmetric multilayer made of a screen in sandwich between two porous layers and three symmetric porous layers having different pore geometries. It is shown that the absorption behavior of the blanket controls the acoustic behavior of the treatment at low and medium frequencies and its transmission loss at high frequencies. Acoustic treatment having poor sound absorption behavior can affect the performance of the double panel structure.

  18. Causal feedforward control of a stochastically excited fuselage structure with active sidewall panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misol, Malte; Haase, Thomas; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides experimental results of an aircraft-relevant double panel structure mounted in a sound transmission loss facility. The primary structure of the double panel system is excited either by a stochastic point force or by a diffuse sound field synthesized in the reverberation room of the transmission loss facility. The secondary structure, which is connected to the frames of the primary structure, is augmented by actuators and sensors implementing an active feedforward control system. Special emphasis is placed on the causality of the active feedforward control system and its implications on the disturbance rejection at the error sensors. The coherence of the sensor signals is analyzed for the two different disturbance excitations. Experimental results are presented regarding the causality, coherence, and disturbance rejection of the active feedforward control system. Furthermore, the sound transmission loss of the double panel system is evaluated for different configurations of the active system. A principal result of this work is the evidence that it is possible to strongly influence the transmission of stochastic disturbance sources through double panel configurations by means of an active feedforward control system.

  19. A high-quality human reference panel reveals the complexity and distribution of genomic structural variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Marschall, T.; Kloosterman, W.P.; Francioli, L.C.; Baaijens, J.A.; Dijkstra, L.J.; Abdellaoui, A.; Koval, V.; Thung, D.T.; Wardenaar, R.; Renkens, I.; Coe, B.P.; Deelen, P.; de Ligt, J.; Lameijer, E.W.; Dijk, F.; Hormozdiari, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Duijn, C.M.; Eichler, E.E.; Bakker, P.I.W.; Swertz, M.A.; Wijmenga, C.; van Ommen, G.J.B; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Schönhuth, A.; Ye, K.; Guryev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Structural variation (SV) represents a major source of differences between individual human genomes and has been linked to disease phenotypes. However, the majority of studies provide neither a global view of the full spectrum of these variants nor integrate them into reference panels of genetic

  20. Survey of thermal insulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi

    1983-01-01

    Better thermal insulations have been developed to meet the growing demands of industry, and studies on thermal insulation at both high temperature and low temperature have been widely performed. The purpose of this survey is to summarize data on the performances and characteristics of thermal insulation materials and thermal insulation structures (for instance, gas cooled reactors, space vehicles and LNG storage tanks), and to discuss ravious problems regarding the design of thermal insulation structures of pool-type LMFBRs. (author)

  1. Potential fluctuations due to randomly distributed charges at the semiconductor-insulator interface in MIS-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanchev, I.

    2003-01-01

    A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening from the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to a divergent dispersion. The dispersion, an important characteristic of the random potential distribution, determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated

  2. Potential fluctuations due to randomly distributed charges at the semiconductor-insulator interface in mis-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanchev, I; Slavcheva, G.

    1993-01-01

    A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening from the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential Γ 2 to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to divergent dispersion. The important characteristic of the random potential distribution Γ 2 determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated. 7 refs. (orig.)

  3. Potential fluctuations due to the randomly distributed charges at the semiconductor-insulator interface in MIS-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavcheva, G.; Yanchev, I.

    1991-01-01

    A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening due to the image charge with respect to the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account, introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential Γ 2 to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to divergent dispersion. The important characteristic of the random potential distribution Γ 2 determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  4. Potential fluctuations due to randomly distributed charges at the semiconductor-insulator interface in MIS-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yanchev, I

    2003-01-01

    A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening from the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to a divergent dispersion. The dispersion, an important characteristic of the random potential distribution, determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated.

  5. Potential fluctuations due to randomly distributed charges at the semiconductor-insulator interface in MIS-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanchev, I

    2003-07-01

    A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening from the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to a divergent dispersion. The dispersion, an important characteristic of the random potential distribution, determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated.

  6. Infrared-transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion device with thin-film-transistor-type structure on a glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Katase

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion was demonstrated on a glass substrate by using thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO2 as the active layer in a three-terminal thin-film-transistor-type device with water-infiltrated glass as the gate insulator. Alternative positive/negative gate-voltage applications induce the reversible protonation/deprotonation of a VO2 channel, and two-orders of magnitude modulation of sheet-resistance and 49% modulation of IR-transmittance were simultaneously demonstrated at room temperature by the metal-insulator phase conversion of VO2 in a non-volatile manner. The present device is operable by the room-temperature protonation in an all-solid-state structure, and thus it will provide a new gateway to future energy-saving technology as an advanced smart window.

  7. Metal-Insulator Phase Transition in Quasi-One-Dimensional VO2 Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong-Ki Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition (MIT in strongly correlated oxides has attracted considerable attention from both theoretical and experimental researchers. Among the strongly correlated oxides, vanadium dioxide (VO2 has been extensively studied in the last decade because of a sharp, reversible change in its optical, electrical, and magnetic properties at approximately 341 K, which would be possible and promising to develop functional devices with advanced technology by utilizing MITs. However, taking the step towards successful commercialization requires the comprehensive understanding of MIT mechanisms, enabling us to manipulate the nature of transitions. In this regard, recently, quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D VO2 structures have been intensively investigated due to their attractive geometry and unique physical properties to observe new aspects of transitions compared with their bulk counterparts. Thus, in this review, we will address recent research progress in the development of various approaches for the modification of MITs in quasi-1D VO2 structures. Furthermore, we will review recent studies on realizing novel functional devices based on quasi-1D VO2 structures for a wide range of applications, such as a gas sensor, a flexible strain sensor, an electrical switch, a thermal memory, and a nonvolatile electrical memory with multiple resistance.

  8. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  9. Graphene-insulator-semiconductor capacitors as superior test structures for photoelectric determination of semiconductor devices band diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Piskorski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the advantages of using Graphene-Insulator-Semiconductor (GIS instead of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS structures in reliable and precise photoelectric determination of the band alignment at the semiconductor-insulator interface and of the insulator band gap determination. Due to the high transparency to light of the graphene gate in GIS structures large photocurrents due to emission of both electrons and holes from the substrate and negligible photocurrents due to emission of carriers from the gate can be obtained, which allows reliable determination of barrier heights for both electrons, Ee and holes, Eh from the semiconductor substrate. Knowing the values of both Ee and Eh allows direct determination of the insulator band gap EG(I. Photoelectric measurements were made of a series of Graphene-SiO2-Si structures and an example is shown of the results obtained in sequential measurements of the same structure giving the following barrier height values: Ee = 4.34 ± 0.01 eV and Eh = 4.70 ± 0.03 eV. Based on this result and results obtained for other structures in the series we conservatively estimate the maximum uncertainty of both barrier heights estimations at ± 0.05 eV. This sets the SiO2 band gap estimation at EG(I = 7.92 ± 0.1 eV. It is shown that widely different SiO2 band gap values were found by research groups using various determination methods. We hypothesize that these differences are due to different sensitivities of measurement methods used to the existence of the SiO2 valence band tail.

  10. Graphene-insulator-semiconductor capacitors as superior test structures for photoelectric determination of semiconductor devices band diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, K.; Passi, V.; Ruhkopf, J.; Lemme, M. C.; Przewlocki, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the advantages of using Graphene-Insulator-Semiconductor (GIS) instead of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) structures in reliable and precise photoelectric determination of the band alignment at the semiconductor-insulator interface and of the insulator band gap determination. Due to the high transparency to light of the graphene gate in GIS structures large photocurrents due to emission of both electrons and holes from the substrate and negligible photocurrents due to emission of carriers from the gate can be obtained, which allows reliable determination of barrier heights for both electrons, Ee and holes, Eh from the semiconductor substrate. Knowing the values of both Ee and Eh allows direct determination of the insulator band gap EG(I). Photoelectric measurements were made of a series of Graphene-SiO2-Si structures and an example is shown of the results obtained in sequential measurements of the same structure giving the following barrier height values: Ee = 4.34 ± 0.01 eV and Eh = 4.70 ± 0.03 eV. Based on this result and results obtained for other structures in the series we conservatively estimate the maximum uncertainty of both barrier heights estimations at ± 0.05 eV. This sets the SiO2 band gap estimation at EG(I) = 7.92 ± 0.1 eV. It is shown that widely different SiO2 band gap values were found by research groups using various determination methods. We hypothesize that these differences are due to different sensitivities of measurement methods used to the existence of the SiO2 valence band tail.

  11. Thermal insulating system particularly adapted for building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyar, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    This disclosure relates to an insulating system which is particularly adapted for insulating the walls, floors, ceilings and like structure of buildings and includes a panel having a hollow chamber or interior under negative pressure (vacuum) and being of a variety of external peripheral sizes and shapes to fit within areas defined by wall and/or floor and/or ceiling studs, beams, or the like, a plurality of springs, chains or the like for supporting the panel in generally spaced relationship to an associated building wall, ceiling, floor or like structure, and a plurality of pin-like elements of relatively small cross-sectional configuration normally spaced from the exterior surface of the panel for contacting a limited exterior surface area of the panel only upon the springs, chains or the like becoming inoperative which would in the absence of the pin-like elements result in direct contact between the panel and the associated building wall, ceiling, floor or like structure and thus reduce the insulating efficiency thereof

  12. RC structures strengthened by metal shear panels: experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Matteis, G.; Formisano, A.; Mazzolani, F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Metal shear panels (MSPs) may be effectively used as a lateral load resisting system for framed structures. In the present paper, such a technique is applied for the seismic protection of existing RC buildings, by setting up a specific design procedure, which has been developed on the basis of preliminary full-scale experimental tests. The obtained results allowed the development of both simplified and advanced numerical models of both the upgraded structure and the applied shear panels. Also, the proposed design methodology, which is framed in the performance base design philosophy, has been implemented for the structural upgrading of a real Greek existing multi-storey RC building. The results of the numerical analysis confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed technique, also emphasising the efficiency of the implemented design methodology

  13. Structural affection of the integration of the solar panels in existing buildings; Afeccion estructural de la integracion de los paneles solares en edificios existentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencias, D. C.; Arroba, M. F.

    2008-07-01

    For a short time, is obligatory to install solar and/or photovoltaic panels, not only in new buildings, even those who are subjected to a important reform or rehabilitation. The installation of these panels, involves a series of structural impacts on the structure of the buildings where they are installed, which originally had not been planned or considered in loads evaluation. These new actions are originated both in the weight of the solar elements as a resistance that oppose the wind force and the consequent counterweights. This communication proposes the analysis of the reduction that these new loads cause in safety factors considered in the initial calculation. Permanent loads influence direct their own panels and the accumulation of deposits and derivative, such as caused by the counterweights installed for the wind, are analyzed in Ultimated State Limits. (Author)

  14. Electronic properties of InAs-based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kuryshev, G L; Valisheva, N A

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of electronic processes in InAs-based MIS structures operating in the charge injection device mode and using as photodetectors in spectral range 2.5-3.05 mu m are investigated. A two-layer system consisting of anodic oxide and low-temperature silicon dioxide is used as an insulator. It is shown that fluoride-containing components that is introduced into the electrolyte decreases the value of the built-in charge and the surface state static density down to minimal measurable values <= 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 2 eV sup - sup 2. Physical and chemical characteristics of the surface states at the InAs-dielectric interface are discussed on the basis of data on phase composition of anodic oxides obtained by means of X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy. Anomalous field generation was also observed under the semiconductor non-equilibrium depletion. The processes of tunnel generation and the noise behavior of MIS structures under non-equilibrium depletion are investigated

  15. Electronic Structure of the Metastable Epitaxial Rock-Salt SnSe {111} Topological Crystalline Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencan Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Topological crystalline insulators have been recently predicted and observed in rock-salt structure SnSe {111} thin films. Previous studies have suggested that the Se-terminated surface of this thin film with hydrogen passivation has a reduced surface energy and is thus a preferred configuration. In this paper, synchrotron-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, along with density functional theory calculations, is used to demonstrate that a rock-salt SnSe {111} thin film epitaxially grown on Bi_{2}Se_{3} has a stable Sn-terminated surface. These observations are supported by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED intensity-voltage measurements and dynamical LEED calculations, which further show that the Sn-terminated SnSe {111} thin film has undergone a surface structural relaxation of the interlayer spacing between the Sn and Se atomic planes. In sharp contrast to the Se-terminated counterpart, the observed Dirac surface state in the Sn-terminated SnSe {111} thin film is shown to yield a high Fermi velocity, 0.50×10^{6}  m/s, which suggests a potential mechanism of engineering the Dirac surface state of topological materials by tuning the surface configuration.

  16. Investigation of electronic lattice structure by positron annihilation in some insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussot, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    The angular distribution of gamma quanta resulting from positron annihilation in single insulator crystals was measured with long slit geometry apparatus for intense positron sources ( 64 Cu ≅ 1 Ci). Two new phenomena were observed in the angular correlation curves. In the f. c. c. MgO, UO 2 , CaF 2 crystals, modulations appeared at angles corresponding to the limit of the first Brillouin zone in relation to the crystallographic direction studied. In SiO 2 , F 2 Mg, F 2 Mn crystals, a narrow peak at 0 mrad and a fine structure superimposed on the broad distribution, were resolved. The fine structure which is correlated with the narrow component is characterized by modulations appearing at angles corresponding to the projection of reciprocal lattice vectors along the crystallographic direction investigated. The narrow peak at p ≅ 0 suggests the formation of a bound state (positron-electron). If this bound state is described by a Bloch wave, the modulations observed correspond to the Fourier components which contribute to every reciprocal lattice vector p = G ('Umklapp' process). This model predicts that the 'Umklapp' process in polycrystals must produce a change in slope which can be experimentally observed. A systematic research of optimal observation conditions shows that the intensity of the narrow component is closely correlated with the purity and the perfection of the crystal where p-Ps is presumably formed as suggested by magnetic experiments. (author) [fr

  17. Preparation Nano-Structure Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Functional Film on the Cellulose Insulation Polymer and Its Effect on the Breakdown Voltage and Hydrophobicity Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose insulation polymer is an important component of oil-paper insulation, which is widely used in power transformer. The weight of the cellulose insulation polymer materials is as high as tens of tons in the larger converter transformer. Excellent performance of oil-paper insulation is very important for ensuring the safe operation of larger converter transformer. An effective way to improve the insulation and the physicochemical property of the oil impregnated insulation pressboard/paper is currently a popular research topic. In this paper, the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE functional film was coated on the cellulose insulation pressboard by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering to improve its breakdown voltage and the hydrophobicity properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS results show that the nano-structure PTFE functional film was successfully fabricated on the cellulose insulation pressboard surface. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD present that the nanoscale size PTFE particles were attached to the pressboard surface and it exists in the amorphous form. Atomic force microscopy (AFM shows that the sputtered pressboard surface is still rough. The rough PTFE functional film and the reduction of the hydrophilic hydroxyl of the surface due to the shielding effect of PTFE improve the breakdown and the hydrophobicity properties of the cellulose insulation pressboard obviously. This paper provides an innovative way to improve the performance of the cellulose insulation polymer.

  18. Effects of Structural and Electronic Disorder in Topological Insulator Sb2Te3 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhovska, Inna

    Topological quantum matter is a unique and potentially transformative protectorate against disorder-induced backscattering. The ultimate disorder limits to the topological state, however, are still not known - understanding these limits is critical to potential applications in the fields of spintronics and information processing. In topological insulators spin-orbit interaction and time-reversal-symmetry invariance guarantees - at least up to a certain disorder strength - that charge transport through 2D gapless Dirac surface states is robust against backscattering by non-magnetic disorder. Strong disorder may destroy topological protection and gap out Dirac surface states, although recent theories predict that under severe electronic disorder a quantized topological conductance might yet reemerge. Very strong electronic disorder, however, is not trivial to install and quantify, and topological matter under such conditions thus far has not been experimentally tested. This thesis addresses the behavior of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) films in a wide range of structural and electronic disorder. We establish strong positional disorder in thin (20-50 nm) Sb2Te 3 films, free of extrinsic magnetic dopants. Sb 2Te3 is a known 2nd generation topological insulator in the low-disorder crystalline state. It is also a known phase-change material that undergoes insulator-to-metal transition with the concurrent orders of magnitude resistive drop, where a huge range of disorder could be controllably explored. In this work we show that even in the absence of magnetic dopants, disorder may induce spin correlations detrimental to the topological state. Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to the topological matter and describes the role played by disorder. This is followed by theory considerations and a survey of prior experimental work. Next we describe the motivation for our experiments and explain the choice of the material. Chapter 2 describes deposition

  19. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...... is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program included testing of small scale specimens by applying shear (push-off) loading and semi-full scale specimens...... on finite element modelling showed that the developed panel system meets the objectives of the research and is expected to have promising future....

  20. A Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with overmoded slow-wave-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; He, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-De; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ling, Jun-Pu

    2016-12-01

    In order to enhance the power capacity, an improved Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with overmoded slow-wave-structure (SWS) is proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The analysis of the dispersion relationship and the resonant curve of the cold test indicate that the device can operate at the near π mode of the TM01 mode, which is useful for mode selection and control. In the particle simulation, the improved Ku-band MILO generates a microwave with a power of 1.5 GW and a frequency of 12.3 GHz under an input voltage of 480 kV and input current of 42 kA. Finally, experimental investigation of the improved Ku-band MILO is carried out. A high-power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 800 MW, a frequency of 12.35 GHz, and pulse width of 35 ns is generated under a diode voltage of 500 kV and beam current of 43 kA. The consistency between the experimental and simulated far-field radiation pattern confirms that the operating mode of the improved Ku-band MILO is well controlled in π mode of the TM01 mode. Project supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61171021).

  1. Three types of planar structure microspring electro-thermal actuators with insulating beam constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J. K.; Flewitt, A. J.; Spearing, S. M.; Fleck, N. A.; Milne, W. I.

    2005-08-01

    A new concept of using an electrically insulating beam as a constraint is proposed to construct planar spring-like electro-thermal actuators with large displacements. On the basis of this concept, three types of microspring actuators with multi-chevron structures and constraint beams are introduced. The constraint beams in one type (the spring) of these devices are horizontally positioned to restrict the expansion of the active arms in the x-direction, and to produce a displacement in the y-direction only. In the other two types of actuators (the deflector and the contractor), the constraint beams are positioned parallel to the active arms. When the constraint beams are on the inner side of the active arms, the actuator produces an outward deflection in the y-direction. When they are on the outside of the active arms, the actuator produces an inward contraction. Finite-element analysis was used to model the performances. The simulation shows that the displacements of these microspring actuators are all proportional to the number of the chevron sections in series, thus achieving superior displacements to alternative actuators. The displacement of a spring actuator strongly depends on the beam angle, and decreases with increasing the beam angle, the deflector is insensitive to the beam angle, while the displacement of a contractor actuator increases with the beam angle.

  2. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A structurally efficient hat-stiffened panel concept that utilizes a structural foam as stiffener core has been designed for aircraft primary structural applications. This stiffener concept utilizes a manufacturing process that can be adapted readily to grid-stiffened structural configurations which possess inherent damage tolerance characteristics due to their multiplicity of load paths. The foam-filled hat-stiffener concept in a prismatically stiffened panel configuration is more efficient than most other stiffened panel configurations in a load range that is typical for both fuselage and wing structures. The prismatically stiffened panel concept investigated here has been designed using AS4/3502 preimpregnated tape and Rohacell foam core and evaluated for its buckling and postbuckling behavior with and without low-speed impact damage. The results from single-stiffener and multi-stiffener specimens suggest that this structural concept responds to loading as anticipated and has good damage tolerance characteristics.

  3. Orthogonal model and experimental data for analyzing wood-fiber-based tri-axial ribbed structural panels in bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of 3-dimensional engineered structural panels (3DESP) made from wood-fiber-based laminated paper composites. Since the existing models for calculating the mechanical behavior of core configurations within sandwich panels are very complex, a new simplified orthogonal model (SOM) using an equivalent element has been developed. This model...

  4. Improving Thermal Insulation Properties for Prefabricated Wall Components Made Of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with Open Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramski, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Porous concrete is commonly used in civil engineering due to its good thermal insulation properties in comparison with normal concrete and high compression strength in comparison with other building materials. Reducing of the concrete density can be obviously obtained by using lightweight aggregate (e.g. pumice). The concrete density can be further minimized by using specially graded coarse aggregate and little-to-no fine aggregates. In this way a large number of air voids arise. The aggregate particles are coated by a cement paste and bonded together with it just in contact points. Such an extremely porous concrete, called ‘lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure’ (LAC), is used in some German plants to produce prefabricated wall components. They are used mainly in hall buildings, e.g. supermarkets. The need of improving thermal insulation properties was an inspiration for the prefabrication plant managers, engineers and a scientific staff of the Technical University of Kaiserslautern / Germany to realise an interesting project. Its aim was to reduce the heat transfer coefficient for the wall components. Three different wall structure types were designed and compared in full-scale laboratory tests with originally produced wall components in terms of load-carrying capacity and stiffness. The load was applied perpendicularly to the wall plane. As the components are not originally used for load-bearing walls, but for curtain walls only, the wind load is the main load for them. The wall components were tested in horizontal position and the load was applied vertically. Totally twelve wall components 8.00 × 2.00 × 0.25m (three for every series) were produced in the prefabrication plant and tested in the University of Kaiserslautern laboratory. The designed and tested components differed from each other in the amount of expanded polystyrene (EPS), which was placed in the plant inside the wall structure. The minimal amount of it was designed in the

  5. Optimal placement and decentralized robust vibration control for spacecraft smart solar panel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jian-ping; Li, Dong-xu

    2010-01-01

    The decentralized robust vibration control with collocated piezoelectric actuator and strain sensor pairs is considered in this paper for spacecraft solar panel structures. Each actuator is driven individually by the output of the corresponding sensor so that only local feedback control is implemented, with each actuator, sensor and controller operating independently. Firstly, an optimal placement method for the location of the collocated piezoelectric actuator and strain gauge sensor pairs is developed based on the degree of observability and controllability indices for solar panel structures. Secondly, a decentralized robust H ∞ controller is designed to suppress the vibration induced by external disturbance. Finally, a numerical comparison between centralized and decentralized control systems is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness to suppress vibration of the smart solar panel. The simulation results show that the vibration can be significantly suppressed with permitted actuator voltages by the controllers. The decentralized control system almost has the same disturbance attenuation level as the centralized control system with a bit higher control voltages. More importantly, the decentralized controller composed of four three-order systems is a better practical implementation than a high-order centralized controller is

  6. An analytical and experimental investigation of active structural acoustic control of noise transmission through double panel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneal, James P.; Fuller, Chris R.

    2004-05-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of active control of sound transmission through double panel systems has been performed. The technique used was active structural acoustic control (ASAC) where the control inputs, in the form of piezoelectric actuators, were applied to the structure while the radiating pressure field was minimized. Results verify earlier experimental investigations and indicate the application of control inputs to the radiating panel of the double panel system resulted in greater transmission loss (TL) due to its direct effect on the nature of the structural-acoustic (or radiation) coupling between the radiating panel and the receiving acoustic space. Increased control performance was seen in a double panel system consisting of a stiffer radiating panel due to its lower modal density and also as a result of better impedance matching between the piezoelectric actuator and the radiating plate. In general the results validate the ASAC approach for double panel systems, demonstrating that it is possible to take advantage of double panel system passive behavior to enhance control performance, and provide design guidelines.

  7. HOW SME UNIQUENESS AFFECTS CAPITAL STRUCTURE: EVIDENCE FROM A 1994-1998 SPANISH DATA PANEL

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Sogorb- Mira

    2002-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to test how firm characteristics affect Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) capital structure. We carry out an empirical analysis over a panel data of 6482 non?financial Spanish SMEs along the five-year period 1994?1998, modelling the leverage ratio as a function of firm specific attributes hypothesized by capital structure theory. Our results suggest that non?debt tax shields and profitability are both negatively related to SME leverage, while size, growth op...

  8. Panel Data with Cross-Sectional Dependence Characterized by a Multi-Level Factor Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A panel data model with a multi-level cross-sectional dependence is proposed. The factor structure is driven by top-level common factors as well as non-pervasive factors. I propose a simple method to filter out the full factor structure that overcomes limitations in standard procedures which may...... mix up both levels of unobservable factors and may hamper the identification of the model. The model covers both stationary and non-stationary cases and takes into account other relevant features that make the model well suited to the analysis of many types of time series frequently addressed...

  9. Competitive Structure of U.S. Grain Exporters in the World Market: A Dynamic Panel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun J. Jin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the competitive structure of U.S. wheat, corn, and soybeans exporters in the world market. A dynamic two¡ⓒway panel estimator is utilized in the analysis in place of typically used two¡ⓒway fixed effects panel estimator. A broader (in terms of the number of destination markets and more recent data sample is analyzed in this study in comparison to previous studies in order to reflect vast changes that occurred in world grain markets during the last twenty years. Results indicate the presence of pricing¡ⓒto¡ⓒmarkets behavior by U.S. grain exporters overall, and toward some importing countries in particular.

  10. Ownership and Determinants Capital Structure of Public Listed Companies in Indonesia: a Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Tri Hardiyanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure is a mix of debts and equities used by a company to finance its investment. Debt offers benefit of tax shield from interest expenses that can be deducted in calculating company income tax. Unfortunately, company can not use debts in unlimited amount because it will lead to risk of bankcrupt. Therefore, company needs to establish a target (unobserved capital structure which will optimize the value of the firm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of capital structure and ownership in public listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange using Time-Series Cross-Section Regression (TSCSREG and supported with a balanced panel data. Data used are financial statements of 228 public listed companies from group of eight industry sectors. Research finding confirms that tax shield and fixed financial burden are significantly influence the capital structure and state ownership also significantly influence the capital structure of the state owned enterprises.

  11. Ownership and Determinants Capital Structure of Public Listed Companies in Indonesia: a Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Tri Hardiyanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure is a mix of debts and equities used by a company to finance its investment. Debt offers benefit of tax shield from interest expenses that can be deducted in calculating company income tax. Unfortunately, company can not use debts in unlimited amount because it will lead to risk of bankcrupt. Therefore, company needs to establish a target (unobserved capital structure which will optimize the value of the firm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of capital structure and ownership in public listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange using Time-Series CrossSection Regression (TSCSREG and supported with a balanced panel data. Data used are financial statements of 228 public listed companies from group of eight industry sectors. Research finding confirms that tax shield and fixed financial burden are significantly influence the capital structure and state ownership also significantly influence the capital structure of the state owned enterprises.

  12. Formation of III–V-on-insulator structures on Si by direct wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Masafumi; Iida, Ryo; Ikku, Yuki; Kim, Sanghyeon; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi; Takagi, Hideki; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Yamada, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Osamu; Fukuhara, Noboru; Hata, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the formation of III–V-compound-semiconductors-on-insulator (III–V-OI) structures with thin buried oxide (BOX) layers on Si wafers by using developed direct wafer bonding (DWB). In order to realize III–V-OI MOSFETs with ultrathin body and extremely thin body (ETB) InGaAs-OI channel layers and ultrathin BOX layers, we have developed an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) O 2 plasma-assisted DWB process with ECR sputtered SiO 2 BOX layers and a DWB process based on atomic-layer-deposition Al 2 O 3 (ALD-Al 2 O 3 ) BOX layers. It is essential to suppress micro-void generation during wafer bonding process to achieve excellent wafer bonding. We have found that major causes of micro-void generation in DWB processes with ECR-SiO 2 and ALD-Al 2 O 3 BOX layers are desorption of Ar and H 2 O gas, respectively. In order to suppress micro-void generation in the ECR-SiO 2 BOX layers, it is effective to introduce the outgas process before bonding wafers. On the other hand, it is a possible solution for suppressing micro-void generation in the ALD-Al 2 O 3 BOX layers to increase the deposition temperature of the ALD-Al 2 O 3 BOX layers. It is also another possible solution to deposit ALD-Al 2 O 3 BOX layers on thermally oxidized SiO 2 layers, which can absorb the desorption gas from ALD-Al 2 O 3 BOX layers. (invited paper)

  13. Computational and experimental studies of microvascular void features for passive-adaptation of structural panel dynamic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas C.; Harne, Ryan L.

    2018-01-01

    The performance, integrity, and safety of built-up structural systems are critical to their effective employment in diverse engineering applications. In conflict with these goals, harmonic or random excitations of structural panels may promote large amplitude oscillations that are particularly harmful when excitation energies are concentrated around natural frequencies. This contributes to fatigue concerns, performance degradation, and failure. While studies have considered active or passive damping treatments that adapt material characteristics and configurations for structural control, it remains to be understood how vibration properties of structural panels may be tailored via internal material transitions. Motivated to fill this knowledge gap, this research explores an idea of adapting the static and dynamic material distribution of panels through embedded microvascular channels and strategically placed voids that permit the internal movement of fluids within the panels for structural dynamic control. Finite element model and experimental investigations probe how redistributing material in the form of microscale voids influences the global vibration modes and natural frequencies of structural panels. Through parameter studies, the relationships among void shape, number, size, and location are quantified towards their contribution to the changing structural dynamics. For the panel composition and boundary conditions considered in this report, the findings reveal that transferring material between strategically placed voids may result in eigenfrequency changes as great as 10.0, 5.0, and 7.4% for the first, second, and third modes, respectively.

  14. A mobility based vibroacoustic energy transmission simulation into an enclosure through a double-wall panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Atanu; Bhattacharya, Partha; Niyogi, Arup Guha; Rose, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Double-wall panels are known for their superior sound insulation properties over single wall panels as a sound barrier. The sound transmission phenomenon through a double-wall structure is a complex process involving vibroacoustic interaction between structural panels, the air-cushion in between, and the secondary acoustic domain. It is in this context a versatile and a fully coupled technique based on the finite-element-boundary element model is developed that enables estimation of sound transfer through a double-wall panel into an adjacent enclosure while satisfying the displacement compatibility across the interface. The contribution of individual components in the transmitted energy is identified through numerical simulations.

  15. Mechanics of a composite structure of GFRP insulators and superconductors with a gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, H.; Imagawa, S.; Nishimura, A.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting coils in large scale magnet applications such as the Large Helical Device (LHD) are subjected to large electromagnetic force at the interfaces between conductors and electrical insulators. The insulators do not always contact the superconductor surfaces completely. This may cause a reduction of coil rigidity. Nonlinear behavior was observed in the compressive load-displacement curves in some experiments of coil packs. The nonlinear curves were found to be well fitted by an exponential function. We considered this nonlinearity as a surface contact problem and devised some analytical models to evaluate the rigidity reduction in terms of gap length. The results of this analysis also support the exponential function

  16. Valence band structure of PDMS surface and a blend with MWCNTs: A UPS and MIES study of an insulating polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerl, Natalya M.; Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Andersson, Gunther G., E-mail: gunther.andersson@flinders.edu.au

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Valence electron spectroscopy was performed on an insulating polymer using different charge compensation methods. • MWCNT were embedded in PDMS and found to be the most effective method for reducing the charging of the insulating polymer. • The valence band spectrum of PDMS was obtained via MIES and UPS. • Ion scattering spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration depth profile of the PDMS in the sample. - Abstract: The use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is increasing with new technologies working toward compact, flexible and transparent devices for use in medical and microfluidic systems. Electronic characterization of PDMS and other insulating materials is difficult due to charging, yet necessary for many applications where the interfacial structure is vital to device function or further modification. The outermost layer in particular is of importance as this is the area where chemical reactions such as surface functionalization will occur. Here, we investigate the valence band structure of the outermost layer and near surface area of PDMS through the use of metastable induced photoelectron spectroscopy (MIES) paired with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The chemical composition of the samples under investigation were measured via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the vertical distribution of the polymer was shown with neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (NICISS). Three separate methods for charge compensation are used for the samples, and their effectiveness is compared.

  17. Sound Insulation Property Study on Nylon 66 Scrim Reinforced PVF Laminated Membranes and their Composite Sound Proof Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihe; Chen, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Xinyang; Wang, Weiwei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the sound insulation property of nylon 66 scrim reinforced PVF laminated membranes and their corresponding composite structures with glass fiber felt and carbon fiber board. Sound transmission loss (STL) was measured by standing wave tube method. The results show that, with the decrease of nylon 66 gridlines spacing, STL of nylon 66 scrim reinforced PVF laminated membranes was improved. The sound insulation performance of laminated membranes with gridlines spacing of 3mm is the best, whose STL was up to 10dB at 6.3 kHz. Besides, STL was improved effectively as air layers were embedded into the composite sound proof construction consist of laminated membrane, glass fiber felt and carbon fiber board.

  18. Translucent insulating building envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1997-01-01

    A new type of translucent insulating material has been tested. This material is made of Celulose-Acetat and have a honey-comb structure. The material has a high solar transmittance and is highly insulating. The material is relatively cheap to produce. Danish Title: Translucent isolerende klimaskærm....

  19. Tests and Analysis of the Compressive Performance of an Integrated Masonry Structure of a Brick-Stem-Insulating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suizi Jia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes, for low buildings, an integrated wall structure of a brick-stem-insulating layer, which plays a major part in both heat preservation and force bearing. The research team has tested the thermal performance of the structure, the results of which are satisfying. To further study the force-bearing performance, the paper carries out compressive tests of specimens of different structural design, with two types of bricks, i.e., clay and recycled concrete bricks; three types of stems, i.e., square-shaped wood, square-shaped steel pipe and circular steel pipe; and one type of insulating layer, i.e., fly ash masonry blocks. Afterward, the force bearing performance, damage that occurred, compressive deformation and ductility of all of the specimens are compared. On the sideline, the structure is applied in the construction of a pilot residence project, yielding favorable outcomes. The results indicate that in comparison with a brick wall with an insulating layer sandwiched in between, the integrated wall structure of bricks and fly ash blocks is a more preferable choice in terms of compressive performance and ductility. The integrated wall structure of brick-stem-fly ash blocks delivers much better performance to this end. Note that regarding the stem’s contribution to compressive strength, circular steel pipe is highest, followed by square-shaped steel pipe and then square-shaped wood. The compressive performance of the sandwiched blocks surpasses that of the two brick wall pieces combined by a large margin.

  20. A short course on topological insulators band structure and edge states in one and two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Asbóth, János K; Pályi, András

    2016-01-01

    This course-based primer provides newcomers to the field with a concise introduction to some of the core topics in the emerging field of topological insulators. The aim is to provide a basic understanding of edge states, bulk topological invariants, and of the bulk--boundary correspondence with as simple mathematical tools as possible. The present approach uses noninteracting lattice models of topological insulators, building gradually on these to arrive from the simplest one-dimensional case (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model for polyacetylene) to two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators (the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model for HgTe). In each case the discussion of simple toy models is followed by the formulation of the general arguments regarding topological insulators. The only prerequisite for the reader is a working knowledge in quantum mechanics, the relevant solid state physics background is provided as part of this self-contained text, which is complemented by end-of-chapter problems.

  1. Determinants of Capital Structure:Evidence from UK Firm Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, PING

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the factors that determine firms’ the capital structures in the UK market. There 139 firms, in total, listed on FTSE 100 and FTSE 250 have been used as the sample set, and a 10-year time scale, from 2004 to 2013, is selected to constitute the panel data. Both firm-specific and macroeconomic determinants are included to be investigated whether they would pose impacts on total, long term and short term debt issuance. The fixed effects regression model is adopted to estim...

  2. Tubular House - Form Follows Technology, Concrete Shell Structure with Inner Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idem, Robert; Kleczek, Paweł; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Chudoba, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is the theoretical analysis of the possibilities and limitations of using an unconventional technology and the original architectural form stemming from it - the building with external construction and internal insulation. In Central European climatic conditions, the traditional solution for the walls of heated buildings relies on using external thermal insulation. This stems from building physics: it prevents interstitial condensation of water vapour in the wall. Internal insulation is used exceptionally. This is done e.g. in historical buildings undergoing thermal modernization (due to the impossibility of interfering with facade). In such cases, a thermal insulation layer is used on the internal wall surface, along with an additional layer of vapour barrier. The concept of building concerns the intentional usage of an internal insulation. In this case, the construction is a tight external reinforced concrete shell. The architectural form of such building is strongly interrelated with the technology, which was used to build it. The paper presents the essence of this concept in descriptive and drawing form. The basic elements of such building are described (the external construction, the internal insulation and ventilation). As a case study, authors present a project of a residential building along with the description of the applied materials and installation solutions, and the results obtained from thermal, humidity and energetic calculations. The discussion presents the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed concept. The basic advantage of this solution is potentially low building cost. This stems from minimizing the ground works, the simplicity of the joints and the outer finish, as well as from the possibility of prefabrication of the elements. The continuity of the thermal insulation allows to reduce the amount of thermal bridges. The applied technology and form are applicable most of all for small buildings, due to limited

  3. Electromagnetic waves in a topological insulator thin film stack: helicon-like wave mode and photonic band structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2013-09-09

    We theoretically explore the electromagnetic modes specific to a topological insulator superlattice in which topological and conventional insulator thin films are stacked periodically. In particular, we obtain analytic formulas for low energy mode that corresponds to a helicon wave, as well as those for photonic bands. We illustrate that the system can be modeled as a stack of quantum Hall layers whose conductivity tensors alternately change signs, and then we analyze the photonic band structures. This subject is a natural extension of a previous study by Tselis et al., which took into consideration a stack of identical quantum Hall layers but their discussion was limited into a low energy mode. Thus we provide analytic formulas for photonic bands and compare their features between the two systems. Our central findings in the topological insulator superlattice are that a low energy mode corresponding to a helicon wave has linear dispersion instead of the conventional quadratic form, and that a robust gapless photonic band appears although the system considered has spacial periodicity. In addition, we demonstrate that the photonic bands agree with the numerically calculated transmission spectra.

  4. Structural and electrical evaluation for strained Si/SiGe on insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Ii, Seiichiro; Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Nakashima, Hideharu; Ninomiya, Masaharu; Nakamae, Masahiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Three strained Si/SiGe on insulator wafers having different Ge fractions were evaluated using dual-metal-oxide-semiconductor (dual-MOS) deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. The interface of SiGe/buried oxide (BOX) shows roughness less than 1 nm by high resolution TEM observation. The interface states densities (D it ) of SiGe/BOX are approximately 1 x 10 12 cm -2 eV -1 , which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of Si/BOX in a Si on insulator wafer measured as reference by the same method of dual-MOS DLTS. The high D it of SiGe/BOX is not due to interface roughness but due to Ge atoms. The threading dislocations were also clearly observed by TEM and were analyzed

  5. Simulation of magnetic tunnel junction in ferromagnetic/insulator/semiconductor structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrov, Alexander I.; Stempitsky, Viktor R.; Kazimirchik, Vladimir N.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we present a physical model and electrical macromodel for simulation of Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) effect based on Ferromagnetic/Insulator/Semiconductor (FIS) nanostructure. A modified Brinkman model has been proposed by including the voltage-dependent density of states of the ferromagnetic electrodes in order to explain the bias dependence magnitoresistance. The model takes into account injection of carriers in the semiconductor and Shottky barrier, electron tunneling through thin insulator and spin-transfer torque writing approach in memory cell. These very promising features should constitute the third generation of Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM). Besides, the model can efficiently be used to design magnetic CMOS circuits. The behavioral macro-model has been developed by means of Verilog-AMS language and implemented on the Cadence Virtuoso platform with Spectre simulator.

  6. Spin-filter effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong; Yang, Wei; Yang, Xinjian; Qin, Minghui; Guo, Jianqin

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the thickness of the ferromagnetic insulator, the spin-filter effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor (NM/FI/NM/SC) junctions is studied based on the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory. It is shown that a spin-dependent energy shift during the tunneling process induces splitting of the subgap resonance peaks. The spin polarization due to the spin-filter effect of the FI causes an imbalance of the peaks heights and can enhance the Zeeman splitting of the gap peaks caused by an applied magnetic field. The spin-filter effect has no contribution to the proximity-effect-induced superconductivity in NM interlayer

  7. Preparation and dielectric investigation of organic metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) structures with a ferroelectric polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbitz, Rene; Fruebing, Peter; Gerhard, Reimund [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam (Germany); Taylor, Martin [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) offer the prospect of an organic-based memory device. Since the charge transport in the semiconductor is confined to the interface region between the insulator and the semiconductor, the focus of the present study was on the investigation of this region in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors using dielectric spectroscopy. Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) measurements at different frequencies as well as capacitance-frequency (C-f) measurements after applying different poling voltages were carried out. The C-V measurements yielded information about the frequency dependence of the depletion layer width as well as the number of charges stored at the semiconductor/ insulator interface. The results are compared to numerical calculations based on a model introduced by S. L. Miller (JAP, 72(12), 1992). The C-f measurements revealed three main relaxation processes. An equivalent circuit has been developed to model the frequency response of the MIS capacitor. With this model the origin of the three relaxations may be deduced.

  8. Structural Health Monitoring of a Composite Panel Based on PZT Sensors and a Transfer Impedance Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziendzikowski, Michal; Niedbala, Patryk; Kurnyta, Artur; Kowalczyk, Kamil; Dragan, Krzysztof

    2018-05-11

    One of the ideas for development of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems is based on excitation of elastic waves by a network of PZT piezoelectric transducers integrated with the structure. In the paper, a variant of the so-called Transfer Impedance (TI) approach to SHM is followed. Signal characteristics, called the Damage Indices (DIs), were proposed for data presentation and analysis. The idea underlying the definition of DIs was to maintain most of the information carried by the voltage induced on PZT sensors by elastic waves. In particular, the DIs proposed in the paper should be sensitive to all types of damage which can influence the amplitude or the phase of the voltage induced on the sensor. Properties of the proposed DIs were investigated experimentally using a GFRP composite panel equipped with PZT networks attached to its surface and embedded into its internal structure. Repeatability and stability of DI indications under controlled conditions were verified in tests. Also, some performance indicators for surface-attached and structure-embedded sensors were obtained. The DIs' behavior was dependent mostly on the presence of a simulated damage in the structure. Anisotropy of mechanical properties of the specimen, geometrical properties of PZT network as well as, to some extent, the technology of sensor integration with the structure were irrelevant for damage indication. This property enables the method to be used for damage detection and classification.

  9. Design and assembly technology for the thermal insulation of the W7-X cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risse, K., E-mail: konrad.risse@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Euratom Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Nagel, M.; Pietsch, M.; Braatz, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Euratom Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Binni, A. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Dpt. OSA, Werftstrasse 17, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany); Posselt, H. [Linde AG Engineering Div., Dr.-Carl-von-Linde-Strasse 6-14, D-82049 Hoellriegelskreuth (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Greifswald is building up the stellarator fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). To operate the superconducting magnet system the vacuum and the cold structures are protected by a thermal insulated cryostat. The plasma vessel forms the inner cryostat wall, the outer wall is realised by a thermal insulated outer vessel. In addition 254 thermal insulated ports are fed through the cryogenic vacuum to allow the access to the plasma vessel for heating systems, supply lines or plasma diagnostics. The thermal insulation is being manufactured and assembled by MAN Diesel and Turbo SE (Germany). It consists of a multi-layer insulation (MLI) made of aluminized Kapton with a silk like fibreglass spacer and a thermal shield covering the inner cryostat surfaces. The shield on the plasma vessel is made of fibreglass reinforced epoxy resin with integrated copper meshes. The outer vessel insulation is made of brass panels with an average size of 3.3 x 2.0 m{sup 2}. Cooling loops made of stainless steel are connected via copper strips to the brass panels. Especially the complex 3 D shape of the plasma vessel, the restricted space inside the cryostat and the consideration of the operational component movements influenced the design work heavily. The manufacturing and the assembly has to fulfil stringent geometrical tolerances e.g. for the outer vessel panels +3/-2 mm.

  10. Design and assembly technology for the thermal insulation of the W7-X cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risse, K.; Nagel, M.; Pietsch, M.; Braatz, A.; Binni, A.; Posselt, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Greifswald is building up the stellarator fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). To operate the superconducting magnet system the vacuum and the cold structures are protected by a thermal insulated cryostat. The plasma vessel forms the inner cryostat wall, the outer wall is realised by a thermal insulated outer vessel. In addition 254 thermal insulated ports are fed through the cryogenic vacuum to allow the access to the plasma vessel for heating systems, supply lines or plasma diagnostics. The thermal insulation is being manufactured and assembled by MAN Diesel and Turbo SE (Germany). It consists of a multi-layer insulation (MLI) made of aluminized Kapton with a silk like fibreglass spacer and a thermal shield covering the inner cryostat surfaces. The shield on the plasma vessel is made of fibreglass reinforced epoxy resin with integrated copper meshes. The outer vessel insulation is made of brass panels with an average size of 3.3 x 2.0 m 2 . Cooling loops made of stainless steel are connected via copper strips to the brass panels. Especially the complex 3 D shape of the plasma vessel, the restricted space inside the cryostat and the consideration of the operational component movements influenced the design work heavily. The manufacturing and the assembly has to fulfil stringent geometrical tolerances e.g. for the outer vessel panels +3/-2 mm.

  11. Study of noise reduction characteristics of double-wall panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, R.; Quayle, B.; Stevenson, S.; Graham, M.

    1983-05-01

    The noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type, flat, double-wall structures were investigated. The experimental study was carried out on 20-by-20 inch panels with an exposed area of 18 by 18 inches. A frequency range from 20 to 5000 Hz was covered. The experimental results, in general, follow the expected trends. At low frequencies the double-wall structures are no better than the single-wall structures. However, for depths normally used in the general aviation industry, the double-wall panels are very attractive. The graphite-spoxy skin panels have higher noise reduction at very low frequencies ( 100 Hz) than the Kevlar skin panels. But the aluminum panels have higher noise reduction in the high frequency region, due to their greater mass. Use of fiberglass insulation is not effective in the low frequency region, and at times it is even negative. But the insulation is effective in the high-frequency region. The theoretical model for predicting the transmission loss of these multilayered panels is also discussed.

  12. Characterization of Linkage Disequilibrium and Population Structure in a Mungbean Diversity Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Noble

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important grain legume globally, providing a high-quality plant protein source largely produced and consumed in South and East Asia. This study aimed to characterize a mungbean diversity panel consisting of 466 cultivated accessions and demonstrate its utility by conducting a pilot genome-wide association study of seed coat color. In addition 16 wild accessions were genotyped for comparison and in total over 22,000 polymorphic genome-wide SNPs were identified and used to analyze the genetic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD of mungbean. Polymorphism was lower in the cultivated accessions in comparison to the wild accessions, with average polymorphism information content values 0.174, versus 0.305 in wild mungbean. LD decayed in ∼100 kb in cultivated lines, a distance higher than the linkage decay of ∼60 kb estimated in wild mungbean. Four distinct subgroups were identified within the cultivated lines, which broadly corresponded to geographic origin and seed characteristics. In a pilot genome-wide association mapping study of seed coat color, five genomic regions associated were identified, two of which were close to seed coat color genes in other species. This mungbean diversity panel constitutes a valuable resource for genetic dissection of important agronomical traits to accelerate mungbean breeding.

  13. Location and orientation of panel on the screen as a structural visual element to highlight text displayed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Laure; Chevalier, Aline

    2017-07-01

    Searching for information on the internet has become a daily activity. It is considered to be a complex cognitive activity that involves visual attention. Many studies have demonstrated that users' information search are affected both by the spatial configuration of words and the elements displayed on the screen: elements that are used to structure web pages. One of these elements, the web panel, contains information. Web panel is a rectangular area with a colored background that was used to highlighting content presented in this specific rectangular area. Our general hypothesis was that the presence of a panel on a web page would affect the structure of a word display, as a result, information search accuracy. We carried out an experiment in which we manipulated the presence vs. the absence of a panel, as well as its orientation on the screen (vertical vs. horizontal). Twenty participants were asked to answer questions while their eye movements were recorded. Results showed that the presence of a panel resulted in reduced accuracy and shorter response times. Panel orientation affected scanpaths, especially when they were orientated vertically. We discuss these findings and suggest ways in which this research could be developed further in future.

  14. Fertile Soil for Structural Funds? A panel data analysis of the conditional effectiveness of European cohesion policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederveen, S.; de Groot, H.L.F.; Nahuis, R.

    2003-01-01

    Structural funds are the most intensively used policy instrument by the European Union to promote economic growth in its member states and to speed up the process of convergence. This paper empirically explores the effectiveness of European Structural Funds by means of a panel data analysis for 13

  15. Influence of non-ideal diffuse sound field excitations on the control performance of active panel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Misol, Malte; Bloch, Christian; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The sound transmission loss of lightweight structures can be increased by the application of facing formworks. In the aircraft industry this task is accomplished by means of sidewall panels (linings) mounted on the primary fuselage structure of an aircraft. At low frequencies (

  16. Bipolar resistive switching in graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Anil; Kashyap, Rajesh; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide based devices have attracted much attention recently because of their possible application in next generation electronic devices. In this study, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure were investigated for nonvolatile memories. The graphene oxide was prepared by the conventional Hummer's method and deposited on ITO coated glass by spin-coating technique. The dominant mechanism of resistive switching is the formation and rupture of the conductive filament inside the graphene oxide. The conduction mechanism for low and high resistance states are dominated by two mechanism the ohmic conduction and space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism, respectively. Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Cyclic-Voltammetry were conducted to observe the morphology, structure and behavior of the material. The fabricated device with Al/GO/ITO structure exhibited reliable bipolar resistive switching with set & reset voltage of -2.3 V and 3V respectively.

  17. Effect of Particle Damping on an Acoustically Excited Curved Vehicle Panel Structure with varied Equipment Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, David; Smith, Andrew; Knight, Brent; Hunt, Ron; LaVerde, Bruce; Craigmyle, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Particle dampers provide a mechanism for diverting energy away from resonant structural vibrations. This experimental study provides data from trials to determine how effective use of these dampers might be for equipment mounted to a curved orthogrid vehicle panel. Trends for damping are examined for variations in damper fill level, component mass, and excitation energy. A significant response reduction at the component level would suggest that comparatively small, thoughtfully placed, particle dampers might be advantageously used in vehicle design. The results of this test will be compared with baseline acoustic response tests and other follow-on testing involving a range of isolation and damping methods. Instrumentation consisting of accelerometers, microphones, and still photography data will be collected to correlate with the analytical results.

  18. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.; Howard, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns high temperature thermal insulation of large vessels, such as the primary vessel of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor. The thermal insulation consists of multilayered thermal insulation modules, and each module comprises a number of metal sheet layers sandwiched between a back and front plate. The layers are linked together by straps and clips to control the thickness of the module. (U.K.)

  19. Cellulose Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  20. Epoxy-coal hydraulic insulation for structures of the Nurek Hydroelectric Powerplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakharov, V I; Segal, M S; Solov' ev, I N; Yazev, R E

    1978-03-01

    The design of the Nurek Powerplant exposed the base of the core of the dam to a head of 270 m. To avoid seepage, it was decided to construct an antiseepage screen. Given the total hydraulic insulation area required, 26,540 m/sup 2/, the use of a metal screen would be quite expensive. It was therefore decided to use an epoxy-coal material consisting of a primer, varnish and enamel based on epoxy resins modified by the addition of coal tar, a waste product from the dry distillation of coal. A typical hydraulic insulation layer consists of a coat of primer, three or four coats of varnish and a coat of enamel. Glass-reinforced fabric is used with the first through third coats of varnish to increase crack resistance. The coating thus produced is found to be resistant to overbearing soil pressure of up to 600 t/m/sup 2/, hydrostatic head of up to 300 m and constant shear forces of up to 100 t/m/sup 2/. The method also saves labor and expensive metal.

  1. Heat insulation support device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Koda, Tomokazu; Motojima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Junya.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a plurality of heat insulation legs disposed in a circumferential direction. Each of the heat insulative support legs has a hollow shape, and comprises an outer column and an inner column as support structures having a heat insulative property (heat insulative structure), and a thermal anchor which absorbs compulsory displacement by a thin flat plate (displacement absorber). The outer column, the thermal anchor and the inner column are connected by a support so as to offset the positional change of objects to be supported due to shrinkage when they are shrunk. In addition, the portion between the superconductive coils as the objects to be supported and the inner column is connected by the support. The superconductive thermonuclear device is entirely contained in a heat insulative vacuum vessel, and the heat insulative support legs are disposed on a lower lid of the heat insulative vacuum vessel. With such a constitution, they are strengthened against lateral load and buckling, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of heat intrusion while keeping the compulsory displacement easy to be absorbed. (I.N.)

  2. Elevated-Temperature Tests Under Static and Aerodynamic Conditions on Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joseph M.; Johnson, Aldie E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Stainless-steel honeycomb-core sandwich panels which differed primarily in skin thicknesses were tested at elevated temperatures under static and aerodynamic conditions. The results of these tests were evaluated to determine the insulating effectiveness and structural integrity of the panels. The static radiant-heating tests were performed in front of a quartz-tube radiant heater at panel skin temperatures up to 1,5000 F. The aerodynamic tests were made in a Mach 1.4 heated blowdown wind tunnel. The tunnel temperature was augmented by additional heat supplied by a radiant heater which raised the panel surface temperature above 8000 F during air flow. Static radiant-heating tests of 2 minutes duration showed that all the panels protected the load-carrying structure about equally well. Thin-skin panels showed an advantage for this short-time test over thick-skin panels from a standpoint of weight against insulation. Permanent inelastic strains in the form of local buckles over each cell of the honeycomb core caused an increase in surface roughness. During the aero- dynamic tests all of the panels survived with little or no damage, and panel flutter did not occur.

  3. Bending Characteristics of Foldable Touch Display Panel with a Protection Structure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chie Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes and demonstrates an enhancement of a touch display panel (TDP through a polymer-based protection structure to achieve higher bendability and reliability. The bending performance of the TDP without or with the protection structure designs is addressed using three-dimensional geometry-nonlinear finite element analysis and mechanical testing. The elastic properties of the components in the TDP structure are derived from nanoindentation and uniaxial tensile/compressive testing. The calculated results are compared with each other and also against the experimental bending fatigue test data. At last, a design guideline and optimal factor setting for enhanced bending performance are sought through parametric FE analysis and Taguchi experimental design, respectively. The optimal design is compared with the original in terms of bending stress. The simulation results show that bending would create significant tensile and compressive bending stresses on the indium tin oxide/dielectric layers, which are the main cause of several commonly observed failures, such as thin film cracking and delamination, in a thin rigid film coating on a thick compliant substrate. It also turns out that a substrate with a lower stiffness has a better mechanical stability against bending stress.

  4. Axial Compression Behavior of a New Type of Prefabricated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Xie; Shuai, Wang; Chun, Liu

    2018-03-01

    A novel type of prefabricated concrete sandwich wall panel which could be used as a load-bearing structural element in buildings has been presented in this paper. Compared with the traditional sandwich panels, there are several typical characteristics for this wall system, including core columns confined by spiral stirrup along the cross-section of panel with 600mm spacing, precast foamed concrete block between two structural layers as internal insulation part, and a three-dimensional (3D) steel wire skeleton in each layer which is composed of two vertical steel wire meshes connected by horizontally short steel bar. All steel segments in the panel are automatically prefabricated in factory and then are assembled to form steel system in site. In order to investigate the structural behavior of this wall panel, two full-scale panels have been experimentally studied under axial compressive load. The test results show that the wall panel presents good load-bearing capacity and integral stiffness without out-of-plane flexural failure. Compared to the panel with planar steel wire mesh in concrete layer, the panel with 3D steel wire skeleton presents higher strength and better rigidity even in the condition of same steel ratio in panels which verifies that the 3D steel skeleton could greatly enhance the structural behavior of sandwich panel.

  5. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  6. Materials colloquium `96: Thermal insulation coatings. Thermally insulating coating systems for heavy-duty structural components in aerospace engineering and energy engineering; Werkstoff-Kolloquium `96: Waermedaemmschichten. Waermeisolierende Schichtsysteme fuer hoechstbelastete Strukturbauteile in der Luft- und Raumfahrt sowie der Energietechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.; Schulz, U.; Leushake, U.; Kaysser, W.A. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The 15 contributions in this colloquium report document the current state of research and development in Germany in the field of thermally insulating layer structures for heavy-duty components like gas turbines. Five papers have been recorded separately in the ENERGY database. [Deutsch] Die 15 Beitraege in diesem Kolloquiumband dokumentieren den aktuellen Stand der Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten in Deutschland auf dem Gebiet der waermeisolierenden Schichtsysteme fuer hoechstbelastete Bauteile wie z.B. Gasturbinen. Fuer die Datenbank ENERGY wurden fuenf Artikel separat aufgenommen.

  7. Preparation and structural characterization of FeCo epitaxial thin films on insulating single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(111), SrTiO 3 (111), and Al 2 O 3 (0001) single-crystal substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of insulating substrate material on the film growth process and the structures were investigated. FeCo(110) bcc films grow on MgO substrates with two type domains, Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) and Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) relationships. On the contrary, FeCo films grown on SrTiO 3 and Al 2 O 3 substrates include FeCo(111) bcc crystal in addition to the FeCo(110) bcc crystals with NW and KS relationships. The FeCo(111) bcc crystal consists of two type domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. The out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of FeCo(110) bcc and FeCo(111) bcc crystals formed on the insulating substrates are in agreement with those of the bulk Fe 50 Co 50 (at. %) crystal with small errors ranging between +0.2% and +0.4%, showing that the strains in the epitaxial films are very small.

  8. Extended deep level defects in Ge-condensed SiGe-on-Insulator structures fabricated using proton and helium implantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Oh, J.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Cho, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) structures were created using the Ge condensation method, where an oxidation process is performed on the SiGe/Si structure. This method involves rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition and H + /He + ion-implantations. Deep level defects in these structures were investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) by varying the pulse injection time. According to the DLTS measurements, a deep level defect induced during the Ge condensation process was found at 0.28 eV above the valence band with a capture cross section of 2.67 × 10 −17 cm 2 , two extended deep levels were also found at 0.54 eV and 0.42 eV above the valence band with capture cross sections of 3.17 × 10 −14 cm 2 and 0.96 × 10 −15 cm 2 , respectively. In the SGOI samples with ion-implantation, the densities of the newly generated defects as well as the existing defects were decreased effectively. Furthermore, the Coulomb barrier heights of the extended deep level defects were drastically reduced. Thus, we suggest that the Ge condensation method with H + ion implantation could reduce deep level defects generated from the condensation and control the electrical properties of the condensed SiGe layers. - Highlights: ► We have fabricated low-defective SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) with implantation method. ► H + and He + -ions are used for ion-implantation method. ► We have investigated the deep level defects of SGOI layers. ► Ge condensation method using H + ion implantation could reduce extended defects. ► They could enhance electrical properties.

  9. Computer program for stresses and buckling of heated composite-stiffened panels and other structures (BUCLASP 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.; Tripp, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    General-purpose program is intended for thermal stress and instability analyses of structures such as axially-stiffened curved panels. Two types of instability analyses can be effected by program: (1) thermal buckling with temperature variation as specified and (2) buckling due to in-plane biaxial loading.

  10. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  11. Finite Element Simulation and Assessment of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Prediction Methodology for Insulated Concrete Sandwich Panels Subjected to Blast Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Precast /prestressed components, along with their connections to the structure, should be designed to withstand the blast to prevent falling or...response of the component. Connections used for precast components subjected to blast are normally designed with small to zero dynamic increase...methodology considers fixed boundary condition to be more similar to continuous beams or columns . Figure 71 and Table 14 present the comparisons

  12. Fine structure of metal–insulator transition in EuO resolved by doping engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyanov, Dmitry V.; Parfenov, Oleg E.; Tokmachev, Andrey M.; Karateev, Igor A.; Kondratev, Oleg A.; Taldenkov, Alexander N.; Platunov, Mikhail S.; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei; Storchak, Vyacheslav G.

    2018-05-01

    Metal–insulator transitions (MITs) offer new functionalities for nanoelectronics. However, ongoing attempts to control the resistivity by external stimuli are hindered by strong coupling of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. This difficulty presents a quest for materials which exhibit MIT caused by a single degree of freedom. In the archetypal ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO, magnetic orders dominate the MIT. Here we report a new approach to take doping under control in this material on the nanoscale: formation of oxygen vacancies is strongly suppressed to exhibit the highest MIT resistivity jump and magnetoresistance among thin films. The nature of the MIT is revealed in Gd doped films. The critical doping is determined to be more than an order of magnitude lower than in all previous studies. In lightly doped films, a remarkable thermal hysteresis in resistivity is discovered. It extends over 100 K in the paramagnetic phase reaching 3 orders of magnitude. In the warming mode, the MIT is shown to be a two-step process. The resistivity patterns are consistent with an active role of magnetic polarons—formation of a narrow band and its thermal destruction. High-temperature magnetic polaron effects include large negative magnetoresistance and ferromagnetic droplets revealed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Our findings have wide-range implications for the understanding of strongly correlated oxides and establish fundamental benchmarks to guide theoretical models of the MIT.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  15. Study on reactor building structure using ultrahigh strength materials - Part 6: Tests for joints of SC-frames and PCa-panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, T.; Ishimura, K.; Takahashi, T.; Kei, T.

    1993-01-01

    A mixed structure composed of reinforced concrete precast panels and frames of steel beams and concrete filled steel tube columns using ultrahigh strength materials was proposed for reactor buildings. The paper describes the structural characteristics of the high tension bolt joints between the panels and the frames. (author)

  16. Impact damage and residual strength analysis of composite panels with bonded stiffeners. [for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ram C.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Blade-stiffened, compression-loaded cover panels were designed, manufactured, analyzed, and tested. All panels were fabricated from IM6/1808I interleafed graphite-epoxy. An orthotropic blade stiffener and an orthotropic skin were selected to satisfy the design requirements for an advanced aircraft configuration. All specimens were impact damaged prior to testing. Experimental results were obtained for three- and five-stiffener panels. Analytical results described interlaminar forces caused by impact and predicted specimen residual strength. The analytical results compared reasonably with the experimental results for residual strength of the specimens.

  17. Design, fabrication and characterisation of advanced substrate crosstalk suppression structures in silicon on insulator substrates with buried ground planes (GPSOI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, Stefanos

    2002-07-01

    Substrate crosstalk or coupling has been acknowledged to be a limiting factor in mixed signal RF integration. Although high levels of integration and high frequencies of operation are desirable for mixed mode RF and microwave circuits, they make substrate crosstalk more pronounced and may lead to circuit performance degradation. High signal isolation is dictated by requirements for low power dissipation, reduced number of components and lower integration costs for feasible system-on-chip (SoC) solutions. Substrate crosstalk suppression in ground plane silicon-on-insulator (GPSOI) substrates is investigated in this thesis. Test structures are designed and fabricated on SOI substrates with a buried WSi 2 plane that is connected to ground; hence it is called a ground plane. A Faraday cage structure that exhibits very high degrees of signal isolation is presented and compared to other SOI isolation schemes. The Faraday cage structure is shown to achieve 20 dB increased isolation in the frequency range of 0.5-50 GHz compared to published data for high resistivity (200 Ωcm) thin film SOI substrates with no ground planes, but where capacitive guard rings were used. The measurement results are analysed with the aid of planar electromagnetic simulators and compact lumped element models of all the fabricated test structures are developed. The accuracy of the lumped models is validated against experimental measurements. (author)

  18. Fabrication of Al2O3 Nano-Structure Functional Film on a Cellulose Insulation Polymer Surface and Its Space Charge Suppression Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose insulation polymer (paper/pressboard has been widely used in high voltage direct current (HVDC transformers. One of the most challenging issues in the insulation material used for HVDC equipment is the space charge accumulation. Effective ways to suppress the space charge injection/accumulation in insulation material is currently a popular research topic. In this study, an aluminium oxide functional film was deposited on a cellulose insulation pressboard surface using reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The sputtered thin film was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The influence of the deposited functional film on the dielectric properties and the space charge injection/accumulation behaviour was investigated. A preliminary exploration of the space charge suppression effect is discussed. SEM/EDS, XPS, and XRD results show that the nano-structured Al2O3 film with amorphous phase was successfully fabricated onto the fibre surface. The cellulose insulation pressboard surface sputtered by Al2O3 film has lower permittivity, conductivity, and dissipation factor values in the lower frequency (<103 Hz region. The oil-impregnated sputtered pressboard presents an apparent space-charge suppression effect. Compared with the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 90 min, the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 60 min had a better space charge suppression effect. Ultra-small Al2O3 particles (<10 nm grew on the surface of the larger nanoparticles. The nano-structured Al2O3 film sputtered on the fibre surface could act as a functional barrier layer for suppression of the charge injection and accumulation. This study offers a new perspective in favour of the application of insulation pressboard with a nano-structured function surface against space charge injection/accumulation in HVDC equipment.

  19. Long-wavelength behaviour of charge-charge structure factor in insulating and metallic ground state of condensed hydrogen under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, M.A.; March, N.H.

    1988-09-01

    Using the quantum Monte Carlo charge-charge structure factor S qq (k) it is argued that (i) in the metallic phase the small k expasion is non-analytic at order k 5 , reflecting plasmon dispersion, while in the insulating phase the non-analyticity occurs at O(k 3 ), due to van der Waals interaction between the protons. (author) [pt

  20. Sharpness and intensity modulation of the metal-insulator transition in ultrathin VO2 films by interfacial structure manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ryan; Goswami, Ankur; Pal, Soupitak; Schofield, Kalvin; Bukhari, Syed Asad Manzoor; Thundat, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic (insulator) to tetragonal (metallic) upon heating above 340 K, accompanied by abrupt changes to its electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. Not only is this transition scientifically intriguing, but there are also numerous applications in sensing, memory, and optoelectronics. Here we investigate the effect different substrates and the processing conditions have on the characteristics metal-insulator transition (MIT), and how the properties can be tuned for specific applications. VO2 thin films were grown on c -plane sapphire (0001) and p-type silicon by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution x-ray diffraction along with transmission electron microscopy reveals textured epitaxial growth on sapphire by domain-matching epitaxy, while the presence of a native oxide layer on silicon prevented any preferential growth resulting in a polycrystalline film. An orientation relationship of (010)VO2|| (0001)Al 2O3 was established for VO2 grown on sapphire, while no such relationship was found for VO2 grown on silicon. Surface-energy minimization is the driving force behind grain growth, as the lowest energy VO2 plane grew on silicon, while on sapphire the desire for epitaxial growth was dominant. Polycrystallinity of films grown on silicon caused a weaker and less prominent MIT than observed on sapphire, whose MIT was higher in magnitude and steeper in slope. The position of the MIT was shown to depend on the competing effects of misfit strain and grain growth. Higher deposition temperatures caused an increase in the MIT, while compressive strain resulted in a decreased MIT.

  1. Sound transmission properties of honeycomb panels and double-walled structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Sathish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Sandwich panels with aluminium face sheets and honeycomb core material have certain advantages over panels made of wood. Some of the advantages of these constructions are low weight, good moisture properties, fire resistance and high stiffness to-weight ratio etc. As product development is carried out in a fast pace today, there is a strong need for validated prediction tools to assist during early design stages. In this thesis, tools are developed for predicting the sound transmission throug...

  2. Lattice instabilities and structural phase transformations in La2CuO4 superconductors and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Soft-mode structural phase transformations, common in many perovskite-based materials, are also found in La 2 CuO 4 and structurally related oxides. The resulting phase behavior is rather complex, but is a natural consequence of the degeneracy of the soft phonon order parameters. This paper reviews the structural and lattice-dynamical results and their interpretation based upon mean-field statistical mechanical models

  3. Extracting and focusing of surface plasmon polaritons inside finite asymmetric metal/insulator/metal structure at apex of optical fiber by subwavelength holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikane, Yasushi; Murai, Kensuke; Nakano, Motohiro

    2013-09-01

    We have been studied a finite asymmetric metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure on glass plate for near-future visible light communication (VLC) system with white LED illuminations in the living space (DOI: 10.1117/12.929201). The metal layers are vacuum-evaporated thin silver (Ag) films (around 50 nm and 200 nm, respectively), and the insulator layer (around 150 nm) is composed of magnesium fluoride (MgF2). A characteristic narrow band filtering of the MIM structure at visible region might cause a confinement of intense surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at specific monochromatic frequency inside a subwavelength insulator layer of the MIM structure. Central wavelength and depth of such absorption dip in flat spectral reflectance curve is controlled by changing thicknesses of both insulator and thinner metal layers. On the other hand, we have proposed a twin-hole pass-through wave guide for SPPs in thick Ag film (DOI: 10.1117/12.863587). At that time, the twin-hole converted a incoming plane light wave into a pair of channel plasmon polaritons (CPPs), and united them at rear surface of the Ag film. This research is having an eye to extract, guide, and focus the SPPs through a thicker metal layer of the MIM with FIBed subwavelength pass-through holes. The expected outcome is a creation of noble, monochromatic, and tunable fiber probe for scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs) with intense white light sources. Basic experimental and FEM simulation results will be presented.

  4. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  5. Optimization design for SST-1 Tokamak insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanbin; Pan Wanjiang

    2012-01-01

    With the help of ANSYS FEA technique, high voltage and cryogenic proper- ties of the SST-1 Tokamak insulators were obtained, and the structure of the insulators was designed and modified by taking into account the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the optimization structure has better high voltage insulating property and cryogenic mechanics property, and also can fulfill the qualification criteria of the SST-1 Tokamak insulators. (authors)

  6. Statics and buckling problems of aircraft structurally-anisotropic composite panels with the influence of production technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavva, L. M.; Endogur, A. I.

    2018-02-01

    The mathematical model relations for stress-strain state and for buckling investigation of structurally-anisotropic panels made of composite materials are presented. The mathematical model of stiffening rib being torsioned under one-side contact with the skin is refined. One takes into account the influence of panel production technology: residual thermal stresses and reinforcing fibers preliminary tension. The resolved eight order equation and natural boundary conditions are obtained with variation Lagrange procedure. Exact analytical solutions for edge problems are considered. Computer program package is developed using operating MATLAB environment. The influence of the structure parameters on the level of stresses, displacements, of critical buckling forces for bending and for torsion modes has analyzed.

  7. BUCLASP 2: A computer program for instability analysis of biaxially loaded composite stiffened panels and other structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, L. L.; Tamekuni, M.; Viswanathan, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the computer program BUCLASP2 is described. The program is intended for linear instability analyses of structures such as unidirectionally stiffened panels. Any structure that has a constant cross section in one direction, that may be idealized as an assemblage of beam elements and laminated flat and curved plant strip elements can be analyzed. The loadings considered are combinations of axial compressive loads and in-plane transverse loads. The two parallel ends of the panel must be simply supported and arbitrary elastic boundary conditions may be imposed along any one or both external longitudinal side. This manual consists of instructions for use of the program with sample problems, including input and output information. The theoretical basis of BUCLASP2 and correlations of calculated results with known solutions, are presented.

  8. Tailored plasmon-induced transparency in attenuated total reflection response in a metal-insulator-metal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Kouki; Hirai, Yusuke; Neo, Yoichiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Tomita, Makoto

    2017-12-19

    We demonstrated tailored plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metal (Au)-insulator (SiO 2 )-metal (Ag) (MIM) structure, where the Fano interference between the MIM waveguide mode and the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance mode induced a transparency window in an otherwise opaque wavenumber (k) region. A series of structures with different thicknesses of the Ag layer were prepared and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) response was examined. The height and width of the transparency window, as well as the relevant k-domain dispersion, were controlled by adjusting the Ag layer thickness. To confirm the dependency of PIT on Ag layer thickness, we performed numerical calculations to determine the electric field amplitude inside the layers. The steep k-domain dispersion in the transparency window is capable of creating a lateral beam shift known as the Goos-Hänchen shift, for optical device and sensor applications. We also discuss the Fano interference profiles in a ω - k two-dimensional domain on the basis of Akaike information criteria.

  9. A Low-Noise X-ray Astronomical Silicon-On-Insulator Pixel Detector Using a Pinned Depleted Diode Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Shrestha, Sumeet; Nakanishi, Syunta; Yasutomi, Keita; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo

    2017-12-23

    This paper presents a novel full-depletion Si X-ray detector based on silicon-on-insulator pixel (SOIPIX) technology using a pinned depleted diode structure, named the SOIPIX-PDD. The SOIPIX-PDD greatly reduces stray capacitance at the charge sensing node, the dark current of the detector, and capacitive coupling between the sensing node and SOI circuits. These features of the SOIPIX-PDD lead to low read noise, resulting high X-ray energy resolution and stable operation of the pixel. The back-gate surface pinning structure using neutralized p-well at the back-gate surface and depleted n-well underneath the p-well for all the pixel area other than the charge sensing node is also essential for preventing hole injection from the p-well by making the potential barrier to hole, reducing dark current from the Si-SiO₂ interface and creating lateral drift field to gather signal electrons in the pixel area into the small charge sensing node. A prototype chip using 0.2 μm SOI technology shows very low readout noise of 11.0 e - rms , low dark current density of 56 pA/cm² at -35 °C and the energy resolution of 200 eV(FWHM) at 5.9 keV and 280 eV (FWHM) at 13.95 keV.

  10. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.; Birch, W.; Facer, R.I.; Stuart, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors. In the arrangement described the reactor vessel is clad with thermal insulation comprising a layer of insulating blocks spaced from the wall and from each other; each block is rigidly secured to the wall, and the interspaces are substantially closed against convectional flow of liquid by resilient closure members. A membrane covering is provided for the layer of blocks, with venting means to allow liquid from the reactor vessel to penetrate between the covering and the layer of blocks. The membrane covering may comprise a stainless steel sheet ribbed in orthogonal pattern to give flexibility for the accommodation of thermal strain. The insulating blocks may be comprised of stainless steel or cellular or porous material and may be hollow shells containing ceramic material or gas fillings. (U.K.)

  11. Damage tolerance modeling and validation of a wireless sensory composite panel for a structural health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagani, Mohamad R.; Abdi, Frank; Saravanos, Dimitris; Chrysohoidis, Nikos; Nikbin, Kamran; Ragalini, Rose; Rodov, Irena

    2013-05-01

    The paper proposes the diagnostic and prognostic modeling and test validation of a Wireless Integrated Strain Monitoring and Simulation System (WISMOS). The effort verifies a hardware and web based software tool that is able to evaluate and optimize sensorized aerospace composite structures for the purpose of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The tool is an extension of an existing suite of an SHM system, based on a diagnostic-prognostic system (DPS) methodology. The goal of the extended SHM-DPS is to apply multi-scale nonlinear physics-based Progressive Failure analyses to the "as-is" structural configuration to determine residual strength, remaining service life, and future inspection intervals and maintenance procedures. The DPS solution meets the JTI Green Regional Aircraft (GRA) goals towards low weight, durable and reliable commercial aircraft. It will take advantage of the currently developed methodologies within the European Clean sky JTI project WISMOS, with the capability to transmit, store and process strain data from a network of wireless sensors (e.g. strain gages, FBGA) and utilize a DPS-based methodology, based on multi scale progressive failure analysis (MS-PFA), to determine structural health and to advice with respect to condition based inspection and maintenance. As part of the validation of the Diagnostic and prognostic system, Carbon/Epoxy ASTM coupons were fabricated and tested to extract the mechanical properties. Subsequently two composite stiffened panels were manufactured, instrumented and tested under compressive loading: 1) an undamaged stiffened buckling panel; and 2) a damaged stiffened buckling panel including an initial diamond cut. Next numerical Finite element models of the two panels were developed and analyzed under test conditions using Multi-Scale Progressive Failure Analysis (an extension of FEM) to evaluate the damage/fracture evolution process, as well as the identification of contributing failure modes. The comparisons

  12. Vacuum Insulation Panels Applied in Building Constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenpierik, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to sustainability and due to international treaties, it is desired and required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions drastically. One contributor to these emissions is the burning of fossil fuels for generating power and electricity to be used in and for buildings. Buildings and building-related

  13. Topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Topological Insulators, volume six in the Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Series, describes the recent revolution in condensed matter physics that occurred in our understanding of crystalline solids. The book chronicles the work done worldwide that led to these discoveries and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field. Starting in 2004, theorists began to explore the effect of topology on the physics of band insulators, a field previously considered well understood. However, the inclusion of topology brings key new elements into this old field. Whereas it was

  14. On the carrier transport in metal-insulator-metal structures for CdTe thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.W.; Choi, C.K.

    1982-01-01

    According to the energy band model for the Al-CdTe-Ag sandwich structure, we have investigate to the mechanism of the current limited transport(CLT). As the bias voltage applied to the Alsup(+) and Agsup(+) electrode, the potential barrier difference for this structure was found 0.2eV. From what this results, we conclude that the mechanism of the current limited transport due to the potential barrier of the contact limited current. Not only this phenomena but also the annealing effect of thin film was shown that the distingushable for virgin film. (Author)

  15. Testing and evaluation of a slot and tab construction technique for light-weight wood-fiber-based structural panels under bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented construction and strain distributions for light-weight wood-fiber-based structural panels with tri-grid core made from phenolic impregnated laminated paper composites under bending. A new fastening configuration of slots in the faces and tabs on the core was applied to the face/core interfaces of the sandwich panel in addition to epoxy resin. Both...

  16. Interface properties of Fe/MgO/Cu-phthalocyanine metal-insulator-organic semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nyunjong; Bae, Yujeong; Kim, Taehee; Ito, Eisuke; Hara, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid interface structures consisting of organic copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ferromagnetic metal Fe(001) with and without a MgO(001) cover were investigated by using surface sensitive techniques of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. A systematic study of the energy level alignment at the interfaces was carried out. For the hybrid interfaces considered here, our results indicate that the insertion of an artificially-grown ultra-thin oxide layer MgO(001) can prevent Femi level pinning and induce a rather large interface dipole, thereby resulting in remarkable CuPc Fermi level shifts when the thickness of the CuPc film is less than 3 nm. This study provides a better understanding of spin filtering in MgO-based organic spin devices and a new way to alter the interface electronic structure of metal/organic semiconductor hybrid systems.

  17. Applications of Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Crystal Structures in Miniature Spectrometer Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Boshen

    Optical spectroscopy is one of the most important fundamental scientific techniques. It has been widely adopted in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and many other research fields. However, the size and weight of a spectrometer as well as the difficulty to align and maintain it have long limited spectroscopy to be a laboratory-only procedure. With the recent advancement in semiconductor electronics and photonics, miniaturized spectrometers have been introduced to complete many tasks in daily life where mobility and portability are necessary. This thesis focuses on the study of several photonic crystal (PC) nano-structures potentially suitable for miniaturized on-chip spectrometer designs. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the concept of PCs and their band structures. By analyzing the band structure, the origin of the superprism effect is explained. Defect-based PC nano-cavities are also discussed, as well as a type of coupled cavity waveguides (CCW) composed of PC nano-cavities. Chapter 2 is devoted to the optimization of a flat-band superprism structure for spectroscopy application using numerical simulations. Chapter 3 reports a fabricated broad-band superprism and the experimental characterization of its wavelength resolving performance. In chapter 4, the idea of composing a miniature spectrometer based on a single tunable PC nano-cavity is proposed. The rest of this chapter discusses the experimental study of this design. Chapter 5 examines the slow-light performance of a CCW and discusses its potential application in slow-light interferometry. Chapter 6 serves as a conclusion of this thesis and proposes directions for possible future work to follow up.

  18. Band structure of a three-dimensional topological insulator quantum wire in the presence of a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2016-07-13

    By means of a numerical diagonalization approach, we calculate the electronic structure of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3DTI) quantum wire (QW) in the presence of a magnetic field. The QW can be viewed as a 3DTI film with lateral surfaces, when its rectangular cross section has a large aspect ratio. Our calculation indicates that nonchiral edge states emerge because of the confined states at the lateral surfaces. These states completely cover the valence band region among the Landau levels, which reasonably account for the absence of the [Formula: see text] quantum Hall effect in the relevant experimental works. In an ultrathin 3DTI film, inversion between the electron-type and hole-type bands occurs, which leads to the so-called pseudo-spin Hall effect. In a 3DTI QW with a square cross section, a tilting magnetic field can establish well-defined Landau levels in all four surfaces. In such a case, the quantum Hall edge states are localized at the square corners, characterized by the linearly crossing one-dimensional band profile. And they can be shifted between the adjacent corners by simply rotating the magnetic field.

  19. Urea biosensor based on Zn3Al-Urease layered double hydroxides nanohybrid coated on insulated silicon structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhoumi, H.; Maaref, A.; Rammah, M.; Martelet, C.; Jaffrezic, N.; Mousty, C.; Vial, S.; Forano, C.

    2006-01-01

    Urea biosensors for medical diagnostic monitoring were developed based on the immobilization of urease within layered double hydroxides (LDH). The urease-LDH material was obtained by a stepwise exchange reaction by urease of a Zn 3 Al-dodecyl sulphate (ZnAl-DS) colloidal suspension. XR diffraction and FTIR analysis show that this method gives rise to a Zn 3 Al-Urease LDH nanohybrid material with urease dispersion and textural properties. An aqueous suspension of this urease-LDH nanohybrid material was deposited on an insulated semiconductor (IS) structure. Biosensor responses to urea additions were obtained using capacitance (C vs. V) and impedance (Z vs. ω) measurements. An enhanced maximum limit of the dynamic range was observed in the case of the impedance measurements (110 mM) compared to (5.6 mM) the capacitive urea biosensor. The Michaelis-Menten constant was also calculated according to the Lineweaver-Burk plot. It was found that the K m value with immobilized enzymes was lower (K m = 0.67 mM) in comparison with free enzymes. This K m value obtained from the capacitance measurements indicates that the urea degradation is performed within any inhibition action on the IS/Zn 3 Al-Urease LDH electrode. A comparative study was carried out between these results and those obtained previously, using urease/ZnAl-Cl layered double hydroxides mixture coated on the pH-ISFET transducer

  20. Electrical transport and capacitance characteristics of metal-insulator-metal structures using hexagonal and cubic boron nitride films as dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teii, Kungen; Kawamoto, Shinsuke; Fukui, Shingo; Matsumoto, Seiichiro

    2018-04-01

    Metal-insulator-metal capacitor structures using thick hexagonal and cubic boron nitride (hBN and cBN) films as dielectrics are produced by plasma jet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and their electrical transport and capacitance characteristics are studied in a temperature range of 298 to 473 K. The resistivity of the cBN film is of the order of 107 Ω cm at 298 K, which is lower than that of the hBN film by two orders of magnitude, while it becomes the same order as the hBN film above ˜423 K. The dominant current transport mechanism at high fields (≥1 × 104 V cm-1) is described by the Frenkel-Poole emission and thermionic emission models for the hBN and cBN films, respectively. The capacitance of the hBN film remains stable for a change in alternating-current frequency and temperature, while that of the cBN film has variations of at most 18%. The dissipation factor as a measure of energy loss is satisfactorily low (≤5%) for both films. The origin of leakage current and capacitance variation is attributed to a high defect density in the film and a transition interlayer between the substrate and the film, respectively. This suggests that cBN films with higher crystallinity, stoichiometry, and phase purity are potentially applicable for dielectrics like hBN films.

  1. Photoelectrical measurements of the local value of the contact potential difference in the metal-insulator semiconductor (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, A.; Przewlocki, H.M.; Borowicz, L.; Brzezinska, D.; Rzodkiewicz, W

    2004-02-22

    In this work the local values of contact potential difference (CPD) and their distributions in the plane of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure's gate have been determined for the first time. This has been achieved by application of a focused beam of UV radiation from a laser source. The less than 20-{mu}m diameter of UV radiation beam allows determination of distributions of local CPD values in the plane of the gate. The CPD distribution is such that its values are highest far away from the gate edge regions, lower in the vicinity of gate edges and still lower in the vicinity of gate corners. In this paper the method and the optical setup used to determine local values of CPD are described and example measurement results are given. The CPD distributions obtained have been confirmed by a series of independent measurements by other methods. It is believed that the CPD distributions obtained (as well as distributions of local values of other parameters) are due to the mechanical stress distributions under the gate of a MIS system.

  2. BUCLASP 3: A computer program for stresses and buckling of heated composite stiffened panels and other structures, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, L. L.; Tamekuni, M.; Viswanathan, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the computer program BUCLASP3 is described. The code is intended for thermal stress and instability analyses of structures such as unidirectionally stiffened panels. There are two types of instability analyses that can be effected by PAINT; (1) thermal buckling, and (2) buckling due to a specified inplane biaxial loading. Any structure that has a constant cross section in one direction, that may be idealized as an assemblage of beam elements and laminated flat and curved plate strip-elements can be analyzed. The two parallel ends of the panel must be simply supported, whereas arbitrary elastic boundary conditions may be imposed along any one or both external longitudinal side. Any variation in the temperature rise (from ambient) through the cross section of a panel is considered in the analyses but it must be assumed that in the longitudinal direction the temperature field is constant. Load distributions for the externally applied inplane biaxial loads are similar in nature to the permissible temperature field.

  3. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  4. Bandgap properties in locally resonant phononic crystal double panel structures with periodically attached spring–mass resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Denghui, E-mail: qdhsd318@163.com; Shi, Zhiyu, E-mail: zyshi@nuaa.edu.cn

    2016-10-07

    Bandgap properties of the locally resonant phononic crystal double panel structure made of a two-dimensional periodic array of a spring–mass resonator surrounded by n springs (n equals to zero at the beginning of the study) connected between the upper and lower plates are investigated in this paper. The finite element method is applied to calculate the band structure, of which the accuracy is confirmed in comparison with the one calculated by the extended plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the transmission spectrum. Numerical results and further analysis demonstrate that two bands corresponding to the antisymmetric vibration mode open a wide band gap but is cut narrower by a band corresponding to the symmetric mode. One of the regulation rules shows that the lowest frequency on the symmetric mode band is proportional to the spring stiffness. Then, a new design idea of adding springs around the resonator in a unit cell (n is not equal to zero now) is proposed in the need of widening the bandwidth and lowering the starting frequency. Results show that the bandwidth of the band gap increases from 50 Hz to nearly 200 Hz. By introducing the quality factor, the regulation rules with the comprehensive consideration of the whole structure quality limitation, the wide band gap and the low starting frequency are also discussed. - Highlights: • The locally resonant double panel structure opens a band gap in the low frequency region. • The band gap is the coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric vibration modes. • The band structure of the double panel is the evolution of that of the single plate. • By adding springs around the resonator in a unit cell, the bandwidth gets wider. • The band gap can be controlled by tuning the parameters.

  5. Investigation of oxygen distribution in HTSC-insulator in film structures on light ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.M.; Grekhov, I.V.; Eremin, V.K.; Konnikov, S.G.; Linijchuk, I.A.; Razumov, S.V.; Semchinova, O.K.; Strokan, N.B.; Dyumin, A.N.; Lebedev, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    Use of nuclear reaction method on accelerated ions for profiling of oxygen concentration in thin-film HTSC structures is considered. Reaction on 16 O(d, α) 14 N deuterons, in course of which ∼ 2.6 MeV α-particles are generated, is used. Detected in experiment 2.0-2.6 MeV α-particle spectrum permits to recognstruct oxygen concentration profile in sample depth. Results obtained on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and Y 2 BaCuO 5 film om MgO sunstrates, relating to the case of both uniform and nonuniform oxygen distribution, are presented. Resolution in the depth ∼ 200 A and accuracy of concentration measurement (relatively MgO substrate) of several percents are attained during oxygen profiling

  6. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  7. Admittance of MIS-Structures Based on HgCdTe with a Double-Layer CdTe/Al2O3 Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadukh, S. M.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Sidorov, G. Yu.; Varavin, V. S.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    Admittance of MIS structures based on n( p)- Hg1-xCdxTe (at x from 0.22 to 0.40) with SiO2/Si3N4, Al2O3, and CdTe/Al2O3 insulators is studied experimentally at 77 K. Growth of an intermediate CdTe layer during epitaxy results in the almost complete disappearance of the hysteresis of electrophysical characteristics of MIS structures based on graded-gap n-HgCdTe for a small range of the voltage variation. For a wide range of the voltage variation, the hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage characteristics appears for MIS structures based on n-HgCdTe with the CdTe/Al2O3 insulator. However, the hysteresis mechanism differs from that in case of a single-layer Al2O3 insulator. For MIS structures based on p-HgCdTe, introduction of an additional CdTe layer does not lead to a significant decrease of the hysteresis phenomena, which may be due to the degradation of the interface properties when mercury leaves the film as a result of low-temperature annealing changing the conductivity type of the semiconductor.

  8. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of plate-like and flat panel composite structures used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers acoustic emission (AE) examination or monitoring of panel and plate-like composite structures made entirely of fiber/polymer composites. 1.2 The AE examination detects emission sources and locates the region(s) within the composite structure where the emission originated. When properly developed AE-based criteria for the composite item are in place, the AE data can be used for nondestructive examination (NDE), characterization of proof testing, documentation of quality control or for decisions relative to structural-test termination prior to completion of a planned test. Other NDE methods may be used to provide additional information about located damage regions. For additional information see Appendix X1. 1.3 This practice can be applied to aerospace composite panels and plate-like elements as a part of incoming inspection, during manufacturing, after assembly, continuously (during structural health monitoring) and at periodic intervals during the life of a structure. 1.4 This pra...

  9. Micro thermal diode with glass thermal insulation structure embedded in a vapor chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Hirayanagi, Takashi; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports a micro thermal diode based on one-way working fluid circulation driven by surface tension force. In forward mode, working fluid evaporates and condenses at a heated and cooled area, respectively, and the condensed liquid returns to the evaporation area due to the wettability difference. By this vapor-liquid phase change mechanism, the overall heat transfer coefficient becomes high. On the other hand, in reverse mode, no continuous evaporation-condensation cycle exists. The conductive heat loss in reverse mode was minimized by an embedded glass thermal isolation structure, which makes overall heat transfer coefficient low. The test device was made by a standard MEMS process combined with glass reflow and gold bump sealing. The overall heat transfer coefficients of 13 300 \\text{W}~{{\\text{m}}-2}~\\text{K} for forward mode and 4790 \\text{W}~{{\\text{m}}-2}~\\text{K} for reverse mode were measured. The performance index of the micro thermal diode was about 2.8.

  10. Magnetic-field-driven electron transport in ferromagnetic/ insulator/semiconductor hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, N. V.; Tarasov, A. S.; Rautskii, M. V.; Lukyanenko, A. V.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    Extremely large magnetotransport phenomena were found in the simple devices fabricated on base of the Me/SiO2/p-Si hybrid structures (where Me are Mn and Fe). These effects include gigantic magnetoimpedance (MI), dc magnetoresistance (MR) and the lateral magneto-photo-voltaic effect (LMPE). The MI and MR values exceed 106% in magnetic field about 0.2 T for Mn/SiO2/p-Si Schottky diode. LMPE observed in Fe/SiO2/p-Si lateral device reaches the value of 104% in a field of 1 T. We believe that in case with the Schottky diode MR and MI effects are originate from magnetic field influence on impact ionization process by two different ways. First, the trajectory of the electron is deflected by a magnetic field, which suppresses acquisition of kinetic energy and therefore impact ionization. Second, the magnetic field gives rise to shift of the acceptor energy levels in silicon to a higher energy. As a result, the activation energy for impact ionization significantly increases and consequently threshold voltage rises. Moreover, the second mechanism (acceptor level energy shifting in magnetic field) can be responsible for giant LMPE.

  11. General observation of the memory effect in metal-insulator-ITO structures due to indium diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Xu, Huihua; Zhao, Ni; Wang, Yu; Rogach, Andrey L; Shen, Yingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices based on metal oxides, organic molecules and inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have been studied extensively in recent years. Different memory switching mechanisms have been proposed and shown to be closely related to the device architectures. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of an ITO/active layer/InGa structure can yield nonvolatile resistive memory behavior in a variety of active materials, including polymers, organic small molecules, and colloidal NCs. Through the electrode material and thickness-dependent study, we show that the ON state of the devices is associated with filamentary conduction induced by indium diffusion from the ITO electrode, occurring mostly within around 40–50 nm from the ITO/active layer interface. A negative differential resistance (NDR) regime is observed during transition from the ON to OFF state, and is explained by the space charge limited current (SCLC) effect due to hole injection at the ITO/active layer interface. Our study reveals the impact of indium diffusion at the ITO/active layer interface, an important factor that should be taken into consideration when designing thin printed RRAM devices. (paper)

  12. Experimental investigations of sandwich panels using high performance concrete thin plates exposed to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Structural sandwich panels using thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates offer a possibility to address the modern environmental challenges faced by the construction industry. Fire resistance is a major necessity in structures using HPC. This paper presents experimental studies at elevated...... temperatures for panels with 30 mm thick plates stiffened by structural ribs, thick insulation layers, and steel shear connecting systems. Parametric variation assessing the role of each component of the sandwich structure was performed on unloaded specimens of reduced size. Full size walls were tested...... with load. Tests were performed in standard furnaces, following the conditions of REI certification tests. Unloaded specimens successfully passed tests. Loaded specimens met the R and I requirements, failing E due to sustained flaming of the insulation. They exhibited multiple cracking of their exposed...

  13. Modal analysis and acoustic transmission through offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Adam Dustin

    The work presented in this thesis is motivated by an earlier research that showed that double, offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels increased thermal resistance and, hence, decreased heat transfer through the panels. This result lead to the hypothesis that these panels could be used for acoustic insulation. Using commercial finite element modeling software, COMSOL Multiphysics, the acoustical properties, specifically the transmission loss across a variety of offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels, is studied for the case of a plane acoustic wave impacting the panel at normal incidence. The transmission loss results are compared with those of single-core honeycomb panels with the same cell sizes. The fundamental frequencies of the panels are also computed in an attempt to better understand the vibrational modes of these particular sandwich-structured panels. To ensure that the finite element analysis software is adequate for the task at hand, two relevant benchmark problems are solved and compared with theory. Results from these benchmark results compared well to those obtained from theory. Transmission loss results from the offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels show increased transmission loss, especially for large cell honeycombs when compared to single-core honeycomb panels.

  14. Development of a vacuum superinsulation panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, H; Seefeldt, D; Nitze, C

    1983-05-01

    After completion of the investigations the vacuum-insulated panel is available as prototype. The aim of the investigations was to optimize and to finalize the vacuum superinsulation system with regard to a pressure-resistant, temperature-resistant thermal insulation of high efficiency. In this connection, particularly investigations with regard to vacuum-tight sealing, compression and evacuation of powder filling as well as special material investigations were performed. The application-specific utilization of the vacuum-insulated panel and the adjustment to special operational conditions can now be started. Application possibilities are at present seen in coverings or linings with high temperature and/or pressure requirements.

  15. Rational Design of Composite Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A non-linear structural model for composite panels is presented. The non-linear terms in the lateral displacements are modelled as an additional set of lateral loads acting on the panel. Hence the solution is reduced to that of an equivalent panel with small displacements In order to treat sandwich...... Norske Veritas', DNV, building rules concerning high-speed light craft, in which the panel scantlings are often restricted by a maximum lateral deflection connected with the panel span....

  16. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  17. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF ARAB SPRING EFFECT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES: STRUCTURAL BREAK PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Beser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil commotions that are started in December, 2010 and named as “Arab Spring” had been spread to Middle East countries and had also brought with it economic and political crises. Many economic, social and political factors that are mostly structural had been effective on starting this process. In this research, influence of Arab Spring on economic growth had been investigated with the help of cross-sectional dependency and structural break unit root test in five Middle East countries by using annual data in between 1990-2014. While cross-sectional dependency has been determined for the overall of panel, it had been reached to the conclusion that there is not structural break unit root.

  19. Structural behavior of lightweight bamboo reinforced concrete slab with EPS infill panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Ari; Wijatmiko, Indradi; Nainggolan, Christin Remayanti

    2017-09-01

    Eco-friendly, green, and natural materials have become increasingly important issues in supporting sustainable development, for the substitution of nonrenewable materials such as steel. Bamboo has been considered in many studies to replace steel in reinforced concrete elements. Further investigation has been carried out to obtain lightweight and eco-friendly reinforced concrete slabs by using bamboo bars as reinforcement and recycled materials such as EPS (expanded polystyrene) as infill panel. The flexural loading test on full scale one-way slabs test has been conducted. The results showed that the flexural strength of specimens decreased marginally of about 6% but with the weight advantage of 27% less compared with those of steel rebar reinforced concrete slab with the same dimension. Two type shear-connectors comprising of concrete and bamboo studs were also investigated which showed that the bamboo stud provided better ductility compared to that of slab with concrete as shear connector. Overall, the reinforced concrete slab with bamboo reinforcement and EPS infill panel showed reasonably good performance compared to slabs with steel rebar.

  20. Linear accelerator with x-ray absorbing insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Annular insulators for supporting successive annular electrodes in a linear accelerator have embedded x-ray absorbing shield structures extending around the accelerating path. The shield members are disposed to intercept x-ray radiation without disrupting the insulative effect of the insulator members. In preferred forms, the structure comprises a plurality of annular members of heavy metal disposed in an x-ray blocking array, spaced from each other by the insulating substance of the insulator member. (auth)

  1. ENERGY DEMANDS OF THE EXISTING COLLECTIVE BUILDINGS WITH BEARING STRUCTURE OF LARGE PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS FROM TIMISOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescari S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the targets of EU Directives on the energy performance of buildings is to reduce the energy consumption of the existing buildings by finding efficient solutions for thermal rehabilitation. In order to find the adequate solutions, the first step is to establish the current state of the buildings and to determine their actual energy consumption. The current paper aims to present the energy demands of the existing buildings with bearing structure of large precast concrete panels in the city of Timisoara. Timisoara is one of the most important cities in the west side of Romania, being on the third place in terms of size and economic development. The Census of Population and Housing of 2011 states that Timisoara has about 127841 private dwellings and 60 percent of them are collective buildings. Energy demand values of the existing buildings with bearing structure of large precast concrete panels in Timisoara, in their current condition, are higher than the accepted values provided in the Romanian normative, C107. The difference between these two values can reach up to 300 percent.

  2. Thermal Performance of Precast Concrete Sandwich Panel (PCSP) Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Peniel Ang Soon; Ling, Lim Mei; Kasim, Narimah; Hamid, Zuhairi Abd; Masrom, Md Asrul Nasid Bin

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia’s awareness of performance criteria in construction industry towards a sustainable built environment with the use of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) system is applied in the building’s wall to study the structural behaviour. However, very limited studies are conducted on the thermal insulation of exterior and interior panels in PCSP design. In hot countries such as Malaysia, proper designs of panel are important to obtain better thermal insulation for building. This study is based on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel design for sustainable built environment in Malaysia. In this research, three full specimens, which are control specimen (C), foamed concrete (FC) panels and concrete panels with added palm oil fuel ash (FC+ POFA), where FC and FC+POFA sandwiched with gypsum board (G) were produced to investigate their thermal performance. Temperature difference of exterior and interior surface of specimen was used as indicators of thermal-insulating performance of PCSP design. Heat transfer test by halogen lamp was carried out on three specimens where the exterior surface of specimens was exposed to the halogen lamp. The temperature reading of exterior and interior surface for three specimens were recorded with the help of thermocouple. Other factors also studied the workability, compressive strength and axial compressive strength of the specimens. This study has shown that FC + POFA specimen has the strength nearer to normal specimen (C + FC specimen). Meanwhile, the heat transfer results show that the FC+POFA has better thermal insulation performance compared to C and FC specimens with the highest temperature difference, 3.4°C compared to other specimens. The results from this research are useful to be implemented in construction due to its benefits such as reduction of energy consumption in air-conditioning, reduction of construction periods and eco-friendly materials.

  3. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  4. FEATURES OF WELDED TITANIUM STRUCTURE ELEMENT DESTRUCTION (RIBBED PANELS UNDER VIBRATION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Pavel V. Bakhmatov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the experimental studies results of welded ribbed panel vibration load of the BT-20 titanium alloy. It was established that in the areas of attachment, there is elevated dynamic alternating stress, which in combination with the "hard" of the sample holder creates favorable conditions for the emergence and development of fatigue cracks, and stress concentrators greatly reduce the time before the formation of the hearth destruction. An exception in these zones of superficial defects do not affect the nature and kinetics of destruction. Construction of titanium alloys made in the application of gas-laser cutting blanks for optimal regimes in the technical environment of nitrogen and subsequent heat treatment on vibration reliability is not inferior to design, made by traditional technology.

  5. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  6. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  7. Solar reflection panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Reshetnik, Michael [Boulder, CO

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  8. Materials Substitution and Recycling. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel (57th) Held at Vimeiro, Portugal on 14-19 October 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    No.356 MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION AND RECYCLING Papers presented at the 5 7th Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel in Vimneiro, Portupi. 19 -14...nation. The mission of AGARD is carried out through the Panels which are composed of experts appointed by the National Delegates, the Consultant and...composition. The quality heat treatment for monocrystalline alloys such as CMSX2 normally consists of a 3-stage process, viz., Stage 1 2-3 hours @ 1260°C

  9. Analysis of interface states and series resistance for Al/PVA:n-CdS nanocomposite metal-semiconductor and metal-insulator-semiconductor diode structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mamta; Tripathi, S.K. [Panjab University, Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2013-11-15

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of Al/PVA:n-CdS (MS) and Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PVA:n-CdS (MIS) diode. The effects of interfacial insulator layer, interface states (N{sub ss}) and series resistance (R{sub s}) on the electrical characteristics of Al/PVA:n-CdS structures have been investigated using forward and reverse bias I-V, C-V, and G/w-V characteristics at room temperature. Al/PVA:n-CdS diode is fabricated with and without insulator Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer to explain the effect of insulator layer on main electrical parameters. The values of the ideality factor (n), series resistance (R{sub s}) and barrier height ({phi} {sub b}) are calculated from ln(I) vs. V plots, by the Cheung and Norde methods. The energy density distribution profile of the interface states is obtained from the forward bias I-V data by taking into account the bias dependence ideality factor (n(V)) and effective barrier height ({phi} {sub e}) for MS and MIS diode. The N{sub ss} values increase from mid-gap energy of CdS to the bottom of the conductance band edge for both MS and MIS diode. (orig.)

  10. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph

    2017-07-11

    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  11. A pile-up phenomenon during arsenic diffusion in silicon-on-insulator structures formed by oxygen implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, P.; Tsoukalas, D.; Guillemot, N.; Chenevier, P.

    1989-10-01

    Arsenic diffusion in silicon-on-insulator formed by deep oxygen implantation is studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and speading resistance measurements. An enhanced diffusivity as well as a pile-up phenomenon are observed in the thin silicon layer. The McNabb and Foster equations [Trans. TMS-AIME 22, 618 (1963)] for diffusion with trapping are solved in order to simulate this last effect.

  12. Structural properties and sensing characteristics of high-k Ho2O3 sensing film-based electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Tung-Ming; Huang, Ming-De

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We report the structural properties and sensing characteristics of Ho 2 O 3 sensing membranes deposited on Si substrates by reactive sputtering. → We applied X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy to study the structural and morphological features of these films after they had been subjected to annealing at various temperatures (700 deg. C, 800 deg. C, and 900 deg. C). → The Ho 2 O 3 electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor device annealed at 800 deg. C exhibited a higher sensitivity, a lower hysteresis voltage, and a smaller drift rate than other annealing temperatures. - Abstract: In this study, we report a Ho 2 O 3 electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) device films deposited on Si substrates through reactive sputtering. The effect of thermal annealing (700, 800, and 900 deg. C) on the structural and surface properties of Ho 2 O 3 sensing film was investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We found that the EIS device with a Ho 2 O 3 sensing film annealed at 800 deg. C exhibited a higher sensitivity of ∼57 mV/pH, a lower hysteresis voltage of 2.68 mV, and a smaller drift rate of 2.83 mV h -1 compared to those at other annealing conditions. This improvement can be attributed to the well-crystallized Ho 2 O 3 structure and the large surface roughness.

  13. Use of bark-derived pyrolysis oils ass a phenol substitute in structural panel adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louisiana Pacific Corp

    2004-03-01

    The main objective of this program was to pilot the world's first commercial-scale production of an acceptable phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin containing natural resin (NR) ingredients, for use as an adhesive in Oriented-Strand Board (OSB) and plywood panel products. Natural Resin products, specifically MNRP are not lignin ''fillers''. They are chemically active, natural phenolics that effectively displace significant amounts of phenol in PF resins, and which are extracted from bark-derived and wood-derived bio-oils. Other objectives included the enhancement of the economics of NR (MNRP) production by optimizing the production of certain Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{trademark}) byproducts, particularly char and activated carbon. The options were to activate the char for use in waste-water and/or stack gas purification. The preliminary results indicate that RTP{trademark} carbon may ultimately serve as a feedstock for activated carbon synthesis, as a fuel to be used within the wood product mill, or a fuel for an electrical power generating facility. Incorporation of the char as an industrial heat source for use in mill operations was L-P's initial intention for the carbon, and was also of interest to Weyerhaeuser as they stepped into in the project.

  14. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  15. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  16. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...... points in time. In comparison with traditional cross-sectional studies, the advantage of using panel studies is that the time dimension enables us to study effects. Whereas experimental designs may have a clear advantage in regard to causal inference, the strength of panel studies is difficult to match...

  17. Magnesium Oxide (MgO) pH-sensitive Sensing Membrane in Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Structures with CF4 Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chyuan-Haur; Chang, Chia Lung; Su, Wei Ming; Chen, Yu Tzu; Lu, Chien Cheng; Lee, Yu Shan; Hong, Chen Hao; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chen, Hsiang

    2017-08-03

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) sensing membranes in pH-sensitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor structures were fabricated on silicon substrate. To optimize the sensing capability of the membrane, CF 4 plasma was incorporated to improve the material quality of MgO films. Multiple material analyses including FESEM, XRD, AFM, and SIMS indicate that plasma treatment might enhance the crystallization and increase the grain size. Therefore, the sensing behaviors in terms of sensitivity, linearity, hysteresis effects, and drift rates might be improved. MgO-based EIS membranes with CF 4 plasma treatment show promise for future industrial biosensing applications.

  18.  Thermal Insulation System Made of Wood and Paper for Use in Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltán Pásztory; Tibor Horváth; Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces an insulation system that takes advantage of the low thermal conductivity of still air and is made of wood and paper. The insulation, called the Mirrorpanel, is constructed as a panel of closely spaced layers of coated paper and held together in a frame of wood or fiberboard. Panels have been fabricated and tested at the laboratory scale, whole...

  19. Composite panel development at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, Paul; Helms, Rich

    1988-01-01

    Parametric computer studies can be use in a cost effective manner to determine optimized composite mirror panel designs. An InterDisciplinary computer Model (IDM) was created to aid in the development of high precision reflector panels for LDR. The materials properties, thermal responses, structural geometries, and radio/optical precision are synergistically analyzed for specific panel designs. Promising panels designs are fabricated and tested so that comparison with panel test results can be used to verify performance prediction models and accommodate design refinement. The iterative approach of computer design and model refinement with performance testing and materials optimization has shown good results for LDR panels.

  20. Profitability of Western European banking systems: panel evidence on structural and cyclical determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses structural and cyclical determinants of banking profitability in 16 Western European countries. We find that financial structure matters, particularly through the beneficial effect of the capital market orientation in the respective national financial system. Furthermore, higher diversification regarding banks' income sources shows a positive effect. The industry concentration of national banking systems, though, does not significantly affect aggregate profitability. Busin...

  1. Predicting welding distortion in a panel structure with longitudinal stiffeners using inherent deformations obtained by inverse analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Welding-induced deformation not only negatively affects dimension accuracy but also degrades the performance of product. If welding deformation can be accurately predicted beforehand, the predictions will be helpful for finding effective methods to improve manufacturing accuracy. Till now, there are two kinds of finite element method (FEM) which can be used to simulate welding deformation. One is the thermal elastic plastic FEM and the other is elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory. The former only can be used to calculate welding deformation for small or medium scale welded structures due to the limitation of computing speed. On the other hand, the latter is an effective method to estimate the total welding distortion for large and complex welded structures even though it neglects the detailed welding process. When the elastic FEM is used to calculate the welding-induced deformation for a large structure, the inherent deformations in each typical joint should be obtained beforehand. In this paper, a new method based on inverse analysis was proposed to obtain the inherent deformations for weld joints. Through introducing the inherent deformations obtained by the proposed method into the elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory, we predicted the welding deformation of a panel structure with two longitudinal stiffeners. In addition, experiments were carried out to verify the simulation results.

  2. Pressure-induced structural changes and insulator-metal transition in layered bismuth triiodide, BiI3: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devidas, T R; Chandra Shekar, N V; Sundar, C S; Chithaiah, P; Rao, C N R; Sorb, Y A; Bhadram, V S; Chandrabhas, N; Pal, K; Waghmare, U V

    2014-01-01

    Noting that BiI 3 and the well-known topological insulator (TI) Bi 2 Se 3 have the same high symmetry parent structures, and that it is desirable to find a wide-band gap TI, we determine here the effects of pressure on the structure, phonons and electronic properties of rhombohedral BiI 3 . We report a pressure-induced insulator-metal transition near 1.5 GPa, using high pressure electrical resistivity and Raman measurements. X-ray diffraction studies, as a function of pressure, reveal a structural peculiarity of the BiI 3 crystal, with a drastic drop in c/a ratio at 1.5 GPa, and a structural phase transition from rhombohedral to monoclinic structure at 8.8 GPa. Interestingly, the metallic phase, at relatively low pressures, exhibits minimal resistivity at low temperatures, similar to that in Bi 2 Se 3 . We corroborate these findings with first-principles calculations and suggest that the drop in the resistivity of BiI 3 in the 1–3 GPa range of pressure arises possibly from the appearance of an intermediate crystal phase with a lower band-gap and hexagonal crystal structure. Calculated Born effective charges reveal the presence of metallic states in the structural vicinity of rhombohedral BiI 3 . Changes in the topology of the electronic bands of BiI 3 with pressure, and a sharp decrease in the c/a ratio below 2 GPa, are shown to give rise to changes in the slope of phonon frequencies near that pressure. (paper)

  3. Elastic buckling analysis for composite stiffened panels and other structures subjected to biaxial inplane loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.

    1973-01-01

    An exact linear analysis method is presented for predicting buckling of structures with arbitrary uniform cross section. The structure is idealized as an assemblage of laminated plate-strip elements, curved and planar, and beam elements. Element edges normal to the longitudinal axes are assumed to be simply supported. Arbitrary boundary conditions may be specified on any external longitudinal edge of plate-strip elements. The structure or selected elements may be loaded in any desired combination of inplane transverse compression or tension side load and axial compression load. The analysis simultaneously considers all possible modes of instability and is applicable for the buckling of laminated composite structures. Numerical results correlate well with the results of previous analysis methods.

  4. Analysis for stresses and buckling of heated composite stiffened panels and other structures, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical methods based on linear theory are presented for predicting the thermal stresses in and the buckling of heated structures with arbitrary uniform cross section. The structure is idealized as an assemblage of laminated plate-strip elements, curved and planar, and beam elements. Uniaxially stiffened plates and shells of arbitrary cross section are typical examples. For the buckling analysis the structure or selected elements may be subjected to mechanical loads, in additional to thermal loads, in any desired combination of inplane transverse load and axial compression load. The analysis is also applicable to stiffened structures under inplane loads varying through the cross section, as in stiffened shells under bending. The buckling analysis is general and covers all modes of instability. The analysis has been applied to a limited number of problems and the results are presented. These while showing the validity and the applicability of the method do not reflect its full capability.

  5. Design and commission of an experimental test rig to apply a full-scale pressure load on composite sandwich panels representative of an aircraft secondary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, D A; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Savage, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a test rig, which is used to apply a representative pressure load to a full-scale composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. A generic panel was designed with features to represent those in the composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. To provide full-field strain data from the panels, the test rig was designed for use with optical measurement techniques such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC). TSA requires a cyclic load to be applied to a structure for the measurement of the strain state; therefore, the test rig has been designed to be mounted on a standard servo-hydraulic test machine. As both TSA and DIC require an uninterrupted view of the surface of the test panel, an important consideration in the design is facilitating the optical access for the two techniques. To aid the test rig design a finite element (FE) model was produced. The model provides information on the deflections that must be accommodated by the test rig, and ensures that the stress and strain levels developed in the panel when loaded in the test rig would be sufficient for measurement using TSA and DIC. Finally, initial tests using the test rig have shown it to be capable of achieving the required pressure and maintaining a cyclic load. It was also demonstrated that both TSA and DIC data can be collected from the panels under load, which are used to validate the stress and deflection derived from the FE model

  6. The effect of van der Waal's gap expansions on the surface electronic structure of layered topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, S V; Vergniory, M G; Chulkov, E V; Menshchikova, T V; Shaposhnikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of relativistic ab initio calculations, we show that an expansion of van der Waal's (vdW) spacings in layered topological insulators caused by intercalation of deposited atoms, leads to the simultaneous emergence of parabolic and M-shaped two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) bands as well as Rashba-splitting of the former states. The expansion of vdW spacings and the emergence of the 2DEG states localized in the (sub)surface region are also accompanied by a relocation of the topological surface state to the lower quintuple layers, that can explain the absence of inter-band scattering found experimentally. (paper)

  7. Magnetic and structural properties of Mn-doped Bi.sub.2./sub.Se.sub.3./sub. topological insulators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarasenko, R.; Vališka, M.; Vondráček, Martin; Horáková, Kateřina; Tkáč, V.; Carva, K.; Baláž, P.; Holý, V.; Springholz, G.; Sechovský, V.; Honolka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 481, Jan (2016), 262-267 ISSN 0378-4363 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30062S; GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : topological insulator * Mn-doped Bi 2 Se 3 * X-ray diffraction * X-ray photoemission * spectroscopy * ferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Handleable shapes of thermal insulation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J. T.

    1989-01-17

    Handleable and machineable shapes of thermal insulation material are made by compacting finely divided thermal insulation material into the cells of a reinforcing honeycomb insulation material into the cells of a reinforcing honeycomb structure. The finely divided thermal insulation material may be, for example, silica aerogel, pyrogenic silica, carbon black, silica gel, volatilised silica, calcium silicate, vermiculate or perlite, or finely divided metal oxides such as alumina or titania. The finely divided thermal insulation material may include an infra-red opacifier and/or reinforcing fibres. The reinforcing honeycomb structure may be made from, for example, metals such as aluminium foil, inorganic materials such as ceramics, organic materials such as plastics materials, woven fabrics or paper. A rigidiser may be employed. The shapes of thermal insulation material are substantially rigid and may be machines, for example by mechanical or laser cutting devices, or may be formed, for example by rolling, into curved or other shaped materials. 12 figs.

  9. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  10. Structure and characteristics of EB-PVD thermal insulation layers; Struktur und Eigenschaften von EB-PVD-Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung

    1996-12-31

    Thermal insulation layers for guide blades and rotor blades in the first two stages of a high-pressure turbines are produced by electron-beam physical vapour deposition for maximum quality. The layers have a lifetime that is longer by a factor of 2 to 10 than for plasma-sprayed layers. The following characteristics of the ceramic layer have a decisive influence on the life of the composite system: Phase composition, distribution and stability, microstructure, density, thickness, crack distribution and cohesive strength. Some selected aspects of the interdependence between production parameters, microstructure of the thermal insulation layer and service life are gone into. [Deutsch] Zur Herstellung von Waermedaemmschichten (WDS) fuer Turbinenleit- und Laufschaufeln der ersten beiden Stufen in der Hochdruckturbine wird fuer hoechste Ansprueche an die Schichtqualitaet das EB-PDV-Verfahren (electron-beam physical vapour deposition) eingesetzt. Die Lebensdauer dieser Schichten ist um den Faktor 2 bis 10 besser als beim Plasmaspritzen. Bei der keramischen Waermedaemmschicht selbst beeinflussen folgende Eigenschaften die Lebensdauer des Gesamtschichtsystems nachhaltig: Phasenzusammensetzung, -verteilung und -stabilitaet, Mikrogefuege, Dichte, Dicke, Rissverteilung und kohaesive Festigkeit. Auf einige ausgewaehlt Aspekte des Zusammenhangs zwischen Herstellungsparametern, Mikrostruktur der Waermedaemmschicht und Lebensdauer wird kurz eingegangen. (orig.)

  11. Polyester Apparel Cutting Waste as Insulation Material

    OpenAIRE

    Trajković, Dušan; Jordeva, Sonja; Tomovska, Elena; Zafirova, Koleta

    2017-01-01

    Polyester waste is the dominant component of the clothing industry waste stream, yet its recycling in this industry is rarely addressed. This paper proposes using polyester cutting waste as an insulation blanket for roofing and buildings’ internal walls in order to reduce environmental pollution. The designed textile structures used waste cuttings from different polyester fabrics without opening the fabric to fibre. Thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, fire resistance and biodegradation o...

  12. Air-Filled Nanopore Based High-Performance Thermal Insulation Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gangåssæter, Haakon Fossen; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Alex Mofid, Sohrab; Gao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art thermal insulation solutions like vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and aerogels have low thermal conductivity, but their drawbacks may make them unable to be the thermal insulation solutions that will revolutionize the building industry regarding energy-efficient building envelopes. Nevertheless, learning from these materials may be crucial to make new and novel high-performance thermal insulation products. This study presents a review on the state-of-the-art air-filled thermal...

  13. Magnetism and the low-energy electronic structure of Mott insulators K{sub 2}CoF{sub 4} and SrMnO{sub 3} perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalecz, D.M., E-mail: sfnalecz@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, 30-084, Krakow (Poland); Radwanski, R.J. [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, 30-084, Krakow (Poland); Center of Solid State Physics, S" n" t Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland); Ropka, Z. [Center of Solid State Physics, S" n" t Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    For Mott insulators, K{sub 2}CoF{sub 4} and SrMnO{sub 3}, we have calculated, in the purely ionic model, the low-energy electronic structure both in the paramagnetic and magnetic state as well as zero-temperature magnetic moment, its direction and its temperature dependence. We have calculated the octahedral crystal-field strength 10Dq to be 0.98 and 2.25 eV. We claim that for an adequate theoretical description of magnetic properties even small local distortions and the intra-atomic relativistic spin-orbit coupling have to be taken into account. Our studies have revealed a strong interplay of the magnetism, the orbital moment in particular, with the local crystallographic structure. The calculated orbital moment in K{sub 2}CoF{sub 4} is very large, 1.06 μ{sub B}, giving 30% contribution to the total moment - this result points the necessity to “unquench” the orbital magnetism in 3d compounds. We consistently described magnetic and some optical properties of these compounds, containing atoms with incomplete 3d shell, in agreement with their insulating ground state. - Highlights: • The octahedral crystal-field 10Dq amounts to 0.98 and 2.25 eV in K{sub 2}CoF{sub 4} and SrMnO{sub 3}. • The low-energy electronic structures in the magnetic state is displayed. • There is a strong interplay of the magnetism and the local crystal structure. • Temperature dependence of the Mn{sup 4+}- ion magnetic moment has been described. • Relativistic spin-orbit coupling is indispensable for description of 3d magnetism.

  14. Fabrication, structural and electrical properties of (1 1 0) localized silicon-on-insulator devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destefanis, V; Huguenin, J L; Samson, M P; Morand, Y; Arvet, C; Monfray, S; Skotnicki, T; Hartmann, J M; Delaye, V; Boulitreau, P; Brianceau, P; Gautier, P

    2010-01-01

    The aim being to fabricate (1 1 0) localized silicon-on-insulator (L-SOI) devices, we have first of all completed the Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23 105018 (2008) study of the differences between (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) surfaces in terms of (i) HCl etch kinetics and (ii) SiGe growth kinetics (with a chlorinated chemistry). The core layers of a L-SOI device are indeed obtained thanks to the in situ HCl etching (on patterned wafers) of the Si active areas followed by the selective epitaxial growth of a Si 0.7 Ge 0.3 /Si stack. Given that SiGe(1 1 0) layers grown at 650 °C in windows of patterned wafers are rough, we have first of all studied the 600 °C growth kinetics of SiGe(1 1 0). As expected, the SiGe growth rate decreases as the growth temperature decreases from 650 °C down to 600 °C (irrespective of the surface orientation). The SiGe(1 0 0) growth rate increases linearly with the germane mass flow. Meanwhile, the SiGe(1 1 0) growth rate increases in a sub-linear fashion and then saturates at much lower values than on (1 0 0). The Ge concentration x dependence on the F(GeH 4 )/F(SiH 2 Cl 2 ) mass flow ratio is parabolic on (1 0 0) and linear on (1 1 0), with lower values on the latter than on the former. We have then used those data to fabricate (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) L-SOI structures. The high HCl partial pressure recessing of the Si(1 1 0) and Si(1 0 0) active areas was performed at 675 °C and 725 °C, respectively. An increase of both the Si(1 1 0) HCl etch rate and the SiGe growth rate (be it at 650 °C on (1 0 0) or at 600 °C on (1 1 0)) was noticed when switching from blanket to patterned wafers (factors of 2.5–3 for HCI and 1.5 for SiGe). Finally, Si(1 1 0) growth times were multiplied by 4/3 compared to the Si(1 0 0) growth time in order to obtain similar thickness Si caps. Subsequent process steps were very similar on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0). Almost the same etch rates were

  15. Structural and electrical properties of Ge(111) films grown on Si(111) substrates and application to Ge(111)-on-Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawano, K., E-mail: sawano@tcu.ac.jp [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshi, Y.; Kubo, S. [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Arimoto, K.; Yamanaka, J.; Nakagawa, K. [Center for Crystal Science and Technology, University of Yamanashi, 7 Miyamae-cho, Kofu (Japan); Hamaya, K. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Miyao, M. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraki, Y. [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-08-31

    Structural and electrical properties of a Ge(111) layer directly grown on a Si(111) substrate are studied. Via optimized two-step growth manner, we form a high-quality relaxed Ge layer, where strain-relieving dislocations are confined close to a Ge/Si interface. Consequently, a density of holes, which unintentionally come from crystal defects, is highly suppressed below 4 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}, which leads to significantly high hole Hall mobility exceeding 1500 cm{sup 2}/Vs at room temperature. By layer transfer of the grown Ge layer, we also fabricate a Ge(111)-on-Insulator, which is a promising template for high-performance Ge-based electronic and photonic devices. - Highlights: • A high-quality Ge layer is epitaxially grown on a Si(111) by two-step growth manner. • Growth conditions, such as growth temperatures, are optimized. • Very high hole mobility is obtained from Ge(111) grown on Si(111). • High-quality thin Ge-on-Insulator with (111) orientation is obtained.

  16. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  17. A computational system for analyze nuclear power plants structures, made by panels, using superelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Miranda, C.A. de.

    1981-03-01

    The analysis of linear static behavior of folded-plate structures like the turbine building of a nuclear power plant by the Finite Element Method. Folded-plate isoparametric plane elements with 48 degrees of freedom each, 8 nodal points, in which shear deformations are considered, and super-elements, whose internal degrees of freedom are condensated, are used. Arbitrary shells can be analized too. A brief exposition of the method is present and the developing of the foregoing element and super-element is also shown. A computer program was developed for the CDC-CYBER 175 computer machine and the FORTRAN IV language was used. The coeficients of the equations system are stored by the technique of block partitioning with a compacted column storage scheme and special attention was dedicated to the preparation of the problem's data and some options were developed for this purpose. (Author) [pt

  18. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  19. Honeycomb metal panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Product constituted by a honeycomb metal panel that can be employed to advantage for manufacturing lagging by sandwiching it between two plane sheets, utilized in particular in the nuclear industry where lagging has to have a very long life strength. The honeycomb metal panel is made of an expanded metal extrusion previously cut so as to form, after additional drawing, a honeycomb structure with square or rectangular cells with a plane surface [fr

  20. Thermal insulation of high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornille, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Operating conditions of HTR thermal insulation are given and heat insulators currently developed are described (fibers kept in position by metallic structures). For future applications and higher temperatures, research is directed towards solutions using ceramics or associating fibers and ceramics [fr

  1. Soup Cooking by Thermal Insulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 辰江; 根本, 勢子; サトウ, タツエ; ネモト, セイコ; TATSUE, SATO; SEIKO, NEMOTO

    1992-01-01

    In order to examine the thermal insulation method of soup cooking, we cooked two kinds of soup. The soup cooked by thermal insulation method was compared with the soup cooked by standard boiling method. ln sensory test, it was more aromatic and palatable than the soup by boiling, and some panels commented that it was rather mild. The measured values of pH, specific gravity, acidity and amount of dry weight of souble solids, total-N, formal-N of the soup cooked by the two methods mentioned abo...

  2. Dynamic heat transfer modeling and parametric study of thermoelectric radiant cooling and heating panel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Zhongbing; Wang, Yingzi; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic model of thermoelectric radiant panel system is established. • The internal parameters of thermoelectric module are dynamically calculated in simulation. • Both artificial neural networks model and system model are verified through experiment data. • Optimized system structure is obtained through parametric study. - Abstract: Radiant panel system can optimize indoor thermal comfort with lower energy consumption. The thermoelectric radiant panel (TERP) system is a new and effective prototype of radiant system using thermoelectric module (TEM) instead of conventional water pipes, as heat source. The TERP can realize more stable and easier system control as well as lower initial and operative cost. In this study, an improved system dynamic model was established by combining analytical system model and artificial neural networks (ANN) as well as the dynamic calculation functions of internal parameters of TEM. The double integral was used for the calculation of surface average temperature of TERP. The ANN model and system model were in good agreement with experiment data in both cooling and heating mode. In order to optimize the system design structure, parametric study was conducted in terms of the thickness of aluminum panel and insulation, as well as the arrangement of TEMs on the surface of radiant panel. It was found through simulation results that the optimum thickness of aluminum panel and insulation are respectively around 1–2 mm and 40–50 mm. In addition, TEMs should be uniformly installed on the surface of radiant panel and each TEM should stand at the central position of a square-shaped typical region with length around 0.387–0.548 m.

  3. Thermal support elements (TTE) made of high-tensile fibre-reinforced material and integrated vacuum-insulation panels (VIP) - Final report; Thermotragelemente (TTE) aus hochfestem Faserverbundstoff und integrierten Vakuumisolationspaneelen (VIP) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motavalli, M.; Ghazi Wakili, K.; Gsell, D.; Herwig, A.

    2008-07-01

    In this project, the static and thermal characteristics of the balcony connection element TTE (load carrying thermo-element) of the Hitek Construction Company AG were investigated. The TTE is an innovative element, which minimises thermal bridges that always exist in the vicinity of balcony connections. The concept of the element relies of the ability of fibre reinforced composites with superior thermal and mechanical characteristics to transfer the high mechanical loads from the balcony, through the layer of insulation, to the building. From a mechanical point-of-view, only very limited use of fibre reinforced composites has been seen for this type of construction application, therefore necessitating a detailed investigation of the element. In a first step, component tests of the individual load carrying elements were carried out, in which the elements showed an entirely satisfactory short-term behaviour. Furthermore, several assembly tests were carried out whereby parts of the balcony were reproduced, loaded and observed over longer term. During the investigations it was seen that very high stresses occur in the compression zone of the concrete deck and that the element must be modified in the future. From a thermal point-of-view, the TTE element offers a considerable improvement as compared with concrete decks without a thermal discontinuity. The thermal properties of the TTE element can be considered similar to or slightly better than other thermally discontinuous systems with the same load carrying capacity. This is understandable, since a thicker insulating layer with a thermal resistance of 2.5 m{sup 2} K/W was partially replaced through a thinner, yet more efficient insulation with a thermal resistance of 1.9 m{sup 2} K/W. Moreover, the glass fibre reinforced polymer has a larger thermal resistance than steel. The results obtained from the mechanical and thermal tests point to the need for further optimisation of the TTE element. It has been seen, however

  4. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  5. Effect of Al2O3 insulator thickness on the structural integrity of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide based thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Hwang, In-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2014-12-01

    The current transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) technology provides flexibility and high performance. In this study, multi-stack nano-layers of TOSs were designed for three-dimensional analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) based thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, the effects of torsional and compressive stresses on the nano-sized active layers such as the a-IGZO layer were investigated. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the structural integrity of a-IGZO based TFTs with three different thicknesses of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) insulator (δ = 10, 20, and 30 nm), respectively, using a commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are graphically depicted for operating conditions.

  6. Assessing the Structural, Driver and Economic Impacts of Traffic Pole Mounted Wind Power Generator and Solar Panel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...

  7. Economically optimal thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1978-10-01

    Exemplary calculations to show that exact adherence to the demands of the thermal insulation ordinance does not lead to an optimal solution with regard to economics. This is independent of the mode of financing. Optimal thermal insulation exceeds the values given in the thermal insulation ordinance.

  8. Durability study on material of wooden panel elements used for the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimasa Konishi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the durability of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Japan's permanent Antarctic observation facility, especially of its wooden panels. The hut, of high floor type wooden panel construction, was built in January 1969. To determine the durability, part of the hut, which was brought back to Japan after 30 years, was rebuilt, then taken apart again under controlled test conditions. Tests included visual observation, testing of the wooden material, and testing of the performance of the thermal insulation material. The results showed that the material in the roof panels deteriorated considerably more than that in the walls and floors. In the severe polar conditions, the strength of the overall structure depends heavily on the joints between panels. It is clear that material on the indoor sides, and in the interiors of the panels, hardly deteriorated at all after 30 years.

  9. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  10. Normal Incidence of Sound Transmission Loss of a Double-Leaf Partition Inserted with a Microperforated Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-leaf partition in engineering structures has been widely applied for its advantages, that is, in terms of its mechanical strength as well as its lightweight property. In noise control, the double-leaf also serves as an effective noise barrier. Unfortunately at low frequency, the sound transmission loss reduces significantly due to the coupling between the panels and the air between them. This paper studies the effect of a microperforated panel (MPP inserted inside a double-leaf partition on the sound transmission loss performance of the system. The MPP insertion is proposed to provide a hygienic double-leaf noise insulator replacing the classical abrasive porous materials between the panels. It is found that the transmission loss improves at the troublesome mass-air-mass resonant frequency if the MPP is located closer to the solid panel. The mathematical model is derived for normal incidence of acoustic loading.

  11. Propagation Characteristics of Multilayer Hybrid Insulator-Metal-Insulator and Metal-Insulator-Metal Plasmonic Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Talafi Noghani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of symmetrical and asymmetrical multilayer hybrid insulator-metal-insulator (HIMI and metal-insulator-metal (HMIM plasmonic slab waveguides are investigated using the transfer matrix method. Propagation length (Lp and spatial length (Ls are used as two figures of merit to qualitate the plasmonic waveguides. Symmetrical structures are shown to be more performant (having higher Lp and lower Ls, nevertheless it is shown that usage of asymmetrical geometry could compensate for the performance degradation in practically realized HIMI waveguides with different substrate materials. It is found that HMIM slab waveguide could support almost long-range subdiffraction plasmonic modes at dimensions lower than the spatial length of the HIMI slab waveguide.

  12. TiO2/silane coupling agent composed of two layers structure: A super-hydrophilic self-cleaning coating applied in PV panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Hong; Hu, Yan; Wang, Yuanhao; Yang, Hongxing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A self-coating with composited layer structure can applied in PV panels is proposed. •This coating is consisted of TiO 2 and KH550. •pH in hydrothermal reaction is an important factor to control the self-cleaning property and light transmittance of coating. •This coating can increase the output of PV panels in outside test. -- Abstract: To improve the properties of anti-dust for PV modules, the concept of self-cleaning has been proposed for many years. However, the traditional self-cleaning coating is unstable in nature environment, which limited its application in the PV panels. Therefore, this study aims to design a novel super-hydrophilic coating with high stability and corrosion resistance, which would be very advantageous to apply in the PV panels. The super-hydrophilic self-cleaning coating is composed of 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (KH550) and TiO 2 . KH550 is a kind of surface modification agent, which creates more active groups on the surface of glasses. TiO 2 is prepared by a hydrothermal reaction with titanium ethoxide, and the influence of pH is investigated as an important factor during the application in PV panels. The composition was measured by UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer, and the particle size distribution and the surface structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The TiO 2 nanocrystal was investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The water contact angle (WCA) was measured by contact angle instrument. It was found that the static water contact angle on the surface of super-hydrophobic coating was as lower than 5°, which show an excellent super-hydrophilic property. Abstract should state the principal results and conclusions briefly, and the significance of this study.

  13. High fluence swift heavy ion structure modification of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface and gate insulator in 65 nm MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yao [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gao, Bo, E-mail: gaobo@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gong, Min [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Willis, Maureen [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Yang, Zhimei [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Guan, Mingyue [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Li, Yun [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a study of the structure modification, induced by high fluence swift heavy ion radiation, of the SiO{sub 2}/Si structures and gate oxide interface in commercial 65 nm MOSFETs is performed. A key and novel point in this study is the specific use of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique instead of the conventional atomic force microscope (AFM) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques which are typically performed following the chemical etching of the sample to observe the changes in the structure. Using this method we show that after radiation, the appearance of a clearly visible thin layer between the SiO{sub 2} and Si is observed presenting as a variation in the TEM intensity at the interface of the two materials. Through measuring the EDX line scans we reveal that the Si:O ratio changed and that this change can be attributed to the migration of the Si towards interface after the Si-O bond is destroyed by the swift heavy ions. For the 65 nm MOSFET sample, the silicon substrate, the SiON insulator and the poly-silicon gate interfaces become blurred under the same irradiation conditions.

  14. Fabrication of current confinement aperture structure by transforming a conductive GaN:Si epitaxial layer into an insulating GaOx layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Feng; Lee, Wen-Che; Shieh, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Danti; Wang, Dili; Han, Jung

    2014-12-24

    We report here a simple and robust process to convert embedded conductive GaN epilayers into insulating GaOx and demonstrate its efficacy in vertical current blocking and lateral current steering in a working LED device. The fabrication processes consist of laser scribing, electrochemical (EC) wet-etching, photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation, and thermal oxidization of a sacrificial n(+)-GaN:Si layer. The conversion of GaN is made possible through an intermediate stage of porosification where the standard n-type GaN epilayers can be laterally and selectively anodized into a nanoporous (NP) texture while keeping the rest of the layers intact. The fibrous texture of NP GaN with an average wall thickness of less than 100 nm dramatically increases the surface-to-volume ratio and facilitates a rapid oxidation process of GaN into GaOX. The GaOX aperture was formed on the n-side of the LED between the active region and the n-type GaN layer. The wavelength blueshift phenomena of electroluminescence spectra is observed in the treated aperture-emission LED structure (441.5 nm) when compared to nontreated LED structure (443.7 nm) at 0.1 mA. The observation of aperture-confined electroluminescence from an InGaN LED structure suggests that the NP GaN based oxidation will play an enabling role in the design and fabrication of III-nitride photonic devices.

  15. A Novel Lighting OLED Panel Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel OLED (organic light emitting diode lighting panel, which uses a special layout design, can reduce the photolithography cycles and process costs and is more reliable. It only needs two steps of photolithography cycles, which include an ITO (InSnO compound transparent oxide pattern and insulator pattern. There is no need for the metal bus pattern of the ordinary design. The OLED device structure is a type of red–green–blue (RGB-stacked emitting layer that has a good color index and greater adjustability, which improves the performance of the device. This novel design has the same equipment and material requirement compared to the ordinary design, and it is very beneficial in terms of high volume and low-cost production. It uses a hyper driving method because the entire OLED lighting panel is divided into many sub-emitting units; if one of the sub-emitting units is burned out, it has no effect on the adjacent sub-emitting unit, so the reliability is markedly better than the ordinary design.

  16. Field evaluation of reflective insulation in south east Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Khar San; Yarbrough, David W.; Lim, Chin Haw; Salleh, Elias

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain thermal performance data for reflective insulations in a South East Asia environment. Thermal resistance data (RSI, m2 ṡ K/W) for reflective insulations are well established from 1-D steady-state tests, but thermal data for reflective insulation in structures like those found in South East Asia are scarce. Data for reflective insulations in South East Asia will add to the worldwide database for this type of energy-conserving material. RSI were obtained from heat flux and temperature data of three identical structures in the same location. One unit did not have insulation above the ceiling, while the second and third units were insulated with reflective insulation with emittance less than 0.05. RSI for the uninsulated test unit varied from 0.37 to 0.40 m2 ṡ K/W. RSI for a single-sheet reflective insulation (woven foil) varied from 2.15 to 2.26 m2 ṡ K/W, while bubble-foil insulation varied from 2.69 to 3.09 m2 ṡ K/W. The range of RSI values resulted from differences in the spacing between the reflective insulation and the roof. In addition, the reflective insulation below the roof lowered attic temperatures by as much as 9.7° C. Reductions in ceiling heat flux of 80 to 90% relative to the uninsulated structure, due to the reflective insulation, were observed.

  17. Spatial structure and climatic adaptation in African maize revealed by surveying SNP diversity in relation to global breeding and landrace panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change threatens maize productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. To ensure food security, access to locally adapted genetic resources and varieties is an important adaptation measure. Most of the maize grown in Africa is a genetic mix of varieties introduced at different historic times following the birth of the trans-Atlantic economy, and knowledge about geographic structure and local adaptations is limited. METHODOLOGY: A panel of 48 accessions of maize representing various introduction routes and sources of historic and recent germplasm introductions in Africa was genotyped with the MaizeSNP50 array. Spatial genetic structure and genetic relationships in the African panel were analysed separately and in the context of a panel of 265 inbred lines representing global breeding material (based on 26,900 SNPs and a panel of 1127 landraces from the Americas (270 SNPs. Environmental association analysis was used to detect SNPs associated with three climatic variables based on the full 43,963 SNP dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic structure is consistent between subsets of the data and the markers are well suited for resolving relationships and admixture among the accessions. The African accessions are structured in three clusters reflecting historical and current patterns of gene flow from the New World and within Africa. The Sahelian cluster reflects original introductions of Meso-American landraces via Europe and a modern introduction of temperate breeding material. The Western cluster reflects introduction of Coastal Brazilian landraces, as well as a Northeast-West spread of maize through Arabic trade routes across the continent. The Eastern cluster most strongly reflects gene flow from modern introduced tropical varieties. Controlling for population history in a linear model, we identify 79 SNPs associated with maximum temperature during the growing season. The associations located in genes of known importance for abiotic stress

  18. Characterization techniques for ion bombarded insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The chapter gives a comprehensive review of the experimental methods for the analysis of ion-bombarded insulators including optical and structural methods, resonance, energetic ion methods, and surface techniques. 48 refs.; 34 figs

  19. Reel Efektif Döviz Kurunun Durağanlığının Yapısal Kırılmalı Panel Birim Kök Testleri Kullanılarak Sınanması = Analyzing the Stationarity of Reel Effective Exchange Rates Using Panel Unit Root Tests with Structural Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda YERDELEN TATOĞLU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, many studies have analyzed the stationarity of reel exchange rates which gives important knowledge about economic stability of countries. The panel unit root tests which include both pooled and individual unit root tests are used frequently to analyze the stationarity of real exchange rates. Generally, structural breaks issue have taken place in macroeconomic time series for some years. If unit root tests are used without taking account these structural breaks, stationarity hypothesis can be rejected mistakenly. In this study, panel unit root tests with and without structural breaks were used to analyze the validity of Purchasing Power Parity hypothesis in 25 OECD countries. According to the results, while in panel unit root tests with no break, PPP theory is valid for only 10 countries; it is valid for all countries in panel unit root tests with structural breaks.

  20. Introduction of a method of constructing heat preventing panels in holds in freezing carrier. Reito unpansen ni okeru sonai bonetsu panel koho no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaki, T; Fujita, H; Yamamoto, K

    1994-06-25

    A freezing carrier is a dedication ship to transport frozen and refrigerated cargoes such as foodstuffs loaded in holds. Ship's heat preventing devices must have the heat insulating structure formed according to complex shapes characteristic to an ocean vessel, and the most part of the work is done by skilled technicians working on the site. Therefore, discussions have been given on a heat preventing structure using a panel construction method aiming at simplifying cross sections to more efficient and uniform shapes, and hold shapes and work in them to more suitable for palletized packaging styles, and improving working environments. The results of the discussions have been applied to two ships for the first time, and the effects have been verified. This paper reports its specifications and construction. The heat preventing panel is a sandwiched composite of a surface material and a polyurethane foam, made to a panel size of about 1 m [times] 2 m. Joints are fixed by fasteners. The present ships have adopted such a form that the side walls are vertical, but the floor area and the clear height are the same as the conventional construction methods. Good heat insulation performance and workability have been verified, and results that are expected of further development have been obtained. 7 figs.

  1. Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...

  2. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  3. Structural Properties and Sensing Performance of CeYxOy Sensing Films for Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor pH Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tung-Ming; Wang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yi

    2017-06-07

    In this study we developed CeY x O y sensing membranes displaying super-Nernstian pH-sensitivity for use in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) pH sensors. We examined the effect of thermal annealing on the structural properties and sensing characteristics of the CeY x O y sensing membranes deposited through reactive co-sputtering onto Si substrates. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the structural, morphological, and chemical features, respectively, of the CeY x O y films after their annealing at 600-900 °C. Among the tested systems, the CeY x O y EIS device prepared with annealing at 800 °C exhibited the highest sensitivity (78.15 mV/pH), the lowest hysteresis voltage (1.4 mV), and the lowest drift rate (0.85 mV/h). Presumably, these annealing conditions optimized the stoichiometry of (CeY)O 2 in the film and its surface roughness while suppressing silicate formation at the CeY x O y -Si interface. We attribute the super-Nernstian pH-sensitivity to the incorporation of Y ions in the Ce framework, thereby decreasing the oxidation state Ce (Ce 4+  → Ce 3+ ) and resulting in less than one electron transferred per proton in the redox reaction.

  4. Capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor structures functionalised with a polyelectrolyte/enzyme multilayer: New strategy for enhanced field-effect biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouzar, Maryam H.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schoening, Michael J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Siqueira, Jose R. Jr.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. Jr. [Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Moritz, Werner [Institute of Chemistry, Humboldt University Berlin (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    A novel strategy for enhanced field-effect biosensing using capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structures functionalised with pH-responsive weak polyelectrolyte/enzyme or dendrimer/enzyme multilayers is presented. The feasibility of the proposed approach is exemplarily demonstrated by realising a penicillin biosensor based on a capacitive p-Si-SiO{sub 2} EIS structure functionalised with a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/penicillinase and a poly(amidoamine) dendrimer/penicillinase multilayer. The developed sensors response to changes in both the local pH value near the gate surface and the charge of macromolecules induced via enzymatic reaction, resulting in a higher sensitivity. For comparison, an EIS penicillin biosensor with adsorptively immobilised penicillinase has been also studied. The highest penicillin sensitivity of 100 mV/dec has been observed for the EIS sensor functionalised with the PAH/penicillinase multilayer. The lower and upper detection limit was around 20 {mu}M and 10 mM, respectively. In addition, an incorporation of enzymes in a multilayer prepared by layer-by-layer technique provides a larger amount of immobilised enzymes per sensor area, reduces enzyme leaching effects and thus, enhances the biosensor lifetime (the loss of penicillin sensitivity after 2 months was 10-12%). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Imputation of single nucleotide polymorhpism genotypes of Hereford cattle: reference panel size, family relationship and population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes imputation of Hereford cattle. Purebred Herefords were from two sources, Line 1 Hereford (N=240) and representatives of Industry Herefords (N=311). Using different reference panels of 62 and 494 males with 1...

  6. Wall insulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostek, P.T.

    1987-08-11

    In a channel specially designed to fasten semi-rigid mineral fibre insulation to masonry walls, it is known to be constructed from 20 gauge galvanized steel or other suitable material. The channel is designed to have pre-punched holes along its length for fastening of the channel to the drywall screw. The unique feature of the channel is the teeth running along its length which are pressed into the surface of the butted together sections of the insulation providing a strong grip between the two adjacent pieces of insulation. Of prime importance to the success of this system is the recent technological advancements of the mineral fibre itself which allow the teeth of the channel to engage the insulation fully and hold without mechanical support, rather than be repelled or pushed back by the inherent nature of the insulation material. After the insulation is secured to the masonry wall by concrete nail fastening systems, the drywall is screwed to the channel.

  7. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a

  8. Panel 3 - characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feldman, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States); Kleimer, R. [Coors Ceramics Co., Golden, CO (United States); Lawton, E.A. [JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  9. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K.E.L.

    2010-01-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and often exhibit poor reliability. Two technical approaches to solving this problem will be investigated. Firstly, inverted ceramics offer solutions for reduced gradients between the electrodes and ground. An inverted design will be presented for 350 kV, with maximum gradients in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Secondly, novel ceramic manufacturing processes will be studied, in order to protect triple junction locations from emission, by applying a coating with a bulk resistivity. The processes for creating this coating will be optimized to provide protection as well as be used to coat a ceramic with an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of an HV standoff ceramic cylinder. Example insulator designs are being computer modelled, and insulator samples are being manufactured and tested

  10. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical properties of Au/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna Lakshmi, B.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.; Janardhanam, V. [Sri Venkateswara University, Department of Physics, Tirupati (India); Siva Pratap Reddy, M.; Lee, Jung-Hee [Kyungpook National University, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We report on the effect of an annealing temperature on the electrical properties of Au/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The measured Schottky barrier height ({Phi} {sub bo}) and ideality factor n values of the as-deposited Au/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/n-GaN MIS structure are 0.93 eV (I-V) and 1.19. The barrier height (BH) increases to 1.03 eV and ideality factor decreases to 1.13 upon annealing at 500 {sup circle} C for 1 min under nitrogen ambient. When the contact is annealed at 600 {sup circle} C, the barrier height decreases and the ideality factor increases to 0.99 eV and 1.15. The barrier heights obtained from the C-V measurements are higher than those obtained from I-V measurements, and this indicates the existence of spatial inhomogeneity at the interface. Cheung's functions are also used to calculate the barrier height ({Phi} {sub bo}), ideality factor (n), and series resistance (R{sub s}) of the Au/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/n-GaN MIS structure. Investigations reveal that the Schottky emission is the dominant mechanism and the Poole-Frenkel emission occurs only in the high voltage region. The energy distribution of interface states is determined from the forward bias I-V characteristics by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height. It is observed that the density value of interface states for the annealed samples with interfacial layer is lower than that of the density value of interface states of the as-deposited sample. (orig.)

  11. Detection of pH and Enzyme-Free H2O2 Sensing Mechanism by Using GdO x Membrane in Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Maikap, Siddheswar; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Jana, Surajit; Roy, Anisha; Singh, Kanishk; Cheng, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Mu-Tung; Mahapatra, Rajat; Chiu, Hsien-Chin; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2016-12-01

    A 15-nm-thick GdO x membrane in an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure shows a higher pH sensitivity of 54.2 mV/pH and enzyme-free hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection than those of the bare SiO2 and 3-nm-thick GdO x membranes for the first time. Polycrystalline grain and higher Gd content of the thicker GdO x films are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. In a thicker GdO x membrane, polycrystalline grain has lower energy gap and Gd(2+) oxidation states lead to change Gd(3+) states in the presence of H2O2, which are confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The oxidation/reduction (redox) properties of thicker GdO x membrane with higher Gd content are responsible for detecting H2O2 whereas both bare SiO2 and thinner GdO x membranes do not show sensing. A low detection limit of 1 μM is obtained due to strong catalytic activity of Gd. The reference voltage shift increases with increase of the H2O2 concentration from 1 to 200 μM owing to more generation of Gd(3+) ions, and the H2O2 sensing mechanism has been explained as well.

  12. Will initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption be effective? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, Hooi Hooi; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption are likely to be effective by applying univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption in 55 countries over the period 1965–2011. We find that for the panel, as well as about four-fifths of individual countries, that hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. This result implies that shocks to hydroelectricity consumption in most countries will only result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path. An important consequence of this finding is that initiatives designed to have permanent positive effects on hydroelectricity consumption, such as large-scale dam construction, are unlikely to be effective in increasing the share of hydroelectricity, relative to consumption of fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Applies unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption. • Hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. • Shocks to hydroelectricity consumption result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path

  13. Molecular dewetting on insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, S A; Topple, J M; Gruetter, P

    2009-01-01

    Recent attention given to the growth and morphology of organic thin films with regard to organic electronics has led to the observation of dewetting (a transition from layer(s) to islands) of molecular deposits in many of these systems. Dewetting is a much studied phenomenon in the formation of polymer and liquid films, but its observation in thin films of the 'small' molecules typical of organic electronics requires additional consideration of the structure of the interface between the molecular film and the substrate. This review covers some key concepts related to dewetting and molecular film growth. In particular, the origins of different growth modes and the thickness dependent interactions which give rise to dewetting are discussed in terms of surface energies and the disjoining pressure. Characteristics of molecular systems which may lead to these conditions, including the formation of metastable interface structures and commensurate-incommensurate phase transitions, are also discussed. Brief descriptions of some experimental techniques which have been used to study molecular dewetting are given as well. Examples of molecule-on-insulator systems which undergo dewetting are described in some detail, specifically perylene derivatives on alkali halides, C 60 on alkali halides, and the technologically important system of pentacene on SiO 2 . These examples point to some possible predicting factors for the occurrence of dewetting, most importantly the formation of an interface layer which differs from the bulk crystal structure. (topical review)

  14. Molecular dewetting on insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, S A; Topple, J M; Grütter, P

    2009-10-21

    Recent attention given to the growth and morphology of organic thin films with regard to organic electronics has led to the observation of dewetting (a transition from layer(s) to islands) of molecular deposits in many of these systems. Dewetting is a much studied phenomenon in the formation of polymer and liquid films, but its observation in thin films of the 'small' molecules typical of organic electronics requires additional consideration of the structure of the interface between the molecular film and the substrate. This review covers some key concepts related to dewetting and molecular film growth. In particular, the origins of different growth modes and the thickness dependent interactions which give rise to dewetting are discussed in terms of surface energies and the disjoining pressure. Characteristics of molecular systems which may lead to these conditions, including the formation of metastable interface structures and commensurate-incommensurate phase transitions, are also discussed. Brief descriptions of some experimental techniques which have been used to study molecular dewetting are given as well. Examples of molecule-on-insulator systems which undergo dewetting are described in some detail, specifically perylene derivatives on alkali halides, C(60) on alkali halides, and the technologically important system of pentacene on SiO(2). These examples point to some possible predicting factors for the occurrence of dewetting, most importantly the formation of an interface layer which differs from the bulk crystal structure.

  15. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  16. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Modeling of Sensor Placement Strategy for Shape Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring of a Wing-Shaped Sandwich Panel Using Inverse Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Kefal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of sensor density and alignment for three-dimensional shape sensing of an airplane-wing-shaped thick panel subjected to three different loading conditions, i.e., bending, torsion, and membrane loads. For shape sensing analysis of the panel, the Inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM was used together with the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT, in order to enable accurate predictions for transverse deflection and through-the-thickness variation of interfacial displacements. In this study, the iFEM-RZT algorithm is implemented by utilizing a novel three-node C°-continuous inverse-shell element, known as i3-RZT. The discrete strain data is generated numerically through performing a high-fidelity finite element analysis on the wing-shaped panel. This numerical strain data represents experimental strain readings obtained from surface patched strain gauges or embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. Three different sensor placement configurations with varying density and alignment of strain data were examined and their corresponding displacement contours were compared with those of reference solutions. The results indicate that a sparse distribution of FBG sensors (uniaxial strain measurements, aligned in only the longitudinal direction, is sufficient for predicting accurate full-field membrane and bending responses (deformed shapes of the panel, including a true zigzag representation of interfacial displacements. On the other hand, a sparse deployment of strain rosettes (triaxial strain measurements is essentially enough to produce torsion shapes that are as accurate as those of predicted by a dense sensor placement configuration. Hence, the potential applicability and practical aspects of i3-RZT/iFEM methodology is proven for three-dimensional shape-sensing of future aerospace structures.

  18. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  19. Sound-proof Sandwich Panel Design via Metamaterial Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ni

    Sandwich panels consisting of hollow core cells and two face-sheets bonded on both sides have been widely used as lightweight and strong structures in practical engineering applications, but with poor acoustic performance especially at low frequency regime. Basic sound-proof methods for the sandwich panel design are spontaneously categorized as sound insulation and sound absorption. Motivated by metamaterial concept, this dissertation presents two sandwich panel designs without sacrificing weight or size penalty: A lightweight yet sound-proof honeycomb acoustic metamateiral can be used as core material for honeycomb sandwich panels to block sound and break the mass law to realize minimum sound transmission; the other sandwich panel design is based on coupled Helmholtz resonators and can achieve perfect sound absorption without sound reflection. Based on the honeycomb sandwich panel, the mechanical properties of the honeycomb core structure were studied first. By incorporating a thin membrane on top of each honeycomb core, the traditional honeycomb core turns into honeycomb acoustic metamaterial. The basic theory for such kind of membrane-type acoustic metamaterial is demonstrated by a lumped model with infinite periodic oscillator system, and the negative dynamic effective mass density for clamped membrane is analyzed under the membrane resonance condition. Evanescent wave mode caused by negative dynamic effective mass density and impedance methods are utilized to interpret the physical phenomenon of honeycomb acoustic metamaterials at resonance. The honeycomb metamaterials can extraordinarily improve low-frequency sound transmission loss below the first resonant frequency of the membrane. The property of the membrane, the tension of the membrane and the numbers of attached membranes can impact the sound transmission loss, which are observed by numerical simulations and validated by experiments. The sandwich panel which incorporates the honeycomb metamateiral as

  20. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  1. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Mosiman, G. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Ojczyk, C. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  2. Panel surveys

    OpenAIRE

    MADRE, JL; ZUMKELLER, D; CHLOND, B; ARMOOGUM, J

    2004-01-01

    l'analyse du comportement humain constitue un enjeu important dans le domaine des transports, lequel se transforme radicalement sous la pression des évolutions économique, écologique et démographique. les premières grandes études ont commence il y a plus d'une dizaine d'années : parc auto sofres en france, puget sound panel a seattle. cet article fait le bilan de ces expériences et met en évidence les principaux problèmes méthodologiques rencontres tout en proposant de nouvelles directions d'...

  3. HiPTI - High Performance Thermal Insulation, Annex 39 to IEA/ECBCS-Implementing Agreement. Vacuum insulation in the building sector. Systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Moosmann, A.; Steinke, G.; Schonhardt, U.; Fregnan, F. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Simmler, H.; Brunner, S.; Ghazi, K.; Bundi, R. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [ZAE Bayern, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cauberg, H.; Tenpierik, M. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Johannesson, G.; Thorsell, T. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Erb, M.; Nussbaumer, B. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Basel and Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report on vacuum insulation panels (VIP) presents and discusses the work done under IEA/Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 39, subtask B on the basis of a wide selection of reports from practice. The report shows how the building trade deals with this new material today, the experience gained and the conclusions drawn from this work. As well as presenting recommendations for the practical use of VIP, the report also addresses questions regarding the effective insulation values to be expected with current VIP, whose insulation performance is stated as being a factor of five to eight times better than conventional insulation. The introduction of this novel material in the building trade is discussed. Open questions and risks are examined. The fundamentals of vacuum insulation panels are discussed and the prerequisites, risks and optimal application of these materials in the building trade are examined.

  4. Insulator-insulator and insulator-conductor transitions in the phase diagram of aluminium trichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Ruberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a classical computer-simulation study of the phase diagram of AlCl3 in the pressure-temperature (p, T plane, showing (i that melting from a layered crystal structure occurs into a molecular liquid at low (p, T and into a dissociated ionic liquid at high (p, T, and (ii that a broad transition from a molecular insulator to an ionic conductor takes place in the liquid state.

  5. Insulating fcc YH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, S. J. van der; Nagengast, D. G.; Gogh, A. T. M. van; Kalkman, J.; Kooij, E. S.; Rector, J. H.; Griessen, R.

    2001-01-01

    We study the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Mg z Y 1-z switchable mirrors upon hydrogenation. It is found that the alloys disproportionate into essentially pure YH 3-δ and MgH 2 with the crystal structure of YH 3-δ dependent on the Mg concentration z. For 0 3-δ are observed, whereas for z≥0.1 only cubic YH 3-δ is present. Interestingly, cubic YH 3-δ is expanded compared to YH 2 , in disagreement with theoretical predictions. From optical and electrical measurements we conclude that cubic YH 3-δ is a transparent insulator with properties similar to hexagonal YH 3-δ . Our results are inconsistent with calculations predicting fcc YH 3-δ to be metallic, but they are in good agreement with recent GW calculations on both hcp and fcc YH 3 . Finally, we find an increase in the effective band gap of the hydrided Mg z Y 1-z alloys with increasing z. Possibly this is due to quantum confinement effects in the small YH 3 clusters

  6. Energy-oriented and structural modernisation of industrial large-panel buildings, type ``Hoyerswerda``; Energetische und bautechnische Sanierung von industriellen Wohnbauten der Wohnbauserie Typ ``Hoyerswerda``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeber, H.; Derlig, R. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany); Sprenger, S. [Wohnungsgenossenschaft Hoyerswerda e.G. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The condition of the building prior to redevelopment is described with the following regards: layout of the building, construction material specifications and layers of structural components, condition of the thermally insulating shell of the building and condition of its technical equipment. Executed modernization measures are discussed. Heat energy consumption before and after modernization is compared and put in relation to external temperature. Finally, area-specific heat energy consumption and ventilation are discussed in detail. Information as to the cost of modernization rounds off the report. (MSK.) [Deutsch] Der Gebaeudezustand vor der Sanierung wird in folgenden Punkten beschrieben: Bausystem, Baustoffdaten und Schichtaufbau der Bauteile, Bauzustand der waermedaemmenden Gebaeudehuelle sowie Bauzustand der technischen Gebaeudeausruestung. Die Sanierungsmassnahmen werden erlaeutert. Der Heiwaermeverbrauch vor und nach der Sanierung wird verglichen und in Beziehung zur Aussentemperatur gesetzt. Ausserdem werden der flaechenspezifische Heizwaermeverbrauch und die Wohnungslueftung naeher erlaeutert. Angaben zu den Sanierungskosten schliessen den Bericht ab.

  7. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  8. Proximity Band Structure and Spin Textures on Both Sides of Topological-Insulator/Ferromagnetic-Metal Interface and Their Charge Transport Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Tejada, Juan Manuel; Dolui, Kapildeb; Lazić, Predrag; Chang, Po-Hao; Smidstrup, Søren; Stradi, Daniele; Stokbro, Kurt; Nikolić, Branislav K

    2017-09-13

    The control of recently observed spintronic effects in topological-insulator/ferromagnetic-metal (TI/FM) heterostructures is thwarted by the lack of understanding of band structure and spin textures around their interfaces. Here we combine density functional theory with Green's function techniques to obtain the spectral function at any plane passing through atoms of Bi 2 Se 3 and Co or Cu layers comprising the interface. Instead of naively assumed Dirac cone gapped by the proximity exchange field spectral function, we find that the Rashba ferromagnetic model describes the spectral function on the surface of Bi 2 Se 3 in contact with Co near the Fermi level E F 0 , where circular and snowflake-like constant energy contours coexist around which spin locks to momentum. The remnant of the Dirac cone is hybridized with evanescent wave functions from metallic layers and pushed, due to charge transfer from Co or Cu layers, a few tenths of an electron-volt below E F 0 for both Bi 2 Se 3 /Co and Bi 2 Se 3 /Cu interfaces while hosting distorted helical spin texture wounding around a single circle. These features explain recent observation of sensitivity of spin-to-charge conversion signal at TI/Cu interface to tuning of E F 0 . Crucially for spin-orbit torque in TI/FM heterostructures, few monolayers of Co adjacent to Bi 2 Se 3 host spectral functions very different from the bulk metal, as well as in-plane spin textures (despite Co magnetization being out-of-plane) due to proximity spin-orbit coupling in Co induced by Bi 2 Se 3 . We predict that out-of-plane tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in Cu/Bi 2 Se 3 /Co vertical heterostructure can serve as a sensitive probe of the type of spin texture residing at E F 0 .

  9. Electrical breakdown studies with Mycalex insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Insulating materials such as alumina and glass-bonded mica (Mycalex) are used in accelerator systems for high voltage feedthroughs, structural supports, and barriers between high voltage insulating oil and the vacuum beam pipe in induction accelerator cells. Electric fields in the triple points should be minimized to prevent voltage breakdown. Mechanical stress can compromise seals and result in oil contamination of the insulator surface. We have tested various insulator cleaning procedures including ultrasonic cleaning with a variety of aqueous-based detergents, and manual scrubbing with various detergents. Water sheeting tests were used to determine the initial results of the cleaning methods. Ultimately, voltage breakdown tests will be used to quantify the benefits of these cleaning procedures

  10. Vacuum foil insulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, J.P.; Sabolcik, R.E.; Svedberg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In a multifoil thermal insulation package having a plurality of concentric cylindrical cups, means are provided for reducing heat loss from the penetration region which extends through the cups. At least one cup includes an integral skirt extending from one end of the cup to intersection with the penetration means. Assembly of the insulation package with the skirted cup is facilitated by splitting the cup to allow it to be opened up and fitted around the other cups during assembly. The insulation is for an implantable nuclear powered artificial heart

  11. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  12. Effects of aging on the structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the silicone rubber current transformer insulation bushing for a 500 kV substation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigao; Zhang, Xinghai; Wang, Fangqiang; Lan, Xinsheng; Zhou, Yiqian

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyze the cracking and aging reason of the silicone rubber current transformer (CT) insulation bushing used for 8 years from a 500 kV alternating current substation, characteristics including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical properties analysis, hardness, and thermo gravimetric analysis have been carried out. The FTIR results indicated that the external surface of the silicone rubber CT insulation bushing suffered from more serious aging than the internal part, fracture of side chain Si-C bond was much more than the backbone. Mechanical properties and thermal stability results illustrated that the main aging reasons were the breakage of side chain Si-C bond and the excessive cross-linking reaction of the backbone. This study can provide valuable basis for evaluating degradation mechanism and aging state of the silicone rubber insulation bushing in electric power field.

  13. Insulated Solar Electric Cooking – Tomorrow's healthy affordable stoves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Watkins

    Full Text Available We present a cooking technology consisting of a solar panel directly connected to an electric heater inside of a well-insulated chamber. Assuming continued decrease in solar panel prices, we anticipate that in a few decades Solar Electric Cooking (SEC technologies will be the most common cooking technology for the poor. Appropriate use of insulation reduces the power demand making low-power Insulated Solar Electric Cooking (ISEC systems already cost competitive. We present a $100 prototype and preliminary results of two implementations in Uganda.

  14. Using of Aerogel to Improve Thermal Insulating Properties of Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachova, Denisa; Zdrazilova, Nada; Panovec, Vladan; Skotnicova, Iveta

    2018-06-01

    For the best possible thermal-technical properties of building structures it is necessary to use materials with very low thermal conductivity. Due to the increasing thermal-technical requirements for building structures, the insulating materials are developed. One of the modern thermal insulating materials is so-called aerogel. Unfortunately, this material is not used in the field of external thermal insulation composite systems because of its price and its properties. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities of using this insulating material in the civil engineering - specifically a usage of aerogel in the production of windows.

  15. Experiment on thermal insulation and sodium deposition of shield plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, K.; Honda, M.; Shiratori, H.; Ozaki, O.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments on temperature distribution and thermal insulation characteristics was conducted using a reduced scale model of LMFBR shield plug. Observation and measurement of sodium deposition were also conducted on the model after the experiment. The effect of annulus natural convection was clarified for temperature and the thermal insulation characteristics from evaluating the result. Temperature distribution analysis was conducted successfully by combining the general purpose structural analysis program NASTRAN and vertical annulus natural convection analysis program VANAC. Moreover, significant effect was substantiated for the annulus convection barrier to increase the thermal insulation performance, narrow horizontal gap structure to prevent sodium deposition and thermal insulation plates. (author)

  16. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  17. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  18. Experimental observations of the three-dimensional wake structures and dynamics generated by a rigid, bioinspired pitching panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Justin T.; Kumar, Rajeev; Green, Melissa A.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of changing Strouhal number on the three-dimensional wake produced by a rigid, bioinspired trapezoidal pitching panel are analyzed through the use of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry over a Strouhal number range of 0.17-0.56. The results show that for all cases, at least some section of the wake comprises an alternating series of interacting vortex rings. The behavior of the flows induced by these vortex rings is consistent with the wake phenomena of spanwise compression and transverse expansion. Increases in Strouhal number correspond to an increased rate of spanwise compression, a greater amount of transverse expansion, and the movement of the location of wake breakdown onset upstream.

  19. Wrapped Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    New NASA vehicles, such as Earth Departure Stage (EDS), Orion, landers, and orbiting fuel depots, need improved cryogenic propellant transfer and storage for long-duration missions. Current cryogen feed line multilayer insulation (MLI) performance is 10 times worse per area than tank MLI insulation. During each launch, cryogenic piping loses approximately 150,000 gallons (equivalent to $300,000) in boil-off during transfer, chill down, and ground hold. Quest Product Development Corp., teaming with Ball Aerospace, developed an innovative advanced insulation system, Wrapped MLI (wMLI), to provide improved thermal insulation for cryogenic feed lines. wMLI is high-performance multilayer insulation designed for cryogenic piping. It uses Quest's innovative discrete-spacer technology to control layer spacing/ density and reduce heat leak. The Phase I project successfully designed, built, and tested a wMLI prototype with a measured heat leak 3.6X lower than spiral-wrapped conventional MLI widely used for piping insulation. A wMLI prototype had a heat leak of 7.3 W/m2, or 27 percent of the heat leak of conventional MLI (26.7 W/m2). The Phase II project is further developing wMLI technology with custom, molded polymer spacers and advancing the product toward commercialization via a rigorous testing program, including developing advanced vacuuminsulated pipe for ground support equipment.

  20. KEY ASPECTS OF ENSURING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Abramyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the review of the foreign and national academic literature and intended to emphasize the issues of ensuring energy efficiency of buildings and structures applicable to all the countries as for reconstruction of existing buildings as for erection of new ones . The author highlights the key aspects of the provision of energy efficiency of buildings and structures in some foreign countries. The conclusion is made that the studies are mainly aimed at discovering new heat insulation materials, whereby polystyrene insulation is found to be the most widespread wall insulation material in a number of countries. At the same time, it is observed that the ongoing research is focused on solutions to optimize the structure of walling systems in terms of both insulant thickness and the number and sequence of insulation layers in the walling structure. A conclusion is made that hyper insulation of external walls leads to considerable expenses arising due to cooling during the summer season. The use of prefabricated vacuum panels as a heat insulation layer and off-the-shelf single-layer structures, subject to their heat insulation characteristics, appears a more constructive way to meet the energy efficiency requirements, as the arrangement of ideal air space in multilayered walls proves a significant challenge today. One of the most promising ways to ensure energy efficiency is the use of multifunctional polyvalent walls and provision of polyvalent heat supply from renewable energy sources. Since energy efficiency depends on the spatial arrangement of buildings, construction must ensure a minimum ratio of the area of enclosing structures to the overall building volume (by adding on new facilities in case of reconstruction. It is noted that a systemic approach to ensuring energy efficiency of buildings is impossible without proper regard to the environmental parameters of heat insulation materials.

  1. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A.; Mills, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI

  2. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  3. Topological insulators and superconductors from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Shinsei; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Topological insulators and superconductors in different spatial dimensions and with different discrete symmetries have been fully classified recently, revealing a periodic structure for the pattern of possible types of topological insulators and superconductors, both in terms of spatial dimensions and in terms of symmetry classes. It was proposed that K theory is behind the periodicity. On the other hand, D-branes, a solitonic object in string theory, are also known to be classified by K theory. In this paper, by inspecting low-energy effective field theories realized by two parallel D-branes, we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the K-theory classification of topological insulators/superconductors and D-brane charges. In addition, the string theory realization of topological insulators and superconductors comes naturally with gauge interactions, and the Wess-Zumino term of the D-branes gives rise to a gauge field theory of topological nature, such as ones with the Chern-Simons term or the θ term in various dimensions. This sheds light on topological insulators and superconductors beyond noninteracting systems, and the underlying topological field theory description thereof. In particular, our string theory realization includes the honeycomb lattice Kitaev model in two spatial dimensions, and its higher-dimensional extensions. Increasing the number of D-branes naturally leads to a realization of topological insulators and superconductors in terms of holography (AdS/CFT).

  4. Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  5. Analytical analyses of active control of sound transmission through soft-core sandwich structures and double panel partitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, Kiran Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Active structural acoustic control (ASAC) is a form of active noise control which focuses on the control of structural vibrations in a manner that minimizes acoustic radiation from a structure. The greatest difficulty ASAC suffers from is in finding an "optimal" error quantity, which can be easily implemented in a control algorithm. Volume velocity control (VVC) metric which is generally used in ASAC typically requires either a large number of sensors distributed across the entire structure, ...

  6. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to pr...

  7. A decking for erecting an insulating connector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuprikov, A Ye; Lagutin, V I; Sklyarov, A A; Sukhanov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The decking includes a parachute like dome, made of a material impenetrable to air, an air penetrable hood, attachment elements and a branch pipe for supplying the filler. To improve the sealing of the insulating connector upon contact with the walls and the roof of the drift being isolated and to reduce the labor intensity of operations, it is equipped with a housing made in the form of a cylinder from a material impenetrable to water, an advancible vertical upright and a spring loaded panel. The housing is installed between the parachute like dome and the air penetrable hood. The extendible vertical upright is installed on the side of the air penetrable hood and by means of a movable rack mechanism is kinematically linked with the spring loaded panel, installed with the capability of interacting with the air penetrable hood. The spring loaded plate is made in the form of perforated plates which have a telescopic disengagement in the horizontal plane.

  8. Industrial based volume manufacturing of lightweight aluminium alloy panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasodor, Gerald; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the high volume manufacture of lightweight passenger cars at economic cost as required in the automotive industry, low density materials and new process route will be needed. While high strength aluminium alloy grades: AA7075 and AA6082 may provide the alternative material solution, hot stamping process used for high-strength and ultrahigh strength steels such as boron steel 22mnb5 can enable the volume manufacture of panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures. These aluminium alloy grades can be used to manufacture panel components with possible yield strengths ≥ 500 MPa. Due to the differences in material behaviors, hot stamping process of 22mnb5 cannot be directly applied to high strength aluminium alloy grades. Despite recorded successes in laboratories, researches and niche hot forming processes of high strength aluminium alloy grades, not much have been achieved for adequate and efficient volume manufacturing system applicable in the automotive industry. Due to lack of such system and based on expert knowledge in hot stamping production-line, AP&T presents in this paper a hot stamping processing route for high strength aluminium alloys been suitable for production-line development and volume manufacturing.

  9. Thermal insulation properties of walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.

  10. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  11. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  12. High performance thermal insulation systems (HiPTI). Vacuum insulated products (VIP). Proceedings of the international conference and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M.; Bertschinger, H.

    2001-07-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop held at EMPA Duebendorf, Switzerland, in January 2001. The papers presented at the conference's first day included contributions on the role of high-performance insulation in energy efficiency - providing an overview of available technologies and reviewing physical aspects of heat transfer and the development of thermal insulation as well as the state of the art of glazing technologies such as high-performance and vacuum glazing. Also, vacuum-insulated products (VIP) with fumed silica, applications of VIP systems in technical building systems, nanogels, VIP packaging materials and technologies, measurement of physical properties, VIP for advanced retrofit solutions for buildings and existing and future applications for advanced low energy building are discussed. Finally, research and development concerning VIP for buildings are reported on. The workshops held on the second day covered a preliminary study on high-performance thermal insulation materials with gastight porosity, flexible pipes with high performance thermal insulation, evaluation of modern insulation systems by simulation methods as well as the development of vacuum insulation panels with a stainless steel envelope.

  13. Experimental Study of Stress-Strain Behaviour of Open-Cell Aluminium Foam Sandwich Panel for Automotive Structural Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asmawiyah Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio, aluminium foam sandwich (AFS has huge advantage in automotive industries in order to reduce the vehicle’s weight which consequently will reduce the fuel consumption. While reducing the weight, AFS must also maintain high strength and durability compared to other competitive materials used which perform same functionalities. AFS had been proved its suitability for industrial application by previous researchers such as in aerospace, automotive and architecture. However, there is still a gap need to be filled in order to expand the use of the AFS in another application. In this paper, the tensile strength of AFS panel made of from aluminium skin sheets and open-cell aluminium foam core with various thickness is investigated. Design of experiment was developed according to JUMP (JMP statistical software and experimental work was done using universal testing machine. The stress-strain behavior was analysed. The result shows that the effect of skin to core ratio is significant on the stress-strain behavior.

  14. Characterization of Microporous Insulation, Microsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Microsil microporous insulation has been characterized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use in structural and thermal applications in the DPP-1 design. Qualitative test results have provided mechanical behavioral characteristics for DPP-1 design studies and focused on the material behavioral response to being crushed, cyclically loaded, and subjected to vibration for a confined material with an interference fit or a radial gap. Quantitative test results have provided data to support the DPP-1 FEA model analysis and verification and were used to determine mechanical property values for the material under a compression load. The test results are documented within this report.

  15. Thermal insulation coating based on water-based polymer dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Iuliia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For Russia, due to its long winter period, improvement of thermal insulation properties of envelope structures by applying thermal insulation paint and varnish coating to its inner surface is considered perspective. Thermal insulation properties of such coatings are provided by adding aluminosilicate microspheres and aluminum pigment to their composition. This study was focused on defining the effect of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres and aluminum pigment on the paint thermal insulation coating based on water-based polymer dispersion and on its optimum filling ratio. The optimum filling ratio was determined using the method of critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC. The optimum filling ratio was found equal to 55%.

  16. The Impact of Firm and Industry Characteristics on Small Firms' Capital Structure : Evidence from Dutch Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; de Goeij, P. C.; Kappert, P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate small firms’ capital structure, employing a proprietary database containing financial statements of Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 2003 to 2005. We find that the capital structure decision of Dutch SMEs is consistent with the pecking order theory: SMEs use

  17. The Impact of Firm and Industry Characteristics on Small Firms’ Capital Structure : Evidence From Dutch Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; de Goeij, P. C.; Kappert, P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate small firms’ capital structure, employing a proprietary database containing financial statements of Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 2003 to 2005. We find that the capital structure decision of Dutch SMEs is consistent with the pecking order theory: SMEs use

  18. The Effects of Perlite Concentration and Coating Thickness of the Polyester Nonwoven Structures on Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Also Electromagnetic Radiation Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyda EYUPOGLU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the improvement of the thermal and acoustic insulation and also electromagnetic radiation properties of polyester (PET nonwoven fabric (NWF with 180 g/m2 weight was investigated. For this purpose, PET NWF was coated with perlite stone powder having 210 – 590 µm particle size using polyurethane (PU based coating. Five different concentrations from 1 to 5 % of perlite stone powder were applied to the surface of PET NWF having five different thicknesses. And then the effect of perlite concentration and its thickness to thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic radiation properties were studied. It was found that the addition of perlite stone powder increased the thermal and acoustic insulation properties of PET NWF. Furthermore, the addition of perlite stone powder does not affect the electromagnetic radiation properties of samples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17562

  19. Polymorphous band structure model of gapping in the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the Mott insulators MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Wang, Zhi; Zunger, Alex

    2018-01-01

    The existence of band gaps in both the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases of the classic NaCl-structure Mott insulators MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO is traditionally viewed and taught as a manifestation of strong correlation whereby insulation results from electrons moving across the lattice forming states with doubly occupied d orbitals on certain atomic sites and empty d orbitals on other sites. Within such theories, the gap of the AFM and PM phases of these oxides emerges even in the absence of spatial symmetry breaking. The need for such a correlated picture is partially based on the known failure of the commonly used band models for the PM phase that assume for such a spin disordered state the macroscopically averaged NaCl structure, where all transition metal (TM) sites are symmetry-equivalent (a monomorphous description), producing a gapless PM state with zero magnetic moments, in sharp conflict with experiment. Here, we seek to understand the minimum theoretical description needed to capture the leading descriptors of ground state Mott insulation in the classic, 3 d monoxide Mott systems—gapping and moment formation in the AFM and PM phase. As noted by previous authors, the spin-ordered AFM phase in these materials already shows in band theory a significant band gap when one doubles the NaCl unit cell by permitting different potentials for transition-metal atoms with different spins. For the spin-disordered PM phase, we allow analogously larger NaCl-type supercells where each TM site can have different spin direction and local bonding environments (i.e., disordered), yet the total spin is zero. Such a polymorphous description has the flexibility to acquire symmetry-breaking energy-lowering patterns that can lift the degeneracy of the d orbitals and develop large on-site magnetic moments without violating the global, averaged NaCl symmetry. Electrons are exchanged between spin-up and spin-down bands to create closed-shell insulating

  20. Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation, developed by Ames Research Center, protects the Space Shuttle from the searing heat that engulfs it on reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Initially integrated into the Space Shuttle by Rockwell International, production was transferred to Hi-Temp Insulation Inc. in 1974. Over the years, Hi-Temp has created many new technologies to meet the requirements of the Space Shuttle program. This expertise is also used commercially, including insulation blankets to cover aircrafts parts, fire barrier material to protect aircraft engine cowlings and aircraft rescue fire fighter suits. A Fire Protection Division has also been established, offering the first suit designed exclusively by and for aircraft rescue fire fighters. Hi-Temp is a supplier to the Los Angeles City Fire Department as well as other major U.S. civil and military fire departments.

  1. Reading Between the Panels: A Review of Barbara Postema’s Narrative Structure in Comics: Making Sense of Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fisher Davies

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Narrative Structure in Comics builds on Postema’s PhD thesis to present for a more general audience her focus on the ‘gap’ in comics and its place in the process of reading graphic narrative, from the detailed textual level up to the level of narrative structure overall. Postema's readings of comics texts are well-argued and illuminating; the breadth of theory brought together here, and the range of exemplars used in analysis, make Narrative Structure in Comics an invaluable reader for those interested in engaging with the practical application of medium-specific theory to comics texts themselves.

  2. Reading Between the Panels: A Review of Barbara Postema’s Narrative Structure in Comics: Making Sense of Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fisher Davies

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Narrative Structure in Comics' builds on Postema’s PhD thesis to present for a more general audience her focus on the ‘gap’ in comics and its place in the process of reading graphic narrative, from the detailed textual level up to the level of narrative structure overall. Postema's readings of comics texts are well-argued and illuminating; the breadth of theory brought together here, and the range of exemplars used in analysis, make 'Narrative Structure in Comics' an invaluable reader for those interested in engaging with the practical application of medium-specific theory to comics texts themselves.

  3. Panel session: Part 1, In flux -- Science Policy and the social structure of Big Laboratories, 1964--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)]|[Fermilab History Collaboration, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report discusses the in flux of science policy and the social structure of big laboratories during the period of 1964 to 1979 and some sociological consequences of high energy physicists` development of the standard model during the same period.

  4. Thermal math model analysis of FRSI test article subjected to cold soak and entry environments. [Flexible Reuseable Surface Insulation in Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-objective test program was conducted at the NASA/JSC Radiant Heat Test Facility in which an aluminum skin/stringer test panel insulated with FRSI (Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) was subjected to 24 simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter ascent/entry heating cycles with a cold soak in between in the 10th and 20th cycles. A two-dimensional thermal math model was developed and utilized to predict the thermal performance of the FRSI. Results are presented which indicate that the modeling techniques and property values have been proven adequate in predicting peak structure temperatures and entry thermal responses from both an ambient and cold soak condition of an FRSI covered aluminum structure.

  5. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 2 (FGE.78Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The specifications for the materials of commerce are adequate for all substances. The Panel......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  6. [Effects of functional interactions between nonhomologous insulators Wari and Su(Hw)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, M M; Georgiev, P G; Chetverina, D A

    2010-01-01

    Insulators are regulatory DNA elements restricting gene activation by enhancers. Interactions between insulators can lead to both insulation and activation of promoters by enhancers. In this work, we analyzed the effects of interaction of two Drosophila insulators, Wari and Su(Hw). The functional interaction between these insulators was found to enhance the activity of the Su(Hw) insulator only, but not of the Wari insulator. This suggests that the formation of a chromatin loop between interacting insulators is not a key factor for enhancement of insulation, which is in disagreement with the main idea of structural models. In addition, the effect of interaction between Wari and Su(Hw) depends on a distance between them and on the position in the system relative to other regulatory elements.

  7. Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1996-10-08

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  8. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  9. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-07-18

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  10. Insulation systems of the building construtions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiantcev Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructions of the exterior insulation and decoration combines materials of different functionality and constructive solutions allows to these materials to demonstrate their efficiency to the great extent. Fire safety of buildings is mandatory requirement for building systems. Some insulating material may belong to the group of combustible, but their use in structures so as to minimize the risk of fire. On the other hand, there are special designs, in which non-flammable insulation acts as a flame retardant barrier. In the article carried systematization of construction systems used in the flat and pitched roof during the insulation and wall covering and facades. Taking into account the experience of leading firms were considered the application features of using exterior finish systems: construction solutions, requirements for materials and recommendations about the installation these systems.The article deals with the construction ventilated roofing system of two types: flat roof and pitched roof seam. In the first case, the ventilation system is created using milled insulation boards in the second - by a ventilated gap. In both cases the natural convection of air in the air cavities. Ensuring operational stability insulation is laid on the stages of production of heat-insulating materials. It is important: firstly responsible execution of all process operations associated with providing regulatory properties of materials and secondly, the performance of additional operations associated with the produc-tion of materials, working in a specific design. An example of a material whose properties can modify for a particular application, are milled mineral wool (with air channels for systems of ventilated flat roof.

  11. Comparative analysis of a large panel of non-starch polysaccharides reveals structures with selective regulatory properties in dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wismar, René; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    -regulate LPS-induced IL-12p70 production. The most potent NSP induced up-regulation of CD86 on DC independently of LPS stimulation. Cereal-based β-glucans showed less potency than β-glucans of microbial origin, but proper molecular weight composition and preparation may improve effectiveness......Scope: Structural-based recognition of foreign molecules is essential for activation of dendritic cells (DCs) that play a key role in regulation of gut mucosal immunity. Orally ingested non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are ascribed many health-promoting properties, but currently we lack insight...... into the impact of structure and size for their capacity to affect immune responses.Methods and results: This study addresses the importance of chemical structure, size, origin and presence of contaminants for the capacity of both dietary and non-food NSP to modulate DC. Of 28 NSP products, β-glucans of microbial...

  12. Insulation Reformulation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Cynthia; Bray, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The current Space Launch System (SLS) internal solid rocket motor insulation, polybenzimidazole acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (PBI-NBR), is a new insulation that replaced asbestos-based insulations found in Space Shuttle heritage solid rocket boosters. PBI-NBR has some outstanding characteristics such as an excellent thermal erosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, and low density. PBI-NBR also has some significant challenges associated with its use: Air entrainment/entrapment during manufacture and lay-up/cure and low mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. This technology development attempted to overcome these challenges by testing various reformulated versions of booster insulation. The results suggest the SLS program should continue to investigate material alternatives for potential block upgrades or use an entirely new, more advanced booster. The experimental design was composed of a logic path that performs iterative formulation and testing in order to maximize the effort. A lab mixing baseline was developed and documented for the Rubber Laboratory in Bldg. 4602/Room 1178.

  13. Beyond insulation and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær

    2016-01-01

    are insulation and isolation strategies to reduce measurable and perceptual noise levels. However, these strategies do not actively support the need to feel like an integral part of the shared hospital environment, which is a key element in creating healing environments, according to the paradigm of Evidence-Based...

  14. Polymer-Reinforced, Non-Brittle, Lightweight Cryogenic Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary application for cryogenic insulating foams will be fuel tank applications for fueling systems. It is crucial for this insulation to be incorporated into systems that survive vacuum and terrestrial environments. It is hypothesized that by forming an open-cell silica-reinforced polymer structure, the foam structures will exhibit the necessary strength to maintain shape. This will, in turn, maintain the insulating capabilities of the foam insulation. Besides mechanical stability in the form of crush resistance, it is important for these insulating materials to exhibit water penetration resistance. Hydrocarbon-terminated foam surfaces were implemented to impart hydrophobic functionality that apparently limits moisture penetration through the foam. During the freezing process, water accumulates on the surfaces of the foams. However, when hydrocarbon-terminated surfaces are present, water apparently beads and forms crystals, leading to less apparent accumulation. The object of this work is to develop inexpensive structural cryogenic insulation foam that has increased impact resistance for launch and ground-based cryogenic systems. Two parallel approaches will be pursued: a silica-polymer co-foaming technique and a post foam coating technique. Insulation characteristics, flexibility, and water uptake can be fine-tuned through the manipulation of the polyurethane foam scaffold. Silicate coatings for polyurethane foams and aerogel-impregnated polyurethane foams have been developed and tested. A highly porous aerogel-like material may be fabricated using a co-foam and coated foam techniques, and can insulate at liquid temperatures using the composite foam

  15. Self-Healing Wire Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured, reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembile Olga Makina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA including Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47, Bonsmara (n=44, Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29. Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR, expected heterozygosity (He and inbreeding coefficient (f. Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei’s genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE. Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner to 1.73 (Nguni. Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He=0.24 and the Drakensberger cattle (He=0.30 had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of South African cattle breeds.

  17. Depressed Mood and Drinking Occasions across High School: Comparing the Reciprocal Causal Structures of a Panel of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Does adolescent depressed mood portend increased or decreased drinking? Is frequent drinking positively or negatively associated with emotional well-being? Do the dynamic relations between depression and drinking differ by gender? Using block-recursive structural equation models, we explore the reciprocal short-term effects (within time, "t") and…

  18. Improved inter-observer agreement of an expert review panel in an oncology treatment trial--Insights from a structured interventional process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Ursula; Rischke, Hans Christian; Eschmann, Susanne Martina; Holl, Gabriele; Tosch, Marco; Miederer, Matthias; Plotkin, Michail; Essler, Markus; Puskas, Cornelia; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Rühl, Friederike; Leifert, Anja; Mix, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; König, Jochem; Vach, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Oncologic imaging is a key for successful cancer treatment. While the quality assurance (QA) of image acquisition protocols has already been focussed, QA of reading and reporting offers still room for improvement. The latter was addressed in the context of a prospective multicentre trial on fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT-based chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An expert panel was prospectively installed performing blinded reviews of mediastinal NSCLC involvement in FDG-PET/CT. Due to a high initial reporting inter-observer disagreement, the independent data monitoring committee (IDMC) triggered an interventional harmonisation process, which overall involved 11 experts uttering 6855 blinded diagnostic statements. After assessing the baseline inter-observer agreement (IOA) of a blinded re-review (phase 1), a discussion process led to improved reading criteria (phase 2). Those underwent a validation study (phase 3) and were then implemented into the study routine. After 2 months (phase 4) and 1 year (phase 5), the IOA was reassessed. The initial overall IOA was moderate (kappa 0.52 CT; 0.53 PET). After improvement of reading criteria, the kappa values improved substantially (kappa 0.61 CT; 0.66 PET), which was retained until the late reassessment (kappa 0.71 CT; 0.67 PET). Subjective uncertainty was highly predictive for low IOA. The IOA of an expert panel was significantly improved by a structured interventional harmonisation process which could be a model for future clinical trials. Furthermore, the low IOA in reporting nodal involvement in NSCLC may bear consequences for individual patient care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-fluence implantation in insulators. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoldi, P.

    1989-01-01

    The defects which can be formed by ion implantation depend upon the insulator structure and composition. Thus, for glasses and ceramics, different changes are expected in mechanical and tribological properties, network dilatation, induced optical absorption and luminescence, compositional changes and modifications in the chemical behaviour. The modifications induced by ion implantation in the composition of glasses, with particular reference to alkali silicate glasses, the mechanical and tribological properties of ion implanted insulators, in particular glasses and ceramics, and the optical properties are discussed. 56 refs.; 20 figs

  20. Analytical and experimental investigation on transmission loss of clamped double panels: implication of boundary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2009-03-01

    The air-borne sound insulation performance of a rectangular double-panel partition clamp mounted on an infinite acoustic rigid baffle is investigated both analytically and experimentally and compared with that of a simply supported one. With the clamped (or simply supported) boundary accounted for by using the method of modal function, a double series solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) of the structure is obtained by employing the weighted residual (Galerkin) method. Experimental measurements with Al double-panel partitions having air cavity are subsequently carried out to validate the theoretical model for both types of the boundary condition, and good overall agreement is achieved. A consistency check of the two different models (based separately on clamped modal function and simply supported modal function) is performed by extending the panel dimensions to infinite where no boundaries exist. The significant discrepancies between the two different boundary conditions are demonstrated in terms of the STL versus frequency plots as well as the panel deflection mode shapes.

  1. Integrated Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Integrated multilayer insulation (IMLI) is being developed as an improved alternative to conventional multilayer insulation (MLI), which is more than 50 years old. A typical conventional MLI blanket comprises between 10 and 120 metallized polymer films separated by polyester nets. MLI is the best thermal- insulation material for use in a vacuum, and is the insulation material of choice for spacecraft and cryogenic systems. However, conventional MLI has several disadvantages: It is difficult or impossible to maintain the desired value of gap distance between the film layers (and consequently, it is difficult or impossible to ensure consistent performance), and fabrication and installation are labor-intensive and difficult. The development of IMLI is intended to overcome these disadvantages to some extent and to offer some additional advantages over conventional MLI. The main difference between IMLI and conventional MLI lies in the method of maintaining the gaps between the film layers. In IMLI, the film layers are separated by what its developers call a micro-molded discrete matrix, which can be loosely characterized as consisting of arrays of highly engineered, small, lightweight, polymer (typically, thermoplastic) frames attached to, and placed between, the film layers. The term "micro-molded" refers to both the smallness of the frames and the fact that they are fabricated in a process that forms precise small features, described below, that are essential to attainment of the desired properties. The term "discrete" refers to the nature of the matrix as consisting of separate frames, in contradistinction to a unitary frame spanning entire volume of an insulation blanket.

  2. HgTe based topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruene, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis summarizes the discovery of topological insulators and highlights the developments on their experimental observations. The work focuses on HgTe. The thesis is structured as follows: - The first chapter of this thesis will give a brief overview on discoveries in the field of topological insulators. It focuses on works relevant to experimental results presented in the following chapters. This includes a short outline of the early predictions and a summary of important results concerning 2-dimensional topological insulators while the final section discusses observations concerning 3-dimensional topological insulators. - The discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe marked the first experimental observation of a topological insulator. Chapter 2 focuses on HgTe quantum wells and the quantum spin Hall effect. The growth of high quality HgTe quantum wells was one of the major goals for this work. In a final set of experiments the spin polarization of the edge channels was investigated. Here, we could make use of the advantage that HgTe quantum well structures exhibit a large Rashba spin orbit splitting. - HgTe as a 3-dimensional topological insulator is presented in chapter 3. - Chapters 4-6 serve as in depth overviews of selected works: Chapter 4 presents a detailed overview on the all electrical detection of the spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells. The detection of the spin polarization of the quantum spin Hall effect is shown in chapter 5 and chapter 6 gives a detailed overview on the quantum Hall effect originating from the topological surface state in strained bulk HgTe.

  3. A Robust Multifunctional Sandwich Panel Design with Trabecular Structures by the Use of Additive Manufacturing Technology for a New De-Icing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovanni Ferro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-ice systems assure a vital on-board function in most aircraft: ice prevention or de-icing is mandatory for all aerodynamic surfaces to preserve their performance, and for all the movable surfaces to allow the proper control of the plane. In this work, a novel multi-functional panel concept which integrates anti-icing directly inside the primary structure is presented. In fact, constructing the core of the sandwich with trabecular non-stochastic cells allows the presence of a heat exchanger directly inside the structure with a savings in weight and an improvement in thermal efficiency. This solution can be realized easily in a single-piece component using Additive Manufacturing (AM technology without the need for joints, gluing, or welding. The objective of this study is to preliminarily investigate the mechanical properties of the core constructed with Selective Laser Melting (SLM; through the Design of Experiment (DOE, different design parameters were varied to understand how they affect the compression behaviour.

  4. Graphite/epoxy orthogrid panel fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The structural concept considered for a spacecraft body structure is a grid stiffened skin with a skin laminate configuration and the stiffener grid geometry selected to best suit the design requirements. The orthogrid panel developed weighs 0.55 lb/sq ft and resisted an ultimate in-plane shear load of 545 lbf/in. The basic concept of a grid stiffener composite panel is that a relatively thin skin is reinforced with a gridwork of stiffeners so that the overall panel can resist design loads without becoming structurally unstable or being overstressed. The main feature of the orthogrid panel design is that it provides the potential for low cost structural panels when advanced to the production phase. The most innovative part of the fabrication method is the foam/fiberglass stiffener web grid billet fabrication and machining to size.

  5. A Seismic Analysis for Reflective Metal Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Taesoon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) GSI- 191 (Generic Safety Issue-191) is concerned about the head-loss of emergency core cooling pumps caused by calcium silicate insulation debris accumulated on a sump screen when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to cope with the concern, many nuclear plants in U. S. have been replacing calcium silicate insulation in containment building with reflective metal insulation (RMI). In Korea, RMI has been used for only reactor vessels recently constructed, but the RMI was imported. Therefore, we have been developing the domestic design of RMI to supply to nuclear power plants under operation and construction in relation to the GSI-191. This paper covers that the structural integrity of the RMI assembly was evaluated under SSE (safety shutdown earthquake) load. An analysis model was built for the seismic test system of a reflective metal insulation assembly and pre-stress, modal, and spectrum analysis for the model were performed using a commercial structural analysis code, ANSYS. According to the results of the analyses, the buckles fastening the RMIs showed the structural integrity under the required response spectrum containing the safety shutdown earthquake loads applied to main components in containment building. Consequently, since the RMI isn't disassembled under the SSE load, the RMI is judged not to affect safety related components.

  6. A Seismic Analysis for Reflective Metal Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Taesoon

    2016-01-01

    U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) GSI- 191 (Generic Safety Issue-191) is concerned about the head-loss of emergency core cooling pumps caused by calcium silicate insulation debris accumulated on a sump screen when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to cope with the concern, many nuclear plants in U. S. have been replacing calcium silicate insulation in containment building with reflective metal insulation (RMI). In Korea, RMI has been used for only reactor vessels recently constructed, but the RMI was imported. Therefore, we have been developing the domestic design of RMI to supply to nuclear power plants under operation and construction in relation to the GSI-191. This paper covers that the structural integrity of the RMI assembly was evaluated under SSE (safety shutdown earthquake) load. An analysis model was built for the seismic test system of a reflective metal insulation assembly and pre-stress, modal, and spectrum analysis for the model were performed using a commercial structural analysis code, ANSYS. According to the results of the analyses, the buckles fastening the RMIs showed the structural integrity under the required response spectrum containing the safety shutdown earthquake loads applied to main components in containment building. Consequently, since the RMI isn't disassembled under the SSE load, the RMI is judged not to affect safety related components

  7. Acoustically Tailored Composite Rotorcraft Fuselage Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    3.2.4 Band-Gap/Phononic Crystal Structure-borne Sound Barriers 43 3.2.5 Split Panel Concept for Airborne Sound Transmission Reduction 69 3.3 Final...radiated by the transmission housing also impacts the ceiling panels acoustically, which transmit a portion of that sound into the interior. Composite...3.2.4 Band-Gap/Phononic Crystal Structure-borne Sound Barriers Phononic crystals , or arrays of structural discontinuities, can mitigate structure-borne

  8. Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.

  9. Metal-insulator transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    1998-10-01

    Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by the correlation effects is categorized as the Mott Insulator. Near the transition point the metallic state shows fluctuations and orderings in the spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. The properties of these metals are frequently quite different from those of ordinary metals, as measured by transport, optical, and magnetic probes. The review first describes theoretical approaches to the unusual metallic states and to the metal-insulator transition. The Fermi-liquid theory treats the correlations that can be adiabatically connected with the noninteracting picture. Strong-coupling models that do not require Fermi-liquid behavior have also been developed. Much work has also been done on the scaling theory of the transition. A central issue for this review is the evaluation of these approaches in simple theoretical systems such as the Hubbard model and t-J models. Another key issue is strong competition among various orderings as in the interplay of spin and orbital fluctuations. Experimentally, the unusual properties of the metallic state near the insulating transition have been most extensively studied in d-electron systems. In particular, there is revived interest in transition-metal oxides, motivated by the epoch-making findings of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. The article reviews the rich phenomena of anomalous metallicity, taking as examples Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ru compounds. The diverse phenomena include strong spin and

  10. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  11. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  12. Super-insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerold, J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns super-insulation, which also acts as spacing between two pressurized surfaces, where the crossing bars in at least two layers are provided, with interposed foil. The super-insulation is designed so that it can take compression forces and limits thermal radiation and thermal conduction sufficiently, where the total density of heat flow is usually limited to a few watts per m 2 . The solution to the problem is characterized by the fact that the bars per layer are parallel and from layer to layer they are at an angle to each other and the crossover positions of the bars of different layers are at fixed places and so form contact columns. The basic idea is that bars crossing over each other to support compression forces are used so that contact columns are formed, which are compressed to a certain extent by the load. (orig./PW) [de

  13. Insulating materials for optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agullo-Lopez, F.

    1990-01-01

    Optoelectronics is an interdisciplinary field. Basic functions of an optoelectronic system include the generator of the optical signal, its transmission and handling and, finally, its detection, storage and display. A large variety of semiconductor and insulating materials are used or are being considered to perform those functions. The authors focus on insulating materials, mostly oxides. For signal generation, tunable solid state lasers, either vibronic or those based oon colour centres are briefly described, and their main operating parameters summarized. Reference is made to some developments on fiber and waveguide lasers. Relevant physical features of the silica fibres used for low-loss, long-band, optical transmission are reviewed, as well as present efforts to further reduce attenuation in the mid-infrared range. Particular attention is paid to photorefractive materials (LiNbO 3 , BGO, BSO, etc.), which are being investigated

  14. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  15. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  16. Optimized Synthesis of Foam Glass from Recycled CRT Panel Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Most of the panel glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is landfilled today. Instead of landfilling, the panel glass can be turned into new environment-friendly foam glass. Low density foam glass is an effective heat insulating material and can be produced just by using recycle glass and foaming...... additives. In this work we recycle the CRT panel glass to synthesize the foam glass as a crucial component of building and insulating materials. The synthesis conditions such as foaming temperature, duration, glass particle size, type and concentrations of foaming agents, and so on are optimized...... by performing systematic experiments. In particular, the concentration of foaming agents is an important parameter that influences the size of bubbles and the distribution of bubbles throughout the sample. The foam glasses are characterised regarding density and open/closed porosity. Differential scanning...

  17. Spacing and enclosure assembly for a reflecting thermal isolation panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    This invention concerns the thermal insulation assemblies and in particular a metallic assembly of stays and enclosures for a reflecting type panel used for insulation in nuclear reactors. Great flexibility is achieved by a corrugated strip placed edgewise around all the first reflecting insulating sheet. A second reflecting insulating sheet is then superposed on this corrugated strip which acts as a thickness spacer along the periphery of both sheets and also hermetically closes the intermediate space. The corrugations of the edge strip allow both sheets to be curved lengthwise or crosswise without causing their spacing to vary. These corrugations simply open like the pleats of an accordeon or a fan to fit the curve of the greatest radius [fr

  18. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  19. Pourable Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes search for polyisocyanurate/polyurethane foam insulation with superior characteristics. Discusses chemistry of current formulations. Tests of formulations, of individual ingredients and or alternative new formulations described. Search revealed commercially available formulations exhibiting increased thermal stability at temperatures up to 600 degree C, pours readily before curing, presents good appearance after curing, and remains securely bonded to aluminum at cryogenic temperatures. Total of 42 different formulations investigated, 10 found to meet requirements.

  20. Gaseous discharge display panel including pilot electrodes and radioactive wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.J.; Hairabedian, B.Z.; Poley, N.M.

    1975-01-01

    In a plasma display panel consisting of gas enclosed between adjacent insulating members, a light source is used to supply charged particles in the gas to permit firing of the gas when coordinate conductors identifying a site location are energized. The use of such pilot lamps facilitates ignition in firing with uniform selection and firing potentials within all sites of the display panel. To eliminate the difficulty in achieving firing during cold starts a radioactive source comprised of a copper wire electroplated with nickel 63 and overcoated with a protective coat of nickel is placed within the gas panel to provide a source of free electrons. The wire is held in place by friction against the inside walls of the panel. Since the wire emits only beta radiation, no radiation hazard exists externally to the panel

  1. Research of long pulse high current diode radial insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jie; Chang Anbi; Hu Kesong; Liu Qingxiang; Ma Qiaosheng; Liu Zhong

    2002-01-01

    A radial insulation structure which is used in long pulse high current diode is introduced. The theory of vacuum flashover and the idea of design are briefly introduced. In the research, cone-shaped insulator was used. The geometry structure parameters were optimized by simulating the static electrical field distribution. Experiment was done on a pulse power source with 200 ns pulse width. The maximum voltage 750 kV was obtained, and the average stand-off electrical field of insulator is about 50 kV/cm

  2. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  3. Investigation of Vacuum Insulator Surface Dielectric Strength with Nanosecond Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Krogh, M.; Williams, C.; Trimble, D.; Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.

    2003-01-01

    The maximum vacuum insulator surface dielectric strength determines the acceleration electric field gradient possible in a short pulse accelerator. Previous work has indicated that higher electric field strengths along the insulator-vacuum interface might be obtained as the pulse duration is decreased. In this work, a 250 kV, single ns wide impulse source was applied to small diameter, segmented insulators samples in a vacuum to evaluate the multi-layer surface dielectric strength of the sample construction. Resonances in the low inductance test geometry were used to obtain unipolar, pulsed electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m on the insulator surface. The sample construction, experimental arrangement and experimental results are presented for the initial data in this work. Modeling of the multi-layer structure is discussed and methods of improving insulator surface dielectric strength in a vacuum are proposed

  4. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  5. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  6. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication

  7. Impact of Interface States and Bulk Carrier Lifetime on Photocapacitance of Metal/Insulator/GaN Structure for Ultraviolet Light Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzinski, Piotr; Miczek, Marcin; Adamowicz, Boguslawa; Mizue, Chihoko; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2011-04-01

    The influence of interface state density and bulk carrier lifetime on the dependencies of photocapacitance versus wide range of gate bias (-0.1 to -3 V) and light intensity (109 to 1020 photon cm-2 s-1) was studied for metal/insulator/n-GaN UV light photodetector by means of numerical simulations. The light detection limit and photocapacitance saturation were analyzed in terms of the interface charge and interface Fermi level for electrons and holes and effective interface recombination velocity. It was proven that the excess carrier recombination through interface states is the main reason of photocapacitance signal quenching. It was found that the photodetector can work in various modes (on-off or quantitative light measurement) adjusted by the gate bias. A comparison between experimental data and theoretical capacitance-light intensity characteristics was made. A new method for the determination of the interface state density distribution from capacitance-voltage-light intensity measurements was also proposed.

  8. A method for the dynamic and thermal stress analysis of space shuttle surface insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Levy, A.; Austin, F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal protection system of the space shuttle consists of thousands of separate insulation tiles bonded to the orbiter's surface through a soft strain-isolation layer. The individual tiles are relatively thick and possess nonuniform properties. Therefore, each is idealized by finite-element assemblages containing up to 2500 degrees of freedom. Since the tiles affixed to a given structural panel will, in general, interact with one another, application of the standard direct-stiffness method would require equation systems involving excessive numbers of unknowns. This paper presents a method which overcomes this problem through an efficient iterative procedure which requires treatment of only a single tile at any given time. Results of associated static, dynamic, and thermal stress analyses and sufficient conditions for convergence of the iterative solution method are given.

  9. Electrical properties of GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures with Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition using water and ozone as the oxygen precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Toshiharu; Freedsman, Joseph J.; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Egawa, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as an insulator in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures for GaN-based MIS-devices. As the oxygen precursors for the ALD process, water (H2O), ozone (O3), and both H2O and O3 were used. The chemical characteristics of the ALD-Al2O3 surfaces were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After fabrication of MIS-diodes and MIS-high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) with the ALD-Al2O3, their electrical properties were evaluated by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The threshold voltage of the C-V curves for MIS-diodes indicated that the fixed charge in the Al2O3 layer is decreased when using both H2O and O3 as the oxygen precursors. Furthermore, MIS-HEMTs with the H2O + O3-based Al2O3 showed good dc I-V characteristics without post-deposition annealing of the ALD-Al2O3, and the drain leakage current in the off-state region was suppressed by seven orders of magnitude.

  10. Delamination tolerance studies in laminated composite panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Determination of levels of tolerance in delaminated composite panels is an important issue in composite structures technology. The primary intention is to analyse delaminated composite panels and estimate Strain. Energy Release Rate (SERR) parameters at the delamination front to feed into acceptability criteria.

  11. A structured proteomic approach identifies 14-3-3Sigma as a novel and reliable protein biomarker in panel based differential diagnostics of liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Henning; Pütter, Carolin; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Weber, Frank; Hoffmann, Andreas-C; Bertram, Stefanie; Wohlschläger, Jeremias; Hagemann, Sascha; Eisenacher, Martin; Scherag, André; Schlaak, Jörg F; Canbay, Ali; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A

    2015-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major lethal cancer worldwide. Despite sophisticated diagnostic algorithms, the differential diagnosis of small liver nodules still is difficult. While imaging techniques have advanced, adjuvant protein-biomarkers as glypican3 (GPC3), glutamine-synthetase (GS) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) have enhanced diagnostic accuracy. The aim was to further detect useful protein-biomarkers of HCC with a structured systematic approach using differential proteome techniques, bring the results to practical application and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the candidates with the established biomarkers. After label-free and gel-based proteomics (n=18 HCC/corresponding non-tumorous liver tissue (NTLT)) biomarker candidates were tested for diagnostic accuracy in immunohistochemical analyses (n=14 HCC/NTLT). Suitable candidates were further tested for consistency in comparison to known protein-biomarkers in HCC (n=78), hepatocellular adenoma (n=25; HCA), focal nodular hyperplasia (n=28; FNH) and cirrhosis (n=28). Of all protein-biomarkers, 14-3-3Sigma (14-3-3S) exhibited the most pronounced up-regulation (58.8×) in proteomics and superior diagnostic accuracy (73.0%) in the differentiation of HCC from non-tumorous hepatocytes also compared to established biomarkers as GPC3 (64.7%) and GS (45.4%). 14-3-3S was part of the best diagnostic three-biomarker panel (GPC3, HSP70, 14-3-3S) for the differentiation of HCC and HCA which is of most important significance. Exclusion of GS and inclusion of 14-3-3S in the panel (>1 marker positive) resulted in a profound increase in specificity (+44.0%) and accuracy (+11.0%) while sensitivity remained stable (96.0%). 14-3-3S is an interesting protein biomarker with the potential to further improve the accuracy of differential diagnostic process of hepatocellular tumors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Medical Proteomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduction of heat insulation upon soaking of the insulation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtliger, J.

    1983-09-01

    Improved thermal protection of hollow masonry by introduction of a core insulation between the inner and outer shell is discussed. The thermal conductivity of insulation materials was determined in dry state and after soaking by water with different volume-related moisture contents. The interpolated thermal conductivity values from three measured values at 10 C average temperature are presented as a function of the pertinent moisture content. Fills of expanded polystyrene, perlite and granulated mineral fibers, insulating boards made of mineral fibers and in situ cellular plastics produced from urea-formaldehyde resin were investigated. Test results show a confirmation of thermal conductivity values for insulating materials in hollow masonry.

  13. Electrical insulating liquid: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba Kumar Mahanta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.

  14. Cellulose insulation as an air barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, K.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a wet sprayed cellulose wall insulation system would function satisfactorily without use of a polyethylene air/vapour barrier. The research was designed to demonstrate that this particular insulation system would form enough of a barrier to air leakage, that moisture accumulation from condensation and vapour diffusion would be insignificant. Field work conducted in Alberta, involved construction of a conventional duplex housing unit which was insulated with wet sprayed cellulose in the exterior walls and dry loose-fill cellulose in the attic areas. One half of the unit did not have a polyethylene air/vapor barrier installed. Air leakage and exterior wall moisture levels were monitored for a year following construction. Data collected during this time indicated that the moisture added to the walls during the insulating process was dissipated over the study period. The presence of polyethylene sheeting had no significant effect on the moisture levels in either the wall or attic areas of the test structure. On the other hand, testing indicated that the use of polyethylene sheeting in the wall system did serve to improve blower door air test results. In conclusion, although the air leakage resistance apparently provided by the polyethylene sheeting is significant, the amount is probably not more than could otherwise be obtained by more careful attention to sealing procedures such as those used in the airtight drywall technique. A more important finding is that the use of polyethylene sheeting is not essential in a structure which has the degree of air leakage resistance provided by the insulation system used in this project. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Rocket impact on panel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Rhijnsburger, M.P.M.; Vegt, I.; Tyler Street, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Passive protection systems for expeditionary forces camps are studied by TNO on behalf of the Netherland’s MODCorps of Engineers. This paper will first address the inventory of the internationally available knowledge on threat versus protection systems. Next the results of an exploratory

  16. Tetradymites as thermoelectrics and topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Cava, Robert J.; Samarth, Nitin

    2017-10-01

    Tetradymites are M2X3 compounds — in which M is a group V metal, usually Bi or Sb, and X is a group VI anion, Te, Se or S — that crystallize in a rhombohedral structure. Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 are archetypical tetradymites. Other mixtures of M and X elements produce common variants, such as Bi2Te2Se. Because tetradymites are based on heavy p-block elements, strong spin-orbit coupling greatly influences their electronic properties, both on the surface and in the bulk. Their surface electronic states are a cornerstone of frontier work on topological insulators. The bulk energy bands are characterized by small energy gaps, high group velocities, small effective masses and band inversion near the centre of the Brillouin zone. These properties are favourable for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials but make it difficult to obtain an electrically insulating bulk, which is a requirement of topological insulators. This Review outlines recent progress made in bulk and thin-film tetradymite materials for the optimization of their properties both as thermoelectrics and as topological insulators.

  17. For progress in natural science: Materials international investigations of structural phase transformation and THz properties across metal–insulator transition in VO2/Al2O3 epitaxial films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide (VO2 epitaxial thin films on (0001-oriented Al2O3 substrates were prepared using radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering techniques. To study the metal-insulator-transition (MIT mechanism and extend the applications of VO2 epitaxial films at terahertz (THz band, temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction (XRD and THz time domain spectroscopy of the VO2 epitaxial films were performed. Both the lattice constants and THz transmission exhibited a similar and sharp transition that was similar to that observed for the electrical resistance. Consequently, the MIT of the VO2/Al2O3 epitaxial films should be co-triggered by the structural phase transition and electronic transition. Moreover, the very large resistance change (on the order of ~103 and THz response (with a transmission modulation ratio of ~87% in the VO2/Al2O3 epitaxial heterostructures are promising for electrical switch and electro-optical device applications.

  18. Experimental demonstration on the ultra-low source/drain resistance by metal-insulator-semiconductor contact structure in In0.53Ga0.47As field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-H. Liao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we demonstrate the ultra-low contact resistivity of 6.7 × 10−9 Ω/cm2 by inserting 0.6-nm-ZnO between Al and InGaAs(Si: 1.5 × 1019 cm−3. The metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diode with 0.6-nm-ZnO exhibits nearly zero (0.03 eV barrier height. We apply this contact structure on the source/drain of implant-free In0.53Ga0.47As quantum-well metal-oxide-semiconductor field- effect transistors. The excellent on-state performance such as saturation drain current of 3 × 10−4 A/μm and peak transconductance of 1250 μS/μm is obtained which is attributed to the ultra-low source/drain resistance of 190 Ω-μm.

  19. Assessment of fibrous insulation materials for the selenide isotope generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, G.C; Tennery, V.J.

    1977-11-01

    Fibrous insulations for use in the converter and the heat source of the radioisotope-powered, selenide element, thermoelectric generator (selenide isotope generator) are assessed. The most recent system design and material selection basis is presented. Several fibrous insulation materials which have the potential for use as load-bearing or nonload-bearing thermal insulations are reviewed, and thermophysical properties supplied by manufacturers or published in the literature are presented. Potential problems with the application of fibrous insulations in the selenide isotope generator are as follows: compatibility with graphite, the thermoelectric elements, and the isolation hot frame; devitrification, grain growth, and sintering with an accompanying degradation of insulation quality; impurity diffusion from the insulation to adjoining structures; outgassing and storage of fibrous materials. Areas in which thermophysical data or quantitative information on the insulation and structural stability is lacking are identified

  20. Characteristics of high gradient insulators for accelerator and high power flow applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.

    1997-07-01

    The high gradient insulator has been demonstrated to operate at levels comparable or better than special geometry or coated insulators. Some patented insulator configurations allow for sophisticated accelerator structures, high power flow interfaces, and microwave applications not previously possible. Sophisticated manufacturing techniques available at AlliedSignal FM and T made this development possible. Bipolar and high power flow applications are specially suited for present insulator designs. The insulator shows a beneficial effect when used under RF fields or RF structures. These insulators can be designed, to a first approximation, from simple electron flight path equations. With a recently developed model of surface flashover physics the authors completed a set of design calculations that include effects such as layer density and dielectric/metal thickness. Experimental data, obtained in the last few years of development, is presented and reviewed. Several insulator fabrication characteristics, indicating critical design parameters, are also presented

  1. Acoustically Tailored Composite Rotorcraft Fuselage Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambric, Stephen; Shepherd, Micah; Koudela, Kevin; Wess, Denis; Snider, Royce; May, Carl; Kendrick, Phil; Lee, Edward; Cai, Liang-Wu

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft roof sandwich panel has been redesigned to optimize sound power transmission loss (TL) and minimize structure-borne sound for frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz where gear meshing noise from the transmission has the most impact on speech intelligibility. The roof section, framed by a grid of ribs, was originally constructed of a single honeycomb core/composite face sheet panel. The original panel has coincidence frequencies near 700 Hz, leading to poor TL across the frequency range of 1 to 4 kHz. To quiet the panel, the cross section was split into two thinner sandwich subpanels separated by an air gap. The air gap was sized to target the fundamental mass-spring-mass resonance of the double panel system to less than 500 Hz. The panels were designed to withstand structural loading from normal rotorcraft operation, as well as 'man-on-the-roof' static loads experienced during maintenance operations. Thin layers of VHB 9469 viscoelastomer from 3M were also included in the face sheet ply layups, increasing panel damping loss factors from about 0.01 to 0.05. Measurements in the NASA SALT facility show the optimized panel provides 6-11 dB of acoustic transmission loss improvement, and 6-15 dB of structure-borne sound reduction at critical rotorcraft transmission tonal frequencies. Analytic panel TL theory simulates the measured performance quite well. Detailed finite element/boundary element modeling of the baseline panel simulates TL slightly more accurately, and also simulates structure-borne sound well.

  2. Structural and Electrical Characteristics of Metal-Ferroelectric Pb1.1(Zr0.40Ti0.60O3-Insulator (ZnO-Silicon Capacitors for Nonvolatile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Krishnamoorthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS thin-film structures using Pb1.1Zr0.40Ti0.60O3 (PZT as the ferroelectric layer and zinc oxide (ZnO as the insulator layer were fabricated on n-type (100 Si substrate. Pb1.1Zr0.40Ti0.60O3 and ZnO thin films were prepared on Si by the sol-gel route and thermal deposition method, respectively. On the optimized PZT (140 nm and ZnO (40 nm films were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM. From AFM data the root mean square (r.m.s. roughness of the film surface is 13.11 nm. The leakage current density of ZnO/n-Si (MIS structure was as low as 1.8 × 10−8 A/cm2 at 2.5 V. The capacitance versus voltage (C-V characteristics of the annealed ZnO/Si (MIS diode indicated the good interface properties and no hysteresis was observed. Au/PZT (140 nm/ZnO (40 nm/Si (100 leakage-current density was about 5.7 × 10−8 A/cm2 at positive bias voltage of 3 V. The large memory window width in C-V (capacitance-voltage curve of Au/PZT/ZnO/Si capacitor was about 2.9 V under ±12 V which thus possibly enables nonvolatile applications. The memory window as a function of temperature was also discussed.

  3. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  4. Numerical studies on a plasmonic temperature nanosensor based on a metal-insulator-metal ring resonator structure for optical integrated circuit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-mahmod, Md. Jubayer; Hyder, Rakib; Islam, Md Zahurul

    2017-07-01

    A nanosensor, based on a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic ring resonator, is proposed for potential on-chip temperature sensing and its performance is evaluated numerically. The sensor components can be fabricated by using planar processes on a silicon substrate, making its manufacturing compatible to planar electronic fabrication technology. The sensor, constructed using silver as the metal rings and a thermo-optic liquid ethanol film between the metal layers, is capable of sensing temperature with outstanding optical sensitivity, as high as -0.53 nm/°C. The resonance wavelength is found to be highly sensitive to the refractive index of the liquid dielectric film. The resonance peak can be tuned according to the requirement of intended application by changing the radii of the ring resonator geometries in the design phase. The compact size, planar and silicon-based design, and very high resolutions- these characteristics are expected to make this sensor technology a preferred choice for lab-on-a-chip applications, as compared to other contemporary sensors.

  5. Magnetically insulated H- diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Bystritskii, V.; Garate, E.; Prohaska, R.; Rostoker, N.

    1993-01-01

    At the Univ. of California, Irvine, the authors have been studying the production of intense H - beams using pulse power techniques for the past 7 years. Previously, current densities of H - ions for various diode designs at UCI have been a few A/cm 2 . Recently, they have developed diodes similar to the coaxial design of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, USSR, where current densities of up to 200 A/cm 2 were reported using nuclear activation of a carbon target. In experiments at UCI employing the coaxial diode, current densities of up to 35 A/cm 2 from a passive polyethylene cathode loaded with TiH 2 have been measured using a pinhole camera and CR-39 track recording plastic. The authors have also been working on a self-insulating, annular diode which can generate a directed beam of H - ions. In the annular diode experiments a plasma opening switch was used to provide a prepulse and a current path which self-insulated the diode. These experiments were done on the machine APEX, a 1 MV, 50 ns, 7 Ω pulseline with a unipolar negative prepulse of ∼ 100 kV and 400 ns duration. Currently, the authors are modifying the pulseline to include an external LC circuit which can generate a bipolar, 150 kV, 1 μs duration prepulse (similar prepulse characteristic as in the Lebedev Institute experiments cited above)

  6. Low frequency noise reduction using stiff light composite panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yongchang; LIN Weizheng

    2003-01-01

    The experiment presented in this paper is to investigate and analyze the noise reduction at low frequency using stiff light composite panels. Since these composite panels are made of lightweight and stiff materials, this actuation strategy will enable the creation of composite panels for duct noise control without using traditional heavy structural mass. The results suggest that the mass-spring resonance absorption in the case of a comparatively stiff thick panel with a thin flexible plate is more efficient with minimum weight, when subjected to low-frequency (<500 Hz). The efficiency of the panel absorber depends on the mass of the thin flexible plate and the stiffness of the panel.

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 74, Revision 3 (FGE.74Rev3): Consideration of Simple Aliphatic Sulphides and Thiols evaluated by the JECFA (53rd and 61st meeting) Structurally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. For nine substances [FL-no: 12.088, 12.179, 12.198, 12.212, 12.238, 12.239, 12.255, 12.257 and 12.291] considered in this FGE, the Panel...... concluded that they would pose “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered for the substances evaluated through...

  8. Influences of Corrosive Sulfur on Copper Wires and Oil-Paper Insulation in Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil-impregnated paper is widely used in power transmission equipment as a reliable insulation. However, copper sulphide deposition on oil-paper insulation can lead to insulation failures in power transformers. This paper presents the influences of copper sulfur corrosion and copper sulphide deposition on copper wires and oil-paper insulation in power transformers. Thermal aging tests of paper-wrapped copper wires and bare copper wires in insulating oil were carried out at 130 °C and 150 °C in laboratory. The corrosive characteristics of paper-wrapped copper wires and bare copper wires were analyzed. Dielectric properties of insulation paper and insulating oil were also analyzed at different stages of the thermal aging tests using a broadband dielectric spectrometer. Experiments and analysis results show that copper sulfide deposition on surfaces of copper wires and insulation paper changes the surface structures of copper wires and insulation paper. Copper sulfur corrosion changes the dielectric properties of oil-paper insulation, and the copper sulfide deposition greatly reduces the electrical breakdown strength of oil-paper insulation. Metal passivator is capable of preventing copper wires from sulfur corrosion. The experimental results are helpful for investigations for fault diagnosis of internal insulation in power transformers.

  9. Multiple Site Damage in Flat Panel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrage, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This report aimed to experimentally verify analytical models that predict the residual strength of representative aircraft structures, such as wide panels, that are subjected to Multiple Site Damage (MSD...

  10. Charge transport through superconductor/Anderson-insulator interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frydman, A.; Ovadyahu, Z.

    1997-01-01

    We report on a study of charge transport through superconductor-insulator-superconductor and normal metal endash insulator endash superconductor structures (SIS and NIS junctions, respectively) where the insulator is of the Anderson type. Devices which are characterized by a junction resistance larger than 10 kΩ show behavior which is typical of Giaever tunnel junctions. In structures having smaller resistance, several peculiar features are observed. In the SIS junctions, Josephson coupling is detected over distances much larger then the typical insulator localization length. In addition, a series of resistance peaks appears at voltages of 2Δ/n, where Δ is the superconducting gap. The NIS Junctions exhibit a large resistance dip at subgap bias. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings and suggest that they may result from the presence of high transmission channels through the barrier region. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Organic insulator studies at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Clinard, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the structural and electrical properties of organic insulators to be used in superconducting magnets in fusion devices has been identified as a critical materials problem. These materials will be exposed to both γ-ray and neutron radiation. LANL has been asked by the OFE Materials Branch to look at the relationship between the effects of γ-ray and neutron radiation effects. Some thoughts on planning the program are outlined

  12. Phase Separation in Doped Mott Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck-Hou Yee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the commonplace observation of Mott insulators away from integer filling, we construct a simple thermodynamic argument for phase separation in first-order doping-driven Mott transitions. We show how to compute the critical dopings required to drive the Mott transition using electronic structure calculations for the titanate family of perovskites, finding good agreement with experiment. The theory predicts that the transition is percolative and should exhibit Coulomb frustration.

  13. Spintronics Based on Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yabin; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-10-01

    Spintronics using topological insulators (TIs) as strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) materials have emerged and shown rapid progress in the past few years. Different from traditional heavy metals, TIs exhibit very strong SOC and nontrivial topological surface states that originate in the bulk band topology order, which can provide very efficient means to manipulate adjacent magnetic materials when passing a charge current through them. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the TI-based magnetic spintronics research field. In particular, we focus on the spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching in the magnetic TI structures, spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements in the TI/ferromagnet structures, spin pumping and spin injection effects in the TI/magnet structures, as well as the electrical detection of the surface spin-polarized current in TIs. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the TI-based spintronics field and its potential applications in ultralow power dissipation spintronic memory and logic devices.

  14. Heat transfer performance of multilayer insulation system under roof slab of pool-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi; Naohara, Nobuyuki; Uotani, Masaki

    1986-01-01

    To cope with thermal expansion of stainless steel plate, about 90 insulation structures are installed under the roof-slab of pool-type LMFBR. The objective of this study is to evaluate from heat transfer experiment and visualized experiment, the effect of distance between each thermal insulation structure on heat transfer characteristics of insulation system under roof-slab. Two types of insulation structures are selected, one is open type and the other is closed type. Distance between each thermal insulation structure and hot surface temperatures are varied as a parameter. Furthermore, heat flux of the roof-slab insulation system of reactor are estimated from the results of heat transfer experiment. (author)

  15. Plastic Materials for Insulating Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Grossman, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the production and use of polymer materials as thermal insulators. Lists several materials that provide varying degrees of insulation. Describes the production of polymer foam and focuses on the major applications of polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam, and polyisocyanurate foam. (TW)

  16. Transparent Façade Panel Typologies Based on Recyclable Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Giles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are large consumers of energy. In the United States of America; they constitute over 33% of the total annual energy consumption, produce 35% of the total carbon dioxide emissions and attribute 40% of landfill wastes. The building industry is also a large consumer of non-renewable materials and this trend has escalated dramatically over the past century. It is essential that we find ways to save on energy consumption through the use of solar energy, improved thermal insulation, and alternative efficient glazed façade systems. In this paper, we demonstrate how alternative typologies of transparent and translucent load-bearing façade systems based on biocomposite and recyclable materials, are structurally and thermally efficient at the same time they contribute towards reduced pollutant emissions and non-renewable material uses.Composite insulated panel systems are used extensively in the engineering and building industry, owing to their structural and thermal efficiency. However, these systems are generally opaque and offer little flexibility in building applications. As an alternative, we demonstrate how building products comprised of hybrid material typologie scan be made to perform efficiently as load-bearing façade systems that substitute for current glazing systems with adequate thermal and structural performance, which also possess good light transmission characteristics and integral shading capability. The materials are configured to work as composite panel systems made from a combination of biocomposite and recyclable polymer materials. These materials are environmentally sustainable, because they either originate from naturally grown renewable resources or are recyclable. Our research program includes the design and development of prototype panel systems; the evaluation of structural and thermal performance, together with their role in reducing energy consumption and pollution emission through life cycle analysis. The paper

  17. Minimum weight passive insulation requirements for hypersonic cruise vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for two representative cases of the transient heat conduction equation to determine the minimum weight requirements for passive insulation systems of hypersonic cruise vehicles. The cases discussed are the wet wall case with the interior wall temperature held to that of the boiling point of the fuel throughout the flight, and the dry wall case where the heat transferred through the insulation is absorbed by the interior structure whose temperature is allowed to rise.

  18. Magnetically self-insulated transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B.M.; Smith, I.R.; Brown, J.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic insulation is the only practicable form of insulation for much equipment used in ultrahigh pulsed-power work, including transmission lines and plasma opening switches. It has not however so far been successfully exploited in the transformers that are necessarily involved, and the first proposed design that appeared more than 30 years ago raised apparently insuperable problems. The two novel arrangements for a magnetically insulated transformer described in this paper overcome the problems faced by the earlier designs and also offer considerable scope for development in a number of important areas. Theoretical justification is given for their insulating properties, and this is confirmed by proof-of-principle results obtained from a small-scale experimental prototype in which magnetic insulation was demonstrated at up to 100 kV. (author)

  19. Research on vacuum insulation for cryocables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.

    1974-01-01

    Vacuum insulation, as compared with solid insulation, simplifies the construction of both resistive or superconducting cryogenic cables. The common vacuum space in the cable can furnish thermal insulation between the environment and the cryogenic coolant, provide electrical insulation between conductors, and establish thermal isolation between go- and return-coolant streams. The differences between solid and vacuum high voltage insulation are discussed, and research on the design, materials selection, and testing of vacuum insulated cryogenic cables is described

  20. Parametric Investigation of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kaynakli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have estimated the optimum thickness of thermal insulation materials used in building walls for different climate conditions. The economic parameters (inflation rate, discount rate, lifetime and energy costs, the heating/cooling loads of the building, the wall structure and the properties of the insulation material all affect the optimum insulation thickness. This study focused on the investigation of these parameters that affect the optimum thermal insulation thickness for building walls. To determine the optimum thickness and payback period, an economic model based on life-cycle cost analysis was used. As a result, the optimum thermal insulation thickness increased with increasing the heating and cooling energy requirements, the lifetime of the building, the inflation rate, energy costs and thermal conductivity of insulation. However, the thickness decreased with increasing the discount rate, the insulation material cost, the total wall resistance, the coefficient of performance (COP of the cooling system and the solar radiation incident on a wall. In addition, the effects of these parameters on the total life-cycle cost, payback periods and energy savings were also investigated.

  1. Excitons in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasser, R.; Scharmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates absorption, reflectivity, and intrinsic luminescence spectra of free and/or self-trapped (localized) excitons in alkali halides and rare gas solids. Introduces the concepts underlying the Wannier-Mott and Frenkel exciton models, two extreme pictures of an exciton in crystalline materials. Discusses the theoretical and experimental background; excitons in alkali halides; and excitons in rare gas solids. Shows that the intrinsic optical behavior of wide gap insulators in the range of the fundamental absorption edge is controlled by modified Wannier-Mott excitons. Finds that while that alkali halides only show free and relaxed molecular-like exciton emission, in rare gas crystals luminescence due to free, single and double centered localized excitons is observed. Indicates that the simultaneous existence of free and self-trapped excitons in these solid requires an energy barrier for self-trapping

  2. A water blown urethane insulation for use in cryogenic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon

    1995-01-01

    Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) of NASA's Space Shuttle External Tank include polyurethane and polyisocyanurate modified polyurethane foam insulations. These insulations, currently foamed with CFC 11 blowing agent, serve to maintain cryogenic propellant quality, maintain the external tank structural temperature limits, and minimize the formation of ice and frost that could potentially damage the ceramic insulation on the space shuttle orbiter. During flight the external tank insulations are exposed to mechanical, thermal and acoustical stresses. TPS must pass cryogenic flexure and substrate adhesion tests at -253 C, aerothermal and radiant heating tests at fluxes up to approximately 14 kilowatts per square meter, and thermal conductivity tests at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. Due to environmental concerns, the polyurethane insulation industry and the External Tank Project are tasked with replacing CFC 11. The flight qualification of foam insulations employing HCFC 141b as a foaming agent is currently in progress; HCFC 141b blown insulations are scheduled for production implementation in 1995. Realizing that the second generation HCFC blowing agents are an interim solution, the evaluation of third generation blowing agents with zero ozone depletion potential is underway. NASA's TPS Materials Research Laboratory is evaluating third generation blowing agents in cryogenic insulations for the External Tank; one option being investigated is the use of water as a foaming agent. A dimensionally stable insulation with low friability, good adhesion to cryogenic substrates, and acceptable thermal conductivity has been developed with low viscosity materials that are easily processed in molding applications. The development criteria, statistical experimental approach, and resulting foam properties will be presented.

  3. Nuclear reactor insulation and preheat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wampole, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    An insulation and preheat system is disclosed for preselected components of a fluid cooled nuclear reactor. A gas tight barrier or compartment of thermal insulation surrounds the selected components and includes devices to heat the internal atmosphere of the ocmpartment. An external surface of the compartment of enclosure is cooled, such as by a circulating fluid. The heating devices provide for preheating of the components, as well as maintenance of a temperature sufficient to ensure that the reactor coolant fluid will not solidify during shutdown. The external cooling limits the heat transferred to other plant structures, such as supporting concrete and steel. The barrier is spaced far enough from the surrounded components so as to allow access for remote or manual inspection, maintenance, and repair

  4. Self-magnetically insulated ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.; Quintenz, J.; Leeper, R.; Johnson, D.; Crow, J.

    1981-01-01

    Light ion diodes for producing 1--100 TW ion beams are required for inertial confinement fusion. The theory, numerical simulations, and experiments on a self-magnetically insulated ion diode are presented. The treatment is from the point of view of a self-magnetically insulated transmission line with an ion loss current and differs from the usual treatment of the pinched electron beam diode. The simulations show that the ratio V/IZ 0 =0.25 in such a structure with voltage V, local total current I, and local vacuum wave impedance Z 0 . The ion current density is enhanced by a factor of approximately 2 over the simple space-charge limited value. The simulation results are verified in an experiment. An analytical theory is then presented for scaling the results to produce a focused beam of protons with a power of up to 10 13 W

  5. Solar panel foundation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1983-03-29

    A transportable solar panel foundation device which has a bottom member, at least one upstanding side member, and an essentially open top. The side members are angled to permit nesting of a plurality of the foundation devices, and reinforcement pads are carried by the foundation device to support legs for one or more solar panels.

  6. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  7. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  8. RECIPANEL: RECYCLED PAPER PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁN CAÑOLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia la fabricación y el comportamiento mecánico de paneles a base de papel reciclado. El objetivo principal del proyecto es producir un prototipo de panel que emplee elementos provenientes de residuos sólidos (papel periódico y de un material conglomerante (cemento Portland blanco. El panel debe ser económico, debe tener buenas propiedades mecánicas y debe tener dimensiones comerciales para su uso en muros tabiques y en cielos falsos en la industria de la construcción. El Recipanel es un panel no estructural a base de papel reciclado. El Recipanel cumple las normas colombianas en lo relativo a los paneles de uso no estructural y presenta además unas excelentes características mecánicas.

  9. Puncture panel optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Longenbaugh, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) to transport defense contact-handled transuranic wastes. The package has been designed to meet the normal and hypothetical accident conditions in 10CFR71 which includes the demonstrated ability to survive a 1-meter drop onto a mild steel pin. The puncture protection is provided by puncture resistant panels. In conjunction with the development of TRUPACT, a series of experiments has been conducted to reduce the weight of the puncture resistant panels. The initial scoping tests resulted in a preliminary design incorporating 30 layers of Kevlar. This design has been shown to meet the regulatory puncture test. To reduce the weight of this panel, subscale tests were conducted on panels utilizing Kevlar yarns with varying mass per unit length (denier) as well as different resins. This paper reviews the testing undertaken in the original panel development and discusses the results obtained from the recent subscale and full-scale optimization tests

  10. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  11. Investigation of the kinetics of parasitic leakages appearance and their annealing in microelectronic structures with isoplanar insulation; Issledovanie kinetiki vozniknoveniya i otzhiga parazitnykh utechek v miskroehlektronnykh strukturakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershenkov, V S; Chujkin, V V

    1994-12-31

    Structural features of bipolar and CMOS microcircuits using a deep separating oxide are considered. Analysis of leakage occurrence kinetics at the expense of back-displaced transition edge electric field action is conducted.

  12. Formation of silicon nanocrystals in multilayer nanoperiodic a-SiO{sub x}/insulator structures from the results of synchrotron investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turishchev, S. Yu., E-mail: tsu@phys.vsu.ru; Terekhov, V. A.; Koyuda, D. A. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Ershov, A. V.; Mashin, A. I. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Parinova, E. V.; Nesterov, D. N. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Grachev, D. A.; Karabanova, I. A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Domashevskaya, E. P. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The problem of the efficiency of the controllable formation of arrays of silicon nanoparticles is studied on the basis of detailed investigations of the electronic structure of multilayer nanoperiodic a-SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}, a-SiO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a-SiO{sub x}/ZrO{sub 2} compounds. Using synchrotron radiation and the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy technique, a modification is revealed for the investigated structures under the effect of high-temperature annealing at the highest temperature of 1100°C; this modification is attributed to the formation of silicon nanocrystals in the layers of photoluminescent multilayer structures.

  13. Photo-induced insulator-metal transition in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Effect of thickness dependent structural and transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovaara, Tomi; Huhtinen, Hannu; Majumdar, Sayani; Paturi, Petriina

    2016-09-01

    We report photo-induced colossal magnetoresistive insulator-metal transition (IMT) in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 thin films under much reduced applied magnetic field. The colossal effect was studied as a function of film thickness and thus with variable structural properties. Thorough structural, magnetic and magnetotransport characterization under light shows that the highest effect on the transition field can be obtained in the thinnest film (38 nm). However, due to the substrate induced strain of this film the required magnetic field for IMT is quite high. The best crystalline properties of the 110 nm film lead to the lowest IMT field under light and 109% change in resistance at 10 K. With increasing thickness, the film properties start to move more toward the bulk material and, hence, IMT is no more observed under the applied field of 9 T. Our results indicate that for obtaining large photo-induced CMR, the best epitaxial quality of thin films is essential.

  14. Behaviour of partially composite precast concrete sandwich panels under flexural and axial loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Douglas George

    Precast concrete sandwich panels are commonly used on building exteriors. They are typically composed of two concrete wythes that surround rigid insulation. They are advantageous as they provide both structural and thermal resistance. The structural response of sandwich panels is heavily influenced by shear connectors that link the wythes together. This thesis presents a study on partially composite non-prestressed precast concrete wall panels. Nine flexure tests were conducted on a wall design incorporating 'floating' concrete studs and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) connectors. The studs encapsulate and stiffen the connectors, reducing shear deformations. Ultimate loads increased from 58 to 80% that of a composite section as the connectors' reinforcement ratio increased from 2.6 to 9.8%. This design was optimized by reinforcing the studs and integrating them with the structural wythe; new connectors composed of angled steel or Basalt-FRP (BFRP) were used. The load-slip response of the new connector design was studied through 38 double shear push-through tests using various connector diameters and insertion angles. Larger connectors were stronger but more likely to pull out. Seven flexure tests were conducted on the new wall design reinforced with different combinations of steel and BFRP connectors and reinforcement. Composite action varied from 50 to 90% depending on connector and reinforcement material. Following this study, the axial-bending interaction curves were established for the new wall design using both BFRP and steel connectors and reinforcement. Eight panels were axially loaded to predesignated loads then loaded in flexure to failure. A technique is presented to experimentally determine the effective centroid of partially composite sections. Beyond the tension and compression-controlled failure regions of the interaction curve, a third region was observed in between, governed by connector failure. Theoretical models were developed for the bond

  15. Integrally rigidized acoustic interior spacecraft panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A sandwich panel concept is described which utilizes a monolithic I-beam design as the core. The core and skins are integrally bonded with thermosetting resin into a homogeneous structure. In addition to possessing a high strength to weight ratio, the panel resists combustion, delamination, aging due to fatigue, localized stresses, and exhibits good acoustic properties. Since the panel concept has definite potential as a high flame retardant and low smoke emission panel with excellent structural integrity, aerospace materials were used to optimize the construction for highly demanding space shuttle applications. The specific materials of construction were chosen for low flammability and off-gassing properties as well as for strength, light weight, and sound dampening.

  16. Behavior of sandwich panels in a fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelekova, Eugenia

    2018-03-01

    For the last decades there emerged a vast number of buildings and structures erected with the use of sandwich panels. The field of application for this construction material is manifold, especially in the construction of fire and explosion hazardous buildings. In advanced evacu-ation time calculation methods the coefficient of heat losses is defined with dire regard to fire load features, but without account to thermal and physical characteristics of building envelopes, or, to be exact, it is defined for brick and concrete walls with gross heat capacity. That is why the application of the heat loss coefficient expression obtained for buildings of sandwich panels is impossible because of different heat capacity of these panels from the heat capacities of brick and concrete building envelopes. The article conducts an analysis and calculation of the heal loss coefficient for buildings and structures of three layer sandwich panels as building envelopes.

  17. Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions. Volume 6. Special Considerations in Explosive Facility Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    addition to their Inherent advantages with respect to fire protection, acoustical and thermal insulation, structural mass and resistance to flying...suspended from a monorail system. The panel is inside the shield and is not rigidly attached to the column members. Special consideration was given to...characteristic pulse emitted by an explosion to prevent actuation by other sources such as lightning, fires , etc., **ich cay occur with flash sensors. ■112

  18. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng; Randel, Jason C.; Peng, Hailin; Cha, Judy J.; Meister, Stefan; Lai, Keji; Chen, Yulin; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Manoharan, Hari C.; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive

  19. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  20. Metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.