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Sample records for structural design standards

  1. Recent developments for fast reactor structural design standard (FDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, N.; Nakamuria, K.; Morishita, M.; Shibamoto, H.; Nagashima, H.; Inoue, K.

    2005-01-01

    For realization of reliable and economical fast reactor (FR) plants, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company(JAPC) are cooperating on 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle Systems'. To certify the design concepts through evaluation of their structural integrity, the research and development of 'Elevated Temperature Structural Design Guide for Commercialized Fast Reactor (FDS)' is recognized as an essential theme. FDS focuses on particular failure modes of FRs such as ratchet deformation and creep fatigue damages due to cyclic thermal loads. To evaluate these modes, three main developments are in progress. One is 'Refinement of Failure Criteria' for particular modes of FRs. Next is development of 'Guidelines for Inelastic Design Analysis' in order to predict elastic plastic and creep behaviors. Furthermore, efforts are being made toward preparing 'Guidelines for Thermal Load Modeling' for FR component design where thermal loads are dominant. These studies were performed under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japanese government. (authors)

  2. Research and development issues for fast reactor structural design standard (FDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Ando, Masanori; Morishita, Masaki

    2003-01-01

    For realization of safe and economical fast reactor (FR) plants, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) are cooperating on 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle Systems'. To certify the design concepts and validate their structural integrity, the research and development of 'Fast Reactor Structural Design Standard (FDS)' is recognized as an essential theme. FDS considers general characteristics of FRs and design needs for their rationalization. Three main subjects were settled in research and development issues of FDS. One is rationalization of failure criteria' taking characteristic design conditions into account. Next is development of 'a guideline on inelastic analysis for design' in order to predict elastic plastic and creep behaviours of high temperature components. Furthermore, efforts are being made toward preparing a guideline on thermal loads modeling' for FR component design where thermal loads are dominant. (author)

  3. Views on seismic design standardization of structures, systems and components of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) of nuclear facilities have to be designed for normal operating loads such as dead weight, pressure, temperature etc., and accidental loads such as earthquakes, floods, extreme, wind air craft impact, explosions etc. Manmade accidents such as aircraft impact, explosions etc., sometimes may be considered as design basis event and sometimes taken care by providing administrative controls. This will not be possible in the case of natural events such as earthquakes, flooding, extreme winds etc. Among natural events earthquakes are considered as most devastating and need to be considered as design basis event which has certain annual frequency specified in design codes. For example nuclear power plants are designed for a seismic event has 10000 year return period. It is generally felt that design of SSCs for earthquake loads is very time consuming and expensive. Conventional seismic design approaches demands for large number of supports for systems and components. This results in large space occupation and in turn creates difficulties for maintenance and in service inspection of systems and components. In addition, complete exercise of design need to be repeated for plants being located at different sites due to different seismic demands. However, advanced seismic response control methods will help to standardize the seismic design meeting the safety and economy. These methods adopt passive, semi active and active devices, and base isolators to control the seismic response. In nuclear industry, it is advisable to go for passive devices to control the seismic responses. Ideally speaking, these methods will make the designs made for normal loads can also satisfy the seismic demand without calling for change in material, geometry, layout etc. in the SSCs. This paper explain the basic ideas of seismic response control methods, demonstrate the effectiveness of control methods through case studies and eventually give the procedure to

  4. Designing electronic equipment on the basis of standard mechanical structures using internet re­sour­ces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlangach A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a method to design electronic equipment based on functional-node design method that involves the use of 2D- and 3D- models mechanical structures for electronic equipment as a way to reduce development time and errors when creating design documentation for electronic equipment. At present, most areas of science and technology are computerized, more problems in designing electronic equipment are dealt with using computer-aided design (CAD and Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM to reduce the time required for development and manufacturing of electronic equipment. Development of design documentation also requires a more effective approach, because the less the time for development of the design documentation is, the faster the developed device will go into production. The aim of the study is to develop a method of designing electronic equipment using 2D and 3D models of standard mechanical structures for electronic equipment using Internet resources. Based on the presented methods is an example of designing a device from standard bearing structures. Compared with traditional technology, the method of designing electronic equipment using standard parts has the following advantages: - reduces time and improves quality of development through the use of existing design documentation; - accelerates the implementation and introducing into production processes; - increases unification of design solutions.

  5. Structural Design of the DTU-ESA MM-Wave Validation Standard Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Markussen, Christen Malte

    2015-01-01

    A new specially designed antenna to be used for inter-comparisons and validation of antenna test facilities is under development in cooperation between DTU and TICRA under a contract from the European Space Agency. The antenna is designed to be extremely thermally and mechanically stable...... in the range of temperatures 20±5°C under arbitrary orientation in the gravity field. The antenna has a characteristic length of approximately 500mm. And in order to obtain very low measuring error, the allowable deformations of the reflector and feeds are down to 2.5μm. The antenna is modelled structurally...... is connected via a glued contact formulation in MSC.MARC. Because of the size and the complexity of the model a computer cluster is applied to solve the analyses. This paper describes the structural solution to meet these extremely strict stability requirements and the structural analyses done in order...

  6. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  7. MAN-004 Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Timothy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  8. Civil Engineering & Design Standards Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Vänttinen, Eetu

    2014-01-01

    Civil Discipline Engineering department in Foster Wheeler Energia Oy takes care of the construction of foundation, steel frame, platforms, cladding/roofing, HVAC, elevator, hoist and central vacuum system of the boiler building. The goal of the thesis was to compile a design manual for the department to ease up the startup of the design of a new project and standardize the design. Main objective was to gather together all the existing guidelines, standards and directives regarding the des...

  9. Structural design by CAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Shim, Jae Ku; Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Kyu Sup; Choi, In Kil; Lee, Dong Yong

    1988-12-01

    CAD systems are now widely used for the design of many engineering problems involving static, dynamic and thermal stress analyses of structures. In order to apply CAD systems to the structural analysis and design, the function of hardwares and softwares necessary for the CAD systems must be understood. The purpose of this study is to introduce the basic elements that are indispensible in the application of CAD systems to the analysis and design of structures and to give a thorough understanding of CAD systems to design engineers, so as to participate in the further technological developments of CAD systems. Due to the complexity and variety of the shape and size of the nowa-days structures, the need of new design technologies is growing for more efficient, accurate and economical design of structures. The application of CAD systems to structural engineering fields enables to improve structural engineering analysis and design technologies and also to obtain the standardization of the design process. An active introduction of rapidly developing CAD technologies will contribute to analyzing and designing structures more efficiently and reliably. Based on this report of the current status of the application of CAD systems to the structural analysis and design, the next goal is to develop the expert system which enables to perform the design of structures by CAD systems from the preliminary conceptual design to the final detail drawings automatically. (Author)

  10. Structured Analog CMOS Design

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovic, Danica

    2008-01-01

    Structured Analog CMOS Design describes a structured analog design approach that makes it possible to simplify complex analog design problems and develop a design strategy that can be used for the design of large number of analog cells. It intentionally avoids treating the analog design as a mathematical problem, developing a design procedure based on the understanding of device physics and approximations that give insight into parameter interdependences. The proposed transistor-level design procedure is based on the EKV modeling approach and relies on the device inversion level as a fundament

  11. Integrated Structural Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to EU legislation. And a successful engineering student must be prepared to work in the open-ended, multidisciplinary environment necessary to produce structures which comply with EIA demands. This paper describes an innovative course developed at the Technical University of Denmark which integrates...... landscaping and structural design. The integrated courses create a setting for learning about the design of large-scale structures and involve geometry, statics, computer simulation, graphical design and landscape architecture. Together, they educate engineers who can take part in the early design phases...... of a project, function well in design teams, and comply with EU EIA demands....

  12. 38 CFR 39.22 - Architectural design standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Architectural design...-16-10) Standards and Requirements for Project § 39.22 Architectural design standards. The..., Ontario, CA 91761-2816. (a) Architectural and structural requirements—(1) Life Safety Code. Standards must...

  13. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 3: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 3, in conjunction with Volume 2, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

  14. 46 CFR 116.300 - Structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural design. 116.300 Section 116.300 Shipping... Structure § 116.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply with the structural design requirements of one of the standards listed below for the hull material of...

  15. 46 CFR 177.300 - Structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural design. 177.300 Section 177.300 Shipping...) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply with the structural design requirements of one of the standards listed below...

  16. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 16 details the application of Human Factors Engineering in the design process

  17. Seismic design standardization of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) of Nuclear Facilities have to be designed for normal operating loads such as dead weight, pressure, temperature etc., and accidental loads such as earthquakes, floods, extreme, wind air craft impact, explosions etc. Man made accidents such as aircraft impact, explosions etc., some times may be considered as design basis event and some times taken care by providing administrative controls. This will not be possible in the case of natural events such as earthquakes, flooding, extreme winds etc. Among natural events earthquakes are considered as most devastating and need to be considered as design basis event. It is generally felt design of SSCs for earthquake loads is very time consuming and expensive. Conventional seismic design approaches demands for large number of supports for systems and components. This results in large space occupation and in turn creates difficulties for maintenance and in service inspection of systems and components. In addition, complete exercise of design need to be repeated for plants being located at different sites due to different seismic demands. However, advanced seismic response control methods will help to standardize the seismic design meeting the safety and economy. These methods adopt passive, semi active and active devices, and base isolators to control the seismic response. In nuclear industry, it is advisable to go for passive devices to control the seismic responses. Ideally speaking, these methods will make the designs made for normal loads can also satisfy the seismic demand without calling for change in material, geometry, layout etc. in the SSCs. This paper explain the basic ideas of seismic response control methods, demonstrate the effectiveness of control methods through case studies and eventually give the procedure to be adopted for seismic design standardization of nuclear facilities

  18. System 80+trademark standard design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. The documents in this series describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+ TM Standard Design

  19. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 10 discusses the Steam and Power Conversion System and Radioactive Waste Management

  20. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 11 discusses Radiation Protection, Conduct of Operations, and the Initial Test Program

  1. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems

  2. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 17 provides Appendix A of this report, closure of unresolved and Genetic Safety Issues

  3. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80 + trademark Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls

  4. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This Volume 18 provides Appendix B, Probabilistic Risk Assessment

  5. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  6. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  7. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This volume contain Chapter 18 -- Human Factors Engineering. Topics covered include: design team organization and responsibilities; design goals and design bases; design process and application to human factors engineering; functional task analysis; control room configuration; information presentation and panel layout evaluation; control and monitoring outside the main control room; and verification and validation

  8. Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Ababneh, Ziad Waleed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education through the analysis of the theoretical basis and previous studies related to this subject. This study has identified the list of standards of Multimedia, Graphic Design, each of which has a set indicator through which the quality of Multimedia can be evaluated in…

  9. Design bases - Concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Llanos Ros, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most suitable title for Section 2 is 'Design Bases', which covers not only calculation but also the following areas: - Structural design concepts. - Project criteria. - Material specifications. These concepts are developed in more detail in the following sections. The numbering in this document is neither complete nor hierarchical since, for easier cross referencing, it corresponds to the paragraphs of Eurocode 2 Part 1 (hereinafter 'EUR-2') which are commented on. (author)

  10. A Design Study for Standard Nanofluid Coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, In Cheol; Heo, Gyun Young

    2007-01-01

    The experimental data for nanofluids in thermal-fluid systems have shown that the new fluids promise to become advanced heat transfer fluids in terms of thermal performance. While enhancing thermal characteristics, the solid-liquid mixtures present an unavoidable disadvantage in terms of pumping cost for economic operation of thermal-fluid systems. In addition, there is a lack of agreement between experimental data provided in the literature. We can find that this issue of nanofluids resembles that of designing new materials. Many nanofluids researchers tend to view the nanofluid field as a highly coupled 'tetrahedro' whose four vertices (performance, properties, structure, and processes) are interconnected to each other. The present design study has a big merit to systemize the nanofluid work and to reduce a lot of trial-error efforts. The present work found that there would be no comprehensible design strategy in developing nanofluids. In this work, the Axiomatic Design (AD) theory is applied to standardize the design of nanofluids in order to bring its practical use forward. According to the Independence Axiom of the AD theory, the excessive couplings between the functional requirements and the parameters of a nanofluid system prevent from meeting the functional goals of the entire system. At a parametric level, the design of a nanofluid system is inherently coupled due to the characteristics of thermal-fluid system; the design parameters physically affect each other sharing sub-level parameters for nanoparticles with making a feedback loop. Even though parts of the nanofluids are naturally coupled, it is possible to reduce and/or eliminate the degree of coupling by help of AD principles. From the perspective of AD, this implies that we are able to ascertain which nanofluid system is better one in the light of functional achievement

  11. Bridgescaping - Contextual Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale infrastructural projects such as bridges used to be the monopoly of engineers. They were designed as – often very beautiful – expressions of how forces work in a structure, guided by the nature of materials and a rational construction process. However, in recent decades politicians an...

  12. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  13. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'', and DOE 6430.1A, ''General Design Criteria''. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ''Glove Box Fire Protection'' and ''Filter Plenum Fire Protection''. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities

  14. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains 2 technical specifications bases as part of Appendix 16 A Tech Spec Bases. They are TS B3.8 Electrical Power Technical Systems Bases and TS B3.9 Refueling Operations Bases. All 3 parts of section 17 (QA) and all 10 parts of section 18 (Human Factors) of the ADM Design and Analysis are contained in this volume. Topics covered in section 17 are: design phase QA; operations phase QA; and design phase reliability assurance. Topics covered by section 18 are: design team organization; design goals; design process; functional task analysis; control room configuration; information presentation; control and monitoring; verification and validation; and review documents

  15. Hopf Structures on Standard Young Tableaux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loday, Jean-Louis; Popov, Todor

    2010-01-01

    We review the Poirier-Reutenauer Hopf structure on Standard Young Tableaux and show that it is a distinguished member of a family of Hopf structures. The family in question is related to deformed parastatistics.

  16. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains part 16 References and Appendix 19 A Design Alternatives for section 19 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Also covered is section 20 Unresolved Safety Issues of the ADM Design and Analysis. Finally sections 1--6 of the ADM Emergency Operations Guidelines are contained in this volume. Information covered in these sections include: standard post-trip actions; diagnostic actions; reactor trip recovery guideline; LOCA recovery; SG tube rupture recovery

  17. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains all five parts of section 12 (Radiation Protection) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: ALARA exposures; radiation sources; radiation protection; dose assessment; and health physics program. All six parts and appendices A and B for section 13 (Conduct of Operations) of the ADM Design and Analysis are also contained in this volume. Topics covered are: organizational structure; training program; emergency planning; review and audit; plant procedures; industrial security; sabotage protection (App 13A); and vital equipment list (App 13B)

  18. Contribution to pressure vessels design of innovative methods and comparative application with standardized rules on a realistic structure – Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohart, Philippe; Panier, Stéphane; Hariri, Saïd; Simonet, Yves; Afzali, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Design of pressure vessels, which are subjected to various natures of loading, must prevent damage mechanisms occurrence. For a load applied or maintained with a given intensity, primary failure modes can appear, such as gross plastic deformation, plastic instability or buckling. For design-by-analysis, the reference methodology is based on an elastic stress calculation. During the last decade, studies have shown that this ingenious procedure could provide conservative design limits. They can become actually overly conservative in a context of increasing complexity of geometry and loading modelling. In parallel, technological and theoretical developments enabled limit analysis to be considered as an interesting design methodology. This is suggested in standards and codes (EN 13445, CODAP, Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code) since the early 2000"'"s. In this first of two companion papers, a set of standardized and innovative procedures is introduced. These approaches rely on various concepts, such as elasticity, incremental elastoplasticity, or elastic compensation (Modified Elastic Compensation Method, Linear Matching Method). Each methodology is presented on theoretical aspects, eventually adapted so as to take into account safety margins. They are then applied on a model inspired from a real industrial reactor, using Abaqus. Results are compared to reference data from codes, in terms of accuracy and computing time. A final assessment underlines practical benefits that could be expected. - Highlights: • A review of pressure vessels design methods against gross plastic deformation is made. • Innovative methodologies are introduced in order to overcome practical limits of classical methods. • Comparative tests are performed on one Benchmark with both classical and innovative procedures. • Results show the ability of innovative methodologies to improve the ratio ‘accuracy’ – ‘computationnal time’.

  19. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains Appendices 6A, 6B, and 6C for section 6 (Engineered Safety Features) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Also, parts 1--5 of section 7 (Instrumentation and Control) of the ADM Design and Analysis are covered. The following information is covered in these parts: introduction; reactor protection system; ESF actuation system; system required for safe shutdown; and safety-related display instrumentation

  20. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains parts 2-7 and appendix 15A for section 15 (Accident Analysis) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered in these parts are: decrease in heat removal; decrease in RCS flow rate; power distribution anomalies; increase in RCS inventory; decrease in RCS inventory; release of radioactive materials. The appendix covers radiological release models. Also contained here are five technical specifications for section 16 (Technical Specifications) of the ADM Design and Analysis. They are: TS 1.0 Use and Applications; TS 2.0 Safety Limits; TS 3.0 LCO Availability; TS 3.1 Reactivity Control; and TS 3.2 Power Distribution

  1. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains the following technical specifications of section 16 (Technical Specifications) of the ADM Design and Analysis: TS 3.3 Instrumentation; TS 3.4 Reactor Coolant System; TS 3.5 Emergency Core Cooling System; TS 3.6 Containment Systems; TS 3.7 Plant Systems; TS 3.8 Electrical Power Systems; TS 3.9 Refueling Operations; TS 4.0 Design Features; TS 5.0 Administrative Controls. Appendix 16 A Tech Spec Bases is also included. It contains the following: TS B2.0 Safety Limits Bases; TS B3.0 LCO Applicability Bases; TS B3.1 Reactivity Control Bases; TS B3.2 Power Distribution Bases

  2. Design Standards for School Art Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Art Education Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Design Standards for School Art Facilities" is an invaluable resource for any school or school district looking to build new facilities for the visual arts or renovate existing ones. Discover detailed information about spaces for the breadth of media used in the visual arts. Photographs illustrate all types of features including…

  3. Business School's Performance Management System Standards Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Anton Mulyono; Simatupang, Togar M.; Wibisono, Dermawan; Basri, Mursyid Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to compare various Performance Management Systems (PMS) for business school in order to find the strengths of each standard as inputs to design new model of PMS. There are many critical aspects and gaps notified for new model to improve performance and even recognized that self evaluation performance management is not well…

  4. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers the DCD introduction and contains sections 1 and parts 1--7 of section 2 of the CDM. Parts 1--7 included the following: (2.1) Design of SSC; (2.2) Reactor; (2.3) RCS and connected systems; (2.4) Engineered Safety Features; (2.5) Instrumentation and Control; (2.6) Electric Power; and (2.7) Auxiliary Systems

  5. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers parts 6 and 7 and appendix 7A for section 7 (Instrumentation and Control) of the ADM Design and Analysis. The topics covered by these are: other systems required for safety; control systems not required by safety; and CMF evaluation of limiting faults. Parts 1--3 of section 8 (Electric Power) of the ADM are also included in this volume. Topics covered by these parts are: introduction; offsite power system; and onsite power system

  6. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains five technical specification bases that are part of Appendix 16 A of the ADM Design and Analysis. They are: TS B3.3 Instrumentation Bases; TS B3.4 RCS Bases; TS B3.5 ECCS Bases; TS B3.6 Containment Systems Bases; and TS B3.7 Plant Systems Bases

  7. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains parts 1--10 of section 19 (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: methodology; initiating event evaluation; accident sequence determination; data analysis; systems analysis; external events analysis; shutdown risk assessment; accident sequence quantification; and sensitivity analysis. Also included in this volume are Appendix 19.8A Shutdown Risk Assessment and Appendix A to Appendix 19.8A Request for Information

  8. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume covers the following information of the CDM: (2.8) Steam and power conversion; (2.9) Radioactive waste management; (2.10) Tech Support Center; (2.11) Initial test program; (2.12) Human factors; and sections 3, 4, and 5. Also covered in this volume are parts 1--6 of section 1 (General Plant Description) of the ADM Design and Analysis

  9. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains sections 7--11 of the ADM Emergency Operations Guidelines. Topics covered are: excess steam demand recovery; loss of all feedwater; loss of offsite power; station blackout recovery; and functional recovery guideline. Appendix A Severe Accident Management Guidelines and Appendix B Lower Mode Operational Guidelines are also included

  10. Achieving IT-supported standardized nursing documentation through participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Lyng, Karen Marie; Jensen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    that support guideline-based highly structured standard documentation in a large organization with many stakeholders. Applying a participatory design (PD) approach at many organizational levels has involved the stakeholders actively in the design process. Developing a set of design principles has concurrently......In the Capital Region of Denmark a full-scale pilot project on IT-supported nursing documentation is - after running for two months at one full university hospital - showing promising results. In this paper we discuss participatory design as a method to design clinical documentation templates...

  11. Standardized structure of electronic records for information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabova, Sevdalina; Trencheva, Tereza; Trenchev, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    In the paper is presented the structure of the electronic record whose form is standardized in ISO 2709:2008. This International Standard describes a generalized structure, a framework designed specially for communications between data processing systems and not for use as a processing format within systems.Basic terms are defined as follows: character, data field, directory, directory map, field, field separator etc. It’s presented the general structure of a record. The application analysis of this structure shows the effective information exchange in the widest range.The purpose of this research is to find out advantages and structure of the information exchange format standardized in ISO 2709:2008. Key words: Standardized structure, electronic records, exchange formats, data field, directory, directory map, indicators, identifiers

  12. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  13. Updated Design Standards and Guidance from the What Works Clearinghouse: Regression Discontinuity Designs and Cluster Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Russell; Deke, John; Seftor, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) maintains design standards to identify rigorous, internally valid education research. As education researchers advance new methodologies, the WWC must revise its standards to include an assessment of the new designs. Recently, the WWC has revised standards for two emerging study designs: regression discontinuity…

  14. On Logic and Standards for Structuring Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyers, David M.; Jones, Andrew J. I.; Kimbrough, Steven O.

    The advent of XML has been widely seized upon as an opportunity to develop document representation standards that lend themselves to automated processing. This is a welcome development and much good has come of it. That said, present standardization efforts may be criticized on a number of counts. We explore two issues associated with document XML standardization efforts. We label them (i) the dynamic point and (ii) the logical point. Our dynamic point is that in many cases experience has shown that the search for a final, or even reasonably permanent, document representation standard is futile. The case is especially strong for electronic data interchange (EDI). Our logical point is that formalization into symbolic logic is materially helpful for understanding and designing dynamic document standards.

  15. Design standard issues for ITER in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1994-01-01

    Unique requirements that must be addressed by a structural design code for the ITER have been summarized. Existing codes such as ASME Section III, or the French RCC-MR were developed primarily for fission reactor out-of-core components and are not directly applicable to the ITER. They may be used either as a guide for developing a design code for the ITER or as interim standards. However, new rules will be needed for handling the irradiation-induced embrittlement problems faced by the ITER blanket components. Design standards developed in the past for the design of fission reactor core components in the United States can be used as guides in this area

  16. New structural design standard for cooling towers. Pilot project BoA 2 and 3 in Neurath; Pilotprojekt der neuen Normengeneration im Kuehlturmbau. Die Naturzugkuehltuerme von BoA 2 and 3 in Neurath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woermann, Ralf [Kraetzig und Partner Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Bautechnik mbH, Bochum (Germany); Haupt, Ralf [ALPINE BAU DEUTSCHLAND AG NL Industrie- und Kraftwerksbau, Dortmund (Germany); Ohlmann, Uwe [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Bautechnik

    2010-01-15

    Starting in 2006 RWE Power is erecting two lignite power plants with highly optimized efficiency (BoA) in Neurath near Cologne. These will be the second and third plant of this most advanced technique after the completion of BoA1 in Niederaussem in 2003. The most outstanding buildings of the new power-station are the natural draught cooling towers with a height of 173 m. Their design and execution will be described in this paper. For the first time in cooling tower design the completely revised new edition 2005 of the VGB-Guideline ''Structural Design of Cooling Towers'' was applied in connection with other related new design standards. (orig.)

  17. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  18. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and constraint solvers and more rigorous Finite Element methods supporting respectively design analysis and form finding and performance evaluation and verification. The second investigation describes the inter-scalar feedback loops between design at the macro scale (overall structural behaviour), meso scale...... (membrane reinforcement strategy) and micro scale (design of bespoke textile membrane). The paper concludes with a post construction analysis. Comparing structural and environmental data, the predicted and the actual performance of tower are evaluated and discussed....

  19. Standard problems for structural computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    BNL is investigating the ranges of validity of the analytical methods used to predict the behavior of nuclear safety related structures under accidental and extreme environmental loadings. During FY 85, the investigations were concentrated on special problems that can significantly influence the outcome of the soil structure interaction evaluation process. Specially, limitations and applicability of the standard interaction methods when dealing with lift-off, layering and water table effects, were investigated. This paper describes the work and the results obtained during FY 85 from the studies on lift-off, layering and water-table effects in soil-structure interaction

  20. Standard mirror fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the work of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Division's reactor study group during FY 1976 on the standard mirror reactor. The ''standard'' mirror reactor is characterized as a steady state, neutral beam sustained, D-T fusioning plasma confined by a Yin-Yang magnetic mirror field. The physics parameters are obtained from the same physics model that explains the 2XIIB experiment. The model assumes that the drift cyclotron loss cone mode occurs on the boundary of the plasma, and that it is stabilized by warm plasma with negligible energy investment. The result of the study was a workable mirror fusion power plant, steady-state blanket removal made relatively simple by open-ended geometry, and no impurity problem due to the positive plasma potential. The Q (fusion power/injected beam power) turns out to be only 1.1 because of loss out the ends from Coulomb collisions, i.e., classical losses. This low Q resulted in 77% of the gross electrical power being used to power the injectors, thereby causing the net power cost to be high. The low Q stimulated an intensive search for Q-enhancement concepts, resulting in the LLL reactor design effort turning to the field reversal mirror and the tandem mirror, each having Q of order 5

  1. Standardized Cost Structure for the Environmental Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, B.; Melamed, D.; Guevara, K.; Mallick, P.; Bierman, G.; Marshall, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    The underlying key to developing successful estimates, tracking project costs, and utilizing historical project cost information is the development of standardized and well-defined hierarchical listing of cost categories. Committees within the U.S. Federal agencies have pioneered efforts toward developing the Environmental Cost Element Structure (ECES), which is key in achieving these goals. The ECES was developed using an iterative process with input from federal agencies and industry. Experts from several disciplines participated including engineers, cost estimators, project/program managers, and contract personnel. The ECES benefits from an intense analytical effort, the knowledge gained from the maturation of the environmental industry, and incorporation of past user's experiences. Building upon this foundation, the E06 committee of the ASTM International has now fully developed and published a standard (ASTM 2150-04) that provides standardized cost categories with complete cost category definitions. This standard affords environmental and nuclear D and D project managers the opportunity to have a well defined hierarchical listing of their estimates and actual costs, readily adapted to performing summations and roll-ups, supported by a multi-level dictionary specifically defining the content of the cost elements as well as the summations. Owing to the dynamic nature of the environmental technologies, efforts need to be made to continue to update this standard by adding new technologies and methods as they are developed and employed in the field. Lastly, the Environmental Cost Element Structure that is embodied in this standard also presents opportunities to develop historical cost databases and comprehensive life cycle cost estimates and standardized cost estimating tools. (authors)

  2. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  3. Parametric Fires for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants and contra......The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...... compartments. Findings leading to the guide-lines are discussed, and it is indicated what a safe design fire model means for structural design and how it differs from a safe design fire model for evacuation. Furthermore, the paper includes some experiences from the application of the design guide in practise...

  4. Report on design and technical standard planning of vibration controlling structure on the buildings, in the Tokai Reprocessing Facility, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, Shuji; Shinohara, Takaharu; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-10-01

    The Tokai reprocessing facility buildings are constituted by a lower foundation, vibration controlling layers, and upper structure. At the vibration controlling layer, a laminated rubber aiming support of the building load and extension of the eigenfrequency and a damper aiming absorption of earthquake energy are provided. Of course, the facility buildings are directly supported at the arenaceous shale (Taga Layer) of the Miocene in the Neogene confirmed to the stablest ground, as well the buildings with high vibration resistant importance in Japan. This report shows that when the vibration controlling structure is adopted for the reprocessing facility buildings where such high vibration resistance is required, reduction of input acceleration for equipments and pipings can be achieved and the earthquake resistant safety can also be maintained with sufficient tolerance and reliability. (G.K.)

  5. New Buildings Energy Performance Improvement through Incorporation of New Proven Technologies into Standard Designs. Standard Design for TEMF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhivov, Alexander M

    2004-01-01

    ISSUES: Current Army Standard Designs don't specify potential energy saving and sustainable design opportunities, available energy saving technologies, and technologies resulting in better indoor air quality...

  6. Standardization of green building technologies for environment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benuzh Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the structure and field of standardization ISO / TC 205 “Building environment design”, provides examples of green building technologies. The main purpose of the article is to show the interaction between international ISO / TC 205 “Building environment design” and created in Russia in 2016 the Technical Committee of Standardization № 366 “Green technology of the build environment and green innovative products”. Both of these technical committees promote green building technologies for environment design, thereby deal with the negative impact on the environment and the reasons of global warming. Instead of buildings that attempt to suppress and overcome nature, why not design buildings that integrate with the environment, on every possible level? The international standardization work which ISO/TC 205 “Building environment design” performs seeks, in addition to lowering trade barriers for engineering design, to promote and facilitate the design of high performance buildings: higher performing as economic assets for their owners, higher performing as buildings that provide amenable indoor environment for their occupants, and higher performing with respect to resource utilization and environmental impact.

  7. Structural design of DEALS magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Hsieh, S.Y.; Balderes, T.; Brown, T.; Bundy, J.

    1979-01-01

    A design for the extraneous magnet structure to support all the magnet loads was developed. The structure consists of two demountable structural systems designed to support the in-plane and out-of-plane loads, respectively. The in-plane loads are resisted by a cold central bucking cylinder and pin connected, plate-beam structural members following the outer periphery of each coil. The out-of-plane, torsional loads are resisted by the concerted action of the central bucking column and a continuous plate structure interconnecting all the coils. The adequacy of the structures were assessed by application of finite element analysis methods. The design study proved the feasibility of resisting the magnetic loadings with a demountable support structure extraneous to the superconducting coil. The resulting magnet system, although estimated to be higher in cost than a continuous coil, incorporates a means for complete coil replacement in a time scale commensurate with conventional nuclear power plant repairs and without the dismantling of the toroidal blanket and plasma shell systems

  8. Design and fabrication of NDA standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Plutonium Facility, TA-55, at Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently producing NDA calibration standards used by various laboratories in the DOE complex. These NIST traceable standards have been produced to calibrate NDA instruments for accountability measurements used for resolving shipper/receiver differences, and for accountability in process residues and process waste. Standards are needed to calibrate various NDA (Non-destructive Assay) instruments such as neutron coincidence counters, gamma-ray counters, and calorimeters. These instruments measure various ranges of nuclear material being produced in the DOE nuclear community. Los Alamos National Laboratory has taken a lead role in fabrication of uranium and plutonium standards, along with other actinides such as neptunium and americium. These standards have been fabricated for several laboratories within the complex. This paper will summarize previous publications detailing the careful planning encompassing components such as precise weighing, destructive analysis, and the use of post fabrication NDA measurements to confirm that the standards meet all preliminary expectations before use in instrument calibration. The paper will also describe the specialized containers, diluents, and the various amount of nuclear materials needed to accommodate the calibration ranges of the instruments

  9. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction...

  10. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All borrowers... system design, construction standards, and the use of RUS accepted materials. Borrowers must comply with...

  11. Design of Multistable Origami Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Andrew; Fuchi, Kazuko; Bazzan, Giorgio; Reich, Gregory; Alyanak, Edward; Buskohl, Philip

    Origami is being transformed from an art to a mathematically robust method for device design in a variety of scientific applications. These structures often require multiple stable configurations, e.g. efficient well-controlled deployment. However, the discovery of origami structures with mechanical instabilities is challenging given the complex geometric nonlinearities and the large design space to investigate. To address this challenge, we have developed a topology optimization framework for discovering origami fold patterns that realize stable and metastable positions. The objective function targets both the desired stable positions and nonlinear loading profiles of specific vertices in the origami structure. Multistable compliant structures have been shown to offer advantages in their stability and efficiency, and certain origami fold patterns exhibit multistable behavior. Building on this previous work of single vertex multistability analysis, e.g. waterbomb origami pattern, we are expanding the solution set of multistable mechanisms to include multiple vertices and a broader set of reference configurations. Collectively, these results enable an initial classification of geometry-induced mechanical instabilities that can be programmed into active material systems. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  12. Optimization methods in structural design

    CERN Document Server

    Rothwell, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to numerical optimization methods in structural design. Employing a readily accessible and compact format, the book presents an overview of optimization methods, and equips readers to properly set up optimization problems and interpret the results. A ‘how-to-do-it’ approach is followed throughout, with less emphasis at this stage on mathematical derivations. The book features spreadsheet programs provided in Microsoft Excel, which allow readers to experience optimization ‘hands-on.’ Examples covered include truss structures, columns, beams, reinforced shell structures, stiffened panels and composite laminates. For the last three, a review of relevant analysis methods is included. Exercises, with solutions where appropriate, are also included with each chapter. The book offers a valuable resource for engineering students at the upper undergraduate and postgraduate level, as well as others in the industry and elsewhere who are new to these highly practical techniques.Whi...

  13. State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

  14. Design of concrete structures important to safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    Civil engineering structures in nuclear installations form an important feature having implications to safety performance of these installations. The objective and minimum requirements for the design of civil engineering buildings/structures to be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety of nuclear installations in India (such as pressurised heavy water reactor and related systems) are specified in the Safety standard for civil engineering structures important to safety of nuclear facilities. This standard is written by AERB to specify guidelines for implementation of the above civil engineering safety standard in the design of concrete structures important to safety

  15. Design of data structures for mergeable trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Loukas; Tarjan, Robert Endre; Werneck, Renato Fonseca F.

    2006-01-01

    merge operation can change many arcs. In spite of this, we develop a data structure that supports merges and all other standard tree operations in O(log2 n) amortized time on an n-node forest. For the special case that occurs in the motivating application, in which arbitrary arc deletions...... are not allowed, we give a data structure with an O(log n) amortized time bound per operation, which is asymptotically optimal. The analysis of both algorithms is not straightforward and requires ideas not previously used in the study of dynamic trees. We explore the design space of algorithms for the problem......Motivated by an application in computational topology, we consider a novel variant of the problem of efficiently maintaining dynamic rooted trees. This variant allows an operation that merges two tree paths. In contrast to the standard problem, in which only one tree arc at a time changes, a single...

  16. Beamline standard component designs for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Barraza, J.; Brite, C.; Chang, J.; Sanchez, T.; Tcheskidov, V.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has initiated a design standardization and modularization activity for the APS synchrotron radiation beamline components. These standard components are included in components library, sub-components library and experimental station library. This paper briefly describes these standard components using both technical specifications and side view drawings

  17. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  18. Design Concept for the Microwave Interrogation Structure in PARCS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, G. J; Klipstein, W. M; Heavner, T. P; Jefferts, S. R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will describe key aspects of the conceptual design of the microwave interrogation structure in the laser-cooled cesium frequency standard that is part of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) experiment...

  19. Digital computer structure and design

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, R

    2014-01-01

    Digital Computer Structure and Design, Second Edition discusses switching theory, counters, sequential circuits, number representation, and arithmetic functions The book also describes computer memories, the processor, data flow system of the processor, the processor control system, and the input-output system. Switching theory, which is purely a mathematical concept, centers on the properties of interconnected networks of ""gates."" The theory deals with binary functions of 1 and 0 which can change instantaneously from one to the other without intermediate values. The binary number system is

  20. [Design and implementation of medical instrument standard information retrieval system based on APS.NET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaijun

    2010-07-01

    This paper Analys the design goals of Medical Instrumentation standard information retrieval system. Based on the B /S structure,we established a medical instrumentation standard retrieval system with ASP.NET C # programming language, IIS f Web server, SQL Server 2000 database, in the. NET environment. The paper also Introduces the system structure, retrieval system modules, system development environment and detailed design of the system.

  1. The STEP standard as an approach for design and prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Plantec , Alain; Ribaud , Vincent

    1998-01-01

    International audience; STEP is an ISO standard (ISO-10303) for the computer-interpretable representation and exchange of product data. Parts of STEP standardize conceptual structures and usage of information in generic or specific domains. The standardization process of these constructs is an evolutionary approach , which uses generated prototypes at different phases of the process. This paper presents a method for the building of prototype generators, inspired by this standardization proces...

  2. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 8: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls.

  3. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 11: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 11 discusses Radiation Protection, Conduct of Operations, and the Initial Test Program.

  4. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 9: Amendment I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems.

  5. Practices in adequate structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural design and verification of space vehicles and space systems is a very tricky and awe inspiring business, particularly for manned missions. Failures in the missions with loss of life is devastating personally and nationally. The scope of the problem is driven by high performance requirements which push state-of-the-art technologies, creating high sensitivites to small variations and uncertainties. Insurance of safe, reliable flight dictates the use of sound principles, procedures, analysis, and testing. Many of those principles which were refocused by the Space Shuttle Challenger (51-L) accident on January 26, 1986, and the activities conducted to insure safe shuttle reflights are discussed. The emphasis will be focused on engineering, while recognizing that project and project management are also key to success.

  6. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  7. Update of bridge design standards in Alabama for AASHTO LRFD seismic design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) has been required to update their bridge design to the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. This transition has resulted in changes to the seismic design standards of bridges in the state. Multiple bridg...

  8. Computing tools for implementing standards for single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ting; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Chen, Ming-E

    2015-11-01

    In the single-case design (SCD) literature, five sets of standards have been formulated and distinguished: design standards, assessment standards, analysis standards, reporting standards, and research synthesis standards. This article reviews computing tools that can assist researchers and practitioners in meeting the analysis standards recommended by the What Works Clearinghouse: Procedures and Standards Handbook-the WWC standards. These tools consist of specialized web-based calculators or downloadable software for SCD data, and algorithms or programs written in Excel, SAS procedures, SPSS commands/Macros, or the R programming language. We aligned these tools with the WWC standards and evaluated them for accuracy and treatment of missing data, using two published data sets. All tools were tested to be accurate. When missing data were present, most tools either gave an error message or conducted analysis based on the available data. Only one program used a single imputation method. This article concludes with suggestions for an inclusive computing tool or environment, additional research on the treatment of missing data, and reasonable and flexible interpretations of the WWC standards. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  10. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  11. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept

  12. Legislatation, standards and awareness of inclusive design in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej; Herriott, Richard

    This presents an overview of the design professions´response to government policies on accessibility and inclusive design. Architectural firms and industrial design firms have different levels of awareness and willingness to implement inclusive design and accessibility objectives. This is driven ...... in part by variation in standards and regulations between industry sectors. Interest groups apparently do not approach accessibility and design-inclusivity objectives in an orchestrated fashion and do not show an awareness of design a means to provide solution.......This presents an overview of the design professions´response to government policies on accessibility and inclusive design. Architectural firms and industrial design firms have different levels of awareness and willingness to implement inclusive design and accessibility objectives. This is driven...

  13. Standardization principles of radiographic investigation of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkiewicz, L.

    1979-01-01

    The PN-78/B-06264 Polish Standard concerning the radiographic methods of concrete structure control is discussed. It concerns the inner structure of the building elements, dimensions and position of honeycombs and reinforcement. (author)

  14. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In widespread use globally, renewable electricity standards (RES) are one of the most widely adopted renewable energy policies and a critical regulatory vehicle to accelerate renewable energy deployment. This policy brief provides an introduction to key RES design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific RES policy design.

  15. Access Structures in a Standard Translation Dictionary | Louw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The access structure is the primary guide structure in the central texts of any standard translation dictionary. The metalexicographical term "guide structures" refers to the set of structures that provides a framework within which the accessibility and availability of information types in the dictionary can be evaluated. The access ...

  16. Problems of structural mechanics in nuclear design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, V.M.; Kakodkar, Anil

    1975-01-01

    A very careful and detailed stress analysis of nuclear presure vessels and components is essential for ensuring the safety and integrity of nuclear power plants. The nuclear designer, therefore, relies heavily on structural mechanics for application of the most advanced stress analysis techniques to practical design problems. The paper reviews the inter-relation between structural mechanics and nuclear design and discusses a few of the specific structural mechanics problems faced by the nuclear designers in the Department of Atomic Energy, India. (author)

  17. Structural design of a composite bicycle fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldissera, Paolo; Delprete, Cristiana

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Case study about composite bicycle fork design. • Special requirements for a Student Team project. • FE model to evaluate stiffness, strength and potential failure modes. • Comparison of two manufacturing approaches. • FE model stiffness validation on the manufactured fork. - Abstract: Despite the wide literature on the mechanical behaviour of carbon/epoxy composites, it is rare to find practical methodological approaches in finite element design of structural components made by laminate layup. Through the case study of a special bicycle fork needed in a Student Team prototype, this paper proposes a simplified methodology as starting point for educational and manufacturing purposes. In order to compare two manufacturing solutions in terms of stiffness, strength and failure mode, a numerical model was implemented. Since the project requirements imposed to avoid standard destructive testing, the model validation was based on a posteriori linear stiffness comparison with the manufactured component. The slight discrepancies between experimental and numerical results were discussed in order to check their origin and to assess the reliability of the model. The overall methodology, even if complain with only a part of the safety standard requirements, shows to be reliable enough and can be the basis for further extension and refinement

  18. Integral Design workshops: organization, structure and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiler, W Wim; Savanovic, P Perica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve an understanding of design activities in the context of building design. The starting point is an overview of design research and design methodology. From the insights gained by this analysis of design in this specific context, we present an 'organization structure and design' workshop approach for collaborative multi-discipline design management. The workshops set-up, used to implement and to test the approach, are presented as well as the experiences ...

  19. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  20. Engineering Design of KSTAR tokamak main structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, K.H.; Cho, S.; Her, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    The main components of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak including vacuum vessel, plasma facing components, cryostat, thermal shield and magnet supporting structure are in the final stage of engineering design. Hundai Heavy Industries (HHI) has been involved in the engineering design of these components. The current configuration and the final engineering design results for the KSTAR main structure are presented. (author)

  1. Design control for standard U.S. EPRTM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Toney A.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. EPR TM design is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for reference by utility applicants to build and operate EPR TM nuclear reactors in the United States. While the U.S. EPR TM Design Certification and utility Combined License Applications are being reviewed by the NRC, the AREVA-Bechtel Consortium for Engineering Procurement and Construction is proceeding with developing the detailed design. Multiple, parallel regulatory and engineering activities require carefully prepared documents and rigorous design control processes. This paper will review the design control processes used by the AREVA-Bechtel Consortium. Design control must consider the basic design processes required to achieve an integrated, functional design, as well as design change control. Sources of change and the need to keep design bases and licensing bases consistent must be thoroughly understood. An objective of the U.S. EPR TM reactor deployment program for the United States is to achieve maximum standardization of common features of the plant. Such standardization is necessary for economics, speed-of-construction, and operational efficiencies available from a 'fleet' approach to deployment. (author)

  2. Development of standard logic network for PWR NSSS system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Kyu; Lee, Byeong Ryeong; Lee, Pan Kwon; Lee, Hae Joon; Park, Joon Won; Song, Tae Gil; Kim, Dong Hui; Choi, Hyeon Ho

    1993-05-01

    The self-reliance of NSSS System Design is required not only the design capability to perform the system design but also the management capability to control the resource and time for the Project effectively. The purpose of this study is to develop the simplified standard Logic Network that is scheduled on the time and resource using the PERT/CPM method. That is mainly focused on Ulchin 3, 4 Project. We prepare the management tool of NSSS System Design project. And we can utilize it as a reference tool for the similar project which are complex and long term in a next project. (Author)

  3. Differences in safety margins between nuclear and conventional design standards with regards to seismic hazard definition and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Orbovic, N.; Dejan, D.

    2006-01-01

    With the surging interest in new build nuclear all over the world and a permanent interest in earthquake resistance of nuclear plants, there is a need to quantify the safety margins in nuclear buildings design in comparison to conventional buildings in order to increase the public confidence in the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear (CAN3-N289 series) and conventional (NBCC 2005) seismic standards have different approaches regarding the design of civil structures. The origin of the differences lays in the safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. Conventional seismic codes contain the minimal requirement destined primarily to safeguard against major structural failure and loss of life. It doesn't limit damage to a certain acceptable degree or maintain function. Nuclear seismic code requires that structures, systems and components important to safety, withstand the effects of earthquakes. The requirement states that for equipment important to safety, both integrity and functionality should be ascertained. The seismic hazard is generally defined on the basis of the annual probability of exceedence (return period). There is a major difference on the return period and the confidence level for design earthquakes between the conventional and the nuclear seismic standards. The seismic design criteria of conventional structures are based on the use of Force Modification Factors to take into account the energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain and the reserve of strength. The use of such factors to lower intentionally the seismic input is consistent with the safety philosophy of the conventional seismic standard which is the 'non collapse' rather than the integrity and/or the operability of the structures or components. Nuclear seismic standard requires that the structure remain in the elastic domain; energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain is not allowed for design basis earthquake conditions. This is

  4. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  5. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L. [Duke Engineering & Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Turk, R.S. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.

  6. Design for manufacturability of a VDSM standard cell library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chong; Zeng Jianping; Chen Lan; Yin Minghui; Zhao Jie

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method of designing a 65 nm DFM standard cell library. By reducing the amount of the library largely, the process of optical proximity correction (OPC) becomes more efficient and the need for large storage is reduced. This library is more manufacture-friendly as each cell has been optimized according to the DFM rule and optical simulation. The area penalty is minor compared with traditional library, and the timing, as well as power has a good performance. Furthermore, this library has passed the test from the Technology Design Department of Foundry. The result shows this DFM standard cell library has advantages that improve the yield. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Comparative study of codes for the seismic design of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. C. Santos

    Full Text Available A general evaluation of some points of the South American seismic codes is presented herein, comparing them among themselves and with the American Standard ASCE/SEI 7/10 and with the European Standard Eurocode 8. The study is focused in design criteria for buildings. The Western border of South America is one of the most seismically active regions of the World. It corresponds to the confluence of the South American and Nazca plates. This region corresponds roughly to the vicinity of the Andes Mountains. This seismicity diminishes in the direction of the comparatively seismically quieter Eastern South American areas. The South American countries located in its Western Border possess standards for seismic design since some decades ago, being the Brazilian Standard for seismic design only recently published. This study is focused in some critical topics: definition of the recurrence periods for establishing the seismic input; definition of the seismic zonation and design ground motion values; definition of the shape of the design response spectra; consideration of soil amplification, soil liquefaction and soil-structure interaction; classification of the structures in different importance levels; definition of the seismic force-resisting systems and respective response modification coefficients; consideration of structural irregularities and definition of the allowable procedures for the seismic analyses. A simple building structure is analyzed considering the criteria of the several standards and obtained results are compared.

  8. Comparative design of structures concepts and methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shaopei

    2016-01-01

    This book presents comparative design as an approach to the conceptual design of structures. Primarily focusing on reasonable structural performance, sustainable development and architectural aesthetics, it features detailed studies of structural performance through the composition and de-composition of these elements for a variety of structures, such as high-rise buildings, long-span crossings and spatial structures. The latter part of the book addresses the theoretical basis and practical implementation of knowledge engineering in structural design, and a case-based fuzzy reasoning method is introduced to illustrate the concept and method of intelligent design. The book is intended for civil engineers, structural designers and architects, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students in civil engineering and architecture. Shaopei Lin and Zhen Huang are both Professors at the Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.

  9. Structural Design Challenges in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.; Braverman, J.; Wei, X.; Hofmayer, C.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are confined within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of structural design chal- lenges encountered in recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  10. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  11. Earthquake resistant design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Geun; Kim, Gyu Seok; Lee, Dong Geun

    1990-02-01

    This book tells of occurrence of earthquake and damage analysis of earthquake, equivalent static analysis method, application of equivalent static analysis method, dynamic analysis method like time history analysis by mode superposition method and direct integration method, design spectrum analysis considering an earthquake-resistant design in Korea. Such as analysis model and vibration mode, calculation of base shear, calculation of story seismic load and combine of analysis results.

  12. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.......We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design...

  13. Hot laboratory design on the basis of standardized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadrot, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the principal effects on hot laboratory design brought about over the last 15 years by the use of standardized components developed jointly with the CEA and the industrial associates of AFINE. After a rapid survey of the various advantages of standardization, the author turns to the specific case of a laboratory producing mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuels, giving a brief description of the glove-boxes and ancillary equipment. He then deals with the design of an isotope production laboratory. The basic component is the DR 200 standard cell, which permits the civil engineering work to be effected on modular principles. Use of a safety-flow pressure regulating valve makes possible pneumatic automation of the production-cell internals. A substantial gain in output is the result. In the next section the paper refers to a pilot facility for irradiated fuel studies, and describes the components used, which require taking into account the high activities and intense radiations encountered in studies of this type. The author then demonstrates the flexibility with which standardized components can be adapted to different uses, thus solving many distinct problems, an example of which is represented by a semi-hot box for handling up to 100g of americium-241. Finally, the paper offers a rapid summary of the effects of standardization at the various stages concerned, from initial design to the commissioning of a hot laboratory. (author)

  14. Application of Standardized ITAAC to the APR1400 Design Certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Deogji; Kim, Yunho [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Design certification applications (DCAs) submitted pursuant to 10 CFR Part 52 contain two tiers of information, Tier 1 and Tier 2. Tier 1 contains information that is to be certified through rulemaking, and includes the inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria (ITAAC). Tier 2 contains more detailed information and is the source for information included in Tier1. DC applicants have developed the ITAAC with their own format and contents. This has caused the ineffectiveness of the review process by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the design certification stage. Standardizing the format and content of Tier 1 and ITAAC will achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness for Tier 1 and ITAAC development and NRC review, and for ITAAC implementation and verification. NRC provided the proposed standardized ITAAC for APR1400, and KHNP is considering the application of the proposed ITAAC. The strategy for application of the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC to the APR1400 design certification is now under developing, and a meeting with NRC to review the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC is expected to be held in the near future. In this review process, establishment of industry position on the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC is very important. The support from NEI and US industry is expected to be gained.

  15. Application of Standardized ITAAC to the APR1400 Design Certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Deogji; Kim, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Design certification applications (DCAs) submitted pursuant to 10 CFR Part 52 contain two tiers of information, Tier 1 and Tier 2. Tier 1 contains information that is to be certified through rulemaking, and includes the inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria (ITAAC). Tier 2 contains more detailed information and is the source for information included in Tier1. DC applicants have developed the ITAAC with their own format and contents. This has caused the ineffectiveness of the review process by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the design certification stage. Standardizing the format and content of Tier 1 and ITAAC will achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness for Tier 1 and ITAAC development and NRC review, and for ITAAC implementation and verification. NRC provided the proposed standardized ITAAC for APR1400, and KHNP is considering the application of the proposed ITAAC. The strategy for application of the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC to the APR1400 design certification is now under developing, and a meeting with NRC to review the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC is expected to be held in the near future. In this review process, establishment of industry position on the NRC proposed standardized ITAAC is very important. The support from NEI and US industry is expected to be gained

  16. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  17. Codes, standards, and requirements for DOE facilities: natural phenomena design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The basic requirements for codes, standards, and requirements are found in DOE Orders 5480.1A, 5480.4, and 6430.1. The type of DOE facility to be built and the hazards which it presents will determine the criteria to be applied for natural phenomena design. Mandatory criteria are established in the DOE orders for certain designs but more often recommended guidance is given. National codes and standards form a great body of experience from which the project engineer may draw. Examples of three kinds of facilities and the applicable codes and standards are discussed. The safety program planning approach to project management used at Westinghouse Hanford is outlined. 5 figures, 2 tables

  18. Study of elevated temperature design standard against thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai; Morishita, Masaki

    2001-01-01

    Elevated temperature components must be designed against both pressure and thermal loads. In the case of sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors, a restriction from the pressure load becomes small because of the high boiling point of sodium. Design approaches for thermal loads (displacement-controlled) are compared with those against pressure loads (load-controlled). Considering differences between those two approaches, a concept of the elevated temperature design standard that takes the nature of thermal loads fully into account is proposed. This concept is a basis of load evaluation techniques and an inelastic analysis guide, that are being developed. Finally, problems and plans to realize the above concept are discussed. (author)

  19. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bailey, Bruce [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  20. Study on advanced structural design for commercialized fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Aoto, Kazumi; Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai

    2002-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the structural design technology. The research scope was identified as (1) System Based Code for Integrity, (2) FDS (FBR Design Standard), and (3) Standardization of new material, and the results of this year's studies are summarized as follows. (1) System Based Code for Integrity. Requirements that a structural design standard must fulfill for enhanced reliability and economy were clarified. Based on this, the authors began to develop the system-based code for integrity. A structural reliability based design approach was proposed as a basic concept for an integrated evaluation of structural integrity. A system consisting of a supreme code and partial codes was proposed. Technologies and engineering tools that are necessary to materialize this code were clarified and research and development was begun. (2) FDS(FBR Design Standard). A rational design approach against thermal loads was proposed. Applicable area of inelastic analysis methods was investigated to develop inelastic analysis guide. A new design system which realizes feedback from structural to thermal hydraulic designs was proposed with a total analysis method of thermal hydraulic and mechanical behaviors. (3) Standardization of new material. Current status of development of high-chromium ferritic steels was investigated. Those steels have excellent high temperature strength and thermal properties. The authors proposed material specifications to apply those steels to structures

  1. Study on advanced structural design for commercialized fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Masaki; Aoto, Kazumi; Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Sagayama, Yutaka; Dozaki, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshihiko [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Department, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the structural design technology. The research scope was identified as (1) System Based Code for Integrity, (2) FDS (FBR Design Standard), and (3) Standardization of new material, and the results of this year's studies are summarized as follows. (1) System Based Code for Integrity. Requirements that a structural design standard must fulfill for enhanced reliability and economy were clarified. Based on this, the authors began to develop the system-based code for integrity. A structural reliability based design approach was proposed as a basic concept for an integrated evaluation of structural integrity. A system consisting of a supreme code and partial codes was proposed. Technologies and engineering tools that are necessary to materialize this code were clarified and research and development was begun. (2) FDS(FBR Design Standard). A rational design approach against thermal loads was proposed. Applicable area of inelastic analysis methods was investigated to develop inelastic analysis guide. A new design system which realizes feedback from structural to thermal hydraulic designs was proposed with a total analysis method of thermal hydraulic and mechanical behaviors. (3) Standardization of new material. Current status of development of high-chromium ferritic steels was investigated. Those steels have excellent high temperature strength and thermal properties. The authors proposed material specifications to apply those steels to

  2. SNL/CA Facilities Management Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabb, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, Eva [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in California (SNL/CA), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/CA applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule.

  3. Design optimization applied in structural dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akcay-Perdahcioglu, Didem; de Boer, Andries; van der Hoogt, Peter; Tiskarna, T

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the design optimization strategies, especially for structures which have dynamic constraints. Design optimization involves first the modeling and then the optimization of the problem. Utilizing the Finite Element (FE) model of a structure directly in an optimization process

  4. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  5. Reliability-Based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of reliability theory for conceptual design and evaluation of coastal structures. It is without the scope to discuss the validity and quality of the various design formulae available for coastal structures. The contents of the paper is a....... Proceedings Conference of Port and Coastal Engineering in developing countries. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1995....

  6. Optimal design of lossy bandgap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    The method of topology optimization is used to design structures for wave propagation with one lossy material component. Optimized designs for scalar elastic waves are presented for mininimum wave transmission as well as for maximum wave energy dissipation. The structures that are obtained...... are of the 1D or 2D bandgap type depending on the objective and the material parameters....

  7. Reporting Qualitative Research: Standards, Challenges, and Implications for Health Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peditto, Kathryn

    2018-04-01

    This Methods column describes the existing reporting standards for qualitative research, their application to health design research, and the challenges to implementation. Intended for both researchers and practitioners, this article provides multiple perspectives on both reporting and evaluating high-quality qualitative research. Two popular reporting standards exist for reporting qualitative research-the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) and the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR). Though compiled using similar procedures, they differ in their criteria and the methods to which they apply. Creating and applying reporting criteria is inherently difficult due to the undefined and fluctuating nature of qualitative research when compared to quantitative studies. Qualitative research is expansive and occasionally controversial, spanning many different methods of inquiry and epistemological approaches. A "one-size-fits-all" standard for reporting qualitative research can be restrictive, but COREQ and SRQR both serve as valuable tools for developing responsible qualitative research proposals, effectively communicating research decisions, and evaluating submissions. Ultimately, tailoring a set of standards specific to health design research and its frequently used methods would ensure quality research and aid reviewers in their evaluations.

  8. Reliability based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional design practice for coastal structures is deterministic in nature and is based on the concept of a design load which should not exceed the resistance (carrying capacity) of the structure. The design load is usually defined on a probabilistic basis as a characteristic value of the load......, for example the expectation (mean) value of the 100-year return period event. However, this selection is often made without consideration of the involved uncertainties. In most cases the resistance is defined in terms of the load that causes a certain design impact or damage to the structure...

  9. Design and fabrication of topologically optimized structures;

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Integral structural optimization and fabrication seeks the synthesis of two original approaches; that of topological optimization (TO) and robotic hotwire cutting (HWC) (Mcgee 2011). TO allows for the reduction of up to 70% of the volume of concrete to support a given structure (Sondergaard...... & Dombernowsky 2011). A strength of the method is that it allows to come up with structural designs that lie beyond the grasp of traditional means of design. A design space is a discretized volume, delimiting where the optimization will take place. The number of cells used to discretize the design space thus...

  10. Seismic Design Guidelines For Port Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Bernal, Alberto; Blazquez, Rafael

    In order to mitigate hazards and losses due to earthquakes, seismic design methodologies have been developed and implemented in design practice in many regions since the early twentieth century, often in the form of codes and standards. Most of these methodologies are based on a force-balance app...

  11. Design of SSC collider structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsees, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The authors would like to set the record straight. To date, underground construction contracts on the SSC main ring have been bid at a savings of $77 million dollars or 33 percent below the baseline cost estimate. The SSC is the largest single underground project ever built anywhere in the world. When completed it will have approximately 70 miles of tunnels, 60 shafts, two huge underground experiment halls -- each the size of a football stadium -- and numerous other structures, each of which would be considered a major facility on any other project

  12. Automated analysis and design of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the following: 1. The relationship of analysis to design. 2. New methods of analysis. 3. Improved finite elements. 4. Effect of minicomputer on structural analysis methods. 5. The use of system of microprocessors for nonlinear structural analysis. 6. The role of interacting graphics systems in future analysis and design. The discussion focusses on the impact of new inexpensive computer hardware on design and analysis methods. (Auth.)

  13. Designing complex systems - a structured activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van Vliet, Johannes C.; Lenting, Bert; Olson, Gary M.; Schuon, Sue

    1995-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of complex systems from the point of view of design as a structure of activities, related both to the clients and the users. Several modeling approaches will be adopted for different aspects of design, and several views on design will be integrated. The proposed

  14. ASTROS: A multidisciplinary automated structural design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) is a finite-element-based multidisciplinary structural optimization procedure developed under Air Force sponsorship to perform automated preliminary structural design. The design task is the determination of the structural sizes that provide an optimal structure while satisfying numerous constraints from many disciplines. In addition to its automated design features, ASTROS provides a general transient and frequency response capability, as well as a special feature to perform a transient analysis of a vehicle subjected to a nuclear blast. The motivation for the development of a single multidisciplinary design tool is that such a tool can provide improved structural designs in less time than is currently needed. The role of such a tool is even more apparent as modern materials come into widespread use. Balancing conflicting requirements for the structure's strength and stiffness while exploiting the benefits of material anisotropy is perhaps an impossible task without assistance from an automated design tool. Finally, the use of a single tool can bring the design task into better focus among design team members, thereby improving their insight into the overall task.

  15. Structural elements design manual working with Eurocodes

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Structural Elements Design Manual: Working With Eurocodes is the structural engineers 'companion volume' to the four Eurocodes on the structural use of timber, concrete, masonry and steelwork. For the student at higher technician or first degree level it provides a single source of information on the behaviour and practical design of the main elements of the building structure. With plenty of worked examples and diagrams, it is a useful textbook not only for students of structural and civil engineering, but also for those on courses in related subjects such as

  16. Phononic band gap structures as optimal designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use topology optimization to design phononic band gap structures. We consider 2D structures subjected to periodic loading and obtain the distribution of two materials with high contrast in material properties that gives the minimal vibrational response of the structure. Both in...

  17. Materials for Consideration in Standardized Canister Design Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Enos, David George; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    This document identifies materials and material mitigation processes that might be used in new designs for standardized canisters for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It also addresses potential corrosion issues with existing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) that could be addressed in new canister designs. The major potential corrosion risk during storage is stress corrosion cracking of the weld regions on the 304 SS/316 SS canister shell due to deliquescence of chloride salts on the surface. Two approaches are proposed to alleviate this potential risk. First, the existing canister materials (304 and 316 SS) could be used, but the welds mitigated to relieve residual stresses and/or sensitization. Alternatively, more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic or duplex stainless steels, could be used. Experimental testing is needed to verify that these alternatives would successfully reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking during fuel storage. For disposal in a geologic repository, the canister will be enclosed in a corrosion-resistant or corrosion-allowance overpack that will provide barrier capability and mechanical strength. The canister shell will no longer have a barrier function and its containment integrity can be ignored. The basket and neutron absorbers within the canister have the important role of limiting the possibility of post-closure criticality. The time period for corrosion is much longer in the post-closure period, and one major unanswered question is whether the basket materials will corrode slowly enough to maintain structural integrity for at least 10,000 years. Whereas there is extensive literature on stainless steels, this evaluation recommends testing of 304 and 316 SS, and more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic, duplex, and super-duplex stainless steels, at repository-relevant physical and chemical conditions. Both general and localized corrosion testing methods would be used to

  18. Design Performance Standards for Large Scale Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark

    2009-01-01

    of connection into the Eastern Australian power system under the Rules and guidelines set out by AEMC and NEMMCO (AEMO). Where applicable some international practices are also mentioned. Standards are designed to serve as a technical envelope under which wind farm proponents design the plant and maintain...... ongoing technical compliance of the plant during its operational lifetime. This report is designed to provide general technical information for the wind farm connection engineer to be aware of during the process of connection, registration and operation of wind power plants interconnected into the HV TSO......’s network. No special NER Rule has been used in this document, however V30 (year 2009) has been used as the latest reference on some of the topics discussed. Care has been taken to emphasise certain wind farm design and connection issues that could be considered throughout different stages of the wind farm...

  19. Lessons learned from standardized plant design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, B.

    1999-01-01

    Following France's hydropower program, Electricite de France began producing electricity with nuclear power during the 60s with units that were all different. In the early 70s, EDF launched an extensive nuclear program which was fueled by the 1973 oil crisis. The particularity of this program is based on the standardization of the design which enables the cost of engineering studies, components and construction to be reduced. As all of the sites presented various conditions, a single design was possible except for the heat sink, connection to the grid and foundations. In order to follow technical progress, the program was divided into several homogeneous series: CP0, CP1 and CP2 for 900 MWe reactors, P4 and P'4 for 1300 MWe reactors and N4 for 1450 MWe reactors. EDF has managed to apply standardization throughout the service life of the plant: all units of the same series are modified in the same manner and with a same batch of modifications. The standardization of operations is also the EDF's rule: technical specifications, safety reports, and safety procedures are normally the same for units belonging to the same series. Nevertheless, when plant design and operations, and heavy maintenance are considered, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain strict standardization across the board: when examined closely, variations are possible-as regards the chemical specifications of the secondary system, for instance. On the other hand, at the fabrication stage, it is difficult to maintain fabrication procedures and alloy compositions rigorously the same. Standardization offers a tremendous advantage representing 30-40% of construction costs. The main drawback is the risk of generic defects. On the other hand, the risk is rather small owing to the small differences among units. (author)

  20. Leo Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines: A Proposed NASA Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, G. B.; Ferguson, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) spacecraft have gradually required ever-increasing power levels. As a rule, this has been accomplished through the use of high voltage systems. Recent failures and anomalies on such spacecraft have been traced to various design practices and materials choices related to the high voltage solar arrays. NASA Glenn has studied these anomalies including plasma chamber testing on arrays similar to those that experienced difficulties on orbit. Many others in the community have been involved in a comprehensive effort to understand the problems and to develop practices to avoid them. The NASA Space Environments and Effects program, recognizing the timeliness of this effort, commissioned and funded a design guidelines document intended to capture the current state of understanding. This document, which was completed in the spring of 2003, has been submitted as a proposed NASA standard. We present here an overview of this document and discuss the effort to develop it as a NASA standard.

  1. American National Standard: nuclear data sets for reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard identifies and describes the specifications for developing, preparing, and documenting nuclear data sets to be used in reactor design calculations. The specifications include criteria for acceptance of evaluated nuclear data sets, criteria for processing evaluated data and preparation of processed continuous data and averaged data sets, and identification of specific evaluated, processed continuous, and averaged data sets which meet these criteria for specific reactor types

  2. American National Standard nuclear data sets for reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A standard is presented which identifies and describes the specifications for developing, preparing, and documenting nuclear data sets to be used in reactor design calculations. The specifications include (a) criteria for acceptance of evaluated nuclear data sets, (b) criteria for processing evaluated data and preparation of processed continuous data and averaged data sets, and (c) identification of specific evaluated, processed continuous, and averaged data sets which meet these criteria for specific reactor types

  3. Structural optimization via a design space hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    Mathematical programming techniques provide a general approach to automated structural design. An iterative method is proposed in which design is treated as a hierarchy of subproblems, one being locally constrained and the other being locally unconstrained. It is assumed that the design space is locally convex in the case of good initial designs and that the objective and constraint functions are continuous, with continuous first derivatives. A general design algorithm is outlined for finding a move direction which will decrease the value of the objective function while maintaining a feasible design. The case of one-dimensional search in a two-variable design space is discussed. Possible applications are discussed. A major feature of the proposed algorithm is its application to problems which are inherently ill-conditioned, such as design of structures for optimum geometry.

  4. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  5. Automated analysis and design of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The present application of optimum design appears to be restricted to components of the structure rather than to the total structural system. Since design normally involved many analysis of the system any improvement in the efficiency of the basic methods of analysis will allow more complicated systems to be designed by optimum methods. The evaluation of the risk and reliability of a structural system can be extremely important. Reliability studies have been made of many non-structural systems for which the individual components have been extensively tested and the service environment is known. For such systems the reliability studies are valid. For most structural systems, however, the properties of the components can only be estimated and statistical data associated with the potential loads is often minimum. Also, a potentially critical loading condition may be completely neglected in the study. For these reasons and the previous problems associated with the reliability of both linear and nonlinear analysis computer programs it appears to be premature to place a significant value on such studies for complex structures. With these comments as background the purpose of this paper is to discuss the following: the relationship of analysis to design; new methods of analysis; new of improved finite elements; effect of minicomputer on structural analysis methods; the use of system of microprocessors for nonlinear structural analysis; the role of interacting graphics systems in future analysis and design. This discussion will focus on the impact of new, inexpensive computer hardware on design and analysis methods

  6. Computational RNA secondary structure design: empirical complexity and improved methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condon Anne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate the empirical complexity of the RNA secondary structure design problem, that is, the scaling of the typical difficulty of the design task for various classes of RNA structures as the size of the target structure is increased. The purpose of this work is to understand better the factors that make RNA structures hard to design for existing, high-performance algorithms. Such understanding provides the basis for improving the performance of one of the best algorithms for this problem, RNA-SSD, and for characterising its limitations. Results To gain insights into the practical complexity of the problem, we present a scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures using an improved version of the RNA-SSD algorithm, and also the RNAinverse algorithm from the Vienna package. Since primary structure constraints are relevant for designing RNA structures, we also investigate the correlation between the number and the location of the primary structure constraints when designing structures and the performance of the RNA-SSD algorithm. The scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures supports the hypothesis that the running time of both algorithms scales polynomially with the size of the structure. We also found that the algorithms are in general faster when constraints are placed only on paired bases in the structure. Furthermore, we prove that, according to the standard thermodynamic model, for some structures that the RNA-SSD algorithm was unable to design, there exists no sequence whose minimum free energy structure is the target structure. Conclusion Our analysis helps to better understand the strengths and limitations of both the RNA-SSD and RNAinverse algorithms, and suggests ways in which the performance of these algorithms can be further improved.

  7. HTGR fuel element structural design consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloway, R.; Gorholt, W.; Ho, F.; Vollman, R.; Yu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The structural design of the large HTGR prismatic core fuel elements involve the interaction of four engineering disciplines: nuclear physics, thermo-hydraulics, structural and material science. Fuel element stress analysis techniques and the development of structural criteria are discussed in the context of an overview of the entire design process. The core of the proposed 2240 MW(t) HTGR is described as an example where the design process was used. Probabilistic stress analysis techniques coupled with probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to develop structural criteria to account for uncertainty are described. The PRA provides a means for ensuring that the proposed structural criteria are consistant with plant investment and safety risk goals. The evaluation of cracked fuel elements removed from the Fort St. Vrain reactor in the U.S.A. is discussed in the context of stress analysis uncertainty and structural criteria development. (author)

  8. HTGR fuel element structural design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloway, R.; Gorholt, W.; Ho, F.; Vollman, R.; Yu, H.

    1986-09-01

    The structural design of the large HTGR prismatic core fuel elements involve the interaction of four engineering disciplines: nuclear physics, thermo-hydraulics, structural and material science. Fuel element stress analysis techniques and the development of structural criteria are discussed in the context of an overview of the entire design process. The core of the proposed 2240 MW(t) HTGR is described as an example where the design process was used. Probabalistic stress analysis techniques coupled with probabalistic risk analysis (PRA) to develop structural criteria to account for uncertainty are described. The PRA provides a means for ensuring that the proposed structural criteria are consistent with plant investment and safety risk goals. The evaluation of cracked fuel elements removed from the Fort St. Vrain reactor in the USA is discussed in the context of stress analysis uncertainty and structural criteria development

  9. Design Guidelines for Low Crested Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Lamberti, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    1998-2002. The Guidelines comprise engineering aspects related to morphological impact and structure stability, biological aspects related to ecological impact, and socio-economical aspects related to the implementation of LCS-schemes. The guidelines are limited to submerged and regularly overtopped......The paper presents an overview of the design guidelines for low crested structures (LCS's) to be applied in coastal protection schemes. The design guidelines are formulated as a part of the research project: Environmental Design of Low Crested Coastal Defence Structures (DELOS) within the EC 5FP...

  10. Recent developments in the IAEA safety standards: design and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takehiko

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing a wide variety of safety standards for nuclear and radiation related facilities and activities since 1978. In 1996, a more rigorously structured approach for the preparation and review of its safety standards was introduced. Currently, based on the approach, revision of most of the standards is in completion or near completion. The latest versions of the Safety Requirements for ''Design'' and ''Operation'' of nuclear power plants were respectively published in 2000. Currently, along with this revision of the Safety Requirements, many Safety Guides have been revised. In order to clarify the complicated revision procedure, an example of the entire revision process for a Safety Guide is provided. Through actual example of the revision process, enormous amount of work involved in the revision work is clearly indicated. The current status of all of the Safety Standards for Design and that for Operation of nuclear power plants are summarized. Summary of other IAEA safety standards currently revised and available related IAEA publications, together with information on the IAEA Web Site from where these documents can be downloaded, is also provided. The standards are reviewed to determine whether revision (or new issue) is necessary in five years following publication. The IAEA safety standards will continue to be updated through comprehensive and structured approach, collaboration of many experts of the world, and reflecting good practices of the world. The IAEA safety standards will serve to provide high level of safety assurance. (author)

  11. High temperature structure design for FBRs and analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Koji

    1986-01-01

    In the case of FBRs, the operation temperature exceeds 500 deg C, therefore, the design taking the inelastic characteristics of structural materials, such as plasticity and creep, into account is required, and the high grade and detailed evaluation of design is demanded. This new high temperature structure design technology has been advanced in respective countries taking up experimental, prototype and demonstration reactors as the targets. The development of FBRs in Japan was begun with the experimental reactor 'Joyo' which has been operated since 1977, and now, the prototype FBR 'Monju' of 280 MWe is under construction, which is expected to attain the criticality in 1992. In order to realize FBRs which can compete with LWRs through the construction of a demonstration FBR, the construction of large scale plants and the heightening of the economy and reliability are necessary. The features and the role of FBR structural design, the method of high temperature structure design and the trend of its standardization, the trend of the structural analysis technology for FBRs such as inelastic analysis, buckling analysis and fluid and structure coupled vibration analysis, the present status of structural analysis programs, and the subjects for the future of high temperature structure design are explained. (Kako, I.)

  12. Seismic design criteria for special isotope separation plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrona, M.W.; Wuthrich, S.J.; Rose, D.L.; Starkey, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic criteria for the design of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) production plant. These criteria are derived from the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders, references and proposed standards. The SIS processing plant consistent of Load Center Building (LCB), Dye Pump Building (DPB), Laser Support Building (LSB) and Plutonium Processing Building (PPB). The facility-use category for each of the SIS building structures is identified and the applicable seismic design criteria and parameters are selected

  13. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  14. Contributions of the ORNL piping program to nuclear piping design codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.

    1975-11-01

    The ORNL Piping Program was conceived and established to develop basic information on the structural behavior of nuclear power plant piping components and to prepare this information in forms suitable for use in design analysis and codes and standards. One of the objectives was to develop and qualify stress indices and flexibility factors for direct use in Code-prescribed design analysis methods. Progress in this area is described

  15. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  16. A review of medical terminology standards and structured reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaysheh, Abdullah; Wilcke, Jeffrey; Elvinger, François; Rees, Loren; Fan, Weiguo; Zimmerman, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Much effort has been invested in standardizing medical terminology for representation of medical knowledge, storage in electronic medical records, retrieval, reuse for evidence-based decision making, and for efficient messaging between users. We only focus on those efforts related to the representation of clinical medical knowledge required for capturing diagnoses and findings from a wide range of general to specialty clinical perspectives (e.g., internists to pathologists). Standardized medical terminology and the usage of structured reporting have been shown to improve the usage of medical information in secondary activities, such as research, public health, and case studies. The impact of standardization and structured reporting is not limited to secondary activities; standardization has been shown to have a direct impact on patient healthcare.

  17. A standardized method for beam design in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.: Harrington, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A desirable end point for a given beam design for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) should be quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage. Achieving this goal will ultimately rely on data from NCT human clinical trials. Traditional descriptions of beam designs have used a variety of assessment methods to quantify proposed or installed beam designs. These methods include measurement and calculation of open-quotes free fieldclose quotes parameters, such as neutron and gamma flux intensities and energy spectra, and figures-of-merit in tissue equivalent phantoms. The authors propose here a standardized method for beam design in NCT. This method would allow all proposed and existing NCT beam facilities to be compared equally. The traditional approach to determining a quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage in NCT research may be described by the following path: Beam design → dosimetry → macroscopic effects → microscopic effects. Methods exist that allow neutron and gamma fluxes and energy dependence to be calculated and measured to good accuracy. By using this information and intermediate dosimetric quantities such as kerma factors for neutrons and gammas, macroscopic effect (absorbed dose) in geometries of tissue or tissue-equivalent materials can be calculated. After this stage, for NCT the data begins to become more sparse and in some areas ambiguous. Uncertainties in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of some NCT dose components means that beam designs based on assumptions considered valid a few years ago may have to be reassessed. A standard method is therefore useful for comparing different NCT facilities

  18. Technology standards for structure, etc. concerning nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Based on the Ordinance for the Technology Standards concerning Nuclear Power Generating Facilities, the technology standards are established for the vessels of class 1 to 4 (including reactor pressure vessels, reactor containment vessels, etc.), the pipes of class 1 to 3, safety valves, pressure test and monitoring test specimens. Those specified are materials, nondestructive tests, structures, shapes, shells, flanges, etc. for the vessels and the pipes, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  19. Design Tools and Workflows for Braided Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestartas, Petras; Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Zwierzycki, Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    and merits of our method, demonstrated though four example design and analysis workflows. The workflows frame specific aspects of enquiry for the ongoing research project flora robotica. These include modelling target geometries, automatically producing instructions for fabrication, conducting structural...

  20. Structural modules in AP1000 plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, N.; Tunon-Sanjur, L.

    2007-01-01

    Structural modules are extensively used in AP1000 plant design. The shop manufacturing of modules components improves the quality and reliability of plant structures. The application of modules has a positive impact on construction schedules, and results in substantial savings in the construction cost. This paper describes various types of structural modules used for AP1000 plant structures. CA structural wall modules are steel plate modules with concrete placed, on or within the module, after module installation. The layout and design of the largest CA wall modules, CA01 and CA20, is described in detail. General discussion of structural floor modules, such as the composite and finned floors, is also included. Steel form CB modules (liners) consist of plate reinforced with angle stiffeners and tee sections. The angles and the tee sections are on the concrete side of the plate. Design of CB20 has been included as an example of CB type modules. Design codes and structural concepts related to module designs are discussed. (authors)

  1. Design validation of the ITER EC upper launcher according to codes and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaeh, Peter, E-mail: peter.spaeh@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, Gaetano [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gagliardi, Mario [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); F4E, Fusion for Energy, Joint Undertaking, Barcelona (Spain); Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine; Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weinhorst, Bastian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A set of applicable codes and standards has been chosen for the ITER EC upper launcher. • For a particular component load combinations, failure modes and stress categorizations have been determined. • The design validation was performed in accordance with the “design by analysis”-approach of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section III. - Abstract: The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) upper launcher has passed the CDR (conceptual design review) in 2005 and the PDR (preliminary design review) in 2009 and is in its final design phase now. The final design will be elaborated by the European consortium ECHUL-CA with contributions from several research institutes in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Within this consortium KIT is responsible for the design of the structural components (the upper port plug, UPP) and also the design integration of the launcher. As the selection of applicable codes and standards was under discussion for the past decade, the conceptual and the preliminary design of the launcher structure were not elaborated in straight accordance with a particular code but with a variety of well-acknowledged engineering practices. For the final design it is compulsory to validate the design with respect to a typical engineering code in order to be compliant with the ITER quality and nuclear requirements and to get acceptance from the French regulator. This paper presents typical design validation of the closure plate, which is the vacuum and Tritium barrier and thus a safety relevant component of the upper port plug (UPP), performed with the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Rationales for choosing this code are given as well as a comparison between different design methods, like the “design by rule” and the “design by analysis” approach. Also the selections of proper load specifications and the identification of potential failure modes are covered. In addition to that stress categorizations, analyses

  2. Design validation of the ITER EC upper launcher according to codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaeh, Peter; Aiello, Gaetano; Gagliardi, Mario; Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine; Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro; Weinhorst, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A set of applicable codes and standards has been chosen for the ITER EC upper launcher. • For a particular component load combinations, failure modes and stress categorizations have been determined. • The design validation was performed in accordance with the “design by analysis”-approach of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section III. - Abstract: The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) upper launcher has passed the CDR (conceptual design review) in 2005 and the PDR (preliminary design review) in 2009 and is in its final design phase now. The final design will be elaborated by the European consortium ECHUL-CA with contributions from several research institutes in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Within this consortium KIT is responsible for the design of the structural components (the upper port plug, UPP) and also the design integration of the launcher. As the selection of applicable codes and standards was under discussion for the past decade, the conceptual and the preliminary design of the launcher structure were not elaborated in straight accordance with a particular code but with a variety of well-acknowledged engineering practices. For the final design it is compulsory to validate the design with respect to a typical engineering code in order to be compliant with the ITER quality and nuclear requirements and to get acceptance from the French regulator. This paper presents typical design validation of the closure plate, which is the vacuum and Tritium barrier and thus a safety relevant component of the upper port plug (UPP), performed with the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Rationales for choosing this code are given as well as a comparison between different design methods, like the “design by rule” and the “design by analysis” approach. Also the selections of proper load specifications and the identification of potential failure modes are covered. In addition to that stress categorizations, analyses

  3. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.; Smietana, E.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Program, a new manual has been developed, entitled UCRL-CR-106554, open-quotes Structural Concepts and Details for Seismic Design.close quotes This manual describes and illustrates good practice for seismic-resistant design

  4. Conceptual Design Tool for Concrete Shell Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on conceptual tools for concrete shell structures when working within the span of performance-based design and computational morphogenesis. The designer, referred to as the Architect-Engineer, works through several iterations parallel with aesthetic, functional and technical re...

  5. Regulatory issues resolved through design certification on the System 80+trademark standard plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.; Brinkman, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review of the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design, approving advanced design features and closing severe accident licensing issues. Final Design Approval was granted in July 1994. The NRC review was extensive, requiring written responses to over 4,950 questions and formal printing of over 50,000 Safety Analysis Report pages. New safety issues never before addressed in a regulatory atmosphere had to be resolved with detailed analysis and evaluation of design features. the System 80+ review demonstrated that regulatory issues can be firmly resolved only through presentation of a detailed design and completion of a comprehensive regulatory review

  6. System 80+TM standard plant: Design and operations overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Ritterbusch, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The System 80+ Standard Plant Design is a 1400 MWe evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR), designed to meet the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) and the demands of the international market for nuclear power plants which are not only safer but also more economical to maintain and operate. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power used a defense-in-depth process that (1) adds design margin to basic components to improve performance during normal operation and to decrease the likelihood of an unanticipated transient or an accident, (2) improves the redundancy and diversity of safety systems in order to mitigate design basis accidents and prevent severe accidents, and (3) improves severe accident mitigation capability. This paper describes the most important improved systems and components with emphasis on severe accident prevention and mitigation capability. The improved design features were implemented in an evolutionary manner using proven components. This approach ensures that the plant operates safely and economically, as demonstrated by operating plants in the US and the Republic of Korea. Detailed studies, summarized in this paper, have shown that the System 80+ plant availability is expected to exceed the ALWR requirement of 87% and that the annual operations and maintenance costs are expected to be reduced by $14 million. (author)

  7. A Standard Structure for Bile Acids and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Meijide

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of two ester compounds (a monomer in its methyl ester form, with an amino isophthalic group, and a dimer in which the two steroid units are linked by a urea bridge recrystallized from ethyl acetate/methanol derived from cholic acid are described. Average bond lengths and bond angles from the crystal structures of 26 monomers and four dimers (some of them in several solvents of bile acids and esters (and derivatives are used for proposing a standard steroid nucleus. The hydrogen bond network and conformation of the lateral chain are also discussed. This standard structure was used to compare with the structures of both progesterone and cholesterol.

  8. Fully probabilistic design: the way for optimizing of concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Laníková

    Full Text Available Some standards for the design of concrete structures (e.g. EC2 and the original ČSN 73 1201-86 allow a structure to be designed by several methods. This contribution documents the fact that even if a structure does not comply with the partial reliability factor method, according to EC2, it can satisfy the conditions during the application of the fully probabilistic approach when using the same standard. From an example of the reliability of a prestressed spun concrete pole designed by the partial factor method and fully probabilistic approach according to the Eurocode it is evident that an expert should apply a more precise (though unfortunately more complicated method in the limiting cases. The Monte Carlo method, modified by the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS method, has been used for the calculation of reliability. Ultimate and serviceability limit states were checked for the partial factor method and fully probabilistic design. As a result of fully probabilistic design it is possible to obtain a more efficient design for a structure.

  9. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...... satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement. Based on a sensitivity analysis optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability-based optimization problem sequentially using quasi......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered....

  10. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...... satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement. Based on a sensitivity analysis optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability-based optimization problem sequentially using quasi......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered....

  11. Large coil program support structure conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to perform tests on both pool boiling and force cooled superconducting toroidal field coils. The tests will attempt to approximate conditions anticipated in an ignition tokamak. The test requirements resulted in a coil support design which accommodates up to six (6) test coils and is mounted to a structure capable of resisting coil interactions. The steps leading to the present LCP coil support structure design, details on selected structural components, and the basic assembly sequence are discussed

  12. A Structured Approach to Homepage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gwen; Brown, M. Marlo

    With no standards governing their creation, a variety of formats are being used for World Wide Web homepages. Some are well organized, present their information clearly, and work with multiple browsers. Others, however, are slow to load, function poorly with some Web browsing software, and are so badly structured that they are very difficult to…

  13. Structural design of Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideyuki; Tanno, Yoshiro; Nakai, Masayoshi; Ohshima, Takashi; Suguichi, Akihiro; Lee, William H.; Wang, Jensen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an outline description of the structural design of the main stadium for the World Games held in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, in 2009. Three new design concepts, unseen in previous stadiums, were proposed and realized: “an open stadium”, “an urban park”, and “a spiral continuous form”. Based on the open stadium concept, simple cantilever trusses in the roof structure were arranged in a delicate rhythm, and a so-called oscillating hoop of steel tubes was wound around the top and bottom surfaces of a group of cantilever trusses to form a continuous spiral form. Also, at the same time by clearly grouping the structural elements of the roof structure, the dramatic effect of the urban park was highlighted by unifying the landscape and the spectator seating area to form the stadium facade. This paper specifically reports on the overview of the building, concepts of structural design, structural analysis of the roof, roof design, foundation design, and an outline of the construction.

  14. Seismic analysis and design of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Carvalho Santos, S.H.; da Silva, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical methods for static and dynamic analysis of structures, as well as for the design of individual structural elements under the applied loads are under continuous development, being very sophisticated methods nowadays available for the engineering practice. Nevertheless, this sophistication will be useless if some important aspects necessary to assure full compatability between analysis and design are disregarded. Some of these aspects are discussed herein. This paper presents an integrated approach for the seismic analysis and design of NPP structures: the development of models for the seismic analysis, the distribution of the global seismic forces among the seismic-resistant elements and the criteria for the design of the individual elements for combined static and dynamic forces are the main topics to be discussed herein. The proposed methodology is illustrated. Some examples taken from the project practice are presented for illustration the exposed concepts

  15. Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.

    1996-09-01

    High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

  16. Different design approaches to structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, I.

    2013-01-01

    -priori evaluate which design is the safest or the most economical one: a punctual analysis of the different aspects and a comparison of the resulting designs is therefore of interest and is presented in this paper with reference to the case study considered.The third approach refers instead to a performance......-based fire design of the structure(PBFD), where safety goals are explicitly defined and a deeper knowledge of the structural response to fire effects can be achieved, for example with the avail of finite element analyses (FEA). On the other hand, designers can’t follow established procedures when undertaking...... such advanced investigations, which are generally quite complex ones, due to the presence of material degradation and large displacements induced by fire, as well as the possible triggering of local mechanism in the system. An example of advanced investigations for fire design is given in the paper...

  17. Evaluation of Standard Concepts Design of Library Interior Physical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debri Harindya Putri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the function of a room is not only used as a shelter, the function of the room itself to be increased as a refreshing or relaxation area for users to follow the development of creativity and technology in the field of design. The comfortable factor becomes the main factor that indicates a successful process of creating a space. No exception library. The nature of library seemed stiff because of its function as a place to read, now can be developed and made into more dynamic with the special design concepts or color patterns used. Libraries can be created a special concept that suits the characteristics of the users themselves. Most users of the library, especially in college libraries are teenagers. Naturally, teenagers like to gather with their friends and we have to facilitate this activity in our library design concept. In addition we can also determine the needs of users through research by questionnaire method. The answers of users can be mapped and drawn conclusions. To explore the research, the author reviewed some literature about library interior design and observed the library of Ma Chung University as a case study. The combined results of the method can be concluded and the discovery of ideal standards of physical environment. So, the library can be made as a comfortable reading environment so as to increased interest in reading behavior and the frequent visits of students in the library

  18. Thermal Hydraulic Design of PWT Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, David; Chen Ping; Lundquist, Martin; Luo, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microwave power losses on the surfaces of accelerating structures will transform to heat which will deform the structures if it is not removed in time. Thermal hydraulic design of the disk and cooling rods of a Plane Wave Transformer (PWT) structure is presented. Experiments to measure the hydraulic (pressure vs flow rate) and cooling (heat removed vs flow rate) properties of the PWT disk are performed, and results compared with simulations using Mathcad models and the COSMOSM code. Both experimental and simulation results showed that the heat deposited on the structure could be removed effectively using specially designed water-cooling circuits and the temperature of the structure could be controlled within the range required.

  19. Standard-D hydrogen monitoring system, system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    During most of the year, it is assumed that the vapor space in the 177 radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Project site contain a uniform mixture of gases. Several of these waste tanks (currently twenty-five, 6 Double Shell Tanks and 19 Single Shell Tanks) were identified as having the potential for the buildup of gasses to a flammable level. An active ventilation system in the Double Shell Tanks and a passive ventilation system in the Single Shell Tanks provides a method of expelling gasses from the tanks. A gas release from a tank causes a temporary rise in the tank pressure, and a potential for increased concentration of hydrogen gas in the vapor space. The gas is released via the ventilation systems until a uniform gas mixture in the vapor space is once again achieved. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) is designed to monitor and quantify the percent hydrogen concentration during these potential gas releases. This document describes the design of the Standard-D Hydrogen Monitoring System, (SHMS-D) and its components as it differs from the original SHMS

  20. Standard guide for design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any chemical or physical form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. Not included in the criteria are systems auxiliary to the glovebox systems such as utilities, ventilation, alarm, and waste disposal. Also not addressed are hot cells or open-face hoods. The scope of this guide excludes specific license requirements relating to provisions for criticality prevention, hazards control, safeguards, packaging, and material handling. Observance of this guide does not relieve the user of the obligation to conform to all federal, state, and local regulations for design and construction of glovebox systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user...

  1. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  2. Structural Design Optimization On Thermally Induced Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yuanxian; Chen, Biaosong; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhao, Guozhong

    2002-01-01

    The numerical method of design optimization for structural thermally induced vibration is originally studied in this paper and implemented in application software JIFEX. The direct and adjoint methods of sensitivity analysis for thermal induced vibration coupled with both linear and nonlinear transient heat conduction is firstly proposed. Based on the finite element method, the structural linear dynamics is treated simultaneously with coupled linear and nonlinear transient heat structural linear dynamics is treated simultaneously with coupled linear and nonlinear transient heat conduction. In the thermal analysis model, the nonlinear heat conduction considered is result from the radiation and temperature-dependent materials. The sensitivity analysis of transient linear and nonlinear heat conduction is performed with the precise time integration method. And then, the sensitivity analysis of structural transient dynamics is performed by the Newmark method. Both the direct method and the adjoint method are employed to derive the sensitivity equations of thermal vibration, and there are two adjoint vectors of structure and heat conduction respectively. The coupling effect of heat conduction on thermal vibration in the sensitivity analysis is particularly investigated. With coupling sensitivity analysis, the optimization model is constructed and solved by the sequential linear programming or sequential quadratic programming algorithm. The methods proposed have been implemented in the application software JIFEX of structural design optimization, and numerical examples are given to illustrate the methods and usage of structural design optimization on thermally induced vibration

  3. HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, F.; Kecskes, S.; Aiello, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

  4. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  5. New clic-g structure design

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082335

    2016-01-01

    The baseline design of the Compact Linear Collider main linac accelerating structure is called ‘CLIC-G’. It is described in the CLIC Conceptual Design Report (CDR) [1]. As shown in Fig. 1, a regular cell of the structure has four waveguides to damp unwanted high-order-modes (HOMs). These waveguides are dimensioned to cut off the fundamental working frequency in order to prevent the degradation of the fundamental mode Q-factor. The cell geometry and HOM damping loads had been extensively optimized in order to maximize the RF-to-beam efficiency, to minimize the cost, and to meet the beam dynamics and the high gradient RF constraints [2

  6. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Soft Shell-Hardcore approach to nuclear power plant auxiliary structure design was developed to attenuate the crash effects of impacting aircraft. This report is an initial investigation into defining the important structural features involved that would allow the Soft Shell-Hardcore design to successfully sustain the postulated aircraft impact. Also specified for purposes of this study are aircraft impact locations and the type and velocity of impacting aircraft. The purpose of this initial investigation is to determine the feasibility of the two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model

  7. Robust Structured Control Design via LMI Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for discrete-time robust structured control design. Parameter-dependent nonconvex conditions for stabilizable and induced L2-norm performance controllers are solved by an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) optimization. A wide class of controller...... structures including decentralized of any order, fixed-order dynamic output feedback, static output feedback can be designed robust to polytopic uncertainties. Stability is proven by a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function. Numerical examples on robust stability margins shows that the proposed procedure can...

  8. Concurrent semantics for structured design methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Also in Jelly, I., Gordon, I., & Groll, P. Software Engineering for Parallel and Distributed Systems. London: Chapman Hall. Design methods can be ambiguous due to di#11;erent interpretations of symbols or concepts. This paper presents a formal semantics for the Ward/Mellor Structured Analysis Method for Real Time systems. These semantics ensures that an unambiguous meaning can be attributed to a particular design. Speci#12;cally, it ensures that concurrent and real-time propert...

  9. Structural design of nuclear reactor machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    Since the machinery, equipment and piping which compose nuclear power station facilities are diverse, when those are designed, consideration is given sufficiently to the objective of use and the importance of the object machinery and equipment so that those can maintain the soundness over the design life. In this report, on the contents and the design standard in the design techniques for nuclear reactor machinery and equipment, the way of thinking is shown, taking an example of reactor pressure vessel which is stipulated as the vessel kind 1 in the 'Technical standard of structures and others regarding nuclear facilities for electric power generation', Notice No. 501 of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The reactor pressure vessel of 1350 MWe improved type BWR (ABWR) is used under the condition of 87.9 kg/cm 2 and 302 degC, and the inside diameter is about 7.2 m, the inside height is about 21 m, and the wall thickness is about 170 mm. The design standard for reactor pressure vessels and its way of thinking, breakdown prevention design and the design techniques for reactor pressure vessels are described. (K.I.)

  10. Study on advanced structural design for commercialized fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Aoto, Kazumi; Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai

    2003-05-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the structural design technology. The research scope was identified as (1) FDS (FBR Design Standard), (2) Standardization of new material, and (3) System Based Code for Integrity, and the results of this year's studies are summarized as follows. (1) FDS (FBR Design Standard). R and D policy of Phase II study considering to the newest needs demanded for structural design were clarified, and R and D items were settled concretely. As for failure criteria, preliminary ratcheting-fatigue tests were conducted with rational methods, and Negligible Creep curves that settle creep designing region rationally were expanded their applying condition. R and D policy and items of guideline for inelastic analysis were clarified, and analyzing methodologies were studied. Summering up exemplification of thermal load prediction methodologies were progressed. To predict thermal striping loads, advanced frequency response function of thermal stress, and fatigue evaluation methodology were studied. (2) Standardization of new material. As for candidate 12-chromium stainless steel (added tungsten, non-added tungsten), that is expected to improve strength of components of commercialized FR, short and medium-term material tests, and creep-fatigue tests at small strain range were conducted. As for above candidate steel, TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method was recommended. Requirements to standardize new materials and index to select new materials were studied

  11. Designing of Metallic Photonic Structures and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sung Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis our main interest has been to investigate metallic photonic crystal and its applications. We explained how to solve a periodic photonic structure with transfer matrix method and when and how to use modal expansion method. Two different coating methods were introduced, modifying a photonic structure's intrinsic optical properties and rigorous calculation results are presented. Two applications of metallic photonic structures are introduced. For thermal emitter, we showed how to design and find optimal structure. For conversion efficiency increasing filter, we calculated its efficiency and the way to design it. We presented the relation between emitting light spectrum and absorption and showed the material and structural dependency of the absorption spectrum. By choosing a proper base material and structural parameters, we can design a selective emitter at a certain region we are interested in. We have developed a theoretical model to analyze a blackbody filament enclosed by a metallic mesh which can increase the efficiency of converting a blackbody radiation to visible light. With this model we found that a square lattice metallic mesh enclosing a filament might increase the efficiency of incandescent lighting sources. Filling fraction and thickness dependency were examined and presented. Combining these two parameters is essential to achieve the maximum output result

  12. Endurance time method for Seismic analysis and design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estekanchi, H.E.; Vafai, A.; Sadeghazar, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for performance based earthquake analysis and design has been introduced. In this method, the structure is subjected to accelerograms that impose increasing dynamic demand on the structure with time. Specified damage indexes are monitored up to the collapse level or other performance limit that defines the endurance limit point for the structure. Also, a method for generating standard intensifying accelerograms has been described. Three accelerograms have been generated using this method. Furthermore, the concept of Endurance Time has been described by applying these accelerograms to single and multi degree of freedom linear systems. The application of this method for analysis of complex nonlinear systems has been explained. Endurance Time method provides a uniform approach to seismic analysis and design of complex structures that can be applied in numerical and experimental investigations

  13. Towards product design automation based on parameterized standard model with diversiform knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-04-01

    Product standardization based on CAD software is an effective way to improve design efficiency. In the past, research and development on standardization mainly focused on the level of component, and the standardization of the entire product as a whole is rarely taken into consideration. In this paper, the size and structure of 3D product models are both driven by the Excel datasheets, based on which a parameterized model library is therefore established. Diversiform knowledge including associated parameters and default properties are embedded into the templates in advance to simplify their reuse. Through the simple operation, we can obtain the correct product with the finished 3D models including single parts or complex assemblies. Two examples are illustrated later to invalid the idea, which will greatly improve the design efficiency.

  14. Probabilistic design of fibre concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukl, R.; Novák, D.; Sajdlová, T.; Lehký, D.; Červenka, J.; Červenka, V.

    2017-09-01

    Advanced computer simulation is recently well-established methodology for evaluation of resistance of concrete engineering structures. The nonlinear finite element analysis enables to realistically predict structural damage, peak load, failure, post-peak response, development of cracks in concrete, yielding of reinforcement, concrete crushing or shear failure. The nonlinear material models can cover various types of concrete and reinforced concrete: ordinary concrete, plain or reinforced, without or with prestressing, fibre concrete, (ultra) high performance concrete, lightweight concrete, etc. Advanced material models taking into account fibre concrete properties such as shape of tensile softening branch, high toughness and ductility are described in the paper. Since the variability of the fibre concrete material properties is rather high, the probabilistic analysis seems to be the most appropriate format for structural design and evaluation of structural performance, reliability and safety. The presented combination of the nonlinear analysis with advanced probabilistic methods allows evaluation of structural safety characterized by failure probability or by reliability index respectively. Authors offer a methodology and computer tools for realistic safety assessment of concrete structures; the utilized approach is based on randomization of the nonlinear finite element analysis of the structural model. Uncertainty of the material properties or their randomness obtained from material tests are accounted in the random distribution. Furthermore, degradation of the reinforced concrete materials such as carbonation of concrete, corrosion of reinforcement, etc. can be accounted in order to analyze life-cycle structural performance and to enable prediction of the structural reliability and safety in time development. The results can serve as a rational basis for design of fibre concrete engineering structures based on advanced nonlinear computer analysis. The presented

  15. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al Attar, Talal

    2017-05-13

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  16. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al Attar, Talal; Alshehri, Abdullah; Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed; Al-Turki, Abdullah Turki

    2017-01-01

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  17. Strategies for Optimal Design of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. Especially systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are analysed. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Direct and sequential optimization procedures to solve the optimization...

  18. Strength optimized designs of thermoelastic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2010-01-01

    For thermoelastic structures the same optimal design does not simultaneously lead to minimum compliance and maximum strength. Compliance may be a questionable objective and focus for the present paper is on the important aspect of strength, quantified as minimization of the maximum von Mises stre...... loads are appended....

  19. CRBR reactor structures design. BRC meeting presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the more important developments in LMFBR structures design technology are described and the application of the technology to design of the CRBR reactor components is illustrated. The LMFBR is both a high-temperature and a high-ΔT machine. High-temperature operation (up to 1100 0 F) requires that the designer consider the effects of thermal creep as a deformation mechanism and stress rupture as a failure mode. The large ΔT across the core coupled with a low core thermal inertia and the high conductivity of the sodium coolant combine to produce severe temperature gradients during a reactor scram. Structures designed to operate in this environment must be both light and stiff to minimize transient thermal stresses and prevent unacceptable flow-induced vibrations. Thermal shields may be required to protect the load-bearing structure. At CRBR core-component goal fluence levels, the predicted magnitude of core-component dimensional changes due to irradiation swelling and creep is very large compared with the more familiar dimensional changes associated with thermal expansion and thermal creep. The design of the core components, and in particular the core restraint system, is dominated by the need to accommodate the effects of irradiation swelling, creep and du []tility loss considerations. (auth)

  20. Design and Characterization of a Photometer-Colorimeter Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Rácz, Miklós

    2004-05-01

    A photometer and tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to realize a color scale. A novel construction was developed to implement the spectral-responsivity-based scale with small uncertainty. The new device can be used as a reference illuminance and luminance meter as well. Temperature-controlled filter combinations, with 5-8 layers in one package, are used to match the responsivity of a silicon tunnel-trap detector to the CIE color-matching functions with small spectral mismatch values (f1'). Design considerations to extend the tunnel-trap detector with replaceable single and double apertures and changeable filter combinations are described. The design and fabrication of the filter packages and the dependence of the f1' values on the thickness of the filter layers are discussed. The colorimeter was characterized for angular, spatial, and spectral responsivity. An improved preamplifier can convert current to voltage in an 11-decade dynamic range with 0.01% uncertainty.

  1. Standard High Solids Vessel Design De-inventory Simulant Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Linn, Diana T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the de-inventory (residual high-density tank solids cleanout) process. Its basis and target characteristics are defined in 24590-WTP-ES-ENG-16-021 and implemented through PNNL Test Plan TP-WTPSP-132 Rev. 1.0. This document describes the de-inventory Newtonian carrier fluid (DNCF) simulant composition that will satisfy the basis requirement to mimic the density (1.18 g/mL ± 0.1 g/mL) and viscosity (2.8 cP ± 0.5 cP) of 5 M NaOH at 25 °C.1 The simulant viscosity changes significantly with temperature. Therefore, various solution compositions may be required, dependent on the test stand process temperature range, to meet these requirements. Table ES.1 provides DNCF compositions at selected temperatures that will meet the density and viscosity specifications as well as the temperature range at which the solution will meet the acceptable viscosity tolerance.

  2. Some trends in aircraft design: Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Trends and programs currently underway on the national scene to improve the structural interface in the aircraft design process are discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration shares a partnership with the educational and industrial community in the development of the tools, the criteria, and the data base essential to produce high-performance and cost-effective vehicles. Several thrusts to build the technology in materials, structural concepts, analytical programs, and integrated design procedures essential for performing the trade-offs required to fashion competitive vehicles are presented. The application of advanced fibrous composites, improved methods for structural analysis, and continued attention to important peripheral problems of aeroelastic and thermal stability are among the topics considered.

  3. Structural evaluation in the design of electrorefiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.S.; Blomquist, C.A.; Herceg, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The electrorefiner (ER) is one piece of the process equipment for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. The ER's principal function is to perform the pyrochemical and electrochemical refining of spent and experimental fuel elements. Its principal components include a primary vessel, a heater assembly, a support-structure assembly, a cover assembly, four electrode assemblies, four elevator and rotator assemblies, and a cover-gas system. In addition, there are various miscellaneous tools and fixtures. The electrorefiner is to be installed within an existing enclosed cell. Design requirements dictate that all equipment within the cell should not be anchored. To assess the integrity of the electrorefiner during operational and seismic loads, extensive structural analyses have been performed. This paper presents some of the major structural evaluations for the electrorefiner and its auxiliary equipment. Results show that the design code requirements are satisfied, and the integrity of the electrorefiner will not be jeopardized during operational and seismic loadings

  4. Structural evaluation in the design of electrorefiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Blomquist, C.A.; Herceg, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The electrorefiner is one piece of the process equipment for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Its principal components include a primary vessel, a heater assembly, a support-structure assembly, a cover assembly, four electrode assemblies, four elevator and rotator assemblies, and a cover-gas system. In addition, there are various miscellaneous tools and fixtures. The electrorefiner is to be installed within an existing enclosed cell. Design requirements dictate that all equipment within the cell should not be anchored. To assess the integrity of the electrorefiner during operational and seismic loads, extensive structural analyses have been performed. This paper presents some of the major structural evaluations for the electrorefiner and its auxiliary equipment. Results show that the design code requirements are satisfied, and the integrity of the electrorefiner will not be jeopardized during operational and seismic loadings

  5. Assessment of United States industry structural codes and standards for application to advanced nuclear power reactors: Appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    Throughout its history, the USNRC has remained committed to the use of industry consensus standards for the design, construction, and licensing of commercial nuclear power facilities. The existing industry standards are based on the current class of light water reactors and as such may not adequately address design and construction features of the next generation of Advanced Light Water Reactors and other types of Advanced Reactors. As part of their on-going commitment to industry standards, the USNRC commissioned this study to evaluate US industry structural standards for application to Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. The initial review effort included (1) the review and study of the relevant reactor design basis documentation for eight Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactor Designs, (2) the review of the USNRCs design requirements for advanced reactors, (3) the review of the latest revisions of the relevant industry consensus structural standards, and (4) the identification of the need for changes to these standards. The results of these studies were used to develop recommended changes to industry consensus structural standards which will be used in the construction of Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. Over seventy sets of proposed standard changes were recommended and the need for the development of four new structural standards was identified. In addition to the recommended standard changes, several other sets of information and data were extracted for use by USNRC in other on-going programs. This information included (1) detailed observations on the response of structures and distribution system supports to the recent Northridge, California (1994) and Kobe, Japan (1995) earthquakes, (2) comparison of versions of certain standards cited in the standard review plan to the most current versions, and (3) comparison of the seismic and wind design basis for all the subject reactor designs

  6. Application of core structural design guidelines in conceptual fuel pin design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.R.; Stephen, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes an application of the Draft RDT Standards F9-7, -8, and -9 to conceptual design of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) fuel pins. The Standards are being developed to provide guidelines for structural analysis and design of the FBR core components which have limited ductility at high fluences and are not addressed by the prevalent codes. The development is guided by a national working group sponsored by the Division of Reactor Researcch and Technology of the Department of Energy. The development program summarized in the paper includes establishment of design margins consistent with the test data and component performance requirements, and application of the design rules in various design activities. The application program insures that the quantities required for proper application of the design rules are available from the analysis methods and test data, and that the use of the same design rules in different analysis tools used at different stages of a component design producees consistent results. This is illustrated in the paper by application of the design rules in the analysis methods developed for conceptual and more detailed designs of an FBR fuel pin

  7. A structural keystone for drug design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rother Kristian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D-structures of proteins and potential ligands are the cornerstones of rational drug design. The first brick to build upon is selecting a protein target and finding out whether biologically active compounds are known. Both tasks require more information than the structures themselves provide. For this purpose we have built a web resource bridging protein and ligand databases. It consists of three parts: i A data warehouse on annotation of protein structures that integrates many well-known databases such as Swiss-Prot, SCOP, ENZYME and others. ii A conformational library of structures of approved drugs. iii A conformational library of ligands from the PDB, linking the realms of proteins and small molecules.

  8. Exemplary Design Envelope Specification for Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Fernandez, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Hydropower is an established, affordable renewable energy generation technology supplying nearly 18% of the electricity consumed globally. A hydropower facility interacts continuously with the surrounding water resource environment, causing alterations of varying magnitude in the natural flow of water, energy, fish, sediment, and recreation upstream and downstream. A universal challenge in facility design is balancing the extraction of useful energy and power system services from a stream with the need to maintain ecosystem processes and natural environmental function. On one hand, hydroelectric power is a carbon-free, renewable, and flexible asset to the power system. On the other, the disruption of longitudinal connectivity and the artificial barrier to aquatic movement created by hydraulic structures can produce negative impacts that stress fresh water environments. The growing need for carbon-free, reliable, efficient distributed energy sources suggests there is significant potential for hydropower projects that can deploy with low installed costs, enhanced ecosystem service offerings, and minimal disruptions of the stream environment.

  9. AHTR Mechanical, Structural, and Neutronic Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, V.K.; Holcomb, D.E.; Peretz, F.J.; Bradley, E.C.; Ilas, D.; Qualls, A.L.; Zaharia, N.M.

    2012-09-15

    This report provides an overview of the mechanical, structural, and neutronic aspects of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design concept. The AHTR is a design concept for a large output Fluoride salt cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is being developed to enable evaluation of the technology hurdles remaining to be overcome prior to FHRs becoming an option for commercial reactor deployment. This report documents the incremental AHTR design maturation performed over the past year and is focused on advancing the design concept to a level of a functional, self-consistent system. The reactor concept development remains at a preconceptual level of maturity. While the overall appearance of an AHTR design is anticipated to be similar to the current concept, optimized dimensions will differ from those presented here. The AHTR employs plate type coated particle fuel assemblies with rapid, off-line refueling. Neutronic analysis of the core has confirmed the viability of a 6-month two-batch cycle with 9 wt. % enriched uranium fuel. Refueling is intended to be performed automatically under visual guidance using dedicated robotic manipulators. The report includes a preconceptual design of the manipulators, the fuel transfer system, and the used fuel storage system. The present design intent is for used fuel to be stored inside of containment for at least six months and then transferred to local dry wells for intermediate term, on-site storage. The mechanical and structural concept development effort has included an emphasis on transportation and constructability to minimize construction costs and schedule. The design intent is that all components be factory fabricated into rail transportable modules that are assembled into subsystems at an on-site workshop prior to being lifted into position using a heavy-lift crane in an open-top style construction. While detailed accident identification and response sequence analysis has yet to be performed, the design

  10. AHTR Mechanical, Structural, And Neutronic Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Zaharia, Nathaniel M [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    This report provides an overview of the mechanical, structural, and neutronic aspects of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design concept. The AHTR is a design concept for a large output Fluoride salt cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is being developed to enable evaluation of the technology hurdles remaining to be overcome prior to FHRs becoming a commercial reactor class. This report documents the incremental AHTR design maturation performed over the past year and is focused on advancing the design concept to a level of a functional, self-consistent system. The AHTR employs plate type coated particle fuel assemblies with rapid, off-line refueling. Neutronic analysis of the core has confirmed the viability of a 6-month 2-batch cycle with 9 weight-percent enriched uranium fuel. Refueling is intended to be performed automatically under visual guidance using dedicated robotic manipulators. The present design intent is for used fuel to be stored inside of containment for at least 6 months and then transferred to local dry wells for intermediate term, on-site storage. The mechanical and structural concept development effort has included an emphasis on transportation and constructability to minimize construction costs and schedule. The design intent is that all components be factory fabricated into rail transportable modules that are assembled into subsystems at an on-site workshop prior to being lifted into position using a heavy-lift crane in an open-top style construction. While detailed accident identification and response sequence analysis has yet to be performed, the design concept incorporates multiple levels of radioactive material containment including fully passive responses to all identified design basis or non-very-low frequency beyond design basis accidents. Key building design elements include: 1) below grade siting to minimize vulnerability to aircraft impact, 2) multiple natural circulation decay heat rejection chimneys, 3) seismic

  11. Design of wind turbines for non-standard air density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soraperra, Giusepe

    2005-01-01

    -standard density is intrinsically different, it is impossible to reach the standard rated power at the standard rated speed. Three scenarios are possible (i) to keep the standard rated speed of the turbine by changing the size of the electric generator; (ii) to change the rated speed of the turbine by adopting...... a different pitch angel setting; (iii) adoption of extendeders to the blades can also help in restraining the standard rated power at the standard rated speed for p less than pst. The power curves for the three turbine configurations, each in three different air density conformations, have been calculated...

  12. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  13. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K W; Kennedy, W L; Sagalovsky, L [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling costs for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed. (Author) fig., 7 refs.

  14. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling cost for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed

  15. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling costs for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed. (Author) fig., 7 refs

  16. Structural and microstructural design in brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1979-12-01

    Structural design with brittle materials requires that the stress level in the component correspond to a material survival probability that exceeds the minimum survival probability permitted in that application. This can be achieved by developing failure models that fully account for the probability of fracture from defects within the material (including considerations of fracture statistics, fracture mechanics and stress analysis) coupled with non-destructive techniques that determine the size of the large extreme of critical defects. Approaches for obtaining the requisite information are described. The results provide implications for the microstructural design of failure resistant brittle materials by reducing the size of deleterious defects and enhancing the fracture toughness

  17. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling cost for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed.

  18. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling cost for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed.

  19. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  20. A rational evaluation of structural design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, S.

    1993-01-01

    The reliability-based seismic design of structures is a design method ensuring that the structural seismic capacity is not less than the maximum seismic load or load effect for a prescribed value of the reliability index, wherein the design reference period, n, is used to specify the n-year maximum load. In the conventional Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method the design load is commonly determined on the basis of the n-year maximum the probability distribution of which may be given in some different ways. However, in contrast with the structural capacity the n-year maximum load usually involves much larger variabilities. The effort to decrease the variability would, hence, be effective for the purpose of avoiding nuclear power plant (NPP) structures having unnecessarily large capacities. A possible way to do this is to consider the joint probability distribution of the n-year 1st and 2nd maxima of the seismic load derived from the formula of extreme order statistics. Since the reliability index is conventionally associated with the n-year 1st maximum, the conditional probability distribution rather than the joint one of the n-year 1st maximum given a value of the n-year 2nd one will be considered. Three conditional extreme value distributions, which correspond to the usual extreme value distributions of Types I, II and III, and their statistical moments up to the second order are presented. Within the framework of the first-order second moment method, the conditional statistical moments are utilized to calculate the reliability index as well as the design value of the seismic load. The seismic load considered herein is represented by the peak ground acceleration (PGA) in n years. The present scheme is applied to evaluate the design PGA's at II sites in Japan where samples of the annual 1st and 2nd PGA's have been obtained by using historical seismic data. In this application the following two points are of our interest: (a) Define the reliability

  1. DESIGNING UNIVERSITY TEXTBOOK “FUNDAMENTALS OF BUSINESS INFORMATICS” IN ACCORDANCE WITHREQUIREMENTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ю В Фролов; К Р Овчинникова

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses step by step the process of designing an interdisciplinary tutorial on the basics of business informatics in the context of the requirements Federal state educational and professional standards. Taken into account comparison between the hierarchy of educational results, which are reflected in the structural elements of the textbook, and levels of skill requirements in the professional standard. Based on Layer-technology didactic designing described the sequence of action...

  2. 75 FR 52860 - Final Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 21 Final Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando Helicopter Airways (OHA), Inc... Existence of Proposed Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando...

  3. Investigating Coherent Structures in the Standard Turbulence Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliassen, Lene; Andersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The wind turbine design standards recommend two different methods to generate turbulent wind for design load analysis, the Kaimal spectra combined with an exponential coherence function and the Mann turbulence model. The two turbulence models can give very different estimates of fatigue life, especially for offshore floating wind turbines. In this study the spatial distributions of the two turbulence models are investigated using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, which is used to characterize large coherent structures. The main focus has been on the structures that contain the most energy, which are the lowest POD modes. The Mann turbulence model generates coherent structures that stretches in the horizontal direction for the longitudinal component, while the structures found in the Kaimal model are more random in their shape. These differences in the coherent structures at lower frequencies for the two turbulence models can be the reason for differences in fatigue life estimates for wind turbines. (paper)

  4. DNA origami structures as calibration standards for nanometrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpelainen, Virpi; Seppä, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti; Linko, Veikko; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2017-01-01

    In this work we have studied the feasibility of DNA origami nanostructures as dimensional calibration standards for atomic force microscopes (AFMs) at the nanometre scale. The stability of the structures and repeatability of the measurement have been studied, and the applicability for calibration is discussed. A cross-like Seeman tile (ST) was selected for the studies and it was found suitable for repeatable calibration of AFMs. The height of the first height step of the ST was 2.0 nm. Expanded standard uncertainty (k   =  2) of the measurement U c was 0.2 nm. The width of the ST was 88 nm and width of its arm was 28 nm with U c   =  3 nm. In addition, prepared dry samples were found out to be stable at least for 12 months. (paper)

  5. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-05-22

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.

  6. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel ( 239 Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket

  7. Standard-B Hydrogen Monitoring System, system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    During most of the year, it is assumed that the vapor in the 177 radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Project site contain a uniform mixture of gases. Several of these waste tanks (currently twenty five, 6 Double Shell Tanks and 19 Single Shell Tanks) were identified as having the potential for the buildup of gases to a flammable level. An active ventilation system in the Double Shell Tanks and a passive ventilation system in the Single Shell Tanks provides a method of expelling gases from the tanks. A gas release from a tank causes a temporary rise in the tank pressure, and a potential for increased concentration of hydrogen gas in the vapor space. The gas is released via the ventilation systems until a uniform gas mixture in the vapor space is once again achieved. This document describes the design of the Standard-B Hydrogen Monitoring System, (SHMS) and its components as it differs from the original SHMS. The differences are derived from changes made to improve the system performance but not implemented in all the installed enclosures

  8. Mechanical Design of the LHC Standard Half-Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, A.; Brunet, J. C.; Cruikshank, P.; Genet, M.; Parma, V.; Rohmig, P.; Saban, R.; Tavian, L.; Veness, R.; Vlogaert, J.; Williams, L. R.

    1997-05-01

    The LHC Conceptual Design Report issued on 20th October 1995 (CERN/AC/95-05 (LHC) - nicknamed "Yellow Book") introduced significant changes to some fundamental features of the LHC standard half-cell, composed of one quadrupole, 3 dipoles and a set of corrector magnets. A separate cryogenic distribution line was introduced, which was previously inside the main cryostat. The dipole length has been increased from 10 to 15 m and independent powering of the focusing and defocusing quadrupole magnets was chosen. Individual quench protection diodes were introduced in magnets interconnects and many auxiliary bus bars were added to feed in series the various families of correcting superconducting magnets. The various highly intricate basic systems such as: cryostats and cryogenics feeders, superconducting magnets and their electrical feeding and protection, vacuum beam screen and its cooling, support and alignment devices have been redesigned, taking into account the very tight space available. These space constraints are given by the necessity to have maximum integral bending field strength for maximum LHC energy, and the existing LHC tunnel. Finally, cryogenic and vacuum sectorisation have been introduced to reduce downtimes and facilitate commissioning.

  9. Comparative design of the superstructure of timber bridges, using norm np 005 - 2003 and provisions of european standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiotan Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The norms and standards for design of timber bridges, as well as other structures built from this material, were obsolete, design standards that were used dated from 1978 to 1980. The introduction of European Standards has created a new legislative framework in the field of designing and building timber bridges. Currently the design of such constructions use Norm NP 005-2003 and SR EN 1995-1-1: 2004 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. Part 1-1: General. Common rules and rules for buildings, SR EN 1995-2: 2005 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. Part 2: Bridges, along with their national annexes. The aim of this paper is to analyze the design of the beams for timber bridges in parallel, using on one hand Norm NP 005 - 2003, and on the other hand provisions of European standards. The design requirements for both norms as well as the results of a case study for a structural element of a timber bridge will be presented.

  10. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2017-07-21

    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.

  11. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Wonka, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.

  12. Linear collider RF structure design using ARGUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok Ko

    1991-01-01

    In a linear collider, both the driving system (klystrons) and the accelerating system (linac) consists of RF structures that are inherently three-dimensional. These structures which are responsible for power input/output, have to satisfy many requirements in order that instabilities, beam or RF related, are to be avoided. At the same time, system efficiencies have to be maintained at optimal to minimize cost. Theoretical analysis on these geometrically complex structures are difficult and until recently, numerical solutions have been limited. At SLAC, there has been a continuing and close collaboration among accelerator physicists, engineers and numericists to integrate supercomputing into the design procedure which involves 3-D RF structures. The outcome is very encouraging. Using the 3-D/electromagnetic code ARGUS (developed by SAIC) on the Cray computers at NERSC in conjunction with supporting theories, a wide variety of critical components have been simulated and evaluated. Aside from structures related to the linear collider, the list also includes the RF cavity for the proposed Boson Factory and the anode circuit for the Cross-Field Amplifier, once considered as an alternative to the klystron as a possible power source. This presentation will focus on two specific structures: (1) the klystron output cavity; and (2) the linac input coupler. As the results demonstrate, supercomputing is fast becoming a viable technology that could conceivably replace actual cold-testing in the near future

  13. Design, fabrication and erection of steel structures important to safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    Civil engineering structures in nuclear installations form an important feature having implications to safety performance of these installations. The objective and minimum requirements for the design of civil engineering buildings/structures to be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety of nuclear installations in India (such as pressurised heavy water reactor and related systems) are specified in the Safety Standard for Civil Engineering Structures Important to Safety of Nuclear Facilities. This standard is written by AERB to specify guidelines for implementation of the above civil engineering safety standard in the design, fabrication and erection of steel structures important to safety

  14. Standard problems to evaluate soil structure interaction computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The seismic response of nuclear power plant structures is often calculated using lumped parameter methods. A finite element model of the structure is coupled to the soil with a spring-dashpot system used to represent the interaction process. The parameters of the interaction model are based on analytic solutions to simple problems which are idealizations of the actual problems of interest. The objective of the work reported in this paper is to compare predicted responses using the standard lumped parameter models with experimental data. These comparisons are shown to be good for a fairly uniform soil system and for loadings which do not result in nonlinear interaction effects such as liftoff. 7 references, 7 figures

  15. Impact of chemistry on Standard High Solids Vessel Design mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-02

    The plan for resolving technical issues regarding mixing performance within vessels of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility directs a chemical impact study to be performed. The vessels involved are those that will process higher (e.g., 5 wt % or more) concentrations of solids. The mixing equipment design for these vessels includes both pulse jet mixers (PJM) and air spargers. This study assesses the impact of feed chemistry on the effectiveness of PJM mixing in the Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). The overall purpose of this study is to complement the Properties that Matter document in helping to establish an acceptable physical simulant for full-scale testing. The specific objectives for this study are (1) to identify the relevant properties and behavior of the in-process tank waste that control the performance of the system being tested, (2) to assess the solubility limits of key components that are likely to precipitate or crystallize due to PJM and sparger interaction with the waste feeds, (3) to evaluate the impact of waste chemistry on rheology and agglomeration, (4) to assess the impact of temperature on rheology and agglomeration, (5) to assess the impact of organic compounds on PJM mixing, and (6) to provide the technical basis for using a physical-rheological simulant rather than a physical-rheological-chemical simulant for full-scale vessel testing. Among the conclusions reached are the following: The primary impact of precipitation or crystallization of salts due to interactions between PJMs or spargers and waste feeds is to increase the insoluble solids concentration in the slurries, which will increase the slurry yield stress. Slurry yield stress is a function of pH, ionic strength, insoluble solids concentration, and particle size. Ionic strength and chemical composition can affect particle size. Changes in temperature can affect SHSVD mixing through its effect on properties such as viscosity, yield stress, solubility

  16. Effect of standards on new equipment design by new international standards and industry restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endelman, Lincoln L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of international standards to further trade is one of the objectives of creating a standard. By having form fit and function compatible the free interchange of manufactured goods can be handled without hindrance. Unfortunately by setting up standards that are peculiar to a particular country or district it is possible to exclude competition from a group of manufacturers. A major effort is now underway to develop international laser standards. In the May I 990 issue of Laser Focus World Donald R. Johnson the director of industrial technology services for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST formerly the National Bureau of Standards) is quoted as follows: " The common means of protectionism has been through certification for the market place. " The article goes on to say " Mr. Johnson expects this tradition to continue and that the new European Community (EC) will demand not just safety standards but performance standards as well. . . . the American laser industry must move very quickly on this issue or risk being left behind the European standards bandwagon. " The article continues laser companies must get involved in the actual standards negotiating process if they are to have a say in future policy. A single set of standards would reduce the need to repeatedly recalibrate products for different national markets. " As a member of ISO TC-72 SC9 I am

  17. Design of the accelerating structures for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.; Schamaun, R.; Potter, C.; Fuller, C.; Clark, D.; Greenwood, D.; Frank, J.

    1979-01-01

    Design considerations and concepts are presented for the accelerating structures for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. These structures consist of three major units: 0.1- to 2-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole based on the Russian concept, a 2- to 35-MeV drift-tube linac made up of two separate tanks designed to generate either 20- or 35-MeV beams, and an energy dispersion cavity capable of spreading the energy of the beam slightly to ease thermal loading in the target. Because of probable beam activation, the drift-tube linac is designed so that alignment and maintenance do not require manned entry into the tanks. This conservatism also led to the choice of a conventional vacuum system and has influenced the choice of many of the rf interface components. The high-powered FMIT machine is very heavily beam loaded and delivers a 100-mA continuous duty deuteron beam to a flowing liquid lithium target. The power on target is 3.5 MW deposited in a 1 x 3 cm spot. Because of the critical importance of the low energy section of this accelerator on beam spill in the machine, a 5-MeV prototype will be constructed and tested at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

  18. IS standards in designing business-to-government collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flugge, B.

    2010-01-01

    Elaborating the impact of standards on inter-organizational collaborations, inter-organizational studies demonstrated a standard’s positive impact on the collaboration between governmental and business partners. How and under which conditions information systems (IS) standards contribute to the

  19. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project system design standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of system design standards intended to assure the completeness and quality of designs developed for PC research and development projects is established. The standards presented address the areas of problem definition, initial design plan, design specification, and re-evaluation.

  20. Vibro-acoustic performance of newly designed tram track structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladin, Ivo; Lakušić, Stjepan; Ahac, Maja

    2017-09-01

    Rail vehicles in interaction with a railway structure induce vibrations that are propagating to surrounding structures and cause noise disturbance in the surrounding areas. Since tram tracks in urban areas often share the running surface with road vehicles one of top priorities is to achieve low maintenance and long lasting structure. Research conducted in scope of this paper gives an overview of newly designed tram track structures designated for use on Zagreb tram network and their performance in terms of noise and vibration mitigation. Research has been conducted on a 150 m long test section consisted of three tram track types: standard tram track structure commonly used on tram lines in Zagreb, optimized tram structure for better noise and vibration mitigation and a slab track with double sleepers embedded in a concrete slab, which presents an entirely new approach of tram track construction in Zagreb. Track has been instrumented with acceleration sensors, strain gauges and revision shafts for inspection. Relative deformations give an insight into track structure dynamic load distribution through the exploitation period. Further the paper describes vibro-acoustic measurements conducted at the test site. To evaluate the track performance from the vibro-acoustical standpoint, detailed analysis of track decay rate has been analysed. Opposed to measurement technique using impact hammer for track decay rate measurements, newly developed measuring technique using vehicle pass by vibrations as a source of excitation has been proposed and analysed. Paper gives overview of the method, it’s benefits compared to standard method of track decay rate measurements and method evaluation based on noise measurements of the vehicle pass by.

  1. The optimal design of UAV wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Adam; Klimek, Wiktor

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal design of UAV wing, made of composite materials. The aim of the optimization is to improve strength and stiffness together with reduction of the weight of the structure. Three different types of functionals, which depend on stress, stiffness and the total mass are defined. The paper presents an application of the in-house implementation of the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm in optimization of the UAV wing structure. Values of the functionals are calculated on the basis of results obtained from numerical simulations. Numerical FEM model, consisting of different composite materials is created. Adequacy of the numerical model is verified by results obtained from the experiment, performed on a tensile testing machine. Examples of multi-objective optimization by means of Pareto-optimal set of solutions are presented.

  2. Computational Tools for RF Structure Design

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, E

    2004-01-01

    The Finite Differences Method and the Finite Element Method are the two principally employed numerical methods in modern RF field simulation programs. The basic ideas behind these methods are explained, with regard to available simulation programs. We then go through a list of characteristic parameters of RF structures, explaining how they can be calculated using these tools. With the help of these parameters, we introduce the frequency-domain and the time-domain calculations, leading to impedances and wake-fields, respectively. Subsequently, we present some readily available computer programs, which are in use for RF structure design, stressing their distinctive features and limitations. One final example benchmarks the precision of different codes for calculating the eigenfrequency and Q of a simple cavity resonator.

  3. Designing organizational structures: Key thoughts for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Patricia; Eschenbacher, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Current strategies and concepts to consider in developing a system-level organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise are discussed. There are many different ways to design an organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise within a health system. The size of the organization, the number of states in which it operates, and the geographic spread and complexity of the pharmacy business lines should be among the key considerations in determining the optimal organizational and decision-making structures for the pharmacy enterprise. The structure needs to support incorporation of the pharmacy leadership (both system-level executives and local leaders) into all strategic planning and discussions at the hospital and health-system levels so that they can directly represent the pharmacy enterprise instead of relying on others to develop strategy on their behalf. It is important that leaders of all aspects of the pharmacy enterprise report through the system's top pharmacy executive, who should be a pharmacist and have a title consistent with those of other leaders reporting at the same organizational level (e.g., chief pharmacy officer). Pharmacy leaders need to be well positioned within an organization to advocate for the pharmacy enterprise and use all resources to the best of their ability. As the scope and complexity of pharmacy services grow, it is critical to ensure that leadership of the pharmacy enterprise is unified under a single pharmacy executive team. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of the detuned accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Nelson, E.M.

    1993-05-01

    This is a summary of the design procedure for the detuned accelerator structure for SLAC's Next Linear Collider (NLC) program. The 11.424 GHz accelerating mode of each cavity must be synchronous with the beam. The distribution of the disk thicknesses and lowest synchronous dipole mode frequencies of the cavities in the structure is Gaussian in order to reduce the effect of wake fields. The finite element field solver YAP calculated the accelerating mode frequency and the lowest synchronous dipole mode frequency for various cavity diameters, aperture diameters and disk thicknesses. Polynomial 3-parameter fits are used to calculate the dimensions for a 1.8 m detuned structure. The program SUPERFISH was used to calculate the shunt impedances, quality factors and group velocities. The RF parameters of the section like filling time, attenuation factor, accelerating gradient and maximum surface field along the section are evaluated. Error estimates will be discussed and comparisons with conventional constant gradient and constant impedance structures will be presented

  5. Structural reliability codes for probabilistic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    probabilistic code format has not only strong influence on the formal reliability measure, but also on the formal cost of failure to be associated if a design made to the target reliability level is considered to be optimal. In fact, the formal cost of failure can be different by several orders of size for two...... different, but by and large equally justifiable probabilistic code formats. Thus, the consequence is that a code format based on decision theoretical concepts and formulated as an extension of a probabilistic code format must specify formal values to be used as costs of failure. A principle of prudence...... is suggested for guiding the choice of the reference probabilistic code format for constant reliability. In the author's opinion there is an urgent need for establishing a standard probabilistic reliability code. This paper presents some considerations that may be debatable, but nevertheless point...

  6. Standards in capstone design courses and the engineering curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In 1990, I was the group leader of Research and Development for Surgitek, a urological device manufacturer in Racine, Wisconsin, which was the market leader in ureteral stents. I recognized the need for an industry standard for ureteral stents, felt that taking a leadership role in the development of a new standard would be a good professional development activity, and volunteered to serve as the chair of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, now known as ASTM International) Task Group on Ureteral Stents. After several years, the standard was approved, and I continue to serve as the chair of the ASTM Subcommittee on Urological Materials and Devices. This experience helped me understand the value of industry standards, expanded my professional network and visibility within the medical device industry, and helped develop my leadership skills.

  7. Bending continuous structures with SMAs: a novel robotic fish design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C; Colorado, J; Coral, W; Barrientos, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our research on bio-inspired locomotion systems using deformable structures and smart materials, concretely shape memory alloys (SMAs). These types of materials allow us to explore the possibility of building motor-less and gear-less robots. A swimming underwater fish-like robot has been developed whose movements are generated using SMAs. These actuators are suitable for bending the continuous backbone of the fish, which in turn causes a change in the curvature of the body. This type of structural arrangement is inspired by fish red muscles, which are mainly recruited during steady swimming for the bending of a flexible but nearly incompressible structure such as the fishbone. This paper reviews the design process of these bio-inspired structures, from the motivations and physiological inspiration to the mechatronics design, control and simulations, leading to actual experimental trials and results. The focus of this work is to present the mechanisms by which standard swimming patterns can be reproduced with the proposed design. Moreover, the performance of the SMA-based actuators' control in terms of actuation speed and position accuracy is also addressed.

  8. Bending continuous structures with SMAs: a novel robotic fish design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, C; Colorado, J; Coral, W; Barrientos, A

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we describe our research on bio-inspired locomotion systems using deformable structures and smart materials, concretely shape memory alloys (SMAs). These types of materials allow us to explore the possibility of building motor-less and gear-less robots. A swimming underwater fish-like robot has been developed whose movements are generated using SMAs. These actuators are suitable for bending the continuous backbone of the fish, which in turn causes a change in the curvature of the body. This type of structural arrangement is inspired by fish red muscles, which are mainly recruited during steady swimming for the bending of a flexible but nearly incompressible structure such as the fishbone. This paper reviews the design process of these bio-inspired structures, from the motivations and physiological inspiration to the mechatronics design, control and simulations, leading to actual experimental trials and results. The focus of this work is to present the mechanisms by which standard swimming patterns can be reproduced with the proposed design. Moreover, the performance of the SMA-based actuators' control in terms of actuation speed and position accuracy is also addressed.

  9. CytometryML: a data standard which has been designed to interface with other standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2007-02-01

    Because of the differences in the requirements, needs, and past histories including existing standards of the creating organizations, a single encompassing cytology-pathology standard will not, in the near future, replace the multiple existing or under development standards. Except for DICOM and FCS, these standardization efforts are all based on XML. CytometryML is a collection of XML schemas, which are based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) datatypes. The CytometryML schemas contain attributes that link them to the DICOM standard and FCS. Interoperability with DICOM has been facilitated by, wherever reasonable, limiting the difference between CytometryML and the previous standards to syntax. In order to permit the Resource Description Framework, RDF, to reference the CytometryML datatypes, id attributes have been added to many CytometryML elements. The Laboratory Digital Imaging Project (LDIP) Data Exchange Specification and the Flowcyt standards development effort employ RDF syntax. Documentation from DICOM has been reused in CytometryML. The unity of analytical cytology was demonstrated by deriving a microscope type and a flow cytometer type from a generic cytometry instrument type. The feasibility of incorporating the Flowcyt gating schemas into CytometryML has been demonstrated. CytometryML is being extended to include many of the new DICOM Working Group 26 datatypes, which describe patients, specimens, and analytes. In situations where multiple standards are being created, interoperability can be facilitated by employing datatypes based on a common set of semantics and building in links to standards that employ different syntax.

  10. USAGE OF STANDARD PERSONAL COMPUTER PORTS FOR DESIGNING OF THE DOUBLE REDUNDANT FAULT-TOLERANT COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafig SAMEDOV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for designing of the fault-tolerant control systems by using standard personal computers, the ports have been investigated, different structure versions have been designed and the method for choosing of an optimal structure has been suggested. In this scope, first of all, the ÇİFTYAK system has been defined and its work principle has been determined. Then, data transmission ports of the standard personal computers have been classified and analyzed. After that, the structure versions have been designed and evaluated according to the used data transmission methods, the numbers of ports and the criterions of reliability, performance, truth, control and cost. Finally, the method for choosing of the most optimal structure version has been suggested.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories Facilities Management and Operations Center Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Timothy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  12. IEEE Std 317-1972: IEEE standard for electric penetration assemblies in containment structures for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard prescribes the mechanical, electrical, and test requirements for the design, construction, and installation of electric penetration assemblies in containment structures for stationary nuclear power generating stations. The electric conductor and insulation characteristics of external circuits which connect to penetration assemblies are beyond the scope of these criteria. If there should be any conflict between this standard and those documents referenced herein, this standard shall take precedence over the referenced documents

  13. Identification of Producibility Inhibitors in Standard NAVSEA Ship Design Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkins, James R; Kraine, Gilbert L; LaChance, George M; Burnett, Victor R

    1993-01-01

    .... This report provides the results of interviews with and questionnaires returned from various shipyards, ship design agents and supervisors of shipbuilding who were asked to identify producibility...

  14. DESIGNING UNIVERSITY TEXTBOOK “FUNDAMENTALS OF BUSINESS INFORMATICS” IN ACCORDANCE WITHREQUIREMENTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю В Фролов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses step by step the process of designing an interdisciplinary tutorial on the basics of business informatics in the context of the requirements Federal state educational and professional standards. Taken into account comparison between the hierarchy of educational results, which are reflected in the structural elements of the textbook, and levels of skill requirements in the professional standard. Based on Layer-technology didactic designing described the sequence of action necessary for the design of the textbook, substantive content of which is aimed at achieving the required learning outcomes.

  15. NET European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youtsos, A.

    2004-01-01

    Improved performance and safety of European energy production systems is essential for providing safe, clean and inexpensive electricity to the citizens of the enlarged EU. The state of the art in assessing internal stresses, micro-structure and defects in welded nuclear components -as well as their evolution due to complex thermo-mechanical loads and irradiation exposure -needs to be improved before relevant structural integrity assessment code requirements can safely become less conservative. This is valid for both experimental characterization techniques and predictive numerical algorithms. In the course of the last two decades neutron methods have proven to be excellent means for providing valuable information required in structural integrity assessment of advanced engineering applications. However, the European industry is hampered from broadly using neutron research due to lack of harmonised and standardized testing methods. 35 European major industrial and research/academic organizations have joined forces, under JRC coordination, to launch the NET European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity in May 2002. The NET collaborative research initiative aims at further development and harmonisation of neutron scattering methods, in support of structural integrity assessment. This is pursued through a number of testing round robin campaigns on neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering - SANS and supported by data provided by other more conventional destructive and non-destructive methods, such as X-ray diffraction and deep and surface hole drilling. NET also strives to develop more reliable and harmonized simulation procedures for the prediction of residual stress and damage in steel welded power plant components. This is pursued through a number of computational round robin campaigns based on advanced FEM techniques, and on reliable data obtained by such novel and harmonized experimental methods. The final goal of

  16. Study on Detailing Design of Precast Concrete Frame Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lida, Tian; Liming, Li; Kang, Liu; Jiao, Geng; Ming, Li

    2018-03-01

    Taking a certain precast concrete frame structure as an example, this paper introduces the general procedures and key points in detailing design of emulative cast-in-place prefabricated structure from the aspects of structural scheme, precast element layout, shop drawing design and BIM 3D modelling. This paper gives a practical solution for the detailing design of precast concrete frame structure under structural design codes in China.

  17. Communication Standards Suitable for MES Systems Designed for SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej WINKLER

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A MES (Manufacturing Execution System is a system that large companies use to measure or control critical production activities. Individual parts of this system can be used as a model for development of tools suitable for small and medium enterprises (SMEs. It can demonstrate how manufacturing systems works and which communication standards are usable. The communication standards enable data acquisition, data processing, storing and their conversion for any production report. Furthermore, interfaces for web clients allow displaying the raw or transformed data as a text or a graphic chart. The development of tools for an access to the data retrieved from MES software is described in this paper.

  18. Designing RF control subsystems using the VXIbus standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.D.; Vong, F.C.; Bridges, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Various components are being designed to control the RF system of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS). The associated control electronics (phase shifters, amplitude modulators, phase detectors, automatic tuning control, and local feedback control) are designed as modular cards with multiple channels for ease of replacement as well as for compact design. Various specifications of the VXIbus are listed and the method used to simplify the design of the control subsystem is shown. A commercial VXI interface board was used to speed the design cycle. Required manpower and actual task times are included. A discussion of the computer architecture and software development of the device drivers which allowed computer control from a VME processor located in a remote crate operating under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Controls Software (EPICS) program is also presented

  19. Windmills by Design: Purposeful Curriculum Design to Meet Next Generation Science Standards in a 9-12 Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) challenges science teachers to think beyond specific content standards when considering how to design and implement curriculum. This lesson, "Windmills by Design," is an insightful lesson in how science teachers can create and implement a cross-cutting lesson to teach the concepts…

  20. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  1. Designing Standardized Patient Assessments to Measure SBIRT Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satterfield, Jason M.; Satre, Derek D.; McCance-Katz, Elinore; Batki, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Resident physicians report insufficient experience caring for patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). Resident training in Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) has been recommended. We describe the development of a standardized patient (SP) assessment to measure SBIRT skills, resident perceptions of…

  2. Military Housing: Status of the Services' Implementation of the Current Barracks Design Standard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... In November 1995, DOD adopted a new barracks construction standard, referred to as the 1+1 design standard, that called for more space and increased privacy in new barracks for service members permanently assigned to an installation...

  3. History of Road Design Standards in LADOTD : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    According to the Louisiana Statewide Transportation Plan, Louisianas highway : network is comprised of over 60,000 miles, of which over 16,000 miles are : maintained by the state. The roadways were designed and constructed : according to the desig...

  4. SOA and Web services interface design principles, techniques, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, James

    2009-01-01

    SOA offers solutions to the most intractable business problems faced by every enterprise, but getting the SOA service interface right requires the practical design knowledge this book uniquely delivers

  5. Computer-aided design of DNA origami structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnihhin, Denis; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2015-01-01

    The DNA origami method enables the creation of complex nanoscale objects that can be used to organize molecular components and to function as reconfigurable mechanical devices. Of relevance to synthetic biology, DNA origami structures can be delivered to cells where they can perform complicated sense-and-act tasks, and can be used as scaffolds to organize enzymes for enhanced synthesis. The design of DNA origami structures is a complicated matter and is most efficiently done using dedicated software packages. This chapter describes a procedure for designing DNA origami structures using a combination of state-of-the-art software tools. First, we introduce the basic method for calculating crossover positions between DNA helices and the standard crossover patterns for flat, square, and honeycomb DNA origami lattices. Second, we provide a step-by-step tutorial for the design of a simple DNA origami biosensor device, from schematic idea to blueprint creation and to 3D modeling and animation, and explain how careful modeling can facilitate later experimentation in the laboratory.

  6. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme.

  7. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme

  8. 40 CFR 265.1201 - Design and operating standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... products, or contaminated run-off, to the soil, ground water, surface water, and atmosphere; (2) Provide a...) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept...

  9. Design of scaled down structural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitses, George J.

    1994-07-01

    In the aircraft industry, full scale and large component testing is a very necessary, time consuming, and expensive process. It is essential to find ways by which this process can be minimized without loss of reliability. One possible alternative is the use of scaled down models in testing and use of the model test results in order to predict the behavior of the larger system, referred to herein as prototype. This viewgraph presentation provides justifications and motivation for the research study, and it describes the necessary conditions (similarity conditions) for two structural systems to be structurally similar with similar behavioral response. Similarity conditions provide the relationship between a scaled down model and its prototype. Thus, scaled down models can be used to predict the behavior of the prototype by extrapolating their experimental data. Since satisfying all similarity conditions simultaneously is in most cases impractical, distorted models with partial similarity can be employed. Establishment of similarity conditions, based on the direct use of the governing equations, is discussed and their use in the design of models is presented. Examples include the use of models for the analysis of cylindrical bending of orthotropic laminated beam plates, of buckling of symmetric laminated rectangular plates subjected to uniform uniaxial compression and shear, applied individually, and of vibrational response of the same rectangular plates. Extensions and future tasks are also described.

  10. An investigation into standards in sustainable design and manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, AVC; Harrison, DJ; Griffiths, BJ; Lam, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports upon the application of standards to reduce the negative environmental impacts of manufacturing through product lifecycle planning and closed loop production. By eliminating waste and retaining the energy embodied within materials and components, manufacturing can become more sustainable from both ecological and financial perspectives. Energy consumption and the associated carbon pollution can thus be minimised. Environmental Management System implementation is also cons...

  11. Design and Characterization of Vertical Mesh Capacitors in Standard CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais

    2001-01-01

    This paper shows how good RF capacitors can be made in a standard digital CMOS process. The capacitors which are also well suited for binary weighted switched capacitor banks show very good RF performance: Q-values of 57 at 4.0 GHz, a density of 0.27 fF/μ2, 2.2 μm wide shielded unit capacitors, 6...

  12. Using a standards committee to design practical procedure system improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Plung, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the post-Three Mile Island (TMI) environment, numerous reports have been issued on how to improve the quality of procedures used at government and commercial nuclear facilities. The studies tend to be long on what is wrong with existing procedures and short on practical directions on how to fix those faults. Few of these studies have been conducted by practitioners with full-time procedure-managing or procedure writing experience. None of these studies go into detail on how to improve the procedure system itself. Over the last 10 yr, various nuclear facilities within the US Department of Energy (DOE) have carried out individual programs to develop procedures that meet post-TMI standards. However, ∼2 yr ago, DOE formed a Procedures Standards Committee to advise DOE in developing a set of post-TMI guidelines that could be consistently applied throughout all DOE nuclear facilities. The committee has achieved not only its original mission by producing a series of integrated guidance documents but has also evolved a systems approach to procedures management that sets new standards for procedure quality and efficiency. As members of this committee, the authors want to describe what has made the group's approach so successful. The lessons learned may be translatable to a wide range of government and commercial industry procedure programs

  13. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  14. Renewables portfolio standard and regional energy structure optimisation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.; Sun, W.; Ren, D.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Eastern Coastal areas of China have been developing rapidly since the implementation of reforms and the opening of China's economic markets in 1978. As in most areas of the world, this rapid economic growth has been accompanied by large increases in energy consumption. China's coal-dominated energy structure has resulted in serious ecological and environmental problems. Exploiting renewable energy resources and introducing Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) are some of the most important approaches towards optimising and sustaining the energy structure of China. This paper discusses international experiences in the implementation of RPS policies and prospects for using these policies to encourage renewable energy development in China, establishes a concise definition of renewable resources, differentiating between the broad definition (which includes hydro over 25 MW in size) from the narrow definition (which limits the eligibility of hydro to below 25 MW in size), and quantitatively analyses the potential renewable energy target. The research shows that: (1) Under the narrow hydro definition the renewable energy target would be 5.1% and under the broad hydro definition it would be 18.4%. (2) Western China has contributed 90.2% of the total renewable electricity generation in the country (if big and medium hydropowers are not included). Including big and medium hydropower, the figure is 63.8%. (3) Eastern electricity companies can achieve their quota by buying Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (TRCs or Green Certificates) and by exploiting renewable energy resources in Western China. The successful implementation of the RPS policy will achieve the goal of sharing the benefits and responsibilities of energy production between the different regions of China

  15. Lightweight landscape enhancing design through minimal mass structures

    CERN Document Server

    Spinelli, Luigi; Monticelli, Carol; Pedrali, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how lightweight materials and structures can be deployed in buildings to meet high environmental and aesthetic standards and emphasizes how the concept of lightness in building technology and design dovetails with the desire to enhance landscape. The first part of the book, on lightweight construction, aims to foster the use of membranes within the specific climatic context and in particular considers how lightweight materials and innovative technologies can enrich the quality of temporary spaces. The second part focuses exclusively on landscape, presenting novel approaches in the search for visual lightness and the quest to improve urban spaces. Particular attention is paid to the Italian experience, where the traditional appreciation of brick and stone has limited the scope for use of lightweight structures and membrane materials, often relegating them to a secondary or inappropriate role. The reader will come to appreciate how this attitude demeans a very advanced productive sector and n...

  16. Integral Design workshops: organization, structure and testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Savanovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve an understanding of design activities in the context of building design. The starting point is an overview of design research and design methodology. From the insights gained by this analysis of design in this specific context, we present an ‘organization

  17. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  18. 24 CFR 941.203 - Design and construction standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... national building code, such as Uniform Building Code, Council of American Building Officials Code, or Building Officials Conference of America Code; (2) Applicable State and local laws, codes, ordinances, and... intended to serve. Building design and construction shall strive to encourage in residents a proprietary...

  19. Designation Of The Standard Stratotype And Age Of Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The type locality of Nsukka Formation was designated north of Nsukka in an area along Nadu River, without any formal description of the type section. Field mapping of the type locality was undertaken with the intention to formally define the type section. The thickest and best exposed is a 40 meter thick, stream section at ...

  20. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document provides the requirements for a test simulant suitable for demonstrating the mixing requirements for the Single High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). This simulant has not been evaluated for other purposes such as gas retention and release or erosion. The objective of this work is to provide an underpinning for the simulant properties based on actual waste characterization.

  1. The development of an ergonomics standard for the design of operator interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, B.; Reed, J.; Litherland, M.

    1990-01-01

    BNFL has realised the need to take a consistent approach to the ergonomic design of operator interfaces. Towards this aim, a design standard document has been produced under the direction of a principal design engineer based on the key ergonomics aspects of plant design. The standard was requested by the designers, and the original standard was produced by ergonomists working on BNFL projects. This standard was then reviewed by a large number of key design and operations personnel, and a series of multidisciplinary meetings produced the final version. The standard contains six sections (ergonomics requirements for the design of Control Rooms, Consoles and Panels Design, Labelling, VDU Systems, Alarm Systems and Colour Coding) containing approximately 180 guidelines in text format or supplemented by diagrams and tables. Each guideline is classified as either mandatory or advisory. A high proportion of effort concentrated on making the document usable by designers. The standard is not intended to be fully comprehensive, since the range of possible variations in the designs of interfaces makes such a task intractable at this stage. However, the document does ensure that account is taken of ergonomics throughout the design phase, and particularly in the early phases whilst design change is still cost-effective, and that designers are aware of the important issues and principles. (author)

  2. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birbraer, A N [St. Petersburg Research and Design Institute Atomenergoproject, St. Petersburt (Russian Federation)

    1993-07-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  3. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birbraer, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  4. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  5. High-performance computing in accelerating structure design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zenghai; Folwell, Nathan; Ge Lixin; Guetz, Adam; Ivanov, Valentin; Kowalski, Marc; Lee, Lie-Quan; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Schussman, Greg; Stingelin, Lukas; Uplenchwar, Ravindra; Wolf, Michael; Xiao, Liling; Ko, Kwok

    2006-01-01

    Future high-energy accelerators such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) will accelerate multi-bunch beams of high current and low emittance to obtain high luminosity, which put stringent requirements on the accelerating structures for efficiency and beam stability. While numerical modeling has been quite standard in accelerator R and D, designing the NLC accelerating structure required a new simulation capability because of the geometric complexity and level of accuracy involved. Under the US DOE Advanced Computing initiatives (first the Grand Challenge and now SciDAC), SLAC has developed a suite of electromagnetic codes based on unstructured grids and utilizing high-performance computing to provide an advanced tool for modeling structures at accuracies and scales previously not possible. This paper will discuss the code development and computational science research (e.g. domain decomposition, scalable eigensolvers, adaptive mesh refinement) that have enabled the large-scale simulations needed for meeting the computational challenges posed by the NLC as well as projects such as the PEP-II and RIA. Numerical results will be presented to show how high-performance computing has made a qualitative improvement in accelerator structure modeling for these accelerators, either at the component level (single cell optimization), or on the scale of an entire structure (beam heating and long-range wakefields)

  6. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification...

  7. Research needs and improvement of standards for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Moreadith, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    The need for research and improvement of code requirements, for both economy and safety reasons is discussed for the following topics relevant to nuclear power plant structural analysis: Earthquake definition; dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads; design for postulated pipe rupture; code requirements for loading combinations for concrete structures, reinforcing steel splicing, reinforced concrete structural design for thermal effects. (Auth.)

  8. Design of Qualitative HRA Database Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2015-01-01

    HRA DB is to collect and store the data in a database form to manage and maintain them from the perspective of human reliability analysis. All information on the human errors taken by operators in the power plant should be systematically collected and documented in its management. KAERI is developing the simulator-based HRA data handbook. In this study, the information required to store and manage the data necessary to perform an HRA as to store the HRA data to be stored in the handbook is identified and summarized. Especially this study is to summarize the collection and classification of qualitative data as the raw data to organize the data required to draw the HEP and its DB process. Qualitative HRA DB is a storehouse of all sub-information needed to receive the human error probability for Pasa. In this study, the requirements for structural design and implementation of qualitative HRA DB must be implemented for HRA DB were summarized. The follow-up study of the quantitative HRA DB implementation should be followed to draw the substantial HEP

  9. Design standards for experimental and field studies to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of tests for infectious diseases in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, E; Thakur, K K; Gardner, I A; Hick, P; Moody, N J G; Crane, M S J; Ernst, I

    2018-05-01

    Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Of the 56 DAS identified, 41 were based on field testing, eight on experimental challenge studies and seven on both. Also, we adapted human and terrestrial-animal standards and guidelines for DAS structure for use in aquatic animal diagnostic research. Through this process, we identified and addressed important metrics for consideration at the design phase: study purpose, targeted disease state, selection of appropriate samples and specimens, laboratory analytical methods, statistical methods and data interpretation. These recommended design standards for DAS are presented as a checklist including risk-of-failure points and actions to mitigate bias at each critical step. Adherence to standards when designing DAS will also facilitate future systematic review and meta-analyses of DAS research literature. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Design of nuclear spectroscopy electronics based on the EUROsystem standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahor, J.

    1987-11-01

    The development of modular nuclear instruments in the EUROcard system has been continued by the design of a staircase generator; such an instrument is needed for accurate testing of spectroscopy amplifiers. The generator provides very precisely defined steps with the period between them varying from 8 to 50 microseconds, the output voltage continuously variable from 2 to 5 V, and attenuated ion steps between 1 and 100. Great care was taken that individual steps exhibit no overshot, thus providing a very clean signal to the input of a tested amplifier. The circuitry is kept simple, and it can be easily constructed in any electronics laboratory. Figs

  11. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for road design and construction. 223.38 Section 223.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 36 CFR 1281.4 - What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and design standards for Presidential libraries? 1281.4 Section 1281.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.4 What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries? The Archivist is...

  13. Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the

  14. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  15. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  16. 78 FR 13835 - Harmonization of Airworthiness Standards-Miscellaneous Structures Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Airworthiness Standards--Miscellaneous Structures Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... and Dynamics Harmonization Working Group (LDHWG) and the General Structures Harmonization Working Group (GSHWG) to review existing structures regulations and recommend changes that would eliminate...

  17. The renewable portfolio standard: design considerations and an implementation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.; Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Renewables have social and environmental benefits compared to conventional electricity sources, but are rarely competitive on a strict financial cost basis. This is because conventional sources are sometimes subsidized, their full pollution costs are ignored, and renewables involve newer, higher-cost technologies whose relative costs will fall with commercialization. Governments use several mechanisms to support renewables, including direct financial support (grants, loans), indirect support (R and D, demonstrations), reform of financial costs of conventional sources (subsidy removal, pollution taxes), and the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). The RPS requires a minimum share of electricity from renewable energy sources. Its use is spreading because it maintains an incentive for renewable producers to reduce costs, links the regulated market outcome to an environmental target, and reduces government involvement. Although it is too early to evaluate fully its effectiveness, the survey for this study explored implementation issues in three European countries, nine US states, and Australia, and found the following. The RPS target is usually set to have environmental benefits without causing significant price increases (cost caps are sometimes used). Most jurisdictions limit eligibility to grid-connected, domestic renewables. The RPS is usually applied to producers rather than consumers, and to energy output not capacity. Flexibility mechanisms are desired but a challenge to implement. Administration in the US and Australia is by government with delegation to independent utility regulators, while in Europe it is more the responsibility of government. Everywhere, the RPS is applied alongside other mechanisms of renewables support. (author)

  18. Standard and alternative landfill capping design in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Franz-Georg; Mueller, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    Engineered capping systems are in most cases an indispensable and often the only efficient component required by the long-term safety concept for landfills, mine tailings tips and contaminated land. In Germany the composite liner is the main component of standard landfill cappings for municipal and hazardous waste landfills and the compacted clay liner (CCL) for landfills for inert or low-contamination waste. The composite liner is a technically highly effective but very expensive system. Research and experience has given rise to concern about the proper long-term performance of a conventional single CCL as a landfill capping. Therefore, alternative capping systems are discussed and applied for landfills and for the containment of contaminated sites. This paper gives an overview on various alternative engineered cappings and suitable systems for capping reflecting the state of the art and the expert view in Germany. According to the European Council Directive on the landfill of waste an impermeable mineral layer is recommended for the surface sealing of non-hazardous landfills and a composition of artificial sealing liner and impermeable mineral layer for hazardous landfills. In both cases a drainage layer thickness of at least 0.5 m is suggested. These recommendations should be interpreted flexibly and to some extent modified in the light of the experience and results presented in this paper

  19. C. F. Braun. Standard turbine island design, safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard turbine island used with a BWR is described. It consists of the turbine-generator; steam system; condensate storage, cleanup, and transfer systems; control and instrumentation; water treatment plant; make-up demineralizer; potable and waste water systems; and a compressed air system. The turbine-generator is a tandem-compound nuclear-type turbine with one double-flow high-pressure section and a six-flow low-pressure section in three double-flow low-pressure casings. The turbine is direct connected to an 1800 rpm synchronous a-c generator. A combined moisture separator and two-stage reheater is provided. The main steam system delivers the steam generated in a BWR to the main turbine stop valves. The condensate system maintains proper water inventory. Protective features prevent loss of the system due to electrical failure of a component and isolates faults to ensure continuity of a power supply from alternate sources. (U.S.)

  20. Comparison of the General Electric BWR/6 standard plant design to the IAEA NUSS codes and guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ardenne, W.H.; Sherwood, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The General Electric BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds current requirements of published International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) codes and guides. This conclusion is based on a review of the NUSS codes and guides by General Electric and by the co-ordinated US review of the NUSS codes and guides during their development. General Electric compared the published IAEA NUSS codes and guides with the General Electric design. The applicability of each code and guide to the BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design was determined. Each code or guide was reviewed by a General Electric engineer knowledgeable about the structures, systems and components addressed and the technical area covered by that code or guide. The results of this review show that the BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds the applicable requirements of the published IAEA NUSS codes and guides. The co-ordinated US review of the IAEA NUSS codes and guides corroborates the General Electric review. In the co-ordinated US review, the USNRC and US industry organizations (including General Electric) review the NUSS codes and guides during their development. This review ensures that the NUSS codes and guides are consistent with the current US government regulations, guidance and regulatory practices, US voluntary industry codes and standards, and accepted US industry design, construction and operational practices. If any inconsistencies are identified, comments are submitted to the IAEA by the USNRC. All US concerns submitted to the IAEA have been resolved. General Electric design reviews and the Final Design Approval (FDA) issued by the USNRC have verified that the General Electric BWR/6 Mark III standard plant design meets or exceeds the current US requirements, guidance and practices. Since these requirements, guidance and practices meet or exceed those of the NUSS codes and guides, so does the General Electric design. (author)

  1. Structured workflow for implementing digital archiving standards in an organisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many standards available for archiving digital and analogue (paper) data and documents, but these come from various sources and it can be difficult to understand what standards should be used, and where. Researchers have executed a project...

  2. CONFOUNDING STRUCTURE OF TWO-LEVEL NONREGULAR FACTORIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Junbai

    2012-01-01

    In design theory,the alias structure of regular fractional factorial designs is elegantly described with group theory.However,this approach cannot be applied to nonregular designs directly. For an arbitrary nonregular design,a natural question is how to describe the confounding relations between its effects,is there any inner structure similar to regular designs? The aim of this article is to answer this basic question.Using coefficients of indicator function,confounding structure of nonregular fractional factorial designs is obtained as linear constrains on the values of effects.A method to estimate the sparse significant effects in an arbitrary nonregular design is given through an example.

  3. Loops and Metagames: Understanding Game Design Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of formal concepts that can help in game design analysis. Our goal is to provide a conceptual framework based on terminology used in game design.......In this paper we present a set of formal concepts that can help in game design analysis. Our goal is to provide a conceptual framework based on terminology used in game design....

  4. Optimum topology design for the concentrated force diffusion structure of strap-on launch vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust from the booster of strap-on launch vehicle is transmitted to the core via the strap-on linkage device, so the reinforced structure to diffusion the concentrated force should be employed in the installation site of this device. To improve the bearing-force characteristics of the concentrated force diffusion structure in strap-on linkage section and realize the lightweight design requirements, topology optimization under multiple load cases is conducted for the concentrated force diffusion structure in this study. The optimal configuration finally obtained can achieve 17.7% reduction in total weight of the structure. Meanwhile, results of strength analysis under standard load cases show the stress level of this design scheme of the concentrated force diffusion structure meet design requirements and the proposed topology optimization method is suitable for the design of the concentrated force diffusion structure in concept design phase.

  5. Design methods for structures under thermal ratchet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branca, T.R.; McLean, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Previous work on the thermal ratchet analysis of a simple pipe is extended to the case of an intersection of a pipe with a spherical shell. The chosen nozzle configuration is subjected to an internal pressure which remains constant, and a cyclic thermal transient which is representative of the type of transient that might be expected for components of a LMFBR. A number of cross-sections through the nozzle were examined, each yielding a different combination of elastic primary and secondary stress. These stresses, together with their associated cyclic strain growth, as determined from an elastic-plastic-creep analysis of the nozzle, were then plotted on a Miller or Bree-type diagram. Thus, a number of points, one for each cross-section considered, were available for comparison with the data obtained from the ratchet analysis of simple pipe sections. Both the elastic and inelastic analyses on the nozzle were performed using the finite element method of structural analysis of the ANSYS computer code. The pipe ratchetting cases were computed using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory PLACRE code. For a simple pipe ratchet case, a brief comparison is given between the version of ANSYS used in this study, the ANSYS version used in previous work and PLACRE code. The three programs did not yield identical results. Further study is needed to resolve the discrepancies that were observed. The results of the comparison between the nozzle ratchet and pipe ratchet solutions indicate that reasonable predictions can be made for the nozzle ratchet strains based on elastic parameters and design curves developed from pipe ratchetting solutions. (author)

  6. Configuration and structural design of Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the configuration and structural design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak, originally presented to the US/Japan Workshop on Next Step Machine Design. Items discussed in this presentation include: PPPL 0424 ref design; MIT LITE ref design; IGNITOR 1.01 M ref design; and IGNITOR 1.08 M press configuration

  7. Structural and piping issues in the design certification of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.A.; Terao, D.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design certification of structures and piping for evolutionary and passive advanced light water reactors. Advanced reactor designs are based on a set of assumed site-related parameters that are selected to envelop a majority of potential nuclear power plant sites. Multiple time histories are used as the seismic design basis in order to cover the majority of potential sites in the US. Additionally, design are established to ensure that surface motions at a particular site will not exceed the enveloped standard design surface motions. State-of-the-art soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses have been performed for the advanced reactors, which include structure-to-structure interaction for all seismic Category 1 structures. Advanced technology has been utilized to exclude the dynamic effects of pipe rupture from structural design by demonstrating that the probability of pipe rupture is extremely low. For piping design, the advanced reactor vendors have developed design acceptance criteria (DAC) which provides the piping design analysis methods, design procedures, and acceptance criteria. In SECY-93-087 the NRC staff recommended that the Commission approve the approach to eliminate the OBE from the design of structures and piping in advanced reactors and provided guidance which identifies the necessary changes to existing seismic design criteria. The supplemental criteria address fatigue, seismic anchor motion, and piping stress limits when the OBE is eliminated

  8. Improving design processes through structured reflection : a prototype software tool

    OpenAIRE

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Melby, E.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype software tool facilitating the use of a design method supporting structured reflection on design processes is presented. The prototype, called Echo, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Both the prototype software tool and the design method are developed as part of the Ph.D. project of Isabelle Reymen. The goal of the design method is supporting designers with reflection on design processes in a systemati...

  9. IEEE standard for design qualification of safety systems equipment used in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This standard is written to serve as a general standard for qualification of all types of safety systems equipment, mechanical and instrumentation as well as electrical. It also establishes principles and procedures to be followed in preparing specific safety systems equipment standards. Guidance for qualifying specific safety systems equipment may be found in various specific equipment qualification standards that are now available or are being prepared. It is required that safety systems equipment in nuclear power generating stations meet or exceed its performance requirements throughout its installed life. This is accomplished by a disciplined program of design qualification and quality assurance of design, production, installation, maintenance and surveillance. This standard is for the design qualification section of the program only. Design qualification is intended to demonstrate the capability of the equipment design to perform its safety function(s) over the expected range of normal, abnormal, design basis event, post design basis event, and in-service test conditions. Inherent to design qualification is the requirement for demonstration, within limitations afforded by established technical state-of-the-art, that in-service aging throughout the qualified life established for the equipment will not degrade safety systems equipment from its original design condition to the point where it cannot perform its required safety function(s), upon demand. The above requirement reflects the primary role of design qualification to provide reasonable assurance that design- and age-related common failure modes will not occur during performance of safety function(s) under postulated service conditions

  10. Coevolutionary and genetic algorithm based building spatial and structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.; Davila Delgado, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, two methods to develop and optimize accompanying building spatial and structural designs are compared. The first, a coevolutionary method, applies deterministic procedures, inspired by realistic design processes, to cyclically add a suitable structural design to the input of a

  11. Automated simulation and study of spatial-structural design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila Delgado, J.M.; Hofmeyer, H.; Stouffs, R.; Sariyildiz, S.

    2013-01-01

    A so-called "Design Process Investigation toolbox" (DPI toolbox), has been developed. It is a set of computational tools that simulate spatial-structural design processes. Its objectives are to study spatial-structural design processes and to support the involved actors. Two case-studies are

  12. Model reduction in integrated controls-structures design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.

    1993-01-01

    It is the objective of this paper to present a model reduction technique developed for the integrated controls-structures design of flexible structures. Integrated controls-structures design problems are typically posed as nonlinear mathematical programming problems, where the design variables consist of both structural and control parameters. In the solution process, both structural and control design variables are constantly changing; therefore, the dynamic characteristics of the structure are also changing. This presents a problem in obtaining a reduced-order model for active control design and analysis which will be valid for all design points within the design space. In other words, the frequency and number of the significant modes of the structure (modes that should be included) may vary considerably throughout the design process. This is also true as the locations and/or masses of the sensors and actuators change. Moreover, since the number of design evaluations in the integrated design process could easily run into thousands, any feasible order-reduction method should not require model reduction analysis at every design iteration. In this paper a novel and efficient technique for model reduction in the integrated controls-structures design process, which addresses these issues, is presented.

  13. Structural design of nuclear power plant using stiffened steel plate concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungmin; Mun, Taeyoup; Kim, Keunkyeong; Sun, Wonsang

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power is an alternative energy source that is conducive to mitigate the environmental strains. The countries having nuclear power plants are encouraging research and development sector to find ways to construct safer and more economically feasible nuclear power plants. Modularization using Steel Plate Concrete(SC) structure has been proposed as a solution to these efforts. A study of structural modules using SC structure has been performed for shortening of construction period and enhancement of structural safety of NPP structures in Korea. As a result of the research, the design code and design techniques based on limit state design method has been developed. The design code has been developed through various structural tests and theoretical studies, and it has been modified by application design of SC structure for NPP buildings. The code consists of unstiffened SC wall design, stiffened SC wall design, Half-SC slab design, stud design, connection design and so on. The stiffened steel plate concrete(SSC) wall is SC structure whose steel plates with ribs are composed on both sides of the concrete wall, and this structure was developed for improved constructability and safety of SC structure. This paper explains a design application of SC structure for a sample building specially devised to reflect all of major structural properties of main buildings of APR1400. In addition, Stiffening effect of SSC structure is evaluated and structural efficiency of SSC structure is verified in comparison with that of unstiffened SC structure. (author)

  14. 75 FR 66734 - Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural Plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... acceptability of wood-based structural-use panels for construction sheathing and single-floor applications. It... acceptability of wood-based structural-use panels for construction sheathing and single- floor application, and... to Voluntary Product Standard (PS) 2-04, Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels...

  15. Structural and functional properties of designed globins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    De novo design of artificial proteins is an essential approach to elucidate the principles of protein architecture and to understand specific functions of natural proteins and also to yield novel molecules for medical and industrial aims. We have designed artificial sequences of 153 amino acids to fit the main-chain framework of ...

  16. 76 FR 14437 - Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0055] Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of Final Design Approval The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a final design approval (FDA) to GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) for the economic...

  17. Combining economic and social goals in the design of production systems by using ergonomics standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); H.J. de Vries (Henk); S. Verschoof (Sandra); W. Eveleens (Wietske); A. Feilzer (Albert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational

  18. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  19. Structured Design Language for Computer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Walter H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Box language used at all stages of program development. Developed to provide improved productivity in designing, coding, and maintaining computer programs. BOX system written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution.

  20. Toolkit Design for Interactive Structured Graphics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bederson, Benjamin B; Grosjean, Jesse; Meyer, Jon

    2003-01-01

    .... We compare hand-crafted custom code to polylithic and monolithic toolkit-based solutions. Polylithic toolkits follow a design philosophy similar to 3D scene graphs supported by toolkits including Java3D and OpenInventor...

  1. Virtual design and qualification of IC backend structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfhout, van R.B.R.; Sluis, van der O.; Driel, van W.D.; Janssen, J.H.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2006-01-01

    For Integrated Circuit (IC) wafer backend development, process developers have to design robust backend structures that guarantee both functionality and reliability during waferfab processes, packaging, qualification tests and lifetime. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram for the design (and

  2. Structures and Processes in Didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Heilesen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a user-driven approach to designing new educational formats including new media for learning. Focus will be on didactic design involving the use of information technology as a means of mediating, augmenting or even fundamentally changing teaching and learning practices....... The two key points in the article are the introduction of a Quadrant-Model, and the understanding of the user as a construction....

  3. Structures and Processes in Didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Heilesen, Simon

    This paper introduces a user-driven approach to designing new educational formats including new media for learning. Focus will be on didactic design involving the use of information technology as a means of mediating, augmenting or even fundamentally changing teaching and learning practices....... The two key points in the article are the introduction of a Quadrant-Model, and the understanding of the user as a construction....

  4. Structural design of the superconducting toroidal field coils for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.M.G.; Sborchia, C.; Thome, R.J.; Malkov, A.; Titus, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Structural design issues and features of the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be discussed. Selected analyses of the structural and mechanical behavior of the ITER TF coils will also be presented. (orig.)

  5. Design and Processing of Structural Composite Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, E. L; Baechle, D. M; Xu, K; Carter, R. H; Snyder, J. F; Wetzel, E. D

    2007-01-01

    ...) 2007 Symposium and Exhibition held in Baltimore, MD, on 3-7 June 2007. Multifunctional structural composites are being developed to simultaneously bear mechanical loads and store electrochemical energy...

  6. Toolkit Design for Interactive Structured Graphics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bederson, Benjamin B; Grosjean, Jesse; Meyer, Jon

    2003-01-01

    .... We describe Jazz (a polylithic toolkit) and Piccolo (a monolithic toolkit), each of which we built to support interactive 2D structured graphics applications in general, and Zoomable User Interface applications in particular...

  7. The Design of Project Management Structural Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Constantinescu; Cristian Etegan

    2007-01-01

    The relationships organization-suppliers-customers have recently known major changes in the structure of services and have made the organization develop its managerial and professional competencies in order to do projects. The qualified organization is the most trust-worthy in the process of doing a project. The participation of an organization in doing projects depends on a multitude of factors. Out of these factors, the structural organization comes forth, as it represents the variable with...

  8. Structural design considerations for a radwaste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foelber, S.C.; Sabbe, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structural engineer needs to consider several criteria when designing a radioactive-waste processing facility in order to properly balance the requirements of safety and economy. This paper addresses the design criteria and structural design of a vitrification building and the special equipment and supports associated with remote process operations. In addition, approaches to construction, and the role of scale models to aid in engineering design and construction are discussed. 5 figures

  9. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  10. Probability based load combinations for design of category I structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and a procedure for developing the load combination design criteria for category I structures. For safety evaluation of category I concrete structures under various static and dynamic loads, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed. This reliability analysis method is also used as a tool for determining the load factors for design of category I structures. In this paper, the load combinations for design of concrete containments, corresponding to a target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 in 4 years, are described. A comparison of containments designed using the ASME code and the proposed design criteria is also presented

  11. Modified Standard Penetration Test–based Drilled Shaft Design Method for Weak Rocks (Phase 2 Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this project, Illinois-specific design procedures were developed for drilled shafts founded in weak shale or rock. In particular, a modified standard penetration test was developed and verified to characterize the in situ condition of weak shales ...

  12. HSTL IO Standard Based Energy Efficient Multiplier Design using Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madhok, Shivani; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2015-01-01

    standards. Frequency scaling is one of the best energy efficient techniques for FPGA based VLSI design and is used in this paper. At the end we can conclude that we can conclude that there is 23-40% saving of total power dissipation by using SSTL IO standard at 25 degree Celsius. The main reason for power...... consumption is leakage power at different IO Standards and at different frequencies. In this research work only FPGA work has been performed not ultra scale FPGA....

  13. The design of a calorimetric standard of ionising radiation absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.B.

    1981-05-01

    The design of a calorimetric working standard of ionising radiation absorbed dose is discussed. A brief history of the appropriate quantities and units of measurement is given. Detailed design considerations follow a summary of the relevant literature. The methods to be used to relate results to national standards of measurement are indicated, including the need for various correction factors. A status report is given on the construction and testing program

  14. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  15. NMR in structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Marta G; Ab, Eiso; Theisgen, Stephan; Siegal, Gregg

    2017-11-08

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can provide valuable structural information for drug discovery endeavors. Here, we discuss the strengths (and limitations) of NMR applications to structure-based drug discovery, highlighting the different levels of resolution and throughput obtainable. Additionally, the emerging field of paramagnetic NMR in drug discovery and recent developments in approaches to speed up and automate protein-observed NMR data collection and analysis are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  17. Design Tools and Workflows for Braided Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestartas, Petras; Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Zwierzycki, Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    the objectives and motivation for our exploration of braid within an architectural context and highlighting both the relevance of braid and current lack of suitable design modelling tools to support our approach. We briefly introduce the state-of-the-art in braid representation and present the characteristics...

  18. Intelligent structures and design of energy related facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Haruyuki

    1994-01-01

    Possibility of applying intelligent structural concepts to civil design of energy plants is discussed. Intelligent structures, which are now common in aerospace engineering field, are also referred to as adaptive structures or smart structures depending on cases. Among various existing concepts, reconfigurable structures, precise shape control, structural monitoring using smart materials of optical fiber sensors, and relation with recent innovative communication technologies are focused from civil engineering point of view. Application of such new technologies will help to enhance design of energy related plants, which include multiplex functions which need to be very reliable and safe. (author)

  19. Duracrete: Service life design for concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, A.J.M.; Edvardsen, C.

    1999-01-01

    In the past decades much effort has been put into the improvement of the durability of concrete structures. This has resulted in a reasonable understanding of the main degradation processes or in experience with measures to prevent degradation. The results of this effort can be found in the present

  20. Design and Modeling of Structural Joints in Precast Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Harrild

    and in the onsite construction speed. The challenges appear in the on-site assembly phase, where structural integrity has to be ensured by in-situ cast connections in narrow zones. These connections are essential for the overall structural behavior and for this reason, strong and ductile connections...... is the orientation of the U-bar loops and the use of a double T-headed rebar in the overlapping area of the Ubars. The investigation covers several independent research topics, which in combination provides a broad knowledge of the behavior of keyed shear connections. As the first topic, the structural behavior...... the loop connection in such a way, that the tensile capacity is governed by yielding of the U-bars and not by a brittle failure of the grout. This is important in order to obtain a ductile response when the connection is loaded in shear. The main focus of the thesis is test and modeling of keyed shear...

  1. The structure of modern standard French a student grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Maj-Britt Mosegaard

    2016-01-01

    This book is an advanced student's grammar of French that integrates traditional grammar with knowledge and insights from modern linguistics. It assumes some prior knowledge of French grammar but is designed to be accessible to those with no background in linguistics.

  2. LOADS INTERACTION DOMAINS METHODOLOGY FOR THE DESIGN OF STEEL GREENHOUSE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castellano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to develop a design methodology which correlates main structural design parameters, whose production is characterised by high levels of standardization, such as the height of gutter or the distance between frames, with actions on the greenhouse. The methodology, based on the use of charts and abacus, permits a clear and a direct interpretation of the structural response to design load combinations and allows the design of structural improvements with the aim of the optimization of the ratio benefits (structural strength/costs. The study of structural interaction domains allowed a clear and a direct interpretation of the structural response to design load combinations. The diagrams highlight not only if the structure fulfils the standard requirements but also the safety levels with respect to design load combinations and allow the structural designer how to operate in order to optimize the structural response with standard requirements achieving the best ratio benefits (structural safety/ costs. The methodology was developed basing on criteria assigned by EN13031 on two different kinds of greenhouse structures: an arched greenhouse with a film plastic covering and a duo pitched roof greenhouse cover with rigid plastic membranes. Structural interaction domains for arched greenhouse showed a better capability of the structure to resist to vertical loads then to horizontal one. Moreover, the climatic load distribution on the structure assigned by EN13031 is such that the combination of climatic actions is less dangerous for the structure then their individual application. Whilst, duo pitched roof steel greenhouse interaction domains, showed a better capability of the structure to resist to vertical loads then to horizontal one and that, in any case, the serviceability limit states analysis is more strict then the ULS one. The shape of structural domains highlighted that the combination of actions is more dangerous for the

  3. Evaluation of a standard provision versus an autonomy promotive exercise referral programme: rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Kate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute of Clinical Excellence in the UK has recommended that the effectiveness of ongoing exercise referral schemes to promote physical activity should be examined in research trials. Recent empirical evidence in health care and physical activity promotion contexts provides a foundation for testing the utility of a Self Determination Theory (SDT-based exercise referral consultation. Methods/Design Design: An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial comparing standard provision exercise on prescription with a Self Determination Theory-based (SDT exercise on prescription intervention. Participants: 347 people referred to the Birmingham Exercise on Prescription scheme between November 2007 and July 2008. The 13 exercise on prescription sites in Birmingham were randomised to current practice (n = 7 or to the SDT-based intervention (n = 6. Outcomes measured at 3 and 6-months: Minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity per week assessed using the 7-day Physical Activity Recall; physical health: blood pressure and weight; health status measured using the Dartmouth CO-OP charts; anxiety and depression measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and vitality measured by the subjective vitality score; motivation and processes of change: perceptions of autonomy support from the advisor, satisfaction of the needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness via physical activity, and motivational regulations for exercise. Discussion This trial will determine whether an exercise referral programme based on Self Determination Theory increases physical activity and other health outcomes compared to a standard programme and will test the underlying SDT-based process model (perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, motivation regulations, outcomes via structural equation modelling. Trial registration The trial is registered as Current Controlled trials ISRCTN07682833.

  4. Molecular catalysts structure and functional design

    CERN Document Server

    Gade, Lutz H

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting the key aspects and latest advances in the rapidly developing field of molecular catalysis, this book covers new strategies to investigate reaction mechanisms, the enhancement of the catalysts' selectivity and efficiency, as well as the rational design of well-defined molecular catalysts. The interdisciplinary author team with an excellent reputation within the community discusses experimental and theoretical studies, along with examples of improved catalysts, and their application in organic synthesis, biocatalysis, and supported organometallic catalysis. As a result, readers wil

  5. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: From Design to Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Norton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of DNA for the production of nanoscale architectures presents a young yet paradigm breaking approach, which addresses many of the barriers to the self-assembly of small molecules into highly-ordered nanostructures via construct addressability. There are two major methods to construct DNA nanostructures, and in the current review we will discuss the principles and some examples of applications of both the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an older method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiply repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at this time, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and exactly defined structures.

  6. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: From Design to Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadegan, Reza M.; Norton, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of DNA for the production of nanoscale architectures presents a young yet paradigm breaking approach, which addresses many of the barriers to the self-assembly of small molecules into highly-ordered nanostructures via construct addressability. There are two major methods to construct DNA nanostructures, and in the current review we will discuss the principles and some examples of applications of both the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an older method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiply repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at this time, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and exactly defined structures. PMID:22837684

  7. Structural DNA nanotechnology: from design to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadegan, Reza M; Norton, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of DNA for the production of nanoscale architectures presents a young yet paradigm breaking approach, which addresses many of the barriers to the self-assembly of small molecules into highly-ordered nanostructures via construct addressability. There are two major methods to construct DNA nanostructures, and in the current review we will discuss the principles and some examples of applications of both the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an older method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiply repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at this time, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and exactly defined structures.

  8. Complementary structure for designer localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported on metallic structures corrugated by very long and curved grooves have been recently proposed and demonstrated on an extremely thin metallic spiral structure (MSS) in the microwave regime. However, the mode profile for the magnetic LSPs was demonstrated by measuring only the electric field, not the magnetic field. Here, based on Babinet's principle, we propose a Babinet-inverted, or complementary MSS whose electric/magnetic mode profiles match the magnetic/electric mode profiles of MSS. This complementarity of mode profiles allows mapping the magnetic field distribution of magnetic LSP mode profile on MSS by measuring the electric field distribution of the corresponding mode on complementary MSS. Experiment at microwave frequencies also demonstrate the use of complementary MSS in sensing refractive-index change in the environment.

  9. Modeling the Structure and Complexity of Engineering Routine Design Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Wits, Wessel Willems; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to structure routine design problems as well as a model of its design complexity. The idea is that having a proper model of the structure of such problems enables understanding its complexity, and likewise, a proper understanding of its complexity enables the development

  10. Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization Framework for Aircraft Box Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, R.E.C.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Van Dalen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive aircraft box structures are a perfect compromise between weight and price. The conceptual design process of these structures is a typical Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization effort, normally conducted by human engineers. The iterative nature of MDO turns development into a long and

  11. A Fractual Mechanical Testing and Design Strategy for FRC Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    1999-01-01

    A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications.......A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications....

  12. Guest-responsive structural adaptation of a rationally-designed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adaptability of the TB core to undergo subtle structural changes in response to the guest that is included. The structural ... we report the design, synthesis and inclusion behaviour of a novel ..... Based on a rational design, we have shown from ...

  13. High temperature structural design and R and Ds for heat transport system components of FBR 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumikawa, Masaharu; Nakagawa, Yukio; Fukuda, Yoshio; Sukegawa, Masayuki; Ishizaki, Tairo.

    1980-01-01

    The machines and equipments of cooling system for the fast breeder prototype reactor ''Monju'' are operated in creep temperature region, and the upper limit temperature to apply the domestic structural design standard for nuclear machines and equipment is exceeded, therefore the guideline for high temperature structural design is being drawn up, reflecting the results of recent research and development, by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. and others. In order to obtain the basic data for the purpose, the tests on the high temperature characteristics of main structural members and structural elements were carried out, and eight kinds of the inelastic structural analysis program ''HI-EPIC'' series were developed, thus the fundamental technologies of structural desigh in non-linear region were established. Also in the non-linear region, enormous physical quantities must be evaluated, and in the design method based on real elastic analysis, many design diagrams must be employed, therefore for the purpose of improving the reliability of evaluation, the automatic evaluation program ''HI-TEP'' was developed, and preparation has been made for the design of actual machines. The high temperature structural design in ''Monju'', the development of inelastic structural analysis program and high temperature structural analysis evaluation program, and the development of high temperature structures and materials are described. (Kako, I.)

  14. Integrated topology and shape optimization in structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremicker, M.; Chirehdast, M.; Kikuchi, N.; Papalambros, P. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Structural optimization procedures usually start from a given design topology and vary its proportions or boundary shapes to achieve optimality under various constraints. Two different categories of structural optimization are distinguished in the literature, namely sizing and shape optimization. A major restriction in both cases is that the design topology is considered fixed and given. Questions concerning the general layout of a design (such as whether a truss or a solid structure should be used) as well as more detailed topology features (e.g., the number and connectivities of bars in a truss or the number of holes in a solid) have to be resolved by design experience before formulating the structural optimization model. Design quality of an optimized structure still depends strongly on engineering intuition. This article presents a novel approach for initiating formal structural optimization at an earlier stage, where the design topology is rigorously generated in addition to selecting shape and size dimensions. A three-phase design process is discussed: an optimal initial topology is created by a homogenization method as a gray level image, which is then transformed to a realizable design using computer vision techniques; this design is then parameterized and treated in detail by sizing and shape optimization. A fully automated process is described for trusses. Optimization of two dimensional solid structures is also discussed. Several application-oriented examples illustrate the usefulness of the proposed methodology.

  15. Materializing a responsive interior: designing minimum energy structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie; Kofod, Guggi; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of design-led experiments investigating future possibilities for architectural materialization relying on minimum energy structures as an example of adaptive structure. The structures have been made as laminates of elastic membrane under high tension with flexible...... (Lendlein, Kelch 2002) or light (van Oosten, Bastiaansen et al. 2009). All in all, this approach could form a whole new design paradigm, in which efficient 2D-manufacturing can lead to highly flexible, low weight and adaptable 3D-structures. This is illustrated by the design and manufacture of electro...

  16. Enabling Rapid and Robust Structural Analysis During Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.; Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-year effort to add a structural analysis subprocess to a supersonic aircraft conceptual design process. The desired capabilities include parametric geometry, automatic finite element mesh generation, static and aeroelastic analysis, and structural sizing. The paper discusses implementation details of the new subprocess, captures lessons learned, and suggests future improvements. The subprocess quickly compares concepts and robustly handles large changes in wing or fuselage geometry. The subprocess can rank concepts with regard to their structural feasibility and can identify promising regions of the design space. The automated structural analysis subprocess is deemed robust and rapid enough to be included in multidisciplinary conceptual design and optimization studies.

  17. Structural design of the turbine building of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varella, L.N.; Reis, F.J.C.; Jurkiewicz, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Turbine Building of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1, and particularly its structure and structural design are described. The Turbine Building, as far as its structure is concerned, deviates from the standard structure of any turbine building due to the fact that huge ducts are provided in the foundation mat as to accomodate the circulating water system. This aspect and the fact that the building is founded upon a very deep strata of compacted and controlled fill, makes out of the building structure 'a concrete ship floating in the sea of sand', and by the same reason presents by itself an interesting structure, worth to be known to all engineers involved in design of power plants. This pape, suplemented by a few slides shown during presentation of the paper at the conference, covers the subject mainly from the designers' point of view. (Author)

  18. A brief comparison of existing regional green building design standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Ren, J.; Cho, S.

    2017-03-01

    A large country with a variety of regional natural, cultural and economic conditions, China has established a number of green building design (GBD) standards both at national and regional (provincial and municipal) levels. Some researches have been conducted to review and compare such standards. The main aim was to provide valuable references for the establishment of new regionally specific GBD standards in different regions of the country. This paper introduces the preliminary results of the researches. The distribution, frameworks and content of the existing regional GBD standards are introduced and compared in relating to the regionally specific climate, resource, economic and cultural conditions. Conclusions are provided and further researches are recommended.

  19. Reliability Evaluation and Probabilistic Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional design practice for coastal structures is deterministic in nature and is based on the concept of a design load, which should not exceed the resistance (carrying capacity) of the structure. The design load is usually defined on a probabilistic basis as a characteristic value of the load......, e.g. the expectation (mean) value of the lOO-year return period event, however, often without consideration of the involved uncertainties. The resistance is in most cases defined in terms of the load which causes a certain design impact or damage to the structure and is not given as an ultimate...... force or deformation. This is because most of the available design formulae only give the relationship between wave characteristics and structural response, e.g. in terms of run-up, overtopping, armour layer damage etc. An example is the Hudson formula for armour layer stability. Almost all such design...

  20. 78 FR 59981 - Proposed Revision to Physical Security-Standard Design Certification and Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Design Certification and Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard... Design Certification and Operating Reactors.'' The NRC seeks comments on the proposed revised section of... subject): Federal Rulemaking Web site: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and search for Docket ID NRC-2013...

  1. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The typical approach on recent projects has been the hardening of safety-related buildings and/or protection of redundant safety-related equipment through separation. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. Conservatively calculated loads resulting from these are in some cases quite severe. The reactor auxiliary system building (Soft Shell Hardcore design) allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioactivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. This investigation determines the feasibility of two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model. (Auth.)

  2. Acoustic Design of Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas

    in a controlled laboratory environment have been conducted with the element in order to evaluate its performance in airborne and impact sound insulation. These results have been employed in simulations of the flanking transmission to estimate the in-situ performance of the super-light slab element. The flanking...... aggregate (leca) along with a newly developed technology called pearl-chain reinforcement, which is a system for post-tensioning. Here, it is shown how to combine these technologies within a precast super-light slab element, while honoring the requirements of a holistic design. Acoustic experiments...

  3. Application and Design of Earth Structures from the Reinforced Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vaníček

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes the new problems connected with the proper design of the reinforced soil structures according to Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design. Therefore basic problems of reinforcement are briefly specified together with the influence of construction technology on the behaviour of such structures. Also up to date approach to the design method in the Czech republic are more specified. Finally the program of the new research in this field is described.

  4. Design study of blanket structure for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Design study of the blanket structure for JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) has been carried out. Studied here were fabrication and testing of the blanket structure (blanket cells, blanket rings, piping and blanket modules), assembly and disassembly of the blanket module, and monitering and testing technique. Problems in design and fabrication of the blanket structure could be revealed. Research and development problems for the future were also disclosed. (author)

  5. Integrated structure/control design - Present methodology and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Newsom, J. R.; Zeiler, T. A.; Gilbert, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to current methodology applied to the integration of the optimal design process for structures and controls. Multilevel linear decomposition techniques proved to be most effective in organizing the computational efforts necessary for ISCD (integrated structures and control design) tasks. With the development of large orbiting space structures and actively controlled, high performance aircraft, there will be more situations in which this concept can be applied.

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization for Structural Design Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit SARUHAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to employ the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique to a mechanical engineering design problem which is minimizing the volume of a cantilevered beam subject to bending strength constraints. Mechanical engineering design problems are complex activities which are computing capability are more and more required. The most of these problems are solved by conventional mathematical programming techniques that require gradient information. These techniques have several drawbacks from which the main one is becoming trapped in local optima. As an alternative to gradient-based techniques, the PSO does not require the evaluation of gradients of the objective function. The PSO algorithm employs the generation of guided random positions when they search for the global optimum point. The PSO which is a nature inspired heuristics search technique imitates the social behavior of bird flocking. The results obtained by the PSO are compared with Mathematical Programming (MP. It is demonstrated that the PSO performed and obtained better convergence reliability on the global optimum point than the MP. Using the MP, the volume of 2961000 mm3 was obtained while the beam volume of 2945345 mm3 was obtained by the PSO.

  7. Development of Canadian seismic design approach and overview of seismic standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usmani, A. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada); Aziz, T. [TSAziz Consulting Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Historically the Canadian seismic design approaches have evolved for CANDU® nuclear power plants to ensure that they are designed to withstand a design basis earthquake (DBE) and have margins to meet the safety requirements of beyond DBE (BDBE). While the Canadian approach differs from others, it is comparable and in some cases more conservative. The seismic requirements are captured in five CSA nuclear standards which are kept up to date and incorporate lessons learnt from recent seismic events. This paper describes the evolution of Canadian approach, comparison with others and provides an overview and salient features of CSA seismic standards. (author)

  8. Design analysis and comparison between standard and rotary porting systems for IC engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmisano, R.; Ng, H.D. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A method of improving the efficiency of an internal combustion engine was presented. The proposed design used a new sealing technology to optimize a rotary valve design. The design was compared with standard poppet porting system using a computer aided engineering (CAE) method. A double port cylinder configuration was used in order to allow continuous flow into the chamber and minimize the exposed surface area in the combustion chamber. The design also minimized distortion on the component when exposed to high condensation pressures. A transfer case was used to allow for easy adaptation of the configuration to a multi-cylinder engine. A mechanism dynamics extension (MDO) program was used to conduct dynamic analyses on the rotary and standard valve porting systems. The study showed that the poppet system required 62 times more torque than the new rotary valve design. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine the flow properties of both designs. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Improving design processes through structured reflection : a prototype software tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Melby, E.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype software tool facilitating the use of a design method supporting structured reflection on design processes is presented. The prototype, called Echo, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Both the prototype

  10. Design, Analysis And Realization Of Topology Optimized Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of topology optimisation as a constitutive design tool for design and form-finding of architectural concrete structures, and realisation of these designs using large scale CNCmilling of polystyrene form-work for in situ casting....

  11. Structure analysis and design of PCCV for new generation NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingdan; Wang Xiaowen; Huang Xiaolin; Xia Zufeng

    2005-01-01

    The paper documents the overall schedule work which has been done by Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI) in the research and design scope of the new generational advanced prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). It can be applied to the design of nuclear engineering and general prestressed concrete structures in civil engineering. (authors)

  12. Preliminary conceptual design and analysis on KALIMER reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to perform preliminary conceptual design and structural analyses for KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) reactor structures to assess the design feasibility and to identify detailed analysis requirements. KALIMER thermal hydraulic system analysis results and neutronic analysis results are not available at present, only-limited preliminary structural analyses have been performed with the assumptions on the thermal loads. The responses of reactor vessel and reactor internal structures were based on the temperature difference of core inlet and outlet and on engineering judgments. Thermal stresses from the assumed temperatures were calculated using ANSYS code through parametric finite element heat transfer and elastic stress analyses. While, based on the results of preliminary conceptual design and structural analyses, the ASME Code limits for the reactor structures were satisfied for the pressure boundary, the needs for inelastic analyses were indicated for evaluation of design adequacy of the support barrel and the thermal liner. To reduce thermal striping effects in the bottom are of UIS due to up-flowing sodium form reactor core, installation of Inconel-718 liner to the bottom area was proposed, and to mitigate thermal shock loads, additional stainless steel liner was also suggested. The design feasibilities of these were validated through simplified preliminary analyses. In conceptual design phase, the implementation of these results will be made for the design of the reactor structures and the reactor internal structures in conjunction with the thermal hydraulic, neutronic, and seismic analyses results. 4 tabs., 24 figs., 4 refs. (Author)

  13. Travelling wave accelerating structure design for TESLA positron injector linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, K; Zhou, F; Flöttmann, K

    2000-01-01

    A modified cup-like TW accelerating structure for TESLA Positron Pre-Accelerator (PPA) is designed by optimizing the structure geometry and by changing the iris thickness cell by cell in a section . This structure has high shunt-impedance and a large iris radius to meet with the requirements of high gradient and large transverse acceptance. The beam dynamics in the structure with the optimum solenoid focus field are studied. A satisfactory positron beam transmission and the beam performance at the PPA output have been obtained. In this paper the accelerating structure design is described in detail and the results are presented.

  14. Investigation of IFMIF target assembly structure design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Hiroo; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Yamamura, Toshio

    2006-10-01

    In the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), the back-wall of target assembly is the part suffered the highest neutron-flux. The back-wall and the assembly are designed to have lips for cutting/welding at the back-wall replacement. To reduce thermal stress and deformation of the back-wall under neutron irradiation, contact pressure between the back-wall and the assembly is one of dominant factors. Therefore, an investigation was performed for feasible clamping pressure of a mechanical clamp set in limited space around the back-wall. It was clarified that the clamp can give a pressure difference up to 0.4 MPa between the contact pressure and atmosphere pressure in the test cell room. Also a research was performed for the dissimilar metal welding in the back-wall. Use of 309 steel was found adequate as the intermediate filler metal through the research of previous welding. Maintaining a temperature of the target assembly so as to avoid a freezing of liquid lithium is needed at the lithium charge into the loop before the beam injection. The assembly is covered with thermal insulation. Therefore, a research and an investigation were performed for compact and light thermal-insulation effective even under helium (i.e. high heat-conduction) condition of the test cell room. The result was as follows; in the case that a thermal conductivity 0.008 W/m·K of one of found insulation materials is available in the temperature range up to 300degC of the IFMIF target assembly, needed thickness and weight of the insulation were respectively only 8.2 mm and 32 kg. Also a research was performed for high-heat-density heaters to maintain temperature of the back-wall which can not be cover with insulation due to limited space. A heater made of silicon-nitride was found to be adequate. Total heat of 8.4 kW on the back-wall was found to be achievable through an investigations of heater arrange. Also an investigation was performed for remote-handling device to

  15. Dynamic behavior structural response and capacity evaluation of the standardized WWER-1000 nuclear power plants subjected to severe loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriashvili, Y.K.; Krutzik, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to verify the structural capacity of standardized WWER-1000 MW nuclear power plants, comprehensive static and dynamic analyses were performed in cooperation between Siemens and Atomenergoprojekt. The main goal of these investigations was to perform of a number of seismic analyses of standardized WWER-1000 reactor buildings on the basis of 13 given seismological inputs, taking into account the local soil conditions at 17 different sites defined by in-situ investigations. The analyses were based on appropriate mathematical models (equivalent beam models as well as detailed spatial surface element models) of the coupled vibrating structures (base structure, outer structure, containment, inner structure) and of the layered soil. The analyses were mainly performed using the indirect method (substructure method). Based on the results of the seismic analysis as well as the results of static analysis (pressure and temperature due to LOCA, dead weight, prestressing) an assessment was made of the seismic safety of the containment and the reactor building. Using a complex 3-dimensional model of the structure and the soil, the influence of the flexibility of the basement structure on the structural response was also studied. The structural analyses of the WWER-1000 reactor building led to the conclusion that its design accounts well for the main factors governing the dynamic behavior of the building. The assessment of the forces acting in the structures shows that the bearing capacity of the analyzed building structure corresponds to an earthquake intensity of about 0.2 g to 0.25 g

  16. The applicability of ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC nuclear design code system on Korean standard PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kookjong; Choi, Kie-Yong; Lee, Hae-Chan; Roh, Eun-Rae

    1996-01-01

    For the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) designed based on Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80, the Westinghouse nuclear design code system ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC was applied to the follow-up design of initial and reload core of KSNPP. The follow-up design results of Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 1, 2 and Yonggwang Unit 4 Cycle 1 have shown good agreements with the measured data. The assemblywise power distributions have shown less than 2% average differences and critical boron concentrations have shown less than 20 ppm differences. All the low power physics test parameters are in good agreement. Consequently, APA design code system can be applied to KNSPP cores. (author)

  17. Index of Non-Government Standards on Human Engineering Design Criteria and Program Requirements/Guidelines. Version 3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poston, Alan

    2002-01-01

    .... Since the designation of documents as standards by non-government standards bodies tends to be somewhat flexible, the scope of non-government standards for the Index was kept quite loose and includes...

  18. Design optimization of jacket structures for mass production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper

    This thesis presents models and applications for structural optimization of jacket structures for offshore wind turbines. The motivation is that automatic design procedures can be used to obtain more cost efficient designs, and thus reduce the levelized cost of energy from offshore wind. A struct......This thesis presents models and applications for structural optimization of jacket structures for offshore wind turbines. The motivation is that automatic design procedures can be used to obtain more cost efficient designs, and thus reduce the levelized cost of energy from offshore wind....... A structural finite element model is developed specifically for the analysis and optimization of jacket structures. The model uses Timoshenko beam elements, and assumes thin walled tubular beams and a linear elastic structural response. The finite element model is implemented in a Matlab package called JADOP...... (Jacket Design Optimization), and the static and dynamic structural response is verified with the commercial finite element software Abaqus. A parametric mesh of the offshore wind turbine structure makes it relatively easy to represent various structures from the literature, as well as exploring...

  19. The impact of safety standards updating for design purposes in nuclear power plants licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Rabello, Sidney Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian experience of nuclear power plants licensing was consolidated by the use of the Brazilian, American, German and IAEA standards. Independently of the set of norms, standards or guides to be used, this set should be in consonance with the state-of-art or the current state of knowledge in science and technology. In the general design criteria of US NRC or German BMI, or in the Brazilian norms (CNEN) or even, in the IAEA standards, this aspect is always emphasized. On the other hand, the international operational experience of nuclear reactors (for example, TMI accident) also contributes to the updating of norms and standards. The use of new technologies (for example, digital technology) impels the norms and standards to adopt new design criteria related to the new technological context. Moreover, we must add the particular vision that each country can have concerning to specific topics in nuclear safety. This work discusses how the norms, standards and guides used in the nuclear licensing are being reviewed to cope with the requirement of the state-of-art. In order to accomplish this aim we took some general design criteria to exemplify how they are fulfilled, mainly those related directly with the protection of the defense-in-depth barriers: primary coolant system, containment vessel and containment systems, including external events and severe accidents. In complement to the deterministic analysis, it is also discussed the design criteria related to the human factors engineering and probabilistic safety analysis, including severe accidents aspects. (author)

  20. Towards a 'standard model' of large scale structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1994-01-01

    We explore constraints on inflationary models employing data on large scale structure mainly from COBE temperature anisotropies and IRAS selected galaxy surveys. In models where the tensor contribution to the COBE signal is negligible, we find that the spectral index of density fluctuations n must exceed 0.7. Furthermore the COBE signal cannot be dominated by the tensor component, implying n > 0.85 in such models. The data favors cold plus hot dark matter models with n equal or close to unity and Ω HDM ∼ 0.2 - 0.35. Realistic grand unified theories, including supersymmetric versions, which produce inflation with these properties are presented. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  1. Design and analysis of composite structures with applications to aerospace structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kassapoglou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Design and Analysis of Composite Structures enables graduate students and engineers to generate meaningful and robust designs of complex composite structures. Combining analysis and design methods for structural components, the book begins with simple topics such as skins and stiffeners and progresses through to entire components of fuselages and wings. Starting with basic mathematical derivation followed by simplifications used in real-world design, Design and Analysis of Composite Structures presents the level of accuracy and range of applicability of each method. Examples taken from ac

  2. Structural design and dynamic analysis of underground nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.W.; Reddy, D.V.; Heale, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Present actual experience in the structural design of undeground containments is limited to only four rather small reactors all located in Europe. Thus proposals for future underground reactors depend on the transposition of applicable design specifications, constraints and criteria from existing surface nuclear power plants to underground, and the use of many years of experience in the structural design of large underground cavities and cavity complexes for other purposes such as mining, hydropower stations etc. An application of such considerations in a recent input for the Underground Containment sub-section of the Seismic Task Group Report to the ASCE Committee for Nuclear Structures and Materials is presented as follows: underground concept considerations, siting criteria and structural selection, structural types, analytical and semi-analytical approaches, design and other miscellaneous considerations

  3. Design and Analysis of Muon Beam Stop Support Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, Udenna [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to design and analyze support structures to be used in the installation, test and final positioning of the MBS throughout the life of the Mu2e experiment. There several requirements for the MBS imposed by both the scope of the experiment and, other components within the DS bore. The functions of the MBS are: 1. To limit the induced rates in the Tracker, the Calorimeter and the Cosmic Ray Veto due to backsplash-and-secondary interactions, and 2. To reduce radiation levels external to the Detector solenoid. The structures used in supporting the MBS will also adhere to requirements imposed by its functions. These requirements are critical to the support structures and affect design decisions. Other requirements critical to the design are imposed by the weight, positional tolerance and assembly procedure of the MBS, and also, the magnetic field and vacuum dose rate of the DS bore. A detailed breakdown of how each requirement affects the structural design can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the design of each support structure and its attachment to the MBS while chapter 4 describes the results from structural analysis of the support structures. Chapter 5 describes evaluation for the design through testing and calculations while the conclusion in chapter 6 reports the current status at the time of this thesis submission with a plan for future work to be completed until final design and installation.

  4. Structural design of SBWR reactor building complex using microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandagi, K.; Rajagopal, R.S.; Sawhney, P.S.; Gou, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    The design concept of Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) plant is based on simplicity and passive features to enhance safety and reliability, improve performance, and increase economic viability. The SBWR utilizes passive systems such as Gravity Driven Core-Cooling System (GDCS) and Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). To suit these design features the Reactor Building (RB) complex of the SBWR is configured as an integrated structure consisting of a cylindrical Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) surrounded by square reinforced concrete safety envelope and outer box structures, all sharing a common reinforced concrete basemat. This paper describes the structural analysis and design aspects of the RB complex. A 3D STARDYNE finite element model has been developed for the structural analysis of the complex using a PC Compaq 486/33L microcomputer. The structural analysis is performed for service and factored load conditions for the applicable loading combinations. The dynamic responses of containment structures due to pool hydrodynamic loads have been calculated by an axisymmetric shell model using COSMOS/M program. The RCCV is designed in accordance with ASME Section 3, Division 2 Code. The rest of the RB which is classified as Seismic Category 1 structure is designed in accordance with the ACI 349 Code. This paper shows that microcomputers can be efficiently used for the analysis and design of large and complex structures such as RCCV and Reactor Building complex. The use of microcomputers can result in significant savings in the computational cost compared with that of mainframe computers

  5. CRBRP structural and thermal margin beyond the design base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawbridge, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    Prudent margins beyond the design base have been included in the design of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant to further reduce the risk to the public from highly improbable occurrences. These margins include Structural Margin Beyond the Design Base to address the energetics aspects and Thermal Margin Beyond the Design Base to address the longer term thermal and radiological consequences. The assessments that led to the specification of these margins are described, along with the experimental support for those assessments. 8 refs

  6. Structural analysis for elevated temperature design of the LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.S.

    1976-02-01

    In the structural design of LMFBR components for elevated temperature service it is necessary to take account of the time-dependent, creep behavior of materials. The accommodation of creep to assure design reliability has required (1) development of new design limits and criteria, (2) development of more detailed representations of material behavior, and (3) application of the most advanced analysis techniques. These developments are summarized and examples are given to illustrate the current state of technology in elevated temperature design

  7. Loads for use in the design of ships and offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirdaris, S.E.; Bai, W.; Dessi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of structural responses is key element in the design of ships and offshore structures. Fundamental to this is the determination of the design loads to support the Rule requirements and for application in direct calculations. To date, the current design philosophy for the prediction...... of motions and wave-induced loads has been driven by empirical or first-principles calculation procedures based on well-proven applications such as ship motion prediction programs. In recent years, the software, engineering and computer technology available to predict the design loads imposed on ships...... and offshore structures has improved dramatically. Notwithstanding, with the stepwise increase in the size and structural complexity of ships and floating offshore installations and the advances in the framework of Rules and Standards it has become necessary to utilise the latest technologies to assess...

  8. The design of reliability data bases, part I: review of standard design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Main styles in the design of reliability data banks (RDB's) are reviewed. The conceptual and mathematical tools underlying these designs are summarized. A key point is the method for assessing failure rates for competing failure modes. The theory of independent competing risk and the relation to colored Poisson processes is explained. The notions of observed and naked failure rates are defined, and their equivalence under the assumption of independence is shown. In conclusion, the needs of different users are compared with the information currently offered

  9. Design and Optimization of a Turbine Intake Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fošumpaur

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate design of the turbine intake structure of a hydropower plant is based on assumptions about its suitable function, and the design will increase the total efficiency of operation. This paper deals with optimal design of the turbine structure of run-of-river hydropower plants. The study focuses mainly on optimization of the hydropower plant location with respect to the original river banks, and on the optimal design of a separating pier between the weir and the power plant. The optimal design of the turbine intake was determined with the use of 2-D mathematical modelling. A case study is performed for the optimal design of a turbine intake structure on the Nemen river in Belarus. 

  10. Optimal Design of Composite Structures Under Manufacturing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmaras, Konstantinos

    determination of the appropriate laminate thickness and the material choice in the structure. The optimal design problems that arise are stated as nonconvex mixed integer programming problems. We resort to different reformulation techniques to state the optimization problems as either linear or nonlinear convex....... The continuous relaxation of the mixed integer programming problems is being solved by an implementation of a primal–dual interior point method for nonlinear programming that updates the barrier parameter adaptively. The method is chosen for its excellent convergence properties and the ability of the method...... design phase results in structures with better structural performance reducing the need of manually post–processing the found designs....

  11. Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.

  12. A Standardized Rubric for Evaluating Webquest Design: Reliability Analysis of ZUNAL Webquest Design Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Zafer; Bodur, Yasar; Unal, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    Current literature provides many examples of rubrics that are used to evaluate the quality of web-quest designs. However, reliability of these rubrics has not yet been researched. This is the first study to fully characterize and assess the reliability of a webquest evaluation rubric. The ZUNAL rubric was created to utilize the strengths of the…

  13. Fatigue design of steel and composite structures Eurocode 3 : design of steel structures, part 1-9 fatigue ; Eurocode 4 : design of composite steel and concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaumer, Alain; Davaine, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This volume addresses the specific subject of fatigue, a subject not familiar to many engineers, but still relevant for proper and good design of numerous steel structures. It explains all issues related to the subject: Basis of fatigue design, reliability and various verification formats, determination of stresses and stress ranges, fatigue strength, application range and limitations. It contains detailed examples of applications of the concepts, computation methods and verifications.

  14. An approach to development of structural design criteria for highly irradiated core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    The advent of the fast breeder reactor presents novel challenges in structural design and materials engineering. For instance, the core components of these reactors experience high energy neutron irradiation at elevated temperature, which causes significant time-dependent changes in material behaviour, such as a progressive loss of ductility. New structural design criteria are needed to extend elevated temperature design-by-analysis to account for these changes. Alloys best able to cope with the demands of the core operating environment are being explored and their structural behaviour characterized. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an approach used in the development of core component structural design criteria. To do this, several design rules, plus brief rationale, from draft RDT Standards F9-7, -8 and -9 will be presented. These recently completed standards ('Structural Design Guidelines for Breeder Reactor Core Components') were prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy and represent a consensus among most organizations participating in the U.S. breeder program. (author)

  15. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  16. Design of marine structures with improved safety for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanac, Alan; Varsta, Petri

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for design of marine structures with increased safety for environment, considering also the required investment costs as well as the aspects of risk distribution onto the maritime stakeholders. Practically, the paper seeks to answer what is the optimal amount that should be invested into certain safety measure for any given vessel. Due to the uneven distribution of risk, as well as the differing impact of costs emerging from safety improvements, stakeholders experience conflicting ranking of alternatives. To solve this multi-stakeholder decision-making problem, in which each stakeholder is a decision-maker, the method applies concepts of group decision-making theory, namely the Game Theory. The method fosters axiomatic definition of the optimum solution, arguing that the solution, or the final selected design, should satisfy the non-dominance, efficiency, and fairness. These three are thoroughly discussed in terms of structural design, especially the latter. Considering the coupling of environmental risk and structural design, the method also builds on the preference structure of four maritime stakeholders: yards, owners, oil receivers and the public, who either share the risks or directly influence structural design. Method is presented on a practical study of structural design of a tanker with a crashworthy side structure that is capable of reducing the risk of collision. The outcome of this study outlines a number of possibilities for successful improvement of tanker safety that can benefit, concurrently, all maritime stakeholders.

  17. Advanced analysis and design for fire safety of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Analysis and Design for Fire Safety of Steel Structures systematically presents the latest findings on behaviours of steel structural components in a fire, such as the catenary actions of restrained steel beams, the design methods for restrained steel columns, and the membrane actions of concrete floor slabs with steel decks. Using a systematic description of structural fire safety engineering principles, the authors illustrate the important difference between behaviours of an isolated structural element and the restrained component in a complete structure under fire conditions. The book will be an essential resource for structural engineers who wish to improve their understanding of steel buildings exposed to fires. It is also an ideal textbook for introductory courses in fire safety for master’s degree programs in structural engineering, and is excellent reading material for final-year undergraduate students in civil engineering and fire safety engineering. Furthermore, it successfully bridges th...

  18. Integrated seismic design of structure and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The structural optimization procedure presented in this book makes it possible to achieve seismic protection through integrated structural/control system design. In particular, it is explained how slender structural systems with a high seismic performance can be achieved through inclusion of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an integral part of the system. Readers are provided with essential introductory information on passive structural control and passive energy dissipation systems. Dynamic analyses of both single and multiple degree of freedom systems are performed in order to verify the achievement of pre-assigned performance targets, and it is explained how the optimal integrated design methodology, also relevant to retrofitting of existing buildings, should be applied. The book illustrates how structural control research is opening up new possibilities in structural forms and configurations without compromising structural performance.

  19. Standardization Efforts for Mechanical Testing and Design of Advanced Ceramic Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Jenkins, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced aerospace systems occasionally require the use of very brittle materials such as sapphire and ultra-high temperature ceramics. Although great progress has been made in the development of methods and standards for machining, testing and design of component from these materials, additional development and dissemination of standard practices is needed. ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics and ISO TC 206 have taken a lead role in the standardization of testing for ceramics, and recent efforts and needs in standards development by Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics will be summarized. In some cases, the engineers, etc. involved are unaware of the latest developments, and traditional approaches applicable to other material systems are applied. Two examples of flight hardware failures that might have been prevented via education and standardization will be presented.

  20. Design and Analysis of Architectures for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Sixto, S. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of Health Usage and Monitoring Systems for structural health monitoring. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1. Reference HUMS architecture: We developed a high-level architecture for health monitoring and usage systems (HUMS). The proposed reference architecture is shown. It is compatible with the Generic Open Architecture (GOA) proposed as a standard for avionics systems. 2. HUMS kernel: One of the critical layers of HUMS reference architecture is the HUMS kernel. We developed a detailed design of a kernel to implement the high level architecture.3. Prototype implementation of HUMS kernel: We have implemented a preliminary version of the HUMS kernel on a Unix platform.We have implemented both a centralized system version and a distributed version. 4. SCRAMNet and HUMS: SCRAMNet (Shared Common Random Access Memory Network) is a system that is found to be suitable to implement HUMS. For this reason, we have conducted a simulation study to determine its stability in handling the input data rates in HUMS. 5. Architectural specification.

  1. Evenly distributed unitaries: On the structure of unitary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.; Audenaert, K.; Eisert, J.

    2007-01-01

    We clarify the mathematical structure underlying unitary t-designs. These are sets of unitary matrices, evenly distributed in the sense that the average of any tth order polynomial over the design equals the average over the entire unitary group. We present a simple necessary and sufficient criterion for deciding if a set of matrices constitutes a design. Lower bounds for the number of elements of 2-designs are derived. We show how to turn mutually unbiased bases into approximate 2-designs whose cardinality is optimal in leading order. Designs of higher order are discussed and an example of a unitary 5-design is presented. We comment on the relation between unitary and spherical designs and outline methods for finding designs numerically or by searching character tables of finite groups. Further, we sketch connections to problems in linear optics and questions regarding typical entanglement

  2. Design and evaluation of a 10-mA DC current reference standard

    CERN Document Server

    Fernqvist, G; Pickering, J; Power, F

    2003-01-01

    A new DC current reference standard has been developed for high- current power converter calibration in the large hadron collider (LHC) project at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). This standard provides a near ideal 10-mA DC current with long-term drift of one part in 10/sup 6/ per year. The paper describes the requirements and the detailed design and evaluation of the unit. Since similar 10-V standards are commercially available, the paper concentrates on the unique current output capability of this device. (4 refs).

  3. Development of expert system for structural design of FBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Uno, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Shimakawa, Takashi; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Yagawa, Genki.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of structural design processes for nuclear components can be summarized as follows : (1) Many engineers belonging to different fields are working in parallel, exchanging a huge amount of data and information. (2) A final solution is determined after a number of iterative design processes. (3) Solutions have to be examined many times based on sophisticated design codes. (4) Sophisticated calculation methods such as the finite element method are frequently utilized, and experts' knowledge on such analyses plays important roles in the design process. Taking these issues into consideration, a new expert system for structural design is developed in the present study. Here, the object-oriented data flow mechanism and the blackboard model are utilized to systematize structural design processes in a computer. An automated finite element calculation module is implemented, and experts' knowledge is stored in knowledge base. In addition, a new algorithm is employed to automatically draw the design window, which is defined as an area of permissible solutions in a design parameter space. The developed system is successfully applied to obtain the design windows of four components selected from the demonstration FBR structures. (author)

  4. Report on design rules of μ-tools for standard insert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Esmoris, Josa Ignacio; Quadroni, A.

    2011-01-01

    -effectively, especially for micro injection moulding. This particular deliverable has the objective to present the design rules for high performance μ-tools and inserts manufacture based on the new standard manufacturing process chains established during the WP 2.2 work. In particular, the achievable features, surfaces......Tooling is one of the critical stages of the process chain for polymer micro products manufacture and in particular for the COTECH process chain. Therefore, within the scope of SP2 “Tooling”, the WP 2.2 “New tool-making solutions for μ-IM and HE” is designed to investigate, develop and standardize...

  5. SSTL I/O Standard Based Green Communication Using Fibonacci Generator Design on Ultra Scale FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagah, Sumi; Kaur, Ravinder; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper six different available classes of Stub-Series Terminated Logic (SSTL) Input/output standard is used for the design of Green Fibonacci generator on 40nm FGPA. That green Fibonacci Generator is used to generate key for Wi-Fi Protected Access in order to make energy efficient communic......In this paper six different available classes of Stub-Series Terminated Logic (SSTL) Input/output standard is used for the design of Green Fibonacci generator on 40nm FGPA. That green Fibonacci Generator is used to generate key for Wi-Fi Protected Access in order to make energy efficient...

  6. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. ASPECTS REGARDING THE STRUCTURE OF GRADUATION PAPERS IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLOŞ Codruţa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding the structure, themes and content of graduation papers in the specialization of Industrial Design within Petru Maior University of Târgu Mures.

  8. An expert system for integrated structural analysis and design optimization for aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The results of a research study on the development of an expert system for integrated structural analysis and design optimization is presented. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was developed first in conjunction with a rule-based system. This ORL/AI shell was then used to develop expert systems to provide assistance with a variety of structural analysis and design optimization tasks, in conjunction with procedural modules for finite element structural analysis and design optimization. The main goal of the research study was to provide expertise, judgment, and reasoning capabilities in the aerospace structural design process. This will allow engineers performing structural analysis and design, even without extensive experience in the field, to develop error-free, efficient and reliable structural designs very rapidly and cost-effectively. This would not only improve the productivity of design engineers and analysts, but also significantly reduce time to completion of structural design. An extensive literature survey in the field of structural analysis, design optimization, artificial intelligence, and database management systems and their application to the structural design process was first performed. A feasibility study was then performed, and the architecture and the conceptual design for the integrated 'intelligent' structural analysis and design optimization software was then developed. An Object Representation Language (ORL), in conjunction with a rule-based system, was then developed using C++. Such an approach would improve the expressiveness for knowledge representation (especially for structural analysis and design applications), provide ability to build very large and practical expert systems, and provide an efficient way for storing knowledge. Functional specifications for the expert systems were then developed. The ORL/AI shell was then used to develop a variety of modules of expert systems for a variety of modeling, finite element analysis, and

  9. Static and Dynamic Analysis in Design of Exoskeleton Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivánkova, Ol'ga; Méri, Dávid; Vojteková, Eva

    2017-10-01

    This paper introduces a numerical experiment of creating the load bearing system of a high rise building. When designing the high-rise building, it is always an important task to find the right proportion between the height of the building and its perceptive width from the various angles of street view. Investigated high rise building in this article was designed according to these criteria. The load bearing structure of the analysed object consists of a reinforced core, plates and steel tubes of an exoskeleton. Eight models of the building were created using the spatial variant of FEM in Scia Engineer Software. Individual models varied in number and dimensions of diagrids in the exoskeleton. In the models, loadings due to the own weight, weight of external glass cladding, and due to the wind according to the Standard, have been considered. The building was loaded by wind load from all four main directions with respect to its shape. Wind load was calculated using the 3D wind generator, which is a part of the Scia Engineer Software. For each model the static analysis was performed. Its most important criterion was the maximum or minimum horizontal displacement (rotation) of the highest point of the building. This displacement was compared with the limit values of the displacement of the analysed high-rise building. By step-by-step adding diagrids and optimizing their dimensions the building model was obtained that complied with the criteria of the Limit Serviceability State. The last model building was assessed also for the Ultimate Limit State. This model was loaded also by seismic loads for comparison with the load due to the wind.

  10. Designing CNC Knit for Hybrid Membrane And Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders; Gengnagel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    specific properties and detailing. CNC knitting with high tenacity yarn enables this practice and offers an alternative to current woven membranes. The design and fabrication of an 8m high fabric tower through an interdisciplinary team of architects, structural and textile engineers, allowed to investigate...... means to design, specify, make and test CNC knit as material for hybrid structures in architectural scale. This paper shares the developed process, identifies challenges, potentials and future work...

  11. Topology Optimization for Conceptual Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bogomolny, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed by the nonlinear behavior of concrete and by its dierent strengths in tension and compression. The purpose of this article is to present a computational procedure for optimal conceptual design of reinforced concrete structures, based on topology...... must be consid- ered. Optimized distribution of material is achieved by introducing interpolation rules for both elastic and plastic material properties. Several numerical examples illustrate the capability and potential of the proposed procedure....

  12. Structural design of superconducting magnets for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.; Long, C.J.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1979-09-01

    The Large Coil Program (LCP) is a research, development, and demonstration effort specifically for the advancement of the technologies involved in the production of large superconducting magnets. This paper presents a review of the status of the structural designs, analysis methods, and verification tests being performed by the participating LCP design teams in the USA, Switzerland, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The significant structural mechanics concerns that are being investigated with the LCP are presented

  13. How the new optoelectronic design automation industry is taking advantage of preexisting EDA standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Kevin A.; Carver, Susan

    2014-05-01

    With the advancements in design processes down to the sub 7nm levels, the Electronic Design Automation industry appears to be coming to an end of advancements, as the size of the silicon atom becomes the limiting factor. Or is it? The commercial viability of mass-producing silicon photonics is bringing about the Optoelectronic Design Automation (OEDA) industry. With the science of photonics in its infancy, adding these circuits to ever-increasing complex electronic designs, will allow for new generations of advancements. Learning from the past 50 years of the EDA industry's mistakes and missed opportunities, the photonics industry is starting with electronic standards and extending them to become photonically aware. Adapting the use of pre-existing standards into this relatively new industry will allow for easier integration into the present infrastructure and faster time to market.

  14. Nonlinear Shaping Architecture Designed with Using Evolutionary Structural Optimization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Banachowicz, Marta

    2017-10-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of using Structural Optimization Tools (ESO) digital tools in an integrated structural and architectural design in response to the current needs geared towards sustainability, combining ecological and economic efficiency. The first part of the paper defines the Evolutionary Structural Optimization tools, which were developed specifically for engineering purposes using finite element analysis as a framework. The development of ESO has led to several incarnations, which are all briefly discussed (Additive ESO, Bi-directional ESO, Extended ESO). The second part presents result of using these tools in structural and architectural design. Actual building projects which involve optimization as a part of the original design process will be presented (Crematorium in Kakamigahara Gifu, Japan, 2006 SANAA“s Learning Centre, EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland 2008 among others). The conclusion emphasizes that the structural engineering and architectural design mean directing attention to the solutions which are used by Nature, designing works optimally shaped and forming their own environments. Architectural forms never constitute the optimum shape derived through a form-finding process driven only by structural optimization, but rather embody and integrate a multitude of parameters. It might be assumed that there is a similarity between these processes in nature and the presented design methods. Contemporary digital methods make the simulation of such processes possible, and thus enable us to refer back to the empirical methods of previous generations.

  15. Digitalization as Driver for Standardized Specification and Design of Buildings: In Search of an Efficient Building Design Management Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treldal, Niels

    of this research is, therefore, to increase the understanding of the relation between information needs, standardisation and efficient design management. The research draws on findings from previous research on information management, design management and socio-technical science and focuses in particular......-value adding design iterations will occur too frequently if the variability is not carefully managed. Building a strong community within the design team is found to be critical to reduce variability as it allows project managers to entrust the team to find solutions and coordinate activities more efficiently...... standards were developed in the current research. An IDM package framework is proposed to make the current IDM methodology from buildingSMART more modular and easier to reuse and utilize on projects. A generic LOD framework is proposed to make the agreement on geometry information exchange more pragmatic...

  16. Reliability-Based Robust Design Optimization of Structures Considering Uncertainty in Design Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structural design optimization to cover both the reliability and robustness under uncertainty in design variables. The main objective is to improve the efficiency of the optimization process. To address this problem, a hybrid reliability-based robust design optimization (RRDO method is proposed. Prior to the design optimization, the Sobol sensitivity analysis is used for selecting key design variables and providing response variance as well, resulting in significantly reduced computational complexity. The single-loop algorithm is employed to guarantee the structural reliability, allowing fast optimization process. In the case of robust design, the weighting factor balances the response performance and variance with respect to the uncertainty in design variables. The main contribution of this paper is that the proposed method applies the RRDO strategy with the usage of global approximation and the Sobol sensitivity analysis, leading to the reduced computational cost. A structural example is given to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  17. Giga-voxel computational morphogenesis for structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aage, Niels; Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan S.; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-10-01

    In the design of industrial products ranging from hearing aids to automobiles and aeroplanes, material is distributed so as to maximize the performance and minimize the cost. Historically, human intuition and insight have driven the evolution of mechanical design, recently assisted by computer-aided design approaches. The computer-aided approach known as topology optimization enables unrestricted design freedom and shows great promise with regard to weight savings, but its applicability has so far been limited to the design of single components or simple structures, owing to the resolution limits of current optimization methods. Here we report a computational morphogenesis tool, implemented on a supercomputer, that produces designs with giga-voxel resolution—more than two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported. Such resolution provides insights into the optimal distribution of material within a structure that were hitherto unachievable owing to the challenges of scaling up existing modelling and optimization frameworks. As an example, we apply the tool to the design of the internal structure of a full-scale aeroplane wing. The optimized full-wing design has unprecedented structural detail at length scales ranging from tens of metres to millimetres and, intriguingly, shows remarkable similarity to naturally occurring bone structures in, for example, bird beaks. We estimate that our optimized design corresponds to a reduction in mass of 2-5 per cent compared to currently used aeroplane wing designs, which translates into a reduction in fuel consumption of about 40-200 tonnes per year per aeroplane. Our morphogenesis process is generally applicable, not only to mechanical design, but also to flow systems, antennas, nano-optics and micro-systems.

  18. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbine Structures: Design Studies and Sensitivities to Model Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NJOMO WANDJI, Wilfried

    : decrease of conservatism level, improvement of design procedures, and development of innovative structural systems that suit well for large wind turbines. The increasing size of the structure introduces new problems that were not present for small structures. These problems include: (i) the preparation...... substructures. In addition to being aggressive, conditions for offshore environments and the associated models are highly uncertain. Appropriate statistical methodologies should be used in order to design robust structures, which are structures whose engineering performance is not significantly affected....... These research areas are differentially implemented through tasks on various wind turbine structures (shaft, jacket, semi-floater, monopile, and grouted joint). In particular the following research questions are answered: How are extreme and fatigue loads on a given structure influenced by the design of other...

  19. Structural Design and Sizing of a Metallic Cryotank Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Martin, Robert A.; Johnson, Theodore F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the structural design and sizing details of a 33-foot (10 m) metallic cryotank concept used as the reference design to compare with the composite cryotank concepts developed by industry as part of NASA s Composite Cryotank Technology Development (CCTD) Project. The structural design methodology and analysis results for the metallic cryotank concept are reported in the paper. The paper describes the details of the metallic cryotank sizing assumptions for the baseline and reference tank designs. In particular, the paper discusses the details of the cryotank weld land design and analyses performed to obtain a reduced weight metallic cryotank design using current materials and manufacturing techniques. The paper also discusses advanced manufacturing techniques to spin-form the cryotank domes and compares the potential mass savings to current friction stir-welded technology.

  20. Designing socio-technical systems : Structures and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, P.W.G.; Van Daalen, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and Management (SEPAM) MSc curriculum taught at Delft University of Technology focuses on the design of socio-technical systems (STS). We teach our students to structure design activities by considering what we call the TIP aspects: Technical systems,

  1. On The Design of Gravity Structures using Wave Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Brorsen, Michael

    Although most structures are subjected to dynamic, stochastic loads, it is in fact seldom that these loads are considered in the design, Normally the design is based on an equivalent static load, establishing naturally with due consideration to the true conditions, This method is often called det...... deterministic, the loading being described as a specified function of time....

  2. Design guide for calculating fluid damping for circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1983-06-01

    Fluid damping plays an important role for structures submerged in fluid, subjected to flow, or conveying fluid. This design guide presents a summary of calculational procedures and design data for fluid damping for circular cylinders vibrating in quiescent fluid, crossflow, and parallel flow

  3. Basic design of parallel computational program for probabilistic structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Taketoshi; Gu, Wenwei; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    1999-06-01

    In our laboratory, for 'development of damage evaluation method of structural brittle materials by microscopic fracture mechanics and probabilistic theory' (nuclear computational science cross-over research) we examine computational method related to super parallel computation system which is coupled with material strength theory based on microscopic fracture mechanics for latent cracks and continuum structural model to develop new structural reliability evaluation methods for ceramic structures. This technical report is the review results regarding probabilistic structural mechanics theory, basic terms of formula and program methods of parallel computation which are related to principal terms in basic design of computational mechanics program. (author)

  4. Basic design of parallel computational program for probabilistic structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Taketoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Gu, Wenwei; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    1999-06-01

    In our laboratory, for `development of damage evaluation method of structural brittle materials by microscopic fracture mechanics and probabilistic theory` (nuclear computational science cross-over research) we examine computational method related to super parallel computation system which is coupled with material strength theory based on microscopic fracture mechanics for latent cracks and continuum structural model to develop new structural reliability evaluation methods for ceramic structures. This technical report is the review results regarding probabilistic structural mechanics theory, basic terms of formula and program methods of parallel computation which are related to principal terms in basic design of computational mechanics program. (author)

  5. Robustness Issues for Design of Innovative Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious conse-quences in case of failure. The present paper summaries issues with respect to robustness of timber structures. Two different...... large span timber structures are analyzed and based on these analyses the paper presents guidelines for the future development of innovative timber struc-tures which are robust with respect to design and execution errors, unforeseen degradation and other potential hazards....

  6. Techniques for the design of highly damped structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for the design of highly damped structures, techniques which have proven successful for large scale, low frequency steel and concrete structures which are typical of nuclear power reactors and their components. The ability to augment structural damping can be useful in increasing the seismic withstandability of structures. Seismic excitation is broadband in its frequency content and will excite many strutural resonances. Broadband damping will limit these resonant responses and thereby reduce the seismic load on structures and their components. This paper discusses three techniques: the design of structural joints and interfaces to promote damping; the use of layers of viscoelastic material; and the employment of damping links. The emphasis is on explaining the ways in which these techniques work and in describing the ways in which they have been used. (Auth.)

  7. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... in the present study were (i) developing a framework for the collision design procedure for double hull tanker structures, (ii) experimental investigation of the structural crashworthiness of the collided vessels in collision or stranding, using double skinned structural models, (iii) validation of the special...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  8. Design and research of seal structure for thermocouple column assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Qiqi; Li Na; Zhao Wei; Ma Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The new seal structure was designed to satisfy the function of thermocouple column assembly and the reactor structure. This seal structure uses the packing graphite ring and adopts the self-sealing principle. Cone angle is brought to the seal face of seal structure which is conveniently to assembly and disassembly. After the sealing principle analysis and stress calculation of graphite ring which adopt the cone angle, the cone angle increases the radial force of seal structure and improves the seal effect. The stress analysis result shows the seal structure strength satisfies the regulation requirement. The cold and hot function test results shows the sealing effect is good, and the design requirement is satisfied. (authors)

  9. Research on the Multilayer Free Damping Structure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to put forward a design model for multilayer free damping structures. It sets up a mathematical model and deduces the formula for its structural loss factor η and analyzes the change rules of η along with the change rate of the elastic modulus ratio q1, the change rate of the loss factors of damping materials q2, and the change rate of the layer thickness ratio q3 under the condition with the layer thickness ratio h2=1,3,5,10 by software MATLAB. Based on three specific damping structures, the mathematical model is verified through ABAQUS. With the given structural loss factor (η≥2 and the layer number (n=3,4,5,6, 34 kinds of multilayer free damping structures are then presented. The study is meant to provide a more flexible and more diverse design solution for multilayer free damping structures.

  10. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis “Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes” evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  11. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis "Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes" evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  12. A basis for standardized seismic design (SSD) for nuclear power plants/critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.; Bellini, F.X.

    1991-01-01

    US Nuclear Power Plants (NPP's) are designed, engineered and constructed to stringent standards. Their seismic adequacy is assured by compliance with regulatory standards and demonstrated by both probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and seismic margin studies. However, present seismic siting criteria requires improvement. Proposed changes to siting criteria discussed here will provide a predictable licensing process and a stable regulatory environment. Two recent state-of-the-art studies evaluate the seismic design for all eastern US (EUS) NPP'S: a Lawrence Livermore National Labs study (LLNL, 1989) funded by the NRC and similar research by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 1989) supported by the utilities. Both confirm that Appendix A 10CFR Part 100 has not provided consistent seismic design levels for all sites. Standardized Seismic Design (SSD) uses a probabilistic framework to accommodate alternative deterministic interpretations. It uses seismic hazard input from EPRI or LLNL to produce consistent bases for future seismic design. SSD combines deterministic and probabilistic insights to provide a comprehensive approach for determining a future site's acceptable seismic design basis

  13. Applicability of ISO 9001: 2000 standard to design and research activities in nuclear objectives and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatopol, M.; Patticu, C.

    2001-01-01

    The ISO 9001: 2000 standard contains the results of the latest studies concerning the design and implementation of quality management systems. The continuous improvement of these systems required a new approach, namely, the process-based approach. A process-based model of quality management is presented in terms of client request, input data, management responsibility, resource management, product realisation, measurement / analysis and optimization, product, output data and client request fulfilment. Thus, the quality management system becomes an ensemble of interconnected or interacting processes. Consequently, to implement such a system the necessary processes have to be identified and their ISO 9001: 2000 standard based management ensured. Process based approach also allows better evidencing the input and output data specific to each process. Such an approach grants a wider applicability to the design and research activities in nuclear objectives and installations. This work aims at identifying additional requirements implied in design and research activities in nuclear field, as stipulated in the following standards / documents: - IAEA SG Q8 'Quality assurance in research and development'; - IAEA SG Q10 'Quality assurance in design'; - CAN / CSA N 286.2 - 00 'Design Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants'; CAN 3 - CSA Z 299.1 'Quality Assurance Program - Category 1'; - NQA - 1, SUPPLEMENT 3S-1 'Supplementary requirements for design control'

  14. Designing A Simple Folder Structure For A Complex Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkil Clemmensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore a case of designing a simple folder structure for a new e-learning software program for a university study program. The aim is to contribute to the theoretical base for human work interaction design (HWID by identifying the type of relations connecting design artifacts with work analysis and interaction design processes. The action research method was used, with the author in a double role as university researcher and project manager of a developer group within the university. Analysis was conducted through grounded theory, inspired by the HWID framework. The findings support the use of a holistic framework with asymmetrical relations between work analysis and design artifacts, and between design artifacts and interaction design. The paper concludes with suggestions for modifying the general framework, and recommendations for a HWID approach to design artifacts.

  15. Code Development for Control Design Applications: Phase I: Structural Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bir, G. S.; Robinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The design of integrated controls for a complex system like a wind turbine relies on a system model in an explicit format, e.g., state-space format. Current wind turbine codes focus on turbine simulation and not on system characterization, which is desired for controls design as well as applications like operating turbine model analysis, optimal design, and aeroelastic stability analysis. This paper reviews structural modeling that comprises three major steps: formation of component equations, assembly into system equations, and linearization

  16. 40 CFR 60.2890 - How are these new source performance standards structured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards structured? 60.2890 Section 60.2890 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... standards contain nine major components, as follows: (a) Preconstruction siting analysis. (b) Waste management plan. (c) Operator training and qualification. (d) Emission limitations and operating limits. (e...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2035 - How are these new source performance standards structured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards structured? 60.2035 Section 60.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... source performance standards contain the eleven major components listed in paragraphs (a) through (k) of this section. (a) Preconstruction siting analysis. (b) Waste management plan. (c) Operator training and...

  18. Optimal design of aperiodic, vertical silicon nanowire structures for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-09-12

    We design a partially aperiodic, vertically-aligned silicon nanowire array that maximizes photovoltaic absorption. The optimal structure is obtained using a random walk algorithm with transfer matrix method based electromagnetic forward solver. The optimal, aperiodic structure exhibits a 2.35 times enhancement in ultimate efficiency compared to its periodic counterpart. The spectral behavior mimics that of a periodic array with larger lattice constant. For our system, we find that randomly-selected, aperiodic structures invariably outperform the periodic array.

  19. STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN SPECIFICS OF SPACE GRID SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gasii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify main trends in the development of space grid structures. In order to reach the purpose it is necessary to conduct a review of the known structural concepts, nodal connections and specifics of the space grid structures and to make conclusions on feasibility improvement of the considered structural concepts that make it possible to develop new solutions without disadvantages residing in the analogues. Analysis of papers written by foreign and national scientists and devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of stress-strain state, influence of different factors on it and geometrical optimization and designing of space grid structures has been conducted in order to achieve the objectives. Space grid structures and, in particular, flat double-layer grid and most frequent nodes have been studied in the paper. The paper contains a short review of the history on development of space grid structures. It has been found that a rapid development of structural designs was caused by scientific and technical progress and, in particular, improvement of physical and mechanical properties of materials, development of calculation methods, application of software systems for simulating behavior of the structure under load, which significantly increased the calculation accuracy and reduced complexity of design. It has been also established that main parameters that have influence on effectiveness of a structural design are geometric dimensions of its modular elements, ratio of its depth to the span. The world experience on development of connection components has been studied in the paper. The paper presents general classification of nodal connections. Main advantages and disadvantages of existing space grid structures are highlighted and it allows to determine possible methods for their improvement. Theoretical research has permitted to establish that the main direction of spatial grid structures improvement

  20. Key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design - the US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design, particularly as they relate to cost reduction; and (2) to provide an overview of activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy to resolve the issues and to establish stable, standardized, and defensible structural design methods and criteria. Specific areas of discussion include: weldments, structural validation tests, simplified design analysis procedures, design procedures for piping, validation of the methodology for notch-like geometries, improved life assessment procedures, thermal striping, extension of the methodology to new materials, and ASME high-temperature Code reform needs. The perceived problems and needs in each area are discussed, and the current status of related US activities is given

  1. Comparison of Traditional Design Nonlinear Programming Optimization and Stochastic Methods for Structural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2010-01-01

    Structural design generated by traditional method, optimization method and the stochastic design concept are compared. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the merit function with constraints imposed on failure modes and an optimization algorithm is used to generate the solution. Stochastic design concept accounts for uncertainties in loads, material properties, and other parameters and solution is obtained by solving a design optimization problem for a specified reliability. Acceptable solutions were produced by all the three methods. The variation in the weight calculated by the methods was modest. Some variation was noticed in designs calculated by the methods. The variation may be attributed to structural indeterminacy. It is prudent to develop design by all three methods prior to its fabrication. The traditional design method can be improved when the simplified sensitivities of the behavior constraint is used. Such sensitivity can reduce design calculations and may have a potential to unify the traditional and optimization methods. Weight versus reliabilitytraced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to mean valued design. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure. Weight can be reduced to a small value for a most failure-prone design. Probabilistic modeling of load and material properties remained a challenge.

  2. Design and initial characterization of the SC-200 proteomics standard mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Andrew; Higdon, Roger; Rapson, Sean; Loiue, Brenton; Hogan, Jason; Stacy, Robin; Napuli, Alberto; Guo, Wenjin; van Voorhis, Wesley; Roach, Jared; Lu, Vincent; Landorf, Elizabeth; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Collart, Frank; Myler, Peter; van Belle, Gerald; Kolker, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput (HTP) proteomics studies generate large amounts of data. Interpretation of these data requires effective approaches to distinguish noise from biological signal, particularly as instrument and computational capacity increase and studies become more complex. Resolving this issue requires validated and reproducible methods and models, which in turn requires complex experimental and computational standards. The absence of appropriate standards and data sets for validating experimental and computational workflows hinders the development of HTP proteomics methods. Most protein standards are simple mixtures of proteins or peptides, or undercharacterized reference standards in which the identity and concentration of the constituent proteins is unknown. The Seattle Children's 200 (SC-200) proposed proteomics standard mixture is the next step toward developing realistic, fully characterized HTP proteomics standards. The SC-200 exhibits a unique modular design to extend its functionality, and consists of 200 proteins of known identities and molar concentrations from 6 microbial genomes, distributed into 10 molar concentration tiers spanning a 1,000-fold range. We describe the SC-200's design, potential uses, and initial characterization. We identified 84% of SC-200 proteins with an LTQ-Orbitrap and 65% with an LTQ-Velos (false discovery rate = 1% for both). There were obvious trends in success rate, sequence coverage, and spectral counts with protein concentration; however, protein identification, sequence coverage, and spectral counts vary greatly within concentration levels.

  3. Impact of insufficient energy content in the design time history on the structure response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    In the design of nuclear power plants, it is often desirable to use the time history method in the soil-structure interaction analysis to determine the plant floor response to seismic loads. Because many design criteria are specified in terms of design response spectra, the artificial time history needs to be generated under the requirement that the response spectra of the artificial history should envelop the given design response spectra. However, recent studies indicate that the artificial time history used in the plant design may have insufficient energy in the frequency range of interest, even though the response spectra of the design time history closely envelop the design response spectra. Therefore, the proposed changes in the NRC Standard Review Plan requires that when a single time history is used in the seismic design, it must satisfy requirements for both response spectra enveloping and matching a power spectra density (PSD) function in the frequency range of interest. The use of multiple artificial time histories (at least five time histories) in the plant design is also suggested in the new Standard Review Plan. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of the insufficient energy content in the design time history on the response of the soil-structure system. Numerical studies were carried out. Both the real earthquake records and the artificial time histories were used as the input motions in a simple lumped-mass soil-structure interaction model. The results obtained from this study provide a better understanding of the effects of the insufficient energy content in the design time history on the structural response. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  4. Structure study and design of Qinshan NPP PCCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zufeng; Xu Yongzhi; Wang Tianzhen; Wu Jibiao

    1993-02-01

    The design process of Qinshan NPP (nuclear power plant) PCCV (prestressed concrete containment vessel) is summarized. The tendon test, structural description, design bases and analysis method are introduced. The arrangement for preventing concrete from cracking and design features of post-tensioning system and steel liner are presented. The results of model test and non-linear analysis for ultimate load in Qinshan NPP PCCV are also given. Through the integrity test of PCCV, it shows that the test values are in agreement with predicted values, the structure is excellent and the performance of leak tightness conforms to the safety requirements

  5. Mechanical and materials engineering of modern structure and component design

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on mechanical and materials engineering as applied to the design of modern engineering materials and components. The contributions cover the classical fields of mechanical, civil and materials engineering, as well as bioengineering and advanced materials processing and optimization. The materials and structures discussed can be categorized into modern steels, aluminium and titanium alloys, polymers/composite materials, biological and natural materials, material hybrids and modern nano-based materials. Analytical modelling, numerical simulation, state-of-the-art design tools and advanced experimental techniques are applied to characterize the materials’ performance and to design and optimize structures in different fields of engineering applications.

  6. Structural Analysis and Seismic Design for Cold Neutron Laboratory Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, H. R.

    2007-05-01

    This report describes all the major results of the dynamic structural analysis and seismic design for the Cold Neutron Laboratory Building which is classified in seismic class II. The results are summarized of the ground response spectrum as seismic input loads, mechanical properties of subsoil, the buoyancy stability due to ground water, the maximum displacement of the main frame under the seismic load and the member design. This report will be used as a basic design report to maintenance its structural integrity in future

  7. Fundamental understanding and rational design of high energy structural microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxing; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Li, Huidong; Mendoza, Sarah; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Microbatteries play a critical role in determining the lifetime of downsized sensors, wearable devices and medical applications, etc. More often, structural batteries are required from the perspective of aesthetics and space utilization, which is however rarely explored. Herein, we discuss the fundamental issues associated with the rational design of practically usable high energy microbatteries. The tubular shape of the cell further allows the flexible integration of microelectronics. A functioning acoustic micro-transmitter continuously powered by this tubular battery has been successfully demonstrated. Multiple design features adopted to accommodate large mechanical stress during the rolling process are discussed providing new insights in designing the structural microbatteries for emerging technologies.

  8. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  9. Study on Design and Implementation of JAVA Programming Procedural Assessment Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingting, Xu; Hua, Ma; Xiujuan, Wang; Jing, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional JAVA course examination is just a list of questions from which we cannot know students' skills of programming. According to the eight abilities in curriculum objectives, we designed an assessment standard of JAVA programming course that is based on employment orientation and apply it to practical teaching to check the teaching…

  10. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and....S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management... June 11, 2010. Cathy Zoi, Assistant Secretary, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. [FR Doc. 2010...

  11. A Novel Instructional Approach to the Design of Standard Controllers: Using Inversion Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntogramatzidis, Lorenzo; Zanasi, Roberto; Cuoghi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a range of design techniques for standard compensators (Lead-Lag networks and PID controllers) that have been applied to the teaching of many undergraduate control courses throughout Italy over the last twenty years, but that have received little attention elsewhere. These techniques hinge upon a set of simple formulas--herein…

  12. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  13. A Discussion of Change Theory, System Theory, and State Designed Standards and Accountability Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Larry; Christy, W. Keith

    This brief paper is a presentation that preceeded another case of considering the ongoing dialogue on the advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized school-improvement processes. It attempts to raise a number of questions about the relationship between state-designed standards and accountability initiatives and change and…

  14. 78 FR 7251 - Rulemaking Concerning the Standards for Designating Positions in the Competitive Service as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...--Rulemaking Concerning the Standards for Designating Positions in the Competitive Service as National Security... Positions in the Competitive Service as National Security Sensitive and Related Matters Memorandum for the Director of National Intelligence [and] the Director of the Office of Personnel Management The Director of...

  15. A pro-forma design for car-carriers: Low-speed performance-based standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benade R, Berman R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available the constraints of the pro-forma design met the Level 1 requirements of the low-speed PBS. Future work will ensure compliance with the full set of twelve performance standards. It is estimated that the pro-forma approach as compared to doing full assessments would...

  16. Biomimetic Structural Materials: Inspiration from Design and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraghi, Nicholas A; Kisailus, David

    2018-04-20

    Nature assembles weak organic and inorganic constituents into sophisticated hierarchical structures, forming structural composites that demonstrate impressive combinations of strength and toughness. Two such composites are the nacre structure forming the inner layer of many mollusk shells, whose brick-and-mortar architecture has been the gold standard for biomimetic composites, and the cuticle forming the arthropod exoskeleton, whose helicoidal fiber-reinforced architecture has only recently attracted interest for structural biomimetics. In this review, we detail recent biomimetic efforts for the fabrication of strong and tough composite materials possessing the brick-and-mortar and helicoidal architectures. Techniques discussed for the fabrication of nacre- and cuticle-mimetic structures include freeze casting, layer-by-layer deposition, spray deposition, magnetically assisted slip casting, fiber-reinforced composite processing, additive manufacturing, and cholesteric self-assembly. Advantages and limitations to these processes are discussed, as well as the future outlook on the biomimetic landscape for structural composite materials.

  17. Biomimetic Structural Materials: Inspiration from Design and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraghi, Nicholas A.; Kisailus, David

    2018-04-01

    Nature assembles weak organic and inorganic constituents into sophisticated hierarchical structures, forming structural composites that demonstrate impressive combinations of strength and toughness. Two such composites are the nacre structure forming the inner layer of many mollusk shells, whose brick-and-mortar architecture has been the gold standard for biomimetic composites, and the cuticle forming the arthropod exoskeleton, whose helicoidal fiber-reinforced architecture has only recently attracted interest for structural biomimetics. In this review, we detail recent biomimetic efforts for the fabrication of strong and tough composite materials possessing the brick-and-mortar and helicoidal architectures. Techniques discussed for the fabrication of nacre- and cuticle-mimetic structures include freeze casting, layer-by-layer deposition, spray deposition, magnetically assisted slip casting, fiber-reinforced composite processing, additive manufacturing, and cholesteric self-assembly. Advantages and limitations to these processes are discussed, as well as the future outlook on the biomimetic landscape for structural composite materials.

  18. Structure based design of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suresh; Tice, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Controlling elevated tissue-specific levels of cortisol may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating metabolic syndrome. This concept has spurred large scale medicinal chemistry efforts in the pharmaceutical industry for the design of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors. High resolution X-ray crystal structures of inhibitors in complex with the enzyme have facilitated the structure-based design of diverse classes of molecules. A summary of binding modes, trends in structure-activity relationships, and the pharmacodynamic data of inhibitors from each class is presented.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Prototype with a Standardized Interface for Transducers in Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Dorronzoro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL do not generally use standards to implement a communication interface between sensors and actuators. This makes these applications isolated solutions because it is so difficult to integrate them into new or existing systems. The objective of this research was to design and implement a prototype with a standardized interface for sensors and actuators to facilitate the integration of different solutions in the field of AAL. Our work is based on the roadmap defined by AALIANCE, using motes with TinyOS telosb, 6LoWPAN, sensors, and the IEEE 21451 standard protocol. This prototype allows one to upgrade sensors to a smart status for easy integration with new applications and already existing ones. The prototype has been evaluated for autonomy and performance. As a use case, the prototype has been tested in a serious game previously designed for people with mobility problems, and its advantages and disadvantages have been analysed.

  20. Standard practice for determining damage-Based design Stress for fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) materials using acoustic emission

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice details procedures for establishing the direct stress and shear stress damage-based design values for use in the damage-based design criterion for materials to be used in FRP vessels and other composite structures. The practice uses data derived from acoustic emission examination of four-point beam bending tests and in-plane shear tests (see ASME Section X, Article RT-8). 1.2 The onset of lamina damage is indicated by the presence of significant acoustic emission during the reload portion of load/reload cycles. "Significant emission" is defined with historic index. 1.3 Units - The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in brackets are mathematical conversions to SI units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health pr...

  1. Design development of graphite primary structures enables SSTO success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiotti, V. A.; Yahiro, J. S.; Suh, Daniel E.; Hodges, Eric R.; Prior, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphite composite wing and a graphite composite intertank primary structure for application toward Single-Stage to Orbit space vehicles such as those under development in NASA's X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program. The trade study and designs are based on a Rockwell vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) wing-body RLV vehicle. Northrop Grumman's approach using a building block development technique is described. Composite Graphite/Bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) material characterization test results are presented. Unique intertank and wing composite subcomponent test article designs are described and test results to date are presented. Wing and intertank Full Scale Section Test Article (FSTA) objectives and designs are outlined. Trade studies, supporting building block testing, and FSTA demonstrations combine to develop graphite primary structure composite technology that enables developing X-33/RLV design programs to meet critical SSTO structural weight and operations performance criteria.

  2. Structure design of primary heat-exchanger for the MHWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanshui; Cao Zhibin

    1999-01-01

    Primary heat-exchanger is one of the key equipment in the Multi-application Heavy Water Research Reactor (MHWRR). Its structure design ought to meet as much possible as the demands for safety, feasibility and economy. To reduce the liquid resistance, the locating structure between inner tube and outer tube is distributed spirally. The edge of outer tube is processed in the shape of hexahedron and then splice-welded into honeycomb structure thereby the heat-exchanger has the smallest outer diameter compared with that with the same heat-exchanging area according to 'Normal Design', 'Anabasis Design' is applied to the design for parts with Safety Class I, to ensure safety of the heat-exchanger

  3. Structure and Computation in Immunoreagent Design: From Diagnostics to Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Louise; Peri, Claudio; Bolognesi, Martino; Colombo, Giorgio

    2017-12-01

    Novel immunological tools for efficient diagnosis and treatment of emerging infections are urgently required. Advances in the diagnostic and vaccine development fields are continuously progressing, with reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology (SV) methods for antigen identification and structure-based antigen (re)design playing increasingly relevant roles. SV, in particular, is predicted to be the front-runner in the future development of diagnostics and vaccines targeting challenging diseases such as AIDS and cancer. We review state-of-the-art methodologies for structure-based epitope identification and antigen design, with specific applicative examples. We highlight the implications of such methods for the engineering of biomolecules with improved immunological properties, potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic uses, and discuss the perspectives of structure-based rational design for the production of advanced immunoreagents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A structured representation for parallel algorithm design on multicomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xian-He; Ni, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, parallel algorithms have been designed by brute force methods and fine-tuned on each architecture to achieve high performance. Rather than studying the design case by case, a systematic approach is proposed. A notation is first developed. Using this notation, most of the frequently used scientific and engineering applications can be presented by simple formulas. The formulas constitute the structured representation of the corresponding applications. The structured representation is simple, adequate and easy to understand. They also contain sufficient information about uneven allocation and communication latency degradations. With the structured representation, applications can be compared, classified and partitioned. Some of the basic building blocks, called computation models, of frequently used applications are identified and studied. Most applications are combinations of some computation models. The structured representation relates general applications to computation models. Studying computation models leads to a guideline for efficient parallel algorithm design for general applications. 6 refs., 7 figs

  5. Design and manufacturing of the CFRP lightweight telescope structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeffler, Guenter; Kaindl, Rainer

    2000-06-01

    Design of earthbound telescopes is normally based on conventional steel constructions. Several years ago thermostable CFRP Telescope and reflector structures were developed and manufacturing for harsh terrestrial environments. The airborne SOFIA TA requires beyond thermostability an excessive stiffness to mass ratio for the structure fulfilling performance and not to exceed mass limitations by the aircraft Boeing 747 SP. Additional integration into A/C drives design of structure subassemblies. Thickness of CFRP Laminates, either filament wound or prepreg manufactured need special attention and techniques to gain high material quality according to aerospace requirements. Sequential shop assembly of the structure subassemblies minimizes risk for assembling TA. Design goals, optimization of layout and manufacturing techniques and results are presented.

  6. Design optimisation of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid structure - the warm structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeel, A.; Desvard, J-P.; Pabot, Y.; Sun, Z.; Hille, H. van; Vedrine, P.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic bending of muon tracks for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer is provided by the large air-core toroid magnets. The Barrel Toroid structure, named the warm structure, is an open structure inside which the muon chambers are installed. The physics performance of the muon spectrometer imposes stringent requirements on the design of the warm structure. It should support the muon chambers with required precision and stability, the deformation of the structure must be minimised. At the same time, the quantities of the materials used in the structure must also be minimised. Through extensive structural analyses, the design optimisation has been achieved to fit with the physics requirements. This paper gives an overview on the design considerations of the warm structure

  7. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  8. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  9. Development of Mechanical Structure Design Technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Hyeong Yeon

    2007-03-01

    Structural integrity and design simplifications were secured on reactor core support system, upper internal structure and core catcher of KALIMER-600. The evaluation on the suitability of high temperature and seismic design of reactor structures, and the structural integrity evaluation on reactor components and high temperature pipings are performed. The interfaces between the components and ISI accessibility are checked. Lightening of reactor building by 7%, the seismic design for 0.3g seismic loads and improvement of reactor structural design concept for KALIMER-600 have been carried out. Remote inspection technique using ultrasonic wave guide sensor was acquired as a visualization method for reactor internals under opaque sodium environments. The basic guideline on high temperature structure assessment as an assessment procedure on high temperature inelastic behaviour has been completed. In high temperature creep-fatigue test, totally 500 cycles (totally 700 hold time) were carried on cylindrical test and IHTS co-axial pipe test models. The behaviors of creep-fatigue damage and creep-fatigue crack behaviour were investigated, and the DB on the structural test were established. The seismic response tests on 19-sub assembly validation test model in air and in water were carried out, and its multi-purpose characteristics and reliability on the SAC-CORE3.0 code developed for core seismic response analysis were validated

  10. Architectural and structural engineering aspects of protective design for nuclear power plants against terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musacchio, J.M.; Rozen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several threat studies which have been performed, provides collective data on costs, and discusses, in a general sense, architectural/structural aspects of passive protection design measures which have been developed and utilized at several nuclear power plants. By combining relevant architectural and structural measures in the standard design, it is possible to substantially reduce the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to terrorist attack and the estimated damage to a manageable level with a minimal investment. (orig./HP)

  11. The System 80+ standard plant design reduces operations and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chari, D.R.; Robertson, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To be cost-competitive, nuclear power plants must maximize plant availability and minimize operations and maintenance (O and M) costs. A plant whose design supports these goals will generate more power at less cost and thereby have a lower unit generating cost. The ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) System 80+ Standard Nuclear Power Plant, rated at 1400 megawatts electric (MWe), is designed for high availability at reduced cost. To demonstrate that the duration of refueling outages, the major contributor to plant unavailability, can be shortened, ABB-CE developed a detailed plan that shows a System 80+ plant can safely perform a refueling and maintenance outage in 18 days. This is a significant reduction from the average current U.S. plant outages of 45 days, and is possible due to a two-part outage strategy: use System 80+ advanced system design features and relaxed technical specification (TS) time limits to shift some maintenance from outages to operating periods: and, use System 80+ structural, system, and component features, such as the larger operating floor, permanent pool seal, integral reactor head area cable tray system and missile shield, and longer life reactor coolant pump seals, to reduce the scope and duration of outage maintenance activities. Plant staffing level is the major variable, or controllable contributor to operations costs. ABB-CE worked with the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) to perform detailed staffing analyses that show a System 80+ plant can be operated reliably with 30 percent less staff than currently operating nuclear plants of similar size. Safety was not sacrificed when ABB-CE developed the System 80+ refueling outage plan and staffing level. The outage plan was developed utilizing a defense-in-depth concept for shutdown safety. The defense in-depth concept is implemented via systematic control of outage risk evaluation (SCORE) cards. The SCORE cards identify primary and alternate means of

  12. Standard concerning the design of nuclear power stations in earthquake-prone districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.P.; Anbriashivili, Y.K.; Suvilova, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The measures of security assurance against the effect of radioactive contamination has become more and more complex due to the construction of nuclear power stations of diverse types. The aseismatic measures for the nuclear power stations built in the districts where earthquakes of different intensity occur are important problems. All main machinery and equipments and emergency systems in power stations must be protected from earthquakes, and this makes the solution of problems difficult. At present in USSR, the provisional standard concerning the design of atomic energy facilities built in earthquake-prone districts is completed. The basic philosophy of the standard is to decide the general requirements as the conditions for the design of nuclear power stations built in earthquake-prone districts. The lowest earthquake activity in the construction districts is considered as magnitude 4, and in the districts where earthquake activity is magnitude 9 or more, the construction of nuclear power stations is prohibited. Two levels of earthquake action are specified for the design: design earthquake and the largest design earthquake. The construction sites of nuclear power stations must be 15 to 150 km distant from the potential sources of earthquakes. Nuclear power stations are regarded as the aseismatically guaranteed type when the safety of reactors is secured under the application of the standard. The buildings and installations are classified into three classes regarding the aseismatic properties. (Kako, I.)

  13. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  14. Optimum design of band-gap beam structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    The design of band-gap structures receives increasing attention for many applications in mitigation of undesirable vibration and noise emission levels. A band-gap structure usually consists of a periodic distribution of elastic materials or segments, where the propagation of waves is impeded...... or significantly suppressed for a range of external excitation frequencies. Maximization of the band-gap is therefore an obvious objective for optimum design. This problem is sometimes formulated by optimizing a parameterized design model which assumes multiple periodicity in the design. However, it is shown...... in the present paper that such an a priori assumption is not necessary since, in general, just the maximization of the gap between two consecutive natural frequencies leads to significant design periodicity. The aim of this paper is to maximize frequency gaps by shape optimization of transversely vibrating...

  15. Experimental validation of 3D printed material behaviors and their influence on the structural topology design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai Ke; Zhu, Ji Hong; Wang, Chuang; Jia, Dong Sheng; Song, Long Long; Zhang, Wei Hong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structures achieved by topology optimization and their fabrications by 3D printing considering the particular features of material microstructures and macro mechanical performances. Combining Digital Image Correlation and Optical Microscope, this paper experimentally explored the anisotropies of stiffness and strength existing in the 3D printed polymer material using Stereolithography (SLA) and titanium material using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The standard specimens and typical structures obtained by topology optimization were fabricated along different building directions. On the one hand, the experimental results of these SLA produced structures showed stable properties and obviously anisotropic rules in stiffness, ultimate strengths and places of fractures. Further structural designs were performed using topology optimization when the particular mechanical behaviors of SLA printed materials were considered, which resulted in better structural performances compared to the optimized designs using `ideal' isotropic material model. On the other hand, this paper tested the mechanical behaviors of SLM printed multiscale lattice structures which were fabricated using the same metal powder and the same machine. The structural stiffness values are generally similar while the strength behaviors show a difference, which are mainly due to the irregular surface quality of the tiny structural branches of the lattice. The above evidences clearly show that the consideration of the particular behaviors of 3D printed materials is therefore indispensable for structural design and optimization in order to improve the structural performance and strengthen their practical significance.

  16. Experimental validation of 3D printed material behaviors and their influence on the structural topology design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai Ke; Zhu, Ji Hong; Wang, Chuang; Jia, Dong Sheng; Song, Long Long; Zhang, Wei Hong

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structures achieved by topology optimization and their fabrications by 3D printing considering the particular features of material microstructures and macro mechanical performances. Combining Digital Image Correlation and Optical Microscope, this paper experimentally explored the anisotropies of stiffness and strength existing in the 3D printed polymer material using Stereolithography (SLA) and titanium material using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The standard specimens and typical structures obtained by topology optimization were fabricated along different building directions. On the one hand, the experimental results of these SLA produced structures showed stable properties and obviously anisotropic rules in stiffness, ultimate strengths and places of fractures. Further structural designs were performed using topology optimization when the particular mechanical behaviors of SLA printed materials were considered, which resulted in better structural performances compared to the optimized designs using `ideal' isotropic material model. On the other hand, this paper tested the mechanical behaviors of SLM printed multiscale lattice structures which were fabricated using the same metal powder and the same machine. The structural stiffness values are generally similar while the strength behaviors show a difference, which are mainly due to the irregular surface quality of the tiny structural branches of the lattice. The above evidences clearly show that the consideration of the particular behaviors of 3D printed materials is therefore indispensable for structural design and optimization in order to improve the structural performance and strengthen their practical significance.

  17. Hiding the weakness: structural robustness using origami design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Santangelo, Christian; Cohen, Itai

    2015-03-01

    A non-deformable structure is typically associated with infinitely stiff materials that resist distortion. In this work, we designed a structure with a region that will not deform even though it is made of arbitrarily compliant materials. More specifically, we show that a foldable sheet with a circular hole in the middle can be deformed externally with the internal geometry of the hole unaffected. Instead of strengthening the local stiffness, we fine tune the crease patterns so that all the soft modes that can potentially deform the internal geometry are not accessible through strain on the external boundary. The inner structure is thus protected by the topological mechanics, based on the detailed geometry of how the vertices in the foldable sheet are connected. In this way, we isolate the structural robustness from the mechanical properties of the materials, which introduces an extra degree of freedom for structural design.

  18. Design study on quasi-constant gradient accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Littmann, B.W.

    1991-09-01

    In order to obtain high luminosity, the Next Linear Collider will operate in multibunch mode with ten or more bunches per bunch train. This leads to the need for detuning and/or damping of higher modes to control multibunch beam breakup. Continued studies of wake fields for a detuned structure with a Gaussian distribution of dipole modes showed encouraging results, and a detuned structure model has been tested experimentally. It is desirable to study the design method for this type of structure, which has a quasi-constant accelerating gradient. This note gives a brief summary of the design procedure. Also, the RF parameters of the structure are evaluated to compare with conventional constant gradient and constant impedance structures

  19. Practical considerations in the design and operation of superconducting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    During the past few years, considerable experience has been gained in the operation of prototype superconducting accelerators under beam line conditions. As a result of this experience, important aspects of structure design and important questions related to the long term operation of superconducting structures have been brought into sharper focus. For applications where low power loss and high duty factor, or exceptional beam quality and stable operation, are essential properties, and where modest energy gradients can be tolerated, superconducting structures are distinctly superior to conventional room temperature structures. (auth)

  20. Reliability-Based Optimal Design for Very Large Floating Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-hua(张淑华); FUJIKUBO Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Costs and losses induced by possible future extreme environmental conditions and difficulties in repairing post-yielding damage strongly suggest the need for proper consideration in design rather than just life loss prevention. This can be addressed through the development of design methodology that balances the initial cost of the very large floating structure (VLFS) against the expected potential losses resulting from future extreme wave-induced structural damage. Here, the development of a methodology for determining optimal, cost-effective design will be presented and applied to a VLFS located in the Tokyo bay. Optimal design criteria are determined based on the total expected life-cycle cost and acceptable damage probability and curvature of the structure, and a set of sizes of the structure are obtained. The methodology and applications require expressions of the initial cost and the expected life-cycle damage cost as functions of the optimal design variables. This study includes the methodology, total life-cycle cost function, structural damage modeling, and reliability analysis.

  1. Lightweight structure design for wind energy by integrating nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Lu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrate high-strength nano-materials into lightweight design. • Lightweight design scheme for wind turbine tower application. • Expand the bending formulae for tapered tubular structures with varying thickness. • We rewrite the Secant Formula for a tapered beam under eccentric compression. - Abstract: Wind power develops very fast nowadays with high expectation. Although at the mean time, the use of taller towers, however, smacks head-on into the issue of transportability. The engineering base and computational tools have to be developed to match machine size and volume. Consequently the research on the light weight structures of tower is carrying out in the main countries which are actively developing wind energy. This paper reports a new design scheme of light weight structure for wind turbine tower. This design scheme is based on the integration of the nanostructured materials produced by the Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) process. The objective of this study is to accomplish the weight reduction by optimizing the wall thickness of the tapered tubular structure. The basic methods include the identification of the critical zones and the distribution of the high strength materials according to different necessities. The equivalent strength or stiffness design method and the high strength material properties after SMAT process are combined together. Bending and buckling are two main kinds of static loads concerned in consideration. The study results reveal that there is still enough margin for weight reduction in the traditional wind turbine tower design

  2. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.

    2008-12-01

    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  3. Development of the design of standardized units for the production of artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The production of artificial radionuclides began more than 20 years ago and has seen continuous growth at the rate over 20% a year. Technology has had to be adapted constantly to this growth in order to guarantee production and at the same time ensure the safety of personnel. The Department, which started its career in underground workings at Chatillon and then moved to the Saclay hot laboratories, is now housed in a building designed specially for the production of artificial radionuclides and equipped with standard production units. The first generation of standard units was sufficient to handle production which had begun to grow. Subsequently, thanks to the experience gained, there came into being a second generation of standardized units perfectly adapted to the new production requirements. The paper describes the evolution of design solutions between the first and the second standard, relating to contained cells, cell containment, remote control, interchangeability of cells, ventilation, waste discharge systems and repair of internal equipment. A highly positive evaluation can be made of the experience gained from the present standard. (author)

  4. Design and Fabrication of the KSTAR Poloidal Field Coil Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. K.; Choi, C. H.; Sa, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    The KSTAR magnet system consists of 16 toroidal field(TF) coils. 4 pairs of central solenoid(CS) coils, and 3 pairs of outer poloidal field(PF) coils. The TF coils are encased in a structure to enhance mechanical stability. The CS coil structure is supported on top of the TF coil structure and supplies a vertical compression of 15 MN to prevent lateral movement due to a repulsive force between the CS coils. The PF coil system is vertically symmetry to the machine mid-plane and consists of 6 coils and 80 support structures(i.e, 16 for PF5, 32 for PF6 and 32 fort PF7). All PF coil structures should absorb the thermal contraction difference between TF coil structure and PF coils due to cool down and endure the vertical and radial magnetic forces due to current charging. In order to satisfy these structural requirements. the PF5 coil structure is designed base on hinges and both of PF6 and PF7 coil structures based on flexible plates. The PF coil structures are assembled on the TF coil structure with an individual basement that is welded on the TF coil structure

  5. Bloody Robots as Emotional Design: How Emotional Structures May Change Expectations of Technology Use in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    By applying Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner’s theory of conceptual blending to a design case, this paper demonstrates how experiencing emotional qualities in technology design may influence the way users cognitively reconstruct standard expectations of use. In so doing, the paper expands...... the dominating appraisal theory of emotion in design in three central respects: (i) the understanding of mixed emotions is deepened; (ii) a more detailed explanation is given of the specific operations involved in appraisal processes grounded in embodied interaction; and (iii) a structural model is proposed...

  6. Use of designed sequences in protein structure recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayatri; Mudgal, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Sandhya, Sankaran

    2018-05-09

    Knowledge of the protein structure is a pre-requisite for improved understanding of molecular function. The gap in the sequence-structure space has increased in the post-genomic era. Grouping related protein sequences into families can aid in narrowing the gap. In the Pfam database, structure description is provided for part or full-length proteins of 7726 families. For the remaining 52% of the families, information on 3-D structure is not yet available. We use the computationally designed sequences that are intermediately related to two protein domain families, which are already known to share the same fold. These strategically designed sequences enable detection of distant relationships and here, we have employed them for the purpose of structure recognition of protein families of yet unknown structure. We first measured the success rate of our approach using a dataset of protein families of known fold and achieved a success rate of 88%. Next, for 1392 families of yet unknown structure, we made structural assignments for part/full length of the proteins. Fold association for 423 domains of unknown function (DUFs) are provided as a step towards functional annotation. The results indicate that knowledge-based filling of gaps in protein sequence space is a lucrative approach for structure recognition. Such sequences assist in traversal through protein sequence space and effectively function as 'linkers', where natural linkers between distant proteins are unavailable. This article was reviewed by Oliviero Carugo, Christine Orengo and Srikrishna Subramanian.

  7. Inelastic design of nuclear reactor structures and its implications on design of critical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    In considering the response of a nuclear reactor structure to seismic motions, one must take account of the implications of various levels of damage, short of impairment of safety, and definitely short of collapse, of the structure. Some structural elements of nuclear power plants must perforce remain elastic or nearly elastic in order to perform their allocated safety function. However, in many instances, a purely linear elastic analysis may be unreasonably conservative when one considers that even up to the near yield point range, there are nonlinearities of sufficient amount to reduce required design levels considerably. Moreover, limited yielding of a structure may reduce the response of equipment located in the structure below those levels of response that would be excited were the structure to remain elastic. Energy absorption in the inelastic range is most conveniently treated by use of the so-called 'ductility factor' introduced by the author for design of structures and equipment to resist explosion and blast forces. In general, for small excursions into the inelastic range, especially when the latter can be approximated by an elasto-plastic resistance curve, the design response spectrum is decreased by a simply determined factor that is related to the ductility factor. Many important parts of equipment of a nuclear power plant facility are attached to the principal parts of the structure and respond in a manner determined by the structural response as well as by the general ground motion to which the structure is subjected. This matter involves some difficulty in analysis, but appropriate calculational techniques and design methods are available. A suitable design simplification is one in which the response of the attachment is related to the modal responses of the structure. This equipment response is affected by the relative mass of the attachment and the structure

  8. Innovating cystic fibrosis clinical trial designs in an era of successful standard of care therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDevanter, Donald R; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Evolving cystic fibrosis 'standards of care' have influenced recent cystic fibrosis clinical trial designs for new therapies; care additions/improvements will require innovative trial designs to maximize feasibility and efficacy detection. Three cystic fibrosis therapeutic areas (pulmonary exacerbations, Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections, and reduced cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR] protein function) differ with respect to the duration for which recognized 'standards of care' have been available. However, developers of new therapies in all the three areas are affected by similar challenges: standards of care have become so strongly entrenched that traditional placebo-controlled studies in cystic fibrosis populations likely to benefit from newer therapies have become less and less feasible. Today, patients/clinicians are more likely to entertain participation in active-comparator trial designs, that have substantial challenges of their own. Foremost among these are the selection of 'valid' active comparator(s), estimation of a comparator's current clinical efficacy (required for testing noninferiority hypotheses), and effective blinding of commercially available comparators. Recent and future cystic fibrosis clinical trial designs will have to creatively address this collateral result of successful past development of effective cystic fibrosis therapies: patients and clinicians are much less likely to accept simple, placebo-controlled studies to evaluate future therapies.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

  10. Computational design of proteins with novel structure and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wei; Lai Lu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Computational design of proteins is a relatively new field, where scientists search the enormous sequence space for sequences that can fold into desired structure and perform desired functions. With the computational approach, proteins can be designed, for example, as regulators of biological processes, novel enzymes, or as biotherapeutics. These approaches not only provide valuable information for understanding of sequence–structure–function relations in proteins, but also hold promise for applications to protein engineering and biomedical research. In this review, we briefly introduce the rationale for computational protein design, then summarize the recent progress in this field, including de novo protein design, enzyme design, and design of protein–protein interactions. Challenges and future prospects of this field are also discussed. (topical review)

  11. Rigid-plastic seismic design of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues; Bento, R.; Levtchitch, V.

    2007-01-01

    structural strength with respect to a pre-defined performance parameter using a rigid-plastic response spectrum, which is characteristic of the ground motion alone. The maximum strength demand at any point is solely dependent on the intensity of the ground motion, which facilitates the task of distributing......In this paper a new seismic design procedure for Reinforced Concrete (R/C) structures is proposed-the Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design (RPSD) method. This is a design procedure based on Non-Linear Time-History Analysis (NLTHA) for systems expected to perform in the non-linear range during a lifetime...... earthquake event. The theoretical background is the Theory of Plasticity (Rigid-Plastic Structures). Firstly, a collapse mechanism is chosen and the corresponding stress field is made safe outside the regions where plastic behaviour takes place. It is shown that this allows the determination of the required...

  12. Conceptual Design of Deployment Structure of Morphing Nose Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a reusable space vehicle or a missile, the shape of the nose cone has a significant effect on the drag of the vehicle. In this paper, the concept of morphing nose cone is proposed to reduce the drag when the reentry vehicle flies back into the atmosphere. The conceptual design of the structure of morphing nose cone is conducted. Mechanical design and optimization approach are developed by employing genetic algorithm to find the optimal geometric parameters of the morphing structure. An example is analyzed by using the proposed method. The results show that optimal solution supplies the minimum position error. The concept of morphing nose cone will provide a novel way for the drag reduction of reentry vehicle. The proposed method could be practically used for the design and optimization of the deployable structure of morphing nose cone.

  13. Stiffness design of geometrically nonlinear structures using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thomas; Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    of the objective functions are found with the adjoint method and the optimization problem is solved using the Method of Moving Asymptotes. A filtering scheme is used to obtain checkerboard-free and mesh-independent designs and a continuation approach improves convergence to efficient designs. Different objective......The paper deals with topology optimization of structures undergoing large deformations. The geometrically nonlinear behaviour of the structures are modelled using a total Lagrangian finite element formulation and the equilibrium is found using a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. The sensitivities...... functions are tested. Minimizing compliance for a fixed load results in degenerated topologies which are very inefficient for smaller or larger loads. The problem of obtaining degenerated "optimal" topologies which only can support the design load is even more pronounced than for structures with linear...

  14. The evolution of the structure and application of U.S. NRC regulations and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murley, T.E.; Rosztoczy, Z.R.; McPherson, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    NRC regulations and standards and their implementation have evolved from early adaptations of conventional engineering practices to a mature, cohesive set of regulations that govern NRC regulation of nuclear power plant safety in the United States. From a simple set of rules and design criteria and from the standards of the professional engineering societies, a hierarchy of practices, standards, guides, rules and goals has developed. Resting on a foundation of industrial practices, this hierarchy rises through levels of national standards, regulatory guides and standard review plans, policy statements and NRC regulations. The licensing process is evolving today toward one that permits both site approval and standard design certification before the plant is constructed. At the present time, NRC is reviewing five standard designs for certification for a period of 15 years. NRC focuses its regulation of operating nuclear plants on inspections conducted from five regional offices. Resident inspectors, specialist inspectors, and multi-disciplinary inspection teams examine specific plant situations. The results of all these inspections are used to develop a complete understanding of a plant's physical condition, its operation, maintenance and management. To improve safe operation of nuclear plants in the U.S., a most important program, the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance, measures operational performance, using a broad spectrum of functional areas. (orig.)

  15. Perspective: Role of structure prediction in materials discovery and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Needs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials informatics owes much to bioinformatics and the Materials Genome Initiative has been inspired by the Human Genome Project. But there is more to bioinformatics than genomes, and the same is true for materials informatics. Here we describe the rapidly expanding role of searching for structures of materials using first-principles electronic-structure methods. Structure searching has played an important part in unraveling structures of dense hydrogen and in identifying the record-high-temperature superconducting component in hydrogen sulfide at high pressures. We suggest that first-principles structure searching has already demonstrated its ability to determine structures of a wide range of materials and that it will play a central and increasing part in materials discovery and design.

  16. Determination of standard molar enthalpies of formation of SrMoO4 micro/nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yunxiao; Fan, Gaochao; Huang, Zaiyin; Sun, Jilong; Wang, Lude; Wang, Tenghui; Chen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of thermochemical cycle between the nano and bulk reaction systems. Highlights: ► A thermochemical cycle was designed. ► Relationship of standard molar enthalpies of formation between micro/nano and bulk SrMoO 4 was gained. ► Microcalorimetry was used as a supplementary technology. ► Standard molar enthalpies of formation of the synthesized micro/nano SrMoO 4 were obtained. ► This novel approach can be used to other micro/nano materials. - Abstract: SrMoO 4 micro/nano structures were prepared by a simple reverse microemulsion method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In order to associate standard molar enthalpies of formation of nano SrMoO 4 with bulk SrMoO 4 , the relationship of them was obtained through designing a thermochemical cycle according to thermodynamic potential function method. Combined with microcalorimetry, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the synthesized micro/nano SrMoO 4 at 298.15 K were gained in this paper. And the variation of standard molar enthalpies of formation of micro/nano SrMoO 4 with different morphologies and sizes was discussed.

  17. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin BĂLOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  18. Robust structural design against self-excited vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    This book studies methods for a robust design of rotors against self-excited vibrations. The occurrence of self-excited vibrations in engineering applications if often unwanted and in many cases difficult to model. Thinking of complex systems such as machines with many components and mechanical contacts, it is important to have guidelines for design so that the functionality is robust against small imperfections. This book discusses the question on how to design a structure such that unwanted self-excited vibrations do not occur. It shows theoretically and practically that the old design rule to avoid multiple eigenvalues points toward the right direction and have optimized structures accordingly. This extends results for the well-known flutter problem in which equations of motion with constant coefficients occur to the case of a linear conservative system with arbitrary time periodic perturbations.

  19. Practical design of magnetostatic structure using numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiuliang

    2013-01-01

    Covers the practical numerical method for the analysis and design of magnets Extensively covers the magnet design and computation aspects from theories to practical applications, emphasizing design methods of practical structures such as superconducting, electromagnetic and permanent magnet for use in various scientific instruments, industrial processing, biomedicine and special electrical equipments. The computations cover a wide range of numerical techniques and analytical derivation to efficiently provide solutions to complicated problems that are often encountered in practice, where simple analytical calculations are no longer adequate. Chapters include: Introduction of Magnet Technology, Magnetostatic Equation for the Magnet Structure, Finite Element Analysis for Magnetostatic Field, Integral Method for Magnetostatic Field, Numerical Method of Solenoid Coils Design, Series Analysis of Axially Symmetric Magnetic Field, Magnets with High Magnetic Field and High Homogeneity, Permanent Magnet and its App...

  20. Flocculent and grand design spiral arm structure in cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 829 spiral galaxies in 22 clusters having redshifts between z = 0.02 and 0.06 were classified according to the appearance of their spiral arm structures. The fraction of galaxies that have a grand design spiral structure was found to be higher among barred galaxies than among non-barred galaxies (at z = 0.02, 95 per cent of strongly barred galaxies have a grand design, compared with 67 per cent of non-barred or weakly barred galaxies). Cluster galaxies and distant non-cluster galaxies have the same fraction of grand design galaxies when resolution effects are considered. The grand design fraction among cluster galaxies is also similar to the fraction observed among nearby galaxies in binary systems and in groups. (author)