WorldWideScience

Sample records for structural design procedure

  1. Design of an X-band accelerating structure using a newly developed structural optimization procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaoxia [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fang, Wencheng; Gu, Qiang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhao, Zhentang, E-mail: zhaozhentang@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-05-11

    An X-band high gradient accelerating structure is a challenging technology for implementation in advanced electron linear accelerator facilities. The present work discusses the design of an X-band accelerating structure for dedicated application to a compact hard X-ray free electron laser facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, and numerous design optimizations are conducted with consideration for radio frequency (RF) breakdown, RF efficiency, short-range wakefields, and dipole/quadrupole field modes, to ensure good beam quality and a high accelerating gradient. The designed X-band accelerating structure is a constant gradient structure with a 4π/5 operating mode and input and output dual-feed couplers in a racetrack shape. The design process employs a newly developed effective optimization procedure for optimization of the X-band accelerating structure. In addition, the specific design of couplers providing high beam quality by eliminating dipole field components and reducing quadrupole field components is discussed in detail.

  2. Development of structural design procedure of plate-fin heat exchanger for HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizokami, Yorikata, E-mail: yorikata_mizokami@mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1, Wadasaki-cho 1-Chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan); Igari, Toshihide [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 5-717-1, Fukahori-machi, Nagasaki 851-0392 (Japan); Kawashima, Fumiko [Kumamoto University, 39-1 Kurokami 2-Chome, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sakakibara, Noriyuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 5-717-1, Fukahori-machi, Nagasaki 851-0392 (Japan); Tanihira, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 16-5, Konan 2-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215 (Japan); Yuhara, Tetsuo [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hiroe, Tetsuyuki [Kumamoto University, 39-1 Kurokami 2-Chome, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We propose high temperature structural design procedure for plate-fin heat exchanger ► Allowable stresses for brazed structures will be newly discussed ► Validity of design procedure is confirmed by carrying out partial model tests ► Proposed design procedure is applied to heat exchangers for HTGR. -- Abstract: Highly efficient plate-fin heat exchanger for application to HTGR has been focused on recently. Since this heat exchanger is fabricated by brazing a lot of plates and fins, a new procedure for structural design of brazed structures in the HTGR temperature region up to 950 °C is required. Firstly in this paper influences on material strength due to both thermal aging during brazing process and helium gas environment were experimentally examined, and failure mode and failure limit of brazed side-bar structures were experimentally clarified. Secondly allowable stresses for aging materials and brazed structures were newly determined on the basis of the experimental results. For the purpose of validating the structural design procedure including homogenization FEM modeling, a pressure burst test and a thermal fatigue test of partial model for plate-fin heat exchanger were carried out. Finally, results of reference design of plate-fin heat exchangers of recuperator and intermediate heat exchanger for HTGR plant were evaluated by the proposed design criteria.

  3. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  4. A finite element based substructuring procedure for design analysis of large smart structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, U; Raja, S; Dwarakanathan, D

    2009-01-01

    A substructuring based design analysis procedure is presented for large smart structural system using the Craig–Bampton method. The smart structural system is distinctively characterized as an active substructure, modelled as a design problem, and a passive substructure, idealized as an analysis problem. Furthermore, a novel thought has been applied by introducing the electro–elastic coupling into the reduction scheme to solve the global structural control problem in a local domain. As an illustration, a smart composite box beam with surface bonded actuators/sensors is considered, and results of the local to global control analysis are presented to show the potential use of the developed procedure. The present numerical scheme is useful for optimally designing the active substructures to study their locations, coupled structure–actuator interaction and provide a solution to the global design of large smart structural systems

  5. Development of an optimized procedure bridging design and structural analysis codes for the automatized design of the SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Keun Bae; Choi, Suhn; Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Gyu Mahn

    1998-09-01

    In this report, an optimized design and analysis procedure is established to apply to the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) development. The development of an optimized procedure is to minimize the time consumption and engineering effort by squeezing the design and feedback interactions. To achieve this goal, the data and information generated through the design development should be directly transferred to the analysis program with minimum operation. The verification of the design concept requires considerable effort since the communication between the design and analysis involves time consuming stage for the conversion of input information. In this report, an optimized procedure is established bridging the design and analysis stage utilizing the IDEAS, ABAQUS and ANSYS. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Subsea HIPPS design procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaroe, R.; Lund, B.F.; Onshus, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is based on a feasibility study investigating the possibilities of using a HIPPS (High Integrity Pressure Protection System) to protect a subsea pipeline that is not rated for full wellhead shut-in pressure. The study was called the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study, and was performed by SINTEF, Norway. Here, OPPS is an acronym for Overpressure Pipeline Protection System. A design procedure for a subsea HIPPS is described, based on the experience and knowledge gained through the ''Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study''. Before a subsea HIPPS can be applied, its technical feasibility, reliability and profitability must be demonstrated. The subsea HIPPS design procedure will help to organize and plan the design activities both with respect to development and verification of a subsea HIPPS. The paper also gives examples of how some of the discussed design steps were performed in the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study. Finally, further work required to apply a subsea HIPPS is discussed

  7. Structural integrity and its role in nuclear safety: recent UK advances in the development of high temperature design procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper takes the liquid metal fast breeder reactor as an example and identifies those topics where research has had a role to play in providing improved design rules. Many of the previously adopted procedures contained large amounts of pessimism to allow for uncertainties in the prediction of long-term structural behaviour. The aim has therefore been to gain an improved physical insight into the phenomena which govern performance and to develope less restrictive procedures which, at the same time, guarantee the high standards of integrity which are required. (orig.)

  8. Coal pillar design procedures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    York, G

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Coal pillar design procedures G. York, I. Canbulat, B.W. Jack Research agency: CSIR Mining Technology Project number: COL 337 Date: March 2000 2 Executive Summary Examination of collapsed pillar cases outside of the empirical... in strength occurs with increasing specimen size. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 UNIAX IA L COMPR EHEN SIV E S TR ENG TH (M Pa ) CUBE SIZE (cm) Figure 1...

  9. Analytical procedure in aseismic design of eccentric structure using response spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemori, T.; Kuwabara, Y.; Suwabe, A.; Mitsunobu, S.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, the response are evaluated by the following two methods by the use of the typical torsional analytical models in which masses, rigidities, eccentricities between the centers thereof and several actual earthquake waves are taken as the parameters: (1) the root mean square of responses by using the response spectra derived from the earthquake waves, (2) the time history analysis by using the earthquake wave. The earthquake waves used are chosen to present the different frequency content and magnitude of the response spectra. The typical results derived from the study are as follows: (a) the response accelerations of mass center in the input earthquake direction by the (1) method coincide comparatively well with those by the (2) method, (b) the response accelerations perpendicular to the input earthquake direction by (1) method are 2 to 3 times as much as those by the (2) method, (c) the amplification of the response accelerations at arbitrary points distributed on the spread mass to those of center of the lumped mass by the (1) method are remarkably large compared with those by the (2) method in both directions respectively. These problems on the response spectrum analysis for the above-mentioned eccentric structure are discussed, and an improved analytical method applying the amplification coefficients of responses derived from this parametric time history analysis is proposed to the actual seismic design by the using of the given design ground response spectrum with root mean square technique

  10. Structural Evaluation Procedures for Heavy Wood Truss Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issa, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    .... An evaluation procedure for wood structures differs from conventional methods used in steel, concrete, and masonry structures because, in wood construction, the allowable stresses used in design...

  11. Structured Analog CMOS Design

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovic, Danica

    2008-01-01

    Structured Analog CMOS Design describes a structured analog design approach that makes it possible to simplify complex analog design problems and develop a design strategy that can be used for the design of large number of analog cells. It intentionally avoids treating the analog design as a mathematical problem, developing a design procedure based on the understanding of device physics and approximations that give insight into parameter interdependences. The proposed transistor-level design procedure is based on the EKV modeling approach and relies on the device inversion level as a fundament

  12. Qualitative Knowledge Construction for Engineering Systems: Extending the Design Structure Matrix Methodology in Scope and Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    that exists between two elements. For example, the "X" in the A-column and D-row symbolizes that "A" affects "D". 62-192 A BC D E FG H I AI B X x CD X...from -2 to +2 symbolizing the interactions between components. The interactions where defined along five dimensions: spatial, structural, energy...Symbiolic Interactionism : Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs NJ, Prentice Hall. Borgatti, S. (2002). UCINET 6. Harvard MA, Analytic Technologies

  13. An Integrated Procedure for the Structural Design of a Composite Rotor-Hydrofoil of a Water Current Turbine (WCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller Aramayo, S. A.; Nallim, L. G.; Oller, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper shows an integrated structural design optimization of a composite rotor-hydrofoil of a water current turbine by means the finite elements method (FEM), using a Serial/Parallel mixing theory (Rastellini et al. Comput. Struct. 86:879-896, 2008, Martinez et al., 2007, Martinez and Oller Arch. Comput. Methods. 16(4):357-397, 2009, Martinez et al. Compos. Part B Eng. 42(2011):134-144, 2010) coupled with a fluid-dynamic formulation and multi-objective optimization algorithm (Gen and Cheng 1997, Lee et al. Compos. Struct. 99:181-192, 2013, Lee et al. Compos. Struct. 94(3):1087-1096, 2012). The composite hydrofoil of the turbine rotor has been design using a reinforced laminate composites, taking into account the optimization of the carbon fiber orientation to obtain the maximum strength and lower rotational-inertia. Also, these results have been compared with a steel hydrofoil remarking the different performance on both structures. The mechanical and geometrical parameters involved in the design of this fiber-reinforced composite material are the fiber orientation, number of layers, stacking sequence and laminate thickness. Water pressure in the rotor of the turbine is obtained from a coupled fluid-dynamic simulation (CFD), whose detail can be found in the reference Oller et al. (2012). The main purpose of this paper is to achieve a very low inertia rotor minimizing the start-stop effect, because it is applied in axial water flow turbine currently in design by the authors, in which is important to take the maximum advantage of the kinetic energy. The FEM simulation codes are engineered by CIMNE (International Center for Numerical Method in Engineering, Barcelona, Spain), COMPack for the solids problem application, KRATOS for fluid dynamic application and RMOP for the structural optimization. To validate the procedure here presented, many turbine rotors made of composite materials are analyzed and three of them are compared with the steel one.

  14. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  15. Reassessment of coal pillar design procedure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madden, BJ

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The SIMRAC project COL 021A entitled “a reassessment of coal pillar design procedures” set out to achieve a coal pillar design procedure that takes cognisance of different geological and structural factors as well as the influence...

  16. Designing Flightdeck Procedures: Literature Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel; Degani, Asaf; Loukopoulou, Loukia; Mauro, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This technical publication contains the titles, abstracts, summaries, descriptions, and/or annotations of available literature sources on procedure design and development, requirements, and guidance. It is designed to provide users with an easy access to available resources on the topic of procedure design, and with a sense of the contents of these sources. This repository of information is organized into the following publication sources: Research (e.g., journal articles, conference proceedings), Manufacturers' (e.g., operation manuals, newsletters), and Regulatory and/or Government (e.g., advisory circulars, reports). An additional section contains synopses of Accident/Incident Reports involving procedures. This work directly supports a comprehensive memorandum by Barshi, Mauro, Degani, & Loukopoulou (2016) that summarizes the results of a multi-year project, partially funded by the FAA, to develop technical reference materials that support guidance on the process of developing cockpit procedures (see "Designing Flightdeck Procedures" https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20160013263.pdf). An extensive treatment of this topic is presented in a forthcoming book by the same authors.

  17. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests for contiguous hull structure designed for a temperature colder than −18 °C (0 °F) must meet § 54.05-15 and...

  18. Structural integrity and its role in nuclear safety recent UK developments in the development of high temperature design procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1991-01-01

    The structural design rules for the reactors which operate at high temperature are not yet well developed. There is not difficulty in producing the plants which meet the high standards required by nuclear industry. However, there are the issues to be resolved which are associated with the deterioration of components in service, in order to achieve the optimum use of materials and the reduction of capital costs. The safety of plants is not at risk since any deterioration is detected by in-service monitoring, nevertheless, there would be severe economic penalty, if a plant must be retired prematurely because the continuing safety could not be demonstrated. In this paper, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor is taken up as an example, and the topics in which research plays a role for providing improved design rules are identified. Shakedown interaction diagrams, the methods of analysis based on shakedown, inelastic analysis and constitutive equations, creep fatigue damage and thermal shock, thermal striping, welds, defect assessment and so on are discussed. (K.I.)

  19. Chipless RFID design procedure and detection techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rezaiesarlak, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the design of chipless RFID systems. The authors begin with the historical development of wireless identification systems and finally arrive at a representation of the chipless RFID system as a block diagram illustration. Chapter 2 is devoted to the theoretical bases for the design of chipless RFID tags and detection techniques in the reader. A rigorous mathematical formulation is presented based on the singularity expansion method (SEM) and characteristic mode theory (CMT) in order to study the scattered fields from an object in a general form. Th e authors attempt to explain some physical concepts behind the mathematical descriptions of the theories in this chapter. In Chapter 3, two design procedures based on complex natural resonance and CMT are presented for the design of the chipless RFID tag. By studying the effects of structural parameters on radiation and resonant behaviors of the tag, some design conclusions are presented in this chapter. Chapter 4 is dedicated to the time-frequen...

  20. Design procedures for the use of composites in strengthening of reinforced concrete structures state-of-the-art report of the RILEM Technical Committee 234-DUC

    CERN Document Server

    Sena-Cruz, José

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses the current knowledge on structural behaviour of RC elements and structures strengthened with composite materials (experimental, analytical and numerical approaches for EBR and NSM), particularly in relation to the above topics, and the comparison of the predictions of the current available codes/recommendations/guidelines with selected experimental results. The book shows possible critical issues (discrepancies, lacunae, relevant parameters, test procedures, etc.) related to current code predictions or to evaluate their reliability, in order to develop more uniform methods and basic rules for design and control of FRP strengthened RC structures. General problems/critical issues are clarified on the basis of the actual experiences, detect discrepancies in existing codes, lacunae in knowledge and, concerning these identified subjects, provide proposals for improvements. The book will help to contribute to promote and consolidate a more qualified and conscious approach towards rehabilitation...

  1. Energy conservation aircraft design and operational procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisson-Quinton, P.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews studies associated with improved fuel efficiency. Several aircraft design concepts are described including: (1) increases in aerodynamic efficiency through decreased friction drag, parasitic drag, and drag due to lift, (2) structural efficiency and the implementation of composite materials, (3) active control technology, (4) the optimization of airframe-engine integration, and (5) VTOL and STOL concepts. Consideration is also given to operational procedures associated with flight management, terminal-area operations, and the influence of environmental noise constraints on fuel economy.

  2. Implementation procedures for design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S. E.; Brinkman, C. B.; Crump, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    The desire for safer plants arose primarily as the result of the Three Mile Island accident and the realization that plant safety could be impacted by complex plant systems interactions that are not easily identified through the traditional 'system-by-system' design process. Hence, it became apparent that the ALWR designs would have to be addressed through plant-wide Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) that addressed both accident-prevention and accident-mitigation design features. Prior to Design Certification the 'two-step' licensing process in the United States was not efficient. Utilities had to commit large amounts of capital to plant construction without confidence that an operating license would be issued when construction permit was issued often required design changes that resulted in significant construction delays. The 55 utilities operating nuclear plants in the U. S. each had their own design and operating preferences, resulting in many customized plants with a minimum of economic benefit from standardization. This was addressed by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in a new regulation (Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 or '10 CFR 52') which provides certification of a design that can later be referenced by an applicant for a Combined Operating License (COL). Identifying an ALWR solution for previously unanalyzed severe accident scenarios appeared difficult, at best, since severe accident research had to be performed and since there was no regulatory precedent. This meant that complex technical issues and licensing review policies had to be developed without the benefit of licensing standards or experience. As a result, a system of iterative interactions between the regulator and the industry was established, wherein a design or safety requirement would be proposed, then discussed along with development of the corresponding design feature, and finally revised and documented via NRC 'guidance'

  3. Listening Comprehension: Approach, Design, Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    1983-01-01

    Three dimensions in the teaching of listening comprehension are outlined: (1) a theory is presented that takes account of the cognitive processes used (approach); (2) listeners' needs are analyzed and a taxonomy of microskills and objectives for teaching them are proposed (design); and (3) classroom exercises and activities are suggested…

  4. Development of an Overlay Design Procedure for Composite Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The composite overlay design procedure currently used by ODOT sometimes produces very large overlay thicknesses that are deemed structurally unnecessary, especially for composite pavements already with thick asphalt overlays. This study was initiated...

  5. Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop.

  6. Integrated Structural Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to EU legislation. And a successful engineering student must be prepared to work in the open-ended, multidisciplinary environment necessary to produce structures which comply with EIA demands. This paper describes an innovative course developed at the Technical University of Denmark which integrates...... landscaping and structural design. The integrated courses create a setting for learning about the design of large-scale structures and involve geometry, statics, computer simulation, graphical design and landscape architecture. Together, they educate engineers who can take part in the early design phases...... of a project, function well in design teams, and comply with EU EIA demands....

  7. Efficient Reanalysis Procedures in Structural Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded

    This thesis examines efficient solution procedures for the structural analysis problem within topology optimization. The research is motivated by the observation that when the nested approach to structural optimization is applied, most of the computational effort is invested in repeated solutions...... on approximate reanalysis. For cases where memory limitations require the utilization of iterative equation solvers, we suggest efficient procedures based on alternative termination criteria for such solvers. These approaches are tested on two- and three-dimensional topology optimization problems including...

  8. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  9. Structural analysis and optimization procedure of the TFTR device substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driesen, G.

    1975-10-01

    A structural evaluation of the TFTR device substructure is performed in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed design concept as well as to establish a design optimization procedure for minimizing the material and fabrication cost of the substructure members. A preliminary evaluation of the seismic capability is also presented. The design concept on which the analysis is based is consistent with that described in the Conceptual Design Status Briefing report dated June 18, 1975

  10. A Survey study on design procedure of Seismic Base Isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adding shear walls or braced frames can decrease the potential damage caused by earthquakes.We can isolate the structures from the ground using the Seismic Base Isolation Systems that is flexible approach to decrease the potential damage. In this research we present information on the design procedure of seismic ...

  11. Design Procedure on Stud Bolt for Reactor Vessel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Wook; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Jeoung, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-01

    The reactor pressure vessel flange is welded to the upper part of reactor pressure vessel, and there are stud holes to mount the closure head with stud bolts. The surface mating the closure head is compressed with O-ring, which acts as a sealing gasket to prevent coolant leakage. Bolted flange connections perform a very important structural role in the design of a reactor pressure vessel. Their importance stems from two important functions: (a) maintenance of the structural integrity of the connection itself, and (b) prevention of leakage through the O-ring preloaded by stud bolts. In the present study, an evaluation procedure for the design of stud bolt is developed to meet ASME code requirements. The developed design procedure could provide typical references in the development of advanced reactor design in the future

  12. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  13. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  14. Procedural Design of Exterior Lighting for Buildings with Complex Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Schwarz, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We present a system for the lighting design of procedurally modeled buildings. The design is procedurally specified as part of the ordinary modeling workflow by defining goals for the illumination that should be attained and locations where luminaires may be installed to realize these goals. Additionally, constraints can be modeled that make the arrangement of the installed luminaires respect certain aesthetic and structural considerations. From this specification, the system automatically generates a lighting solution for any concrete model instance. The underlying, intricate joint optimization and constraint satisfaction problem is approached with a stochastic scheme that operates directly in the complex subspace where all constraints are observed. To navigate this subspace efficaciously, the actual lighting situation is taken into account. We demonstrate our system on multiple examples spanning a variety of architectural structures and lighting designs. Copyright held by the Owner/Author.

  15. Design bases - Concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Llanos Ros, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most suitable title for Section 2 is 'Design Bases', which covers not only calculation but also the following areas: - Structural design concepts. - Project criteria. - Material specifications. These concepts are developed in more detail in the following sections. The numbering in this document is neither complete nor hierarchical since, for easier cross referencing, it corresponds to the paragraphs of Eurocode 2 Part 1 (hereinafter 'EUR-2') which are commented on. (author)

  16. Bridgescaping - Contextual Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale infrastructural projects such as bridges used to be the monopoly of engineers. They were designed as – often very beautiful – expressions of how forces work in a structure, guided by the nature of materials and a rational construction process. However, in recent decades politicians an...

  17. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.......We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design...

  18. Procedural Design of Exterior Lighting for Buildings with Complex Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Schwarz, Michael; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present a system for the lighting design of procedurally modeled buildings. The design is procedurally specified as part of the ordinary modeling workflow by defining goals for the illumination that should be attained and locations where

  19. Design procedure for sizing a submerged-bed scrubber for airborne particulate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    Performance correlations to design and operate the submerged bed scrubber were developed for various applications. Structural design procedure outlined in this report focuses on off-gas scrubbing for HLW vitrification applications; however, the method is appropriate for other applications

  20. Advanced structural integrity assessment procedures. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for discussion on recent results in research and utility practice in the field of methodology for the structural integrity assessment of components including relevant non-codified procedures. The scope of the meeting included deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The papers covered the following topics: Leak-before-break concepts; non-destructive examination (NDE) and surveillance results; statistical evaluation of non-destructive examination data; pressurized thermal shock evaluation; fatigue effects (including vibration); and verification qualification. The meeting was attended by 32 specialists from 8 countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...... satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement. Based on a sensitivity analysis optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability-based optimization problem sequentially using quasi......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered....

  2. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...... satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement. Based on a sensitivity analysis optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability-based optimization problem sequentially using quasi......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered....

  3. Acceptance and Divergence from Engineering Design Procedures Implicating Knowledge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    of explicit procedures and; 3) implicit procedures supporting needs that are not catered for by the explicit procedures. In this understanding, a procedure can be any kind of method, tool or framework used to support design engineers. Furthermore, the study discusses a variety of recommended actions......When developing procedures such as tools, methods and frameworks to support the development of new products, one of the challenges is ensuring their successful implementation. This paper describes a study of the development and use of such design-procedures with primary focus on the new product...

  4. Mixture design procedure for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This document provides information on mixture design requirements for a flexible base course. Sections : design requirements, job mix formula, contractor's responsibility, and engineer's responsibility. Tables : material requirements; requirements fo...

  5. Robust Structured Control Design via LMI Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for discrete-time robust structured control design. Parameter-dependent nonconvex conditions for stabilizable and induced L2-norm performance controllers are solved by an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) optimization. A wide class of controller...... structures including decentralized of any order, fixed-order dynamic output feedback, static output feedback can be designed robust to polytopic uncertainties. Stability is proven by a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function. Numerical examples on robust stability margins shows that the proposed procedure can...

  6. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L

    2015-01-01

    underlying data structure for such CBPS. The objective of the research effort is to develop guidance on how to design both the user interface and the underlying schema. This paper will describe the result and insights gained from the research activities conducted to date.

  7. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L

    2015-02-01

    underlying data structure for such CBPS. The objective of the research effort is to develop guidance on how to design both the user interface and the underlying schema. This paper will describe the result and insights gained from the research activities conducted to date.

  8. Practices in adequate structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural design and verification of space vehicles and space systems is a very tricky and awe inspiring business, particularly for manned missions. Failures in the missions with loss of life is devastating personally and nationally. The scope of the problem is driven by high performance requirements which push state-of-the-art technologies, creating high sensitivites to small variations and uncertainties. Insurance of safe, reliable flight dictates the use of sound principles, procedures, analysis, and testing. Many of those principles which were refocused by the Space Shuttle Challenger (51-L) accident on January 26, 1986, and the activities conducted to insure safe shuttle reflights are discussed. The emphasis will be focused on engineering, while recognizing that project and project management are also key to success.

  9. FFTF fuel pin design procedure verification for transient operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, R.E.

    1975-05-01

    The FFTF design procedures for evaluating fuel pin transient performance are briefly reviewed, and data where available are compared with design procedure predictions. Specifically, burst conditions derived from Fuel Cladding Transient Tester (FCTT) tests and from ANL loss-of-flow tests are compared with burst pressures computed using the design procedure upon which the cladding integrity limit was based. Failure times are predicted using the design procedure for evaluation of rapid reactivity insertion accidents, for five unterminated TREAT experiments in which well characterized fuel failures were deliberately incurred. (U.S.)

  10. Recreation of architectural structures using procedural modeling based on volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Barroso Juan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While the procedural modeling of buildings and other architectural structures has evolved very significantly in recent years, there is noticeable absence of high-level tools that allow a designer, an artist or an historian, creating important buildings or architectonic structures in a particular city. In this paper we present a tool for creating buildings in a simple and clear, following rules that use the language and methodology of creating their own buildings, and hiding the user the algorithmic details of the creation of the model.

  11. Statistical design of mass spectrometry calibration procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.

    1996-11-01

    The main objective of this task was to agree on calibration procedures to estimate the system parameters (i.e., dead-time correction, ion-counting conversion efficiency, and detector efficiency factors) for SAL's new Finnigan MAT-262 mass spectrometer. SAL will use this mass spectrometer in a clean-laboratory which was opened in December 1995 to measure uranium and plutonium isotopes on environmental samples. The Finnigan MAT-262 mass spectrometer has a multi-detector system with seven Faraday cup detectors and one ion- counter for the measurement of very small signals (e.g. 10 -17 Ampere range). ORNL has made preliminary estimates of the system parameters based on SAL's experimental data measured in late 1994 when the Finnigan instrument was relatively new. SAL generated additional data in 1995 to verify the calibration procedures for estimating the dead-time correction factor, the ion-counting conversion factor and the Faraday cup detector efficiency factors. The system parameters estimated on the present data will have to be reestablished when the Finnigan MAT-262 is moved-to the new clean- laboratory. Different methods will be used to analyzed environmental samples than the current measurement methods being used. For example, the environmental samples will be electroplated on a single filament rather than using the current two filament system. An outline of the calibration standard operating procedure (SOP) is included

  12. Structural design by CAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Shim, Jae Ku; Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Kyu Sup; Choi, In Kil; Lee, Dong Yong

    1988-12-01

    CAD systems are now widely used for the design of many engineering problems involving static, dynamic and thermal stress analyses of structures. In order to apply CAD systems to the structural analysis and design, the function of hardwares and softwares necessary for the CAD systems must be understood. The purpose of this study is to introduce the basic elements that are indispensible in the application of CAD systems to the analysis and design of structures and to give a thorough understanding of CAD systems to design engineers, so as to participate in the further technological developments of CAD systems. Due to the complexity and variety of the shape and size of the nowa-days structures, the need of new design technologies is growing for more efficient, accurate and economical design of structures. The application of CAD systems to structural engineering fields enables to improve structural engineering analysis and design technologies and also to obtain the standardization of the design process. An active introduction of rapidly developing CAD technologies will contribute to analyzing and designing structures more efficiently and reliably. Based on this report of the current status of the application of CAD systems to the structural analysis and design, the next goal is to develop the expert system which enables to perform the design of structures by CAD systems from the preliminary conceptual design to the final detail drawings automatically. (Author)

  13. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  14. Evaluation procedure of the structural integrity of a pipe of nuclear use. Application of codes for design and service. Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzi, H.; Asta, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we are presenting the most important results of the local stresses occurred in the cracked pipes with a axial through-wall, under Failure Concept 0.1A, using Finite Element Method and Fracture Mechanics. As requested, the component has been verified based 3D FE plastic analysis, under the postulated failure loading, assuring with this method a high degree of accuracy in the results. Codes used by Design and Service, as ASME Section III Div. 1 and API 579, have been used in the analysis. (author)

  15. Design Procedure of Graphite Components by ASME HTR Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji-Ho; Jo, Chang Keun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the ASME B and PV Code, Subsection HH, Subpart A, design procedure for graphite components of HTRs was reviewed and the differences from metal materials were remarked. The Korean VHTR has a prismatic core which is made of multiple graphite blocks, reflectors, and core supports. One of the design issues is the assessment of the structural integrity of the graphite components because the graphite is brittle and shows quite different behaviors from metals in high temperature environment. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued the latest edition of the code for the high temperature reactors (HTR) in 2015. In this study, the ASME B and PV Code, Subsection HH, Subpart A, Graphite Materials was reviewed and the special features were remarked. Due the brittleness of graphites, the damage-tolerant design procedures different from the conventional metals were adopted based on semi-probabilistic approaches. The unique additional classification, SRC, is allotted to the graphite components and the full 3-D FEM or equivalent stress analysis method is required. In specific conditions, the oxidation and viscoelasticity analysis of material are required. The fatigue damage rule has not been established yet

  16. Design Procedure of Graphite Components by ASME HTR Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji-Ho; Jo, Chang Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the ASME B and PV Code, Subsection HH, Subpart A, design procedure for graphite components of HTRs was reviewed and the differences from metal materials were remarked. The Korean VHTR has a prismatic core which is made of multiple graphite blocks, reflectors, and core supports. One of the design issues is the assessment of the structural integrity of the graphite components because the graphite is brittle and shows quite different behaviors from metals in high temperature environment. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued the latest edition of the code for the high temperature reactors (HTR) in 2015. In this study, the ASME B and PV Code, Subsection HH, Subpart A, Graphite Materials was reviewed and the special features were remarked. Due the brittleness of graphites, the damage-tolerant design procedures different from the conventional metals were adopted based on semi-probabilistic approaches. The unique additional classification, SRC, is allotted to the graphite components and the full 3-D FEM or equivalent stress analysis method is required. In specific conditions, the oxidation and viscoelasticity analysis of material are required. The fatigue damage rule has not been established yet.

  17. 40 CFR 240.202-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240... § 240.202-2 Recommended procedures: Design. (a) Whenever possible, thermal processing facilities should be located in areas zoned for industrial use and having adequate utilities to serve the facility. (b...

  18. Methods for testing the logical structure of plant procedure documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, C.P.; Colley, R.; Fahley, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing EPRI project to investigate computer based methods to improve the development, maintenance, and verification of plant operating procedures. This project began as an evaluation of the applicability of structured software analysis methods to operating procedures. It was found that these methods offer benefits, if procedures are transformed to a structured representation to make them amenable to computer analysis. The next task was to investigate methods to transform procedures into a structured representation. The use of natural language techniques to read and compile the procedure documents appears to be viable for this purpose and supports conformity to guidelines. The final task was to consider possibilities of automated verification methods for procedures. Methods to help verify procedures were defined and information requirements specified. These methods take the structured representation of procedures as input. The software system being constructed in this project is called PASS, standing for Procedures Analysis Software System

  19. New procedure to design low radar cross section near perfect isotropic and homogeneous triangular carpet cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Atlasbaf, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    A new design procedure for near perfect triangular carpet cloaks, fabricated based on only isotropic homogeneous materials, is proposed. This procedure enables us to fabricate a cloak with simple metamaterials or even without employing metamaterials. The proposed procedure together with an invasive weed optimization algorithm is used to design carpet cloaks based on quasi-isotropic metamaterial structures, Teflon and AN-73. According to the simulation results, the proposed cloaks have good invisibility properties against radar, especially monostatic radar. The procedure is a new method to derive isotropic and homogeneous parameters from transformation optics formulas so we do not need to use complicated structures to fabricate the carpet cloaks.

  20. Strategies for Optimal Design of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. Especially systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are analysed. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Direct and sequential optimization procedures to solve the optimization...

  1. Design Transformations for Rule-based Procedural Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Lienhard, Stefan; Lau, Cheryl; Mü ller, Pascal; Wonka, Peter; Pauly, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We introduce design transformations for rule-based procedural models, e.g., for buildings and plants. Given two or more procedural designs, each specified by a grammar, a design transformation combines elements of the existing designs to generate new designs. We introduce two technical components to enable design transformations. First, we extend the concept of discrete rule switching to rule merging, leading to a very large shape space for combining procedural models. Second, we propose an algorithm to jointly derive two or more grammars, called grammar co-derivation. We demonstrate two applications of our work: we show that our framework leads to a larger variety of models than previous work, and we show fine-grained transformation sequences between two procedural models.

  2. Design Transformations for Rule-based Procedural Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Lienhard, Stefan

    2017-05-24

    We introduce design transformations for rule-based procedural models, e.g., for buildings and plants. Given two or more procedural designs, each specified by a grammar, a design transformation combines elements of the existing designs to generate new designs. We introduce two technical components to enable design transformations. First, we extend the concept of discrete rule switching to rule merging, leading to a very large shape space for combining procedural models. Second, we propose an algorithm to jointly derive two or more grammars, called grammar co-derivation. We demonstrate two applications of our work: we show that our framework leads to a larger variety of models than previous work, and we show fine-grained transformation sequences between two procedural models.

  3. Study on Detailing Design of Precast Concrete Frame Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lida, Tian; Liming, Li; Kang, Liu; Jiao, Geng; Ming, Li

    2018-03-01

    Taking a certain precast concrete frame structure as an example, this paper introduces the general procedures and key points in detailing design of emulative cast-in-place prefabricated structure from the aspects of structural scheme, precast element layout, shop drawing design and BIM 3D modelling. This paper gives a practical solution for the detailing design of precast concrete frame structure under structural design codes in China.

  4. ASTROS: A multidisciplinary automated structural design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) is a finite-element-based multidisciplinary structural optimization procedure developed under Air Force sponsorship to perform automated preliminary structural design. The design task is the determination of the structural sizes that provide an optimal structure while satisfying numerous constraints from many disciplines. In addition to its automated design features, ASTROS provides a general transient and frequency response capability, as well as a special feature to perform a transient analysis of a vehicle subjected to a nuclear blast. The motivation for the development of a single multidisciplinary design tool is that such a tool can provide improved structural designs in less time than is currently needed. The role of such a tool is even more apparent as modern materials come into widespread use. Balancing conflicting requirements for the structure's strength and stiffness while exploiting the benefits of material anisotropy is perhaps an impossible task without assistance from an automated design tool. Finally, the use of a single tool can bring the design task into better focus among design team members, thereby improving their insight into the overall task.

  5. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  6. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  7. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and constraint solvers and more rigorous Finite Element methods supporting respectively design analysis and form finding and performance evaluation and verification. The second investigation describes the inter-scalar feedback loops between design at the macro scale (overall structural behaviour), meso scale...... (membrane reinforcement strategy) and micro scale (design of bespoke textile membrane). The paper concludes with a post construction analysis. Comparing structural and environmental data, the predicted and the actual performance of tower are evaluated and discussed....

  8. Different design approaches to structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, I.

    2013-01-01

    -priori evaluate which design is the safest or the most economical one: a punctual analysis of the different aspects and a comparison of the resulting designs is therefore of interest and is presented in this paper with reference to the case study considered.The third approach refers instead to a performance......-based fire design of the structure(PBFD), where safety goals are explicitly defined and a deeper knowledge of the structural response to fire effects can be achieved, for example with the avail of finite element analyses (FEA). On the other hand, designers can’t follow established procedures when undertaking...... such advanced investigations, which are generally quite complex ones, due to the presence of material degradation and large displacements induced by fire, as well as the possible triggering of local mechanism in the system. An example of advanced investigations for fire design is given in the paper...

  9. Automatic control design procedures for restructurable aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looze, D. P.; Krolewski, S.; Weiss, J.; Barrett, N.; Eterno, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, reliable automatic redesign procedure for restructurable control is discussed. This procedure is based on Linear Quadratic (LQ) design methodologies. It employs a robust control system design for the unfailed aircraft to minimize the effects of failed surfaces and to extend the time available for restructuring the Flight Control System. The procedure uses the LQ design parameters for the unfailed system as a basis for choosing the design parameters of the failed system. This philosophy alloys the engineering trade-offs that were present in the nominal design to the inherited by the restructurable design. In particular, it alloys bandwidth limitations and performance trade-offs to be incorporated in the redesigned system. The procedure also has several other desirable features. It effectively redistributes authority among the available control effectors to maximize the system performance subject to actuator limitations and constraints. It provides a graceful performance degradation as the amount of control authority lessens. When given the parameters of the unfailed aircraft, the automatic redesign procedure reproduces the nominal control system design.

  10. Expressive Design Tools: Procedural Content Generation for Game Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gillian Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Games are shaped by the tools we use to make them and our ability to model the concepts they address. Vast improvements in computer graphics technology, processing power, storage capacity, and physics simulations have driven game design for the past forty years, leading to beautiful, spacious, detailed, and highly immersive worlds supporting games that are, for the most part, fundamentally about movement, collision, and other physics-based concepts. Designers use increasingly complex tools th...

  11. Coevolutionary and genetic algorithm based building spatial and structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.; Davila Delgado, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, two methods to develop and optimize accompanying building spatial and structural designs are compared. The first, a coevolutionary method, applies deterministic procedures, inspired by realistic design processes, to cyclically add a suitable structural design to the input of a

  12. Recent advances in design procedures for high temperature plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen papers cover several aspects of design for high temperature plant. These include design codes, computerized structural analysis and mechanical properties of materials at high temperatures. Seven papers are relevant for fast reactors and these are indexed separately. These cover shakedown design, design codes for thin shells subjected to cyclic thermal loading, the inelastic behaviour of stainless steels and creep and crack propagation in reactor structures under stresses caused by thermal cycling loading. (author)

  13. Power mos devices: structures and modelling procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossel, P.; Charitat, G.; Tranduc, H.; Morancho, F.; Moncoqut

    1997-05-01

    In this survey, the historical evolution of power MOS transistor structures is presented and currently used devices are described. General considerations on current and voltage capabilities are discussed and configurations of popular structures are given. A synthesis of different modelling approaches proposed last three years is then presented, including analytical solutions, for basic electrical parameters such as threshold voltage, on-resistance, saturation and quasi-saturation effects, temperature influence and voltage handling capability. The numerical solutions of basic semiconductor devices is then briefly reviewed along with some typical problems which can be solved this way. A compact circuit modelling method is finally explained with emphasis on dynamic behavior modelling

  14. a Procedural Solution to Model Roman Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, V.; Saleri, R.; Stefani, C.; Nony, N.; De Luca, L.

    2013-07-01

    The paper will describe a new approach based on the development of a procedural modelling methodology for archaeological data representation. This is a custom-designed solution based on the recognition of the rules belonging to the construction methods used in roman times. We have conceived a tool for 3D reconstruction of masonry structures starting from photogrammetric surveying. Our protocol considers different steps. Firstly we have focused on the classification of opus based on the basic interconnections that can lead to a descriptive system used for their unequivocal identification and design. Secondly, we have chosen an automatic, accurate, flexible and open-source photogrammetric pipeline named Pastis Apero Micmac - PAM, developed by IGN (Paris). We have employed it to generate ortho-images from non-oriented images, using a user-friendly interface implemented by CNRS Marseille (France). Thirdly, the masonry elements are created in parametric and interactive way, and finally they are adapted to the photogrammetric data. The presented application, currently under construction, is developed with an open source programming language called Processing, useful for visual, animated or static, 2D or 3D, interactive creations. Using this computer language, a Java environment has been developed. Therefore, even if the procedural modelling reveals an accuracy level inferior to the one obtained by manual modelling (brick by brick), this method can be useful when taking into account the static evaluation on buildings (requiring quantitative aspects) and metric measures for restoration purposes.

  15. A PROCEDURAL SOLUTION TO MODEL ROMAN MASONRY STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cappellini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper will describe a new approach based on the development of a procedural modelling methodology for archaeological data representation. This is a custom-designed solution based on the recognition of the rules belonging to the construction methods used in roman times. We have conceived a tool for 3D reconstruction of masonry structures starting from photogrammetric surveying. Our protocol considers different steps. Firstly we have focused on the classification of opus based on the basic interconnections that can lead to a descriptive system used for their unequivocal identification and design. Secondly, we have chosen an automatic, accurate, flexible and open-source photogrammetric pipeline named Pastis Apero Micmac – PAM, developed by IGN (Paris. We have employed it to generate ortho-images from non-oriented images, using a user-friendly interface implemented by CNRS Marseille (France. Thirdly, the masonry elements are created in parametric and interactive way, and finally they are adapted to the photogrammetric data. The presented application, currently under construction, is developed with an open source programming language called Processing, useful for visual, animated or static, 2D or 3D, interactive creations. Using this computer language, a Java environment has been developed. Therefore, even if the procedural modelling reveals an accuracy level inferior to the one obtained by manual modelling (brick by brick, this method can be useful when taking into account the static evaluation on buildings (requiring quantitative aspects and metric measures for restoration purposes.

  16. Model checking as an aid to procedure design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenhu

    2001-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has been actively working on computer assisted operating procedures for many years. The objective of the research has been to provide computerised assistance for procedure design, verification and validation, implementation and maintenance. For the verification purpose, the application of formal methods has been considered in several reports. The recent formal verification activity conducted at the Halden Project is based on using model checking to the verification of procedures. This report presents verification approaches based on different model checking techniques and tools for the formalization and verification of operating procedures. Possible problems and relative merits of the different approaches are discussed. A case study of one of the approaches is presented to show the practical application of formal verification. Application of formal verification in the traditional procedure design process can reduce the human resources involved in reviews and simulations, and hence reduce the cost of verification and validation. A discussion of the integration of the formal verification with the traditional procedure design process is given at the end of this report. (Author)

  17. Parametric Fires for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants and contra......The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...... compartments. Findings leading to the guide-lines are discussed, and it is indicated what a safe design fire model means for structural design and how it differs from a safe design fire model for evacuation. Furthermore, the paper includes some experiences from the application of the design guide in practise...

  18. Design Guidance for Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with nuclear power plant systems are guided by procedures, instructions, or checklists. Paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by most utilities have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield significant savings in increased efficiency, as well as improved safety through human performance gains. The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease human error rates, especially human error rates associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving field workers’ procedure use and adherence and hence improve human performance and overall system reliability, the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been investigating the possibility and feasibility of replacing current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedures (CBPs). PBPs have ensured safe operation of plants for decades, but limitations in paper-based systems do not allow them to reach the full potential for procedures to prevent human errors. The environment in a nuclear power plant is constantly changing, depending on current plant status and operating mode. PBPs, which are static by nature, are being applied to a constantly changing context. This constraint often results in PBPs that are written in a manner that is intended to cover many potential operating scenarios. Hence, the procedure layout forces the operator to search through a large amount of irrelevant information to locate the pieces of information relevant for the task and situation at hand, which has potential consequences of taking up valuable time when operators must be responding to the situation, and potentially leading operators down an incorrect response path. Other challenges related to use of PBPs are management of multiple procedures, place-keeping, finding the correct procedure for a task, and relying

  19. The design of operating procedures manuals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, E.; Preuss, W.; Reinartz, G.; Thau, G.

    1977-03-01

    This report describes the findings of a research on the desirable design of operating procedures manuals for nuclear power plants. The work was supported by a grant of the Federal Department of the Interior. Information was acquired from different sources. Interviews and discussions on manual design were carried out with manual users in nuclear power plants. Moreover, tasks carried out using procedures were either observed or, alternatively, the manner of using procedures was elicited by interviews. In addition, manual writers, managers from manufacturers and utilities, nuclear experts, and individuals involved in manual specification activities were interviewed. A major source of information has been the pertinent scientific and technical findings scattered in the literature on topics such as instructional technology, engineering psychology, psycholinguistics, and typography. A comprehensive bibliography is included. General rules are established on designing instructional material for use on the job, aiming at increasing their legability, comprehensibility, and suitability to guide human performance. The application of these rules to the design of individual operating procedures is demonstrated. Recommendations are given on the design, layout, development and implementation of manuals. (orig.) [de

  20. Structural design of DEALS magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Hsieh, S.Y.; Balderes, T.; Brown, T.; Bundy, J.

    1979-01-01

    A design for the extraneous magnet structure to support all the magnet loads was developed. The structure consists of two demountable structural systems designed to support the in-plane and out-of-plane loads, respectively. The in-plane loads are resisted by a cold central bucking cylinder and pin connected, plate-beam structural members following the outer periphery of each coil. The out-of-plane, torsional loads are resisted by the concerted action of the central bucking column and a continuous plate structure interconnecting all the coils. The adequacy of the structures were assessed by application of finite element analysis methods. The design study proved the feasibility of resisting the magnetic loadings with a demountable support structure extraneous to the superconducting coil. The resulting magnet system, although estimated to be higher in cost than a continuous coil, incorporates a means for complete coil replacement in a time scale commensurate with conventional nuclear power plant repairs and without the dismantling of the toroidal blanket and plasma shell systems

  1. Emergency procedures beyond design basis ''Feed and Bleed''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Bautista, M.T.; Campuzano Pena, F.

    1994-01-01

    The incorporation of Beyond-Design-Basis Emergency Procedures, also called the Emergency Manual or Severe Accident Manual, has been an important step forward in nuclear power plant safety. These procedures cover situations in which the deterministic criteria used in plant design have been contravened. In such situations new accident scenarios, unforeseen system actions or a combination of both, need to be considered. Establishing these procedures is actually the last in a sequence of activities the sequence includes definition of scenarios, study of their phenomena, analysis of optional system actions, verification of their effectiveness and finally, implementation of the procedure. The systematization of these new strategies is supported by the results of the probabilistic analyses which serve in this case to pinpoint the objectives of these strategies. This paper describes the application of this methodology in the definition of a procedure for heat sink recovery on the secondary side (feed and bleed) if this has been totally or partially lost in a beyond-design-basis event. (Author)

  2. Some trends in aircraft design: Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Trends and programs currently underway on the national scene to improve the structural interface in the aircraft design process are discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration shares a partnership with the educational and industrial community in the development of the tools, the criteria, and the data base essential to produce high-performance and cost-effective vehicles. Several thrusts to build the technology in materials, structural concepts, analytical programs, and integrated design procedures essential for performing the trade-offs required to fashion competitive vehicles are presented. The application of advanced fibrous composites, improved methods for structural analysis, and continued attention to important peripheral problems of aeroelastic and thermal stability are among the topics considered.

  3. 40 CFR 240.205-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air pollution control technology. (b) All emissions, including dust from vents, should be controlled. ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.205-2 Section 240.205-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  4. Novel design of honeybee-inspired needles for percutaneous procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Mohammad; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2018-04-18

    The focus of this paper is to present new designs of innovative bioinspired needles to be used during percutaneous procedures. Insect stingers have been known to easily penetrate soft tissues. Bioinspired needles mimicking the barbs in a honeybee stinger were developed for a smaller insertion force, which can provide a less invasive procedure. Decreasing the insertion force will decrease the tissue deformation, which is essential for more accurate targeting. In this study, some design parameters, in particular, barb shape and geometry (i.e. front angle, back angle, and height) were defined, and their effects on the insertion force were investigated. Three-dimensional printing technology was used to manufacture bioinspired needles. A specially-designed insertion test setup using tissue mimicking polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gels was developed to measure the insertion and extraction forces. The barb design parameters were then experimentally modified through detailed experimental procedures to further reduce the insertion force. Different scales of the barbed needles were designed and used to explore the size-scale effect on the insertion force. To further investigate the efficacy of the proposed needle design in real surgeries, preliminary ex vivo insertion tests into bovine liver tissue were performed. Our results show that the insertion force of the needles in different scales decreased by 21-35% in PVC gel insertion tests, and by 46% in bovine liver tissue insertion tests.

  5. Topology Optimization for Conceptual Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bogomolny, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed by the nonlinear behavior of concrete and by its dierent strengths in tension and compression. The purpose of this article is to present a computational procedure for optimal conceptual design of reinforced concrete structures, based on topology...... must be consid- ered. Optimized distribution of material is achieved by introducing interpolation rules for both elastic and plastic material properties. Several numerical examples illustrate the capability and potential of the proposed procedure....

  6. The IMI PROTECT project: purpose, organizational structure, and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Robert F; Kurz, Xavier; de Groot, Mark C H; Schlienger, Raymond G; Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Tcherny-Lessenot, Stephanie; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-03-01

    The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European ConsorTium (PROTECT) initiative was a collaborative European project that sought to address limitations of current methods in the field of pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance. Initiated in 2009 and ending in 2015, PROTECT was part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative, a joint undertaking by the European Union and pharmaceutical industry. Thirty-five partners including academics, regulators, small and medium enterprises, and European Federation of Pharmaceuticals Industries and Associations companies contributed to PROTECT. Two work packages within PROTECT implemented research examining the extent to which differences in the study design, methodology, and choice of data source can contribute to producing discrepant results from observational studies on drug safety. To evaluate the effect of these differences, the project applied different designs and analytic methodology for six drug-adverse event pairs across several electronic healthcare databases and registries. This papers introduces the organizational structure and procedures of PROTECT, including how drug-adverse event and data sources were selected, study design and analyses documents were developed, and results managed centrally. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. PGSFR Core Thermal Design Procedure to Evaluate the Safety Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Rock; Kim, Sang-Ji [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has performed a SFR design with the final goal of constructing a prototype plant by 2028. The main objective of the SFR prototype plant is to verify the TRU metal fuel performance, reactor operation, and transmutation ability of high-level wastes. The core thermal design is to ensure the safe fuel performance during the whole plant operation. Compared to the critical heat flux in typical light water reactors, nuclear fuel damage in SFR subassemblies arises from a creep induced failure. The creep limit is evaluated based on the maximum cladding temperature, power, neutron flux, and uncertainties in the design parameters, as shown in Fig. 1. In this work, the core thermal design procedures are compared to verify the present PGSFR methodology based on the nuclear plant design criteria/guidelines and previous SFR thermal design methods. The PGSFR core thermal design procedure is verified based on the nuclear plant design criteria/guidelines and previous methods in LWRs and SFRs. The present method aims to directly evaluate the fuel cladding failure and to assure more safety margin. The 2 uncertainty is similar to 95% one-side tolerance limit of 1.96 in LWRs. The HCFs, ITDP, and MCM reveal similar uncertainty propagation for cladding midwall temperature for typical SFR conditions. The present HCFs are mainly employed from the CRBR except the fuel-related uncertainty such as an incorrect fuel distribution. Preliminary PGSFR specific HCFs will be developed by the end of 2015.

  8. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction...

  9. Procedure for seismic evaluation and design of small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanin, W.; Sills, S.

    1991-01-01

    Simplified methods for the seismic design of small bore piping in nuclear power plants have teen used for many years. Various number of designers have developed unique methods to treat the large number of class 2 and 3 small bore piping systems. This practice has led to a proliferation of methods which are not standardized in the industry. These methods are generally based on enveloping the results of rigorous dynamic or conservative static analysis and result in an excessive number of supports and unrealistically high support loadings. Experience and test data have become available which warranted taking another look at the present methods for analysis of small bore piping. A recently completed Electric Power Research Institute and NCIG (a utility group) activity developed a new procedure for the seismic design and evaluation of small bore piping which provides significant safety and cost benefits. The procedure streamlines the approach to inertial stresses, which is the main feature that achieves the new benefits. Criteria in the procedure for seismic anchor movement and support design are based analysis and focus the designer on credible failure mechanisms. A walkdown of the as-constructed piping system to identify and eliminate undesirable piping features such as adverse spatial interaction is required

  10. Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The B106 American National Standards Committee is currently preparing a new standard for the design of transmission shafting. A design procedure, proposed for use in the new standard, for computing the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

  11. Finite element design procedure for correcting the coining die profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrino, Paulo; Leitão, Paulo J.; Alves, Luis M.; Martins, Paulo A. F.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new finite element based design procedure for correcting the coining die profiles in order to optimize the distribution of pressure and the alignment of the resultant vertical force at the end of the die stroke. The procedure avoids time consuming and costly try-outs, does not interfere with the creative process of the sculptors and extends the service life of the coining dies by significantly decreasing the applied pressure and bending moments. The numerical simulations were carried out in a computer program based on the finite element flow formulation that is currently being developed by the authors in collaboration with the Portuguese Mint. A new experimental procedure based on the stack compression test is also proposed for determining the stress-strain curve of the materials directly from the coin blanks.

  12. On the design of flight-deck procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1994-01-01

    In complex human-machine systems, operations, training, and standardization depend on a elaborate set of procedures which are specified and mandated by the operational management of the organization. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots, to ensure a logical, efficient, safe, and predictable means of carrying out the mission objectives. In this report the authors examine the issue of procedure use and design from a broad viewpoint. The authors recommend a process which we call 'The Four P's:' philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. We believe that if an organization commits to this process, it can create a set of procedures that are more internally consistent, less confusing, better respected by the flight crews, and that will lead to greater conformity. The 'Four-P' model, and the guidelines for procedural development in appendix 1, resulted from cockpit observations, extensive interviews with airline management and pilots, interviews and discussion at one major airframe manufacturer, and an examination of accident and incident reports. Although this report is based on airline operations, we believe that the principles may be applicable to other complex, high-risk systems, such as nuclear power production, manufacturing process control, space flight, and military operations.

  13. Design of Multistable Origami Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Andrew; Fuchi, Kazuko; Bazzan, Giorgio; Reich, Gregory; Alyanak, Edward; Buskohl, Philip

    Origami is being transformed from an art to a mathematically robust method for device design in a variety of scientific applications. These structures often require multiple stable configurations, e.g. efficient well-controlled deployment. However, the discovery of origami structures with mechanical instabilities is challenging given the complex geometric nonlinearities and the large design space to investigate. To address this challenge, we have developed a topology optimization framework for discovering origami fold patterns that realize stable and metastable positions. The objective function targets both the desired stable positions and nonlinear loading profiles of specific vertices in the origami structure. Multistable compliant structures have been shown to offer advantages in their stability and efficiency, and certain origami fold patterns exhibit multistable behavior. Building on this previous work of single vertex multistability analysis, e.g. waterbomb origami pattern, we are expanding the solution set of multistable mechanisms to include multiple vertices and a broader set of reference configurations. Collectively, these results enable an initial classification of geometry-induced mechanical instabilities that can be programmed into active material systems. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  14. Optimization methods in structural design

    CERN Document Server

    Rothwell, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to numerical optimization methods in structural design. Employing a readily accessible and compact format, the book presents an overview of optimization methods, and equips readers to properly set up optimization problems and interpret the results. A ‘how-to-do-it’ approach is followed throughout, with less emphasis at this stage on mathematical derivations. The book features spreadsheet programs provided in Microsoft Excel, which allow readers to experience optimization ‘hands-on.’ Examples covered include truss structures, columns, beams, reinforced shell structures, stiffened panels and composite laminates. For the last three, a review of relevant analysis methods is included. Exercises, with solutions where appropriate, are also included with each chapter. The book offers a valuable resource for engineering students at the upper undergraduate and postgraduate level, as well as others in the industry and elsewhere who are new to these highly practical techniques.Whi...

  15. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses

  16. Probability based load combinations for design of category I structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and a procedure for developing the load combination design criteria for category I structures. For safety evaluation of category I concrete structures under various static and dynamic loads, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed. This reliability analysis method is also used as a tool for determining the load factors for design of category I structures. In this paper, the load combinations for design of concrete containments, corresponding to a target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 in 4 years, are described. A comparison of containments designed using the ASME code and the proposed design criteria is also presented

  17. Design Procedure for High-Speed PM Motors Aided by Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cupertino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the electromagnetic and structural co-design of superficial permanent magnet synchronous machines for high-speed applications, with the aid of a Pareto optimization procedure. The aim of this work is to present a design procedure for the afore-mentioned machines that relies on the combined used of optimization algorithms and finite element analysis. The proposed approach allows easy analysis of the results and a lowering of the computational burden. The proposed design method is presented through a practical example starting from the specifications of an aeronautical actuator. The design procedure is based on static finite element simulations for electromagnetic analysis and on analytical formulas for structural design. The final results are validated through detailed transient finite element analysis to verify both electromagnetic and structural performance. The step-by-step presentation of the proposed design methodology allows the reader to easily adapt it to different specifications. Finally, a comparison between a distributed-winding (24 slots and a concentrated-winding (6 slots machine is presented demonstrating the advantages of the former winding arrangement for high-speed applications.

  18. Digital computer structure and design

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, R

    2014-01-01

    Digital Computer Structure and Design, Second Edition discusses switching theory, counters, sequential circuits, number representation, and arithmetic functions The book also describes computer memories, the processor, data flow system of the processor, the processor control system, and the input-output system. Switching theory, which is purely a mathematical concept, centers on the properties of interconnected networks of ""gates."" The theory deals with binary functions of 1 and 0 which can change instantaneously from one to the other without intermediate values. The binary number system is

  19. Revised MITG design, fabrication procedure, and performance predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design, analysis, and key features of the Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) were described in a 1981 IECEC paper; and the design, fabrication, testing, and post-test analysis of test assemblies simulating prototypical MITG modules were described in preceding papers in these proceedings. These analyses succeeded in identifying and explaining the principal causes of thermal-stress problems encountered in the tests, and in confirming the effectiveness of design changes for alleviating them. The present paper presents additional design improvements for solving these and other problems, and describes new thermoelectric material properties generated by independent laboratories over the past two years. Based on these changes and on a revised fabrication procedure, it presents a reoptimization of the MITG design and computes the power-to-weight ratio for the revised design. That ratio is appreciably lower than the 1981 prediction, primarily because of changes in material properties; but it is still much higher than the specific power of current-generation RTGs

  20. Linear collider RF structure design using ARGUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok Ko

    1991-01-01

    In a linear collider, both the driving system (klystrons) and the accelerating system (linac) consists of RF structures that are inherently three-dimensional. These structures which are responsible for power input/output, have to satisfy many requirements in order that instabilities, beam or RF related, are to be avoided. At the same time, system efficiencies have to be maintained at optimal to minimize cost. Theoretical analysis on these geometrically complex structures are difficult and until recently, numerical solutions have been limited. At SLAC, there has been a continuing and close collaboration among accelerator physicists, engineers and numericists to integrate supercomputing into the design procedure which involves 3-D RF structures. The outcome is very encouraging. Using the 3-D/electromagnetic code ARGUS (developed by SAIC) on the Cray computers at NERSC in conjunction with supporting theories, a wide variety of critical components have been simulated and evaluated. Aside from structures related to the linear collider, the list also includes the RF cavity for the proposed Boson Factory and the anode circuit for the Cross-Field Amplifier, once considered as an alternative to the klystron as a possible power source. This presentation will focus on two specific structures: (1) the klystron output cavity; and (2) the linac input coupler. As the results demonstrate, supercomputing is fast becoming a viable technology that could conceivably replace actual cold-testing in the near future

  1. LASL lens design procedure: simple, fast, precise, versatile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixner, B.

    1978-11-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory general-purpose lens design procedure optimizes specific lens prescriptions to obtain the smallest possible image spots and therefore near-spherical wave fronts of light converging on all images in the field of view. Optical image errors are analyzed in much the same way that they are measured on the optical bench. This lens design method is made possible by using the full capabilities of large electronic computers. First, the performance of the whole lens is sampled with many precisely traced skew rays. Next, lens performance is analyzed with spot diagrams generated by the many rays. Third, lens performance is optimized with a least squares system aimed at reducing all image errors to zero. This statistical approach to lens design uses skew rays and precisely measured ray deviations from ideal image points to achieve greater accuracy than was possible with the classical procedure, which is based on approximate expressions derived from simplified ray traces developed for pencil-and-paper calculations

  2. Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings with Hysteretic Bracing Systems: Design Procedure and Behaviour Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design procedure to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of hysteretic Energy Dissipation Bracing (EDB systems for seismic retrofitting of existing reinforced concrete framed buildings. The proposed procedure, aiming at controlling the maximum interstorey drifts, imposes a maximum top displacement as function of the seismic demand and, if needed, regularizes the stiffness and strength of the building along its elevation. In order to explain the application of the proposed procedure and its capacity to involve most of the devices in the energy dissipation with similar level of ductility demand, a simple benchmark structure has been studied and nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed. A further goal of this work is to propose a simplified approach for designing dissipating systems based on linear analysis with the application of a suitable behaviour factor, in order to achieve a widespread adoption of the passive control techniques. At this goal, the increasing of the structural performances due to the addition of an EDB system designed with the above-mentioned procedure has been estimated considering one thousand case studies designed with different combinations of the main design parameters. An analytical formulation of the behaviour factor for braced buildings has been proposed.

  3. Perspectives on "Bakke": Equal Protection, Procedural Fairness, or Structural Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Laurence H.

    1979-01-01

    The "Bakke" case is examined for what it has to say regarding first the area of equal protection, then the idea of procedural fairness as distinct from accuracy of result, and finally the notion of structural justice. Available from Harvard Law Review, Harvard Law Review Association, Gannett House, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; sc…

  4. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  5. Procedures of ASME code case N-201 for KALIMER. Reactor internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Yoo, B.

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to describe the design procedure of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Code Case N-201-4, which is an elevated temperature structural design code of the Nuclear reactor internal structures, checking the criteria of stress limit, accumulated inelastic strain and deformation, creep-fatigue damage, and buckling limit. As one of examples, the creep-fatigue damage evaluations are carried out for the KALIMER reactor internal structures of baffle annulus. This report is expected to be very useful in evaluating the structural integrity of the liquid metal reactor operating under an elevated temperature

  6. A Procedure for Structural Weight Estimation of Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles (Interim User's Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Zoran N.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This is an interim user's manual for current procedures used in the Vehicle Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, for launch vehicle structural subsystem weight estimation based on finite element modeling and structural analysis. The process is intended to complement traditional methods of conceptual and early preliminary structural design such as the application of empirical weight estimation or application of classical engineering design equations and criteria on one dimensional "line" models. Functions of two commercially available software codes are coupled together. Vehicle modeling and analysis are done using SDRC/I-DEAS, and structural sizing is performed with the Collier Research Corp. HyperSizer program.

  7. Design guide for calculating fluid damping for circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1983-06-01

    Fluid damping plays an important role for structures submerged in fluid, subjected to flow, or conveying fluid. This design guide presents a summary of calculational procedures and design data for fluid damping for circular cylinders vibrating in quiescent fluid, crossflow, and parallel flow

  8. Framework for a procedure for design for durability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, A.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The design for durability of structures and building components is in general based on implicit requirements with respect to the quality and dimensions of the composing building materials and components. These requirements are based on long term experience. This approach has disadvantages. It is

  9. Design verification for large reprocessing plants (Proposed procedures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolandi, G.

    1988-07-01

    In the 1990s, four large commercial reprocessing plants will progressively come into operation: If an effective and efficient safeguards system is to be applied to these large and complex plants, several important factors have to be considered. One of these factors, addressed in the present report, concerns plant design verification. Design verification provides an overall assurance on plant measurement data. To this end design verification, although limited to the safeguards aspects of the plant, must be a systematic activity, which starts during the design phase, continues during the construction phase and is particularly performed during the various steps of the plant's commissioning phase. The detailed procedures for design information verification on commercial reprocessing plants must be defined within the frame of the general provisions set forth in INFCIRC/153 for any type of safeguards related activities and specifically for design verification. The present report is intended as a preliminary contribution on a purely technical level, and focusses on the problems within the Agency. For the purpose of the present study the most complex case was assumed: i.e. a safeguards system based on conventional materials accountancy, accompanied both by special input and output verification and by some form of near-real-time accountancy involving in-process inventory taking, based on authenticated operator's measurement data. C/S measures are also foreseen, where necessary to supplement the accountancy data. A complete ''design verification'' strategy comprehends: informing the Agency of any changes in the plant system which are defined as ''safeguards relevant''; ''reverifying by the Agency upon receiving notice from the Operator on any changes, on ''design information''. 13 refs

  10. Design procedure of capsule with multistage heater control (named MUSTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Hiroyuki; Endoh, Yasuichi; Hoshiya, Taiji; Niimi, Motoji; Harayama, Yasuo

    1990-11-01

    A capsule with electric heaters at multistage (named MUSTAC) is a type of capsule used in JMTR. The heaters are assembled in the capsule. Supply electric current to the heaters can be independently adjusted with a control systems that keeps irradiation specimens to constant temperature. The capsule being used, the irradiation specimen are inserted into specimen holders. Gas-gap size, between outer surface of specimen holders and inner surface of capsule casing, is calculated and determined to be flatten temperature of loaded specimens over the region. The rise or drop of specimen temperature in accordance with reactor power fluctuations is corrected within the target temperature of specimen by using the heaters filled into groove at specimen holder surface. The present report attempts to propose a reasonable design procedure of the capsules by means of compiling experience for designs, works and irradiation data of the capsules and to prepare for useful informations against onward capsule design. The key point of the capsule lies on thermal design. Now design thermal calculations are complicated in case of specimen holder with multihole. Resolving these issues, it is considered from new on that an emphasis have to placed on settling a thermal calculation device, for an example, a computer program on calculation specimen temperature. (author)

  11. Automated procedures for sizing aerospace vehicle structures /SAVES/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G. L.; Blackburn, C. L.; Dixon, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Results from a continuing effort to develop automated methods for structural design are described. A system of computer programs presently under development called SAVES is intended to automate the preliminary structural design of a complete aerospace vehicle. Each step in the automated design process of the SAVES system of programs is discussed, with emphasis placed on use of automated routines for generation of finite-element models. The versatility of these routines is demonstrated by structural models generated for a space shuttle orbiter, an advanced technology transport,n hydrogen fueled Mach 3 transport. Illustrative numerical results are presented for the Mach 3 transport wing.

  12. 46 CFR 116.300 - Structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural design. 116.300 Section 116.300 Shipping... Structure § 116.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply with the structural design requirements of one of the standards listed below for the hull material of...

  13. 46 CFR 177.300 - Structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural design. 177.300 Section 177.300 Shipping...) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply with the structural design requirements of one of the standards listed below...

  14. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  15. Procedures manual for the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.

    1987-10-01

    This manual is a collection of various notes, memoranda and instructions on procedures for the evaluation of data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). They were distributed at different times over the past few years to the evaluators of nuclear structure data and some of them were not readily avaialble. Hence, they have been collected in this manual for ease of reference by the evaluators of the international Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) network contribute mass-chains to the ENSDF. Some new articles were written specifically for this manual and others are reivsions of earlier versions

  16. Configuration management and load monitoring procedures for nuclear plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.L.; Skaczylo, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided engineering tool called the Load Monitoring System (LMS) that was proven effective for monitoring floor framing, loads, and structural integrity. The system links structural analysis, design investigation, and reporting and automated drafting programs with a Data Base Management System (DBMS). It provides design engineers with a powerful tool for quickly incorporating, tracking, and assessing load revisions and determining effects on steel floor framing members and connections, thereby helping to reduce design man-hours, minimize the impact of structural modifications, and maintain and document the design baseline. The major benefit to utilities are the reduction in engineering costs, assistance with plant configuration management, and assurance of structural safety throughout the operating life of a nuclear plant and at evaluation for license renewal. (orig./HP)

  17. Design of the detuned accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Nelson, E.M.

    1993-05-01

    This is a summary of the design procedure for the detuned accelerator structure for SLAC's Next Linear Collider (NLC) program. The 11.424 GHz accelerating mode of each cavity must be synchronous with the beam. The distribution of the disk thicknesses and lowest synchronous dipole mode frequencies of the cavities in the structure is Gaussian in order to reduce the effect of wake fields. The finite element field solver YAP calculated the accelerating mode frequency and the lowest synchronous dipole mode frequency for various cavity diameters, aperture diameters and disk thicknesses. Polynomial 3-parameter fits are used to calculate the dimensions for a 1.8 m detuned structure. The program SUPERFISH was used to calculate the shunt impedances, quality factors and group velocities. The RF parameters of the section like filling time, attenuation factor, accelerating gradient and maximum surface field along the section are evaluated. Error estimates will be discussed and comparisons with conventional constant gradient and constant impedance structures will be presented

  18. A rational evaluation of structural design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, S.

    1993-01-01

    -consistent n-year 2nd PGA at each site such that the conditional reliability index is equal to a given value of the target reliability index, and (b) Determine a possible design level of the n-year 2nd PGA at each site by using statistical properties of the annual 1st and 2nd PGA's together with those of the n-year 2nd PGA. Note that the conditional reliability index is implied here by the reliability index defined by the above-mentioned conditional statistical moments. An illustration of the present procedure for obtaining the design PGA for a given target reliability index is shown, and the result is compared with that obtained by the conventional way. Determination of the design PGA may enable estimation of the probability of failure by fragility analysis of NPP structures and structural components designed by LRFD method

  19. New procedures of ergonomics design in a large oil company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes.

  20. Design optimization of jacket structures for mass production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper

    This thesis presents models and applications for structural optimization of jacket structures for offshore wind turbines. The motivation is that automatic design procedures can be used to obtain more cost efficient designs, and thus reduce the levelized cost of energy from offshore wind. A struct......This thesis presents models and applications for structural optimization of jacket structures for offshore wind turbines. The motivation is that automatic design procedures can be used to obtain more cost efficient designs, and thus reduce the levelized cost of energy from offshore wind....... A structural finite element model is developed specifically for the analysis and optimization of jacket structures. The model uses Timoshenko beam elements, and assumes thin walled tubular beams and a linear elastic structural response. The finite element model is implemented in a Matlab package called JADOP...... (Jacket Design Optimization), and the static and dynamic structural response is verified with the commercial finite element software Abaqus. A parametric mesh of the offshore wind turbine structure makes it relatively easy to represent various structures from the literature, as well as exploring...

  1. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  2. Design procedures of hybrid PV/SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ismail; El-Sayas, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents accurate procedures to determine the design parameters of an autonomous hybrid PV/SMES system. Integrating Superconductive magnetic energy storage as a recent storage technology with photovoltaic power system enhances the PV output utilization during the solar radiation fluctuations period. this is because of SMES fast response to any PV output fluctuation. The load demand is supplied either from PV plant or through SMES or from both. Imposed to the technical and economical constrains, the optimum solar cells area and the proper capacity and rating of SMES system are assessed. Regarding solar radiation profile, clear and cloudy days are accurately considered for investigation. Three indices are suggested to express the cloudy and fluctuations conditions. These indices represent the non-utilized PV energy due to clouds (x), fluctuation period (T f ) and location of fluctuations period(t s t). The incremental changes in the design parameters are computed for any variation in these indices. Differentiation between the role of BS and SMES in affecting the results is determined and quantitatively analyzed. The results of clear day condition with SMES are the bas quantities for these changes. Complete analysis of the most effective parameters is presented. Eventually, mathematical models are deduced for each parameter which assists in predicting its behavior against the independent variable.(Author)

  3. Problems of structural mechanics in nuclear design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, V.M.; Kakodkar, Anil

    1975-01-01

    A very careful and detailed stress analysis of nuclear presure vessels and components is essential for ensuring the safety and integrity of nuclear power plants. The nuclear designer, therefore, relies heavily on structural mechanics for application of the most advanced stress analysis techniques to practical design problems. The paper reviews the inter-relation between structural mechanics and nuclear design and discusses a few of the specific structural mechanics problems faced by the nuclear designers in the Department of Atomic Energy, India. (author)

  4. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of

  5. Integral Design workshops: organization, structure and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiler, W Wim; Savanovic, P Perica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve an understanding of design activities in the context of building design. The starting point is an overview of design research and design methodology. From the insights gained by this analysis of design in this specific context, we present an 'organization structure and design' workshop approach for collaborative multi-discipline design management. The workshops set-up, used to implement and to test the approach, are presented as well as the experiences ...

  6. Engineering Design of KSTAR tokamak main structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, K.H.; Cho, S.; Her, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    The main components of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak including vacuum vessel, plasma facing components, cryostat, thermal shield and magnet supporting structure are in the final stage of engineering design. Hundai Heavy Industries (HHI) has been involved in the engineering design of these components. The current configuration and the final engineering design results for the KSTAR main structure are presented. (author)

  7. Integrated topology and shape optimization in structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremicker, M.; Chirehdast, M.; Kikuchi, N.; Papalambros, P. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Structural optimization procedures usually start from a given design topology and vary its proportions or boundary shapes to achieve optimality under various constraints. Two different categories of structural optimization are distinguished in the literature, namely sizing and shape optimization. A major restriction in both cases is that the design topology is considered fixed and given. Questions concerning the general layout of a design (such as whether a truss or a solid structure should be used) as well as more detailed topology features (e.g., the number and connectivities of bars in a truss or the number of holes in a solid) have to be resolved by design experience before formulating the structural optimization model. Design quality of an optimized structure still depends strongly on engineering intuition. This article presents a novel approach for initiating formal structural optimization at an earlier stage, where the design topology is rigorously generated in addition to selecting shape and size dimensions. A three-phase design process is discussed: an optimal initial topology is created by a homogenization method as a gray level image, which is then transformed to a realizable design using computer vision techniques; this design is then parameterized and treated in detail by sizing and shape optimization. A fully automated process is described for trusses. Optimization of two dimensional solid structures is also discussed. Several application-oriented examples illustrate the usefulness of the proposed methodology.

  8. Using a standards committee to design practical procedure system improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Plung, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the post-Three Mile Island (TMI) environment, numerous reports have been issued on how to improve the quality of procedures used at government and commercial nuclear facilities. The studies tend to be long on what is wrong with existing procedures and short on practical directions on how to fix those faults. Few of these studies have been conducted by practitioners with full-time procedure-managing or procedure writing experience. None of these studies go into detail on how to improve the procedure system itself. Over the last 10 yr, various nuclear facilities within the US Department of Energy (DOE) have carried out individual programs to develop procedures that meet post-TMI standards. However, ∼2 yr ago, DOE formed a Procedures Standards Committee to advise DOE in developing a set of post-TMI guidelines that could be consistently applied throughout all DOE nuclear facilities. The committee has achieved not only its original mission by producing a series of integrated guidance documents but has also evolved a systems approach to procedures management that sets new standards for procedure quality and efficiency. As members of this committee, the authors want to describe what has made the group's approach so successful. The lessons learned may be translatable to a wide range of government and commercial industry procedure programs

  9. Rigid-plastic seismic design of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues; Bento, R.; Levtchitch, V.

    2007-01-01

    structural strength with respect to a pre-defined performance parameter using a rigid-plastic response spectrum, which is characteristic of the ground motion alone. The maximum strength demand at any point is solely dependent on the intensity of the ground motion, which facilitates the task of distributing......In this paper a new seismic design procedure for Reinforced Concrete (R/C) structures is proposed-the Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design (RPSD) method. This is a design procedure based on Non-Linear Time-History Analysis (NLTHA) for systems expected to perform in the non-linear range during a lifetime...... earthquake event. The theoretical background is the Theory of Plasticity (Rigid-Plastic Structures). Firstly, a collapse mechanism is chosen and the corresponding stress field is made safe outside the regions where plastic behaviour takes place. It is shown that this allows the determination of the required...

  10. Direct numerical methods of mathematical modeling in mechanical structural design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahili, Jihad; Verchery, Georges; Ghaddar, Ahmad; Zoaeter, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Full text.Structural design and numerical methods are generally interactive; requiring optimization procedures as the structure is analyzed. This analysis leads to define some mathematical terms, as the stiffness matrix, which are resulting from the modeling and then used in numerical techniques during the dimensioning procedure. These techniques and many others involve the calculation of the generalized inverse of the stiffness matrix, called also the 'compliance matrix'. The aim of this paper is to introduce first, some different existing mathematical procedures, used to calculate the compliance matrix from the stiffness matrix, then apply direct numerical methods to solve the obtained system with the lowest computational time, and to compare the obtained results. The results show a big difference of the computational time between the different procedures

  11. Comparative design of structures concepts and methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shaopei

    2016-01-01

    This book presents comparative design as an approach to the conceptual design of structures. Primarily focusing on reasonable structural performance, sustainable development and architectural aesthetics, it features detailed studies of structural performance through the composition and de-composition of these elements for a variety of structures, such as high-rise buildings, long-span crossings and spatial structures. The latter part of the book addresses the theoretical basis and practical implementation of knowledge engineering in structural design, and a case-based fuzzy reasoning method is introduced to illustrate the concept and method of intelligent design. The book is intended for civil engineers, structural designers and architects, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students in civil engineering and architecture. Shaopei Lin and Zhen Huang are both Professors at the Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.

  12. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  13. Earthquake resistant design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Geun; Kim, Gyu Seok; Lee, Dong Geun

    1990-02-01

    This book tells of occurrence of earthquake and damage analysis of earthquake, equivalent static analysis method, application of equivalent static analysis method, dynamic analysis method like time history analysis by mode superposition method and direct integration method, design spectrum analysis considering an earthquake-resistant design in Korea. Such as analysis model and vibration mode, calculation of base shear, calculation of story seismic load and combine of analysis results.

  14. Model of Procedure Usage – Results from a Qualitative Study to Inform Design of Computer-Based Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanna H Oxstrand; Katya L Le Blanc

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory, the Institute for Energy Technology, and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field operators. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do this. The underlying philosophy in the research effort is “Stop – Start – Continue”, i.e. what features from the use of paper-based procedures should we not incorporate (Stop), what should we keep (Continue), and what new features or work processes should be added (Start). One step in identifying the Stop – Start – Continue was to conduct a baseline study where affordances related to the current usage of paper-based procedures were identified. The purpose of the study was to develop a model of paper based procedure use which will help to identify desirable features for computer based procedure prototypes. Affordances such as note taking, markups

  15. Integrated seismic design of structure and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The structural optimization procedure presented in this book makes it possible to achieve seismic protection through integrated structural/control system design. In particular, it is explained how slender structural systems with a high seismic performance can be achieved through inclusion of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an integral part of the system. Readers are provided with essential introductory information on passive structural control and passive energy dissipation systems. Dynamic analyses of both single and multiple degree of freedom systems are performed in order to verify the achievement of pre-assigned performance targets, and it is explained how the optimal integrated design methodology, also relevant to retrofitting of existing buildings, should be applied. The book illustrates how structural control research is opening up new possibilities in structural forms and configurations without compromising structural performance.

  16. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbine Structures: Design Studies and Sensitivities to Model Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NJOMO WANDJI, Wilfried

    : decrease of conservatism level, improvement of design procedures, and development of innovative structural systems that suit well for large wind turbines. The increasing size of the structure introduces new problems that were not present for small structures. These problems include: (i) the preparation...... substructures. In addition to being aggressive, conditions for offshore environments and the associated models are highly uncertain. Appropriate statistical methodologies should be used in order to design robust structures, which are structures whose engineering performance is not significantly affected....... These research areas are differentially implemented through tasks on various wind turbine structures (shaft, jacket, semi-floater, monopile, and grouted joint). In particular the following research questions are answered: How are extreme and fatigue loads on a given structure influenced by the design of other...

  17. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  18. On anti-earthquake design procedure of equipment and pipings in near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, H.

    1981-01-01

    The requirement of anti-earthquake design of nuclear power plants is getting severe year by year. The author will try to discuss how to control its severity and how to find a proper design procedure for licensing of new plants under such severe requirements. On the other hand we suffered from the enormous volumes of documents. To decrease such volumes, the format of documents should be standardized as well as the design procedure standardization. Starting from this point, we need the research and development on the following subjects: i) Standardization of design procedure. ii) Standardization of document. iii) Establishment of standard review procedure using computer. iv) Standardization of earthquake-resistant designed equipment. v) Standardization of anti-earthquake design procedure of piping systems. vi) Introducing margin evaluation procedure to design procedure. vii) Introducing proving test procedure of active component to design procedure. viii) Establishment of evaluation of human reliability in design, fabrication, inspection procedures. ix) Establishment of the proper relation of seismic trigger level and post-earthquake design procedures. (orig./HP)

  19. Protection of citizens' rights by appropriate design of legal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemel, W.

    1982-01-01

    The author regards the Muehlheim-Kaerlich ruling by the Federal Constitutional Court of December 12, 1979 as a ruling which stipulates the protection of basic rights as a main function of the citizen participation. The essential importance of this ruling is specified by the statement that the shaping of procedures - of courts and authorities - has a constitutional importance, that the shaping of procedures is an essential element of an effective guarantee of basic rights. He expressly extends the above mentioned jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court beyond the influence of the substantive basic rights on the procedural law to the administrative procedural law. The procedural basic right of article 19, section 4 of the constitution is supplemented by the claim for an effective legal protection which directly results from the substantive basic right of article 14, section 1, paragraph 1 of the constitution. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. An expert system for integrated structural analysis and design optimization for aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The results of a research study on the development of an expert system for integrated structural analysis and design optimization is presented. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was developed first in conjunction with a rule-based system. This ORL/AI shell was then used to develop expert systems to provide assistance with a variety of structural analysis and design optimization tasks, in conjunction with procedural modules for finite element structural analysis and design optimization. The main goal of the research study was to provide expertise, judgment, and reasoning capabilities in the aerospace structural design process. This will allow engineers performing structural analysis and design, even without extensive experience in the field, to develop error-free, efficient and reliable structural designs very rapidly and cost-effectively. This would not only improve the productivity of design engineers and analysts, but also significantly reduce time to completion of structural design. An extensive literature survey in the field of structural analysis, design optimization, artificial intelligence, and database management systems and their application to the structural design process was first performed. A feasibility study was then performed, and the architecture and the conceptual design for the integrated 'intelligent' structural analysis and design optimization software was then developed. An Object Representation Language (ORL), in conjunction with a rule-based system, was then developed using C++. Such an approach would improve the expressiveness for knowledge representation (especially for structural analysis and design applications), provide ability to build very large and practical expert systems, and provide an efficient way for storing knowledge. Functional specifications for the expert systems were then developed. The ORL/AI shell was then used to develop a variety of modules of expert systems for a variety of modeling, finite element analysis, and

  1. Procedure for the design of Information Management Systems in Production Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidelyn Díaz Pérez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The information management systems of the entrepreneurial organizations have been conceived that the fulfillment of the strategic objectives depend to a large extent on the good performance of several informative tasks such as obtaining information from the environment, identifying and representing the information flows of the processes , the structuring of operational and functional data, the internal management of knowledge, etc. But in turn, the achievement of these actions depends on there being a group of procedures that lead to the adequate standardization of the data. In spite of the fact that these procedures are essential for the proper functioning of any system, and that, for the most part, the quality, reliability and pertinence of the information that is managed depends on them, it is not usual for them to exist in cooperative organizations. even in most cases they are not written. The objective of this research is to establish a procedure to design an information management system for research in a production cooperative linked directly to research. The result obtained allows identifying, defining and structuring the data required by the system to operate efficiently, as well as articulate the different components that should integrate it in its systemic development. This procedure facilitates the efficient management of operative, functional and strategic information of the different processes of a cooperative in correspondence with its strategic objectives.

  2. Design and Analysis of Muon Beam Stop Support Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, Udenna [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to design and analyze support structures to be used in the installation, test and final positioning of the MBS throughout the life of the Mu2e experiment. There several requirements for the MBS imposed by both the scope of the experiment and, other components within the DS bore. The functions of the MBS are: 1. To limit the induced rates in the Tracker, the Calorimeter and the Cosmic Ray Veto due to backsplash-and-secondary interactions, and 2. To reduce radiation levels external to the Detector solenoid. The structures used in supporting the MBS will also adhere to requirements imposed by its functions. These requirements are critical to the support structures and affect design decisions. Other requirements critical to the design are imposed by the weight, positional tolerance and assembly procedure of the MBS, and also, the magnetic field and vacuum dose rate of the DS bore. A detailed breakdown of how each requirement affects the structural design can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the design of each support structure and its attachment to the MBS while chapter 4 describes the results from structural analysis of the support structures. Chapter 5 describes evaluation for the design through testing and calculations while the conclusion in chapter 6 reports the current status at the time of this thesis submission with a plan for future work to be completed until final design and installation.

  3. Weld Design, Testing, and Assessment Procedures for High Strength Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    Long-distance high-strength pipelines are increasingly being constructed for the efficient transportation of energy products. While the high-strength linepipe steels and high productivity welding processes are being applied, the procedures employed f...

  4. Design optimization applied in structural dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akcay-Perdahcioglu, Didem; de Boer, Andries; van der Hoogt, Peter; Tiskarna, T

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the design optimization strategies, especially for structures which have dynamic constraints. Design optimization involves first the modeling and then the optimization of the problem. Utilizing the Finite Element (FE) model of a structure directly in an optimization process

  5. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  6. Reliability-Based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of reliability theory for conceptual design and evaluation of coastal structures. It is without the scope to discuss the validity and quality of the various design formulae available for coastal structures. The contents of the paper is a....... Proceedings Conference of Port and Coastal Engineering in developing countries. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1995....

  7. Optimal design of lossy bandgap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    The method of topology optimization is used to design structures for wave propagation with one lossy material component. Optimized designs for scalar elastic waves are presented for mininimum wave transmission as well as for maximum wave energy dissipation. The structures that are obtained...... are of the 1D or 2D bandgap type depending on the objective and the material parameters....

  8. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... in the present study were (i) developing a framework for the collision design procedure for double hull tanker structures, (ii) experimental investigation of the structural crashworthiness of the collided vessels in collision or stranding, using double skinned structural models, (iii) validation of the special...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  9. A surrogate based multistage-multilevel optimization procedure for multidisciplinary design optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Chen, X.; Ouyang, Q.; Van Tooren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization procedure is one of the key techniques to address the computational and organizational complexities of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). Motivated by the idea of synthetically exploiting the advantage of multiple existing optimization procedures and meanwhile complying with

  10. Reliability based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional design practice for coastal structures is deterministic in nature and is based on the concept of a design load which should not exceed the resistance (carrying capacity) of the structure. The design load is usually defined on a probabilistic basis as a characteristic value of the load......, for example the expectation (mean) value of the 100-year return period event. However, this selection is often made without consideration of the involved uncertainties. In most cases the resistance is defined in terms of the load that causes a certain design impact or damage to the structure...

  11. Design and fabrication of topologically optimized structures;

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Integral structural optimization and fabrication seeks the synthesis of two original approaches; that of topological optimization (TO) and robotic hotwire cutting (HWC) (Mcgee 2011). TO allows for the reduction of up to 70% of the volume of concrete to support a given structure (Sondergaard...... & Dombernowsky 2011). A strength of the method is that it allows to come up with structural designs that lie beyond the grasp of traditional means of design. A design space is a discretized volume, delimiting where the optimization will take place. The number of cells used to discretize the design space thus...

  12. The guideline and practical procedures for earthquake-resistant design of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Guideline for the aseismic design of nuclear reactor facilities, revised in 1981, is introduced. The basic philosophy entails structural integrity against a major earthquake, rigid structure for less deformation and foundation on rock. The classification of facilities is then explained. Some practical examples are tabulated. In the light of the above classifications, evaluation procedures for aseismic design are defined. Design basis earthquake ground motions, S1 and S2, are defined. S1 is the maximum possible earthquake ground motion, while S2 is the maximum credible one. The relation between active faults and S1, S2 motions is explained, seismic forces induced by S1 and S2 are expressed in terms of response spectra. Static seismic coefficient procedures are also applied to evaluate seismic forces, as a minimum guide-line based on dynamic analysis. Combinations of seismic forces and allowable limits are then explained. In the second part of the paper, seismic analysis for reactor buildings as a part of design practice is outlined. There are three major key points in practical aseismic design. The first one is input design earthquake motions, in which soil/foundation interaction problems are also included. In practice, ground motions at the free field rock surface have to be convoluted or deconvoluted to obtain base rock motions, which are applied to estimate input design earthquake motions by way of finite element analysis or a lumped mass lattice model. Also introduced is dynamic modelling of the reactor building with its non-linear behaviour represented by plastic deformation of reinforced concrete members as well as by uplift characteristics of foundations. Then an evaluation of aseismic safety is introduced. (author)

  13. Analysis and application of ratcheting evaluation procedure of Japanese high temperature design code DDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Lee, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the evaluation procedure of Japanese DDS code which was recently developed to assess the progressive inelastic deformation occurring under repetition of secondary stresses was analyzed and the evaluation results according to DDS was compared those of the thermal ratchet structural test carried out by KAERI to analyze the conservativeness of the code. The existing high temperature codes of US ASME-NH and French RCC-MR suggest the limited ratcheting procedures for only the load cases of cyclic secondary stresses under primary stresses. So they are improper to apply to the actual ratcheting problem which can occur under cyclic secondary membrane stresses due to the movement of hot free surface for the pool type LMR. DDS provides explicitly an analysis procedure of ratcheting due to moving thermal gradients near hot free surface. A comparison study was carried out between the results by the design code of DDS and by the structural test to investigate the conservativeness of DDS code, which showed that the evaluation results by DDS were in good agreement with those of the structural test

  14. Design of SSC collider structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsees, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The authors would like to set the record straight. To date, underground construction contracts on the SSC main ring have been bid at a savings of $77 million dollars or 33 percent below the baseline cost estimate. The SSC is the largest single underground project ever built anywhere in the world. When completed it will have approximately 70 miles of tunnels, 60 shafts, two huge underground experiment halls -- each the size of a football stadium -- and numerous other structures, each of which would be considered a major facility on any other project

  15. Automated analysis and design of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the following: 1. The relationship of analysis to design. 2. New methods of analysis. 3. Improved finite elements. 4. Effect of minicomputer on structural analysis methods. 5. The use of system of microprocessors for nonlinear structural analysis. 6. The role of interacting graphics systems in future analysis and design. The discussion focusses on the impact of new inexpensive computer hardware on design and analysis methods. (Auth.)

  16. Designing complex systems - a structured activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van Vliet, Johannes C.; Lenting, Bert; Olson, Gary M.; Schuon, Sue

    1995-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of complex systems from the point of view of design as a structure of activities, related both to the clients and the users. Several modeling approaches will be adopted for different aspects of design, and several views on design will be integrated. The proposed

  17. Structural elements design manual working with Eurocodes

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Structural Elements Design Manual: Working With Eurocodes is the structural engineers 'companion volume' to the four Eurocodes on the structural use of timber, concrete, masonry and steelwork. For the student at higher technician or first degree level it provides a single source of information on the behaviour and practical design of the main elements of the building structure. With plenty of worked examples and diagrams, it is a useful textbook not only for students of structural and civil engineering, but also for those on courses in related subjects such as

  18. Phononic band gap structures as optimal designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use topology optimization to design phononic band gap structures. We consider 2D structures subjected to periodic loading and obtain the distribution of two materials with high contrast in material properties that gives the minimal vibrational response of the structure. Both in...

  19. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  20. Avoiding thermal striping damage: Experimentally-based design procedures for high-cycle thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, C.; Judd, A.M.; Lewis, M.W.J.

    1994-01-01

    In the coolant circuits of a liquid metal cooled reactor (LMR), where there is turbulent mixing of coolant streams at different temperatures, there are temperature fluctuations in the fluid. If an item of the reactor structure is immersed in this fluid it will, because of the good heat transfer from the flowing liquid metal, experience surface temperature fluctuations which will induce dynamic surface strains. It is necessary to design the reactor so that these temperature fluctuations do not, over the life of the plant, cause damage. The purpose of this paper is to describe design procedures to prevent damage of this type. Two such procedures are given, one to prevent the initiation of defects in a nominally defect-free structure or to allow initiation only at the end of the component life, and the other to prevent significant growth of undetectable pre-existing defects of the order of 0.2 to 0.4 mm in depth. Experimental validation of these procedures is described, and the way they can be applied in practice is indicated. To set the scene the paper starts with a brief summary of cases in which damage of this type, or the need to avoid such damage, have had important effects on reactor operation. Structural damage caused by high-cycle thermal fatigue has had a significant adverse influence on the operation of LMRs on several occasions. It is necessary to eliminate the risk of such damage at the design stage. In the absence of detailed knowledge of the temperature history to which it will be subject, an LMR structure can be designed so that, if it is initially free of defects more than 0.1 mm deep, no such defects will be initiated by high-cycle fatigue. This can be done by ensuring that the maximum source temperature difference in the liquid metal is less than a limiting value, which depends on temperature. The limit is very low, however, and likely to be restrictive. This method, by virtue of its safety margin, takes into account pre-existing surface crack

  1. Structural optimization via a design space hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    Mathematical programming techniques provide a general approach to automated structural design. An iterative method is proposed in which design is treated as a hierarchy of subproblems, one being locally constrained and the other being locally unconstrained. It is assumed that the design space is locally convex in the case of good initial designs and that the objective and constraint functions are continuous, with continuous first derivatives. A general design algorithm is outlined for finding a move direction which will decrease the value of the objective function while maintaining a feasible design. The case of one-dimensional search in a two-variable design space is discussed. Possible applications are discussed. A major feature of the proposed algorithm is its application to problems which are inherently ill-conditioned, such as design of structures for optimum geometry.

  2. A surrogate based multistage-multilevel optimization procedure for multidisciplinary design optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, W.; Chen, X.; Ouyang, Q.; Van Tooren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization procedure is one of the key techniques to address the computational and organizational complexities of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). Motivated by the idea of synthetically exploiting the advantage of multiple existing optimization procedures and meanwhile complying with the general process of satellite system design optimization in conceptual design phase, a multistage-multilevel MDO procedure is proposed in this paper by integrating multiple-discipline-feasible (M...

  3. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  4. Automated analysis and design of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The present application of optimum design appears to be restricted to components of the structure rather than to the total structural system. Since design normally involved many analysis of the system any improvement in the efficiency of the basic methods of analysis will allow more complicated systems to be designed by optimum methods. The evaluation of the risk and reliability of a structural system can be extremely important. Reliability studies have been made of many non-structural systems for which the individual components have been extensively tested and the service environment is known. For such systems the reliability studies are valid. For most structural systems, however, the properties of the components can only be estimated and statistical data associated with the potential loads is often minimum. Also, a potentially critical loading condition may be completely neglected in the study. For these reasons and the previous problems associated with the reliability of both linear and nonlinear analysis computer programs it appears to be premature to place a significant value on such studies for complex structures. With these comments as background the purpose of this paper is to discuss the following: the relationship of analysis to design; new methods of analysis; new of improved finite elements; effect of minicomputer on structural analysis methods; the use of system of microprocessors for nonlinear structural analysis; the role of interacting graphics systems in future analysis and design. This discussion will focus on the impact of new, inexpensive computer hardware on design and analysis methods

  5. Improved Design of Crew Operation in Computerized Procedure System of APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, No Kyu; Jung, Yeon Sub; Sung, Chan Ho [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The operators perform the paper-based procedures in analog-based conventional main control room (MCR) depending on only communications between operators except a procedure controller such as a Shift Supervisor (SS), however in digital-based MCR the operators can confirm the procedures simultaneously in own console when the procedure controller of computerized procedure (CP) opens the CP. The synchronization and a synchronization function between procedure controller and other operators has to be considered to support the function of crew operation. This paper suggests the improved design of crew operation in computerized procedure system of APR1400. This paper suggests the improved design of APR1400 CPS. These improvements can help operators perform the crew procedures more efficiently. And they reduce a burden of communication and misunderstanding of computerized procedures. These improvements can be applied to CPS after human factors engineering verification and validation.

  6. design chart procedures for polygonal concrete-filled steel columns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    hexagonal and octagonal steel-concrete composite columns subjected to ... This paper also outlines procedures that will enable preparation of ... buildings and in a variety of large-span building ... Likewise, hot-rolled steel tubes are used while ... small moderate large. Fig. 2. Possible arrangement of composite polygonal ...

  7. Design study on quasi-constant gradient accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Littmann, B.W.

    1991-09-01

    In order to obtain high luminosity, the Next Linear Collider will operate in multibunch mode with ten or more bunches per bunch train. This leads to the need for detuning and/or damping of higher modes to control multibunch beam breakup. Continued studies of wake fields for a detuned structure with a Gaussian distribution of dipole modes showed encouraging results, and a detuned structure model has been tested experimentally. It is desirable to study the design method for this type of structure, which has a quasi-constant accelerating gradient. This note gives a brief summary of the design procedure. Also, the RF parameters of the structure are evaluated to compare with conventional constant gradient and constant impedance structures

  8. HTGR fuel element structural design consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloway, R.; Gorholt, W.; Ho, F.; Vollman, R.; Yu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The structural design of the large HTGR prismatic core fuel elements involve the interaction of four engineering disciplines: nuclear physics, thermo-hydraulics, structural and material science. Fuel element stress analysis techniques and the development of structural criteria are discussed in the context of an overview of the entire design process. The core of the proposed 2240 MW(t) HTGR is described as an example where the design process was used. Probabilistic stress analysis techniques coupled with probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to develop structural criteria to account for uncertainty are described. The PRA provides a means for ensuring that the proposed structural criteria are consistant with plant investment and safety risk goals. The evaluation of cracked fuel elements removed from the Fort St. Vrain reactor in the U.S.A. is discussed in the context of stress analysis uncertainty and structural criteria development. (author)

  9. HTGR fuel element structural design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloway, R.; Gorholt, W.; Ho, F.; Vollman, R.; Yu, H.

    1986-09-01

    The structural design of the large HTGR prismatic core fuel elements involve the interaction of four engineering disciplines: nuclear physics, thermo-hydraulics, structural and material science. Fuel element stress analysis techniques and the development of structural criteria are discussed in the context of an overview of the entire design process. The core of the proposed 2240 MW(t) HTGR is described as an example where the design process was used. Probabalistic stress analysis techniques coupled with probabalistic risk analysis (PRA) to develop structural criteria to account for uncertainty are described. The PRA provides a means for ensuring that the proposed structural criteria are consistent with plant investment and safety risk goals. The evaluation of cracked fuel elements removed from the Fort St. Vrain reactor in the USA is discussed in the context of stress analysis uncertainty and structural criteria development

  10. Design Guidelines for Low Crested Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Lamberti, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    1998-2002. The Guidelines comprise engineering aspects related to morphological impact and structure stability, biological aspects related to ecological impact, and socio-economical aspects related to the implementation of LCS-schemes. The guidelines are limited to submerged and regularly overtopped......The paper presents an overview of the design guidelines for low crested structures (LCS's) to be applied in coastal protection schemes. The design guidelines are formulated as a part of the research project: Environmental Design of Low Crested Coastal Defence Structures (DELOS) within the EC 5FP...

  11. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  12. Design Tools and Workflows for Braided Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestartas, Petras; Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Zwierzycki, Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    and merits of our method, demonstrated though four example design and analysis workflows. The workflows frame specific aspects of enquiry for the ongoing research project flora robotica. These include modelling target geometries, automatically producing instructions for fabrication, conducting structural...

  13. Analysis of half diallel mating designs I: a practical analysis procedure for ANOVA approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; J.N. King

    1998-01-01

    Procedures to analyze half-diallel mating designs using the SAS statistical package are presented. The procedure requires two runs of PROC and VARCOMP and results in estimates of additive and non-additive genetic variation. The procedures described can be modified to work on most statistical software packages which can compute variance component estimates. The...

  14. A robust anti-windup design procedure for SISO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Murray; Turner, Matthew C.; Villota, Elizabeth; Jayasuriya, Suhada; Postlethwaite, Ian

    2011-02-01

    A model-based anti-windup (AW) controller design approach for constrained uncertain linear single-input-single-output (SISO) systems is proposed based on quantitative feedback theory (QFT) loopshaping. The design approach explicitly incorporates uncertainty, is suitable for the solution of both the magnitude and rate saturation problems, and provides for the design of low-order AW controllers satisfying robust stability and robust performance objectives. Robust stability is enforced using absolute stability theory and generic multipliers (i.e. circle, Popov, Zames-Falb), and robust performance is enforced using linear lower-bounds on the input-output maps capturing the effects of saturation as a metric. Two detailed design examples are presented. These show that even for simple systems, certain popular AW techniques lead to compensators that may fail to ensure robust stability and performance when saturation is encountered, but that the proposed QFT design approach is able to handle both saturation and uncertainty effectively.

  15. Development of multidisciplinary design optimization procedures for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ratneshwar

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) procedures have been developed for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades. The analysis and optimization methods used are computationally efficient and sufficiently rigorous. Therefore, the developed MDO procedures are well suited for actual design applications. The optimization procedure for the conceptual design of composite aircraft wings with surface bonded piezoelectric actuators involves the coupling of structural mechanics, aeroelasticity, aerodynamics and controls. The load carrying member of the wing is represented as a single-celled composite box beam. Each wall of the box beam is analyzed as a composite laminate using a refined higher-order displacement field to account for the variations in transverse shear stresses through the thickness. Therefore, the model is applicable for the analysis of composite wings of arbitrary thickness. Detailed structural modeling issues associated with piezoelectric actuation of composite structures are considered. The governing equations of motion are solved using the finite element method to analyze practical wing geometries. Three-dimensional aerodynamic computations are performed using a panel code based on the constant-pressure lifting surface method to obtain steady and unsteady forces. The Laplace domain method of aeroelastic analysis produces root-loci of the system which gives an insight into the physical phenomena leading to flutter/divergence and can be efficiently integrated within an optimization procedure. The significance of the refined higher-order displacement field on the aeroelastic stability of composite wings has been established. The effect of composite ply orientations on flutter and divergence speeds has been studied. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (K-S) function approach is used to efficiently integrate the objective functions and constraints into a single envelope function. The resulting unconstrained optimization problem is solved using the

  16. Execution techniques for high level radioactive waste disposal. 4. Design and manufacturing procedure of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhide; Kosaki, Akio; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Asano, Hidekazu; Takao, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Ensuring the physical integrity of engineered barriers for an extremely long time period is necessary for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. This report describes the design process and the designed configurations of both overpack and buffer as engineered barriers. Manufacturing procedure, quality control and inspection methods are also summarized. Carbon steel was selected as a structural material of the overpack and the specification of the overpack was determined assuming disposal in the depths of 1000 m below surface of crystalline rock site. The mixture of bentonite and sand (80% sodium bentonite and 20% silica sand by mass) was selected as material for a buffer from mainly its permeability and characteristics of self-sealing of a gap occurred in construction work. Welding method of a lid onto the main body of the overpack, uniting method of a corrosion-resistance layer and the structural component in the case of a composite overpack and manufacturing procedures of both blocks-type and monolithic-type buffers are also investigated. (author)

  17. Structural modules in AP1000 plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, N.; Tunon-Sanjur, L.

    2007-01-01

    Structural modules are extensively used in AP1000 plant design. The shop manufacturing of modules components improves the quality and reliability of plant structures. The application of modules has a positive impact on construction schedules, and results in substantial savings in the construction cost. This paper describes various types of structural modules used for AP1000 plant structures. CA structural wall modules are steel plate modules with concrete placed, on or within the module, after module installation. The layout and design of the largest CA wall modules, CA01 and CA20, is described in detail. General discussion of structural floor modules, such as the composite and finned floors, is also included. Steel form CB modules (liners) consist of plate reinforced with angle stiffeners and tee sections. The angles and the tee sections are on the concrete side of the plate. Design of CB20 has been included as an example of CB type modules. Design codes and structural concepts related to module designs are discussed. (authors)

  18. A CFD-based aerodynamic design procedure for hypersonic wind-tunnel nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A new procedure which unifies the best of current classical design practices, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and optimization procedures is demonstrated for designing the aerodynamic lines of hypersonic wind-tunnel nozzles. The new procedure can be used to design hypersonic wind tunnel nozzles with thick boundary layers where the classical design procedure has been shown to break down. An efficient CFD code, which solves the parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations using an explicit upwind algorithm, is coupled to a least-squares (LS) optimization procedure. A LS problem is formulated to minimize the difference between the computed flow field and the objective function, consisting of the centerline Mach number distribution and the exit Mach number and flow angle profiles. The aerodynamic lines of the nozzle are defined using a cubic spline, the slopes of which are optimized with the design procedure. The advantages of the new procedure are that it allows full use of powerful CFD codes in the design process, solves an optimization problem to determine the new contour, can be used to design new nozzles or improve sections of existing nozzles, and automatically compensates the nozzle contour for viscous effects as part of the unified design procedure. The new procedure is demonstrated by designing two Mach 15, a Mach 12, and a Mach 18 helium nozzles. The flexibility of the procedure is demonstrated by designing the two Mach 15 nozzles using different constraints, the first nozzle for a fixed length and exit diameter and the second nozzle for a fixed length and throat diameter. The computed flow field for the Mach 15 least squares parabolized Navier-Stokes (LS/PNS) designed nozzle is compared with the classically designed nozzle and demonstrates a significant improvement in the flow expansion process and uniform core region.

  19. The Analytical Pragmatic Structure of Procedural Due Process: A Framework for Inquiry in Administrative Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James E.; Sealey, Ronald W.

    The study describes the analytical pragmatic structure of concepts and applies this structure to the legal concept of procedural due process. This structure consists of form, purpose, content, and function. The study conclusions indicate that the structure of the concept of procedural due process, or any legal concept, is not the same as the…

  20. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.; Smietana, E.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Program, a new manual has been developed, entitled UCRL-CR-106554, open-quotes Structural Concepts and Details for Seismic Design.close quotes This manual describes and illustrates good practice for seismic-resistant design

  1. Conceptual Design Tool for Concrete Shell Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on conceptual tools for concrete shell structures when working within the span of performance-based design and computational morphogenesis. The designer, referred to as the Architect-Engineer, works through several iterations parallel with aesthetic, functional and technical re...

  2. Design and fabrication procedures of Super-Phenix fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclere, J.; Vialard, J.-L.; Delpeyroux, P.

    1975-01-01

    For Super-Phenix fuel assemblies, Phenix technological arrangements will be used again, but they will be simplified as far as possible. The maximum fuel can temperature has been lowered in order to obtain a good behavior of hexagonal tubes and cans at high irradiation levels. An important experimental programme and the experience gained from Phenix operation will confirm the merits of the options retained. The fuel element fabrication is envisaged to take place in the plutonium workshop at Cadarache. Usual procedures will be employed and both reliability and automation will be increased [fr

  3. Computational Modelling in Development of a Design Procedure for Concrete Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Novotný

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational modelling plays a decisive part in development of a new design procedure for concrete pavement by quantifying impacts of individual design factors. In the present paper, the emphasis is placed on the modelling of a structural response of the jointed concrete pavement as a system of interacting rectangular slabs transferring wheel loads into an elastic layered subgrade. The finite element plate analysis is combined with the assumption of a linear contact stress variation over triangular elements of the contact region division. The linking forces are introduced to model the load transfer across the joints. The unknown contact stress nodal intensities as well as unknown linking forces are determined in an iterative way to fulfil slab/foundation and slab/slab contact conditions. The temperature effects are also considered and space is reserved for modelling of inelastic and additional environmental effects. It is pointed out that pavement design should be based on full data of pavement stressing, in contradiction to procedures accounting only for the axle load induced stresses.

  4. Development of design procedures for fast reactors in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been carried out in the United Kingdom during the past two decades to quantify the factors which control the integrity of structural components. The work which has been aimed at understanding the performance of structures at high temperature, is particularly relevant to the Fast Reactor. At the same time, because of the need to demonstrate the tolerance to defects in the low temperature as well as the high temperature components, defect assessment criteria are also of great importance. Emphasis is now being given to the development of design procedures specifically for Fast Reactors, making use of the research so far completed. The United Kingdom proposals are being integrated with those from France, Federal Republic of Germany and Italy as part of the European collaborative venture. The paper outlines the major developments which are currently in hand, and brings up to date the review of United Kingdom activities presented at Tokyo in 1986. (author)

  5. A Morphogenetic Design Approach with Embedded Structural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Holst, Malene Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores a morphogenetic design approach with embedded structural analysis for architectural design. A material system based on a combined space truss and membrane system has been derived as a growth system with inspiration from natural growth of plants. The structural system...... is capable of adding new elements based on a structural analysis of the existing components and their internal stress levels. A GA decision-making procedure that control the generation of the growth cycles is introduced. This evaluation and generation loop is capable of successfully making decisions based...... on several, and often conflicting, inputs formulated from architectural requirements. An experiment with a tri-pyramid component has been considered, but many other space truss systems could be explored in the same manner and result in highly performative outcomes. not only with respect to the structural...

  6. A Survey study on design procedure of Seismic Base Isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Base Isolation Systems that is flexible approach to decrease the potential damage. In this ... In addition, we analyze the seismic responses of isolated structures. The seismic ..... Equation 3.7, is examined; it is realized that the inequality ...

  7. Development of Mechanical Structure Design Technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Hyeong Yeon

    2007-03-01

    Structural integrity and design simplifications were secured on reactor core support system, upper internal structure and core catcher of KALIMER-600. The evaluation on the suitability of high temperature and seismic design of reactor structures, and the structural integrity evaluation on reactor components and high temperature pipings are performed. The interfaces between the components and ISI accessibility are checked. Lightening of reactor building by 7%, the seismic design for 0.3g seismic loads and improvement of reactor structural design concept for KALIMER-600 have been carried out. Remote inspection technique using ultrasonic wave guide sensor was acquired as a visualization method for reactor internals under opaque sodium environments. The basic guideline on high temperature structure assessment as an assessment procedure on high temperature inelastic behaviour has been completed. In high temperature creep-fatigue test, totally 500 cycles (totally 700 hold time) were carried on cylindrical test and IHTS co-axial pipe test models. The behaviors of creep-fatigue damage and creep-fatigue crack behaviour were investigated, and the DB on the structural test were established. The seismic response tests on 19-sub assembly validation test model in air and in water were carried out, and its multi-purpose characteristics and reliability on the SAC-CORE3.0 code developed for core seismic response analysis were validated

  8. Large coil program support structure conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to perform tests on both pool boiling and force cooled superconducting toroidal field coils. The tests will attempt to approximate conditions anticipated in an ignition tokamak. The test requirements resulted in a coil support design which accommodates up to six (6) test coils and is mounted to a structure capable of resisting coil interactions. The steps leading to the present LCP coil support structure design, details on selected structural components, and the basic assembly sequence are discussed

  9. Structural design of Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideyuki; Tanno, Yoshiro; Nakai, Masayoshi; Ohshima, Takashi; Suguichi, Akihiro; Lee, William H.; Wang, Jensen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an outline description of the structural design of the main stadium for the World Games held in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, in 2009. Three new design concepts, unseen in previous stadiums, were proposed and realized: “an open stadium”, “an urban park”, and “a spiral continuous form”. Based on the open stadium concept, simple cantilever trusses in the roof structure were arranged in a delicate rhythm, and a so-called oscillating hoop of steel tubes was wound around the top and bottom surfaces of a group of cantilever trusses to form a continuous spiral form. Also, at the same time by clearly grouping the structural elements of the roof structure, the dramatic effect of the urban park was highlighted by unifying the landscape and the spectator seating area to form the stadium facade. This paper specifically reports on the overview of the building, concepts of structural design, structural analysis of the roof, roof design, foundation design, and an outline of the construction.

  10. Seismic analysis and design of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Carvalho Santos, S.H.; da Silva, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical methods for static and dynamic analysis of structures, as well as for the design of individual structural elements under the applied loads are under continuous development, being very sophisticated methods nowadays available for the engineering practice. Nevertheless, this sophistication will be useless if some important aspects necessary to assure full compatability between analysis and design are disregarded. Some of these aspects are discussed herein. This paper presents an integrated approach for the seismic analysis and design of NPP structures: the development of models for the seismic analysis, the distribution of the global seismic forces among the seismic-resistant elements and the criteria for the design of the individual elements for combined static and dynamic forces are the main topics to be discussed herein. The proposed methodology is illustrated. Some examples taken from the project practice are presented for illustration the exposed concepts

  11. Integrated aerodynamic-structural design of a forward-swept transport wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Grossman, Bernard; Kao, Pi-Jen; Polen, David M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of composite materials is having a profound effect on aircraft design. Since these materials permit the designer to tailor material properties to improve structural, aerodynamic and acoustic performance, they require an integrated multidisciplinary design process. Futhermore, because of the complexity of the design process, numerical optimization methods are required. The utilization of integrated multidisciplinary design procedures for improving aircraft design is not currently feasible because of software coordination problems and the enormous computational burden. Even with the expected rapid growth of supercomputers and parallel architectures, these tasks will not be practical without the development of efficient methods for cross-disciplinary sensitivities and efficient optimization procedures. The present research is part of an on-going effort which is focused on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration. A sequence of integrated wing design procedures has been developed in order to investigate various aspects of the design process.

  12. Thermal Hydraulic Design of PWT Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, David; Chen Ping; Lundquist, Martin; Luo, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microwave power losses on the surfaces of accelerating structures will transform to heat which will deform the structures if it is not removed in time. Thermal hydraulic design of the disk and cooling rods of a Plane Wave Transformer (PWT) structure is presented. Experiments to measure the hydraulic (pressure vs flow rate) and cooling (heat removed vs flow rate) properties of the PWT disk are performed, and results compared with simulations using Mathcad models and the COSMOSM code. Both experimental and simulation results showed that the heat deposited on the structure could be removed effectively using specially designed water-cooling circuits and the temperature of the structure could be controlled within the range required.

  13. 40 CFR 240.203-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., easy to maintain, and consistent with the land use of the area. (d) Employee convenience facilities and... operating unit malfunctions. (j) Sampling capability should be designed into the facility so that each process stream can be sampled, and the utilities required to do so should be close at hand. The sampling...

  14. Designing sustainable energy landscapes : concepts, principles and procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2010-01-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels, in combination with climate change, necessitates a transition to sustainable energy systems. Such systems are characterized by a decreased energy demand and an increase in the use of renewables. The objective of this dissertation is to advance the planning and design

  15. Students' Design of a Biometric Procedure in Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzin, Patricia; de Vries, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Making the connection between science and technology might be important for students to learn to identify and solve problems and to acquire scientific knowledge and skills. The research reported in this article concerned the development of a design situation in a science classroom and the study of students performing in this situation. More…

  16. 17 CFR 38.3 - Procedures for designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... application for designation with the Secretary of the Commission at its Washington, DC, headquarters. Except... partnership or limited liability company, third-party regulatory service, or member or user agreements, that... filing such a request with the Commission at its Washington, DC, headquarters. Withdrawal of an...

  17. Application of a Monte Carlo procedure for probabilistic fatigue design of floating offshore wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue load assessment of floating offshore wind turbines poses new challenges on the feasibility of numerical procedures. Due to the increased sensitivity of the considered system with respect to the environmental conditions from wind and ocean, the application of common procedures used for fixed-bottom structures results in either inaccurate simulation results or hard-to-quantify conservatism in the system design. Monte Carlo-based sampling procedures provide a more realistic approach to deal with the large variation in the environmental conditions, although basic randomization has shown slow convergence. Specialized sampling methods allow efficient coverage of the complete design space, resulting in faster convergence and hence a reduced number of required simulations. In this study, a quasi-random sampling approach based on Sobol sequences is applied to select representative events for the determination of the lifetime damage. This is calculated applying Monte Carlo integration, using subsets of a resulting total of 16 200 coupled time–domain simulations performed with the simulation code FAST. The considered system is the Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU 10 MW reference turbine installed on the LIFES50+ OO-Star Wind Floater Semi 10 MW floating platform. Statistical properties of the considered environmental parameters (i.e., wind speed, wave height and wave period are determined based on the measurement data from the Gulf of Maine, USA. Convergence analyses show that it is sufficient to perform around 200 simulations in order to reach less than 10 % uncertainty of lifetime fatigue damage-equivalent loading. Complementary in-depth investigation is performed, focusing on the load sensitivity and the impact of outliers (i.e., values far away from the mean. Recommendations for the implementation of the proposed methodology in the design process are also provided.

  18. Probability-Based Ship Design Procedures: A Demonstration. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Although actuarially speaking, this should refer to the probability that the structure catastrophically fails, the term is generally and widely used as a...termed "empty", while otherwise they are called "qualified" upcrossings, a terminology devised by Vanmarcke ( ASME , J. Applied Mechanics, March 1975

  19. Design procedures for heat-straightening repair : an engineering guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes over four years of research on heat-straightening repairs and provides a prototype engineering guide for the application of heat-straightening to bridge structures. It is based on the research results detailed in a companion re...

  20. Neutron transport in structural materials and shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper recent development in integral Benchmark experiments and their analysis is reviewed. The main problems related to data and method assesment are also briefly reviewed. In particular, the basic data processing and multigroup structure optimization and the effects of the basic data uncertainty evaluation are stressed. The representativity of an integral experiment from the designer point of view is indicated. Moreover a procedure to deduce design oriented bias factors is outlined. Cross section adjustments are indicated as a useful tool to reduce these bias factors and their uncertainties

  1. Assessment of soil/structure interaction analysis procedures for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.; Wei, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents an assessment of two state-of-the-art soil/structure interaction analysis procedures that are frequently used to provide seismic analyses of nuclear power plant structures. The advantages of large three-dimensional, elastic, discrete mass models and two-dimensional finite element models are compared. The discrete mass models can provide three-dimensional response capability with economical computer costs but only fair soil/structure interaction representation. The two-dimensional finite element models provide good soil/structure interaction representation, but cannot provide out-of-plane response. Three-dimensional finite element models would provide the most informative and complete analyses. For this model, computer costs would be much greater, but modeling costs would be approximately the same as those required for three-dimensional discrete mass models

  2. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  3. Judicial problems in connection with preliminary decision and construction design approval in nuclear licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, K.

    1977-01-01

    Standardization in nuclear engineering makes two demands on a legal instrument which is to make this standardization possible and which is to promote standardization in the nuclear licensing practice: On the basis of just one licence for a constructional part or a component, its applicability in any number of subsequent facility licensing procedures has to be warranted, and by virtue of its binding effect, standardization has to create a sufficiently big confidence protection with manufacturers, constructioneers and operators to offer sufficiently effective incentives for standardization. The nuclear preliminary decision pursuant to section 7 a of the Atomic Energy Act in the form of the component preliminary decision appears to be unsuitable as a legal instrument for standardization, as the preliminary decision refers exclusively to the construction of a concrete facility. For standardization in reactor engineering, the construction design approval appears to be basically the proper legal instrument on account of its legal structure as well as its economic effect. Its binding effect encouters a limitation with regard to third parties in so far that this limitation could question again the binding effect in a subsequent site-dependent nuclear licence procedure. The legal structure of the extent of the binding effect, which is decisive for the suitability of the construction design approval, lies with the legislator. The following questions have to be regulated: Ought the applicant to have a legal claim on the granting of a construction design approval, or ought it to be at the discretion of the authorities, and secondly, the extent of the binding effect in terms of time on the basis of the fixation of a time limit, or on the basis of the possibility of subsequent conditions to be imposed, or the revocation. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Structural Design Optimization On Thermally Induced Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yuanxian; Chen, Biaosong; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhao, Guozhong

    2002-01-01

    The numerical method of design optimization for structural thermally induced vibration is originally studied in this paper and implemented in application software JIFEX. The direct and adjoint methods of sensitivity analysis for thermal induced vibration coupled with both linear and nonlinear transient heat conduction is firstly proposed. Based on the finite element method, the structural linear dynamics is treated simultaneously with coupled linear and nonlinear transient heat structural linear dynamics is treated simultaneously with coupled linear and nonlinear transient heat conduction. In the thermal analysis model, the nonlinear heat conduction considered is result from the radiation and temperature-dependent materials. The sensitivity analysis of transient linear and nonlinear heat conduction is performed with the precise time integration method. And then, the sensitivity analysis of structural transient dynamics is performed by the Newmark method. Both the direct method and the adjoint method are employed to derive the sensitivity equations of thermal vibration, and there are two adjoint vectors of structure and heat conduction respectively. The coupling effect of heat conduction on thermal vibration in the sensitivity analysis is particularly investigated. With coupling sensitivity analysis, the optimization model is constructed and solved by the sequential linear programming or sequential quadratic programming algorithm. The methods proposed have been implemented in the application software JIFEX of structural design optimization, and numerical examples are given to illustrate the methods and usage of structural design optimization on thermally induced vibration

  5. Simplified Procedure For The Free Vibration Analysis Of Rectangular Plate Structures With Holes And Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Dae Seung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin and thick plates, plates with holes, stiffened panels and stiffened panels with holes are primary structural members in almost all fields of engineering: civil, mechanical, aerospace, naval, ocean etc. In this paper, a simple and efficient procedure for the free vibration analysis of such elements is presented. It is based on the assumed mode method and can handle different plate thickness, various shapes and sizes of holes, different framing sizes and types as well as different combinations of boundary conditions. Natural frequencies and modes are determined by solving an eigenvalue problem of a multi-degree-of-freedom system matrix equation derived by using Lagrange’s equations. Mindlin theory is applied for a plate and Timoshenko beam theory for stiffeners. The applicability of the method in the design procedure is illustrated with several numerical examples obtained by the in-house developed code VAPS. Very good agreement with standard commercial finite element software is achieved.

  6. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  7. An annotated summary of the Information Model Design Procedure (IMDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S.D.

    1994-05-01

    This presentation documents the essential elements of the IMDP as applied at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The IMDP is an adaptation of the Natural-Language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM) of G. M. Nijssen. The underlying purpose of both of these methodologies is to provide a formal, reproducible, and verifiable approach to specifying the information requirements of an information system. The IMDP spans the specification process from initial scoping; through verbalization of problem-domain facts, specification of constraints, and subtype analysis; and finally to application of a formal algorithm for developing a fifth-normal-form relational database design.

  8. New clic-g structure design

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082335

    2016-01-01

    The baseline design of the Compact Linear Collider main linac accelerating structure is called ‘CLIC-G’. It is described in the CLIC Conceptual Design Report (CDR) [1]. As shown in Fig. 1, a regular cell of the structure has four waveguides to damp unwanted high-order-modes (HOMs). These waveguides are dimensioned to cut off the fundamental working frequency in order to prevent the degradation of the fundamental mode Q-factor. The cell geometry and HOM damping loads had been extensively optimized in order to maximize the RF-to-beam efficiency, to minimize the cost, and to meet the beam dynamics and the high gradient RF constraints [2

  9. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Soft Shell-Hardcore approach to nuclear power plant auxiliary structure design was developed to attenuate the crash effects of impacting aircraft. This report is an initial investigation into defining the important structural features involved that would allow the Soft Shell-Hardcore design to successfully sustain the postulated aircraft impact. Also specified for purposes of this study are aircraft impact locations and the type and velocity of impacting aircraft. The purpose of this initial investigation is to determine the feasibility of the two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model

  10. Concurrent semantics for structured design methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Also in Jelly, I., Gordon, I., & Groll, P. Software Engineering for Parallel and Distributed Systems. London: Chapman Hall. Design methods can be ambiguous due to di#11;erent interpretations of symbols or concepts. This paper presents a formal semantics for the Ward/Mellor Structured Analysis Method for Real Time systems. These semantics ensures that an unambiguous meaning can be attributed to a particular design. Speci#12;cally, it ensures that concurrent and real-time propert...

  11. Designing of Metallic Photonic Structures and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sung Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis our main interest has been to investigate metallic photonic crystal and its applications. We explained how to solve a periodic photonic structure with transfer matrix method and when and how to use modal expansion method. Two different coating methods were introduced, modifying a photonic structure's intrinsic optical properties and rigorous calculation results are presented. Two applications of metallic photonic structures are introduced. For thermal emitter, we showed how to design and find optimal structure. For conversion efficiency increasing filter, we calculated its efficiency and the way to design it. We presented the relation between emitting light spectrum and absorption and showed the material and structural dependency of the absorption spectrum. By choosing a proper base material and structural parameters, we can design a selective emitter at a certain region we are interested in. We have developed a theoretical model to analyze a blackbody filament enclosed by a metallic mesh which can increase the efficiency of converting a blackbody radiation to visible light. With this model we found that a square lattice metallic mesh enclosing a filament might increase the efficiency of incandescent lighting sources. Filling fraction and thickness dependency were examined and presented. Combining these two parameters is essential to achieve the maximum output result

  12. Probabilistic design of fibre concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukl, R.; Novák, D.; Sajdlová, T.; Lehký, D.; Červenka, J.; Červenka, V.

    2017-09-01

    Advanced computer simulation is recently well-established methodology for evaluation of resistance of concrete engineering structures. The nonlinear finite element analysis enables to realistically predict structural damage, peak load, failure, post-peak response, development of cracks in concrete, yielding of reinforcement, concrete crushing or shear failure. The nonlinear material models can cover various types of concrete and reinforced concrete: ordinary concrete, plain or reinforced, without or with prestressing, fibre concrete, (ultra) high performance concrete, lightweight concrete, etc. Advanced material models taking into account fibre concrete properties such as shape of tensile softening branch, high toughness and ductility are described in the paper. Since the variability of the fibre concrete material properties is rather high, the probabilistic analysis seems to be the most appropriate format for structural design and evaluation of structural performance, reliability and safety. The presented combination of the nonlinear analysis with advanced probabilistic methods allows evaluation of structural safety characterized by failure probability or by reliability index respectively. Authors offer a methodology and computer tools for realistic safety assessment of concrete structures; the utilized approach is based on randomization of the nonlinear finite element analysis of the structural model. Uncertainty of the material properties or their randomness obtained from material tests are accounted in the random distribution. Furthermore, degradation of the reinforced concrete materials such as carbonation of concrete, corrosion of reinforcement, etc. can be accounted in order to analyze life-cycle structural performance and to enable prediction of the structural reliability and safety in time development. The results can serve as a rational basis for design of fibre concrete engineering structures based on advanced nonlinear computer analysis. The presented

  13. Comparative study of codes for the seismic design of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. C. Santos

    Full Text Available A general evaluation of some points of the South American seismic codes is presented herein, comparing them among themselves and with the American Standard ASCE/SEI 7/10 and with the European Standard Eurocode 8. The study is focused in design criteria for buildings. The Western border of South America is one of the most seismically active regions of the World. It corresponds to the confluence of the South American and Nazca plates. This region corresponds roughly to the vicinity of the Andes Mountains. This seismicity diminishes in the direction of the comparatively seismically quieter Eastern South American areas. The South American countries located in its Western Border possess standards for seismic design since some decades ago, being the Brazilian Standard for seismic design only recently published. This study is focused in some critical topics: definition of the recurrence periods for establishing the seismic input; definition of the seismic zonation and design ground motion values; definition of the shape of the design response spectra; consideration of soil amplification, soil liquefaction and soil-structure interaction; classification of the structures in different importance levels; definition of the seismic force-resisting systems and respective response modification coefficients; consideration of structural irregularities and definition of the allowable procedures for the seismic analyses. A simple building structure is analyzed considering the criteria of the several standards and obtained results are compared.

  14. Structural design systems using knowledge-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsborn, K.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering information management and the corresponding information systems are of a strategic importance for industrial enterprises. This thesis treats the interdisciplinary field of designing computing systems for structural design and analysis using knowledge-based techniques. Specific conceptual models have been designed for representing the structure and the process of objects and activities in a structural design and analysis domain. In this thesis, it is shown how domain knowledge can be structured along several classification principles in order to reduce complexity and increase flexibility. By increasing the conceptual level of the problem description and representation of the domain knowledge in a declarative form, it is possible to enhance the development, maintenance and use of software for mechanical engineering. This will result in a corresponding increase of the efficiency of the mechanical engineering design process. These ideas together with the rule-based control point out the leverage of declarative knowledge representation within this domain. Used appropriately, a declarative knowledge representation preserves information better, is more problem-oriented and change-tolerant than procedural representations. 74 refs

  15. Structural integrity investigations of feeder pipe ice plugging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaman, M.T.; Shah, N.N.

    1985-03-01

    A procedure involving the use of a liquid nitrogen cooled heat exchanger to form internal ice plugs in feeder pipes is routinely used in nuclear generating stations. The use of this procedure has caused concerns with regard to the safety of station maintenance personnel, and in regard to the integrity of the feeder pipes. This report describes the results of laboratory stress and pressure measurements which were performed on a feeder pipe section during ice plugging operations to investigate these concerns. From the results of this study, and from the results of previous studies of material behaviour at low temperatures, it has been determined that the ice plugging procedure can be performed on feeder pipes in a safe and effective manner

  16. The influence of different measurement structures on NRTA test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedgen, R.

    1986-01-01

    The development of sequential statistical test procedures in the area of near real time material accountancy (NRTA) mostly assumed a fixed measurement model of a given model facility. In this paper different measurement models (dispersion matrices) for a sequence of balance periods are studied. They are used to compare the detection probabilities of three different sequential test procedures for losses of material. It is shown how different plant models have an influence on the sensitivity of specified tests. Great importance for that analysis have the optimal loss patterns in each measurement situation

  17. Design and analysis of automobile components using industrial procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, B.; Ashok, B.; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    Today’s automobiles depend upon mechanical systems that are crucial for aiding in the movement and safety features of the vehicle. Various safety systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS) and passenger restraint systems have been developed to ensure that in the event of a collision be it head on or any other type, the safety of the passenger is ensured. On the other side, manufacturers also want their customers to have a good experience while driving and thus aim to improve the handling and the drivability of the vehicle. Electronics systems such as Cruise Control and active suspension systems are designed to ensure passenger comfort. Finally, to ensure optimum and safe driving the various components of a vehicle must be manufactured using the latest state of the art processes and must be tested and inspected with utmost care so that any defective component can be prevented from being sent out right at the beginning of the supply chain. Therefore, processes which can improve the lifetime of their respective components are in high demand and much research and development is done on these processes. With a solid base research conducted, these processes can be used in a much more versatile manner for different components, made up of different materials and under different input conditions. This will help increase the profitability of the process and also upgrade its value to the industry.

  18. Seismic design and performance of nuclear safety related RC structures based on new seismic design principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, R.; Sivathanu Pillai, C.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Sundaramurthy, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Seismic design of safety related Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures of Nuclear power plants (NPP) in India as per the present AERB codal procedures tries to ensure predominantly elastic behaviour under OBE so that the features of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) necessary for continued safe operation are designed to remain functional and prevent accident (collapse) of NPP under SSE for which certain Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) those are necessary to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor safely, are designed to remain functional. While the seismic design principles of non safety related structures as per Indian code (IS 1893-2002) are ensuring elastic behaviour under DBE and inelastic behaviour under MCE by utilizing ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structure effectively. The design principle of AERB code is ensuring elastic behaviour under OBE and is not enlightening much inference about the overall structural behaviour under SSE (only ensuring the capability of certain SSCs required for safe shutdown of reactor). Various buildings and structures of Indian Nuclear power plant are classified from the basis of associated safety functions in a descending order in according with their roles in preventions and mitigation of an accident or support functions for prevention. This paper covers a comprehensive seismic analysis and design methodology based on the AERB codal provisions followed for safety related RC structure taking Diesel Generator Building of PFBR as a case study and study and investigates its performance under OBE and SSE by carrying out Non-linear static Pushover analysis. Based on the analysis, observed variations, recommendations are given for getting the desired performance level so as to implement performance based design in the future NPP design

  19. Increasing spelling achievement: an analysis of treatment procedures utilizing an alternating treatments design.

    OpenAIRE

    Ollendick, T H; Matson, J L; Esveldt-Dawson, K; Shapiro, E S

    1980-01-01

    Two studies which examine the effectiveness of spelling remediation procedures are reported. In both studies, an alternating treatment design was employed. In the first study, positive practice overcorrection plus positive reinforcement was compared to positive practice alone and a no-remediation control condition. In the second study, positive practice plus positive reinforcement was compared to a traditional corrective procedure plus positive reinforcement and a traditional procedure when u...

  20. Strength optimized designs of thermoelastic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2010-01-01

    For thermoelastic structures the same optimal design does not simultaneously lead to minimum compliance and maximum strength. Compliance may be a questionable objective and focus for the present paper is on the important aspect of strength, quantified as minimization of the maximum von Mises stre...... loads are appended....

  1. Incorporating mesh-insensitive structural stress into the fatigue assessment procedure of common structural rules for bulk carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Min Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a fatigue assessment procedure using mesh-insensitive structural stress method based on the Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers by considering important factors, such as mean stress and thickness effects. The fatigue assessment result of mesh-insensitive structural stress method have been compared with CSR procedure based on equivalent notch stress at major hot spot points in the area near the ballast hold for a 180 K bulk carrier. The possibility of implementing mesh-insensitive structural stress method in the fatigue assessment procedure for ship structures is discussed.

  2. CRBR reactor structures design. BRC meeting presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the more important developments in LMFBR structures design technology are described and the application of the technology to design of the CRBR reactor components is illustrated. The LMFBR is both a high-temperature and a high-ΔT machine. High-temperature operation (up to 1100 0 F) requires that the designer consider the effects of thermal creep as a deformation mechanism and stress rupture as a failure mode. The large ΔT across the core coupled with a low core thermal inertia and the high conductivity of the sodium coolant combine to produce severe temperature gradients during a reactor scram. Structures designed to operate in this environment must be both light and stiff to minimize transient thermal stresses and prevent unacceptable flow-induced vibrations. Thermal shields may be required to protect the load-bearing structure. At CRBR core-component goal fluence levels, the predicted magnitude of core-component dimensional changes due to irradiation swelling and creep is very large compared with the more familiar dimensional changes associated with thermal expansion and thermal creep. The design of the core components, and in particular the core restraint system, is dominated by the need to accommodate the effects of irradiation swelling, creep and du []tility loss considerations. (auth)

  3. Structural evaluation in the design of electrorefiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.S.; Blomquist, C.A.; Herceg, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The electrorefiner (ER) is one piece of the process equipment for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. The ER's principal function is to perform the pyrochemical and electrochemical refining of spent and experimental fuel elements. Its principal components include a primary vessel, a heater assembly, a support-structure assembly, a cover assembly, four electrode assemblies, four elevator and rotator assemblies, and a cover-gas system. In addition, there are various miscellaneous tools and fixtures. The electrorefiner is to be installed within an existing enclosed cell. Design requirements dictate that all equipment within the cell should not be anchored. To assess the integrity of the electrorefiner during operational and seismic loads, extensive structural analyses have been performed. This paper presents some of the major structural evaluations for the electrorefiner and its auxiliary equipment. Results show that the design code requirements are satisfied, and the integrity of the electrorefiner will not be jeopardized during operational and seismic loadings

  4. Structural evaluation in the design of electrorefiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Blomquist, C.A.; Herceg, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The electrorefiner is one piece of the process equipment for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Its principal components include a primary vessel, a heater assembly, a support-structure assembly, a cover assembly, four electrode assemblies, four elevator and rotator assemblies, and a cover-gas system. In addition, there are various miscellaneous tools and fixtures. The electrorefiner is to be installed within an existing enclosed cell. Design requirements dictate that all equipment within the cell should not be anchored. To assess the integrity of the electrorefiner during operational and seismic loads, extensive structural analyses have been performed. This paper presents some of the major structural evaluations for the electrorefiner and its auxiliary equipment. Results show that the design code requirements are satisfied, and the integrity of the electrorefiner will not be jeopardized during operational and seismic loadings

  5. 6 CFR 25.6 - Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-terrorism technologies. 25.6 Section 25.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.6 Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) Application Procedure. Any person, firm or other...

  6. 40 CFR 63.8687 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluations, and other procedures must I use? 63.8687 Section 63.8687 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use? (a) You must conduct each... run must last at least 1 hour. (e) You must use the following equations to determine compliance with...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7112 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluations, and other procedures must I use? 63.7112 Section 63.7112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., design evaluations, and other procedures must I use? (a) You must conduct each performance test in Table... use wet dust suppression to control PM from PSH operations, a visible mist is sometimes generated by...

  8. State-of-the-practice : evaluation of sediment basin design, construction, maintenance, and inspection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The following document is the summary of results from a survey that was conducted to evaluate : the state-of-the-practice for sediment basin design, construction, maintenance, and inspection : procedures by State Highway Agencies (SHAs) across the na...

  9. A structural keystone for drug design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rother Kristian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D-structures of proteins and potential ligands are the cornerstones of rational drug design. The first brick to build upon is selecting a protein target and finding out whether biologically active compounds are known. Both tasks require more information than the structures themselves provide. For this purpose we have built a web resource bridging protein and ligand databases. It consists of three parts: i A data warehouse on annotation of protein structures that integrates many well-known databases such as Swiss-Prot, SCOP, ENZYME and others. ii A conformational library of structures of approved drugs. iii A conformational library of ligands from the PDB, linking the realms of proteins and small molecules.

  10. AHTR Mechanical, Structural, and Neutronic Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, V.K.; Holcomb, D.E.; Peretz, F.J.; Bradley, E.C.; Ilas, D.; Qualls, A.L.; Zaharia, N.M.

    2012-09-15

    This report provides an overview of the mechanical, structural, and neutronic aspects of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design concept. The AHTR is a design concept for a large output Fluoride salt cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is being developed to enable evaluation of the technology hurdles remaining to be overcome prior to FHRs becoming an option for commercial reactor deployment. This report documents the incremental AHTR design maturation performed over the past year and is focused on advancing the design concept to a level of a functional, self-consistent system. The reactor concept development remains at a preconceptual level of maturity. While the overall appearance of an AHTR design is anticipated to be similar to the current concept, optimized dimensions will differ from those presented here. The AHTR employs plate type coated particle fuel assemblies with rapid, off-line refueling. Neutronic analysis of the core has confirmed the viability of a 6-month two-batch cycle with 9 wt. % enriched uranium fuel. Refueling is intended to be performed automatically under visual guidance using dedicated robotic manipulators. The report includes a preconceptual design of the manipulators, the fuel transfer system, and the used fuel storage system. The present design intent is for used fuel to be stored inside of containment for at least six months and then transferred to local dry wells for intermediate term, on-site storage. The mechanical and structural concept development effort has included an emphasis on transportation and constructability to minimize construction costs and schedule. The design intent is that all components be factory fabricated into rail transportable modules that are assembled into subsystems at an on-site workshop prior to being lifted into position using a heavy-lift crane in an open-top style construction. While detailed accident identification and response sequence analysis has yet to be performed, the design

  11. AHTR Mechanical, Structural, And Neutronic Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Zaharia, Nathaniel M [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    This report provides an overview of the mechanical, structural, and neutronic aspects of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design concept. The AHTR is a design concept for a large output Fluoride salt cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is being developed to enable evaluation of the technology hurdles remaining to be overcome prior to FHRs becoming a commercial reactor class. This report documents the incremental AHTR design maturation performed over the past year and is focused on advancing the design concept to a level of a functional, self-consistent system. The AHTR employs plate type coated particle fuel assemblies with rapid, off-line refueling. Neutronic analysis of the core has confirmed the viability of a 6-month 2-batch cycle with 9 weight-percent enriched uranium fuel. Refueling is intended to be performed automatically under visual guidance using dedicated robotic manipulators. The present design intent is for used fuel to be stored inside of containment for at least 6 months and then transferred to local dry wells for intermediate term, on-site storage. The mechanical and structural concept development effort has included an emphasis on transportation and constructability to minimize construction costs and schedule. The design intent is that all components be factory fabricated into rail transportable modules that are assembled into subsystems at an on-site workshop prior to being lifted into position using a heavy-lift crane in an open-top style construction. While detailed accident identification and response sequence analysis has yet to be performed, the design concept incorporates multiple levels of radioactive material containment including fully passive responses to all identified design basis or non-very-low frequency beyond design basis accidents. Key building design elements include: 1) below grade siting to minimize vulnerability to aircraft impact, 2) multiple natural circulation decay heat rejection chimneys, 3) seismic

  12. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K W; Kennedy, W L; Sagalovsky, L [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling costs for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed. (Author) fig., 7 refs.

  13. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling cost for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed

  14. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling costs for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed. (Author) fig., 7 refs

  15. Structural and microstructural design in brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1979-12-01

    Structural design with brittle materials requires that the stress level in the component correspond to a material survival probability that exceeds the minimum survival probability permitted in that application. This can be achieved by developing failure models that fully account for the probability of fracture from defects within the material (including considerations of fracture statistics, fracture mechanics and stress analysis) coupled with non-destructive techniques that determine the size of the large extreme of critical defects. Approaches for obtaining the requisite information are described. The results provide implications for the microstructural design of failure resistant brittle materials by reducing the size of deleterious defects and enhancing the fracture toughness

  16. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling cost for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed.

  17. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling cost for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed.

  18. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  19. Design of test and emergency procedures to improve operator behaviour in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon-Fouco, M.; Gomolinski, M.

    1982-09-01

    The incident analyses performed in French nuclear power plants high-lighted that deficiencies in the design of procedures are frequent causes of human errors. The process for developing new guidelines for the writing of test and emergency procedures is presented: this process is based on operators interviews and observations at the plants or at simulators. The main principles for the writing of procedures are developed. For example: - the elaboration of a procedure for action and of a separate educational procedure, - the coordination of crew responses, - the choice of vocabulary, graphs, flow charts and so on as regards the format. Other complementary actions, such as the training of operators in the use of procedures, are described

  20. Design of test and emergency procedures to improve operator behavior in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon-Fouco, M.; Gomolinski, M.

    1983-01-01

    The incident analyses performed in French nuclear power plants high-lighted that deficiencies in the design of procedures are frequent causes of human errors. The process for developing new guidelines for the writing of test and emergency procedures is presented: this process is based on operators interviews and observations at the plants or at simulators. The main principles for the writing of procedures are developed. For example: the elaboration of a procedure for action and of separate educational procedure; the coordination of crew responses; and the choice of vocabulary, graphs, flow charts and so on as regards the format. Other complementary actions, such as the training of operators in the use of procedures, are described

  1. Controller tuning with evolutionary multiobjective optimization a holistic multiobjective optimization design procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Reynoso Meza, Gilberto; Sanchis Saez, Javier; Herrero Durá, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to Multiobjective Optimization Design (MOOD) procedures for controller tuning applications, by means of Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization (EMO). It presents developments in tools, procedures and guidelines to facilitate this process, covering the three fundamental steps in the procedure: problem definition, optimization and decision-making. The book is divided into four parts. The first part, Fundamentals, focuses on the necessary theoretical background and provides specific tools for practitioners. The second part, Basics, examines a range of basic examples regarding the MOOD procedure for controller tuning, while the third part, Benchmarking, demonstrates how the MOOD procedure can be employed in several control engineering problems. The fourth part, Applications, is dedicated to implementing the MOOD procedure for controller tuning in real processes.

  2. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2017-07-21

    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.

  3. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Wonka, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.

  4. Fuel element cellular grid structure and procedure to insert and withdraw fuel rods from that structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a means for selectively inserting and withdrawing one or more fuel rods from a fuel element cellular grid structure. The transverse stubs on one side of a long, thin bar are turned through 90deg to extend across the gap between mutually perpendicular grid structure plates. The extreme ends of these stubs engage the adhacent portions of the associated plates that form part of the grid cells. Pressing the stubs against the plate portions through the application of appropriate force in a longitudinal direction relative to the bar deflects the engaged plates through a sufficient distance to enable fuel rods to be inserted into or withdrawn from respective cells. After rod insertion, the force applied to the bar is released to enable the plates to relax and engage the fuel rods. The bars are rotated once more through 90deg and withdrawn from the grid structure. A similar procedure is employed to withdraw fuel rods from the grid structure

  5. Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines and application to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure: Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahn, T. [Pahn Ingenieure, Am Seegraben 17b 03051 Cottbus Germany; Rolfes, R. [Institut f?r Statik und Dynamik, Leibniz Universit?t Hannover, Appelstra?e 9A 30167 Hannover Germany; Jonkman, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA

    2017-02-20

    A significant number of wind turbines installed today have reached their designed service life of 20 years, and the number will rise continuously. Most of these turbines promise a more economical performance if they operate for more than 20 years. To assess a continued operation, we have to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the support structure with respect to site-specific conditions. Such an analysis requires the comparison of the loads used for the design of the support structure with the actual loads experienced. This publication presents the application of a so-called inverse load calculation to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure. The inverse load calculation determines external loads derived from a mechanical description of the support structure and from measured structural responses. Using numerical simulations with the software fast, we investigated the influence of wind-turbine-specific effects such as the wind turbine control or the dynamic interaction between the loads and the support structure to the presented inverse load calculation procedure. fast is used to study the inverse calculation of simultaneously acting wind and wave loads, which has not been carried out until now. Furthermore, the application of the inverse load calculation procedure to a real 5-MW wind turbine support structure is demonstrated. In terms of this practical application, setting up the mechanical system for the support structure using measurement data is discussed. The paper presents results for defined load cases and assesses the accuracy of the inversely derived dynamic loads for both the simulations and the practical application.

  6. Preliminary seismic design of dynamically coupled structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, N.; Dalcher, A.W.; Gluck, R.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis criteria for coupling and decoupling, which are most commonly used in nuclear design practice, are briefly reviewed and a procedure outlined and demonstrated with examples. Next, a criterion judged to be practical for preliminary seismic design purposes is defined. Subsequently, a technique compatible with this criterion is suggested. A few examples are presented to test the proposed procedure for preliminary seismic design purposes. Limitations of the procedure are also discussed and finally, the more important conclusions are summarized

  7. Design summary of the magnet support structures for the proton storage ring injection line upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Ledford, J.E.; Smith, B.G.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the technical engineering and design issues associated with the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) Injection Line upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The main focus is on the engineering design calculations of several magnet support structures. The general procedure based upon a set number of design criteria is outlined, followed by a case-by-case summary of the engineering design analyses, reutilization or fabrication callouts and design safety factors

  8. A task based design procedure and modelling approached for industrial crystallization processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menon, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis-based approach to the design of crystallizers and industrial crystallization processes is introduced in this thesis. An ontology for a task-based design procedure has been developed which breaks the crystallization process into a subset of basic functions (physical tasks) which transform

  9. Retrofit of heat exchanger networks considering pressure drop and existing structure: a new targeting procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PanjehShahi, M.H.; Nouzari, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A new retrofit targeting procedure, based on pinch technology has been developed. The procedure considers existing structure and hydrodynamic system of a given network as two main constraint during targeting. The procedure uses a linear programming model to consider existing structure. The model finds a network structure that has maximum compatibility with existing structure. Furthermore, the procedure using the pressure drop equations, can consider decreasing the film coefficients of streams due to increasing network area. Good compatibility between old and new networks and non replacement of hydrodynamic equipment cause to the best use of capital in retrofit projects. The procedure has been checked by doing two case studies, in which the results compared to the established methods, and realized significant improvement

  10. Method and structure for an improved data reformatting procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gunnels, John A [Brewster, NY; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung [Briarcliff Manor, NY

    2009-06-30

    A method (and structure) of managing memory in which a low-level mechanism is executed to signal, in a sequence of instructions generated at a higher level, that at least a portion of a contiguous area of memory is permitted to be overwritten.

  11. Performance of partitioned procedures in fluid-structure interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degroote, J.; Haelterman, R.; Annerel, S.; Bruggeman, P.J.; Vierendeels, J.

    2010-01-01

    Partitioned simulations of fluid–structure interaction can be solved for the interface’s position with Newton–Raphson iterations but obtaining the exact Jacobian is impossible if the solvers are "black boxes". It is demonstrated that only an approximate Jacobian is needed, as long as it describes

  12. Design optimization and uncertainty analysis of SMA morphing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehler, S D; Hartl, D J; Lopez, R; Malak, R J; Lagoudas, D C

    2012-01-01

    The continuing implementation of shape memory alloys (SMAs) as lightweight solid-state actuators in morphing structures has now motivated research into finding optimized designs for use in aerospace control systems. This work proposes methods that use iterative analysis techniques to determine optimized designs for morphing aerostructures and consider the impact of uncertainty in model variables on the solution. A combination of commercially available and custom coded tools is utilized. ModelCenter, a suite of optimization algorithms and simulation process management tools, is coupled with the Abaqus finite element analysis suite and a custom SMA constitutive model to assess morphing structure designs in an automated fashion. The chosen case study involves determining the optimized configuration of a morphing aerostructure assembly that includes SMA flexures. This is accomplished by altering design inputs representing the placement of active components to minimize a specified cost function. An uncertainty analysis is also conducted using design of experiment methods to determine the sensitivity of the solution to a set of uncertainty variables. This second study demonstrates the effective use of Monte Carlo techniques to simulate the variance of model variables representing the inherent uncertainty in component fabrication processes. This paper outlines the modeling tools used to execute each case study, details the procedures for constructing the optimization problem and uncertainty analysis, and highlights the results from both studies. (paper)

  13. Procedure and information displays in advanced nuclear control rooms: experimental evaluation of an integrated design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Gao, Qin; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Wang, Yufan

    2017-08-01

    In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants, operators frequently have to switch between procedure displays and system information displays. In this study, we proposed an operation-unit-based integrated design, which combines the two displays to facilitate the synthesis of information. We grouped actions that complete a single goal into operation units and showed these operation units on the displays of system states. In addition, we used different levels of visual salience to highlight the current unit and provided a list of execution history records. A laboratory experiment, with 42 students performing a simulated procedure to deal with unexpected high pressuriser level, was conducted to compare this design against an action-based integrated design and the existing separated-displays design. The results indicate that our operation-unit-based integrated design yields the best performance in terms of time and completion rate and helped more participants to detect unexpected system failures. Practitioner Summary: In current nuclear control rooms, operators frequently have to switch between procedure and system information displays. We developed an integrated design that incorporates procedure information into system displays. A laboratory study showed that the proposed design significantly improved participants' performance and increased the probability of detecting unexpected system failures.

  14. Design of the accelerating structures for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.; Schamaun, R.; Potter, C.; Fuller, C.; Clark, D.; Greenwood, D.; Frank, J.

    1979-01-01

    Design considerations and concepts are presented for the accelerating structures for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. These structures consist of three major units: 0.1- to 2-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole based on the Russian concept, a 2- to 35-MeV drift-tube linac made up of two separate tanks designed to generate either 20- or 35-MeV beams, and an energy dispersion cavity capable of spreading the energy of the beam slightly to ease thermal loading in the target. Because of probable beam activation, the drift-tube linac is designed so that alignment and maintenance do not require manned entry into the tanks. This conservatism also led to the choice of a conventional vacuum system and has influenced the choice of many of the rf interface components. The high-powered FMIT machine is very heavily beam loaded and delivers a 100-mA continuous duty deuteron beam to a flowing liquid lithium target. The power on target is 3.5 MW deposited in a 1 x 3 cm spot. Because of the critical importance of the low energy section of this accelerator on beam spill in the machine, a 5-MeV prototype will be constructed and tested at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

  15. SUPPORTING THE INDUSTRY BY DEVELOPING A DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR COMPUTER-BASED PROCEDURES FOR FIELD WORKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; LeBlanc, Katya

    2017-06-01

    The paper-based procedures currently used for nearly all activities in the commercial nuclear power industry have a long history of ensuring safe operation of the plants. However, there is potential to greatly increase efficiency and safety by improving how the human interacts with the procedures, which can be achieved through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools and dynamic step presentation. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been investigating the possibility and feasibility of replacing current paper-based procedures with CBPs. The main purpose of the CBP research conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory was to provide design guidance to the nuclear industry to be used by both utilities and vendors. After studying existing design guidance for CBP systems, the researchers concluded that the majority of the existing guidance is intended for control room CBP systems, and does not necessarily address the challenges of designing CBP systems for instructions carried out in the field. Further, the guidance is often presented on a high level, which leaves the designer to interpret what is meant by the guidance and how to specifically implement it. The authors developed a design guidance to provide guidance specifically tailored to instructions that are carried out in the field based.

  16. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Korunović; Miloš Madić; Miroslav Trajanović; Miroslav Radovanović

    2015-01-01

    The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zo...

  17. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed method design: principles and procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-Method-Designs, in denen quantitative und qualitative Methoden Verwendung finden, erfreuen sich zunehmender Beliebtheit für die Untersuchung komplexer Phänomene. Die vorliegende Besprechung beschäftigt sich in diesem Zusammenhang mit dem Buch "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures" von Janice M. MORSE und Linda NIEHAUS, die für solche Designs Kern- und Ergänzungskomponenten zu identifizieren versuchen. Hierzu differenzieren sie zwischen Projekten, die einer eher deduktiven oder...

  18. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed method design related to the use of a combination of methods, usually quantitative and qualitative, is increasingly used for the investigation of complex phenomena. This review discusses the book, "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures," by Janice M. MORSE and Linda NIEHAUS. A distinctive feature of their approach is the consideration of mixed methods design out of a core and a supplemental component. In order to define these components they emphasize the overall conceptual dir...

  19. A Novel Design Framework for Structures/Materials with Enhanced Mechanical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Fan, Xiaonan; Wen, Guilin; Qing, Qixiang; Wang, Hongxin; Zhao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Structure/material requires simultaneous consideration of both its design and manufacturing processes to dramatically enhance its manufacturability, assembly and maintainability. In this work, a novel design framework for structural/material with a desired mechanical performance and compelling topological design properties achieved using origami techniques is presented. The framework comprises four procedures, including topological design, unfold, reduction manufacturing, and fold. The topological design method, i.e., the solid isotropic material penalization (SIMP) method, serves to optimize the structure in order to achieve the preferred mechanical characteristics, and the origami technique is exploited to allow the structure to be rapidly and easily fabricated. Topological design and unfold procedures can be conveniently completed in a computer; then, reduction manufacturing, i.e., cutting, is performed to remove materials from the unfolded flat plate; the final structure is obtained by folding out the plate from the previous procedure. A series of cantilevers, consisting of origami parallel creases and Miura-ori (usually regarded as a metamaterial) and made of paperboard, are designed with the least weight and the required stiffness by using the proposed framework. The findings here furnish an alternative design framework for engineering structures that could be better than the 3D-printing technique, especially for large structures made of thin metal materials. PMID:29642555

  20. A Novel Design Framework for Structures/Materials with Enhanced Mechanical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Fan, Xiaonan; Wen, Guilin; Qing, Qixiang; Wang, Hongxin; Zhao, Gang

    2018-04-09

    Abstract : Structure/material requires simultaneous consideration of both its design and manufacturing processes to dramatically enhance its manufacturability, assembly and maintainability. In this work, a novel design framework for structural/material with a desired mechanical performance and compelling topological design properties achieved using origami techniques is presented. The framework comprises four procedures, including topological design, unfold, reduction manufacturing, and fold. The topological design method, i.e., the solid isotropic material penalization (SIMP) method, serves to optimize the structure in order to achieve the preferred mechanical characteristics, and the origami technique is exploited to allow the structure to be rapidly and easily fabricated. Topological design and unfold procedures can be conveniently completed in a computer; then, reduction manufacturing, i.e., cutting, is performed to remove materials from the unfolded flat plate; the final structure is obtained by folding out the plate from the previous procedure. A series of cantilevers, consisting of origami parallel creases and Miura-ori (usually regarded as a metamaterial) and made of paperboard, are designed with the least weight and the required stiffness by using the proposed framework. The findings here furnish an alternative design framework for engineering structures that could be better than the 3D-printing technique, especially for large structures made of thin metal materials.

  1. A Novel Design Framework for Structures/Materials with Enhanced Mechanical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Structure/material requires simultaneous consideration of both its design and manufacturing processes to dramatically enhance its manufacturability, assembly and maintainability. In this work, a novel design framework for structural/material with a desired mechanical performance and compelling topological design properties achieved using origami techniques is presented. The framework comprises four procedures, including topological design, unfold, reduction manufacturing, and fold. The topological design method, i.e., the solid isotropic material penalization (SIMP method, serves to optimize the structure in order to achieve the preferred mechanical characteristics, and the origami technique is exploited to allow the structure to be rapidly and easily fabricated. Topological design and unfold procedures can be conveniently completed in a computer; then, reduction manufacturing, i.e., cutting, is performed to remove materials from the unfolded flat plate; the final structure is obtained by folding out the plate from the previous procedure. A series of cantilevers, consisting of origami parallel creases and Miura-ori (usually regarded as a metamaterial and made of paperboard, are designed with the least weight and the required stiffness by using the proposed framework. The findings here furnish an alternative design framework for engineering structures that could be better than the 3D-printing technique, especially for large structures made of thin metal materials.

  2. Investigation of the Performance of Multidimensional Equating Procedures for Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu ATAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of the multidimensional extentions of Stocking-Lord, mean/mean, and mean/sigma equating procedures under common-item nonequivalent groups design was investigated. The performance of those three equating procedures was examined under the combination of various conditions including sample size, ability distribution, correlation between two dimensions, and percentage of anchor items in the test. Item parameter recovery was evaluated calculating RMSE (root man squared error and BIAS values. It was found that Stocking-Lord procedure provided the smaller RMSE and BIAS values for both item discrimination and item difficulty parameter estimates across most conditions.

  3. The optimal design of UAV wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Adam; Klimek, Wiktor

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal design of UAV wing, made of composite materials. The aim of the optimization is to improve strength and stiffness together with reduction of the weight of the structure. Three different types of functionals, which depend on stress, stiffness and the total mass are defined. The paper presents an application of the in-house implementation of the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm in optimization of the UAV wing structure. Values of the functionals are calculated on the basis of results obtained from numerical simulations. Numerical FEM model, consisting of different composite materials is created. Adequacy of the numerical model is verified by results obtained from the experiment, performed on a tensile testing machine. Examples of multi-objective optimization by means of Pareto-optimal set of solutions are presented.

  4. Computational Tools for RF Structure Design

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, E

    2004-01-01

    The Finite Differences Method and the Finite Element Method are the two principally employed numerical methods in modern RF field simulation programs. The basic ideas behind these methods are explained, with regard to available simulation programs. We then go through a list of characteristic parameters of RF structures, explaining how they can be calculated using these tools. With the help of these parameters, we introduce the frequency-domain and the time-domain calculations, leading to impedances and wake-fields, respectively. Subsequently, we present some readily available computer programs, which are in use for RF structure design, stressing their distinctive features and limitations. One final example benchmarks the precision of different codes for calculating the eigenfrequency and Q of a simple cavity resonator.

  5. Design of data structures for mergeable trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Loukas; Tarjan, Robert Endre; Werneck, Renato Fonseca F.

    2006-01-01

    merge operation can change many arcs. In spite of this, we develop a data structure that supports merges and all other standard tree operations in O(log2 n) amortized time on an n-node forest. For the special case that occurs in the motivating application, in which arbitrary arc deletions...... are not allowed, we give a data structure with an O(log n) amortized time bound per operation, which is asymptotically optimal. The analysis of both algorithms is not straightforward and requires ideas not previously used in the study of dynamic trees. We explore the design space of algorithms for the problem......Motivated by an application in computational topology, we consider a novel variant of the problem of efficiently maintaining dynamic rooted trees. This variant allows an operation that merges two tree paths. In contrast to the standard problem, in which only one tree arc at a time changes, a single...

  6. Designing organizational structures: Key thoughts for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Patricia; Eschenbacher, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Current strategies and concepts to consider in developing a system-level organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise are discussed. There are many different ways to design an organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise within a health system. The size of the organization, the number of states in which it operates, and the geographic spread and complexity of the pharmacy business lines should be among the key considerations in determining the optimal organizational and decision-making structures for the pharmacy enterprise. The structure needs to support incorporation of the pharmacy leadership (both system-level executives and local leaders) into all strategic planning and discussions at the hospital and health-system levels so that they can directly represent the pharmacy enterprise instead of relying on others to develop strategy on their behalf. It is important that leaders of all aspects of the pharmacy enterprise report through the system's top pharmacy executive, who should be a pharmacist and have a title consistent with those of other leaders reporting at the same organizational level (e.g., chief pharmacy officer). Pharmacy leaders need to be well positioned within an organization to advocate for the pharmacy enterprise and use all resources to the best of their ability. As the scope and complexity of pharmacy services grow, it is critical to ensure that leadership of the pharmacy enterprise is unified under a single pharmacy executive team. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Computer-aided design of DNA origami structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnihhin, Denis; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2015-01-01

    The DNA origami method enables the creation of complex nanoscale objects that can be used to organize molecular components and to function as reconfigurable mechanical devices. Of relevance to synthetic biology, DNA origami structures can be delivered to cells where they can perform complicated sense-and-act tasks, and can be used as scaffolds to organize enzymes for enhanced synthesis. The design of DNA origami structures is a complicated matter and is most efficiently done using dedicated software packages. This chapter describes a procedure for designing DNA origami structures using a combination of state-of-the-art software tools. First, we introduce the basic method for calculating crossover positions between DNA helices and the standard crossover patterns for flat, square, and honeycomb DNA origami lattices. Second, we provide a step-by-step tutorial for the design of a simple DNA origami biosensor device, from schematic idea to blueprint creation and to 3D modeling and animation, and explain how careful modeling can facilitate later experimentation in the laboratory.

  8. Key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design - the US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design, particularly as they relate to cost reduction; and (2) to provide an overview of activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy to resolve the issues and to establish stable, standardized, and defensible structural design methods and criteria. Specific areas of discussion include: weldments, structural validation tests, simplified design analysis procedures, design procedures for piping, validation of the methodology for notch-like geometries, improved life assessment procedures, thermal striping, extension of the methodology to new materials, and ASME high-temperature Code reform needs. The perceived problems and needs in each area are discussed, and the current status of related US activities is given

  9. Simplified design of flexible expansion anchored plates for nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, N.K.; Hingorani, N.V.; Longlais, T.G.; Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL)

    1984-01-01

    In nuclear power plant construction, expansion anchored plates are used to support pipe, cable tray and HVAC duct hangers, and various structural elements. The expansion anchored plates provide flexibility in the installation of field-routed lines where cast-in-place embedments are not available. General design requirements for expansion anchored plate assemblies are given in ACI 349, Appendix B (1). The manufacturers recommend installation procedures for their products. Recent field testing in response to NRC Bulletin 79-02 (2) indicates that anchors, installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommended procedures, perform satisfactorily under static and dynamic loading conditions. Finite element analysis is a useful tool to correctly analyze the expansion anchored plates subject to axial tension and biaxial moments, but it becomes expensive and time-consuming to apply this tool for a large number of plates. It is, therefore, advantageous to use a simplified method, even though it may be more conservative as compared to the exact method of analysis. This paper presents a design method referred to as the modified rigid plate analysis approach to simplify both the initial design and the review of as-built conditions

  10. DECA -- The design change assistant: An application of expert systems concepts to procedure automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Proceduralized engineering reviews required for nuclear power stations result in significant O ampersand M cost's. A method of streamlining procedural reviews (while improving their quality) is to computerize the procedures and associated checklists. DECA, the Design Change Assistant, is an expert system based program that is specifically designed for computerizing procedures. This program improves the effectiveness of engineers in performing engineering design reviews. DECA is a development shell, which allows the computerization of most types of engineering reviews. In addition to computerizing the decision making process, DECA makes it possible to call on electronic information, such as databases or text files, and makes them available to the user to assist in a review. DECA clearly demonstrates the benefits that can accrue by applying expert system technologies to engineering reviews. It results in the following: a well defined process, reduced user training in the use of procedures, improved quality of reviews, a streamlining of the review process through elimination of questions that are not applicable, and high quality documentation of reviews. DECA has been successfully applied to Commonwealth Edison's engineering design review checklists, and is currently in use by Commonwealth Edison

  11. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Korunović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zones inside the tire. It consists of four main stages: pre-analysis, design of experiment, mathematical modeling and multi-objective optimization. Advantage of the proposed procedure is reflected in the fact that multi-objective optimization is based on the Pareto concept, which enables design engineers to obtain a complete set of optimization solutions and choose a suitable tire design. Furthermore, modeling of the relationships between tire design parameters and objective functions based on multiple regression analysis minimizes computational and modeling effort. The adequacy of the proposed tire design multi-objective optimization procedure has been validated by performing experimental trials based on finite element method.

  12. Design and drafting document control procedures for CPRF/ZTH experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollat, L.L.; Kewish, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper will present, in general, the control procedures for design approval, review, changes, and release of engineering documents. It will also discuss interface control for tasks so that possible design interference does not occur. A document control procedure to insure that design criteria are met and technical specifications translate into workable drawings was instituted to support the Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF/ZTH) construction program. Our goal, to eliminate any conflicts that might arise between various tasks as the final designs are developed, required tight control and up-to-date design information. Detailed procedure for reviews were instituted, since circumventing the process of design and drafting anywhere might have proven disastrous to the CPRF/ZTH program. Design is a process of translating technical requirements, according to established standards, into drawings that are usable for fabrication and assembly. Both the designer and engineer are responsible for adhering to standards that have been established by the Mechanical Engineering Section for the CPRF/ZTH program. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Structural Design Challenges in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.; Braverman, J.; Wei, X.; Hofmayer, C.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are confined within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of structural design chal- lenges encountered in recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  14. Rules and procedures for the design and operation of hazardous research equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The manual has been prepared for use by research personnel involved in experiments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. It contains rules and procedures for the design, test, installation, and operation of hazardous research equipment. Sect. I contains such information as responsibility of experimenters for safety, descriptions of the various Laboratory safety organizations, and enumeration of various services available to experimenters at the Laboratory. Sect. II describes specific rules for the setup and operation of experimental equipment at the Laboratory. Sect. III gives detailed design criteria and procedures for equipment frequently encountered in the high energy physics laboratory

  15. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measures designs: a flexible approach using the SPSS MANOVA procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, E J; Neilands, T B; Zambarano, R

    2001-11-01

    Although power analysis is an important component in the planning and implementation of research designs, it is often ignored. Computer programs for performing power analysis are available, but most have limitations, particularly for complex multivariate designs. An SPSS procedure is presented that can be used for calculating power for univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures models with and without time-varying and time-constant covariates. Three examples provide a framework for calculating power via this method: an ANCOVA, a MANOVA, and a repeated measures ANOVA with two or more groups. The benefits and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

  16. Structural optimization of an alternate design for the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster field joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Rogers, James L., Jr.; Chang, Kwan J.

    1987-01-01

    A structural optimization procedure is used to determine the shape of an alternate design for the Shuttle's solid rocket booster field joint. In contrast to the tang and clevis design of the existing joint, this alternate design consists of two flanges bolted together. Configurations with 150 studs of 1 1/8 in diameter and 135 studs of 1 3/16 in diameter are considered. Using a nonlinear programming procedure, the joint weight is minimized under constraints on either von Mises or maximum normal stresses, joint opening and geometry. The procedure solves the design problem by replacing it by a sequence of approximate (convex) subproblems; the pattern of contact between the joint halves is determined every few cycles by a nonlinear displacement analysis. The minimum weight design has 135 studs of 1 3/16 in diameter and is designed under constraints on normal stresses. It weighs 1144 lb per joint more than the current tang and clevis design.

  17. A Systematic Procedure for the Generation of Cost-Minimized Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Peter W.; Jarkler, Bjorn

    1972-01-01

    We present a procedure for the generation of cost-minimized designs of circuits and systems. Suppose a designer has decided upon the topology of his product. Also suppose he knows the cost and quality of the different grades of the N components required to implement the product. The designer...... then faces the following problem: How should he proceed to find the combination of grades that will give him the desired manufacturing yield at minimum product cost? We discuss the problem and suggest a policy by which the designer, with a reasonable computational effort, can find a set of ``good...

  18. An analytical method for optimal design of MR valve structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B; Lee, Y S; Han, M S

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical methodology for the optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) valve structure. The MR valve structure is constrained in a specific volume and the optimization problem identifies geometric dimensions of the valve structure that maximize the yield stress pressure drop of a MR valve or the yield stress damping force of a MR damper. In this paper, the single-coil and two-coil annular MR valve structures are considered. After describing the schematic configuration and operating principle of a typical MR valve and damper, a quasi-static model is derived based on the Bingham model of a MR fluid. The magnetic circuit of the valve and damper is then analyzed by applying Kirchoff's law and the magnetic flux conservation rule. Based on quasi-static modeling and magnetic circuit analysis, the optimization problem of the MR valve and damper is built. In order to reduce the computation load, the optimization problem is simplified and a procedure to obtain the optimal solution of the simplified optimization problem is presented. The optimal solution of the simplified optimization problem of the MR valve structure constrained in a specific volume is then obtained and compared with the solution of the original optimization problem and the optimal solution obtained from the finite element method

  19. Design of the exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE) trial : an endoscopic procedure for reducing hyperinflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Pallav L.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Cardoso, Paulo F. G.; Cetti, Edward J.; Sybrecht, Gerhard W.; Cooper, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Airway Bypass is a catheter-based, bronchoscopic procedure in which new passageways are created that bypass the collapsed airways, enabling trapped air to exit the lungs. The Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE) Trial was designed to investigate whether Exhale (R) Drug-Eluting

  20. Revisiting the Concepts "Approach", "Design" and "Procedure" According to the Richards and Rodgers (2011) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    The three concepts Approach, Design and Procedure as proposed in Rodgers' Framework are considered particularly effective as a framework in second language teaching with the specific aim of developing communication as well as for better understanding methodology in the use of communicative language use.

  1. 44 CFR 19.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 19.135 Section 19.135 Emergency Management and Assistance...

  2. The quality of procedures to assess and credit prior learning: Implications for design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Jochems, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijsmans, D. M. A., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2008). The quality of procedures to assess and credit prior learning: Implications for design. Educational Research Review, 3, 51-65. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2007.08.001.

  3. 24 CFR 3285.306 - Design procedures for concrete block piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... piers less than 36 inches high are permitted to be constructed of single, open, or closed-cell concrete... shown in Figure A to this section. (3) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Design procedures for concrete...

  4. 13 CFR 113.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 113.135 Section 113.135 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF POLICIES... Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance Introduction § 113.135 Designation of...

  5. R20 programme: Development of rock grouting design, techniques and procedures for ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievaenen, U.

    2009-02-01

    Posiva Oy constructs an underground research facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki. ONKALO is planned to be a part of the deep repository for the high level nuclear waste. Posiva Oy set up R20-programme for the years 2006-2008, with the target of having an acceptable grouting methodology in ONKALO. The programme was divided into three projects and the work and results of Technique-project is presented in this report. The implementation of the results (grouting design and execution) was outlined from the project. That work is under the responsibility of construction of the ONKALO-project. The Grouting Technique -project (INKE) studied the grouting experiences obtained from the first 2 km of the ONKALO access tunnel, searched for suitable grouting design approaches, carried out two grouting tests and one pilot grouting test with colloidal silica in ONKALO, analysed the expected grouting conditions in deep rock from the grouting point of view, studied the feasibility of so called optimal design solution in the expected grouting conditions. Based on these studies recommendations concerning the grouting design, design solutions for different rock conditions, grouting procedures, grouting stop criteria, the characterisation methods for grouting purposes, grouting materials and grouting work performance are presented. Swedish Time Stop Grouting, also named Grouting Time-Method was selected to be studied and used in this project and it was further developed. This work compiles the outcome of the project subtasks and presents the recommendations for developing the grouting in ONKALO. The key conclusion of this work are: (1) Grouting Time-method (time stop grouting) alone is not enough to be used as a grouting stop criterion due to the uncertainties related to the source parameters (fracture characteristics, rheological properties of grouts); these cause too high uncertainties when proving the sealing result via the grouting time, (2) due to the uncertainties related to

  6. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme.

  7. Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang

    2000-05-01

    In this project, fundamentals for conceptual design of mechanical structure system for LMR are independently established. The research contents are as follow; at first, conceptual design for SSC, design integration of interfaces, design consistency to keep functions and interfaces by developing arrangement of reactor system and 3 dimensional concept drawings, development and revision of preliminary design requirements and structural design basis, and evaluation of structural integrity for SSC following structural design criteria to check the conceptual design to be proper, at second, development of high temperature structure design and analysis technology and establishment of high temperature structural analysis codes and scheme, development of seismic isolation design concept to reduce seismic design loads to SCC and establishment of seismic analysis codes and scheme

  8. Structural design of a composite bicycle fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldissera, Paolo; Delprete, Cristiana

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Case study about composite bicycle fork design. • Special requirements for a Student Team project. • FE model to evaluate stiffness, strength and potential failure modes. • Comparison of two manufacturing approaches. • FE model stiffness validation on the manufactured fork. - Abstract: Despite the wide literature on the mechanical behaviour of carbon/epoxy composites, it is rare to find practical methodological approaches in finite element design of structural components made by laminate layup. Through the case study of a special bicycle fork needed in a Student Team prototype, this paper proposes a simplified methodology as starting point for educational and manufacturing purposes. In order to compare two manufacturing solutions in terms of stiffness, strength and failure mode, a numerical model was implemented. Since the project requirements imposed to avoid standard destructive testing, the model validation was based on a posteriori linear stiffness comparison with the manufactured component. The slight discrepancies between experimental and numerical results were discussed in order to check their origin and to assess the reliability of the model. The overall methodology, even if complain with only a part of the safety standard requirements, shows to be reliable enough and can be the basis for further extension and refinement

  9. Design of scaled down structural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitses, George J.

    1994-07-01

    In the aircraft industry, full scale and large component testing is a very necessary, time consuming, and expensive process. It is essential to find ways by which this process can be minimized without loss of reliability. One possible alternative is the use of scaled down models in testing and use of the model test results in order to predict the behavior of the larger system, referred to herein as prototype. This viewgraph presentation provides justifications and motivation for the research study, and it describes the necessary conditions (similarity conditions) for two structural systems to be structurally similar with similar behavioral response. Similarity conditions provide the relationship between a scaled down model and its prototype. Thus, scaled down models can be used to predict the behavior of the prototype by extrapolating their experimental data. Since satisfying all similarity conditions simultaneously is in most cases impractical, distorted models with partial similarity can be employed. Establishment of similarity conditions, based on the direct use of the governing equations, is discussed and their use in the design of models is presented. Examples include the use of models for the analysis of cylindrical bending of orthotropic laminated beam plates, of buckling of symmetric laminated rectangular plates subjected to uniform uniaxial compression and shear, applied individually, and of vibrational response of the same rectangular plates. Extensions and future tasks are also described.

  10. A design procedure for the phase-controlled parallel-loaded resonant inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger J.

    1989-01-01

    High-frequency-link power conversion and distribution based on a resonant inverter (RI) has been recently proposed. The design of several topologies is reviewed, and a simple approximate design procedure is developed for the phase-controlled parallel-loaded RI. This design procedure seeks to ensure the benefits of resonant conversion and is verified by data from a laboratory 2.5 kVA, 20-kHz converter. A simple phasor analysis is introduced as a useful approximation for design purposes. The load is considered to be a linear impedance (or an ac current sink). The design procedure is verified using a 2.5-kVA 20-kHz RI. Also obtained are predictable worst-case ratings for each component of the resonant tank circuit and the inverter switches. For a given load VA requirement, below-resonance operation is found to result in a significantly lower tank VA requirement. Under transient conditions such as load short-circuit, a reversal of the expected commutation sequence is possible.

  11. A review of procedures available to seismically requalify operating nuclear plant structures, equipment and distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that the loads and procedures used to seismically qualify nuclear power plant structures and components have changed dramatically during the past 15 to 20 years. In this paper, the various methods available to seismically qualify or requalify structures and components in operating nuclear power plants are identified and the advantages and disadvantages of each briefly summarized. (orig.)

  12. Integral Design workshops: organization, structure and testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Savanovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve an understanding of design activities in the context of building design. The starting point is an overview of design research and design methodology. From the insights gained by this analysis of design in this specific context, we present an ‘organization

  13. Revised guideline for the approval procedure of package designs in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsche, F.; Roedel, R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, TS-R-1 are applied in Germany through the implementation of the Dangerous Goods Transport Regulations for class 7 of the International Modal Organisations (ADR, RID, IMDG-Code, ICAO-TI). Based on this the approval procedures for packages designs applied in Germany are in compliance with the provisions of TS-R-1. The Guideline R 003 issued by the Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing (BMVBW) in 1991 is the basis for the package design approval procedures in Germany. This Guideline has been reviewed and revised to reflect latest developments in the regulations as well as in the regulatory practice. In particular it has been extended to the approval procedures of Type C packages, packages subject to transitional arrangements, special form and low dispersible radioactive material and provides more detailed information to the applicant about the requested documentation. Publication of this revised guideline has been delayed but it is expected to take place in October 2004. The paper gives an overview about the main parts and provisions of this revised Guideline R 003 with the focus on package design approval procedures

  14. Conceptual design of reinforced concrete structures using topology optimization with elastoplastic material modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogomolny, Michael; Amir, Oded

    2012-01-01

    Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed by the nonlinear behavior of concrete and by its different strengths in tension and compression. The purpose of this article is to present a computational procedure for optimal conceptual design of reinforced concrete structures on the basis...... response must be considered. Optimized distribution of materials is achieved by introducing interpolation rules for both elastic and plastic material properties. Several numerical examples illustrate the capability and potential of the proposed procedure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  15. Investigation of Deterioration Behavior of Hysteretic Loops in Nonlinear Static Procedure Analysis of Concrete Structures with Shear Walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Amidi, S.; Khorasani, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years, scientists developed the seismic rehabilitation of structures and their view points were changed from sufficient strength to the performance of structures (Performance Base Design) to prepare a safe design. Nonlinear Static Procedure analysis (NSP) or pushover analysis is a new method that is chosen for its speed and simplicity in calculations. 'Seismic Rehabilitation Code for Existing Buildings' and FEMA 356 considered this method. Result of this analysis is a target displacement that is the base of the performance and rehabilitation procedure of the structures. Exact recognition of that displacement could develop the workability of pushover analysis. In these days, Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (NDP) is only method can exactly apply the seismic ground motions. In this case because it consumes time, costs very high and is more difficult than other methods, is not applicable as much as NSP. A coefficient used in NSP for determining the target displacement is C2 (Stiffness and Strength Degradations Coefficient) and is applicable for correcting the errors due to eliminating the stiffness and strength degradations in hysteretic loops. In this study it has been tried to analysis three concrete frames with shear walls by several accelerations that scaled according to FEMA 273 and FEMA 356. These structures were designed with Iranian 2800 standard (vers.3). Finally after the analyzing by pushover method and comparison results with dynamic analysis, calculated C2 was comprised with values in rehabilitation codes

  16. Structural and piping issues in the design certification of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.A.; Terao, D.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design certification of structures and piping for evolutionary and passive advanced light water reactors. Advanced reactor designs are based on a set of assumed site-related parameters that are selected to envelop a majority of potential nuclear power plant sites. Multiple time histories are used as the seismic design basis in order to cover the majority of potential sites in the US. Additionally, design are established to ensure that surface motions at a particular site will not exceed the enveloped standard design surface motions. State-of-the-art soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses have been performed for the advanced reactors, which include structure-to-structure interaction for all seismic Category 1 structures. Advanced technology has been utilized to exclude the dynamic effects of pipe rupture from structural design by demonstrating that the probability of pipe rupture is extremely low. For piping design, the advanced reactor vendors have developed design acceptance criteria (DAC) which provides the piping design analysis methods, design procedures, and acceptance criteria. In SECY-93-087 the NRC staff recommended that the Commission approve the approach to eliminate the OBE from the design of structures and piping in advanced reactors and provided guidance which identifies the necessary changes to existing seismic design criteria. The supplemental criteria address fatigue, seismic anchor motion, and piping stress limits when the OBE is eliminated

  17. Upwind design basis (WP4 : Offshore foundations and support structures)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, T.; De Vries, W.E.; Schmidt, B.

    2010-01-01

    The presented design basis gives a summarized overview of relevant design properties for a later offshore wind turbine design procedures within work package 4. The described offshore site is located in the Dutch North Sea and has a water depth of 21m. Therefore it will be chosen as shallow site

  18. Application of reliability based design concepts to transmission line structure foundations. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGioia, A.M. Jr.; Rojas-Gonzalez, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The application of reliability based design (RBD) methods to transmission line structure foundations has developed somewhat more slowly than that for the other structural components in line systems. In a previous paper, a procedure was proposed for the design of transmission line structures foundations using a probability based load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. This procedure involved the determination of a foundation strength factor, φ F , which was used as a multiplier of the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the LRFD equation. Statistical analyses of results from full-scale load tests were used to obtain φ F values applicable to various nominal design strength equations and for drilled shafts subjected to uplift loads. These results clearly illustrated the significant economic benefits of conducting more detailed subsurface investigations for the design of transmission line structure foundations. A design example was also presented. In this paper the proposed procedure is extended to laterally load drilled shafts

  19. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification...

  20. Design of Qualitative HRA Database Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2015-01-01

    HRA DB is to collect and store the data in a database form to manage and maintain them from the perspective of human reliability analysis. All information on the human errors taken by operators in the power plant should be systematically collected and documented in its management. KAERI is developing the simulator-based HRA data handbook. In this study, the information required to store and manage the data necessary to perform an HRA as to store the HRA data to be stored in the handbook is identified and summarized. Especially this study is to summarize the collection and classification of qualitative data as the raw data to organize the data required to draw the HEP and its DB process. Qualitative HRA DB is a storehouse of all sub-information needed to receive the human error probability for Pasa. In this study, the requirements for structural design and implementation of qualitative HRA DB must be implemented for HRA DB were summarized. The follow-up study of the quantitative HRA DB implementation should be followed to draw the substantial HEP

  1. Contribution of the ergonomic analysis to the improvement of the design of operating procedures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1992-11-01

    The design of operating procedures for continuous processes is much too often based on implicit assumptions both concerning the operators and the operating conditions that must be dealt with. The merit of the ergonomic approach to the design of procedures is to take account of the way the various operators actually use operating procedures. The actual use is determined from the analysis of on-site operation (normal and incident operating conditions) and the analysis of full-scale simulators tests (incident operating conditions). The introduction of the ergonomic approach in the procedure design results in new design principles being proposed

  2. Ultra High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC: a review of material properties and design procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. T. Buttignol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper does a review of the recent achievements on the knowledge of UHPFRC properties and in the development of design procedures. UHPFRC is defined as a new material, with unique properties (high ductility, low permeability, very high strength capacity in compression, higher toughness in comparison to conventional concrete. It is important to know both material and mechanical properties to fully take advantage of its outstanding properties for structural applications. However, since this is a new material, the current design codes are not well suited and should be reviewed before being applied to UHPFRC. In the first part, the following material properties are addressed: hydration process; permeability; fibers role; mix design; fiber-matrix bond properties workability; mixing procedure; and curing. In the second part, the mechanical properties of the material are discussed, together with some design recommendations. The aspects herein examined are: size effect; compressive and flexural strength; tensile stress-strain relation; shear and punching shear capacity; creep and shrinkage; fracture energy; steel bars anchorage and adherence. Besides, the tensile mechanical characterization is described using inverse analysis based on bending tests data. In the last part, material behavior at high temperature is discussed, including physical-chemical transformations of the concrete, spalling effect, and transient creep. In the latter case, a new Load Induced Thermal Strain (LITS semi-empirical model is described and compared with UHPC experimental results.

  3. Progress of Design Improvements for APR1400 Computerized Procedure System from HFE V and V results and Design Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Seong, Nokyu

    2015-01-01

    This study shows major already improved design features from the above three processes and a design proposal for to-be-improving items. APR1400 CPS has been verified and validated by the HFE process, internal design review and site acceptance tests. APR1400 Computerized Procedure System (CPS) has been applied to Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant (SKN) 3 and 4 units, Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant (SHN) 1 and 2 units and Baraka Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) 1, 2, 3 and 4 units. Since APR1400 CPS is a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) human machine interface (HMI) for executing a computerized procedure in the nuclear power plant's main control room in South Korea, it has been continuously improved through a) the human factor engineering (HFE) verification and validation (V and V), b) the internal design review and c) prototype tests. Human engineering discrepancies (HEDs) can be identified by the HFE V and V activity. Some HEDs of APR1400 CPS for SKN 3 and 4 and SHN 1 and 2 have been adopted as a role of design improvement in the CPS system while others were regarded as an operator training requirement or part of task contents. Various requests for improving the CPS have been collected from those results. A HMI system should be improved continuously for removing potential defects. Some of introduced design features in this paper has been adopted for APR1400 nuclear power plants. Some of them are under the review in the CPS design team of KHNP

  4. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2 k experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2 3 and the 2 4 , depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

  5. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves, E-mail: uandapaula@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2{sup k} experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2{sup 3} and the 2{sup 4}, depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

  6. Design flood hydrograph estimation procedure for small and fully-ungauged basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, S.; Petroselli, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Rational Formula is the most applied equation in practical hydrology due to its simplicity and the effective compromise between theory and data availability. Although the Rational Formula is affected by several drawbacks, it is reliable and surprisingly accurate considering the paucity of input information. However, after more than a century, the recent computational, theoretical, and large-scale monitoring progresses compel us to try to suggest a more advanced yet still empirical procedure for estimating peak discharge in small and ungauged basins. In this contribution an alternative empirical procedure (named EBA4SUB - Event Based Approach for Small and Ungauged Basins) based on the common modelling steps: design hyetograph, rainfall excess, and rainfall-runoff transformation, is described. The proposed approach, accurately adapted for the fully-ungauged basin condition, provides a potentially better estimation of the peak discharge, a design hydrograph shape, and, most importantly, reduces the subjectivity of the hydrologist in its application.

  7. Procedure guide of design, construction of prototypes, calibration and sure operation of nucleonic control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados Perez, H.; Griffith Martinez, J.; Desdin Garcia, L.F.; Rodriguez Cardona, R.L.; Molina, G.; Sebastian Calvo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This Guide was elaborated in the mark of the project RLA/8/024 ARCAL XLII 'Industrial Applications of the Tracer Technology and Nucleonic Control Systems'. Its objective is to establish the approaches for the design, the construction, the selection and the procedures for the sure operation of the Nucleonic Control Systems (NCS) in the industry. The NCS is used to control processes to high speeds, materials with extreme conditions or with noxious chemical properties, susceptible materials of being damaged by contact and packed products. In this document is defined the scope of the procedure. The SCN are classified according to: type of radiations, the mobility of the components, the degree of the beams collimation; and in function of the security. The design and construction criteria of the nuclear meters and of the systems of control nucleonic are exposed

  8. Use of virtual steam generator cassette for tube spatial design and SGC assembling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.; Ji, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    A method of determining spatial arrangement of tube connection and assembling procedure of once-through helical steam generator cassette utilizing three dimensional virtual steam generator cassette has been developed on the basis of recent 3-D modelling technology. One ends of the steam generator tubes are connected to the module feed water header and the other sides are connected to the module steam header. Due to the complex geometry of tube arrangement, it is very difficult to connect the tubes to the module headers without the help of a physical engineering mock up. A comparative study has been performed at each design step for the tube arrangement and heat transfer area. Heat transfer area computed from thermal sizing was 4% less than that of measured. Heat transfer area calculated from the virtual steam generator cassette mock up has only 0.2% difference with that of measured. Assembling procedure of the steam generator cassette also, can be developed in the design stage

  9. A mixed implicit/explicit procedure for soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunar, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method for the solution of dynamic soil-structure interaction problems. The method which combines implicit and explicit time integration procedures is ideally suited to problems in which the structure is considered linear and the soil non-linear. The equations relating to the linear structures are integrated using an unconditionally stable implicit scheme while the non-linear soil is treated explicitly. The explicit method is ideally suited to non-linear calculations as there is no need for iterative techniques. The structural equations can also be integrated explicitly, but this generally requires a time step that is much smaller than that for the soil. By using an unconditionally stable implicit algorithm for the structure, the complete analysis can be performed using the time step for the soil. The proposed procedure leads to economical solutions with the soil non-linearities handled accurately and efficiently. (orig.)

  10. Numerical procedure for fluid-structure interaction with structure displacements limited by a rigid obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhlef O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A fixed point algorithmis proposed to solve a fluid-structure interaction problem with the supplementary constraint that the structure displacements are limited by a rigid obstacle. Fictitious domain approach with penalization is used for the fluid equations. The surface forces from the fluid acting on the structure are computed using the fluid solution in the structure domain. The continuity of the fluid and structure velocities is imposed through the penalization parameter. The constraint of non-penetration of the elastic structure into the rigid obstacle is treated weakly. A convex constrained optimization problem is solved in order to get the structure displacements. Numerical results are presented.

  11. CONFOUNDING STRUCTURE OF TWO-LEVEL NONREGULAR FACTORIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Junbai

    2012-01-01

    In design theory,the alias structure of regular fractional factorial designs is elegantly described with group theory.However,this approach cannot be applied to nonregular designs directly. For an arbitrary nonregular design,a natural question is how to describe the confounding relations between its effects,is there any inner structure similar to regular designs? The aim of this article is to answer this basic question.Using coefficients of indicator function,confounding structure of nonregular fractional factorial designs is obtained as linear constrains on the values of effects.A method to estimate the sparse significant effects in an arbitrary nonregular design is given through an example.

  12. Loops and Metagames: Understanding Game Design Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of formal concepts that can help in game design analysis. Our goal is to provide a conceptual framework based on terminology used in game design.......In this paper we present a set of formal concepts that can help in game design analysis. Our goal is to provide a conceptual framework based on terminology used in game design....

  13. An analytical inductor design procedure for three-phase PWM converters in power factor correction applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Haase, Frerk

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyze...... to calculate the core loss in the PFC application. To investigate the impact of the dc link voltage level, two inductors for different dc voltage levels are designed and the results are compared.......This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyzes...... circuit is used to provide the inductor current harmonic spectrum. Therefore, using the harmonic spectrum, the low and high frequency copper losses are calculated. The high frequency minor B-H loops in one switching cycle are also analyzed. Then, the loss map provided by the measurement setup is used...

  14. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  15. Design methods for structures under thermal ratchet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branca, T.R.; McLean, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Previous work on the thermal ratchet analysis of a simple pipe is extended to the case of an intersection of a pipe with a spherical shell. The chosen nozzle configuration is subjected to an internal pressure which remains constant, and a cyclic thermal transient which is representative of the type of transient that might be expected for components of a LMFBR. A number of cross-sections through the nozzle were examined, each yielding a different combination of elastic primary and secondary stress. These stresses, together with their associated cyclic strain growth, as determined from an elastic-plastic-creep analysis of the nozzle, were then plotted on a Miller or Bree-type diagram. Thus, a number of points, one for each cross-section considered, were available for comparison with the data obtained from the ratchet analysis of simple pipe sections. Both the elastic and inelastic analyses on the nozzle were performed using the finite element method of structural analysis of the ANSYS computer code. The pipe ratchetting cases were computed using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory PLACRE code. For a simple pipe ratchet case, a brief comparison is given between the version of ANSYS used in this study, the ANSYS version used in previous work and PLACRE code. The three programs did not yield identical results. Further study is needed to resolve the discrepancies that were observed. The results of the comparison between the nozzle ratchet and pipe ratchet solutions indicate that reasonable predictions can be made for the nozzle ratchet strains based on elastic parameters and design curves developed from pipe ratchetting solutions. (author)

  16. Robust parameter design for integrated circuit fabrication procedure with respect to categorical characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    We consider a robust parameter design of the process for forming contact windows in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits. Robust design is often used to find the optimal levels of process conditions which would provide the output of consistent quality as close to a target value. In this paper, we analyze the results of the fractional factorial design of nine factors: mask dimension, viscosity, bake temperature, spin speed, bake time, aperture, exposure time, developing time, etch time, where the outcome of the experiment is measured in terms of a categorized window size with five categories. Random effect analysis is employed to model both the mean and variance of categorized window size as functions of some controllable factors as well as random errors. Empirical Bayes' procedures are then utilized to fit both the models, and to eventually find the robust design of CMOS circuit process by means of a Bootstrap resampling approach

  17. Tools and procedures for a “maintenance oriented” design for buildings of worship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Talamo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results, achieved in the first year, of a three years research dealing with the themes connected with the methods and the tools for planned maintenance and concerning the proposal of a system of supports for a design “maintenance oriented”. The starting hypothesis is that most of maintenance problems emerging during the life time of a building are due to a lack of attention towards the use phase that both clients and designers demonstrate. Starting from this point of view the aim of the research was to develop and to check a system of supports, useful both for clients and for designs of buildings of worship, consisting in guide lines, procedures and evaluation tools, graduate according to the different steps of design process and carried out in order to assume and to verify the requirement of maintainability.

  18. Robust parameter design for integrated circuit fabrication procedure with respect to categorical characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.Y

    1999-12-01

    We consider a robust parameter design of the process for forming contact windows in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits. Robust design is often used to find the optimal levels of process conditions which would provide the output of consistent quality as close to a target value. In this paper, we analyze the results of the fractional factorial design of nine factors: mask dimension, viscosity, bake temperature, spin speed, bake time, aperture, exposure time, developing time, etch time, where the outcome of the experiment is measured in terms of a categorized window size with five categories. Random effect analysis is employed to model both the mean and variance of categorized window size as functions of some controllable factors as well as random errors. Empirical Bayes' procedures are then utilized to fit both the models, and to eventually find the robust design of CMOS circuit process by means of a Bootstrap resampling approach.

  19. Configuration and structural design of Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the configuration and structural design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak, originally presented to the US/Japan Workshop on Next Step Machine Design. Items discussed in this presentation include: PPPL 0424 ref design; MIT LITE ref design; IGNITOR 1.01 M ref design; and IGNITOR 1.08 M press configuration

  20. Improving design processes through structured reflection : a prototype software tool

    OpenAIRE

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Melby, E.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype software tool facilitating the use of a design method supporting structured reflection on design processes is presented. The prototype, called Echo, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Both the prototype software tool and the design method are developed as part of the Ph.D. project of Isabelle Reymen. The goal of the design method is supporting designers with reflection on design processes in a systemati...

  1. Design, realization and structural testing of a compliant adaptable wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, G; Arrieta, A F; Ermanni, P; Quack, M; Morari, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, optimization, realization and testing of a novel wing morphing concept, based on distributed compliance structures, and actuated by piezoelectric elements. The adaptive wing features ribs with a selectively compliant inner structure, numerically optimized to achieve aerodynamically efficient shape changes while simultaneously withstanding aeroelastic loads. The static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the wing, and the effect of activating the actuators, is assessed by means of coupled 3D aerodynamic and structural simulations. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed morphing concept and optimization procedure, the wings of a model airplane are designed and manufactured according to the presented approach. The goal is to replace conventional ailerons, thus to achieve controllability in roll purely by morphing. The mechanical properties of the manufactured components are characterized experimentally, and used to create a refined and correlated finite element model. The overall stiffness, strength, and actuation capabilities are experimentally tested and successfully compared with the numerical prediction. To counteract the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the piezoelectric actuators, a closed-loop controller is implemented, and its capability of accurately achieving the desired shape adaptation is evaluated experimentally. Using the correlated finite element model, the aeroelastic behavior of the manufactured wing is simulated, showing that the morphing concept can provide sufficient roll authority to allow controllability of the flight. The additional degrees of freedom offered by morphing can be also used to vary the plane lift coefficient, similarly to conventional flaps. The efficiency improvements offered by this technique are evaluated numerically, and compared to the performance of a rigid wing. (paper)

  2. Different approaches of European regulations for fire design of steel structural elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    how both safety issues (avoid people injuries and preserve integrity of constructions) are addressed in the framework of European structural fire safety design of steel constructions. Some relevant differences can be found both in the procedures and in the philosophy of national and community...

  3. Automated simulation and study of spatial-structural design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila Delgado, J.M.; Hofmeyer, H.; Stouffs, R.; Sariyildiz, S.

    2013-01-01

    A so-called "Design Process Investigation toolbox" (DPI toolbox), has been developed. It is a set of computational tools that simulate spatial-structural design processes. Its objectives are to study spatial-structural design processes and to support the involved actors. Two case-studies are

  4. Model reduction in integrated controls-structures design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.

    1993-01-01

    It is the objective of this paper to present a model reduction technique developed for the integrated controls-structures design of flexible structures. Integrated controls-structures design problems are typically posed as nonlinear mathematical programming problems, where the design variables consist of both structural and control parameters. In the solution process, both structural and control design variables are constantly changing; therefore, the dynamic characteristics of the structure are also changing. This presents a problem in obtaining a reduced-order model for active control design and analysis which will be valid for all design points within the design space. In other words, the frequency and number of the significant modes of the structure (modes that should be included) may vary considerably throughout the design process. This is also true as the locations and/or masses of the sensors and actuators change. Moreover, since the number of design evaluations in the integrated design process could easily run into thousands, any feasible order-reduction method should not require model reduction analysis at every design iteration. In this paper a novel and efficient technique for model reduction in the integrated controls-structures design process, which addresses these issues, is presented.

  5. An Application of Graphical Approach to Construct Multiple Testing Procedure in a Hypothetical Phase III Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitee eTing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many multiple testing procedures (MTP have been developed in recent years. Among these new procedures, the graphical approach is flexible and easy to communicate with non-statisticians. A hypothetical Phase III clinical trial design is introduced in this manuscript to demonstrate how graphical approach can be applied in clinical product development. In this design, an active comparator is used. It is thought that this test drug under development could potentially be superior to this comparator. For comparison of efficacy, the primary endpoint is well established and widely accepted by regulatory agencies. However, an important secondary endpoint based on Phase II findings looks very promising. The target dose may have a good opportunity to deliver superiority to the comparator. Furthermore, a lower dose is included in case the target dose may demonstrate potential safety concerns. This Phase III study is designed as a non-inferiority trial with two doses, and two endpoints. This manuscript will illustrate how graphical approach is applied to this design in handling multiple testing issues.

  6. Biosafety Procedure for Safe Handling of Genetically Modified Plant Materials in Bio Design Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin; Affrida Abu Hassan; Mohd Zaid Hassan; Rusli Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Bio Design Facility is the specifically designed glass house for propagation, screening and analysis of high quality plant varieties developed through biotechnology or a combination of nuclear technology and biotechnology. High quality plant varieties especially genetically modified plants (GMO) require a special glass house facility for propagation and screening to isolate them from cross-pollinating with wild type varieties in surrounding ecosystem, and for carrying out evaluation of possible risks of the plants to human, animal and environment before they are proven safe for field trials or commercial release. This facility which was developed under the Ninth Malaysia Plan is classified as the Plant Containment Level 2 and is compliance with the bio safety regulations and guidance for the safe release of GMO according to Malaysian Bio safety Act 2007. Bio Design Facility is fully operational since 2010 and in 2012, it has also been certified as the glass house for post-entry quarantine by The Department of Agriculture. This paper summarizes the bio safety procedure for a safe, controlled and contained growing and evaluation of GMO in Bio Design Facility. This procedure covers the physical (containment and equipment's) and operational (including responsibility, code of practice, growing, decontamination and disposal of plant materials, emergency and contingency plan) aspects of the facility. (author)

  7. Robust procedure for creating and characterizing the atomic structure of scanning tunneling microscope tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Sumit; Bastiaans, Koen M; Allan, Milan P; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M

    2017-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) are used extensively for studying and manipulating matter at the atomic scale. In spite of the critical role of the STM tip, procedures for controlling the atomic-scale shape of STM tips have not been rigorously justified. Here, we present a method for preparing tips in situ while ensuring the crystalline structure and a reproducibly prepared tip structure up to the second atomic layer. We demonstrate a controlled evolution of such tips starting from undefined tip shapes.

  8. Structural design of nuclear power plant using stiffened steel plate concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungmin; Mun, Taeyoup; Kim, Keunkyeong; Sun, Wonsang

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power is an alternative energy source that is conducive to mitigate the environmental strains. The countries having nuclear power plants are encouraging research and development sector to find ways to construct safer and more economically feasible nuclear power plants. Modularization using Steel Plate Concrete(SC) structure has been proposed as a solution to these efforts. A study of structural modules using SC structure has been performed for shortening of construction period and enhancement of structural safety of NPP structures in Korea. As a result of the research, the design code and design techniques based on limit state design method has been developed. The design code has been developed through various structural tests and theoretical studies, and it has been modified by application design of SC structure for NPP buildings. The code consists of unstiffened SC wall design, stiffened SC wall design, Half-SC slab design, stud design, connection design and so on. The stiffened steel plate concrete(SSC) wall is SC structure whose steel plates with ribs are composed on both sides of the concrete wall, and this structure was developed for improved constructability and safety of SC structure. This paper explains a design application of SC structure for a sample building specially devised to reflect all of major structural properties of main buildings of APR1400. In addition, Stiffening effect of SSC structure is evaluated and structural efficiency of SSC structure is verified in comparison with that of unstiffened SC structure. (author)

  9. Acetylcholinesterase in motion : Visualizing conformational changes in crystal structures by a morphing procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, T; Silman, I.; Sussman, J.L.

    In order to visualize and appreciate conformational changes between homologous three-dimensional (3D) protein structures or protein/inhibitor complexes, we have developed a user-friendly morphing procedure. It enabled us to detect coordinated conformational changes not easily discernible by analytic

  10. Structural and functional properties of designed globins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    De novo design of artificial proteins is an essential approach to elucidate the principles of protein architecture and to understand specific functions of natural proteins and also to yield novel molecules for medical and industrial aims. We have designed artificial sequences of 153 amino acids to fit the main-chain framework of ...

  11. Seismic Design Guidelines For Port Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Bernal, Alberto; Blazquez, Rafael

    In order to mitigate hazards and losses due to earthquakes, seismic design methodologies have been developed and implemented in design practice in many regions since the early twentieth century, often in the form of codes and standards. Most of these methodologies are based on a force-balance app...

  12. Study on design procedure of three-dimensional building base isolation system using thick rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabana, Shuichi; Matsuda, Akihiro

    2003-01-01

    In this study, design procedure on three-dimensional base isolation system is developed. Base isolation system proposed by CRIEPI uses thick rubber bearing and damper as isolation device. As for thick rubber bearings, design formula for evaluating vertical stiffness is proposed, and design conditions regarding size and vertical pressure are investigated. Figure-U type lead damper is proposed as three-dimensional damper and by loading tests its mechanical characteristics is evaluated. The concept of multi-layered interconnected rubber bearing, which is advantageous over large scale bearing in manufacturability, is proposed and its good performance is confirmed by the loading test. Through the response analyses, it is shown the rocking response of the proposed three-dimensional base isolation system is very small and not influential to the system, and the reduction of the vertical response is attained using the proposed isolation device. (author)

  13. Structured tradeoffs preference elicitation: Evaluating CRWMS design and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, H.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary studies over the past few years have yielded multiple design and operations alternatives for the planned Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Waste isolation, pre-closure health and safety, and life cycle cost are among the many factors considered in developing these alternatives. The task of CRWMS designers is complicated by substantial heat and nuclear radiation energy output of the spent nuclear fuel and high level waste intended for disposal in an underground repository. Not only must the usual effectiveness, operability and cost objectives be balanced, but done so in the context of a constantly changing environment. Particular alternatives sometimes are favored by virtue of their outstanding performance relative to one of these factors. The Ultimate success of the potential repository, however, depends on reaching a defensible and traceable final decision through simultaneous and systematic weighing of all relevant factors. This paper documents the outcome of Structured Tradeoffs Preference (STP) elicitation as a method for the simultaneous and systematic weighing of factors relevant to repository thermal loading, waste package (WP) design, and emplacement mode decisions. The study provided a low-cost early indication of directions of further research on CRWMS design and operations likely to be most fruitful. The method of STP elicitation was utilized to avoid potential biases documented in other efforts which use only unstructured decision making, or open-quotes well-considered judgmentclose quotes. The STP elicitation procedure presented here complements the use of a parameter network-model pyramid suggested elsewhere in this proceedings to provide a framework for precisely articulating technical questions needing answers. It also forms an independent crosscheck of systems engineering study results and performance assessment modeling

  14. Generic procedure for designing and implementing plan management systems for space science missions operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizy, P. A.; Dimbylow, T. G.; Allan, P. M.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is one of the components of a larger framework of activities whose purpose is to improve the performance and productivity of space mission systems, i.e. to increase both what can be achieved and the cost effectiveness of this achievement. Some of these activities introduced the concept of Functional Architecture Module (FAM); FAMs are basic blocks used to build the functional architecture of Plan Management Systems (PMS). They also highlighted the need to involve Science Operations Planning Expertise (SOPE) during the Mission Design Phase (MDP) in order to design and implement efficiently operation planning systems. We define SOPE as the expertise held by people who have both theoretical and practical experience in operations planning, in general, and in space science operations planning in particular. Using ESA's methodology for studying and selecting science missions we also define the MDP as the combination of the Mission Assessment and Mission Definition Phases. However, there is no generic procedure on how to use FAMs efficiently and systematically, for each new mission, in order to analyse the cost and feasibility of new missions as well as to optimise the functional design of new PMS; the purpose of such a procedure is to build more rapidly and cheaply such PMS as well as to make the latter more reliable and cheaper to run. This is why the purpose of this paper is to provide an embryo of such a generic procedure and to show that the latter needs to be applied by people with SOPE during the MDP. The procedure described here proposes some initial guidelines to identify both the various possible high level functional scenarii, for a given set of possible requirements, and the information that needs to be associated with each scenario. It also introduces the concept of catalogue of generic functional scenarii of PMS for space science missions. The information associated with each catalogued scenarii will have been identified by the above procedure and

  15. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (Macintosh version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  16. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (IBM version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  17. Application of a statistical thermal design procedure to evaluate the PWR DNBR safety analysis limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeyns, J.; Parmentier, F.; Peeters, G.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of safety analysis for the Belgian nuclear power plants and for the reload compatibility studies, Tractebel Energy Engineering (TEE) has developed, to define a 95/95 DNBR criterion, a statistical thermal design method based on the analytical full statistical approach: the Statistical Thermal Design Procedure (STDP). In that methodology, each DNBR value in the core assemblies is calculated with an adapted CHF (Critical Heat Flux) correlation implemented in the sub-channel code Cobra for core thermal hydraulic analysis. The uncertainties of the correlation are represented by the statistical parameters calculated from an experimental database. The main objective of a sub-channel analysis is to prove that in all class 1 and class 2 situations, the minimum DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) remains higher than the Safety Analysis Limit (SAL). The SAL value is calculated from the Statistical Design Limit (SDL) value adjusted with some penalties and deterministic factors. The search of a realistic value for the SDL is the objective of the statistical thermal design methods. In this report, we apply a full statistical approach to define the DNBR criterion or SDL (Statistical Design Limit) with the strict observance of the design criteria defined in the Standard Review Plan. The same statistical approach is used to define the expected number of rods experiencing DNB. (author)

  18. Structured Design Language for Computer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Walter H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Box language used at all stages of program development. Developed to provide improved productivity in designing, coding, and maintaining computer programs. BOX system written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution.

  19. Toolkit Design for Interactive Structured Graphics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bederson, Benjamin B; Grosjean, Jesse; Meyer, Jon

    2003-01-01

    .... We compare hand-crafted custom code to polylithic and monolithic toolkit-based solutions. Polylithic toolkits follow a design philosophy similar to 3D scene graphs supported by toolkits including Java3D and OpenInventor...

  20. Virtual design and qualification of IC backend structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfhout, van R.B.R.; Sluis, van der O.; Driel, van W.D.; Janssen, J.H.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2006-01-01

    For Integrated Circuit (IC) wafer backend development, process developers have to design robust backend structures that guarantee both functionality and reliability during waferfab processes, packaging, qualification tests and lifetime. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram for the design (and

  1. Structures and Processes in Didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Heilesen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a user-driven approach to designing new educational formats including new media for learning. Focus will be on didactic design involving the use of information technology as a means of mediating, augmenting or even fundamentally changing teaching and learning practices....... The two key points in the article are the introduction of a Quadrant-Model, and the understanding of the user as a construction....

  2. Structures and Processes in Didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Heilesen, Simon

    This paper introduces a user-driven approach to designing new educational formats including new media for learning. Focus will be on didactic design involving the use of information technology as a means of mediating, augmenting or even fundamentally changing teaching and learning practices....... The two key points in the article are the introduction of a Quadrant-Model, and the understanding of the user as a construction....

  3. The use of flow models for design of plant operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, M.

    1982-03-01

    The report describe a systematic approach to the design of operating procedures or sequence automatics for process plant control. It is shown how flow models representing the topology of mass and energy flows on different levels of function provide plant information which is important for the considered design problem. The modelling methodology leads to the definition of three categories of control tasks. Two tasks relate to the regulation and control of changes of levels and flows of mass and energy in a system within a defined mode of operation. The third type relate to the control actions necessary for switching operations involved in changes of operating mode. These control tasks are identified for a given plant as part of the flow modelling activity. It is discussed how the flow model deal with the problem of assigning control task precedence in time eg. during start-up or shut-down operations. The method may be a basis for providing automated procedure support to the operator in unforeseen situations or may be a tool for control design. (auth.)

  4. Structural design of the superconducting toroidal field coils for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.M.G.; Sborchia, C.; Thome, R.J.; Malkov, A.; Titus, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Structural design issues and features of the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be discussed. Selected analyses of the structural and mechanical behavior of the ITER TF coils will also be presented. (orig.)

  5. Design and Processing of Structural Composite Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, E. L; Baechle, D. M; Xu, K; Carter, R. H; Snyder, J. F; Wetzel, E. D

    2007-01-01

    ...) 2007 Symposium and Exhibition held in Baltimore, MD, on 3-7 June 2007. Multifunctional structural composites are being developed to simultaneously bear mechanical loads and store electrochemical energy...

  6. Toolkit Design for Interactive Structured Graphics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bederson, Benjamin B; Grosjean, Jesse; Meyer, Jon

    2003-01-01

    .... We describe Jazz (a polylithic toolkit) and Piccolo (a monolithic toolkit), each of which we built to support interactive 2D structured graphics applications in general, and Zoomable User Interface applications in particular...

  7. Structural assessment procedure of corroding submarine gas pipelines using on-line inspection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin Yahaya

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents 'the alternative approach of overall procedure in the assessment of corroded pipelines using data gathered by the on-line inspection device. The methodology adopts a generalised approach of analysing pipeline inspection data and a prediction of the structural reliability due to the deteriorating corrosion environment. The whole assessment methodology is divided into four separate stages; 1 to IV. Stages 1 and 11 are the initial procedure prior to the actual analysis of the inspection data. The scope of this paper is concerted into the procedure to be taken in Stage 111 where the stage is sub-divided into 3 major steps; Part A, B and C. These procedures are Part A (statistical and probabilistic analysis of the inspection data) and Part B (the application of extreme value statistics) and C (reliability assessment). Stage IV (risk assessment) is the final step in the procedure where the consequences of failure are evaluated. The proposed risk-based assessment procedure is more systematic and reliable to account for a huge amount of collected data usually obtained in an on-line inspection using the intelligent devices. The outcomes of this risk-based methodology can be very useful in the decision-making process by the operation management. This in turn will produce an efficient inspection, repair and maintenance program and enhanced the optimised return in investment. (author)

  8. The Design of Project Management Structural Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Constantinescu; Cristian Etegan

    2007-01-01

    The relationships organization-suppliers-customers have recently known major changes in the structure of services and have made the organization develop its managerial and professional competencies in order to do projects. The qualified organization is the most trust-worthy in the process of doing a project. The participation of an organization in doing projects depends on a multitude of factors. Out of these factors, the structural organization comes forth, as it represents the variable with...

  9. Automatic differentiation for design sensitivity analysis of structural systems using multiple processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Storaasli, Olaf O.; Qin, Jiangning; Qamar, Ramzi

    1994-01-01

    An automatic differentiation tool (ADIFOR) is incorporated into a finite element based structural analysis program for shape and non-shape design sensitivity analysis of structural systems. The entire analysis and sensitivity procedures are parallelized and vectorized for high performance computation. Small scale examples to verify the accuracy of the proposed program and a medium scale example to demonstrate the parallel vector performance on multiple CRAY C90 processors are included.

  10. Structural design considerations for a radwaste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foelber, S.C.; Sabbe, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structural engineer needs to consider several criteria when designing a radioactive-waste processing facility in order to properly balance the requirements of safety and economy. This paper addresses the design criteria and structural design of a vitrification building and the special equipment and supports associated with remote process operations. In addition, approaches to construction, and the role of scale models to aid in engineering design and construction are discussed. 5 figures

  11. Interdisciplinary analysis procedures in the modeling and control of large space-based structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Stockwell, Alan E.; Kim, Zeen C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a computer software system called the Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool, IMAT, that has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. IMAT provides researchers and analysts with an efficient capability to analyze satellite control systems influenced by structural dynamics. Using a menu-driven interactive executive program, IMAT links a relational database to commercial structural and controls analysis codes. The paper describes the procedures followed to analyze a complex satellite structure and control system. The codes used to accomplish the analysis are described, and an example is provided of an application of IMAT to the analysis of a reference space station subject to a rectangular pulse loading at its docking port.

  12. Evaluating procedural modelling for 3D models of informal settlements in urban design activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rautenbach

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D modelling and visualisation is one of the fastest growing application fields in geographic information science. 3D city models are being researched extensively for a variety of purposes and in various domains, including urban design, disaster management, education and computer gaming. These models typically depict urban business districts (downtown or suburban residential areas. Despite informal settlements being a prevailing feature of many cities in developing countries, 3D models of informal settlements are virtually non-existent. 3D models of informal settlements could be useful in various ways, e.g. to gather information about the current environment in the informal settlements, to design upgrades, to communicate these and to educate inhabitants about environmental challenges. In this article, we described the development of a 3D model of the Slovo Park informal settlement in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa. Instead of using time-consuming traditional manual methods, we followed the procedural modelling technique. Visualisation characteristics of 3D models of informal settlements were described and the importance of each characteristic in urban design activities for informal settlement upgrades was assessed. Next, the visualisation characteristics of the Slovo Park model were evaluated. The results of the evaluation showed that the 3D model produced by the procedural modelling technique is suitable for urban design activities in informal settlements. The visualisation characteristics and their assessment are also useful as guidelines for developing 3D models of informal settlements. In future, we plan to empirically test the use of such 3D models in urban design projects in informal settlements.

  13. Structured Assessment Approach: a procedure for the assessment of fuel cycle safeguard systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parziale, A.A.; Patenaude, C.J.; Renard, P.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed and tested for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission a procedure for the evaluation of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems at Nuclear Fuel Facilities. This procedure, called the Structured Assessment Approach, SAA, subjects the MC and A system at a facility to a series of increasingly sophisticated adversaries and strategies. A fully integrated version of the computer codes which assist the analyst in this assessment was made available in October, 1979. The concepts of the SAA and the results of the assessment of a hypothetical but typical facility are presented

  14. Static and dynamic buckling of large thin shells. (Design procedure, computation tools. Physical understanding of the mechanisms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, A.

    1986-04-01

    During the last ten years, the French Research Institute for Nuclear Energy (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) achieved many theoretical as well as experimental studies for designing the first large size pool type fast breeder reactor. Many of the sensitive parts of this reactor are thin shells subjected to high temperatures and loads. Special care has been given to buckling, because it often governs design. Most of the thin shells structures of the french breeder reactor are axisymmetric. However, imperfections have to be accounted for. In order to keep the advantage of an axisymmetric analysis (low computational costs), a special element has been implemented and used with considerable success in the recent years. This element (COMU) is described in the first chapter, its main features are: either non axisymmetric imperfection or non axisymmetric load, large displacement, non linear material behaviour, computational costs about ten times cheaper than the equivalent three dimensional analysis. This paper based on a careful comparison between experimental and computational results, obtained with the COMU, will analyse three problems: First: design procedure against buckling of thin shells structures subjected to primary loads; Second: static post buckling; Third: buckling under seismic loads [fr

  15. Loads for use in the design of ships and offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirdaris, S.E.; Bai, W.; Dessi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of structural responses is key element in the design of ships and offshore structures. Fundamental to this is the determination of the design loads to support the Rule requirements and for application in direct calculations. To date, the current design philosophy for the prediction...... of motions and wave-induced loads has been driven by empirical or first-principles calculation procedures based on well-proven applications such as ship motion prediction programs. In recent years, the software, engineering and computer technology available to predict the design loads imposed on ships...... and offshore structures has improved dramatically. Notwithstanding, with the stepwise increase in the size and structural complexity of ships and floating offshore installations and the advances in the framework of Rules and Standards it has become necessary to utilise the latest technologies to assess...

  16. The structure of an expert system to diagnose and supply a corrective procedure for nuclear power plant malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Stasenko, J.E.; Hashemi, S.; Bhatnagar, R.; Punch, W.F. III; Yamada, N.

    1987-01-01

    During the past two years, two prototype knowledge based systems have been developed at the Ohio State University. These systems were the result of collaboration between the Nuclear Engineering Program and the Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). The first system uses hierarchical classification to diagnose malfunctions of the coolant system in a General Electric Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The second system provides a plan of action, through a process of dynamic procedure management, to stabilize the plant once an abnormal transient has occurred. The objective of this paper is to discuss the structure that has been designed to integrate the two systems. The combined system will be capable of informing plant personnel about the nature of malfunctions, and of supplying to the operator the most direct corrective procedure available. Two important features of the integrated system are faulty sensor detection, based on malfunction context and unlike sensor data, and procedure management based on the initial state of the plant. Since the two knowledge based systems were developed separately, the integration has required a separate component currently under development, the Plant Status Monitoring System (PSMS). The task of PSMS is to monitor plant parameters in order to detect an abnormal condition developing within the plant. Based on the nature of the event, PSMS is capable of directing control to either the procedure management or diagnosis component. The integrated system plays only an advisory role, and any suggested action would be executed by the plant personnel

  17. Conceptual Design of a Floating Support Structure and Mooring System for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Petter Andreas; Fylling, Ivar; Vita, Luca

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptual design of a floating support structure and mooring system for a 5MW vertical axis offshore wind turbine. The work is carried out as part of the DeepWind project, where the main objective is to investigate the feasibility of a floating vertical axis offshore wind...... turbine. The DeepWind concept consists of a Darrieus rotor mounted on a spar buoy support structure. The conceptual design is carried out in an iterative process, involving the different subcomponents. The present work is part of the first design iteration and the objective is to find a feasible floating...... support structure and mooring system for the DeepWind concept. The conceptual design is formulated as an optimization problem: Starting with an initial configuration, the optimization procedure tries to find a cheaper solution while satisfying a set of design requirements. This approach utilizes available...

  18. NMR in structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Marta G; Ab, Eiso; Theisgen, Stephan; Siegal, Gregg

    2017-11-08

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can provide valuable structural information for drug discovery endeavors. Here, we discuss the strengths (and limitations) of NMR applications to structure-based drug discovery, highlighting the different levels of resolution and throughput obtainable. Additionally, the emerging field of paramagnetic NMR in drug discovery and recent developments in approaches to speed up and automate protein-observed NMR data collection and analysis are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  20. Design Procedure Enhanced with Numerical Modeling to Mitigate River-Bank Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhakeem Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 2D Finite Element Surface Water Modeling System (FESWMS is used to design barb structures to mitigate river bank erosion in a stream reach located on the Raccoon River near Adel, Iowa, USA just upstream of the US Highway Bridge 169. FESWMS is used also to access the barbs effect on the study reach. The model results showed that the proposed barb structures successfully reduced the flow velocity along the outside bank and increased the velocity in the center of the stream, thereby successfully increased the conveyance towards the core of the river. The estimated velocities values along the river-banks where the barbs exist were within the recommended values for channel stability design. Thus, the barb structures were able to reduce the erosion along the bankline.

  1. Design Tools and Workflows for Braided Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestartas, Petras; Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Zwierzycki, Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    the objectives and motivation for our exploration of braid within an architectural context and highlighting both the relevance of braid and current lack of suitable design modelling tools to support our approach. We briefly introduce the state-of-the-art in braid representation and present the characteristics...

  2. A design procedure for a slotted waveguide with probe-fed slots radiating into plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, J.A.

    1989-11-01

    A design procedure is developed for slotted-waveguide antennas with probe-fed slots. Radiation into a gyrotropic, plane-stratified medium is considered, nonzero waveguide wall thickness is assumed, and noncosinusoidal slot fields and arbitrary slot length up to about one free-space wavelength are allowed. External mutual coupling is taken into account by matching the tangential fields at the antenna surface. The particular case of longitudinal slots in the broad face of rectangular guide is analyzed. The motivation for this work is the design of such radiators for plasma heating and current-drive on thermonuclear fusion experiments, but some of the analysis is applicable to the probeless slotted waveguide used for avionics and communications. 20 refs., 5 figs

  3. Procedure and reference standard to determine the structural resolution in coordinate metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illemann, Jens; Bartscher, Markus; Jusko, Otto; Härtig, Frank; Neuschaefer-Rube, Ulrich; Wendt, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    A new procedure and reference standards for specifying the structural resolution in coordinate metrology traceable to the SI unit the metre are proposed. With the definition of the structural resolution, a significant gap will be closed to complete ‘acceptance and verification tests’ of the coordinate measuring systems (CMSs) which are specified in the ISO 10360 series dealing with tactile sensors, optical sensors, and x-ray computed tomography measurement systems (CTs). The proposed new procedure uses reference standards with circular rounded edges. The idea is to measure the radius of curvature on a calibrated round edge structure. From the deviation between the measured and the calibrated radius, an analogue Gaussian broadening of the measurement system is determined. This value is a well-defined and easy-to-apply measure to define the structural resolution for dimensional measurements. It is applicable to CMSs which are based on different sensing principles, e.g. tactile, optical and CT systems. On the other hand, it has a physical meaning similar to the classical optical point-spread function. It makes it possible to predict which smallest details the CMS is capable of measuring reliably for an arbitrary object shape. The theoretical background of the new procedure is given, an appropriate reference standard is described and comparative, quantitative measurement data of CMSs featuring different sensors are shown.

  4. Intelligent structures and design of energy related facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Haruyuki

    1994-01-01

    Possibility of applying intelligent structural concepts to civil design of energy plants is discussed. Intelligent structures, which are now common in aerospace engineering field, are also referred to as adaptive structures or smart structures depending on cases. Among various existing concepts, reconfigurable structures, precise shape control, structural monitoring using smart materials of optical fiber sensors, and relation with recent innovative communication technologies are focused from civil engineering point of view. Application of such new technologies will help to enhance design of energy related plants, which include multiplex functions which need to be very reliable and safe. (author)

  5. A Structured Approach to Homepage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gwen; Brown, M. Marlo

    With no standards governing their creation, a variety of formats are being used for World Wide Web homepages. Some are well organized, present their information clearly, and work with multiple browsers. Others, however, are slow to load, function poorly with some Web browsing software, and are so badly structured that they are very difficult to…

  6. Duracrete: Service life design for concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, A.J.M.; Edvardsen, C.

    1999-01-01

    In the past decades much effort has been put into the improvement of the durability of concrete structures. This has resulted in a reasonable understanding of the main degradation processes or in experience with measures to prevent degradation. The results of this effort can be found in the present

  7. Design and Modeling of Structural Joints in Precast Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Harrild

    and in the onsite construction speed. The challenges appear in the on-site assembly phase, where structural integrity has to be ensured by in-situ cast connections in narrow zones. These connections are essential for the overall structural behavior and for this reason, strong and ductile connections...... is the orientation of the U-bar loops and the use of a double T-headed rebar in the overlapping area of the Ubars. The investigation covers several independent research topics, which in combination provides a broad knowledge of the behavior of keyed shear connections. As the first topic, the structural behavior...... the loop connection in such a way, that the tensile capacity is governed by yielding of the U-bars and not by a brittle failure of the grout. This is important in order to obtain a ductile response when the connection is loaded in shear. The main focus of the thesis is test and modeling of keyed shear...

  8. Design of Composite Structures Using Knowledge-Based and Case Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambright, Jonathan Paul

    1996-01-01

    A method of using knowledge based and case based reasoning to assist designers during conceptual design tasks of composite structures was proposed. The cooperative use of heuristics, procedural knowledge, and previous similar design cases suggests a potential reduction in design cycle time and ultimately product lead time. The hypothesis of this work is that the design process of composite structures can be improved by using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Knowledge-Based (KB) reasoning in the early design stages. The technique of using knowledge-based and case-based reasoning facilitates the gathering of disparate information into one location that is easily and readily available. The method suggests that the inclusion of downstream life-cycle issues into the conceptual design phase reduces potential of defective, and sub-optimal composite structures. Three industry experts were interviewed extensively. The experts provided design rules, previous design cases, and test problems. A Knowledge Based Reasoning system was developed using the CLIPS (C Language Interpretive Procedural System) environment and a Case Based Reasoning System was developed using the Design Memory Utility For Sharing Experiences (MUSE) xviii environment. A Design Characteristic State (DCS) was used to document the design specifications, constraints, and problem areas using attribute-value pair relationships. The DCS provided consistent design information between the knowledge base and case base. Results indicated that the use of knowledge based and case based reasoning provided a robust design environment for composite structures. The knowledge base provided design guidance from well defined rules and procedural knowledge. The case base provided suggestions on design and manufacturing techniques based on previous similar designs and warnings of potential problems and pitfalls. The case base complemented the knowledge base and extended the problem solving capability beyond the existence of

  9. Defining System Requirements: a critical assessment of the Niam conceptual design procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Darke

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirements definition is a fundamental activity within information systems development. Social and organisational issues are at the centre of many of the problems experienced during the development and implementation of information systems, and these need to be explored during requirements definition. The NIAM Conceptual Schema Design Procedure (CSDP is a method for identifying and describing information requirements using fact types. This paper discusses some limitations of the information requirements definition step of the CSDP which result from its lack of focus on the socio-organisational dimension of information systems development. Four different approaches to exploring the socio-organisational contexts of systems are discussed. It is proposed that one of these, viewpoint development, be incorporated into the NIAM CSDP to provide a means of exploring and understanding a system's socio organisational context and to ensure that contextual information is a major input to the requirements definition process. This results in an enhanced design procedure. Future and current research areas are identified.

  10. A simplified procedure for mass and stiffness estimation of existing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Antonella; Ditommaso, Rocco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Salvatore Nigro, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses the attention on a parametric method for mass and stiffness identification of framed structures, based on frequencies evaluation. The assessment of real structures is greatly affected by the consistency of information retrieved on materials and on the influence of both non-structural components and soil. One of the most important matter is the correct definition of the distribution, both in plan and in elevation, of mass and stiffness: depending on concentrated and distributed loads, the presence of infill panels and the distribution of structural elements. In this study modal identification is performed under several mass-modified conditions and structural parameters consistent with the identified modal parameters are determined. Modal parameter identification of a structure before and after the introduction of additional masses is conducted. By considering the relationship between the additional masses and modal properties before and after the mass modification, structural parameters of a damped system, i.e. mass, stiffness and damping coefficient are inversely estimated from these modal parameters variations. The accuracy of the method can be improved by using various mass-modified conditions. The proposed simplified procedure has been tested on both numerical and experimental models by means linear numerical analyses and shaking table tests performed on scaled structures at the Seismic Laboratory of the University of Basilicata (SISLAB). Results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed procedure to estimate masses and stiffness of existing real structures with a maximum error equal to 10%, under the worst conditions. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC-RELUIS 2015 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring''.

  11. A general U-block model-based design procedure for nonlinear polynomial control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q. M.; Zhao, D. Y.; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-10-01

    The proposition of U-model concept (in terms of 'providing concise and applicable solutions for complex problems') and a corresponding basic U-control design algorithm was originated in the first author's PhD thesis. The term of U-model appeared (not rigorously defined) for the first time in the first author's other journal paper, which established a framework for using linear polynomial control system design approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear polynomial approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). This paper represents the next milestone work - using linear state-space approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear state-space approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). The overall aim of the study is to establish a framework, defined as the U-block model, which provides a generic prototype for using linear state-space-based approaches to design the control systems with smooth nonlinear plants/processes described by polynomial models. For analysing the feasibility and effectiveness, sliding mode control design approach is selected as an exemplary case study. Numerical simulation studies provide a user-friendly step-by-step procedure for the readers/users with interest in their ad hoc applications. In formality, this is the first paper to present the U-model-oriented control system design in a formal way and to study the associated properties and theorems. The previous publications, in the main, have been algorithm-based studies and simulation demonstrations. In some sense, this paper can be treated as a landmark for the U-model-based research from intuitive/heuristic stage to rigour/formal/comprehensive studies.

  12. Tailoring groundwater quality monitoring to vulnerability: a GIS procedure for network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, E; Petrangeli, A B; Giuliano, G

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring networks aiming to assess the state of groundwater quality and detect or predict changes could increase in efficiency when fitted to vulnerability and pollution risk assessment. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology aiming at integrating aquifers vulnerability and actual levels of groundwater pollution in the monitoring network design. In this study carried out in a pilot area in central Italy, several factors such as hydrogeological setting, groundwater vulnerability, and natural and anthropogenic contamination levels were analyzed and used in designing a network tailored to the monitoring objectives, namely, surveying the evolution of groundwater quality relating to natural conditions as well as to polluting processes active in the area. Due to the absence of an aquifer vulnerability map for the whole area, a proxi evaluation of it was performed through a geographic information system (GIS) methodology, leading to the so called "susceptibility to groundwater quality degradation". The latter was used as a basis for the network density assessment, while water points were ranked by several factors including discharge, actual contamination levels, maintenance conditions, and accessibility for periodical sampling in order to select the most appropriate to the network. Two different GIS procedures were implemented which combine vulnerability conditions and water points suitability, producing two slightly different networks of 50 monitoring points selected out of the 121 candidate wells and springs. The results are compared with a "manual" selection of the points. The applied GIS procedures resulted capable to select the requested number of water points from the initial set, evaluating the most confident ones and an appropriate density. Moreover, it is worth underlining that the second procedure (point distance analysis [PDA]) is technically faster and simpler to be performed than the first one (GRID + PDA).

  13. Molecular catalysts structure and functional design

    CERN Document Server

    Gade, Lutz H

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting the key aspects and latest advances in the rapidly developing field of molecular catalysis, this book covers new strategies to investigate reaction mechanisms, the enhancement of the catalysts' selectivity and efficiency, as well as the rational design of well-defined molecular catalysts. The interdisciplinary author team with an excellent reputation within the community discusses experimental and theoretical studies, along with examples of improved catalysts, and their application in organic synthesis, biocatalysis, and supported organometallic catalysis. As a result, readers wil

  14. Structural design of the Sandia 34-M Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. E.

    Sandia National Laboratories, as the lead DOE laboratory for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) development, is currently designing a 34-meter diameter Darrieus-type VAWT. This turbine will be a research test bed which provides a focus for advancing technology and validating design and fabrication techniques in a size range suitable for utility use. Structural data from this machine will allow structural modeling to be refined and verified for a turbine on which the gravity effects and stochastic wind loading are significant. Performance data from it will allow aerodynamic modeling to be refined and verified. The design effort incorporates Sandia's state-of-the-art analysis tools in the design of a complete machine. The analytic tools used in this design are discussed and the conceptual design procedure is described.

  15. Development of residual stress analysis procedure for fitness-for-service assessment of welded structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun; Dong, P.; Prager, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a state of art review of existing residual stress analysis techniques and representative solutions is presented in order to develop the residual stress analysis procedure for Fitness-For-Service(FFS) assessment of welded structure. Critical issues associated with existing residual stress solutions and their treatments in performing FFS are discussed. It should be recognized that detailed residual stress evolution is an extremely complicated phenomenon that typically involves material-specific thermomechanical/metallurgical response, welding process physics, and structural interactions within a component being welded. As a result, computational procedures can vary significantly from highly complicated numerical techniques intended only to elucidate a small part of the process physics to cost-effective procedures that are deemed adequate for capturing some of the important features in a final residual stress distribution. Residual stress analysis procedure for FFS purposes belongs to the latter category. With this in mind, both residual stress analysis techniques and their adequacy for FFS are assessed based on both literature data and analyses performed in this investigation

  16. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: From Design to Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Norton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of DNA for the production of nanoscale architectures presents a young yet paradigm breaking approach, which addresses many of the barriers to the self-assembly of small molecules into highly-ordered nanostructures via construct addressability. There are two major methods to construct DNA nanostructures, and in the current review we will discuss the principles and some examples of applications of both the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an older method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiply repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at this time, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and exactly defined structures.

  17. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: From Design to Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadegan, Reza M.; Norton, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of DNA for the production of nanoscale architectures presents a young yet paradigm breaking approach, which addresses many of the barriers to the self-assembly of small molecules into highly-ordered nanostructures via construct addressability. There are two major methods to construct DNA nanostructures, and in the current review we will discuss the principles and some examples of applications of both the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an older method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiply repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at this time, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and exactly defined structures. PMID:22837684

  18. Structural DNA nanotechnology: from design to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadegan, Reza M; Norton, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of DNA for the production of nanoscale architectures presents a young yet paradigm breaking approach, which addresses many of the barriers to the self-assembly of small molecules into highly-ordered nanostructures via construct addressability. There are two major methods to construct DNA nanostructures, and in the current review we will discuss the principles and some examples of applications of both the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an older method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiply repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at this time, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and exactly defined structures.

  19. Complementary structure for designer localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported on metallic structures corrugated by very long and curved grooves have been recently proposed and demonstrated on an extremely thin metallic spiral structure (MSS) in the microwave regime. However, the mode profile for the magnetic LSPs was demonstrated by measuring only the electric field, not the magnetic field. Here, based on Babinet's principle, we propose a Babinet-inverted, or complementary MSS whose electric/magnetic mode profiles match the magnetic/electric mode profiles of MSS. This complementarity of mode profiles allows mapping the magnetic field distribution of magnetic LSP mode profile on MSS by measuring the electric field distribution of the corresponding mode on complementary MSS. Experiment at microwave frequencies also demonstrate the use of complementary MSS in sensing refractive-index change in the environment.

  20. Modeling the Structure and Complexity of Engineering Routine Design Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Wits, Wessel Willems; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to structure routine design problems as well as a model of its design complexity. The idea is that having a proper model of the structure of such problems enables understanding its complexity, and likewise, a proper understanding of its complexity enables the development

  1. Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization Framework for Aircraft Box Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, R.E.C.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Van Dalen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive aircraft box structures are a perfect compromise between weight and price. The conceptual design process of these structures is a typical Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization effort, normally conducted by human engineers. The iterative nature of MDO turns development into a long and

  2. A Fractual Mechanical Testing and Design Strategy for FRC Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    1999-01-01

    A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications.......A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications....

  3. Guest-responsive structural adaptation of a rationally-designed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adaptability of the TB core to undergo subtle structural changes in response to the guest that is included. The structural ... we report the design, synthesis and inclusion behaviour of a novel ..... Based on a rational design, we have shown from ...

  4. Manufacturing error sensitivity analysis and optimal design method of cable-network antenna structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yali; Hu, Naigang; Duan, Baoyan; Yang, Guigeng; Cao, Hongjun; Xu, Wanye

    2016-03-01

    Inevitable manufacturing errors and inconsistency between assumed and actual boundary conditions can affect the shape precision and cable tensions of a cable-network antenna, and even result in failure of the structure in service. In this paper, an analytical sensitivity analysis method of the shape precision and cable tensions with respect to the parameters carrying uncertainty was studied. Based on the sensitivity analysis, an optimal design procedure was proposed to alleviate the effects of the parameters that carry uncertainty. The validity of the calculated sensitivities is examined by those computed by a finite difference method. Comparison with a traditional design method shows that the presented design procedure can remarkably reduce the influence of the uncertainties on the antenna performance. Moreover, the results suggest that especially slender front net cables, thick tension ties, relatively slender boundary cables and high tension level can improve the ability of cable-network antenna structures to resist the effects of the uncertainties on the antenna performance.

  5. Materializing a responsive interior: designing minimum energy structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie; Kofod, Guggi; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of design-led experiments investigating future possibilities for architectural materialization relying on minimum energy structures as an example of adaptive structure. The structures have been made as laminates of elastic membrane under high tension with flexible...... (Lendlein, Kelch 2002) or light (van Oosten, Bastiaansen et al. 2009). All in all, this approach could form a whole new design paradigm, in which efficient 2D-manufacturing can lead to highly flexible, low weight and adaptable 3D-structures. This is illustrated by the design and manufacture of electro...

  6. Enabling Rapid and Robust Structural Analysis During Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.; Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-year effort to add a structural analysis subprocess to a supersonic aircraft conceptual design process. The desired capabilities include parametric geometry, automatic finite element mesh generation, static and aeroelastic analysis, and structural sizing. The paper discusses implementation details of the new subprocess, captures lessons learned, and suggests future improvements. The subprocess quickly compares concepts and robustly handles large changes in wing or fuselage geometry. The subprocess can rank concepts with regard to their structural feasibility and can identify promising regions of the design space. The automated structural analysis subprocess is deemed robust and rapid enough to be included in multidisciplinary conceptual design and optimization studies.

  7. Proposed Design Procedure of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger for an Orc Energy Recovery System for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Bonafoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several systems that produce energy from low grade heat sources such as Stirling engines, thermoelectric generators, and ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. This paper shows the heat recovery from exhaust gases of a 1400 cc Diesel engine, to vaporize the working fluid of a small (<10 kW ORC system. The main objective is to have a system as compact as possible, to make it suitable for transport applications such as cars, ships, trains, etc. Three fluids were studied for this application: water and two refrigerant fluids: R134a and R245fa, which were found to be more appropriate than water at certain pressure and temperature values. Afterwards, a design procedure was proposed, then the heat exchanger was modeled and finally a steady-state thermal and structural analysis were carried out using a commercial software to find the temperature and the effects of the thermal stress on the material of the helical coiled tube.

  8. Probability based load factors for design of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Kagami, S.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for developing probability-based load combinations for the design of concrete containments. The proposed criteria are in a load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. The load factors and resistance factors are derived for use in limit states design and are based on a target limit state probability. In this paper, the load factors for accident pressure and safe shutdown earthquake are derived for three target limit state probabilities. Other load factors are recommended on the basis of prior experience with probability-based design criteria for ordinary building construction. 6 refs

  9. Reliability Evaluation and Probabilistic Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional design practice for coastal structures is deterministic in nature and is based on the concept of a design load, which should not exceed the resistance (carrying capacity) of the structure. The design load is usually defined on a probabilistic basis as a characteristic value of the load......, e.g. the expectation (mean) value of the lOO-year return period event, however, often without consideration of the involved uncertainties. The resistance is in most cases defined in terms of the load which causes a certain design impact or damage to the structure and is not given as an ultimate...... force or deformation. This is because most of the available design formulae only give the relationship between wave characteristics and structural response, e.g. in terms of run-up, overtopping, armour layer damage etc. An example is the Hudson formula for armour layer stability. Almost all such design...

  10. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg Seemann, Tine; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An observational study was conducted using a structured observation scheme to assess compliance with the local phlebotomy guideline, to identify necessary focus items, and to investigate whether adherence to the phlebotomy guideline improved.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire from the EFLM Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase was adapted to local procedures. A pilot study of three months duration was conducted. Based on this, corrective actions were implemented and a ...

  11. Procedure for the fabrication of ceramic fuel pellets with an adjustable structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.; Klemm, U.; Sobek, D.

    1986-01-01

    The invention concerns a procedure for the fabrication of ceramic fuel pellets of UO 2 , PuO 2 , ThO 2 and their mixtures with an adjustable structure. Before or during the milling the particle shaped fuel pellets have been added polyethylenglycol in a 20 - 60 % aqueous solution with an amount of 0.5 - 2.0 % in weight. This additive has an effect on a controlled pore formation and grain growth advancement

  12. Definition, development, and demonstration of analytical procedures for the structured assessment approach. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Analytical procedures were refined for the Structural Assessment Approach for assessing the Material Control and Accounting systems at facilities that contain special nuclear material. Requirements were established for an efficient, feasible algorithm to be used in evaluating system performance measures that involve the probability of detection. Algorithm requirements to calculate the probability of detection for a given type of adversary and the target set are described

  13. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The typical approach on recent projects has been the hardening of safety-related buildings and/or protection of redundant safety-related equipment through separation. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. Conservatively calculated loads resulting from these are in some cases quite severe. The reactor auxiliary system building (Soft Shell Hardcore design) allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioactivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. This investigation determines the feasibility of two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model. (Auth.)

  14. Acoustic Design of Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas

    in a controlled laboratory environment have been conducted with the element in order to evaluate its performance in airborne and impact sound insulation. These results have been employed in simulations of the flanking transmission to estimate the in-situ performance of the super-light slab element. The flanking...... aggregate (leca) along with a newly developed technology called pearl-chain reinforcement, which is a system for post-tensioning. Here, it is shown how to combine these technologies within a precast super-light slab element, while honoring the requirements of a holistic design. Acoustic experiments...

  15. Computational RNA secondary structure design: empirical complexity and improved methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condon Anne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate the empirical complexity of the RNA secondary structure design problem, that is, the scaling of the typical difficulty of the design task for various classes of RNA structures as the size of the target structure is increased. The purpose of this work is to understand better the factors that make RNA structures hard to design for existing, high-performance algorithms. Such understanding provides the basis for improving the performance of one of the best algorithms for this problem, RNA-SSD, and for characterising its limitations. Results To gain insights into the practical complexity of the problem, we present a scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures using an improved version of the RNA-SSD algorithm, and also the RNAinverse algorithm from the Vienna package. Since primary structure constraints are relevant for designing RNA structures, we also investigate the correlation between the number and the location of the primary structure constraints when designing structures and the performance of the RNA-SSD algorithm. The scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures supports the hypothesis that the running time of both algorithms scales polynomially with the size of the structure. We also found that the algorithms are in general faster when constraints are placed only on paired bases in the structure. Furthermore, we prove that, according to the standard thermodynamic model, for some structures that the RNA-SSD algorithm was unable to design, there exists no sequence whose minimum free energy structure is the target structure. Conclusion Our analysis helps to better understand the strengths and limitations of both the RNA-SSD and RNAinverse algorithms, and suggests ways in which the performance of these algorithms can be further improved.

  16. Application and Design of Earth Structures from the Reinforced Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vaníček

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes the new problems connected with the proper design of the reinforced soil structures according to Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design. Therefore basic problems of reinforcement are briefly specified together with the influence of construction technology on the behaviour of such structures. Also up to date approach to the design method in the Czech republic are more specified. Finally the program of the new research in this field is described.

  17. Robust procedure for creating and characterizing the atomic structure of scanning tunneling microscope tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Tewari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning tunneling microscopes (STM are used extensively for studying and manipulating matter at the atomic scale. In spite of the critical role of the STM tip, procedures for controlling the atomic-scale shape of STM tips have not been rigorously justified. Here, we present a method for preparing tips in situ while ensuring the crystalline structure and a reproducibly prepared tip structure up to the second atomic layer. We demonstrate a controlled evolution of such tips starting from undefined tip shapes.

  18. Hardware Design and Implementation of a Wavelet De-Noising Procedure for Medical Signal Preprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szi-Wen Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz.

  19. Hardware design and implementation of a wavelet de-noising procedure for medical signal preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2015-10-16

    In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT) modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG) signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan) 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC) synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz.

  20. Design study of blanket structure for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Design study of the blanket structure for JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) has been carried out. Studied here were fabrication and testing of the blanket structure (blanket cells, blanket rings, piping and blanket modules), assembly and disassembly of the blanket module, and monitering and testing technique. Problems in design and fabrication of the blanket structure could be revealed. Research and development problems for the future were also disclosed. (author)

  1. Integrated structure/control design - Present methodology and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Newsom, J. R.; Zeiler, T. A.; Gilbert, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to current methodology applied to the integration of the optimal design process for structures and controls. Multilevel linear decomposition techniques proved to be most effective in organizing the computational efforts necessary for ISCD (integrated structures and control design) tasks. With the development of large orbiting space structures and actively controlled, high performance aircraft, there will be more situations in which this concept can be applied.

  2. Particle Swarm Optimization for Structural Design Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit SARUHAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to employ the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique to a mechanical engineering design problem which is minimizing the volume of a cantilevered beam subject to bending strength constraints. Mechanical engineering design problems are complex activities which are computing capability are more and more required. The most of these problems are solved by conventional mathematical programming techniques that require gradient information. These techniques have several drawbacks from which the main one is becoming trapped in local optima. As an alternative to gradient-based techniques, the PSO does not require the evaluation of gradients of the objective function. The PSO algorithm employs the generation of guided random positions when they search for the global optimum point. The PSO which is a nature inspired heuristics search technique imitates the social behavior of bird flocking. The results obtained by the PSO are compared with Mathematical Programming (MP. It is demonstrated that the PSO performed and obtained better convergence reliability on the global optimum point than the MP. Using the MP, the volume of 2961000 mm3 was obtained while the beam volume of 2945345 mm3 was obtained by the PSO.

  3. Structural optimization procedure of a composite wind turbine blade for reducing both material cost and blade weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weifei; Park, Dohyun; Choi, DongHoon

    2013-12-01

    A composite blade structure for a 2 MW horizontal axis wind turbine is optimally designed. Design requirements are simultaneously minimizing material cost and blade weight while satisfying the constraints on stress ratio, tip deflection, fatigue life and laminate layup requirements. The stress ratio and tip deflection under extreme gust loads and the fatigue life under a stochastic normal wind load are evaluated. A blade element wind load model is proposed to explain the wind pressure difference due to blade height change during rotor rotation. For fatigue life evaluation, the stress result of an implicit nonlinear dynamic analysis under a time-varying fluctuating wind is converted to the histograms of mean and amplitude of maximum stress ratio using the rainflow counting algorithm Miner's rule is employed to predict the fatigue life. After integrating and automating the whole analysis procedure an evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the discrete optimization problem.

  4. Improving design processes through structured reflection : a prototype software tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Melby, E.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype software tool facilitating the use of a design method supporting structured reflection on design processes is presented. The prototype, called Echo, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Both the prototype

  5. Design, Analysis And Realization Of Topology Optimized Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of topology optimisation as a constitutive design tool for design and form-finding of architectural concrete structures, and realisation of these designs using large scale CNCmilling of polystyrene form-work for in situ casting....

  6. Structure analysis and design of PCCV for new generation NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingdan; Wang Xiaowen; Huang Xiaolin; Xia Zufeng

    2005-01-01

    The paper documents the overall schedule work which has been done by Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI) in the research and design scope of the new generational advanced prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). It can be applied to the design of nuclear engineering and general prestressed concrete structures in civil engineering. (authors)

  7. An automated procedure for covariation-based detection of RNA structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winker, S.; Overbeek, R.; Woese, C.R.; Olsen, G.J.; Pfluger, N.

    1989-12-01

    This paper summarizes our investigations into the computational detection of secondary and tertiary structure of ribosomal RNA. We have developed a new automated procedure that not only identifies potential bondings of secondary and tertiary structure, but also provides the covariation evidence that supports the proposed bondings, and any counter-evidence that can be detected in the known sequences. A small number of previously unknown bondings have been detected in individual RNA molecules (16S rRNA and 7S RNA) through the use of our automated procedure. Currently, we are systematically studying mitochondrial rRNA. Our goal is to detect tertiary structure within 16S rRNA and quaternary structure between 16S and 23S rRNA. Our ultimate hope is that automated covariation analysis will contribute significantly to a refined picture of ribosome structure. Our colleagues in biology have begun experiments to test certain hypotheses suggested by an examination of our program's output. These experiments involve sequencing key portions of the 23S ribosomal RNA for species in which the known 16S ribosomal RNA exhibits variation (from the dominant pattern) at the site of a proposed bonding. The hope is that the 23S ribosomal RNA of these species will exhibit corresponding complementary variation or generalized covariation. 24 refs

  8. An automated procedure for covariation-based detection of RNA structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winker, S.; Overbeek, R.; Woese, C.R.; Olsen, G.J.; Pfluger, N.

    1989-12-01

    This paper summarizes our investigations into the computational detection of secondary and tertiary structure of ribosomal RNA. We have developed a new automated procedure that not only identifies potential bondings of secondary and tertiary structure, but also provides the covariation evidence that supports the proposed bondings, and any counter-evidence that can be detected in the known sequences. A small number of previously unknown bondings have been detected in individual RNA molecules (16S rRNA and 7S RNA) through the use of our automated procedure. Currently, we are systematically studying mitochondrial rRNA. Our goal is to detect tertiary structure within 16S rRNA and quaternary structure between 16S and 23S rRNA. Our ultimate hope is that automated covariation analysis will contribute significantly to a refined picture of ribosome structure. Our colleagues in biology have begun experiments to test certain hypotheses suggested by an examination of our program's output. These experiments involve sequencing key portions of the 23S ribosomal RNA for species in which the known 16S ribosomal RNA exhibits variation (from the dominant pattern) at the site of a proposed bonding. The hope is that the 23S ribosomal RNA of these species will exhibit corresponding complementary variation or generalized covariation. 24 refs.

  9. Preliminary conceptual design and analysis on KALIMER reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to perform preliminary conceptual design and structural analyses for KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) reactor structures to assess the design feasibility and to identify detailed analysis requirements. KALIMER thermal hydraulic system analysis results and neutronic analysis results are not available at present, only-limited preliminary structural analyses have been performed with the assumptions on the thermal loads. The responses of reactor vessel and reactor internal structures were based on the temperature difference of core inlet and outlet and on engineering judgments. Thermal stresses from the assumed temperatures were calculated using ANSYS code through parametric finite element heat transfer and elastic stress analyses. While, based on the results of preliminary conceptual design and structural analyses, the ASME Code limits for the reactor structures were satisfied for the pressure boundary, the needs for inelastic analyses were indicated for evaluation of design adequacy of the support barrel and the thermal liner. To reduce thermal striping effects in the bottom are of UIS due to up-flowing sodium form reactor core, installation of Inconel-718 liner to the bottom area was proposed, and to mitigate thermal shock loads, additional stainless steel liner was also suggested. The design feasibilities of these were validated through simplified preliminary analyses. In conceptual design phase, the implementation of these results will be made for the design of the reactor structures and the reactor internal structures in conjunction with the thermal hydraulic, neutronic, and seismic analyses results. 4 tabs., 24 figs., 4 refs. (Author)

  10. Travelling wave accelerating structure design for TESLA positron injector linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, K; Zhou, F; Flöttmann, K

    2000-01-01

    A modified cup-like TW accelerating structure for TESLA Positron Pre-Accelerator (PPA) is designed by optimizing the structure geometry and by changing the iris thickness cell by cell in a section . This structure has high shunt-impedance and a large iris radius to meet with the requirements of high gradient and large transverse acceptance. The beam dynamics in the structure with the optimum solenoid focus field are studied. A satisfactory positron beam transmission and the beam performance at the PPA output have been obtained. In this paper the accelerating structure design is described in detail and the results are presented.

  11. Investigation of IFMIF target assembly structure design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Hiroo; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Yamamura, Toshio

    2006-10-01

    In the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), the back-wall of target assembly is the part suffered the highest neutron-flux. The back-wall and the assembly are designed to have lips for cutting/welding at the back-wall replacement. To reduce thermal stress and deformation of the back-wall under neutron irradiation, contact pressure between the back-wall and the assembly is one of dominant factors. Therefore, an investigation was performed for feasible clamping pressure of a mechanical clamp set in limited space around the back-wall. It was clarified that the clamp can give a pressure difference up to 0.4 MPa between the contact pressure and atmosphere pressure in the test cell room. Also a research was performed for the dissimilar metal welding in the back-wall. Use of 309 steel was found adequate as the intermediate filler metal through the research of previous welding. Maintaining a temperature of the target assembly so as to avoid a freezing of liquid lithium is needed at the lithium charge into the loop before the beam injection. The assembly is covered with thermal insulation. Therefore, a research and an investigation were performed for compact and light thermal-insulation effective even under helium (i.e. high heat-conduction) condition of the test cell room. The result was as follows; in the case that a thermal conductivity 0.008 W/m·K of one of found insulation materials is available in the temperature range up to 300degC of the IFMIF target assembly, needed thickness and weight of the insulation were respectively only 8.2 mm and 32 kg. Also a research was performed for high-heat-density heaters to maintain temperature of the back-wall which can not be cover with insulation due to limited space. A heater made of silicon-nitride was found to be adequate. Total heat of 8.4 kW on the back-wall was found to be achievable through an investigations of heater arrange. Also an investigation was performed for remote-handling device to

  12. Structural reliability codes for probabilistic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    probabilistic code format has not only strong influence on the formal reliability measure, but also on the formal cost of failure to be associated if a design made to the target reliability level is considered to be optimal. In fact, the formal cost of failure can be different by several orders of size for two...... different, but by and large equally justifiable probabilistic code formats. Thus, the consequence is that a code format based on decision theoretical concepts and formulated as an extension of a probabilistic code format must specify formal values to be used as costs of failure. A principle of prudence...... is suggested for guiding the choice of the reference probabilistic code format for constant reliability. In the author's opinion there is an urgent need for establishing a standard probabilistic reliability code. This paper presents some considerations that may be debatable, but nevertheless point...

  13. Curative procedures of oral health and structural characteristics of primary dental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Baumgarten

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate if the provision of clinical dental care, by means of the main curative procedures recommended in Primary Health Care, is associated with team structural characteristics, considering the presence of a minimum set of equipment, instrument, and supplies in Brazil’s primary health care services. METHODS A cross-sectional exploratory study based on data collected from 18,114 primary healthcare services with dental health teams in Brazil, in 2014. The outcome was created from the confirmation of five clinical procedures performed by the dentist, accounting for the presence of minimum equipment, instrument, and supplies to carry them out. Covariables were related to structural characteristics. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS A total of 1,190 (6.5% dental health teams did not present the minimum equipment to provide clinical dental care and only 2,498 (14.8% had all the instrument and supplies needed and provided the five curative procedures assessed. There was a positive association between the outcome and the composition of dental health teams, higher workload, performing analysis of health condition, and monitoring of oral health indicators. Additionally, the dental health teams that planned and programmed oral health actions with the primary care team monthly provided the procedures more frequently. Dentists with better employment status, career plans, graduation in public health or those who underwent permanent education activities provided the procedures more frequently. CONCLUSIONS A relevant number of Primary Health Care services did not have the infrastructure to provide clinical dental care. However, better results were found in dental health teams with oral health technicians, with higher workload and that plan their activities, as well as in those that employed dentists with better working relationships

  14. Curative procedures of oral health and structural characteristics of primary dental care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Alexandre; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bulgarelli, Alexandre Fávero; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate if the provision of clinical dental care, by means of the main curative procedures recommended in Primary Health Care, is associated with team structural characteristics, considering the presence of a minimum set of equipment, instrument, and supplies in Brazil’s primary health care services. METHODS A cross-sectional exploratory study based on data collected from 18,114 primary healthcare services with dental health teams in Brazil, in 2014. The outcome was created from the confirmation of five clinical procedures performed by the dentist, accounting for the presence of minimum equipment, instrument, and supplies to carry them out. Covariables were related to structural characteristics. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS A total of 1,190 (6.5%) dental health teams did not present the minimum equipment to provide clinical dental care and only 2,498 (14.8%) had all the instrument and supplies needed and provided the five curative procedures assessed. There was a positive association between the outcome and the composition of dental health teams, higher workload, performing analysis of health condition, and monitoring of oral health indicators. Additionally, the dental health teams that planned and programmed oral health actions with the primary care team monthly provided the procedures more frequently. Dentists with better employment status, career plans, graduation in public health or those who underwent permanent education activities provided the procedures more frequently. CONCLUSIONS A relevant number of Primary Health Care services did not have the infrastructure to provide clinical dental care. However, better results were found in dental health teams with oral health technicians, with higher workload and that plan their activities, as well as in those that employed dentists with better working relationships, who had dentists

  15. Curative procedures of oral health and structural characteristics of primary dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Alexandre; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bulgarelli, Alexandre Fávero; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

    2018-04-09

    To evaluate if the provision of clinical dental care, by means of the main curative procedures recommended in Primary Health Care, is associated with team structural characteristics, considering the presence of a minimum set of equipment, instrument, and supplies in Brazil's primary health care services. A cross-sectional exploratory study based on data collected from 18,114 primary healthcare services with dental health teams in Brazil, in 2014. The outcome was created from the confirmation of five clinical procedures performed by the dentist, accounting for the presence of minimum equipment, instrument, and supplies to carry them out. Covariables were related to structural characteristics. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 1,190 (6.5%) dental health teams did not present the minimum equipment to provide clinical dental care and only 2,498 (14.8%) had all the instrument and supplies needed and provided the five curative procedures assessed. There was a positive association between the outcome and the composition of dental health teams, higher workload, performing analysis of health condition, and monitoring of oral health indicators. Additionally, the dental health teams that planned and programmed oral health actions with the primary care team monthly provided the procedures more frequently. Dentists with better employment status, career plans, graduation in public health or those who underwent permanent education activities provided the procedures more frequently. A relevant number of Primary Health Care services did not have the infrastructure to provide clinical dental care. However, better results were found in dental health teams with oral health technicians, with higher workload and that plan their activities, as well as in those that employed dentists with better working relationships, who had dentists with degrees in public health and who underwent

  16. A novel gait-based synthesis procedure for the design of 4-bar exoskeleton with natural trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanpreet Singh

    2018-01-01

    The Translational Potential of this Article: Many hospitals and individuals have used the immobile and portable rehabilitation devices. These devices involve mechanisms, and the design of mechanism plays a vital role in the functioning of these devices; therefore, we have developed a new synthesis procedure for the design of the mechanism. Besides synthesis procedure, a mechanism is developed that can be used in the rehabilitation devices, bipeds, exoskeletons, etc., to benefit the society.

  17. Design and analysis of composite structures with applications to aerospace structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kassapoglou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Design and Analysis of Composite Structures enables graduate students and engineers to generate meaningful and robust designs of complex composite structures. Combining analysis and design methods for structural components, the book begins with simple topics such as skins and stiffeners and progresses through to entire components of fuselages and wings. Starting with basic mathematical derivation followed by simplifications used in real-world design, Design and Analysis of Composite Structures presents the level of accuracy and range of applicability of each method. Examples taken from ac

  18. HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO THE ARCHITECTONIC DESIGN SELECTION PROCEDURE: THE NUTRE LAB CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  19. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Reynolds, Scott A; Hu, Youfang; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved.

  20. Structural design and dynamic analysis of underground nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.W.; Reddy, D.V.; Heale, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Present actual experience in the structural design of undeground containments is limited to only four rather small reactors all located in Europe. Thus proposals for future underground reactors depend on the transposition of applicable design specifications, constraints and criteria from existing surface nuclear power plants to underground, and the use of many years of experience in the structural design of large underground cavities and cavity complexes for other purposes such as mining, hydropower stations etc. An application of such considerations in a recent input for the Underground Containment sub-section of the Seismic Task Group Report to the ASCE Committee for Nuclear Structures and Materials is presented as follows: underground concept considerations, siting criteria and structural selection, structural types, analytical and semi-analytical approaches, design and other miscellaneous considerations

  1. Assisted design, implementation, and modification of procedure tracking and advisory systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.; Boy, G.A.; Conley, J.L.; Iverson, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Automated procedure tracking systems have been of interest in the nuclear power industry due to the huge numbers of documented procedures required for the operation and maintenance of commercial power reactors. Tools are under development at Ames Research center that form the basis of an intelligent advisory system for process control applications. Two tools, one for documentation maintenance and management and the other for automated fault diagnosis, are being integrated to build an advisory system appropriate for use in facilities that require emergency readiness and safety-critical operations. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance has been analyzed from artificial intelligence and from human factors viewpoints. A software tool, called computer-integrated documentation (CID), has been designed and is under further development to address these issues. A fault diagnosis algorithm has been developed and implemented in a software tool called the fault-tree diagnosis system (FTDS). The algorithm uses a knowledge base that is easily changed and updated to reflect current system status. An integrated tool set consisting of CID and FTDS is being used to develop and demonstrate an intelligent advisory system for use in a flight test environment for advanced aircraft

  2. Structural design of SBWR reactor building complex using microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandagi, K.; Rajagopal, R.S.; Sawhney, P.S.; Gou, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    The design concept of Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) plant is based on simplicity and passive features to enhance safety and reliability, improve performance, and increase economic viability. The SBWR utilizes passive systems such as Gravity Driven Core-Cooling System (GDCS) and Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). To suit these design features the Reactor Building (RB) complex of the SBWR is configured as an integrated structure consisting of a cylindrical Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) surrounded by square reinforced concrete safety envelope and outer box structures, all sharing a common reinforced concrete basemat. This paper describes the structural analysis and design aspects of the RB complex. A 3D STARDYNE finite element model has been developed for the structural analysis of the complex using a PC Compaq 486/33L microcomputer. The structural analysis is performed for service and factored load conditions for the applicable loading combinations. The dynamic responses of containment structures due to pool hydrodynamic loads have been calculated by an axisymmetric shell model using COSMOS/M program. The RCCV is designed in accordance with ASME Section 3, Division 2 Code. The rest of the RB which is classified as Seismic Category 1 structure is designed in accordance with the ACI 349 Code. This paper shows that microcomputers can be efficiently used for the analysis and design of large and complex structures such as RCCV and Reactor Building complex. The use of microcomputers can result in significant savings in the computational cost compared with that of mainframe computers

  3. High temperature structure design for FBRs and analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Koji

    1986-01-01

    In the case of FBRs, the operation temperature exceeds 500 deg C, therefore, the design taking the inelastic characteristics of structural materials, such as plasticity and creep, into account is required, and the high grade and detailed evaluation of design is demanded. This new high temperature structure design technology has been advanced in respective countries taking up experimental, prototype and demonstration reactors as the targets. The development of FBRs in Japan was begun with the experimental reactor 'Joyo' which has been operated since 1977, and now, the prototype FBR 'Monju' of 280 MWe is under construction, which is expected to attain the criticality in 1992. In order to realize FBRs which can compete with LWRs through the construction of a demonstration FBR, the construction of large scale plants and the heightening of the economy and reliability are necessary. The features and the role of FBR structural design, the method of high temperature structure design and the trend of its standardization, the trend of the structural analysis technology for FBRs such as inelastic analysis, buckling analysis and fluid and structure coupled vibration analysis, the present status of structural analysis programs, and the subjects for the future of high temperature structure design are explained. (Kako, I.)

  4. CRBRP structural and thermal margin beyond the design base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawbridge, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    Prudent margins beyond the design base have been included in the design of Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant to further reduce the risk to the public from highly improbable occurrences. These margins include Structural Margin Beyond the Design Base to address the energetics aspects and Thermal Margin Beyond the Design Base to address the longer term thermal and radiological consequences. The assessments that led to the specification of these margins are described, along with the experimental support for those assessments. 8 refs

  5. Structural analysis for elevated temperature design of the LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.S.

    1976-02-01

    In the structural design of LMFBR components for elevated temperature service it is necessary to take account of the time-dependent, creep behavior of materials. The accommodation of creep to assure design reliability has required (1) development of new design limits and criteria, (2) development of more detailed representations of material behavior, and (3) application of the most advanced analysis techniques. These developments are summarized and examples are given to illustrate the current state of technology in elevated temperature design

  6. DESIGN OF A COUNTABLE PROCEDURE FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elier Eugenio Rabanal-Arencibia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many companies present in their memoirs matters of environmental character, but they are few those that are able to count the environmental facts that definitively influence in their financial states. One of the challenges of our managerial sector in Cuba is to integrate the topic of the environment to the process of taking decisions and to the business strategies. A countable system that contemplates the environmental concept in its classifier of bills, obviously will have available information for its costs and environmental revenues, what is indispensable in the long term company development, especially if it is about companies related with the exploitation of natural resources. The purpose is to carry out the Design of a Countable Procedure for the registration of environmental variables, as a support to the continuous improvement of the Environmental Accounting. 

  7. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  8. Design and Optimization of a Turbine Intake Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fošumpaur

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate design of the turbine intake structure of a hydropower plant is based on assumptions about its suitable function, and the design will increase the total efficiency of operation. This paper deals with optimal design of the turbine structure of run-of-river hydropower plants. The study focuses mainly on optimization of the hydropower plant location with respect to the original river banks, and on the optimal design of a separating pier between the weir and the power plant. The optimal design of the turbine intake was determined with the use of 2-D mathematical modelling. A case study is performed for the optimal design of a turbine intake structure on the Nemen river in Belarus. 

  9. A Scrutiny of the Equivalent Static Lateral Load Method of Design for Multistory Masonry Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touqan, A. R.; Helou, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Building structures with a soft storey are gaining widespread popularity in urban areas due to the scarcity of land and due to the pressing need for wide open spaces at the entrance level. In earthquake prone zones dynamic analysis based on the Equivalent Static Lateral Load method is attractive to the novice and the design codes leave the choice of the analysis procedure up to the discretion of the designer. The following is a comparison of the said method with the more elaborate Response Spectrum Method of analysis as they apply to a repertoire of different structural models. The results clearly show that the former provides similar results of response in structures with gradual change in storey stiffness; while it is over conservative for a bare frame structure. It is however less conservative for structures with a soft storey

  10. Optimal Design of Composite Structures Under Manufacturing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmaras, Konstantinos

    determination of the appropriate laminate thickness and the material choice in the structure. The optimal design problems that arise are stated as nonconvex mixed integer programming problems. We resort to different reformulation techniques to state the optimization problems as either linear or nonlinear convex....... The continuous relaxation of the mixed integer programming problems is being solved by an implementation of a primal–dual interior point method for nonlinear programming that updates the barrier parameter adaptively. The method is chosen for its excellent convergence properties and the ability of the method...... design phase results in structures with better structural performance reducing the need of manually post–processing the found designs....

  11. Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.

  12. Fatigue design of steel and composite structures Eurocode 3 : design of steel structures, part 1-9 fatigue ; Eurocode 4 : design of composite steel and concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaumer, Alain; Davaine, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This volume addresses the specific subject of fatigue, a subject not familiar to many engineers, but still relevant for proper and good design of numerous steel structures. It explains all issues related to the subject: Basis of fatigue design, reliability and various verification formats, determination of stresses and stress ranges, fatigue strength, application range and limitations. It contains detailed examples of applications of the concepts, computation methods and verifications.

  13. Membrane biofouling characterization: effects of sample preparation procedures on biofilm structure and the microbial community

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Zheng

    2014-07-15

    Ensuring the quality and reproducibility of results from biofilm structure and microbial community analysis is essential to membrane biofouling studies. This study evaluated the impacts of three sample preparation factors (ie number of buffer rinses, storage time at 4°C, and DNA extraction method) on the downstream analysis of nitrifying biofilms grown on ultrafiltration membranes. Both rinse and storage affected biofilm structure, as suggested by their strong correlation with total biovolume, biofilm thickness, roughness and the spatial distribution of EPS. Significant variations in DNA yields and microbial community diversity were also observed among samples treated by different rinses, storage and DNA extraction methods. For the tested biofilms, two rinses, no storage and DNA extraction with both mechanical and chemical cell lysis from attached biofilm were the optimal sample preparation procedures for obtaining accurate information about biofilm structure, EPS distribution and the microbial community. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Design of concrete structures important to safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    Civil engineering structures in nuclear installations form an important feature having implications to safety performance of these installations. The objective and minimum requirements for the design of civil engineering buildings/structures to be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety of nuclear installations in India (such as pressurised heavy water reactor and related systems) are specified in the Safety standard for civil engineering structures important to safety of nuclear facilities. This standard is written by AERB to specify guidelines for implementation of the above civil engineering safety standard in the design of concrete structures important to safety

  15. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, T. L.; Nybo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important preanalytical factor is the blood sampling procedure and its adherence to the guidelines, i.e. CLSI and ISO 15189, in order to ensure a consistent quality of the blood collection. Therefore, it is critically important to introduce quality control on this part of the process....... As suggested by the EFLM working group on the preanalytical phase we introduced continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme to monitor the quality of blood sampling performed on an everyday basis. Materials and methods: Based on our own routines the EFLM....... Conclusion: It is possible to establish a continuous quality control on blood sampling. It has been well accepted by the staff and we have already been able to identify critical areas in the sampling process. We find that continuous auditing increase focus on the quality of blood collection which ensures...

  16. Design of marine structures with improved safety for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanac, Alan; Varsta, Petri

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for design of marine structures with increased safety for environment, considering also the required investment costs as well as the aspects of risk distribution onto the maritime stakeholders. Practically, the paper seeks to answer what is the optimal amount that should be invested into certain safety measure for any given vessel. Due to the uneven distribution of risk, as well as the differing impact of costs emerging from safety improvements, stakeholders experience conflicting ranking of alternatives. To solve this multi-stakeholder decision-making problem, in which each stakeholder is a decision-maker, the method applies concepts of group decision-making theory, namely the Game Theory. The method fosters axiomatic definition of the optimum solution, arguing that the solution, or the final selected design, should satisfy the non-dominance, efficiency, and fairness. These three are thoroughly discussed in terms of structural design, especially the latter. Considering the coupling of environmental risk and structural design, the method also builds on the preference structure of four maritime stakeholders: yards, owners, oil receivers and the public, who either share the risks or directly influence structural design. Method is presented on a practical study of structural design of a tanker with a crashworthy side structure that is capable of reducing the risk of collision. The outcome of this study outlines a number of possibilities for successful improvement of tanker safety that can benefit, concurrently, all maritime stakeholders.

  17. A simple method for the design of tension structures combining topological mapping and nonlinear structural analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado-Piña, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When designing a tension structure the shape is not known at the beginning of the process. Form-finding methods allow the designer to obtain an initial shape from given boundary conditions. Several form-finding methods for tension structures are already available in the technical literature; all of them posses certain limitations and drawbacks and no single method is optimal for all problems. The engineer may select the proper combination of methods best suited to the designer’s needs. In this paper it is proposed a combined method to achieve satisfactory equilibrium configurations for fabric tension structures. The force density method (FDM implemented with topological mapping (TM is used as a search engine for the preliminary design, and a procedure that employs nonlinear structural analysis is proposed for final refinement of the initial equilibrium configuration hence allowing the use of the same analysis tool for both refinement of the solution and analysis under loading.Al diseñar una estructura tensada la forma inicial es normalmente desconocida. Los métodos de búsqueda de forma permiten al ingeniero obtener una geometría inicial dadas unas condiciones de contorno. Existen diferentes métodos de búsqueda de formas de equilibrio, pero todos tienen limitaciones y no existe uno único óptimo para cualquier tipo de problema. El ingeniero debe elegir la combinación de métodos que mejor se adapte a sus necesidades. En este artículo se propone un método combinado para generar configuraciones de equilibrio satisfactorias en estructuras tensadas. Como motor de búsqueda para el diseño preliminar se emplea el método de las densidades de fuerza (FDM implementado con mallado en topología (TM, y se propone un procedimiento basado en análisis no lineal de estructuras para el refinamiento de la configuración inicial de equilibrio, permitiéndose así el empleo de las mismas herramientas tanto para el refinamiento de la solución inicial

  18. Advanced analysis and design for fire safety of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Analysis and Design for Fire Safety of Steel Structures systematically presents the latest findings on behaviours of steel structural components in a fire, such as the catenary actions of restrained steel beams, the design methods for restrained steel columns, and the membrane actions of concrete floor slabs with steel decks. Using a systematic description of structural fire safety engineering principles, the authors illustrate the important difference between behaviours of an isolated structural element and the restrained component in a complete structure under fire conditions. The book will be an essential resource for structural engineers who wish to improve their understanding of steel buildings exposed to fires. It is also an ideal textbook for introductory courses in fire safety for master’s degree programs in structural engineering, and is excellent reading material for final-year undergraduate students in civil engineering and fire safety engineering. Furthermore, it successfully bridges th...

  19. Evenly distributed unitaries: On the structure of unitary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.; Audenaert, K.; Eisert, J.

    2007-01-01

    We clarify the mathematical structure underlying unitary t-designs. These are sets of unitary matrices, evenly distributed in the sense that the average of any tth order polynomial over the design equals the average over the entire unitary group. We present a simple necessary and sufficient criterion for deciding if a set of matrices constitutes a design. Lower bounds for the number of elements of 2-designs are derived. We show how to turn mutually unbiased bases into approximate 2-designs whose cardinality is optimal in leading order. Designs of higher order are discussed and an example of a unitary 5-design is presented. We comment on the relation between unitary and spherical designs and outline methods for finding designs numerically or by searching character tables of finite groups. Further, we sketch connections to problems in linear optics and questions regarding typical entanglement

  20. Development of expert system for structural design of FBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Uno, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Shimakawa, Takashi; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Yagawa, Genki.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of structural design processes for nuclear components can be summarized as follows : (1) Many engineers belonging to different fields are working in parallel, exchanging a huge amount of data and information. (2) A final solution is determined after a number of iterative design processes. (3) Solutions have to be examined many times based on sophisticated design codes. (4) Sophisticated calculation methods such as the finite element method are frequently utilized, and experts' knowledge on such analyses plays important roles in the design process. Taking these issues into consideration, a new expert system for structural design is developed in the present study. Here, the object-oriented data flow mechanism and the blackboard model are utilized to systematize structural design processes in a computer. An automated finite element calculation module is implemented, and experts' knowledge is stored in knowledge base. In addition, a new algorithm is employed to automatically draw the design window, which is defined as an area of permissible solutions in a design parameter space. The developed system is successfully applied to obtain the design windows of four components selected from the demonstration FBR structures. (author)

  1. Design procedure for formulating and assessing the durability of particulate grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonkwo, I.O.; Altschaeff, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The current disposal plans for low-level wastes call for stabilizing or encapsulating and storing of these wastes in steel drums which in turn are buried in shallow trenches. Complete sealing is accomplished with grout, a liquid injection comprising principally of cement and fly ash, etc. Upon solidification, the grout forms a rigid mass around the drum, thereby eliminating access of groundwater into or out of the waste barrier, or leaching of radionuclides. Since the primary mechanism for the likely introduction of hazardous and/or radioactive elements into the biosphere in this situation, is through physical or chemical deterioration of the waste barrier, it is necessary that the effect of adverse environments on the durability of the grouts be examined and incorporated in barrier design. Currently, procedures for formulating grout mixes to assure a given impermeability or durability of the grout over its service period is lacking, and so are the techniques for monitoring the in-service performance of waste barrier systems. This paper depicts a serious limitation in waste barrier system technology, for it is time that optimization in design be possible. To allow this, a method is needed that creates the grout formulation specification for an optimization of behavior parameters in the resulting product. These considerations suggest a strong need for improvement in the grout formulation specification to allow a focus upon behavior properties desired by the engineer in the creation of optimum performance. This paper addresses these problems

  2. New ion exchange resin designs and regeneration procedures yield improved performance for various condensate polishing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmy, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    Condensate polishing is an application with many different design and operational aspects. The past decade has brought new challenges for improved water quality with respect to both soluble and insoluble contaminants. Nonetheless, the endeavors to understand the compositional complexities of the ion exchange resin bead and the convoluted dynamics of ion exchange chemistry and chemical engineering mechanisms occurring within the mixed bed condensate polisher have brought new ideas and expectations for ion exchange resin in deep-bed condensate polishers than ever before. The new products and procedures presented here are a collaboration of a great deal of effort on the part of researchers, consultants, system engineers, station chemists, lab technicians and others. The studies discussed in this paper unequivocally demonstrate the merits of: 1. A specially designed cation resin to achieve greater than 95% insoluble iron removal efficiency, 2. A less-separable mixed resin for improved control of reactor water sulfate in BWR primary cycles, 3. Applying increased levels of regeneration chemicals and retrofitting the service vessels with re-mixing capability to improve the operation of deep-bed condensate polishers in PWR secondary cycles. (authors)

  3. Crush performance of redwood for developing design procedures for impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most simplistic information exists on its crush properties. Tbe stress-strain interrelationship for any wood species subject to three-dimensional stresses is largely unknown for any all stress condition and wood behavior at both high strains and high strain-rates is known only in general terms. Both stress-strain and crush failure theories have been developed based only on uniaxial load tests. The anisotropy of wood adds an additional complexity to measuring wood response and developing suitable theories to describe it. A long history of wood utilization in the building industry has led to design procedures and property information related to simple uniaxial loadings that do not inflict damage to the wood. This lack of knowledge may be surprising for a material that has a long history of engineered use, but the result is difficulty in utilizing wood in more sophisticated designs such as impact limiters. This study provides a step toward filling the information gap on wood material response for high performance applications such as impact limiters

  4. Design Concept for the Microwave Interrogation Structure in PARCS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, G. J; Klipstein, W. M; Heavner, T. P; Jefferts, S. R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will describe key aspects of the conceptual design of the microwave interrogation structure in the laser-cooled cesium frequency standard that is part of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) experiment...

  5. ASPECTS REGARDING THE STRUCTURE OF GRADUATION PAPERS IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLOŞ Codruţa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding the structure, themes and content of graduation papers in the specialization of Industrial Design within Petru Maior University of Târgu Mures.

  6. Designing CNC Knit for Hybrid Membrane And Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders; Gengnagel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    specific properties and detailing. CNC knitting with high tenacity yarn enables this practice and offers an alternative to current woven membranes. The design and fabrication of an 8m high fabric tower through an interdisciplinary team of architects, structural and textile engineers, allowed to investigate...... means to design, specify, make and test CNC knit as material for hybrid structures in architectural scale. This paper shares the developed process, identifies challenges, potentials and future work...

  7. Structural design of superconducting magnets for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.; Long, C.J.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1979-09-01

    The Large Coil Program (LCP) is a research, development, and demonstration effort specifically for the advancement of the technologies involved in the production of large superconducting magnets. This paper presents a review of the status of the structural designs, analysis methods, and verification tests being performed by the participating LCP design teams in the USA, Switzerland, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The significant structural mechanics concerns that are being investigated with the LCP are presented

  8. Treatment of postradiation structure of the rectum by the modified Duhamel procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, D.S.; Lawrie, G.M.; Morris, G.C. Jr.

    1979-06-01

    Benign rectosigmoid stenosis secondary to pelvic radiation presents a difficult problem in management and is usually treated by permanent colostomy with its attendant discomfort and inconvenience. Other approaches include low anterior resection or even transsacral resection of the affected area of rectosigmoid, but they involve risk to rectal, bladder, and sexual function. The Martin modification of the Duhamel procedure is specifically designed to avoid these problems and was used successfully in the present case for treatment of rectosigmoid stenosis. The patient has been followed up 8 years and reports normal sensation and function of bladder and rectum and no disturbance of sexual function.

  9. Nonlinear Shaping Architecture Designed with Using Evolutionary Structural Optimization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Banachowicz, Marta

    2017-10-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of using Structural Optimization Tools (ESO) digital tools in an integrated structural and architectural design in response to the current needs geared towards sustainability, combining ecological and economic efficiency. The first part of the paper defines the Evolutionary Structural Optimization tools, which were developed specifically for engineering purposes using finite element analysis as a framework. The development of ESO has led to several incarnations, which are all briefly discussed (Additive ESO, Bi-directional ESO, Extended ESO). The second part presents result of using these tools in structural and architectural design. Actual building projects which involve optimization as a part of the original design process will be presented (Crematorium in Kakamigahara Gifu, Japan, 2006 SANAA“s Learning Centre, EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland 2008 among others). The conclusion emphasizes that the structural engineering and architectural design mean directing attention to the solutions which are used by Nature, designing works optimally shaped and forming their own environments. Architectural forms never constitute the optimum shape derived through a form-finding process driven only by structural optimization, but rather embody and integrate a multitude of parameters. It might be assumed that there is a similarity between these processes in nature and the presented design methods. Contemporary digital methods make the simulation of such processes possible, and thus enable us to refer back to the empirical methods of previous generations.

  10. Design criteria development for the structural stability of nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, C H [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, T S [Daewoo Engineering Company, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ko, H M [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-11-15

    The objective of the present project is to develop design criteria for the structural stability of rock cavity for the underground repository are defined, according to which detailed descriptions for design methodologies, design stages and stability analysis of the cavity are made. The proposed criteria can be used as a guide for the preparation of design codes which are to be established as the site condition and technical emplacement procedure are fixed. The present report first reviews basic safety requirements and criteria of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes for the establishment of design concepts and stability analysis of the rock cavity. Important factors for the design are also described by considering characteristics of the wastes and underground facilities. The present project has investigated technical aspects on the design of underground structures based on the currently established underground construction technologies, and presented a proposal for design criteria for the structural stability of the nuclear waste repository. The proposed criteria consist of general provisions, geological exploration, rock classification, design process and methods, supporting system, analyses and instrumentation.

  11. Reliability-Based Robust Design Optimization of Structures Considering Uncertainty in Design Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structural design optimization to cover both the reliability and robustness under uncertainty in design variables. The main objective is to improve the efficiency of the optimization process. To address this problem, a hybrid reliability-based robust design optimization (RRDO method is proposed. Prior to the design optimization, the Sobol sensitivity analysis is used for selecting key design variables and providing response variance as well, resulting in significantly reduced computational complexity. The single-loop algorithm is employed to guarantee the structural reliability, allowing fast optimization process. In the case of robust design, the weighting factor balances the response performance and variance with respect to the uncertainty in design variables. The main contribution of this paper is that the proposed method applies the RRDO strategy with the usage of global approximation and the Sobol sensitivity analysis, leading to the reduced computational cost. A structural example is given to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  12. Giga-voxel computational morphogenesis for structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aage, Niels; Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan S.; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-10-01

    In the design of industrial products ranging from hearing aids to automobiles and aeroplanes, material is distributed so as to maximize the performance and minimize the cost. Historically, human intuition and insight have driven the evolution of mechanical design, recently assisted by computer-aided design approaches. The computer-aided approach known as topology optimization enables unrestricted design freedom and shows great promise with regard to weight savings, but its applicability has so far been limited to the design of single components or simple structures, owing to the resolution limits of current optimization methods. Here we report a computational morphogenesis tool, implemented on a supercomputer, that produces designs with giga-voxel resolution—more than two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported. Such resolution provides insights into the optimal distribution of material within a structure that were hitherto unachievable owing to the challenges of scaling up existing modelling and optimization frameworks. As an example, we apply the tool to the design of the internal structure of a full-scale aeroplane wing. The optimized full-wing design has unprecedented structural detail at length scales ranging from tens of metres to millimetres and, intriguingly, shows remarkable similarity to naturally occurring bone structures in, for example, bird beaks. We estimate that our optimized design corresponds to a reduction in mass of 2-5 per cent compared to currently used aeroplane wing designs, which translates into a reduction in fuel consumption of about 40-200 tonnes per year per aeroplane. Our morphogenesis process is generally applicable, not only to mechanical design, but also to flow systems, antennas, nano-optics and micro-systems.

  13. New design procedure development of future reactor critical power estimation. (1) Practical design-by-analysis method for BWR critical power design correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Mitsutake, Toru

    2007-01-01

    For present BWR fuels, the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic test, such as the critical power measurement test, pressure drop measurement test and so on, has been needed. However, the full mock-up test required the high costs and large-scale test facility. At present, there are only a few test facilities to perform the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic test in the world. Moreover, for future BWR, the bundle size tends to be larger, because of reducing the plant construction costs and minimizing the routine check period. For instance, AB1600, improved ABWR, was proposed from Toshiba, whose bundle size was 1.2 times larger than the conventional BWR fuel size. It is too expensive and far from realistic to perform the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic test for such a large size fuel bundle. The new design procedure is required to realize the large scale bundle design development, especially for the future reactor. Therefore, the new design procedure, Practical Design-by-Analysis (PDBA) method, has been developed. This new procedure consists of the partial mock-up test and numerical analysis. At present, the subchannel analysis method based on three-fluid two-phase flow model only is a realistic choice. Firstly, the partial mock-up test is performed, for instance, the 1/4 partial mock-up bundle. Then, the first-step critical power correlation coefficients are evaluated with the measured data. The input data, such as the spacer effect model coefficient, on the subchannel analysis are also estimated with the data. Next, the radial power effect on the critical power of the full-bundle size was estimated with the subchannel analysis. Finally, the critical power correlation is modified by the subchannel analysis results. In the present study, the critical power correlation of the conventional 8x8 BWR fuel was developed with the PDBA method by 4x4 partial mock-up tests and the subchannel analysis code. The accuracy of the estimated critical power was 3.8%. The several themes remain to

  14. Procedure for getting safety classed concrete structures approved by Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halme, Ville-Juhani

    2015-01-01

    Posiva is preparing geological final disposal in the Finnish bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The final disposal facility includes encapsulation plant and underground repository. Most of the main civil structures are concrete structures. STUK is the supervising authority in civil structures. The National Building Code of Finland and STUK's Regulatory Guide on nuclear safety (YVL) are the most important instructions when constructing concrete structures into nuclear installation. Posiva has classified concrete structures in two classes according STUK's YVL-guidance: EYT (non-nuclear) and Safety Class 3 (SC 3, nuclear safety significance). When building SC 3 concrete structures, specific protocol must be followed. Protocol includes planned routines for design, construction, supervision, quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) activities. Documents relating concrete structures must be approved by Posiva and STUK before construction work. After structures have been designed and actual building is ongoing, there are two main steps. Before concreting, readiness inspection for concreting must be arranged. Readiness inspection will be arranged according to a specific plan and the date must be informed to STUK. After establishing readiness for concreting, casting work can begin. Once concrete structures are done, inspected and approved, final documentation according to a quality control plan will be reviewed by Posiva. After Posiva's approval, final documentation will be sent for STUK's approval. In the end STUK will give the permission for commissioning of the concrete structures after approved commissioning inspection. The document is made up of an abstract and a poster

  15. Structural Design and Sizing of a Metallic Cryotank Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Martin, Robert A.; Johnson, Theodore F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the structural design and sizing details of a 33-foot (10 m) metallic cryotank concept used as the reference design to compare with the composite cryotank concepts developed by industry as part of NASA s Composite Cryotank Technology Development (CCTD) Project. The structural design methodology and analysis results for the metallic cryotank concept are reported in the paper. The paper describes the details of the metallic cryotank sizing assumptions for the baseline and reference tank designs. In particular, the paper discusses the details of the cryotank weld land design and analyses performed to obtain a reduced weight metallic cryotank design using current materials and manufacturing techniques. The paper also discusses advanced manufacturing techniques to spin-form the cryotank domes and compares the potential mass savings to current friction stir-welded technology.

  16. Designing socio-technical systems : Structures and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, P.W.G.; Van Daalen, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and Management (SEPAM) MSc curriculum taught at Delft University of Technology focuses on the design of socio-technical systems (STS). We teach our students to structure design activities by considering what we call the TIP aspects: Technical systems,

  17. On The Design of Gravity Structures using Wave Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Brorsen, Michael

    Although most structures are subjected to dynamic, stochastic loads, it is in fact seldom that these loads are considered in the design, Normally the design is based on an equivalent static load, establishing naturally with due consideration to the true conditions, This method is often called det...... deterministic, the loading being described as a specified function of time....

  18. Basic design of parallel computational program for probabilistic structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Taketoshi; Gu, Wenwei; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    1999-06-01

    In our laboratory, for 'development of damage evaluation method of structural brittle materials by microscopic fracture mechanics and probabilistic theory' (nuclear computational science cross-over research) we examine computational method related to super parallel computation system which is coupled with material strength theory based on microscopic fracture mechanics for latent cracks and continuum structural model to develop new structural reliability evaluation methods for ceramic structures. This technical report is the review results regarding probabilistic structural mechanics theory, basic terms of formula and program methods of parallel computation which are related to principal terms in basic design of computational mechanics program. (author)

  19. Basic design of parallel computational program for probabilistic structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Taketoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Gu, Wenwei; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    1999-06-01

    In our laboratory, for `development of damage evaluation method of structural brittle materials by microscopic fracture mechanics and probabilistic theory` (nuclear computational science cross-over research) we examine computational method related to super parallel computation system which is coupled with material strength theory based on microscopic fracture mechanics for latent cracks and continuum structural model to develop new structural reliability evaluation methods for ceramic structures. This technical report is the review results regarding probabilistic structural mechanics theory, basic terms of formula and program methods of parallel computation which are related to principal terms in basic design of computational mechanics program. (author)

  20. Robustness Issues for Design of Innovative Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious conse-quences in case of failure. The present paper summaries issues with respect to robustness of timber structures. Two different...... large span timber structures are analyzed and based on these analyses the paper presents guidelines for the future development of innovative timber struc-tures which are robust with respect to design and execution errors, unforeseen degradation and other potential hazards....

  1. Equating Multidimensional Tests under a Random Groups Design: A Comparison of Various Equating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the equating performance of various equating procedures for the multidimensional tests. To examine the various equating procedures, simulated data sets were used that were generated based on a multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) framework. Various equating procedures were examined, including…

  2. Techniques for the design of highly damped structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for the design of highly damped structures, techniques which have proven successful for large scale, low frequency steel and concrete structures which are typical of nuclear power reactors and their components. The ability to augment structural damping can be useful in increasing the seismic withstandability of structures. Seismic excitation is broadband in its frequency content and will excite many strutural resonances. Broadband damping will limit these resonant responses and thereby reduce the seismic load on structures and their components. This paper discusses three techniques: the design of structural joints and interfaces to promote damping; the use of layers of viscoelastic material; and the employment of damping links. The emphasis is on explaining the ways in which these techniques work and in describing the ways in which they have been used. (Auth.)

  3. Design and research of seal structure for thermocouple column assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Qiqi; Li Na; Zhao Wei; Ma Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The new seal structure was designed to satisfy the function of thermocouple column assembly and the reactor structure. This seal structure uses the packing graphite ring and adopts the self-sealing principle. Cone angle is brought to the seal face of seal structure which is conveniently to assembly and disassembly. After the sealing principle analysis and stress calculation of graphite ring which adopt the cone angle, the cone angle increases the radial force of seal structure and improves the seal effect. The stress analysis result shows the seal structure strength satisfies the regulation requirement. The cold and hot function test results shows the sealing effect is good, and the design requirement is satisfied. (authors)

  4. Research on the Multilayer Free Damping Structure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to put forward a design model for multilayer free damping structures. It sets up a mathematical model and deduces the formula for its structural loss factor η and analyzes the change rules of η along with the change rate of the elastic modulus ratio q1, the change rate of the loss factors of damping materials q2, and the change rate of the layer thickness ratio q3 under the condition with the layer thickness ratio h2=1,3,5,10 by software MATLAB. Based on three specific damping structures, the mathematical model is verified through ABAQUS. With the given structural loss factor (η≥2 and the layer number (n=3,4,5,6, 34 kinds of multilayer free damping structures are then presented. The study is meant to provide a more flexible and more diverse design solution for multilayer free damping structures.

  5. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis “Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes” evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  6. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis "Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes" evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  7. Designing A Simple Folder Structure For A Complex Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkil Clemmensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore a case of designing a simple folder structure for a new e-learning software program for a university study program. The aim is to contribute to the theoretical base for human work interaction design (HWID by identifying the type of relations connecting design artifacts with work analysis and interaction design processes. The action research method was used, with the author in a double role as university researcher and project manager of a developer group within the university. Analysis was conducted through grounded theory, inspired by the HWID framework. The findings support the use of a holistic framework with asymmetrical relations between work analysis and design artifacts, and between design artifacts and interaction design. The paper concludes with suggestions for modifying the general framework, and recommendations for a HWID approach to design artifacts.

  8. A procedure for the radioimmunochemical determination of antigens with different structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galoci, J.; Machan, V.

    1990-01-01

    To a solution of a specific antibody, its antigen labelled with iodine 125, and of the unknown sample is added animal (e.g., goat) antibody against rabbit immunoglobulin immobilized on modified microcrystalline cellulose; always the same quantities are applied always for the same time. After incubation for 1 hr at 20 degC, the immunochemical complex formed is centrifuged and its radioactivity is measured, and the amount of the antigen in sample is determined by comparison with standards. The procedure is applicable to antigens with any structure. Assets of the separating system include a very good stability in solution, a low value of nonspecific bonding and a low sedimentation velocity of the particles used. The procedure is well suited to the quantitation of antigens present in very low concentrations in blood serum, urine, milk, and extracts from tissues or animal feed. In a modification of the procedure, the animal antibody against rabbit immunoglobulin is immobilized on the surface of modified cellulose particles 5 to 15 μm in size exhibiting a very low sedimentation velocity, activated with 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole. (M.D.)

  9. Code Development for Control Design Applications: Phase I: Structural Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bir, G. S.; Robinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The design of integrated controls for a complex system like a wind turbine relies on a system model in an explicit format, e.g., state-space format. Current wind turbine codes focus on turbine simulation and not on system characterization, which is desired for controls design as well as applications like operating turbine model analysis, optimal design, and aeroelastic stability analysis. This paper reviews structural modeling that comprises three major steps: formation of component equations, assembly into system equations, and linearization

  10. Fitting direct covariance structures by the MSTRUCT modeling language of the CALIS procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yiu-Fai; Browne, Michael W; Zhang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness and flexibility of the general structural equation modelling (SEM) approach to fitting direct covariance patterns or structures (as opposed to fitting implied covariance structures from functional relationships among variables). In particular, the MSTRUCT modelling language (or syntax) of the CALIS procedure (SAS/STAT version 9.22 or later: SAS Institute, 2010) is used to illustrate the SEM approach. The MSTRUCT modelling language supports a direct covariance pattern specification of each covariance element. It also supports the input of additional independent and dependent parameters. Model tests, fit statistics, estimates, and their standard errors are then produced under the general SEM framework. By using numerical and computational examples, the following tests of basic covariance patterns are illustrated: sphericity, compound symmetry, and multiple-group covariance patterns. Specification and testing of two complex correlation structures, the circumplex pattern and the composite direct product models with or without composite errors and scales, are also illustrated by the MSTRUCT syntax. It is concluded that the SEM approach offers a general and flexible modelling of direct covariance and correlation patterns. In conjunction with the use of SAS macros, the MSTRUCT syntax provides an easy-to-use interface for specifying and fitting complex covariance and correlation structures, even when the number of variables or parameters becomes large. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Optimal design of aperiodic, vertical silicon nanowire structures for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-09-12

    We design a partially aperiodic, vertically-aligned silicon nanowire array that maximizes photovoltaic absorption. The optimal structure is obtained using a random walk algorithm with transfer matrix method based electromagnetic forward solver. The optimal, aperiodic structure exhibits a 2.35 times enhancement in ultimate efficiency compared to its periodic counterpart. The spectral behavior mimics that of a periodic array with larger lattice constant. For our system, we find that randomly-selected, aperiodic structures invariably outperform the periodic array.

  12. STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN SPECIFICS OF SPACE GRID SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gasii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify main trends in the development of space grid structures. In order to reach the purpose it is necessary to conduct a review of the known structural concepts, nodal connections and specifics of the space grid structures and to make conclusions on feasibility improvement of the considered structural concepts that make it possible to develop new solutions without disadvantages residing in the analogues. Analysis of papers written by foreign and national scientists and devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of stress-strain state, influence of different factors on it and geometrical optimization and designing of space grid structures has been conducted in order to achieve the objectives. Space grid structures and, in particular, flat double-layer grid and most frequent nodes have been studied in the paper. The paper contains a short review of the history on development of space grid structures. It has been found that a rapid development of structural designs was caused by scientific and technical progress and, in particular, improvement of physical and mechanical properties of materials, development of calculation methods, application of software systems for simulating behavior of the structure under load, which significantly increased the calculation accuracy and reduced complexity of design. It has been also established that main parameters that have influence on effectiveness of a structural design are geometric dimensions of its modular elements, ratio of its depth to the span. The world experience on development of connection components has been studied in the paper. The paper presents general classification of nodal connections. Main advantages and disadvantages of existing space grid structures are highlighted and it allows to determine possible methods for their improvement. Theoretical research has permitted to establish that the main direction of spatial grid structures improvement

  13. Comparison of Traditional Design Nonlinear Programming Optimization and Stochastic Methods for Structural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2010-01-01

    Structural design generated by traditional method, optimization method and the stochastic design concept are compared. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the merit function with constraints imposed on failure modes and an optimization algorithm is used to generate the solution. Stochastic design concept accounts for uncertainties in loads, material properties, and other parameters and solution is obtained by solving a design optimization problem for a specified reliability. Acceptable solutions were produced by all the three methods. The variation in the weight calculated by the methods was modest. Some variation was noticed in designs calculated by the methods. The variation may be attributed to structural indeterminacy. It is prudent to develop design by all three methods prior to its fabrication. The traditional design method can be improved when the simplified sensitivities of the behavior constraint is used. Such sensitivity can reduce design calculations and may have a potential to unify the traditional and optimization methods. Weight versus reliabilitytraced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to mean valued design. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure. Weight can be reduced to a small value for a most failure-prone design. Probabilistic modeling of load and material properties remained a challenge.

  14. Structure study and design of Qinshan NPP PCCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zufeng; Xu Yongzhi; Wang Tianzhen; Wu Jibiao

    1993-02-01

    The design process of Qinshan NPP (nuclear power plant) PCCV (prestressed concrete containment vessel) is summarized. The tendon test, structural description, design bases and analysis method are introduced. The arrangement for preventing concrete from cracking and design features of post-tensioning system and steel liner are presented. The results of model test and non-linear analysis for ultimate load in Qinshan NPP PCCV are also given. Through the integrity test of PCCV, it shows that the test values are in agreement with predicted values, the structure is excellent and the performance of leak tightness conforms to the safety requirements

  15. Mechanical and materials engineering of modern structure and component design

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on mechanical and materials engineering as applied to the design of modern engineering materials and components. The contributions cover the classical fields of mechanical, civil and materials engineering, as well as bioengineering and advanced materials processing and optimization. The materials and structures discussed can be categorized into modern steels, aluminium and titanium alloys, polymers/composite materials, biological and natural materials, material hybrids and modern nano-based materials. Analytical modelling, numerical simulation, state-of-the-art design tools and advanced experimental techniques are applied to characterize the materials’ performance and to design and optimize structures in different fields of engineering applications.

  16. Structural Analysis and Seismic Design for Cold Neutron Laboratory Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, H. R.

    2007-05-01

    This report describes all the major results of the dynamic structural analysis and seismic design for the Cold Neutron Laboratory Building which is classified in seismic class II. The results are summarized of the ground response spectrum as seismic input loads, mechanical properties of subsoil, the buoyancy stability due to ground water, the maximum displacement of the main frame under the seismic load and the member design. This report will be used as a basic design report to maintenance its structural integrity in future

  17. Fundamental understanding and rational design of high energy structural microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxing; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Li, Huidong; Mendoza, Sarah; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Microbatteries play a critical role in determining the lifetime of downsized sensors, wearable devices and medical applications, etc. More often, structural batteries are required from the perspective of aesthetics and space utilization, which is however rarely explored. Herein, we discuss the fundamental issues associated with the rational design of practically usable high energy microbatteries. The tubular shape of the cell further allows the flexible integration of microelectronics. A functioning acoustic micro-transmitter continuously powered by this tubular battery has been successfully demonstrated. Multiple design features adopted to accommodate large mechanical stress during the rolling process are discussed providing new insights in designing the structural microbatteries for emerging technologies.

  18. Structure based design of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suresh; Tice, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Controlling elevated tissue-specific levels of cortisol may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating metabolic syndrome. This concept has spurred large scale medicinal chemistry efforts in the pharmaceutical industry for the design of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors. High resolution X-ray crystal structures of inhibitors in complex with the enzyme have facilitated the structure-based design of diverse classes of molecules. A summary of binding modes, trends in structure-activity relationships, and the pharmacodynamic data of inhibitors from each class is presented.

  19. Procedure to determine the optimal parameters of the main primary coolant pump after compacting the FRG-1 reactor. Pt. 2. Partial structures of the procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihowicz, W.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of an extensive physical and technical analysis the partial structures of the procedure had been developed. They represent a logical linkage of determination elements in the form of decision and result units. The developed partial structures enable to determine the physical parameters, which characterize the primary circuit together with the compact core as well as the main primary coolant pump coming into question after compacting the core. The report also contains a discussions and a comparison of the partial structures. (orig.) [de

  20. Design development of graphite primary structures enables SSTO success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiotti, V. A.; Yahiro, J. S.; Suh, Daniel E.; Hodges, Eric R.; Prior, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphite composite wing and a graphite composite intertank primary structure for application toward Single-Stage to Orbit space vehicles such as those under development in NASA's X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program. The trade study and designs are based on a Rockwell vertical take-off and horizontal landing (VTHL) wing-body RLV vehicle. Northrop Grumman's approach using a building block development technique is described. Composite Graphite/Bismaleimide (Gr/BMI) material characterization test results are presented. Unique intertank and wing composite subcomponent test article designs are described and test results to date are presented. Wing and intertank Full Scale Section Test Article (FSTA) objectives and designs are outlined. Trade studies, supporting building block testing, and FSTA demonstrations combine to develop graphite primary structure composite technology that enables developing X-33/RLV design programs to meet critical SSTO structural weight and operations performance criteria.

  1. Structure design of primary heat-exchanger for the MHWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanshui; Cao Zhibin

    1999-01-01

    Primary heat-exchanger is one of the key equipment in the Multi-application Heavy Water Research Reactor (MHWRR). Its structure design ought to meet as much possible as the demands for safety, feasibility and economy. To reduce the liquid resistance, the locating structure between inner tube and outer tube is distributed spirally. The edge of outer tube is processed in the shape of hexahedron and then splice-welded into honeycomb structure thereby the heat-exchanger has the smallest outer diameter compared with that with the same heat-exchanging area according to 'Normal Design', 'Anabasis Design' is applied to the design for parts with Safety Class I, to ensure safety of the heat-exchanger

  2. Structure and Computation in Immunoreagent Design: From Diagnostics to Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Louise; Peri, Claudio; Bolognesi, Martino; Colombo, Giorgio

    2017-12-01

    Novel immunological tools for efficient diagnosis and treatment of emerging infections are urgently required. Advances in the diagnostic and vaccine development fields are continuously progressing, with reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology (SV) methods for antigen identification and structure-based antigen (re)design playing increasingly relevant roles. SV, in particular, is predicted to be the front-runner in the future development of diagnostics and vaccines targeting challenging diseases such as AIDS and cancer. We review state-of-the-art methodologies for structure-based epitope identification and antigen design, with specific applicative examples. We highlight the implications of such methods for the engineering of biomolecules with improved immunological properties, potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic uses, and discuss the perspectives of structure-based rational design for the production of advanced immunoreagents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A structured representation for parallel algorithm design on multicomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xian-He; Ni, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, parallel algorithms have been designed by brute force methods and fine-tuned on each architecture to achieve high performance. Rather than studying the design case by case, a systematic approach is proposed. A notation is first developed. Using this notation, most of the frequently used scientific and engineering applications can be presented by simple formulas. The formulas constitute the structured representation of the corresponding applications. The structured representation is simple, adequate and easy to understand. They also contain sufficient information about uneven allocation and communication latency degradations. With the structured representation, applications can be compared, classified and partitioned. Some of the basic building blocks, called computation models, of frequently used applications are identified and studied. Most applications are combinations of some computation models. The structured representation relates general applications to computation models. Studying computation models leads to a guideline for efficient parallel algorithm design for general applications. 6 refs., 7 figs

  4. Design and manufacturing of the CFRP lightweight telescope structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeffler, Guenter; Kaindl, Rainer

    2000-06-01

    Design of earthbound telescopes is normally based on conventional steel constructions. Several years ago thermostable CFRP Telescope and reflector structures were developed and manufacturing for harsh terrestrial environments. The airborne SOFIA TA requires beyond thermostability an excessive stiffness to mass ratio for the structure fulfilling performance and not to exceed mass limitations by the aircraft Boeing 747 SP. Additional integration into A/C drives design of structure subassemblies. Thickness of CFRP Laminates, either filament wound or prepreg manufactured need special attention and techniques to gain high material quality according to aerospace requirements. Sequential shop assembly of the structure subassemblies minimizes risk for assembling TA. Design goals, optimization of layout and manufacturing techniques and results are presented.

  5. Design optimisation of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid structure - the warm structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeel, A.; Desvard, J-P.; Pabot, Y.; Sun, Z.; Hille, H. van; Vedrine, P.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic bending of muon tracks for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer is provided by the large air-core toroid magnets. The Barrel Toroid structure, named the warm structure, is an open structure inside which the muon chambers are installed. The physics performance of the muon spectrometer imposes stringent requirements on the design of the warm structure. It should support the muon chambers with required precision and stability, the deformation of the structure must be minimised. At the same time, the quantities of the materials used in the structure must also be minimised. Through extensive structural analyses, the design optimisation has been achieved to fit with the physics requirements. This paper gives an overview on the design considerations of the warm structure

  6. Design of reinforced concrete members based on structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, B.E.; Schulz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Up to now the design of reinforced concrete linear members is performed with the help of an inconsistent design theory, which nevertherless is sufficiently safe and simple to be used in the practice. The purpose of this paper is to present a rational reinforced concrete design method which is not too dissimilar to the present design rules, but is capable of defining consistently internal stresses along a reinforced concrete section. The present status of the completed computer procedures allows the analysis of linear reinforced concrete members formed by laminar reinforced concrete plates presenting variable thickness. A practical approach is presented for which the concrete and steel section is constant along the member axis. In this case, the concept of the equivalent section is introduced, which allows a simple analysis of the stress pattern along the member section. (Author) [pt

  7. Turbomachinery Design Quality Checks to Avoid Friction Induced Structural Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jerry H.

    1999-01-01

    A unique configuration of the P&W SSME Alternate Fuel Turbopump turbine disk/blade assembly, combined with a severe thermal environment, resulted in several structural anomalies that were driven by frictional contact forces. Understanding the mechanics of these problems provides new quality checks for future turbo machinery designs. During development testing in 1997 of the SSME alternate fuel turbopump at Stennis Space Center, several potentially serious problems surfaced with the turbine disk/blade assembly that had not been experienced in extensive earlier testing. Changes to the operational thermal environment were noted based on analytical prediction of modifications that affected performance and on stationary thermal measurements adjacent to the rotor assembly. A detailed structural investigation was required to reveal the mechanism of distress induced by the change. The turbine disk experienced cracking in several locations due to increased thermal gradient induced stress during start and shutdown transients. This was easily predictable using standard analysis procedures and expected once the thermal environment was characterized. What was not expected was the curling of a piston ring used for blade axial retention in the disk, indentation of the axial face of the blade attachment by a spacer separating the first and second stage blades, and most significantly, galling and cracking of the blade root attachment that could have resulted in blade release. Past experience, in gas turbine environments, set a precedent of never relying on friction for help and to evaluate it only in specific instances where it was obvious that it would degrade capability. In each of the three cases above, friction proved to be a determining factor that pushed the components into an unsatisfactory mode of operation. The higher than expected temperatures and rapid thermal transients combined with friction to move beyond past experience. The turbine disk/blade assembly configuration

  8. Fabrication Procedures and Birefringence Measurements for Designing Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide Ion Chelating Phospholipid Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon

    2018-01-03

    Bicelles are tunable disk-like polymolecular assemblies formed from a large variety of lipid mixtures. Applications range from membrane protein structural studies by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to nanotechnological developments including the formation of optically active and magnetically switchable gels. Such technologies require high control of the assembly size, magnetic response and thermal resistance. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and its lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating phospholipid conjugate, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA), assemble into highly magnetically responsive assemblies such as DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1) bicelles. Introduction of cholesterol (Chol-OH) and steroid derivatives in the bilayer results in another set of assemblies offering unique physico-chemical properties. For a given lipid composition, the magnetic alignability is proportional to the bicelle size. The complexation of Ln 3+ results in unprecedented magnetic responses in terms of both magnitude and alignment direction. The thermo-reversible collapse of the disk-like structures into vesicles upon heating allows tailoring of the assemblies' dimensions by extrusion through membrane filters with defined pore sizes. The magnetically alignable bicelles are regenerated by cooling to 5 °C, resulting in assembly dimensions defined by the vesicle precursors. Herein, this fabrication procedure is explained and the magnetic alignability of the assemblies is quantified by birefringence measurements under a 5.5 T magnetic field. The birefringence signal, originating from the phospholipid bilayer, further enables monitoring of polymolecular changes occurring in the bilayer. This simple technique is complementary to NMR experiments that are commonly employed to characterize bicelles.

  9. Mechanical Design, Brazing and Assembly Procedures of the LINAC4 RFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Mathot, S; Briswalter, A; Callamand, Th; Carosone, J; Favre, N; Geisser, J M; Lombardi, A; Maire, V; Malabaila, M; Pugnat, D; Richerot, Ph; Riffaut, B; Rossi, C; Timmins, M; Vacca, A; Vandoni, G; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    The Linac4 RFQ will accelerate the H- beam from the ion source to the energy of 3 MeV. The RFQ is composed of three sections of one meter each, assembled by means of ultra high vacuum flanges and adjustable centring rings. The complete 3-m long RFQ will be supported isostatically over 3 points like a simple beam in order to minimise the maximum deflection. The ridge line, used to feed the RF power into the RFQ, will be supported via springs and its position adjusted in such way that no strain is introduced into the RFQ at the moment of its connection. The mechanical design has been done at CERN where the modules are completely manufactured, heat treated and brazed also. In that way, all of the processes are carefully controlled and the influence, notably of the heat treatments, has been understood in a better way. Since 2002 several four vanes RFQ modules have been brazed at CERN for the TRASCO and IPHI projects. A two-step brazing procedure has been tested. This technique is actually used for the assembly of...

  10. Optimum design of band-gap beam structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    The design of band-gap structures receives increasing attention for many applications in mitigation of undesirable vibration and noise emission levels. A band-gap structure usually consists of a periodic distribution of elastic materials or segments, where the propagation of waves is impeded...... or significantly suppressed for a range of external excitation frequencies. Maximization of the band-gap is therefore an obvious objective for optimum design. This problem is sometimes formulated by optimizing a parameterized design model which assumes multiple periodicity in the design. However, it is shown...... in the present paper that such an a priori assumption is not necessary since, in general, just the maximization of the gap between two consecutive natural frequencies leads to significant design periodicity. The aim of this paper is to maximize frequency gaps by shape optimization of transversely vibrating...

  11. Hiding the weakness: structural robustness using origami design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Santangelo, Christian; Cohen, Itai

    2015-03-01

    A non-deformable structure is typically associated with infinitely stiff materials that resist distortion. In this work, we designed a structure with a region that will not deform even though it is made of arbitrarily compliant materials. More specifically, we show that a foldable sheet with a circular hole in the middle can be deformed externally with the internal geometry of the hole unaffected. Instead of strengthening the local stiffness, we fine tune the crease patterns so that all the soft modes that can potentially deform the internal geometry are not accessible through strain on the external boundary. The inner structure is thus protected by the topological mechanics, based on the detailed geometry of how the vertices in the foldable sheet are connected. In this way, we isolate the structural robustness from the mechanical properties of the materials, which introduces an extra degree of freedom for structural design.

  12. Practical considerations in the design and operation of superconducting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    During the past few years, considerable experience has been gained in the operation of prototype superconducting accelerators under beam line conditions. As a result of this experience, important aspects of structure design and important questions related to the long term operation of superconducting structures have been brought into sharper focus. For applications where low power loss and high duty factor, or exceptional beam quality and stable operation, are essential properties, and where modest energy gradients can be tolerated, superconducting structures are distinctly superior to conventional room temperature structures. (auth)

  13. Design considerations and data for gas-insulated high voltage structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    This paper is intended to benefit the person faced with the occasional task of designing gas insulated high-voltage structures or spark gaps and who must decide upon the proper geometry, spacings, gas type, and pressure for reliable voltage-holding. An approach is presented along with a summary of how various factors affect voltage breakdown. The design procedures described apply to situations where the influence of nearby insulators is negligible. The accuracy of the data is estimated to be within 10 to 15 percent, a value usually attained in practice only when one follows the cautionary advice discussed in the paragraphs on materials preparation, gas properties, and conditioning

  14. Reliability-Based Optimal Design for Very Large Floating Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-hua(张淑华); FUJIKUBO Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Costs and losses induced by possible future extreme environmental conditions and difficulties in repairing post-yielding damage strongly suggest the need for proper consideration in design rather than just life loss prevention. This can be addressed through the development of design methodology that balances the initial cost of the very large floating structure (VLFS) against the expected potential losses resulting from future extreme wave-induced structural damage. Here, the development of a methodology for determining optimal, cost-effective design will be presented and applied to a VLFS located in the Tokyo bay. Optimal design criteria are determined based on the total expected life-cycle cost and acceptable damage probability and curvature of the structure, and a set of sizes of the structure are obtained. The methodology and applications require expressions of the initial cost and the expected life-cycle damage cost as functions of the optimal design variables. This study includes the methodology, total life-cycle cost function, structural damage modeling, and reliability analysis.

  15. Some aspects of the reliability-based design of reactor containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, G.I.

    1975-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the load which a structure is likely to experience during its design life as well as its resistance are to be represented by random variables. A rational design procedure for reactor containment structures can therefore only be carried out within a probabilistic framework. Internal load conditions caused by system failure such as loss-of-coolant accident, pressure loads etc., and external load conditions caused for instance by impact due to aircraft crashes, external pressure waves and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes are described by extreme value distributions of the Fisher-Tippett types. Statistical and physical arguments are given to support their application. The occurrence of these rare events with respect to time is modeled by a Poisson process. The yield strength of the containment structure for both steel (liner) and reinforced concrete shells is also modeled by extreme value distributions (of the smallest values). The failure criterion considered here is that of collapse determined by plastic yieldline formation. A failure mechanism as considered here describes a particular regime of plastic line formation. The probability of failure of a structure under a single load application of load types likely to occur during the design life of the structure is to be determined by integrating over all possible mechanisms. Finally Freudenthal's reliability function is utilized to combine the information derived above so that a containment design for given design lifes and reliabilities is possible. (orig.) [de

  16. Fully probabilistic design: the way for optimizing of concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Laníková

    Full Text Available Some standards for the design of concrete structures (e.g. EC2 and the original ČSN 73 1201-86 allow a structure to be designed by several methods. This contribution documents the fact that even if a structure does not comply with the partial reliability factor method, according to EC2, it can satisfy the conditions during the application of the fully probabilistic approach when using the same standard. From an example of the reliability of a prestressed spun concrete pole designed by the partial factor method and fully probabilistic approach according to the Eurocode it is evident that an expert should apply a more precise (though unfortunately more complicated method in the limiting cases. The Monte Carlo method, modified by the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS method, has been used for the calculation of reliability. Ultimate and serviceability limit states were checked for the partial factor method and fully probabilistic design. As a result of fully probabilistic design it is possible to obtain a more efficient design for a structure.

  17. Lightweight structure design for wind energy by integrating nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Lu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrate high-strength nano-materials into lightweight design. • Lightweight design scheme for wind turbine tower application. • Expand the bending formulae for tapered tubular structures with varying thickness. • We rewrite the Secant Formula for a tapered beam under eccentric compression. - Abstract: Wind power develops very fast nowadays with high expectation. Although at the mean time, the use of taller towers, however, smacks head-on into the issue of transportability. The engineering base and computational tools have to be developed to match machine size and volume. Consequently the research on the light weight structures of tower is carrying out in the main countries which are actively developing wind energy. This paper reports a new design scheme of light weight structure for wind turbine tower. This design scheme is based on the integration of the nanostructured materials produced by the Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) process. The objective of this study is to accomplish the weight reduction by optimizing the wall thickness of the tapered tubular structure. The basic methods include the identification of the critical zones and the distribution of the high strength materials according to different necessities. The equivalent strength or stiffness design method and the high strength material properties after SMAT process are combined together. Bending and buckling are two main kinds of static loads concerned in consideration. The study results reveal that there is still enough margin for weight reduction in the traditional wind turbine tower design

  18. Molecular structure descriptors in the computer-aided design of biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raevsky, Oleg A

    1999-01-01

    The current state of description of molecular structure in computer-aided molecular design of biologically active compounds by means of descriptors is analysed. The information contents of descriptors increases in the following sequence: element-level descriptors-structural formulae descriptors-electronic structure descriptors-molecular shape descriptors-intermolecular interaction descriptors. Each subsequent class of descriptors normally covers information contained in the previous-level ones. It is emphasised that it is practically impossible to describe all the features of a molecular structure in terms of any single class of descriptors. It is recommended to optimise the number of descriptors used by means of appropriate statistical procedures and characteristics of structure-property models based on these descriptors. The bibliography includes 371 references.

  19. Design and Fabrication of the KSTAR Poloidal Field Coil Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. K.; Choi, C. H.; Sa, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    The KSTAR magnet system consists of 16 toroidal field(TF) coils. 4 pairs of central solenoid(CS) coils, and 3 pairs of outer poloidal field(PF) coils. The TF coils are encased in a structure to enhance mechanical stability. The CS coil structure is supported on top of the TF coil structure and supplies a vertical compression of 15 MN to prevent lateral movement due to a repulsive force between the CS coils. The PF coil system is vertically symmetry to the machine mid-plane and consists of 6 coils and 80 support structures(i.e, 16 for PF5, 32 for PF6 and 32 fort PF7). All PF coil structures should absorb the thermal contraction difference between TF coil structure and PF coils due to cool down and endure the vertical and radial magnetic forces due to current charging. In order to satisfy these structural requirements. the PF5 coil structure is designed base on hinges and both of PF6 and PF7 coil structures based on flexible plates. The PF coil structures are assembled on the TF coil structure with an individual basement that is welded on the TF coil structure

  20. Use of designed sequences in protein structure recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayatri; Mudgal, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Sandhya, Sankaran

    2018-05-09

    Knowledge of the protein structure is a pre-requisite for improved understanding of molecular function. The gap in the sequence-structure space has increased in the post-genomic era. Grouping related protein sequences into families can aid in narrowing the gap. In the Pfam database, structure description is provided for part or full-length proteins of 7726 families. For the remaining 52% of the families, information on 3-D structure is not yet available. We use the computationally designed sequences that are intermediately related to two protein domain families, which are already known to share the same fold. These strategically designed sequences enable detection of distant relationships and here, we have employed them for the purpose of structure recognition of protein families of yet unknown structure. We first measured the success rate of our approach using a dataset of protein families of known fold and achieved a success rate of 88%. Next, for 1392 families of yet unknown structure, we made structural assignments for part/full length of the proteins. Fold association for 423 domains of unknown function (DUFs) are provided as a step towards functional annotation. The results indicate that knowledge-based filling of gaps in protein sequence space is a lucrative approach for structure recognition. Such sequences assist in traversal through protein sequence space and effectively function as 'linkers', where natural linkers between distant proteins are unavailable. This article was reviewed by Oliviero Carugo, Christine Orengo and Srikrishna Subramanian.