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Sample records for structural decomposition analysis

  1. Comparing structural decomposition analysis and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, Rutger; Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze and understand historical changes in economic, environmental, employment or other socio-economic indicators, it is useful to assess the driving forces or determinants that underlie these changes. Two techniques for decomposing indicator changes at the sector level are structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and index decomposition analysis (IDA). For example, SDA and IDA have been used to analyze changes in indicators such as energy use, CO 2 -emissions, labor demand and value added. The changes in these variables are decomposed into determinants such as technological, demand, and structural effects. SDA uses information from input-output tables while IDA uses aggregate data at the sector-level. The two methods have developed quite independently, which has resulted in each method being characterized by specific, unique techniques and approaches. This paper has three aims. First, the similarities and differences between the two approaches are summarized. Second, the possibility of transferring specific techniques and indices is explored. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate differences between the two approaches

  2. Structural decomposition analysis of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A complex system of production links our greenhouse gas emissions to our consumer demands. Whilst progress may be made in improving efficiency, other changes in the production structure may easily annul global improvements. Utilising a structural decomposition analysis, a comparative-static technique of input-output analysis, over a time period of around 30 years, net greenhouse emissions are decomposed in this study into the effects, due to changes in industrial efficiency, forward linkages, inter-industry structure, backward linkages, type of final demand, cause of final demand, population affluence, population size, and mix and level of exports. Historically, significant competing forces at both the whole of economy and industrial scale have been mitigating potential improvements. Key sectors and structural influences are identified that have historically shown the greatest potential for change, and would likely have the greatest net impact. Results clearly reinforce that the current dichotomy of growth and exports are the key problems in need of address.

  3. Main drivers of changes in CO_2 emissions in the Spanish economy: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansino, José M.; Román, Rocío; Ordóñez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of structural decomposition of changes in CO_2 emissions in Spain by using an enhanced Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) supported by detailed Input–Output tables from the World Input–Output Database (2013) (WIOD) for the period 1995–2009. The decomposition of changes in CO_2 emissions at sectoral level are broken down into six effects: carbonization, energy intensity, technology, structural demand, consumption pattern and scale. The results are interesting, not only for researchers but also for utility companies and policy-makers as soon as past and current political mitigation measures are analyzed in line with such results. The results allow us to conclude that the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol together with European Directives related to the promotion of RES seem to have a positive impact on CO_2 emissions trends in Spain. After reviewing the current mitigation measures in Spain, one policy recommendation is suggested to avoid the rebound effect and to enhance the fight against Climate Change that is tax benefits for those companies that prove reductions in their energy intensity ratios. - Highlights: • Kyoto's Protocol and European Directives acted against CO_2 emissions in Spain. • Changes in primary energy mix acted against increasing CO_2 emissions. • Energy efficiency seems to have improved. • Historical analysis gives support for most mitigation measures currently in force.

  4. Multidisciplinary Product Decomposition and Analysis Based on Design Structure Matrix Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    Design structure matrix (DSM) modeling in complex system design supports to define physical and logical configuration of subsystems, components, and their relationships. This modeling includes product decomposition, identification of interfaces, and structure analysis to increase the architectural...... interactions across subsystems and components. For this purpose, Cambridge advanced modeler (CAM) software tool is used to develop the system matrix. The analysis of the product (printer) architecture includes clustering, partitioning as well as structure analysis of the system. The DSM analysis is helpful...... understanding of the system. Since product architecture has broad implications in relation to product life cycle issues, in this paper, mechatronic product is decomposed into subsystems and components, and then, DSM model is developed to examine the extent of modularity in the system and to manage multiple...

  5. CO2 emissions embodied in China's exports from 2002 to 2008: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ming; Li Ran; Crittenden, John C.; Chen Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the annual CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports from 2002 to 2008 using environmental input-output analysis. Four driving forces, including emission intensity, economic production structure, export composition, and total export volume, are compared for their contributions to the increase of embodied CO 2 emissions using a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) technique. Although offset by the decrease in emission intensity, the increase of embodied CO 2 emissions was driven by changes of the other three factors. In particular, the change of the export composition was the largest driver, primarily due to the increasing fraction of metal products in China's total export. Relevant policy implications and future research directions are discussed at the end of the paper. - Highlights: → We investigate annual CO 2 emission embodied in China's exports from 2002 to 2008 using environmental input-output analysis. → We conduct a structural decomposition analysis to measure contributions from different driving forces. → Change of export composition was the largest driver for the increase of CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports. → Increasing fraction of metal products in exports is the key change in export composition.

  6. Analysis of Decomposition for Structure I Methane Hydrate by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Sun, Wan-Tong; Meng, Ying-Feng; Liu, An-Qi; Zhou, Shou-Wei; Guo, Ping; Fu, Qiang; Lv, Xin

    2018-05-01

    Under multi-nodes of temperatures and pressures, microscopic decomposition mechanisms of structure I methane hydrate in contact with bulk water molecules have been studied through LAMMPS software by molecular dynamics simulation. Simulation system consists of 482 methane molecules in hydrate and 3027 randomly distributed bulk water molecules. Through analyses of simulation results, decomposition number of hydrate cages, density of methane molecules, radial distribution function for oxygen atoms, mean square displacement and coefficient of diffusion of methane molecules have been studied. A significant result shows that structure I methane hydrate decomposes from hydrate-bulk water interface to hydrate interior. As temperature rises and pressure drops, the stabilization of hydrate will weaken, decomposition extent will go deep, and mean square displacement and coefficient of diffusion of methane molecules will increase. The studies can provide important meanings for the microscopic decomposition mechanisms analyses of methane hydrate.

  7. Revisiting drivers of energy intensity in China during 1997–2007: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Lin; Xu, Ming; Liang, Sai; Zeng, Siyu; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-01-01

    The decline of China's energy intensity slowed since 2000. During 2002–2005 it actually increased, reversing the long-term trend. Therefore, it is important to identify drivers of the fluctuation of energy intensity. We use input–output structural decomposition analysis to investigate the contributions of changes in energy mix, sectoral energy efficiency, production structure, final demand structure, and final demand category composition to China's energy intensity fluctuation during 1997–2007. We include household energy consumption in the study by closing the input–output model with respect to households. Results show that sectoral energy efficiency improvements contribute the most to the energy intensity decline during 1997–2007. The increase in China's energy intensity during 2002–2007 is instead explained by changes in final demand composition and production structure. Changes in final demand composition are mainly due to increasing share of exports, while changes in production structure mainly arise from the shift of Chinese economy to more energy-intensive industries. Changes in energy mix and final demand structure contribute little to China's energy intensity fluctuation. From the consumption perspective, growing exports of energy-intensive products and increasing infrastructure demands explain the majority of energy intensity increase during 2002–2007. - Highlights: • We analyzed energy intensity change from production and consumption perspectives. • We extended the research scope of energy intensity to cover household consumption. • Sectoral energy efficiency improvement contributed most to energy intensity decline. • Impact of production structure change on energy intensity varied at different times. • Growing export demand newly became main driver of China's energy intensity increase

  8. Industrial CO2 emissions from energy use in Korea: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hea-Jin; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to quantify energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the industrial sectors of Korea. The sources of the changes in CO 2 emissions for the years 1990-2003 are investigated, in terms of a total of eight factors, through input-output structural decomposition analysis: changes in emission coefficient (caused by shifts in energy intensity and carbon intensity); changes in economic growth; and structural changes (in terms of shifts in domestic final demand, exports, imports of final and intermediate goods, and production technology). The results show that the rate of growth of industrial CO 2 emissions has drastically decreased since the 1998 financial crisis in Korea. The effect on emission reductions due to changes in energy intensity and domestic final demand surged in the second period (1995-2000), while the impact of exports steeply rose in the third period (2000-2003). Of all the individual factors, economic growth accounted for the largest increase in CO 2 emissions. The results of this analysis can be used to infer the potential for emission-reduction in Korea

  9. Carbon dioxide emission drivers for a typical metropolis using input–output structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Liying; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2013-01-01

    As the capital of China, Beijing is regarded as a major metropolis in the world. Study of the variation in temporal CO 2 emissions generated by the driving forces in Beijing can provide guidance for policy decisions on CO 2 emissions mitigation in global metropolises. Based on input–output structural decomposition analysis (IO-SDA), we analysed the driving forces for the increment in CO 2 emissions in Beijing from both production and final demand perspectives during 1997–2010. According to our results, the CO 2 emission growth in Beijing is driven mainly by production structure change and population growth, partly offset by CO 2 emission intensity reduction as well as the decline in per capita final demand volume during the study period. Final demand structure change has a limited effect on the change in the CO 2 emissions in Beijing. From the final demand perspective, urban trades, urban residential consumption, government consumption and fixed capital formation are mainly responsible for the booming emissions. This study showed how the “top-down” IO-SDA methodology was implemented on a city scale. Policy implications from this study would be helpful for addressing CO 2 emissions mitigation in global capital cities and metropolises. - Highlights: • Changes in production structure and population are drivers of CO 2 increment. • Changes in CO 2 intensity and per capita GDP are forces to offset CO 2 increment. • Final demand structure change has limited effect on Beijing's CO 2 emission change. • Beijing's key final demand categories and economic sectors are identified. • Policy implications of Beijing's results are analyzed

  10. Structural Analysis of Multi-component Amyloid Systems by Chemometric SAXS Data Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillo, Isabel Fatima Herranz; Jensen, Minna Grønning; van Maarschalkerweerd, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Formation of amyloids is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative pathologies. Structural investigation of these complex transformation processes poses significant experimental challenges due to the co-existence of multiple species. The additive nature of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data...... least squares (MCR-ALS) chemometric method. The approach enables rigorous and robust decomposition of synchrotron SAXS data by simultaneously introducing these data in different representations that emphasize molecular changes at different time and structural resolution ranges. The approach has allowed...

  11. Multilevel index decomposition analysis: Approaches and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Y.; Ang, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing interest in using the technique of index decomposition analysis (IDA) in energy and energy-related emission studies, such as to analyze the impacts of activity structure change or to track economy-wide energy efficiency trends, the conventional single-level IDA may not be able to meet certain needs in policy analysis. In this paper, some limitations of single-level IDA studies which can be addressed through applying multilevel decomposition analysis are discussed. We then introduce and compare two multilevel decomposition procedures, which are referred to as the multilevel-parallel (M-P) model and the multilevel-hierarchical (M-H) model. The former uses a similar decomposition procedure as in the single-level IDA, while the latter uses a stepwise decomposition procedure. Since the stepwise decomposition procedure is new in the IDA literature, the applicability of the popular IDA methods in the M-H model is discussed and cases where modifications are needed are explained. Numerical examples and application studies using the energy consumption data of the US and China are presented. - Highlights: • We discuss the limitations of single-level decomposition in IDA applied to energy study. • We introduce two multilevel decomposition models, study their features and discuss how they can address the limitations. • To extend from single-level to multilevel analysis, necessary modifications to some popular IDA methods are discussed. • We further discuss the practical significance of the multilevel models and present examples and cases to illustrate

  12. Has energy conservation been an effective policy for Thailand? An input–output structural decomposition analysis from 1995 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supasa, Tharinya; Hsiau, Shu-San; Lin, Shih-Mo; Wongsapai, Wongkot; Wu, Jiunn-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has depended heavily on imported fossil fuels since the 1990s, which hindered the nation's economic development because it created uncertainty in the nation's fuel supply. An energy conservation policy was implemented in 1995 to require industries to reduce their energy intensity (EI) and consumption immediately. This study investigates the effectiveness of the policy between 1995 and 2010 using the hybrid input–output approach. Surprisingly, EI improvement was observed in only a few sectors, such as transportation, non-metallic, paper, and textile. An embodied energy decomposition analysis revealed that while households were the largest energy consumer in 1995, energy consumption in exports exceeded that of households in 2000, 2005 and 2010. In addition, structural decomposition analysis revealed the final demand effect was the strongest factor in determining the efficacy of energy conservation, whereas the energy efficiency effect was not an effective factor as expected for decreasing energy consumption. Policy barriers and conflicting economic plans were factors that affected the outcome of these energy policies. - Highlights: • The hybrid IO technique was employed to analyse energy intensity of Thailand. • No clear evident of EI improvement in most of industries, thus fail to achieve the policy target. • Household and export sector had played a crucial role in energy consumption increase. • IO SDA method found that energy efficiency was not an offset factor for consumption increase. • Policy barriers were conflicting economic plans, fuel subsidy policies and inefficient process.

  13. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  14. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-10-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  15. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-01-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  16. International Trade Drives Global Resource Use: A Structural Decomposition Analysis of Raw Material Consumption from 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Barbara; Eisenmenger, Nina; Schaffartzik, Anke; Wiedenhofer, Dominik

    2018-04-03

    Globalization led to an immense increase of international trade and the emergence of complex global value chains. At the same time, global resource use and pressures on the environment are increasing steadily. With these two processes in parallel, the question arises whether trade contributes positively to resource efficiency, or to the contrary is further driving resource use? In this article, the socioeconomic driving forces of increasing global raw material consumption (RMC) are investigated to assess the role of changing trade relations, extended supply chains and increasing consumption. We apply a structural decomposition analysis of changes in RMC from 1990 to 2010, utilizing the Eora multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model. We find that changes in international trade patterns significantly contributed to an increase of global RMC. Wealthy developed countries play a major role in driving global RMC growth through changes in their trade structures, as they shifted production processes increasingly to less material-efficient input suppliers. Even the dramatic increase in material consumption in the emerging economies has not diminished the role of industrialized countries as drivers of global RMC growth.

  17. Decoupling and Sources of Structural Transformation of East Asian Economies: An International Input-Output Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Ko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to answer two questions using input-output decomposition analysis: 1 Have emerging Asian economies decoupled? 2 What are the sources of structural changes in gross outputs and value-added of emerging Asian economies related to the first question? The main findings of the study are as follows: First, since 1990, there has been a trend of increasing dependence on exports to extra-regions such as G3 and the ROW, indicating no sign of "decoupling", but rather an increasing integration of emerging Asian countries into global trade. Second, there is a contrasting feature in the sources of structural changes between non-China emerging Asia and China. Dependence of non-China emerging Asia on intra-regional trade has increased in line with strengthening economic integration in East Asia, whereas China has disintegrated from the region. Therefore, it can be said that China has contributed to no sign of decoupling of emerging Asia as a whole.

  18. Decomposition of multivariate phenotypic means in multigroup genetic covarinace structure analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, C.V.; Molenaar, P.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    Uses D. Sorbom's (1974) method to study differences in latent means in multivariate twin data. By restricting the analysis to a comparison between groups, the results pertain only to the additive contributions of common genetic and environmental factors to the deviation of the group means from what

  19. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrault, M.; Cances, E.; Hager, W.W.; Le Bris, C.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure

  20. Influence of Family Structure on Variance Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon; Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter

    Partitioning genetic variance by sets of randomly sampled genes for complex traits in D. melanogaster and B. taurus, has revealed that population structure can affect variance decomposition. In fruit flies, we found that a high likelihood ratio is correlated with a high proportion of explained ge...... capturing pure noise. Therefore it is necessary to use both criteria, high likelihood ratio in favor of a more complex genetic model and proportion of genetic variance explained, to identify biologically important gene groups...

  1. Analysis of influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong: evidence from regional China based on the input-output and structural decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xinlin; Deng, Haijun

    2017-11-01

    It is important to analyze the influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions from a regional perspective to effectively achieve reductions in energy consumption and carbon emissions in China. Based on the "energy-economy-carbon emissions" hybrid input-output analysis framework, this study conducted structural decomposition analysis (SDA) on carbon emissions influencing factors in Guangdong Province. Systems-based examination of direct and indirect drivers for regional emission is presented. (1) Direct effects analysis of influencing factors indicated that the main driving factors of increasing carbon emissions were economic and population growth. Carbon emission intensity was the main contributing factor restraining carbon emissions growth. (2) Indirect effects analysis of influencing factors showed that international and interprovincial trades significantly affected the total carbon emissions. (3) Analysis of the effects of different final demands on the carbon emissions of industrial sector indicated that the increase in carbon emission arising from international and interprovincial trades is mainly concentrated in energy- and carbon-intensive industries. (4) Guangdong had to compromise a certain amount of carbon emissions during the development of its export-oriented economy because of industry transfer arising from the economic globalization, thereby pointing to the existence of the "carbon leakage" problem. At the same time, interprovincial export and import resulted in Guangdong transferring a part of its carbon emissions to other provinces, thereby leading to the occurrence of "carbon transfer."

  2. Global sensitivity analysis by polynomial dimensional decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Sharif, E-mail: rahman@engineering.uiowa.ed [College of Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a polynomial dimensional decomposition (PDD) method for global sensitivity analysis of stochastic systems subject to independent random input following arbitrary probability distributions. The method involves Fourier-polynomial expansions of lower-variate component functions of a stochastic response by measure-consistent orthonormal polynomial bases, analytical formulae for calculating the global sensitivity indices in terms of the expansion coefficients, and dimension-reduction integration for estimating the expansion coefficients. Due to identical dimensional structures of PDD and analysis-of-variance decomposition, the proposed method facilitates simple and direct calculation of the global sensitivity indices. Numerical results of the global sensitivity indices computed for smooth systems reveal significantly higher convergence rates of the PDD approximation than those from existing methods, including polynomial chaos expansion, random balance design, state-dependent parameter, improved Sobol's method, and sampling-based methods. However, for non-smooth functions, the convergence properties of the PDD solution deteriorate to a great extent, warranting further improvements. The computational complexity of the PDD method is polynomial, as opposed to exponential, thereby alleviating the curse of dimensionality to some extent.

  3. Salient Object Detection via Structured Matrix Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Houwen; Li, Bing; Ling, Haibin; Hu, Weiming; Xiong, Weihua; Maybank, Stephen J

    2016-05-04

    Low-rank recovery models have shown potential for salient object detection, where a matrix is decomposed into a low-rank matrix representing image background and a sparse matrix identifying salient objects. Two deficiencies, however, still exist. First, previous work typically assumes the elements in the sparse matrix are mutually independent, ignoring the spatial and pattern relations of image regions. Second, when the low-rank and sparse matrices are relatively coherent, e.g., when there are similarities between the salient objects and background or when the background is complicated, it is difficult for previous models to disentangle them. To address these problems, we propose a novel structured matrix decomposition model with two structural regularizations: (1) a tree-structured sparsity-inducing regularization that captures the image structure and enforces patches from the same object to have similar saliency values, and (2) a Laplacian regularization that enlarges the gaps between salient objects and the background in feature space. Furthermore, high-level priors are integrated to guide the matrix decomposition and boost the detection. We evaluate our model for salient object detection on five challenging datasets including single object, multiple objects and complex scene images, and show competitive results as compared with 24 state-of-the-art methods in terms of seven performance metrics.

  4. Tensor decompositions for the analysis of atomic resolution electron energy loss spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegelberg, Jakob; Rusz, Ján [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Pelckmans, Kristiaan [Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Box 337, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-04-15

    A selection of tensor decomposition techniques is presented for the detection of weak signals in electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data. The focus of the analysis lies on the correct representation of the simulated spatial structure. An analysis scheme for EEL spectra combining two-dimensional and n-way decomposition methods is proposed. In particular, the performance of robust principal component analysis (ROBPCA), Tucker Decompositions using orthogonality constraints (Multilinear Singular Value Decomposition (MLSVD)) and Tucker decomposition without imposed constraints, canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) and block term decompositions (BTD) on synthetic as well as experimental data is examined. - Highlights: • A scheme for compression and analysis of EELS or EDX data is proposed. • Several tensor decomposition techniques are presented for BSS on hyperspectral data. • Robust PCA and MLSVD are discussed for denoising of raw data.

  5. The driving factors behind coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012: An empirical study of input-output structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ya; Zhang, Wanying

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, especially the constant progress in industrialisation and urbanisation, China's energy consumption has increased annually. Coal consumption, which accounts for about 70% of total energy consumption, is of particular concern. Hence, it is crucial to study the driving factors behind coal demand in China. This work uses an input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) model to decompose the increments of coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012 into the sum of the weighted average for eight driving factors from three aspects, including: domestic demand, foreign trade and industrial upgrading. Results show that: during the research period, the demand for coal increases by 153.3%, which is increased by 185.4% and 76.4% respectively due to the driving forces of domestic demand and foreign trade; in addition, industrial upgrading can effectively restrain the growth in coal demand with a contribution rate of −108.6%. On this basis, we mainly studied the driving factors of coal demand in six high energy-consuming industries, namely the electrical power, energy processing, metals, mining, building materials and chemical industries. Finally, we proposed targeted policy suggestions for the realisation of energy conservation and emissions reduction in China. - Highlights: •The driving factors behind coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012 are studied. •An input-output structural decomposition analysis is developed. •A fresh perspective of domestic demand, foreign trade, and industrial upgrading is employed. •The influences of these affecting factors on China's coal demand from six high energy-consuming industries are investigated. •Targeted policy suggestions for energy conservation and emissions reduction are suggested.

  6. Decomposition and flame structure of hydrazinium nitroformate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, J.; Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D.

    1999-01-01

    The decomposition of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) was studied in a hot quartz cell and by dropping small amounts of HNF on a hot plate. The species formed during the decomposition were identified by ultraviolet-visible absorption experiments. These experiments reveal that first HONO is formed. The

  7. Structure for the decomposition of safeguards responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, V.L.; Chapman, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    A major mission of safeguards is to protect against the use of nuclear materials by adversaries to harm society. A hierarchical structure of safeguards responsibilities and activities to assist in this mission is defined. The structure begins with the definition of international or multi-national safeguards and continues through domestic, regional, and facility safeguards. The facility safeguards is decomposed into physical protection and material control responsibilities. In addition, in-transit safeguards systems are considered. An approach to the definition of performance measures for a set of Generic Adversary Action Sequence Segments (GAASS) is illustrated. These GAASS's begin outside facility boundaries and terminate at some adversary objective which could lead to eventual safeguards risks and societal harm. Societal harm is primarily the result of an adversary who is successful in the theft of special nuclear material or in the sabotage of vital systems which results in the release of material in situ. With the facility safeguards system, GAASS's are defined in terms of authorized and unauthorized adversary access to materials and components, acquisition of material, unauthorized removal of material, and the compromise of vital components. Each GAASS defines a set of ''paths'' (ordered set of physical protection components) and each component provides one or more physical protection ''functions'' (detection, assessment, communication, delay, neutralization). Functional performance is then developed based upon component design features, the environmental factors, and the adversary attributes. An example of this decomposition is presented

  8. Structure for the decomposition of safeguards responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, V.L.; Chapman, L.D.

    1977-08-01

    A major mission of safeguards is to protect against the use of nuclear materials by adversaries to harm society. A hierarchical structure of safeguards responsibilities and activities to assist in this mission is defined. The structure begins with the definition of international or multi-national safeguards and continues through domestic, regional, and facility safeguards. The facility safeguards is decomposed into physical protection and material control responsibilities. In addition, in-transit safeguards systems are considered. An approach to the definition of performance measures for a set of Generic Adversary Action Sequence Segments (GAASS) is illustrated. These GAASS's begin outside facility boundaries and terminate at some adversary objective which could lead to eventual safeguards risks and societal harm. Societal harm is primarily the result of an adversary who is successful in the theft of special nuclear material or in the sabotage of vital systems which results in the release of material in situ. With the facility safeguards system, GAASS's are defined in terms of authorized and unauthorized adversary access to materials and components, acquisition of material, unauthorized removal of material, and the compromise of vital components. Each GAASS defines a set of ''paths'' (ordered set of physical protection components) and each component provides one or more physical protection ''functions'' (detection, assessment, communication, delay, neutralization). Functional performance is then developed based upon component design features, the environmental factors, and the adversary attributes. An example of this decomposition is presented

  9. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Systems Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Pulido, Belamino

    2013-01-01

    Systems health management (SHM) is an important set of technologies aimed at increasing system safety and reliability by detecting, isolating, and identifying faults; and predicting when the system reaches end of life (EOL), so that appropriate fault mitigation and recovery actions can be taken. Model-based SHM approaches typically make use of global, monolithic system models for online analysis, which results in a loss of scalability and efficiency for large-scale systems. Improvement in scalability and efficiency can be achieved by decomposing the system model into smaller local submodels and operating on these submodels instead. In this paper, the global system model is analyzed offline and structurally decomposed into local submodels. We define a common model decomposition framework for extracting submodels from the global model. This framework is then used to develop algorithms for solving model decomposition problems for the design of three separate SHM technologies, namely, estimation (which is useful for fault detection and identification), fault isolation, and EOL prediction. We solve these model decomposition problems using a three-tank system as a case study.

  10. A structural model decomposition framework for systems health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, I.; Daigle, M.; Bregon, A.; Pulido, B.

    Systems health management (SHM) is an important set of technologies aimed at increasing system safety and reliability by detecting, isolating, and identifying faults; and predicting when the system reaches end of life (EOL), so that appropriate fault mitigation and recovery actions can be taken. Model-based SHM approaches typically make use of global, monolithic system models for online analysis, which results in a loss of scalability and efficiency for large-scale systems. Improvement in scalability and efficiency can be achieved by decomposing the system model into smaller local submodels and operating on these submodels instead. In this paper, the global system model is analyzed offline and structurally decomposed into local submodels. We define a common model decomposition framework for extracting submodels from the global model. This framework is then used to develop algorithms for solving model decomposition problems for the design of three separate SHM technologies, namely, estimation (which is useful for fault detection and identification), fault isolation, and EOL prediction. We solve these model decomposition problems using a three-tank system as a case study.

  11. Gas hydrates forming and decomposition conditions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Павленко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of gas hydrates has been defined; their brief description has been given; factors that affect the formation and decomposition of the hydrates have been reported; their distribution, structure and thermodynamic conditions determining the gas hydrates formation disposition in gas pipelines have been considered. Advantages and disadvantages of the known methods for removing gas hydrate plugs in the pipeline have been analyzed, the necessity of their further studies has been proved. In addition to the negative impact on the process of gas extraction, the hydrates properties make it possible to outline the following possible fields of their industrial use: obtaining ultrahigh pressures in confined spaces at the hydrate decomposition; separating hydrocarbon mixtures by successive transfer of individual components through the hydrate given the mode; obtaining cold due to heat absorption at the hydrate decomposition; elimination of the open gas fountain by means of hydrate plugs in the bore hole of the gushing gasser; seawater desalination, based on the hydrate ability to only bind water molecules into the solid state; wastewater purification; gas storage in the hydrate state; dispersion of high temperature fog and clouds by means of hydrates; water-hydrates emulsion injection into the productive strata to raise the oil recovery factor; obtaining cold in the gas processing to cool the gas, etc.

  12. Aging-driven decomposition in zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate and the single-crystal structure of its decomposition products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Daniel R; Baggio, Ricardo; Roca, Mariana; Tombari, Dora

    2011-04-01

    The "aging-driven" decomposition of zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate (form A) has been followed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and the crystal and molecular structures of the decomposition products studied by single-crystal methods. The process is very similar to the "thermally driven" one, recently described in the literature for form E (Halasz and Dinnebier. 2010. J Pharm Sci 99(2): 871-874), resulting in a two-phase system: the neutral free base (common to both decomposition processes) and, in the present case, a novel zolpidem tartrate monohydrate, unique to the "aging-driven" decomposition. Our room-temperature single-crystal analysis gives for the free base comparable results as the high-temperature XRPD ones already reported by Halasz and Dinnebier: orthorhombic, Pcba, a = 9.6360(10) Å, b = 18.2690(5) Å, c = 18.4980(11) Å, and V = 3256.4(4) Å(3) . The unreported zolpidem tartrate monohydrate instead crystallizes in monoclinic P21 , which, for comparison purposes, we treated in the nonstandard setting P1121 with a = 20.7582(9) Å, b = 15.2331(5) Å, c = 7.2420(2) Å, γ = 90.826(2)°, and V = 2289.73(14) Å(3) . The structure presents two complete moieties in the asymmetric unit (z = 4, z' = 2). The different phases obtained in both decompositions are readily explained, considering the diverse genesis of both processes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Preparation, Structure Characterization and Thermal Decomposition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Decomposition Process of the Dysprosium(III) m-Methylbenzoate 1 ... A dinuclear complex [Dy(m-MBA)3phen]2·H2O was prepared by the reaction of DyCl3·6H2O, m-methylbenzoic acid and .... ing rate of 10 °C min–1 are illustrated in Fig. 4.

  14. A Decomposition Algorithm for Learning Bayesian Network Structures from Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Cordero Hernandez, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    It is a challenging task of learning a large Bayesian network from a small data set. Most conventional structural learning approaches run into the computational as well as the statistical problems. We propose a decomposition algorithm for the structure construction without having to learn...... the complete network. The new learning algorithm firstly finds local components from the data, and then recover the complete network by joining the learned components. We show the empirical performance of the decomposition algorithm in several benchmark networks....

  15. Temporal structure of neuronal population oscillations with empirical model decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoli

    2006-01-01

    Frequency analysis of neuronal oscillation is very important for understanding the neural information processing and mechanism of disorder in the brain. This Letter addresses a new method to analyze the neuronal population oscillations with empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Following EMD of neuronal oscillation, a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are obtained, then Hilbert transform of IMFs can be used to extract the instantaneous time frequency structure of neuronal oscillation. The method is applied to analyze the neuronal oscillation in the hippocampus of epileptic rats in vivo, the results show the neuronal oscillations have different descriptions during the pre-ictal, seizure onset and ictal periods of the epileptic EEG at the different frequency band. This new method is very helpful to provide a view for the temporal structure of neural oscillation

  16. Singular Value Decomposition and Ligand Binding Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Galo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular values decomposition (SVD is one of the most important computations in linear algebra because of its vast application for data analysis. It is particularly useful for resolving problems involving least-squares minimization, the determination of matrix rank, and the solution of certain problems involving Euclidean norms. Such problems arise in the spectral analysis of ligand binding to macromolecule. Here, we present a spectral data analysis method using SVD (SVD analysis and nonlinear fitting to determine the binding characteristics of intercalating drugs to DNA. This methodology reduces noise and identifies distinct spectral species similar to traditional principal component analysis as well as fitting nonlinear binding parameters. We applied SVD analysis to investigate the interaction of actinomycin D and daunomycin with native DNA. This methodology does not require prior knowledge of ligand molar extinction coefficients (free and bound, which potentially limits binding analysis. Data are acquired simply by reconstructing the experimental data and by adjusting the product of deconvoluted matrices and the matrix of model coefficients determined by the Scatchard and McGee and von Hippel equation.

  17. Structural system identification based on variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abdollah; Ozbulut, Osman E.; Harris, Devin K.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new structural identification method is proposed to identify the modal properties of engineering structures based on dynamic response decomposition using the variational mode decomposition (VMD). The VMD approach is a decomposition algorithm that has been developed as a means to overcome some of the drawbacks and limitations of the empirical mode decomposition method. The VMD-based modal identification algorithm decomposes the acceleration signal into a series of distinct modal responses and their respective center frequencies, such that when combined their cumulative modal responses reproduce the original acceleration response. The decaying amplitude of the extracted modal responses is then used to identify the modal damping ratios using a linear fitting function on modal response data. Finally, after extracting modal responses from available sensors, the mode shape vector for each of the decomposed modes in the system is identified from all obtained modal response data. To demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm, a series of numerical, laboratory, and field case studies were evaluated. The laboratory case study utilized the vibration response of a three-story shear frame, whereas the field study leveraged the ambient vibration response of a pedestrian bridge to characterize the modal properties of the structure. The modal properties of the shear frame were computed using analytical approach for a comparison with the experimental modal frequencies. Results from these case studies demonstrated that the proposed method is efficient and accurate in identifying modal data of the structures.

  18. Mode decomposition and Lagrangian structures of the flow dynamics in orbitally shaken bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weheliye, Weheliye Hashi; Cagney, Neil; Rodriguez, Gregorio; Micheletti, Martina; Ducci, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    In this study, two mode decomposition techniques were applied and compared to assess the flow dynamics in an orbital shaken bioreactor (OSB) of cylindrical geometry and flat bottom: proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments were carried out for different operating conditions including fluid height, h, and shaker rotational speed, N. A detailed flow analysis is provided for conditions when the fluid and vessel motions are in-phase (Fr = 0.23) and out-of-phase (Fr = 0.47). PIV measurements in vertical and horizontal planes were combined to reconstruct low order models of the full 3D flow and to determine its Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) within OSBs. The combined results from the mode decomposition and the FTLE fields provide a useful insight into the flow dynamics and Lagrangian coherent structures in OSBs and offer a valuable tool to optimise bioprocess design in terms of mixing and cell suspension.

  19. Multi-country comparisons of energy performance: The index decomposition analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Xu, X.Y.; Su, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Index decomposition analysis (IDA) is a popular tool for studying changes in energy consumption over time in a country or region. This specific application of IDA, which may be called temporal decomposition analysis, has been extended by researchers and analysts to study variations in energy consumption or energy efficiency between countries or regions, i.e. spatial decomposition analysis. In spatial decomposition analysis, the main objective is often to understand the relative contributions of overall activity level, activity structure, and energy intensity in explaining differences in total energy consumption between two countries or regions. We review the literature of spatial decomposition analysis, investigate the methodological issues, and propose a spatial decomposition analysis framework for multi-region comparisons. A key feature of the proposed framework is that it passes the circularity test and provides consistent results for multi-region comparisons. A case study in which 30 regions in China are compared and ranked based on their performance in energy consumption is presented. - Highlights: • We conducted cross-regional comparisons of energy consumption using IDA. • We proposed two criteria for IDA method selection in spatial decomposition analysis. • We proposed a new model for regional comparison that passes the circularity test. • Features of the new model are illustrated using the data of 30 regions in China

  20. Accounting for China's import growth : a structural decomposition for 1997-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Jiansuo; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Oosterhaven, Jan; Yang, Cuihong

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies structural decomposition analysis to Chinese input-output tables in order to disentangle and quantify the sources of China's import growth and China's growth in vertical specialization: that is, China's incorporation into the global supply chain. China's exports and the role of

  1. Time-frequency analysis : mathematical analysis of the empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Invented over 10 years ago, empirical mode : decomposition (EMD) provides a nonlinear : time-frequency analysis with the ability to successfully : analyze nonstationary signals. Mathematical : Analysis of the Empirical Mode Decomposition : is a...

  2. Decomposition analysis of differential dose volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, Frank van den

    2006-01-01

    Dose volume histograms are a common tool to assess the value of a treatment plan for various forms of radiation therapy treatment. The purpose of this work is to introduce, validate, and apply a set of tools to analyze differential dose volume histograms by decomposing them into physically and clinically meaningful normal distributions. A weighted sum of the decomposed normal distributions (e.g., weighted dose) is proposed as a new measure of target dose, rather than the more unstable point dose. The method and its theory are presented and validated using simulated distributions. Additional validation is performed by analyzing simple four field box techniques encompassing a predefined target, using different treatment energies inside a water phantom. Furthermore, two clinical situations are analyzed using this methodology to illustrate practical usefulness. A comparison of a treatment plan for a breast patient using a tangential field setup with wedges is compared to a comparable geometry using dose compensators. Finally, a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculation is refined using this decomposition. The NTCP calculation is performed on a liver as organ at risk in a treatment of a mesothelioma patient with involvement of the right lung. The comparison of the wedged breast treatment versus the compensator technique yields comparable classical dose parameters (e.g., conformity index ≅1 and equal dose at the ICRU dose point). The methodology proposed here shows a 4% difference in weighted dose outlining the difference in treatment using a single parameter instead of at least two in a classical analysis (e.g., mean dose, and maximal dose, or total dose variance). NTCP-calculations for the mesothelioma case are generated automatically and show a 3% decrease with respect to the classical calculation. The decrease is slightly dependant on the fractionation and on the α/β-value utilized. In conclusion, this method is able to distinguish clinically

  3. South Africa's electricity consumption: A sectoral decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inglesi-Lotz, Roula; Blignaut, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We conduct a decomposition exercise of the South African electricity consumption. → The increase in electricity consumption was due to output and structural changes. → The increasing at a low rate electricity intensity was a decreasing factor to consumption. → Increases in production were proven to be part of the rising trend for all sectors. → Only 5 sectors' consumption were negatively affected by efficiency improvements. -- Abstract: South Africa's electricity consumption has shown a sharp increase since the early 1990s. Here we conduct a sectoral decomposition analysis of the electricity consumption for the period 1993-2006 to determine the main drivers responsible for this increase. The results show that the increase was mainly due to output or production related factors, with structural changes playing a secondary role. While there is some evidence of efficiency improvements, indicated here as a slowdown in the rate of increase of electricity intensity, it was not nearly sufficient to offset the combined production and structural effects that propelled electricity consumption forward. This general economy-wide statement, however, can be misleading since the results, in essence, are very sector specific and the inter-sectoral differences are substantial. Increases in production were proven to be part of the rising trend for all sectors. However, only five out of fourteen sectors were affected by efficiency improvements, while the structural changes affected the sectors' electricity consumption in different ways. These differences concerning the production, structural and efficiency effects on the sectors indicate the need for a sectoral approach in the energy policy-making of the country rather than a blanket or unilateral economy-wide approach.

  4. Approximate modal analysis using Fourier decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozar, Ivica; Jericevic, Zeljko; Pecak, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a novel numerical approach for approximate solution of eigenvalue problem and investigates its suitability for modal analysis of structures with special attention on plate structures. The approach is based on Fourier transformation of the matrix equation into frequency domain and subsequent removal of potentially less significant frequencies. The procedure results in a much reduced problem that is used in eigenvalue calculation. After calculation eigenvectors are expanded and transformed back into time domain. The principles are presented in Jericevic [1]. Fourier transform can be formulated in a way that some parts of the matrix that should not be approximated are not transformed but are fully preserved. In this paper we present formulation that preserves central or edge parts of the matrix and compare it with the formulation that performs transform on the whole matrix. Numerical experiments on transformed structural dynamic matrices describe quality of the approximations obtained in modal analysis of structures. On the basis of the numerical experiments, from the three approaches to matrix reduction one is recommended.

  5. China's marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W

    2016-06-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.

  6. Global sensitivity analysis for fuzzy inputs based on the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Lu, Zhenzhou; Zhou, Yicheng

    2018-06-01

    To analyse the component of fuzzy output entropy, a decomposition method of fuzzy output entropy is first presented. After the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy, the total fuzzy output entropy can be expressed as the sum of the component fuzzy entropy contributed by fuzzy inputs. Based on the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy, a new global sensitivity analysis model is established for measuring the effects of uncertainties of fuzzy inputs on the output. The global sensitivity analysis model can not only tell the importance of fuzzy inputs but also simultaneously reflect the structural composition of the response function to a certain degree. Several examples illustrate the validity of the proposed global sensitivity analysis, which is a significant reference in engineering design and optimization of structural systems.

  7. Structure and decomposition of the silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzan, Anna N., E-mail: anna_puzan@mail.ru; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Mateychenko, Pavel V.

    2017-02-15

    Crystal structure of the silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2}) has been determined (orthorhombic, sp.gr. Pccn, a=7.1199(5), b=10.3737(4), c=6.4701(3)Å, V=477.88(4) Å{sup 3}, Z=8). The structure contains isolated formate ions and the pairs Ag{sub 2}{sup 2+} which form the layers in (001) planes (the shortest Ag–Ag distances is 2.919 in the pair and 3.421 and 3.716 Å between the nearest Ag atoms of adjacent pairs). Silver formate is unstable compound which decompose spontaneously vs time. Decomposition was studied using Rietveld analysis of the powder diffraction patterns. It was concluded that the diffusion of Ag atoms leads to the formation of plate-like metal particles as nuclei in the (100) planes which settle parallel to (001) planes of the silver formate matrix. - Highlights: • Silver formate Ag(HCO{sub 2}) was synthesized and characterized. • Layered packing of Ag-Ag pairs in the structure was found. • Decomposition of Ag(HCO{sub 2}) and formation of metal phase were studied. • Rietveld-refined micro-structural characteristics during decomposition reveal the space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase REPLACE with: Space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase.

  8. Structure and decomposition of the silver formate Ag(HCO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzan, Anna N.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Mateychenko, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structure of the silver formate Ag(HCO 2 ) has been determined (orthorhombic, sp.gr. Pccn, a=7.1199(5), b=10.3737(4), c=6.4701(3)Å, V=477.88(4) Å 3 , Z=8). The structure contains isolated formate ions and the pairs Ag 2 2+ which form the layers in (001) planes (the shortest Ag–Ag distances is 2.919 in the pair and 3.421 and 3.716 Å between the nearest Ag atoms of adjacent pairs). Silver formate is unstable compound which decompose spontaneously vs time. Decomposition was studied using Rietveld analysis of the powder diffraction patterns. It was concluded that the diffusion of Ag atoms leads to the formation of plate-like metal particles as nuclei in the (100) planes which settle parallel to (001) planes of the silver formate matrix. - Highlights: • Silver formate Ag(HCO 2 ) was synthesized and characterized. • Layered packing of Ag-Ag pairs in the structure was found. • Decomposition of Ag(HCO 2 ) and formation of metal phase were studied. • Rietveld-refined micro-structural characteristics during decomposition reveal the space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase REPLACE with: Space relationship between the matrix structure and forming Ag phase.

  9. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  10. Preconditioning Filter Bank Decomposition Using Structured Normalized Tight Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We turn a given filter bank into a filtering scheme that provides perfect reconstruction, synthesis is the adjoint of the analysis part (so-called unitary filter banks, all filters have equal norm, and the essential features of the original filter bank are preserved. Unitary filter banks providing perfect reconstruction are induced by tight generalized frames, which enable signal decomposition using a set of linear operators. If, in addition, frame elements have equal norm, then the signal energy is spread through the various filter bank channels in some uniform fashion, which is often more suitable for further signal processing. We start with a given generalized frame whose elements allow for fast matrix vector multiplication, as, for instance, convolution operators, and compute a normalized tight frame, for which signal analysis and synthesis still preserve those fast algorithmic schemes.

  11. Multiscale analysis of damage using dual and primal domain decomposition techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloberas-Valls, O.; Everdij, F.P.X.; Rixen, D.J.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, dual and primal domain decomposition techniques are studied for the multiscale analysis of failure in quasi-brittle materials. The multiscale strategy essentially consists in decomposing the structure into a number of nonoverlapping domains and considering a refined spatial

  12. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition.

  13. Extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) reveals unique associations between bacterial community structure and odor emission during pig carcasses decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Bo-Min; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2018-02-22

    Soil burial and composting methods have been widely used for the disposal of pig carcasses. The relationship between bacterial community structure and odor emission was examined using extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) during the degradation of pig carcasses in soil and compost. In soil, Hyphomicrobium, Niastella, Rhodanobacter, Polaromonas, Dokdonella and Mesorhizobium were associated with the emission of sulfur-containing odors such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide. Sphingomonas, Rhodanobacter, Mesorhizobium, Dokdonella, Leucobacter and Truepera were associated with the emission of nitrogen-containing odors including ammonia and trimetylamine. In compost, however, Carnobacteriaceae, Lachnospiaceae and Clostridiales were highly correlated with the emission of sulfur-containing odors, while Rumincoccaceae was associated with the emission of nitrogen-containing odors. The emission of organic acids was closely related to Massilia, Sphaerobacter and Bradyrhizobiaceae in soil, but to Actinobacteria, Sporacetigenium, Micromonosporaceae and Solirubrobacteriales in compost. This study suggests that network analysis using eLSA is a useful strategy for exploring the mechanisms of odor emission during biodegradation of pig carcasses.

  14. Qualitative Functional Decomposition Analysis of Evolved Neuromorphic Flight Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Boddhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous work, it was demonstrated that one can effectively employ CTRNN-EH (a neuromorphic variant of EH method methodology to evolve neuromorphic flight controllers for a flapping wing robot. This paper describes a novel frequency grouping-based analysis technique, developed to qualitatively decompose the evolved controllers into explainable functional control blocks. A summary of the previous work related to evolving flight controllers for two categories of the controller types, called autonomous and nonautonomous controllers, is provided, and the applicability of the newly developed decomposition analysis for both controller categories is demonstrated. Further, the paper concludes with appropriate discussion of ongoing work and implications for possible future work related to employing the CTRNN-EH methodology and the decomposition analysis techniques presented in this paper.

  15. Task Decomposition in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-06-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question remains central as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PSAs tend to be top-down— defined as a subset of the PSA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are more likely to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of the Proximal-Based Parallel Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal-based parallel decomposition methods were recently proposed to solve structured convex optimization problems. These algorithms are eligible for parallel computation and can be used efficiently for solving large-scale separable problems. In this paper, compared with the previous theoretical results, we show that the range of the involved parameters can be enlarged while the convergence can be still established. Preliminary numerical tests on stable principal component pursuit problem testify to the advantages of the enlargement.

  17. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji; Wei Min; Rao Guoying; Evans, D.G.; Duan Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation

  18. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  19. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S4G): MULTI-COMPONENT DECOMPOSITION STRATEGIES AND DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sebastien; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun; Buta, Ron; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis; Knapen, Johan; Cisternas, Mauricio; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Laine, Seppo; Regan, Michael; De Paz, Armando Gil; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S 4 G) is a deep 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 2352 nearby (<40 Mpc) galaxies. We describe the S 4 G data analysis pipeline 4, which is dedicated to two-dimensional structural surface brightness decompositions of 3.6 μm images, using GALFIT3.0. Besides automatic 1-component Sérsic fits, and 2-component Sérsic bulge + exponential disk fits, we present human-supervised multi-component decompositions, which include, when judged appropriate, a central point source, bulge, disk, and bar components. Comparison of the fitted parameters indicates that multi-component models are needed to obtain reliable estimates for the bulge Sérsic index and bulge-to-total light ratio (B/T), confirming earlier results. Here, we describe the preparations of input data done for decompositions, give examples of our decomposition strategy, and describe the data products released via IRSA and via our web page (www.oulu.fi/astronomy/S4G-PIPELINE4/MAIN). These products include all the input data and decomposition files in electronic form, making it easy to extend the decompositions to suit specific science purposes. We also provide our IDL-based visualization tools (GALFIDL) developed for displaying/running GALFIT-decompositions, as well as our mask editing procedure (MASK-EDIT) used in data preparation. A detailed analysis of the bulge, disk, and bar parameters derived from multi-component decompositions will be published separately

  20. Ferrocene Orientation Determined Intramolecular Interactions Using Energy Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two very different quantum mechanically based energy decomposition analyses (EDA schemes are employed to study the dominant energy differences between the eclipsed and staggered ferrocene conformers. One is the extended transition state (ETS based on the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF package and the other is natural EDA (NEDA based in the General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System (GAMESS package. It reveals that in addition to the model (theory and basis set, the fragmentation channels more significantly affect the interaction energy terms (ΔE between the conformers. It is discovered that such an interaction energy can be absorbed into the pre-partitioned fragment channels so that to affect the interaction energies in a particular conformer of Fc. To avoid this, the present study employs a complete fragment channel—the fragments of ferrocene are individual neutral atoms. It therefore discovers that the major difference between the ferrocene conformers is due to the quantum mechanical Pauli repulsive energy and orbital attractive energy, leading to the eclipsed ferrocene the energy preferred structure. The NEDA scheme further indicates that the sum of attractive (negative polarization (POL and charge transfer (CL energies prefers the eclipsed ferrocene. The repulsive (positive deformation (DEF energy, which is dominated by the cyclopentadienyle (Cp rings, prefers the staggered ferrocene. Again, the cancellation results in a small energy residue in favour of the eclipsed ferrocene, in agreement with the ETS scheme. Further Natural Bond Orbital (NBO analysis indicates that all NBO energies, total Lewis (no Fe and lone pair (LP deletion all prefer the eclipsed Fc conformer. The most significant energy preferring the eclipsed ferrocene without cancellation is the interactions between the donor lone pairs (LP of the Fe atom and the acceptor antibond (BD* NBOs of all C–C and C–H bonds in the ligand, LP(Fe-BD*(C–C & C

  1. Measuring structural change and energy use. Decomposition of the US economy from 1997 to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing focus on energy production and consumption has led to growing research attention to patterns of energy use within economies. Of particular interest has been comparing the driving forces of increasing efficiency and economic structural change. Input-output analysis (IOA) and decomposition analysis have become critical tools for performing such analyses. This study analyzes aggregate energy use in the United States in 1997 and 2002 to discover the causes of changing energy usage and flows. Results show that rising population and household consumption acted to drive up energy demand, but this driving force was offset by considerable structural change within the economy, particularly related to a quickly increasing trade deficit in manufacturing goods. Thus, while total energy intensity, the ratio of energy use to economic output, declined by approximately 12% between 1997 and 2002, changes in the structure of the economy explain this drop more than increased energy efficiency. The level of aggregation at which decomposition analyses are run was identified as a crucially sensitive parameter for the determination of structural change, and future studies should specifically address the amount of detail necessary to adequately measure changes in economic structure. (author)

  2. Decomposition in conic optimization with partially separable structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yifan; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    Decomposition techniques for linear programming are difficult to extend to conic optimization problems with general nonpolyhedral convex cones because the conic inequalities introduce an additional nonlinear coupling between the variables. However in many applications the convex cones have...

  3. A Dual Super-Element Domain Decomposition Approach for Parallel Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Izzuddin, B. A.

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new domain decomposition method for nonlinear finite element analysis introducing the concept of dual partition super-elements. The method extends ideas from the displacement frame method and is ideally suited for parallel nonlinear static/dynamic analysis of structural systems. In the new method, domain decomposition is realized by replacing one or more subdomains in a "parent system," each with a placeholder super-element, where the subdomains are processed separately as "child partitions," each wrapped by a dual super-element along the partition boundary. The analysis of the overall system, including the satisfaction of equilibrium and compatibility at all partition boundaries, is realized through direct communication between all pairs of placeholder and dual super-elements. The proposed method has particular advantages for matrix solution methods based on the frontal scheme, and can be readily implemented for existing finite element analysis programs to achieve parallelization on distributed memory systems with minimal intervention, thus overcoming memory bottlenecks typically faced in the analysis of large-scale problems. Several examples are presented in this article which demonstrate the computational benefits of the proposed parallel domain decomposition approach and its applicability to the nonlinear structural analysis of realistic structural systems.

  4. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  5. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Liu

    Full Text Available Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  6. Investigating Coherent Structures in the Standard Turbulence Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliassen, Lene; Andersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The wind turbine design standards recommend two different methods to generate turbulent wind for design load analysis, the Kaimal spectra combined with an exponential coherence function and the Mann turbulence model. The two turbulence models can give very different estimates of fatigue life, especially for offshore floating wind turbines. In this study the spatial distributions of the two turbulence models are investigated using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, which is used to characterize large coherent structures. The main focus has been on the structures that contain the most energy, which are the lowest POD modes. The Mann turbulence model generates coherent structures that stretches in the horizontal direction for the longitudinal component, while the structures found in the Kaimal model are more random in their shape. These differences in the coherent structures at lower frequencies for the two turbulence models can be the reason for differences in fatigue life estimates for wind turbines. (paper)

  7. Image decomposition as a tool for validating stress analysis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottershead J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is good practice to validate analytical and numerical models used in stress analysis for engineering design by comparison with measurements obtained from real components either in-service or in the laboratory. In reality, this critical step is often neglected or reduced to placing a single strain gage at the predicted hot-spot of stress. Modern techniques of optical analysis allow full-field maps of displacement, strain and, or stress to be obtained from real components with relative ease and at modest cost. However, validations continued to be performed only at predicted and, or observed hot-spots and most of the wealth of data is ignored. It is proposed that image decomposition methods, commonly employed in techniques such as fingerprinting and iris recognition, can be employed to validate stress analysis models by comparing all of the key features in the data from the experiment and the model. Image decomposition techniques such as Zernike moments and Fourier transforms have been used to decompose full-field distributions for strain generated from optical techniques such as digital image correlation and thermoelastic stress analysis as well as from analytical and numerical models by treating the strain distributions as images. The result of the decomposition is 101 to 102 image descriptors instead of the 105 or 106 pixels in the original data. As a consequence, it is relatively easy to make a statistical comparison of the image descriptors from the experiment and from the analytical/numerical model and to provide a quantitative assessment of the stress analysis.

  8. Iterative analysis of cerebrovascular reactivity dynamic response by temporal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niftrik, Christiaan Hendrik Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Bozinov, Oliver; Pangalu, Athina; Fisher, Joseph A; Valavanis, Antonios; Luft, Andreas R; Weller, Michael; Regli, Luca; Fierstra, Jorn

    2017-09-01

    To improve quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measurements and CO 2 arrival times, we present an iterative analysis capable of decomposing different temporal components of the dynamic carbon dioxide- Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (CO 2 -BOLD) relationship. Decomposition of the dynamic parameters included a redefinition of the voxel-wise CO 2 arrival time, and a separation from the vascular response to a stepwise increase in CO 2 (Delay to signal Plateau - DTP) and a decrease in CO 2 (Delay to signal Baseline -DTB). Twenty-five (normal) datasets, obtained from BOLD MRI combined with a standardized pseudo-square wave CO 2 change, were co-registered to generate reference atlases for the aforementioned dynamic processes to score the voxel-by-voxel deviation probability from normal range. This analysis is further illustrated in two subjects with unilateral carotid artery occlusion using these reference atlases. We have found that our redefined CO 2 arrival time resulted in the best data fit. Additionally, excluding both dynamic BOLD phases (DTP and DTB) resulted in a static CVR, that is maximal response, defined as CVR calculated only over a normocapnic and hypercapnic calibrated plateau. Decomposition and novel iterative modeling of different temporal components of the dynamic CO 2 -BOLD relationship improves quantitative CVR measurements.

  9. Analysis of large fault trees based on functional decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, Sergio; Matuzas, Vaidas

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD) approach in fault tree analysis, a significant enhancement has been achieved with respect to previous approaches, both in terms of efficiency and accuracy of the overall outcome of the analysis. However, the exponential increase of the number of nodes with the complexity of the fault tree may prevent the construction of the BDD. In these cases, the only way to complete the analysis is to reduce the complexity of the BDD by applying the truncation technique, which nevertheless implies the problem of estimating the truncation error or upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability. This paper describes a new method to analyze large coherent fault trees which can be advantageously applied when the working memory is not sufficient to construct the BDD. It is based on the decomposition of the fault tree into simpler disjoint fault trees containing a lower number of variables. The analysis of each simple fault tree is performed by using all the computational resources. The results from the analysis of all simpler fault trees are re-combined to obtain the results for the original fault tree. Two decomposition methods are herewith described: the first aims at determining the minimal cut sets (MCS) and the upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability; the second can be applied to determine the exact value of the top-event unavailability. Potentialities, limitations and possible variations of these methods will be discussed with reference to the results of their application to some complex fault trees.

  10. Analysis of large fault trees based on functional decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.contini@jrc.i [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, 21020 Ispra (Italy); Matuzas, Vaidas [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    With the advent of the Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD) approach in fault tree analysis, a significant enhancement has been achieved with respect to previous approaches, both in terms of efficiency and accuracy of the overall outcome of the analysis. However, the exponential increase of the number of nodes with the complexity of the fault tree may prevent the construction of the BDD. In these cases, the only way to complete the analysis is to reduce the complexity of the BDD by applying the truncation technique, which nevertheless implies the problem of estimating the truncation error or upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability. This paper describes a new method to analyze large coherent fault trees which can be advantageously applied when the working memory is not sufficient to construct the BDD. It is based on the decomposition of the fault tree into simpler disjoint fault trees containing a lower number of variables. The analysis of each simple fault tree is performed by using all the computational resources. The results from the analysis of all simpler fault trees are re-combined to obtain the results for the original fault tree. Two decomposition methods are herewith described: the first aims at determining the minimal cut sets (MCS) and the upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability; the second can be applied to determine the exact value of the top-event unavailability. Potentialities, limitations and possible variations of these methods will be discussed with reference to the results of their application to some complex fault trees.

  11. Canonical decomposition of magnetotelluric responses: Experiment on 1D anisotropic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ze-qiu; Wei, Wen-bo; Ye, Gao-feng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jian-en

    2015-08-01

    Horizontal electrical heterogeneity of subsurface earth is mostly originated from structural complexity and electrical anisotropy, and local near-surface electrical heterogeneity will severely distort regional electromagnetic responses. Conventional distortion analyses for magnetotelluric soundings are primarily physical decomposition methods with respect to isotropic models, which mostly presume that the geoelectric distribution of geological structures is of local and regional patterns represented by 3D/2D models. Due to the widespread anisotropy of earth media, the confusion between 1D anisotropic responses and 2D isotropic responses, and the defects of physical decomposition methods, we propose to conduct modeling experiments with canonical decomposition in terms of 1D layered anisotropic models, and the method is one of the mathematical decomposition methods based on eigenstate analyses differentiated from distortion analyses, which can be used to recover electrical information such as strike directions, and maximum and minimum conductivity. We tested this method with numerical simulation experiments on several 1D synthetic models, which turned out that canonical decomposition is quite effective to reveal geological anisotropic information. Finally, for the background of anisotropy from previous study by geological and seismological methods, canonical decomposition is applied to real data acquired in North China Craton for 1D anisotropy analyses, and the result shows that, with effective modeling and cautious interpretation, canonical decomposition could be another good method to detect anisotropy of geological media.

  12. Four-level time decomposition quasi-static power flow and successive disturbances analysis. [Power system disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, S M [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (YU)

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a model and an appropriate numerical procedure for a four-level time decomposition quasi-static power flow and successive disturbances analysis of power systems. The analysis consists of the sequential computation of the zero, primary, secondary and tertiary quasi-static states and of the estimation of successive structural disturbances during the 1200 s dynamics after a structural disturbance. The model is developed by detailed inspection of the time decomposition characteristics of automatic protection and control devices. Adequate speed of the numerical procedure is attained by a specific application of the inversion matrix lemma and the decoupled model constant coefficient matrices. The four-level time decomposition quasi-static method is intended for security and emergency analysis. (author).

  13. Why did China's energy intensity increase during 1998-2006. Decomposition and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Chunbo; Hong, Dongyue

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that China's energy intensity has continuously decreased during the 1980s and mostly 1990s, the decreasing trend has reversed since 1998 and the past few years have witnessed rapid increase in China's energy intensity. We firstly conduct an index decomposition analysis to identify the key forces behind the increase. It is found that: (1) the high energy demand in industrial sectors is mainly attributed to expansion of production scale, especially in energy-intensive industries; (2) energy saving mainly comes from efficiency improvement, with energy-intensive sectors making the largest contribution; and (3) a heavier industrial structure also contributes to the increase. This study also makes the first attempt to bridge the quantitative decomposition analysis with qualitative policy analyses and fill the gap between decomposition results and policy relevance in previous work. We argue that: (1) energy efficiency improvement in energy-intensive sectors is mainly due to the industrial policies that have been implemented in the past few years; (2) low energy prices have directly contributed to high industrial energy consumption and indirectly to the heavy industrial structure. We provide policy suggestions in the end. (author)

  14. European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, V.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO 2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001–2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities. -- Highlights: ► Decomposition analysis is used to investigate factors that influenced the energy-related CO 2 emissions of European transport. ► Economic growth has been the main factor affecting the energy-related CO 2 emissions increases. ► Investigating the CO 2 emissions drivers is the first step to define energy efficiency policies and emission reduction strategies.

  15. Spectral decomposition in advection-diffusion analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.; Gartling, D.K.; Strang, G.

    1978-01-01

    In a recent study of the convergence properties of finite element methods in nonlinear fluid mechanics, an indirect approach was taken. A two-dimensional example with a known exact solution was chosen as the vehicle for the study, and various mesh refinements were tested in an attempt to extract information on the effect of the local Reynolds number. However, more direct approaches are usually preferred. In this study one such direct approach is followed, based upon the spectral decomposition of the solution operator. Spectral decomposition is widely employed as a solution technique for linear structural dynamics problems and can be applied readily to linear, transient heat transfer analysis; in this case, the extension to nonlinear problems is of interest. It was shown previously that spectral techniques were applicable to stiff systems of rate equations, while recent studies of geometrically and materially nonlinear structural dynamics have demonstrated the increased information content of the numerical results. The use of spectral decomposition in nonlinear problems of heat and mass transfer would be expected to yield equally increased flow of information to the analyst, and this information could include a quantitative comparison of various solution strategies, meshes, and element hierarchies

  16. [Effects decomposition in mediation analysis: a numerical example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Mediation analysis aims to decompose the total effect of the exposure on the outcome into a direct effect (unmediated) and an indirect effect (mediated by a mediator). When the interest also lies on understanding whether the exposure effect differs in different sub-groups of study population or under different scenarios, the mediation analysis needs to be integrated with interaction analysis. In this setting it is necessary to decompose the total effect not only into two components, the direct and indirect effects, but other two components linked to interaction. The interaction between the exposure and the mediator in their effect on the outcome could indeed act through the effect of the exposure on the mediator or through the mediator when the mediator is not totally explained by the exposure. We describe options for decomposition, proposed in literature, of the total effect and we illustrate them through a hypothetical example of the effect of age at diagnosis of cancer on survival, mediated and unmediated by the therapeutical approach, and a numerical example.

  17. Cluster analysis by optimal decomposition of induced fuzzy sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backer, E

    1978-01-01

    Nonsupervised pattern recognition is addressed and the concept of fuzzy sets is explored in order to provide the investigator (data analyst) additional information supplied by the pattern class membership values apart from the classical pattern class assignments. The basic ideas behind the pattern recognition problem, the clustering problem, and the concept of fuzzy sets in cluster analysis are discussed, and a brief review of the literature of the fuzzy cluster analysis is given. Some mathematical aspects of fuzzy set theory are briefly discussed; in particular, a measure of fuzziness is suggested. The optimization-clustering problem is characterized. Then the fundamental idea behind affinity decomposition is considered. Next, further analysis takes place with respect to the partitioning-characterization functions. The iterative optimization procedure is then addressed. The reclassification function is investigated and convergence properties are examined. Finally, several experiments in support of the method suggested are described. Four object data sets serve as appropriate test cases. 120 references, 70 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  18. Residential energy consumption in urban China: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.

  19. A refined Frequency Domain Decomposition tool for structural modal monitoring in earthquake engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioldi, Fabio; Rizzi, Egidio

    2017-07-01

    Output-only structural identification is developed by a refined Frequency Domain Decomposition ( rFDD) approach, towards assessing current modal properties of heavy-damped buildings (in terms of identification challenge), under strong ground motions. Structural responses from earthquake excitations are taken as input signals for the identification algorithm. A new dedicated computational procedure, based on coupled Chebyshev Type II bandpass filters, is outlined for the effective estimation of natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping ratios. The identification technique is also coupled with a Gabor Wavelet Transform, resulting in an effective and self-contained time-frequency analysis framework. Simulated response signals generated by shear-type frames (with variable structural features) are used as a necessary validation condition. In this context use is made of a complete set of seismic records taken from the FEMA P695 database, i.e. all 44 "Far-Field" (22 NS, 22 WE) earthquake signals. The modal estimates are statistically compared to their target values, proving the accuracy of the developed algorithm in providing prompt and accurate estimates of all current strong ground motion modal parameters. At this stage, such analysis tool may be employed for convenient application in the realm of Earthquake Engineering, towards potential Structural Health Monitoring and damage detection purposes.

  20. Using Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition as a Robust Technique to Harmonic Excitation in Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune

    2006-01-01

    The presence of harmonic components in the measured responses is unavoidable in many applications of Operational Modal Analysis. This is especially true when measuring on mechanical structures containing rotating or reciprocating parts. This paper describes a new method based on the popular...... agreement is found and the method is proven to be an easy-to-use and robust tool for handling responses with deterministic and stochastic content....... Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique for eliminating the influence of these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For various experiments, the quality of the method is assessed and compared to the results obtained using broadband stochastic excitation forces. Good...

  1. Kinetic analysis of the thermal decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Mosqueda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A single dynamic kinetic analysis, describing the surface decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 pellets, has been performed. Samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses were performed between 1000 and 1100°C and different times, perceiving the Li4Ti5O12 decomposition to Li2Ti3O7, with a loss of lithium. As expected, more rapid decomposition behaviour was found at higher temperatures. Finally, the activation energy for this decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 to Li2Ti3O7 was estimated to be equal to 383 kJ/mol.

  2. Changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector: Decomposition and attribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Nan; Ma, Zujun; Kang, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    The industrial sector accounts for 70% of the total energy-related CO_2 emissions in China. To gain a better understanding of the changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector, this study first utilized logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to disentangle the carbon intensity into three influencing factors, including the emission coefficient effect, the energy intensity effect, and the structure effect. Then, the analysis was furthered to explore the contributions of individual industrial sub-sectors to each factor by using an extension of the decomposition method proposed in Choi and Ang (2012). The results indicate that from 1996 to 2012, the energy intensity effect was the dominant factor in reducing carbon intensity, of which chemicals, iron and steel, metal and machinery, and cement and ceramics were the most representative sub-sectors. The structure effect did not show a strong impact on carbon intensity. The emission coefficient effect gradually increased the carbon intensity, mainly due to the expansion of electricity consumption, particularly in the metal and machinery and chemicals sub-sectors. The findings suggest that differentiated policies and measures should be considered for various industrial sub-sectors to maximize the energy efficiency potential. Moreover, readjusting the industrial structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is also urgently required to further reduce carbon intensity in China's industrial sector. - Highlights: • The study analyzed the changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector. • An extension of the Divisia index decomposition methodology was utilized. • Energy efficiency improvement was the dominant factor reducing carbon intensity. • The sub-sector contributions to the energy efficiency improvement varied markedly. • Emission coefficient growth can be mainly due to the expansion of electricity.

  3. Thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yuzhu Chen; Feng Li

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues with respect to liquefaction condition and pyrolysis conversion were investigated using a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer at the heating rates of 5, 20, 50 °C min-1. The hemicellulose decomposition peak was absent at the derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG...

  4. Thermal decomposition kinetics of sorghum straw via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Vaibhav; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-12-01

    The thermal decomposition of sorghum straw was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, where the determination of kinetic triplet (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction model), was the key objective. The activation energy was determined using different isoconversional methods: Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Starink, Iterative method of Chai & Chen, Vyazovkin AIC method, and Li & Tang equation. The pre-exponential factor was calculated using Kissinger's equation; while the reaction model was predicted by comparison of z-master plot obtained from experimental values with the theoretical plots. The values of activation energy obtained from isoconversional methods were further used for evaluation of thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy. Results showed three zones of pyrolysis having average activation energy values of 151.21kJ/mol, 116.15kJ/mol, and 136.65kJ/mol respectively. The data was well fitting with two-dimension 'Valensi' model for conversion values from 0 to 0.4 with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value of 0.988, and with third order reaction model for values from 0.4 to 0.9 with an R 2 value of 0.843. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structured decomposition design of partial Mueller matrix polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenin, Andrey S; Scott Tyo, J

    2015-07-01

    Partial Mueller matrix polarimeters (pMMPs) are active sensing instruments that probe a scattering process with a set of polarization states and analyze the scattered light with a second set of polarization states. Unlike conventional Mueller matrix polarimeters, pMMPs do not attempt to reconstruct the entire Mueller matrix. With proper choice of generator and analyzer states, a subset of the Mueller matrix space can be reconstructed with fewer measurements than that of the full Mueller matrix polarimeter. In this paper we consider the structure of the Mueller matrix and our ability to probe it using a reduced number of measurements. We develop analysis tools that allow us to relate the particular choice of generator and analyzer polarization states to the portion of Mueller matrix space that the instrument measures, as well as develop an optimization method that is based on balancing the signal-to-noise ratio of the resulting instrument with the ability of that instrument to accurately measure a particular set of desired polarization components with as few measurements as possible. In the process, we identify 10 classes of pMMP systems, for which the space coverage is immediately known. We demonstrate the theory with a numerical example that designs partial polarimeters for the task of monitoring the damage state of a material as presented earlier by Hoover and Tyo [Appl. Opt.46, 8364 (2007)10.1364/AO.46.008364APOPAI1559-128X]. We show that we can reduce the polarimeter to making eight measurements while still covering the Mueller matrix subspace spanned by the objects.

  6. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, Julia; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia), and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level—6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia—was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia. PMID:26528159

  7. Electronic structure and thermal decomposition of 5-aminotetrazole studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rui M., E-mail: ruipinto@fct.unl.pt [CFA, Centro de Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Dias, Antonio A.; Costa, Maria L. [CFA, Centro de Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-03-18

    Graphical abstract: Gas-phase UV photoelectron spectrum of the thermal decomposition of 5-aminotetrazole (5ATZ), obtained at 245 {sup o}C, and mechanism underlying the thermal dissociation of 2H-5ATZ. Research highlights: {yields} Electronic structure of 5ATZ studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. {yields} Gas-phase 5-ATZ exists mainly as the 2H-tautomer. {yields} Thermal decomposition of 5ATZ gives N{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}CN, HN{sub 3} and HCN, at 245 {sup o}C. {yields} HCN can be originated from a carbene intermediate. - Abstract: The electronic properties and thermal decomposition of 5-aminotetrazole (5ATZ) are investigated using UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPES) and theoretical calculations. Simulated spectra of both 1H- and 2H-5ATZ, based on electron propagator methods, are produced in order to study the relative gas-phase tautomer population. The thermal decomposition results are rationalized in terms of intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations. 5ATZ yields a HOMO ionization energy of 9.44 {+-} 0.04 eV and the gas-phase 5ATZ assumes mainly the 2H-form. The thermal decomposition of 5ATZ leads to the formation of N{sub 2}, HN{sub 3} and NH{sub 2}CN as the primary products, and HCN from the decomposition of a intermediate CH{sub 3}N{sub 3} compound. The reaction barriers for the formation of HN{sub 3} and N{sub 2} from 2H-5ATZ are predicted to be {approx}228 and {approx}150 kJ/mol, at the G2(MP2) level, respectively. The formation of HCN and HNNH from the thermal decomposition of a CH{sub 3}N{sub 3} carbene intermediate is also investigated.

  8. A Taxonomy of Latent Structure Assumptions for Probability Matrix Decomposition Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Michel; De Boeck, Paul; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2003-01-01

    Proposed a taxonomy of latent structure assumptions for probability matrix decomposition (PMD) that includes the original PMD model and a three-way extension of the multiple classification latent class model. Simulation study results show the usefulness of the taxonomy. (SLD)

  9. Analyzing the simplicial decomposition of spatial protein structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabadka Zoltán

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fast growing Protein Data Bank contains the three-dimensional description of more than 45000 protein- and nucleic-acid structures today. The large majority of the data in the PDB are measured by X-ray crystallography by thousands of researchers in millions of work-hours. Unfortunately, lots of structural errors, bad labels, missing atoms, falsely identified chains and groups make dificult the automated processing of this treasury of structural biological data. Results After we performed a rigorous re-structuring of the whole PDB on graph-theoretical basis, we created the RS-PDB (Rich-Structure PDB database. Using this cleaned and repaired database, we defined simplicial complexes on the heavy-atoms of the PDB, and analyzed the tetrahedra for geometric properties. Conclusion We have found surprisingly characteristic differences between simplices with atomic vertices of different types, and between the atomic neighborhoods – described also by simplices – of different ligand atoms in proteins.

  10. Univariate and Bivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition for Postural Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Duchêne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare empirical mode decomposition (EMD and two new extended methods of  EMD named complex empirical mode decomposition (complex-EMD and bivariate empirical mode decomposition (bivariate-EMD. All methods were used to analyze stabilogram center of pressure (COP time series. The two new methods are suitable to be applied to complex time series to extract complex intrinsic mode functions (IMFs before the Hilbert transform is subsequently applied on the IMFs. The trace of the analytic IMF in the complex plane has a circular form, with each IMF having its own rotation frequency. The area of the circle and the average rotation frequency of IMFs represent efficient indicators of the postural stability status of subjects. Experimental results show the effectiveness of these indicators to identify differences in standing posture between groups.

  11. The Fourier decomposition method for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpendra; Joshi, Shiv Dutt; Patney, Rakesh Kumar; Saha, Kaushik

    2017-03-01

    for many decades, there has been a general perception in the literature that Fourier methods are not suitable for the analysis of nonlinear and non-stationary data. In this paper, we propose a novel and adaptive Fourier decomposition method (FDM), based on the Fourier theory, and demonstrate its efficacy for the analysis of nonlinear and non-stationary time series. The proposed FDM decomposes any data into a small number of 'Fourier intrinsic band functions' (FIBFs). The FDM presents a generalized Fourier expansion with variable amplitudes and variable frequencies of a time series by the Fourier method itself. We propose an idea of zero-phase filter bank-based multivariate FDM (MFDM), for the analysis of multivariate nonlinear and non-stationary time series, using the FDM. We also present an algorithm to obtain cut-off frequencies for MFDM. The proposed MFDM generates a finite number of band-limited multivariate FIBFs (MFIBFs). The MFDM preserves some intrinsic physical properties of the multivariate data, such as scale alignment, trend and instantaneous frequency. The proposed methods provide a time-frequency-energy (TFE) distribution that reveals the intrinsic structure of a data. Numerical computations and simulations have been carried out and comparison is made with the empirical mode decomposition algorithms.

  12. Evolving Robot Controllers for Structured Environments Through Environment Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to develop a controller that allows a robot to traverse an structured environment. The approach we use is to decompose the environment into simple sub-environments that we use as basis for evolving the controller. Specifically, we decompose a narrow corridor environment...... environments and that the order in which the decomposed sub-environments are presented in sequence impacts the performance of the evolutionary algorithm....

  13. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  14. Trends in air pollution in Ireland : A decomposition analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the emissions to air of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ammonia in Ireland are analysed with a logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition for the period of 1990-2009. Emissions fell for four of the five pollutants, with ammonia being

  15. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G): MULTI-COMPONENT DECOMPOSITION STRATEGIES AND DATA RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sebastien [Astronomy and Space Physics, University of Oulu, FI-90014 (Finland); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Buta, Ron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L. [University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, Luis [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Knapen, Johan; Cisternas, Mauricio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Laine, Seppo [Spitzer Science Center—Caltech, MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Regan, Michael [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); De Paz, Armando Gil [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Menendez-Delmestre, Karin [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, Saude CEP 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro—RJ (Brazil); and others

    2015-07-20

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) is a deep 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 2352 nearby (<40 Mpc) galaxies. We describe the S{sup 4}G data analysis pipeline 4, which is dedicated to two-dimensional structural surface brightness decompositions of 3.6 μm images, using GALFIT3.0. Besides automatic 1-component Sérsic fits, and 2-component Sérsic bulge + exponential disk fits, we present human-supervised multi-component decompositions, which include, when judged appropriate, a central point source, bulge, disk, and bar components. Comparison of the fitted parameters indicates that multi-component models are needed to obtain reliable estimates for the bulge Sérsic index and bulge-to-total light ratio (B/T), confirming earlier results. Here, we describe the preparations of input data done for decompositions, give examples of our decomposition strategy, and describe the data products released via IRSA and via our web page (www.oulu.fi/astronomy/S4G-PIPELINE4/MAIN). These products include all the input data and decomposition files in electronic form, making it easy to extend the decompositions to suit specific science purposes. We also provide our IDL-based visualization tools (GALFIDL) developed for displaying/running GALFIT-decompositions, as well as our mask editing procedure (MASK-EDIT) used in data preparation. A detailed analysis of the bulge, disk, and bar parameters derived from multi-component decompositions will be published separately.

  16. Effects of anthropogenic heavy metal contamination on litter decomposition in streams – A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Verónica; Koricheva, Julia; Duarte, Sofia; Niyogi, Dev K.; Guérold, François

    2016-01-01

    Many streams worldwide are affected by heavy metal contamination, mostly due to past and present mining activities. Here we present a meta-analysis of 38 studies (reporting 133 cases) published between 1978 and 2014 that reported the effects of heavy metal contamination on the decomposition of terrestrial litter in running waters. Overall, heavy metal contamination significantly inhibited litter decomposition. The effect was stronger for laboratory than for field studies, likely due to better control of confounding variables in the former, antagonistic interactions between metals and other environmental variables in the latter or differences in metal identity and concentration between studies. For laboratory studies, only copper + zinc mixtures significantly inhibited litter decomposition, while no significant effects were found for silver, aluminum, cadmium or zinc considered individually. For field studies, coal and metal mine drainage strongly inhibited litter decomposition, while drainage from motorways had no significant effects. The effect of coal mine drainage did not depend on drainage pH. Coal mine drainage negatively affected leaf litter decomposition independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for wood decomposition, but sample size was low. Considering metal mine drainage, arsenic mines had a stronger negative effect on leaf litter decomposition than gold or pyrite mines. Metal mine drainage significantly inhibited leaf litter decomposition driven by both microbes and invertebrates, independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for microbially driven decomposition, but sample size was low. Overall, mine drainage negatively affects leaf litter decomposition, likely through negative effects on invertebrates. - Highlights: • A meta-analysis was done to assess the effects of heavy metals on litter decomposition. • Heavy metals significantly and strongly inhibited litter decomposition in streams.

  17. Grid-based electronic structure calculations: The tensor decomposition approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhuba, M.V., E-mail: rakhuba.m@gmail.com [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Novaya St. 100, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Oseledets, I.V., E-mail: i.oseledets@skoltech.ru [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Novaya St. 100, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina St. 8, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-01

    We present a fully grid-based approach for solving Hartree–Fock and all-electron Kohn–Sham equations based on low-rank approximation of three-dimensional electron orbitals. Due to the low-rank structure the total complexity of the algorithm depends linearly with respect to the one-dimensional grid size. Linear complexity allows for the usage of fine grids, e.g. 8192{sup 3} and, thus, cheap extrapolation procedure. We test the proposed approach on closed-shell atoms up to the argon, several molecules and clusters of hydrogen atoms. All tests show systematical convergence with the required accuracy.

  18. Parallel algorithms for nuclear reactor analysis via domain decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hee

    1995-02-01

    In this thesis, the neutron diffusion equation in reactor physics is discretized by the finite difference method and is solved on a parallel computer network which is composed of T-800 transputers. T-800 transputer is a message-passing type MIMD (multiple instruction streams and multiple data streams) architecture. A parallel variant of Schwarz alternating procedure for overlapping subdomains is developed with domain decomposition. The thesis provides convergence analysis and improvement of the convergence of the algorithm. The convergence of the parallel Schwarz algorithms with DN(or ND), DD, NN, and mixed pseudo-boundary conditions(a weighted combination of Dirichlet and Neumann conditions) is analyzed for both continuous and discrete models in two-subdomain case and various underlying features are explored. The analysis shows that the convergence rate of the algorithm highly depends on the pseudo-boundary conditions and the theoretically best one is the mixed boundary conditions(MM conditions). Also it is shown that there may exist a significant discrepancy between continuous model analysis and discrete model analysis. In order to accelerate the convergence of the parallel Schwarz algorithm, relaxation in pseudo-boundary conditions is introduced and the convergence analysis of the algorithm for two-subdomain case is carried out. The analysis shows that under-relaxation of the pseudo-boundary conditions accelerates the convergence of the parallel Schwarz algorithm if the convergence rate without relaxation is negative, and any relaxation(under or over) decelerates convergence if the convergence rate without relaxation is positive. Numerical implementation of the parallel Schwarz algorithm on an MIMD system requires multi-level iterations: two levels for fixed source problems, three levels for eigenvalue problems. Performance of the algorithm turns out to be very sensitive to the iteration strategy. In general, multi-level iterations provide good performance when

  19. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China’s international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China’s exports and net exports during 2002–2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade. PMID:28441399

  20. A posteriori error analysis of multiscale operator decomposition methods for multiphysics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estep, D; Carey, V; Tavener, S; Ginting, V; Wildey, T

    2008-01-01

    Multiphysics, multiscale models present significant challenges in computing accurate solutions and for estimating the error in information computed from numerical solutions. In this paper, we describe recent advances in extending the techniques of a posteriori error analysis to multiscale operator decomposition solution methods. While the particulars of the analysis vary considerably with the problem, several key ideas underlie a general approach being developed to treat operator decomposition multiscale methods. We explain these ideas in the context of three specific examples

  1. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  2. Analysis of benzoquinone decomposition in solution plasma process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratescu, M.A.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in Solution Plasma Processing (SPP) was analyzed by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) by monitoring the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity of the vibrational transitions of the molecule, during and after SPP. Just in the beginning of the SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensities of the ring vibrational molecular transitions increased under the influence of the electric field of plasma. The results show that plasma influences the p-BQ molecules in two ways: (i) plasma produces a polarization and an orientation of the molecules in the local electric field of plasma and (ii) the gas phase plasma supplies, in the liquid phase, hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which reduce or oxidize the molecules, respectively, generating different carboxylic acids. The decomposition of p-BQ after SPP was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography

  3. Analysis of benzoquinone decomposition in solution plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratescu, M. A.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in Solution Plasma Processing (SPP) was analyzed by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) by monitoring the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity of the vibrational transitions of the molecule, during and after SPP. Just in the beginning of the SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensities of the ring vibrational molecular transitions increased under the influence of the electric field of plasma. The results show that plasma influences the p-BQ molecules in two ways: (i) plasma produces a polarization and an orientation of the molecules in the local electric field of plasma and (ii) the gas phase plasma supplies, in the liquid phase, hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which reduce or oxidize the molecules, respectively, generating different carboxylic acids. The decomposition of p-BQ after SPP was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography.

  4. Singular value decomposition methods for wave propagation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Lefeuvre, F.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2003), s. 10-1-10-13 ISSN 0048-6604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/1064 Grant - others:Barrande(CZ) 98039/98055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911; CEZ:MSM 113200004 Keywords : wave propagation * singular value decomposition Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.832, year: 2003

  5. Evaluating litter decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics in earth system models: contrasting analysis of long-term litter decomposition and steady-state soil carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.; Wieder, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    litterfall and model-derived climatic decomposition index. While comparison with the LIDET 10-year litterbag study reveals sharp contrasts between CLM4 and DAYCENT, simulations of steady-state soil carbon show less difference between models. Both CLM4 and DAYCENT significantly underestimate soil carbon. Sensitivity analyses highlight causes of the low soil carbon bias. The terrestrial biogeochemistry of earth system models must be critically tested with observations, and the consequences of particular model choices must be documented. Long-term litter decomposition experiments such as LIDET provide a real-world process-oriented benchmark to evaluate models and can critically inform model development. Analysis of steady-state soil carbon estimates reveal additional, but here different, inferences about model performance.

  6. Preliminary application of Structure from Motion and GIS to document decomposition and taphonomic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Connor D; Mitchell, Samantha; Lewis, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, Structure from Motion (SfM) has increasingly been used as a means of digital preservation and for documenting archaeological excavations, architecture, and cultural material. However, few studies have tapped the potential of using SfM to document and analyze taphonomic processes affecting burials for forensic sciences purposes. This project utilizes SfM models to elucidate specific post-depositional events that affected a series of three human cadavers deposited at the South East Texas Applied Forensic Science Facility (STAFS). The aim of this research was to test the ability for untrained researchers to employ spatial software and photogrammetry for data collection purposes. For a series of three months a single lens reflex (SLR) camera was used to capture a series of overlapping images at periodic stages in the decomposition process of each cadaver. These images are processed through photogrammetric software that creates a 3D model that can be measured, manipulated, and viewed. This project used photogrammetric and geospatial software to map changes in decomposition and movement of the body from original deposition points. Project results indicate SfM and GIS as a useful tool for documenting decomposition and taphonomic processes. Results indicate photogrammetry is an efficient, relatively simple, and affordable tool for the documentation of decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding China’s past and future energy demand: An exergy efficiency and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockway, Paul E.; Steinberger, Julia K.; Barrett, John R.; Foxon, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We complete the first time series exergy and useful work study of China (1971–2010). • Novel exergy approach to understand China’s past and future energy consumption. • China’s exergy efficiency rose from 5% to 13%, and is now above US (11%). • Decomposition finds this is due to structural change not technical leapfrogging. • Results suggests current models may underestimate China’s future energy demand. - Abstract: There are very few useful work and exergy analysis studies for China, and fewer still that consider how the results inform drivers of past and future energy consumption. This is surprising: China is the world’s largest energy consumer, whilst exergy analysis provides a robust thermodynamic framework for analysing the technical efficiency of energy use. In response, we develop three novel sub-analyses. First we perform a long-term whole economy time-series exergy analysis for China (1971–2010). We find a 10-fold growth in China’s useful work since 1971, which is supplied by a 4-fold increase in primary energy coupled to a 2.5-fold gain in aggregate exergy conversion efficiency to useful work: from 5% to 12.5%. Second, using index decomposition we expose the key driver of efficiency growth as not ‘technological leapfrogging’ but structural change: i.e. increasing reliance on thermodynamically efficient (but very energy intensive) heavy industrial activities. Third, we extend our useful work analysis to estimate China’s future primary energy demand, and find values for 2030 that are significantly above mainstream projections

  8. Decomposition of almost-Poisson structure of generalised Chaplygin's nonholonomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Liu; Peng, Chang; Shi-Xing, Liu; Yong-Xin, Guo

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs an almost-Poisson structure for the non-self-adjoint dynamical systems, which can be decomposed into a sum of a Poisson bracket and the other almost-Poisson bracket. The necessary and sufficient condition for the decomposition of the almost-Poisson bracket to be two Poisson ones is obtained. As an application, the almost-Poisson structure for generalised Chaplygin's systems is discussed in the framework of the decomposition theory. It proves that the almost-Poisson bracket for the systems can be decomposed into the sum of a canonical Poisson bracket and another two noncanonical Poisson brackets in some special cases, which is useful for integrating the equations of motion

  9. Linking temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to its molecular structure, accessibility, and microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagai, Rota; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Yagasaki, Yasumi

    2013-04-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition may have a significant impact on global warming. Enzyme-kinetic hypothesis suggests that decomposition of low-quality substrate (recalcitrant molecular structure) requires higher activation energy and thus has greater temperature sensitivity than that of high-quality, labile substrate. Supporting evidence, however, relies largely on indirect indices of substrate quality. Furthermore, the enzyme-substrate reactions that drive decomposition may be regulated by microbial physiology and/or constrained by protective effects of soil mineral matrix. We thus tested the kinetic hypothesis by directly assessing the carbon molecular structure of low-density fraction (LF) which represents readily accessible, mineral-free SOM pool. Using five mineral soil samples of contrasting SOM concentrations, we conducted 30-days incubations (15, 25, and 35 °C) to measure microbial respiration and quantified easily soluble C as well as microbial biomass C pools before and after the incubations. Carbon structure of LFs (soil was measured by solid-state (13) C-NMR. Decomposition Q10 was significantly correlated with the abundance of aromatic plus alkyl-C relative to O-alkyl-C groups in LFs but not in bulk soil fraction or with the indirect C quality indices based on microbial respiration or biomass. The warming did not significantly change the concentration of biomass C or the three types of soluble C despite two- to three-fold increase in respiration. Thus, enhanced microbial maintenance respiration (reduced C-use efficiency) especially in the soils rich in recalcitrant LF might lead to the apparent equilibrium between SOM solubilization and microbial C uptake. Our results showed physical fractionation coupled with direct assessment of molecular structure as an effective approach and supported the enzyme-kinetic interpretation of widely observed C quality-temperature relationship for short-term decomposition. Factors

  10. Decomposition Methods For a Piv Data Analysis with Application to a Boundary Layer Separation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Václav URUBA

    2010-01-01

    Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL) on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition) techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns) method. The study contributes...

  11. [Analysis of the character of film decomposition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) coated urea by infrared spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-po; Wu, Zhi-jie; Liang, Cheng-hua; Chen, Li-jun; Zhang, Yu-lan; Nie, Yan-xi

    2012-03-01

    The degradability characteristics of film with 4 kinds of methyl methacrylate coated urea amended with inhibitors were analyzed by FITR, which was purposed to supply theoretical basis for applying the FITR analysis method to film decomposition and methyl methacrylate coated urea fertilizers on farming. The result showed that the chemical component, molecule structure and material form of the membrane were not changed because of adding different inhibitors to urea. the main peaks of expressing film degradation process were brought by the -C-H of CH3 & CH2, -OH, C-O, C-C, C-O-C, C=O, C=C flexing vibrancy in asymmetry and symmetry in 3 479-3 195, 2 993--2 873, 1 741-1 564, 1 461-925 and 850-650 cm(-1). The peak value changed from smooth to tip, and from width to narrow caused by chemical structural transform of film The infrared spectrum of 4 kinds of fertilizers was not different remarkably before 60 days, and the film was slowly degraded. But degradation of the film was expedited after 60 days, it was most quickened at 120 day, and the decomposition rate of film was decreased at 310 day. The substantiality change of film in main molecule structure of 4 kinds of fertilizers didn't happen in 310 days. The main component of film materials was degraded most slowly in brown soil. The speed of film degradation wasn't heavily impacted by different inhibitors. The characteristic of film degradation may be monitored entirely by infrared spectrum. The degradation dynamic, chemical structure change, degradation speed difference of the film could be represented through infrared spectrum.

  12. Critical Analysis of Nitramine Decomposition Data: Product Distributions from HMX and RDX Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    12. It was stated that analysis of the gaseous products showed that they consisted of N2O, NO, N2, CO, CO2, F^CO and traces of N,* The products of...IR, UV and mass spectrometry. These were (yields summarized in Table 1) as follows: No 1 N2O, NO, CO2, CO, HCN, CH2O, and I^O. NO2 and a trace ...Ramirez, "Reaction of Gem-Nitronitroso Compounds with Triethyl Phosphite ," Tetrahedron, Vol. 29, p. 4195, 1973. J. Jappy and P.N. Preston

  13. Tree decomposition based fast search of RNA structures including pseudoknots in genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinglei; Liu, Chunmei; Malmberg, Russell; Pan, Fangfang; Cai, Liming

    2005-01-01

    Searching genomes for RNA secondary structure with computational methods has become an important approach to the annotation of non-coding RNAs. However, due to the lack of efficient algorithms for accurate RNA structure-sequence alignment, computer programs capable of fast and effectively searching genomes for RNA secondary structures have not been available. In this paper, a novel RNA structure profiling model is introduced based on the notion of a conformational graph to specify the consensus structure of an RNA family. Tree decomposition yields a small tree width t for such conformation graphs (e.g., t = 2 for stem loops and only a slight increase for pseudo-knots). Within this modelling framework, the optimal alignment of a sequence to the structure model corresponds to finding a maximum valued isomorphic subgraph and consequently can be accomplished through dynamic programming on the tree decomposition of the conformational graph in time O(k(t)N(2)), where k is a small parameter; and N is the size of the projiled RNA structure. Experiments show that the application of the alignment algorithm to search in genomes yields the same search accuracy as methods based on a Covariance model with a significant reduction in computation time. In particular; very accurate searches of tmRNAs in bacteria genomes and of telomerase RNAs in yeast genomes can be accomplished in days, as opposed to months required by other methods. The tree decomposition based searching tool is free upon request and can be downloaded at our site h t t p ://w.uga.edu/RNA-informatics/software/index.php.

  14. Variance decomposition-based sensitivity analysis via neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, Marzio; Masini, Riccardo; Zio, Enrico; Cojazzi, Giacomo

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates a method for efficiently performing multiparametric sensitivity analyses of the reliability model of a given system. These analyses are of great importance for the identification of critical components in highly hazardous plants, such as the nuclear or chemical ones, thus providing significant insights for their risk-based design and management. The technique used to quantify the importance of a component parameter with respect to the system model is based on a classical decomposition of the variance. When the model of the system is realistically complicated (e.g. by aging, stand-by, maintenance, etc.), its analytical evaluation soon becomes impractical and one is better off resorting to Monte Carlo simulation techniques which, however, could be computationally burdensome. Therefore, since the variance decomposition method requires a large number of system evaluations, each one to be performed by Monte Carlo, the need arises for possibly substituting the Monte Carlo simulation model with a fast, approximated, algorithm. Here we investigate an approach which makes use of neural networks appropriately trained on the results of a Monte Carlo system reliability/availability evaluation to quickly provide with reasonable approximation, the values of the quantities of interest for the sensitivity analyses. The work was a joint effort between the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Polytechnic of Milan, Italy, and the Institute for Systems, Informatics and Safety, Nuclear Safety Unit of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy which sponsored the project

  15. Multi-scale structure and topological anomaly detection via a new network statistic: The onion decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Grochow, Joshua A; Allard, Antoine

    2016-08-18

    We introduce a network statistic that measures structural properties at the micro-, meso-, and macroscopic scales, while still being easy to compute and interpretable at a glance. Our statistic, the onion spectrum, is based on the onion decomposition, which refines the k-core decomposition, a standard network fingerprinting method. The onion spectrum is exactly as easy to compute as the k-cores: It is based on the stages at which each vertex gets removed from a graph in the standard algorithm for computing the k-cores. Yet, the onion spectrum reveals much more information about a network, and at multiple scales; for example, it can be used to quantify node heterogeneity, degree correlations, centrality, and tree- or lattice-likeness. Furthermore, unlike the k-core decomposition, the combined degree-onion spectrum immediately gives a clear local picture of the network around each node which allows the detection of interesting subgraphs whose topological structure differs from the global network organization. This local description can also be leveraged to easily generate samples from the ensemble of networks with a given joint degree-onion distribution. We demonstrate the utility of the onion spectrum for understanding both static and dynamic properties on several standard graph models and on many real-world networks.

  16. A Subspace Approach to the Structural Decomposition and Identification of Ankle Joint Dynamic Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Tehrani, Ehsan Sobhani; Kearney, Robert E

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a structural decomposition subspace (SDSS) method for decomposition of the joint torque to intrinsic, reflexive, and voluntary torques and identification of joint dynamic stiffness. First, it formulates a novel state-space representation for the joint dynamic stiffness modeled by a parallel-cascade structure with a concise parameter set that provides a direct link between the state-space representation matrices and the parallel-cascade parameters. Second, it presents a subspace method for the identification of the new state-space model that involves two steps: 1) the decomposition of the intrinsic and reflex pathways and 2) the identification of an impulse response model of the intrinsic pathway and a Hammerstein model of the reflex pathway. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that SDSS has significant performance advantages over some other methods. Thus, SDSS was more robust under high noise conditions, converging where others failed; it was more accurate, giving estimates with lower bias and random errors. The method also worked well in practice and yielded high-quality estimates of intrinsic and reflex stiffnesses when applied to experimental data at three muscle activation levels. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that SDSS accurately decomposes the intrinsic and reflex torques and provides accurate estimates of physiologically meaningful parameters. SDSS will be a valuable tool for studying joint stiffness under functionally important conditions. It has important clinical implications for the diagnosis, assessment, objective quantification, and monitoring of neuromuscular diseases that change the muscle tone.

  17. Effect of mechanical activation on structure and thermal decomposition of aluminum sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasri-Khouzani, M.; Meratian, M.; Panjepour, M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of both non-activated and mechanically activated aluminum sulfates were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The structural disorder, the specific surface area (SSA) and the morphology of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Thermal analyses results indicated that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T i ) in TG curves for mechanically activated aluminum sulfates decreased gradually with increasing the milling time. It was also found that the SSA of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates remained almost constant after a certain milling time, and lattice strains (ε) rose but the crystallite sizes (D) decreased with increasing the milling time. These results showed that the decrease of T i in TG curves of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates was mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions and decrease of the crystallite sizes with increasing the milling time

  18. What drives the change in China's energy intensity: Combining decomposition analysis and econometric analysis at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Feng; Zheng, Xinye

    2012-01-01

    We employ decomposition analysis and econometric analysis to investigate the driving forces behind China's changing energy intensity using a provincial-level panel data set for the period from 1995 to 2009. The decomposition analysis indicates that: (a) all of the provinces except for a few experienced efficiency improvement, while around three-fourths of the provinces' economics became more energy intensive or remained unchanged; (b) consequently the efficiency improvement accounts for more than 90% of China's energy intensity change as opposed to the economic structural change. The econometric analysis shows that the rising income plays a significant role in the reduction of energy intensity while the effect of energy price is relatively limited. The result may reflect the urgency of deregulating the price and establishing a market-oriented pricing system in China's energy sector. The implementation of the energy intensity reduction policies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (FYP) has helped reverse the increasing trend of energy intensity since 2002. Although the Chinese Government intended to change the industry-led economic growth pattern, it seems that most of the policy effects flow through the efficiency improvement as opposed to the economic structure adjustment. More fundamental changes to the economic structure are needed to achieve more sustainable progress in energy intensity reduction. - Highlights: ► We examine the determinants of China's energy intensity change at provincial level. ► Rising income plays a significant role in reducing China's energy intensity. ► Policy effects mainly flow through the efficiency improvement. ► Fundamental structure changes are needed to further reduce China's energy intensity.

  19. Multiple calibration decomposition analysis: Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the Japanese economy, 1970-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okushima, Shinichiro; Tamura, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to evaluating structural change of the economy in a multisector general equilibrium framework. The multiple calibration technique is applied to an ex post decomposition analysis of structural change between periods, enabling the distinction between price substitution and technological change to be made for each sector. This approach has the advantage of sounder microtheoretical underpinnings when compared with conventional decomposition methods. The proposed technique is empirically applied to changes in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in the Japanese economy from 1970 to 1995. The results show that technological change is of great importance for curtailing energy use and CO 2 emissions in Japan. Total CO 2 emissions increased during this period primarily because of economic growth, which is represented by final demand effects. On the other hand, the effects such as technological change for labor or energy mitigated the increase in CO 2 emissions

  20. China’s marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xiaomin; LI, Shuzhuo; FELDMAN, Marcus W.

    2016-01-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China’s male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call “spousal sex ratio” (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China’s marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market. PMID:27242390

  1. Decomposition method for analysis of closed queuing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Nesterov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the method to estimate the average residence time in nodes of closed queuing networks with priorities and a wide range of conservative disciplines to be served. The method is based on a decomposition of entire closed queuing network into a set of simple basic queuing systems such as M|GI|m|N for each node. The unknown average residence times in the network nodes are interrelated through a system of nonlinear equations. The fact that there is a solution of this system has been proved. An iterative procedure based on Newton-Kantorovich method is proposed for finding the solution of such system. This procedure provides fast convergence to solution. Today possibilities of proposed method are limited by known analytical solutions for simple basic queuing systems of M|GI|m|N type.

  2. Emergy-Based Regional Socio-Economic Metabolism Analysis: An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis and Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zilong Zhang; Xingpeng Chen; Peter Heck

    2014-01-01

    Integrated analysis on socio-economic metabolism could provide a basis for understanding and optimizing regional sustainability. The paper conducted socio-economic metabolism analysis by means of the emergy accounting method coupled with data envelopment analysis and decomposition analysis techniques to assess the sustainability of Qingyang city and its eight sub-region system, as well as to identify the major driving factors of performance change during 2000–2007, to serve as the basis for f...

  3. Automated torso organ segmentation from 3D CT images using structured perceptron and dual decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a method for torso organ segmentation from abdominal CT images using structured perceptron and dual decomposition. A lot of methods have been proposed to enable automated extraction of organ regions from volumetric medical images. However, it is necessary to adjust empirical parameters of them to obtain precise organ regions. This paper proposes an organ segmentation method using structured output learning. Our method utilizes a graphical model and binary features which represent the relationship between voxel intensities and organ labels. Also we optimize the weights of the graphical model by structured perceptron and estimate the best organ label for a given image by dynamic programming and dual decomposition. The experimental result revealed that the proposed method can extract organ regions automatically using structured output learning. The error of organ label estimation was 4.4%. The DICE coefficients of left lung, right lung, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, left kidney, right kidney, and gallbladder were 0.91, 0.95, 0.77, 0.81, 0.74, 0.08, 0.83, 0.84, and 0.03, respectively.

  4. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene C; Guber, Andrey K; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Marsh, Terence L; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S-18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75-80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g(-1) soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g(-1) soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  5. Properties of Soil Pore Space Regulate Pathways of Plant Residue Decomposition and Community Structure of Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g-1 soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g-1 soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  6. Analysis of Siderite Thermal Decomposition by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. S.; Lin, I.-C.; McKay, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization of carbonate devolitilization has important implications for atmospheric interactions and climatic effects related to large meteorite impacts in platform sediments. On a smaller scale, meteorites contain carbonates which have witnessed shock metamorphic events and may record pressure/temperature histories of impact(s). ALH84001 meteorite contains zoned Ca-Mg-Fe-carbonates which formed on Mars. Magnetite crystals are found in the rims and cores of these carbonates and some are associated with void spaces leading to the suggestion by Brearley et al. that the crystals were produced by thermal decomposition of the carbonate at high temperature, possibly by incipient shock melting or devolitilization. Golden et al. recently synthesized spherical Mg-Fe-Ca-carbonates from solution under mild hydrothermal conditions that have similar carbonate compositional zoning to those of ALH84001. They have shown experimental evidence that the carbonate-sulfide-magnetite assemblage in ALH84001 can result from a multistep inorganic process involving heating possibly due to shock events. Experimental shock studies on calcium carbonate prove its stability to approx. 60 GPa, well in excess of the approx. 45 GPa peak pressures indicated by other shock features in ALH84001. In addition, Raman spectroscopy of carbonate globules in ALH84001 indicates no presence of CaO and MgO. Such oxide phases should be found associated with the magnetites in voids if these magnetites are high temperature shock products, the voids resulting from devolitilization of CO2 from calcium or magnesium carbonate. However, if the starting material was siderite (FeCO3), thermal breakdown of the ALH84001 carbonate at 470 C would produce iron oxide + CO2. As no documentation of shock effects in siderite exists, we have begun shock experiments to determine whether or not magnetite is produced by the decomposition of siderite within the < 45GPa pressure window and by the resultant thermal pulse to approx

  7. Analysis of generalized Schwarz alternating procedure for domain decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engquist, B.; Zhao, Hongkai [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Schwartz alternating method(SAM) is the theoretical basis for domain decomposition which itself is a powerful tool both for parallel computation and for computing in complicated domains. The convergence rate of the classical SAM is very sensitive to the overlapping size between each subdomain, which is not desirable for most applications. We propose a generalized SAM procedure which is an extension of the modified SAM proposed by P.-L. Lions. Instead of using only Dirichlet data at the artificial boundary between subdomains, we take a convex combination of u and {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}n, i.e. {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}n + {Lambda}u, where {Lambda} is some {open_quotes}positive{close_quotes} operator. Convergence of the modified SAM without overlapping in a quite general setting has been proven by P.-L.Lions using delicate energy estimates. The important questions remain for the generalized SAM. (1) What is the most essential mechanism for convergence without overlapping? (2) Given the partial differential equation, what is the best choice for the positive operator {Lambda}? (3) In the overlapping case, is the generalized SAM superior to the classical SAM? (4) What is the convergence rate and what does it depend on? (5) Numerically can we obtain an easy to implement operator {Lambda} such that the convergence is independent of the mesh size. To analyze the convergence of the generalized SAM we focus, for simplicity, on the Poisson equation for two typical geometry in two subdomain case.

  8. Application of spectral decomposition analysis to in vivo quantification of aluminum by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsa, D.C. E-mail: comsadc@mcmaster.ca; Prestwich, W.V.; McNeill, F.E.; Byun, S.H

    2004-12-01

    The toxic effects of aluminum are cumulative and result in painful forms of renal osteodystrophy, most notably adynamic bone disease and osteomalacia, but also other forms of disease. The Trace Element Group at McMaster University has developed an accelerator-based in vivo procedure for detecting aluminum body burden by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Further refining of the method was necessary for increasing its sensitivity. In this context, the present study proposes an improved algorithm for data analysis, based on spectral decomposition. A new minimum detectable limit (MDL) of (0.7{+-}0.1) mg Al was reached for a local dose of (20{+-}1) mSv. The study also addresses the feasibility of a new data acquisition technique, the electronic rejection of the coincident events detected by a NaI(Tl) system. It is expected that the application of this technique, together with spectral decomposition analysis, would provide an acceptable MDL for the method to be valuable in a clinical setting.

  9. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from passenger cars: The cases of Greece and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannaki, Katerina; Diakoulaki, Danae

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a decomposition analysis of the changes in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from passenger cars in Denmark and Greece, for the period 1990-2005. A time series analysis has been applied based on the logarithmic mean Divisia index I (LMDI I) methodology, which belongs to the wider family of index decomposition approaches. The particularity in road transport that justifies a profound analysis is its remarkably rapid growth during the last decades, followed by a respective increase in emissions. Denmark and Greece have been selected based on the challenging differences of specific socio-economic characteristics of these two small EU countries, as well as on the availability of detailed data used in the frame of the analysis. In both countries, passenger cars are responsible for half of the emissions from road transport as well as for their upward trend, which provokes the implementation of a decomposition analysis focusing exactly on this segment of road transport. The factors examined in the present decomposition analysis are related to vehicles ownership, fuel mix, annual mileage, engine capacity and technology of cars. The comparison of the results discloses the differences in the transportation profiles of the two countries and reveals how they affect the trend of CO 2 emissions.

  10. Kinetic analysis of overlapping multistep thermal decomposition comprising exothermic and endothermic processes: thermolysis of ammonium dinitramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyev, Nikita V; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Meerov, Dmitry B; Pivkina, Alla N

    2017-01-25

    This study focused on kinetic modeling of a specific type of multistep heterogeneous reaction comprising exothermic and endothermic reaction steps, as exemplified by the practical kinetic analysis of the experimental kinetic curves for the thermal decomposition of molten ammonium dinitramide (ADN). It is known that the thermal decomposition of ADN occurs as a consecutive two step mass-loss process comprising the decomposition of ADN and subsequent evaporation/decomposition of in situ generated ammonium nitrate. These reaction steps provide exothermic and endothermic contributions, respectively, to the overall thermal effect. The overall reaction process was deconvoluted into two reaction steps using simultaneously recorded thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) curves by considering the different physical meanings of the kinetic data derived from TG and DSC by P value analysis. The kinetic data thus separated into exothermic and endothermic reaction steps were kinetically characterized using kinetic computation methods including isoconversional method, combined kinetic analysis, and master plot method. The overall kinetic behavior was reproduced as the sum of the kinetic equations for each reaction step considering the contributions to the rate data derived from TG and DSC. During reproduction of the kinetic behavior, the kinetic parameters and contributions of each reaction step were optimized using kinetic deconvolution analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposition of ADN was successfully modeled as partially overlapping exothermic and endothermic reaction steps. The logic of the kinetic modeling was critically examined, and the practical usefulness of phenomenological modeling for the thermal decomposition of ADN was illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the methodology and its applicability to similar complex reaction processes.

  11. Image reconstruction of fluorescent molecular tomography based on the tree structured Schur complement decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiajun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inverse problem of fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT often involves complex large-scale matrix operations, which may lead to unacceptable computational errors and complexity. In this research, a tree structured Schur complement decomposition strategy is proposed to accelerate the reconstruction process and reduce the computational complexity. Additionally, an adaptive regularization scheme is developed to improve the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Methods The global system is decomposed level by level with the Schur complement system along two paths in the tree structure. The resultant subsystems are solved in combination with the biconjugate gradient method. The mesh for the inverse problem is generated incorporating the prior information. During the reconstruction, the regularization parameters are adaptive not only to the spatial variations but also to the variations of the objective function to tackle the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. Results Simulation results demonstrate that the strategy of the tree structured Schur complement decomposition obviously outperforms the previous methods, such as the conventional Conjugate-Gradient (CG and the Schur CG methods, in both reconstruction accuracy and speed. As compared with the Tikhonov regularization method, the adaptive regularization scheme can significantly improve ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Conclusions The methods proposed in this paper can significantly improve the reconstructed image quality of FMT and accelerate the reconstruction process.

  12. Automated polyp measurement based on colon structure decomposition for CT colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong C.; Han, Hao; Peng, Hao; Song, Bowen; Wei, Xinzhou; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Accurate assessment of colorectal polyp size is of great significance for early diagnosis and management of colorectal cancers. Due to the complexity of colon structure, polyps with diverse geometric characteristics grow from different landform surfaces. In this paper, we present a new colon decomposition approach for polyp measurement. We first apply an efficient maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) partial volume segmentation algorithm to achieve an effective electronic cleansing on colon. The global colon structure is then decomposed into different kinds of morphological shapes, e.g. haustral folds or haustral wall. Meanwhile, the polyp location is identified by an automatic computer aided detection algorithm. By integrating the colon structure decomposition with the computer aided detection system, a patch volume of colon polyps is extracted. Thus, polyp size assessment can be achieved by finding abnormal protrusion on a relative uniform morphological surface from the decomposed colon landform. We evaluated our method via physical phantom and clinical datasets. Experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of our method in consistently quantifying the size of polyp volume and, therefore, facilitating characterizing for clinical management.

  13. A decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from energy use: Turkish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek Tunc, G.; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Akbostanci, Elif

    2009-01-01

    Environmental problems, especially 'climate change' due to significant increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, have been on the agenda since 1980s. Among the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most important one and is responsible for more than 60% of the greenhouse effect. The objective of this study is to identify the factors that contribute to changes in CO 2 emissions for the Turkish economy by utilizing Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method developed by Ang (2005) [Ang, B.W., 2005. The LMDI approach to decomposition analysis: a practical guide. Energy Policy 33, 867-871]. Turkish economy is divided into three aggregated sectors, namely agriculture, industry and services, and energy sources used by these sectors are aggregated into four groups: solid fuels, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This study covers the period 1970-2006, which enables us to investigate the effects of different macroeconomic policies on carbon dioxide emissions through changes in shares of industries and use of different energy sources. Our analysis shows that the main component that determines the changes in CO 2 emissions of the Turkish economy is the economic activity. Even though important changes in the structure of the economy during 1970-2006 period are observed, structure effect is not a significant factor in changes in CO 2 emissions, however intensity effect is.

  14. Factor Decomposition Analysis of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tianjin is the largest coastal city in northern China with rapid economic development and urbanization. Energy-related CO2 emissions from Tianjin’s production and household sectors during 1995–2012 were calculated according to the default carbon-emission coefficients provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We decomposed the changes in CO2 emissions resulting from 12 causal factors based on the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index. The examined factors were divided into four types of effects: energy intensity effect, structure effect, activity intensity effect, scale effect and the various influencing factors imposed differential impacts on CO2 emissions. The decomposition outcomes indicate that per capita GDP and population scale are the dominant positive driving factors behind the growth in CO2 emissions for all sectors, while the energy intensity of the production sector is the main contributor to dampen the CO2 emissions increment, and the contributions from industry structure and energy structure need further enhancement. The analysis results reveal the reasons for CO2 emission changes in Tianjin and provide a solid basis upon which policy makers may propose emission reduction measures and approaches for the implementation of sustainable development strategies.

  15. CO2 emissions from household consumption in India between 1993–94 and 2006–07: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Aparna; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2014-01-01

    CO 2 emission from anthropogenic activities is one of the major causes of global warming. India being an agriculture dependent country, global warming would mean monsoon instability and consequent food scarcity, natural disasters and economic concerns. However with proper policy interventions, CO 2 emissions can be controlled. Input–output analysis has been used to estimate direct and indirect CO 2 emissions by households for 1993–94, 1998–99, 2003–04 and 2006–07. Complete decomposition analysis of the changes in CO 2 emissions between 1993–94 and 2006–07 has been done to identify the causes into pollution, energy intensity, structure, activity and population effects according to broad household consumption categories. Results indicate that activity, structure and population effects are the main causes of increase in CO 2 emission from household fuel consumption. To identify the causes at the sectoral level a second decomposition has been done for changes between 2003–04 and 2006–07 to identify the causes in the next stage. Finally alternative energy policy options have been examined for each consumption category to reduce emissions. Combined strategies of technology upgradation, fuel switching and market management in order to reduce CO 2 emissions for sectors like Batteries, Other non-electrical machinery, Construction and Electronic equipments (including Television), for which all the effects are positive, need to be adopted. - Highlights: • Household CO 2 emissions (direct and indirect) from 1993–94 to 2006–07 using IOTT. • Decomposition of changes between 1993–94 and 2006–07 for consumption categories. • Decomposition of changes in CO 2 emission from 2003–04 to 2006–07 at the sectoral level. • Monetary and physical resource saving under different energy policy options. • Energy policy guideline pertaining to the consumption categories at the sectoral level

  16. Capturing alternative secondary structures of RNA by decomposition of base-pairing probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagio, Taichi; Sakuraba, Shun; Iwakiri, Junichi; Mori, Ryota; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2018-02-19

    It is known that functional RNAs often switch their functions by forming different secondary structures. Popular tools for RNA secondary structures prediction, however, predict the single 'best' structures, and do not produce alternative structures. There are bioinformatics tools to predict suboptimal structures, but it is difficult to detect which alternative secondary structures are essential. We proposed a new computational method to detect essential alternative secondary structures from RNA sequences by decomposing the base-pairing probability matrix. The decomposition is calculated by a newly implemented software tool, RintW, which efficiently computes the base-pairing probability distributions over the Hamming distance from arbitrary reference secondary structures. The proposed approach has been demonstrated on ROSE element RNA thermometer sequence and Lysine RNA ribo-switch, showing that the proposed approach captures conformational changes in secondary structures. We have shown that alternative secondary structures are captured by decomposing base-paring probabilities over Hamming distance. Source code is available from http://www.ncRNA.org/RintW .

  17. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  18. Retrospective and Prospective Decomposition Analysis of Chinese Manufacturing Energy Use, 1995-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group; Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group; Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group; Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group

    2013-01-15

    In 2010, China was responsible for nearly 20 percent of global energy use and 25 percent of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Unlike most countries, China’s energy consumption pattern is unique because the industrial sector dominates the country’s total energy consumption, accounting for about 70 percent of energy use and 72 percent of CO2 emissions in 2010. For this reason, the development path of China’s industrial sector will greatly affect future energy demand and dynamics of not only China, but the entire world. A number of analyses of historical trends have been conducted, but careful projections of the key factors affecting China’s industry sector energy use over the next decade are scarce. This study analyzes industrial energy use and the economic structure of the Chinese manufacturing sector in detail. First, the study analyzes the energy use of and output from 18 industry sub-sectors. Then, retrospective (1995-2010) and prospective (2010-2020) decomposition analyses are conducted for these industrial sectors in order to show how different factors (production growth, structural change, and energy intensity change) influenced industrial energy use trends in China over the last 15 years and how they will do so over the next 10 years. The results of this study will allow policy makers to quantitatively compare the level of structural change in the past and in the years to come and adjust their policies if needed to move towards the target of less energy-intensive industries. The scenario analysis shows the structural change achieved through different paths and helps to understand the consequences of supporting or limiting the growth of certain manufacturing subsectors from the point of view of energy use and structural change. The results point out the industries that have the largest influence in such structural change

  19. Decomposition Methods For a Piv Data Analysis with Application to a Boundary Layer Separation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav URUBA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.

  20. Headspace analysis gas-phase infrared spectroscopy: a study of xanthate decomposition on mineral surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, Andrew J.; Brienne, Stephane H. R.; Markwell, Ross D.; Butler, Ian S.; Finch, James A.

    1997-03-01

    The O-ethyldithiocarbonate (ethyl xanthate, CH 3CH 2OCS -2) anion is a widely used reagent in mineral processing for the separation of sulphide minerals by froth flotation. Ethyl xanthate interacts with mineral powders to produce a hydrophobic layer on the mineral surface. A novel infrared technique, headspace analysis gas-phase infrared spectroscopy (HAGIS) has been used to study the in situ thermal decomposition products of ethyl xanthate on mineral surfaces. These products include CS 2, COS, CO 2, CH 4, SO 2, and higher molecular weight alkyl-containing species. Decomposition pathways have been proposed with some information determined from 2H- and 13C-isotope labelling experiments.

  1. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  2. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  3. Regularized generalized eigen-decomposition with applications to sparse supervised feature extraction and sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2015-01-01

    We propose a general technique for obtaining sparse solutions to generalized eigenvalue problems, and call it Regularized Generalized Eigen-Decomposition (RGED). For decades, Fisher's discriminant criterion has been applied in supervised feature extraction and discriminant analysis, and it is for...

  4. Decomposition and forecasting analysis of China's energy efficiency: An application of three-dimensional decomposition and small-sample hybrid models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Ming; Shang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoli; Niu, Dongxiao; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The coordinated actions of the central and the provincial governments are important in improving China's energy efficiency. This paper uses a three-dimensional decomposition model to measure the contribution of each province in improving the country's energy efficiency and a small-sample hybrid model to forecast this contribution. Empirical analysis draws the following conclusions which are useful for the central government to adjust its provincial energy-related policies. (a) There are two important areas for the Chinese government to improve its energy efficiency: adjusting the provincial economic structure and controlling the number of the small-scale private industrial enterprises; (b) Except for a few outliers, the energy efficiency growth rates of the northern provinces are higher than those of the southern provinces; provinces with high growth rates tend to converge geographically; (c) With regard to the energy sustainable development level, Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangxi, and Shaanxi are the best performers and Heilongjiang, Shanxi, Shanghai, and Guizhou are the worst performers; (d) By 2020, China's energy efficiency may reach 24.75 thousand yuan per ton of standard coal; as well as (e) Three development scenarios are designed to forecast China's energy consumption in 2012–2020. - Highlights: • Decomposition and forecasting models are used to analyze China's energy efficiency. • China should focus on the small industrial enterprises and local protectionism. • The energy sustainable development level of each province is evaluated. • Geographic distribution characteristics of energy efficiency changes are revealed. • Future energy efficiency and energy consumption are forecasted

  5. Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions from Industry: A Case Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide, with industrial carbon emissions (ICE accounting for approximately 65% of the country’s total emissions. Understanding the ICE decoupling patterns and factors influencing the decoupling status is a prerequisite for balancing economic growth and carbon emissions. This paper provides an overview of ICE based on decoupling elasticity and the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, the study identifies the factors contributing to ICE changes in China, using the Kaya identity and Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI techniques. Based on the effects and contributions of ICE, we close with a number of recommendations. The results revealed a significant upward trend of ICE during the study period 1994 to 2013, with a total amount of 11,147 million tons. Analyzing the decoupling relationship indicates that “weak decoupling” and “expansive decoupling” were the main states during the study period. The decomposition analysis showed that per capita wealth associated with industrial outputs and energy intensity are the main driving force of ICE, while energy intensity of industrial output and energy structure are major determinants for ICE reduction. The largest contributing cumulative effect to ICE is per capita wealth, at 1.23 in 2013. This factor is followed by energy intensity, with a contributing cumulative effect of −0.32. The cumulative effects of energy structure and population are relatively small, at 0.01 and 0.08, respectively.

  6. Determinants of energy demand in the French service sector: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairet, Nicolas; Decellas, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the changes in the energy consumption of the service sector in France over the period 1995-2006, using the logarithmic mean Divisia index I (LMDI I) decomposition method. The analysis is carried out at various disaggregation levels to highlight the specifics of each sub-sector and end-use according to their respective determinants. The results show that in this period the economic growth of the service sector was the main factor that led to the increase in total energy consumption. Structure, productivity, substitution and intensity effects restricted this growth, but with limited effect. By analyzing each end-use, this paper enables a more precise understanding of the impact of these factors. The activity effect was the main determinant of the increase in energy consumption for all end-uses except for air conditioning, for which the equipment rate effect was the main factor. Structural changes in the service sector primarily impacted energy consumption for space heating and cooking. Improvements in productivity limited the growth of energy consumption for all end-uses except for cooking. Finally, energy efficiency improvements mainly affected space-heating energy use.

  7. Energy efficiency of China's industry sector: An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis)-based decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingnan; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The process of energy conservation and emission reduction in China requires the specific and accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the industry sector because this sector accounts for 70 percent of China's total energy consumption. Previous studies have used a “black box” DEA (data envelopment analysis) model to obtain the energy efficiency without considering the inner structure of the industry sector. However, differences in the properties of energy utilization (final consumption or intermediate conversion) in different industry departments may lead to bias in energy efficiency measures under such “black box” evaluation structures. Using the network DEA model and efficiency decomposition technique, this study proposes an adjusted energy efficiency evaluation model that can characterize the inner structure and associated energy utilization properties of the industry sector so as to avoid evaluation bias. By separating the energy-producing department and energy-consuming department, this adjusted evaluation model was then applied to evaluate the energy efficiency of China's provincial industry sector. - Highlights: • An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis) model for energy efficiency evaluation is proposed. • The inner structure of industry sector is taken into account for energy efficiency evaluation. • Energy final consumption and energy intermediate conversion processes are separately modeled. • China's provincial industry energy efficiency is measured through the adjusted model.

  8. Simplified Eigen-structure decomposition solver for the simulation of two-phase flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbaro, Anela

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a new solver for a system of first-order non-linear differential equations that model the dynamics of compressible two-phase flow. The solver presents a lower-complexity alternative to Roe-type solvers because it only makes use of a partial Eigen-structure information while maintaining its accuracy: the outcome is hence a good complexity-tractability trade-off to consider as relevant in a large number of situations in the scope of two-phase flow numerical simulation. A number of numerical and physical benchmarks are presented to assess the solver. Comparison between the computational results from the simplified Eigen-structure decomposition solver and the conventional Roe-type solver gives insight upon the issues of accuracy, robustness and efficiency. (authors)

  9. Studies on Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Sulfate to Produce Alumina Nano Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafar-Tafreshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum sulfate nano structures have been prepared by solution combustion synthesis using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (Al(NO33.9H2O and ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4. The resultant aluminum sulfate nano structures were calcined at different temperatures to study thermal  decomposition of aluminum sulfate. The crystallinity and phase of  the as-synthesized and calcined samples were characterized by both X- ray diffraction and FTIR measurements. These two analyses determined the temperature at which the aluminum sulfate is converted to γ-alumina nano particles. The specific surface area and pore size distribution for  γ-alumina nano particles were determined by BET measurement. TEM measurement confirmed the size of the particles obtained by XRD and BET analyses.

  10. Probabilistic Round Trip Contamination Analysis of a Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling Process Using Markovian Decompositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicolas; Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2010-01-01

    A method for evaluating the probability of a Viable Earth Microorganism (VEM) contaminating a sample during the sample acquisition and handling (SAH) process of a potential future Mars Sample Return mission is developed. A scenario where multiple core samples would be acquired using a rotary percussive coring tool, deployed from an arm on a MER class rover is analyzed. The analysis is conducted in a structured way by decomposing sample acquisition and handling process into a series of discrete time steps, and breaking the physical system into a set of relevant components. At each discrete time step, two key functions are defined: The probability of a VEM being released from each component, and the transport matrix, which represents the probability of VEM transport from one component to another. By defining the expected the number of VEMs on each component at the start of the sampling process, these decompositions allow the expected number of VEMs on each component at each sampling step to be represented as a Markov chain. This formalism provides a rigorous mathematical framework in which to analyze the probability of a VEM entering the sample chain, as well as making the analysis tractable by breaking the process down into small analyzable steps.

  11. De-biasing the dynamic mode decomposition for applied Koopman spectral analysis of noisy datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, Maziar S.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Deem, Eric A.; Cattafesta, Louis N.

    2017-08-01

    The dynamic mode decomposition (DMD)—a popular method for performing data-driven Koopman spectral analysis—has gained increased popularity for extracting dynamically meaningful spatiotemporal descriptions of fluid flows from snapshot measurements. Often times, DMD descriptions can be used for predictive purposes as well, which enables informed decision-making based on DMD model forecasts. Despite its widespread use and utility, DMD can fail to yield accurate dynamical descriptions when the measured snapshot data are imprecise due to, e.g., sensor noise. Here, we express DMD as a two-stage algorithm in order to isolate a source of systematic error. We show that DMD's first stage, a subspace projection step, systematically introduces bias errors by processing snapshots asymmetrically. To remove this systematic error, we propose utilizing an augmented snapshot matrix in a subspace projection step, as in problems of total least-squares, in order to account for the error present in all snapshots. The resulting unbiased and noise-aware total DMD (TDMD) formulation reduces to standard DMD in the absence of snapshot errors, while the two-stage perspective generalizes the de-biasing framework to other related methods as well. TDMD's performance is demonstrated in numerical and experimental fluids examples. In particular, in the analysis of time-resolved particle image velocimetry data for a separated flow, TDMD outperforms standard DMD by providing dynamical interpretations that are consistent with alternative analysis techniques. Further, TDMD extracts modes that reveal detailed spatial structures missed by standard DMD.

  12. Keratin decomposition by trogid beetles: evidence from a feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and feathers. Although beetles of the family Trogidae are considered keratin feeders, their ecological function has rarely been explored. Here, we investigated the keratin-decomposition function of trogid beetles in heron-breeding colonies where keratin was frequently supplied as feathers. Three trogid species were collected from the colonies and observed feeding on heron feathers under laboratory conditions. We also measured the nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of two trogid species that were maintained on a constant diet (feathers from one heron individual) during 70 days under laboratory conditions. We compared the isotopic signatures of the trogids with the feathers to investigate isotopic shifts from the feathers to the consumers for δ15N and δ13C. We used mixing models (MixSIR and SIAR) to estimate the main diets of individual field-collected trogid beetles. The analysis indicated that heron feathers were more important as food for trogid beetles than were soft tissues under field conditions. Together, the feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis provided strong evidence of keratin decomposition by trogid beetles.

  13. Analysis and Prediction of Sea Ice Evolution using Koopman Mode Decomposition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Resources: N/A TOTAL: $18,687 2 TECHNICAL STATUS REPORT Abstract The program goal is analysis of sea ice dynamical behavior using Koopman Mode Decompo...Title: Analysis and Prediction of Sea Ice Evolution using Koopman Mode Decomposition Techniques Subject: Monthly Progress Report Period of...Attn: Code 5596 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW Washington, D.C. 20375-5320 E-mail: reports@library.nrl.navy.mil Defense Technical Information Center

  14. Ionic liquid thermal stabilities: decomposition mechanisms and analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Cedric; De Vos, Nils; Stevens, Christian V

    2013-07-07

    The increasing amount of papers published on ionic liquids generates an extensive quantity of data. The thermal stability data of divergent ionic liquids are collected in this paper with attention to the experimental set-up. The influence and importance of the latter parameters are broadly addressed. Both ramped temperature and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis are discussed, along with state-of-the-art methods, such as TGA-MS and pyrolysis-GC. The strengths and weaknesses of the different methodologies known to date demonstrate that analysis methods should be in line with the application. The combination of data from advanced analysis methods allows us to obtain in-depth information on the degradation processes. Aided with computational methods, the kinetics and thermodynamics of thermal degradation are revealed piece by piece. The better understanding of the behaviour of ionic liquids at high temperature allows selective and application driven design, as well as mathematical prediction for engineering purposes.

  15. Distributed Robustness Analysis of Interconnected Uncertain Systems Using Chordal Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale interconnected uncertain systems commonly have large state and uncertainty dimensions. Aside from the heavy computational cost of performing robust stability analysis in a centralized manner, privacy requirements in the network can also introduce further issues. In this paper, we util...

  16. A decomposition analysis of recent fertility decline in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, B; Shahidullah, M

    1990-12-01

    Over the period 1966-86, both the Fijian and Indian populations of Fiji demonstrated declines in fertility. Differentials in the decline were, however, noted with the total fertility rate (TFR) of the Fijian population declining by 26% over the period compared to a 50% decline in the Indian TFR. Moreover, rate declines were not smooth and consistent over the period. Faster fertility decline was experienced in the 1st decade for both groups, slowing in the 2nd decade for Indian women, and stabilizing among the Fijians. This paper decomposes these differential changes in fertility rate into marital structure and marital fertility. The study was conducted using data from the censuses of 1966, 1976, and 1986. For the period 1966-76, declines in marital fertility contributed most to overall TFR decline for both ethnic groups. Marital structure had a reducing effect upon TFR among Indian women in the 1st decaed, but not during the 2nd. Fijian women experienced an overall negative impact from marital structure. Contraception plays an important role in limiting fertility in these 2 populations. Accordingly, differentials in acceptance were noticed, the family planning acceptance rate for Indians being almost twice that of Fijians; 35.6% and 18.7%, respectively in 1986. Compared to Indian women, Fijian women were more literate, more economically active, had higher life expectancies, and experience lower infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, they are not motivated to use family planning. Motivational, cultural, religious, and behavioral factors are suggested as causal factors determining acceptance and use of modern contraceptive methods.

  17. A multi-sectoral decomposition analysis of city-level greenhouse gas emissions: Case study of Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jidong; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Xianshuo; Lin, Tao

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how city-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have evolved, we performed a multi-sectoral decomposition analysis to disentangle the GHG emissions in Tianjin from 2001 to 2009. Five sectors were considered, including the agricultural, industrial, transportation, commercial and other sectors. An industrial sub-sector decomposition analysis was further performed in the six high-emission industrial branches. The results show that, for all five sectors in Tianjin, economic growth was the most important factor driving the increase in emissions, while energy efficiency improvements were primarily responsible for the decrease in emissions. In comparison, the influences from energy mix shift and emission coefficient changes were relatively marginal. The disaggregated decomposition in the industry further revealed that energy efficiency improvement has been widely achieved in the industrial branches, which was especially true for the Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals and Chemical Raw Materials and Chemical Products sub-sectors. However, the energy efficiency declined in a few branches, e.g., Petroleum Processing and Coking Products. Moreover, the increased emissions related to industrial structure shift were primarily due to the expansion of Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals; its share in the total industry output increased from 5.62% to 16.1% during the examined period. - Highlights: • We perform the LMDI analysis on the emissions in five sectors of Tianjin. • Economic growth was the most important factor for the emissions increase. • Energy efficiency improvements mainly contributed to the emission decrease. • Negative energy intensity effect was observed in most of the industrial sub-sectors. • Industrial structure change largely resulted in emission increase

  18. Multistage principal component analysis based method for abdominal ECG decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrolis, Robertas; Krisciukaitis, Algimantas; Gintautas, Vladas

    2015-01-01

    Reflection of fetal heart electrical activity is present in registered abdominal ECG signals. However this signal component has noticeably less energy than concurrent signals, especially maternal ECG. Therefore traditionally recommended independent component analysis, fails to separate these two ECG signals. Multistage principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed for step-by-step extraction of abdominal ECG signal components. Truncated representation and subsequent subtraction of cardio cycles of maternal ECG are the first steps. The energy of fetal ECG component then becomes comparable or even exceeds energy of other components in the remaining signal. Second stage PCA concentrates energy of the sought signal in one principal component assuring its maximal amplitude regardless to the orientation of the fetus in multilead recordings. Third stage PCA is performed on signal excerpts representing detected fetal heart beats in aim to perform their truncated representation reconstructing their shape for further analysis. The algorithm was tested with PhysioNet Challenge 2013 signals and signals recorded in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Results of our method in PhysioNet Challenge 2013 on open data set were: average score: 341.503 bpm 2 and 32.81 ms. (paper)

  19. Uranium oxide nanocrystals by microwave-assisted thermal decomposition. Electronic and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, Jennifer; Mathur, Sanjay; Pacold, Joseph I.; Shuh, David K.; Dong, Chung-Li

    2018-01-01

    Uranium oxides have attracted much attention not only in the context of nuclear energy generation but also for their application as pristine catalysts or as supports for other (transition metal) oxides and (precious) metals. Their propensity to adopt high coordination numbers and manifest multiple oxidation states (from +II to +VI) makes them attractive candidates for catalyzed transformation reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis route to phase-pure, crystalline UO 2 nanoparticles via microwave-assisted decomposition of a molecular uranium(IV) precursor. The electronic structure and optical absorption properties of these nanocrystals were investigated using spectroscopic methods to evaluate their suitability for photo(electro)catalytic applications. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Uranium oxide nanocrystals by microwave-assisted thermal decomposition. Electronic and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, Jennifer; Mathur, Sanjay [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cologne (Germany); Pacold, Joseph I.; Shuh, David K. [Chemical Sciences Division, The Glenn T. Seaborg Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dong, Chung-Li [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan (China)

    2018-01-17

    Uranium oxides have attracted much attention not only in the context of nuclear energy generation but also for their application as pristine catalysts or as supports for other (transition metal) oxides and (precious) metals. Their propensity to adopt high coordination numbers and manifest multiple oxidation states (from +II to +VI) makes them attractive candidates for catalyzed transformation reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis route to phase-pure, crystalline UO{sub 2} nanoparticles via microwave-assisted decomposition of a molecular uranium(IV) precursor. The electronic structure and optical absorption properties of these nanocrystals were investigated using spectroscopic methods to evaluate their suitability for photo(electro)catalytic applications. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. The Analysis of Two-Way Functional Data Using Two-Way Regularized Singular Value Decompositions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2009-12-01

    Two-way functional data consist of a data matrix whose row and column domains are both structured, for example, temporally or spatially, as when the data are time series collected at different locations in space. We extend one-way functional principal component analysis (PCA) to two-way functional data by introducing regularization of both left and right singular vectors in the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the data matrix. We focus on a penalization approach and solve the nontrivial problem of constructing proper two-way penalties from oneway regression penalties. We introduce conditional cross-validated smoothing parameter selection whereby left-singular vectors are cross- validated conditional on right-singular vectors, and vice versa. The concept can be realized as part of an alternating optimization algorithm. In addition to the penalization approach, we briefly consider two-way regularization with basis expansion. The proposed methods are illustrated with one simulated and two real data examples. Supplemental materials available online show that several "natural" approaches to penalized SVDs are flawed and explain why so. © 2009 American Statistical Association.

  2. Increase in computed tomography in Australia driven mainly by practice change: A decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cameron M; Bulsara, Max K; Norman, Richard; Moorin, Rachael E

    2017-07-01

    Publicly funded computed tomography (CT) procedure descriptions in Australia often specify the body site, rather than indication for use. This study aimed to evaluate the relative contribution of demographic versus non-demographic factors in driving the increase in CT services in Australia. A decomposition analysis was conducted to assess the proportion of additional CT attributable to changing population structure, CT use on a per capita basis (CPC, a proxy for change in practice) and/or cost of CT. Aggregated Medicare usage and billing data were obtained for selected years between 1993/4 and 2012/3. The number of billed CT scans rose from 33 per annum per 1000 of population in 1993/94 (total 572,925) to 112 per 1000 by 2012/13 (total 2,540,546). The respective cost to Medicare rose from $145.7 million to $790.7 million. Change in CPC was the most important factor accounting for changes in CT services (88%) and cost (65%) over the study period. While this study cannot conclude if the increase is appropriate, it does represent a shift in how CT is used, relative to when many CT services were listed for public funding. This 'scope shift' poses questions as to need for and frequency of retrospective/ongoing review of publicly funded services, as medical advances and other demand- or supply-side factors change the way health services are used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in energy intensities of Thai industry between 1981 and 2000: a decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.; Ussanarassamee, Arjaree

    2005-01-01

    Industrial demand accounts for about 30% of total final energy demand in Thailand, which experienced rapid increases in energy demand. This paper analyzes the changes in industrial energy intensities over a period of 20 years (1981-2000) and identifies the factors affecting the energy consumption using logarithmic mean Divisia decomposition technique. It is found that Thai industry has passed through four different phases of growth and energy consumption has closely followed the industrial growth pattern. Energy intensity of Thai industry decreased from 17.6 toe/million baht (constant 1988 prices) in 1981 to 15.8 toe/million baht (1988 prices) in 2000. Non-metallic mineral industry is the most intensive industry followed by basic metal, food and beverage, chemical and paper industries. The factor analysis indicates that both the structural effect and intensity effect contributed to a decline of aggregate intensity by 8% during 1981-1986 but in the rest of the periods, the two effects acted in opposite directions and thereby reducing the overall effect on aggregate intensity. Food and beverages, non-metallic mineral and chemical industries had significantly influenced the changes in aggregate intensity at sectoral level

  4. Driving factors behind carbon dioxide emissions in China: A modified production-theoretical decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qunwei; Chiu, Yung-Ho; Chiu, Ching-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Research on the driving factors behind carbon dioxide emission changes in China can inform better carbon emission reduction policies and help develop a low-carbon economy. As one of important methods, production-theoretical decomposition analysis (PDA) has been widely used to understand these driving factors. To avoid the infeasibility issue in solving the linear programming, this study proposed a modified PDA approach to decompose carbon dioxide emission changes into seven drivers. Using 2005–2010 data, the study found that economic development was the largest factor of increasing carbon dioxide emissions. The second factor was energy structure (reflecting potential carbon), and the third factor was low energy efficiency. Technological advances, energy intensity reductions, and carbon dioxide emission efficiency improvements were the negative driving factors reducing carbon dioxide emission growth rates. Carbon dioxide emissions and driving factors varied significantly across east, central and west China. - Highlights: • A modified PDA used to decompose carbon dioxide emission changes into seven drivers. • Two models were proposed to ameliorate the infeasible occasions. • Economic development was the largest factor of increasing CO_2 emissions in China.

  5. Intuitive Density Functional Theory-Based Energy Decomposition Analysis for Protein-Ligand Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, M J S; Fox, T; Tautermann, C S; Skylaris, C-K

    2017-04-11

    First-principles quantum mechanical calculations with methods such as density functional theory (DFT) allow the accurate calculation of interaction energies between molecules. These interaction energies can be dissected into chemically relevant components such as electrostatics, polarization, and charge transfer using energy decomposition analysis (EDA) approaches. Typically EDA has been used to study interactions between small molecules; however, it has great potential to be applied to large biomolecular assemblies such as protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. We present an application of EDA calculations to the study of ligands that bind to the thrombin protein, using the ONETEP program for linear-scaling DFT calculations. Our approach goes beyond simply providing the components of the interaction energy; we are also able to provide visual representations of the changes in density that happen as a result of polarization and charge transfer, thus pinpointing the functional groups between the ligand and protein that participate in each kind of interaction. We also demonstrate with this approach that we can focus on studying parts (fragments) of ligands. The method is relatively insensitive to the protocol that is used to prepare the structures, and the results obtained are therefore robust. This is an application to a real protein drug target of a whole new capability where accurate DFT calculations can produce both energetic and visual descriptors of interactions. These descriptors can be used to provide insights for tailoring interactions, as needed for example in drug design.

  6. Properties of gamma-ray burst time profiles using pulse decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.

    2000-02-08

    The time profiles of many gamma-ray bursts consist of distinct pulses, which offers the possibility of characterizing the temporal structure of these bursts using a relatively small set of pulse shape parameters. This pulse decomposition analysis has previously been performed on a small sample of bright long bursts using binned data from BATSE, which comes in several data types, and on a sample of short bursts using the BATSE Time-Tagged Event (TTE) data type. The authors have developed an interactive pulse-fitting program using the phenomenological pulse model of Norris, et. al. and a maximum-likelihood fitting routine. They have used this program to analyze the Time-to-Spill (TTS) data for all bursts observed by BATSE up through trigger number 2000, in all energy channels for which TTS data is available. They present statistical information on the attributes of pulses comprising these bursts, including relations between pulse characteristics through the course of a burst. They carry out simulations to determine the biases that their procedures may introduce. They find that pulses tend to have shorter rise times than decay times, and tend to be narrower and peak earlier at higher energies. They also find that pulse brightness, pulse width, and pulse hardness ratios do not evolve monotonically within bursts, but that the ratios of pulse rise times to decay times tends to decrease with time within bursts.

  7. Partial differential equation-based approach for empirical mode decomposition: application on image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Oumar; Thioune, Abdoulaye; El Gueirea, Mouhamed Cheikh; Deléchelle, Eric; Lemoine, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    The major problem with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm is its lack of a theoretical framework. So, it is difficult to characterize and evaluate this approach. In this paper, we propose, in the 2-D case, the use of an alternative implementation to the algorithmic definition of the so-called "sifting process" used in the original Huang's EMD method. This approach, especially based on partial differential equations (PDEs), was presented by Niang in previous works, in 2005 and 2007, and relies on a nonlinear diffusion-based filtering process to solve the mean envelope estimation problem. In the 1-D case, the efficiency of the PDE-based method, compared to the original EMD algorithmic version, was also illustrated in a recent paper. Recently, several 2-D extensions of the EMD method have been proposed. Despite some effort, 2-D versions for EMD appear poorly performing and are very time consuming. So in this paper, an extension to the 2-D space of the PDE-based approach is extensively described. This approach has been applied in cases of both signal and image decomposition. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the new PDE-based sifting process for the decomposition of various kinds of data. Some results have been provided in the case of image decomposition. The effectiveness of the approach encourages its use in a number of signal and image applications such as denoising, detrending, or texture analysis.

  8. Key trends of climate change in the ASEAN countries. The IPAT decomposition analysis 1980-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, J.; Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Allievi, F.

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition analyses of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions have mainly focused on effects of changes in economic activity, energy intensity and fuel mix, and structural changes in energy consumption in different countries or different sectors of the economy. This e-Book introduces a different perspective by identifying five globally relevant factors affecting CO{sub 2} emissions. Changes in carbon intensity of primary energy, efficiency of the energy system, energy intensity of the economy, level of economic development, and the amount of population have been identified by extending the well-known IPAT identity. Empirical part focuses on CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion in the ASEAN countries between the years 1980 and 2005. CO{sub 2} emissions are considerable low in many ASEAN countries but have increased in recent years due to the rapid economic growth and increased reliance on fossil fuels. Emission and energy intensities have increased during the industrialization process, but with a shift towards a more service-oriented economy and the increase in GDP per capita, the intensities have started to decrease in some ASEAN countries. However, these changes have not been able to slow down the rapid increase in CO{sub 2} emissions due to the growth of both the economy and the population. With the rapid economic development of the member countries of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and nations such as China and India since the mid-1980s, the Asia-Pacific region has emerged as the growth centre of the global economy. However, many countries in the region have, instead of being successful, faced serious social and environmental problems, particularly with regard to deforestation, land degradation and the loss of biological diversity. Climate change has been regarded one of the major environmental threats to developing countries. The need to develop theoretical and empirical research in the field of climate and energy policy analysis

  9. Structural investigation of oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base complexes: X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry and kinetic of thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Savaripoor, Nooshin; Dusek, Michal; Eigner, Vaclav; Shorkaei, Mohammad Ranjkesh; Sedaghat, Moslem

    2015-02-05

    A series of new VO(IV) complexes of tetradentate N2O2 Schiff base ligands (L(1)-L(4)), were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and elemental analysis. The structure of the complex VOL(1)⋅DMF was also investigated by X-ray crystallography which revealed a vanadyl center with distorted octahedral coordination where the 2-aza and 2-oxo coordinating sites of the ligand were perpendicular to the "-yl" oxygen. The electrochemical properties of the vanadyl complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. A good correlation was observed between the oxidation potentials and the electron withdrawing character of the substituents on the Schiff base ligands, showing the following trend: MeO5-H>5-Br>5-Cl. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition were calculated by using the Coats-Redfern equation. According to the Coats-Redfern plots the kinetics of thermal decomposition of studied complexes is of the first-order in all stages, the free energy of activation for each following stage is larger than the previous one and the complexes have good thermal stability. The preparation of VOL(1)⋅DMF yielded also another compound, one kind of vanadium oxide [VO]X, with different habitus of crystals, (platelet instead of prisma) and without L(1) ligand, consisting of a V10O28 cage, diaminium moiety and dimethylamonium as a counter ions. Because its crystal structure was also new, we reported it along with the targeted complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quasi-bivariate variational mode decomposition as a tool of scale analysis in wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenkang; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jinjun

    2018-01-01

    The identification and separation of multi-scale coherent structures is a critical task for the study of scale interaction in wall-bounded turbulence. Here, we propose a quasi-bivariate variational mode decomposition (QB-VMD) method to extract structures with various scales from instantaneous two-dimensional (2D) velocity field which has only one primary dimension. This method is developed from the one-dimensional VMD algorithm proposed by Dragomiretskiy and Zosso (IEEE Trans Signal Process 62:531-544, 2014) to cope with a quasi-2D scenario. It poses the feature of length-scale bandwidth constraint along the decomposed dimension, together with the central frequency re-balancing along the non-decomposed dimension. The feasibility of this method is tested on both a synthetic flow field and a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number (Re_{τ } = 3458) measured by 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). Some other popular scale separation tools, including pseudo-bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (PB-EMD), bi-dimensional EMD (B-EMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), are also tested for comparison. Among all these methods, QB-VMD shows advantages in both scale characterization and energy recovery. More importantly, the mode mixing problem, which degrades the performance of EMD-based methods, is avoided or minimized in QB-VMD. Finally, QB-VMD analysis of the wall-parallel plane in the log layer (at y/δ = 0.12) of the studied turbulent boundary layer shows the coexistence of large- or very large-scale motions (LSMs or VLSMs) and inner-scaled structures, which can be fully decomposed in both physical and spectral domains.

  11. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in chi...

  12. A Deep Learning Prediction Model Based on Extreme-Point Symmetric Mode Decomposition and Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guohui; Zhang, Songling; Yang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Aiming at the irregularity of nonlinear signal and its predicting difficulty, a deep learning prediction model based on extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition (ESMD) and clustering analysis is proposed. Firstly, the original data is decomposed by ESMD to obtain the finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and residuals. Secondly, the fuzzy c-means is used to cluster the decomposed components, and then the deep belief network (DBN) is used to predict it. Finally, the reconstructed ...

  13. Spatiotemporal multiscaling analysis of impurity transport in plasma turbulence using proper orthogonal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatani, S.; Benkadda, S.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2009-01-01

    The spatiotemporal multiscale dynamics of the turbulent transport of impurities is studied in the context of the collisional drift wave turbulence. Two turbulence regimes are considered: a quasihydrodynamic regime and a quasiadiabatic regime. The impurity is assumed to be a passive scalar advected by the corresponding ExB turbulent flow in the presence of diffusion. Two mixing scenarios are studied: a freely decaying case, and a forced case in which the scalar is forced by an externally imposed gradient. The results of the direct numerical simulations are analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) techniques. The multiscale analysis is based on a space-time separable POD of the impurity field. The low rank spatial POD eigenfunctions capture the large scale coherent structures and the high rank eigenfunctions capture the small scale fluctuations. The temporal evolution at each scale is dictated by the corresponding temporal POD eigenfunctions. Contrary to the decaying case in which the POD spectrum decays fast, the spectrum in the forced case is relatively flat. The most striking difference between these two mixing scenarios is in the temporal dynamics of the small scale structures. In the decaying case the POD reveals the presence of 'bursty' dynamics in which successively small (high POD rank) scales are intermittently activated during the mixing process. On the other hand, in the forced simulations the temporal dynamics exhibits stationary fluctuations. Spatial intermittency or 'patchiness' in the mixing process characterizes the distribution of the passive tracer in the decaying quasihydrodynamic regime. In particular, in this case the probability distribution function of the low rank POD spatial reconstruction error is non-Gaussian. The spatiotemporal POD scales exhibit a diffusive-type scaling in the quasiadiabatic regime. However, this scaling seems to be absent in the quasihydrodynamic regime that shows no scaling (in the decaying case) or two

  14. The Complexities of Teaching Prime Decomposition and Multiplicative Structure with Tools to Preservice Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Garcia, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers often struggle with prime decomposition and other mathematical topics that correlate with number theory. This paper provides a framework for integrating prime factor tiles into their curriculum with a particular emphasis on prime decomposition. Using this framework, preservice teachers explored and evaluated numbers…

  15. Thermal Analysis of the Decomposition of Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate (AUC) in Different Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hälldahl, L.; Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1979-01-01

    The intermediate products formed during thermal decomposition of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) in different atmospheres, (air, helium and hydrogen) have been determined by thermal analysis, (TG, and DTA) and X-ray analysis. The endproducts observed are U3O8 and UO2 in air/He and hydrogen, respe......, respectively. The following intermediate products were observed in all atmospheres: http://www.sciencedirect.com.globalproxy.cvt.dk/cache/MiamiImageURL/B6THV-44K80TV-FB-1/0?wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkWW X-ray diffraction analysis showed that these phases were amorphous....

  16. Scalable parallel elastic-plastic finite element analysis using a quasi-Newton method with a balancing domain decomposition preconditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Yasunori; Okada, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tomonori; Yoshimura, Shinobu

    2018-04-01

    A domain decomposition method for large-scale elastic-plastic problems is proposed. The proposed method is based on a quasi-Newton method in conjunction with a balancing domain decomposition preconditioner. The use of a quasi-Newton method overcomes two problems associated with the conventional domain decomposition method based on the Newton-Raphson method: (1) avoidance of a double-loop iteration algorithm, which generally has large computational complexity, and (2) consideration of the local concentration of nonlinear deformation, which is observed in elastic-plastic problems with stress concentration. Moreover, the application of a balancing domain decomposition preconditioner ensures scalability. Using the conventional and proposed domain decomposition methods, several numerical tests, including weak scaling tests, were performed. The convergence performance of the proposed method is comparable to that of the conventional method. In particular, in elastic-plastic analysis, the proposed method exhibits better convergence performance than the conventional method.

  17. The Living Dead: Bacterial Community Structure of a Cadaver at the Onset and End of the Bloat Stage of Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Haarmann, Daniel P.; Lynne, Aaron M.; Bucheli, Sibyl R.; Petrosino, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition. PMID:24204941

  18. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  19. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embriette R Hyde

    Full Text Available Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of trimethylgallium decomposition during GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed the decomposition of Ga(CH3)3 (TMG) during the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN on the basis of first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analysis. We performed activation energy calculations of TMG decomposition and determined the main reaction processes of TMG during GaN MOVPE. We found that TMG reacts with the H2 carrier gas and that (CH3)2GaH is generated after the desorption of the methyl group. Next, (CH3)2GaH decomposes into (CH3)GaH2 and this decomposes into GaH3. Finally, GaH3 becomes GaH. In the MOVPE growth of GaN, TMG decomposes into GaH by the successive desorption of its methyl groups. The results presented here concur with recent high-resolution mass spectroscopy results.

  1. s-core network decomposition: A generalization of k-core analysis to weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsaa, Marius; Almaas, Eivind

    2013-12-01

    A broad range of systems spanning biology, technology, and social phenomena may be represented and analyzed as complex networks. Recent studies of such networks using k-core decomposition have uncovered groups of nodes that play important roles. Here, we present s-core analysis, a generalization of k-core (or k-shell) analysis to complex networks where the links have different strengths or weights. We demonstrate the s-core decomposition approach on two random networks (ER and configuration model with scale-free degree distribution) where the link weights are (i) random, (ii) correlated, and (iii) anticorrelated with the node degrees. Finally, we apply the s-core decomposition approach to the protein-interaction network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the context of two gene-expression experiments: oxidative stress in response to cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), and fermentation stress response (FSR). We find that the innermost s-cores are (i) different from innermost k-cores, (ii) different for the two stress conditions CHP and FSR, and (iii) enriched with proteins whose biological functions give insight into how yeast manages these specific stresses.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity sector in major countries: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzheng; Liao, Hua; Du, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ce; Wang, Jin-Wei; Liu, Yanan

    2018-03-01

    The electric power sector is one of the primary sources of CO 2 emissions. Analyzing the influential factors that result in CO 2 emissions from the power sector would provide valuable information to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions. Herein, we applied the Divisia decomposition method to analyze the influential factors for CO 2 emissions from the power sector from 11 countries, which account for 67% of the world's emissions from 1990 to 2013. We decompose the influential factors for CO 2 emissions into seven areas: the emission coefficient, energy intensity, the share of electricity generation, the share of thermal power generation, electricity intensity, economic activity, and population. The decomposition analysis results show that economic activity, population, and the emission coefficient have positive roles in increasing CO 2 emissions, and their contribution rates are 119, 23.9, and 0.5%, respectively. Energy intensity, electricity intensity, the share of electricity generation, and the share of thermal power generation curb CO 2 emissions and their contribution rates are 17.2, 15.7, 7.7, and 2.8%, respectively. Through decomposition analysis for each country, economic activity and population are the major factors responsible for increasing CO 2 emissions from the power sector. However, the other factors from developed countries can offset the growth in CO 2 emissions due to economic activities.

  3. Decomposition of diverse solid inorganic matrices with molten ammonium bifluoride salt for constituent elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cyndi M.; Parker, Cyrena M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Corbey, Jordan F.; Grate, Jay W.

    2017-09-01

    Ammonium bifluoride (ABF, NH4F·HF) is a well-known reagent for converting metal oxides to fluorides and for its applications in breaking down minerals and ores in order to extract useful components. It has been more recently applied to the decomposition of inorganic matrices prior to elemental analysis. Herein, a sample decomposition method that employs molten ABF sample treatment in the initial step is systematically evaluated across a range of inorganic sample types: glass, quartz, zircon, soil, and pitchblende ore. Method performance is evaluated across the two variables: duration of molten ABF treatment and ABF reagent mass to sample mass ratio. The degree of solubilization of these sample classes are compared to the fluoride stoichiometry that is theoretically necessary to enact complete fluorination of the sample types. Finally, the sample decomposition method is performed on several soil and pitchblende ore standard reference materials, after which elemental constituent analysis is performed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Elemental recoveries are compared to the certified values; results indicate good to excellent recoveries across a range of alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metal, and actinide elements.

  4. Analysis of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle for solar hydrogen production. Part 1: decomposition of sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Central Florida Univ., Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water splitting cycle is one of the most studied cycles for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production. S-I cycle consists of four sections: (I) acid production and separation and oxygen purification, (II) sulfuric acid concentration and decomposition, (III) hydroiodic acid (HI) concentration, and (IV) HI decomposition and H{sub 2} purification. Section II of the cycle is an endothermic reaction driven by the heat input from a high temperature source. Analysis of the S-I cycle in the past thirty years have been focused mostly on the utilization of nuclear power as the high temperature heat source for the sulfuric acid decomposition step. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic considerations indicate that both the extent and rate of sulfuric acid decomposition can be improved at very high temperatures (in excess of 1000 deg C) available only from solar concentrators. The beneficial effect of high temperature solar heat for decomposition of sulfuric acid in the S-I cycle is described in this paper. We used Aspen Technologies' HYSYS chemical process simulator (CPS) to develop flowsheets for sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) decomposition that include all mass and heat balances. Based on the HYSYS analyses, two new process flowsheets were developed. These new sulfuric acid decomposition processes are simpler and more stable than previous processes and yield higher conversion efficiencies for the sulfuric acid decomposition and sulfur dioxide and oxygen formation. (Author)

  5. Wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Sharma, Shashikant; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn; Ranjan, Aashish

    2016-03-01

    For the realization of face recognition systems in the static as well as in the real time frame, algorithms such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, linear discriminate analysis, neural networks and genetic algorithms are used for decades. This paper discusses an approach which is a wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition. Principal component analysis is chosen over other algorithms due to its relative simplicity, efficiency, and robustness features. The term face recognition stands for identifying a person from his facial gestures and having resemblance with factor analysis in some sense, i.e. extraction of the principal component of an image. Principal component analysis is subjected to some drawbacks, mainly the poor discriminatory power and the large computational load in finding eigenvectors, in particular. These drawbacks can be greatly reduced by combining both wavelet transform decomposition for feature extraction and principal component analysis for pattern representation and classification together, by analyzing the facial gestures into space and time domain, where, frequency and time are used interchangeably. From the experimental results, it is envisaged that this face recognition method has made a significant percentage improvement in recognition rate as well as having a better computational efficiency.

  6. Fungal community structure of fallen pine and oak wood at different stages of decomposition in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Fei; Zhu, Xian; Hou, Lin; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-10-24

    Historically, intense forest hazards have resulted in an increase in the quantity of fallen wood in the Qinling Mountains. Fallen wood has a decisive influence on the nutrient cycling, carbon budget and ecosystem biodiversity of forests, and fungi are essential for the decomposition of fallen wood. Moreover, decaying dead wood alters fungal communities. The development of high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated the ongoing investigation of relevant molecular forest ecosystems with a focus on fungal communities. In this study, fallen wood and its associated fungal communities were compared at different stages of decomposition to evaluate relative species abundance and species diversity. The physical and chemical factors that alter fungal communities were also compared by performing correspondence analysis according to host tree species across all stages of decomposition. Tree species were the major source of differences in fungal community diversity at all decomposition stages, and fungal communities achieved the highest levels of diversity at the intermediate and late decomposition stages. Interactions between various physical and chemical factors and fungal communities shared the same regulatory mechanisms, and there was no tree species-specific influence. Improving our knowledge of wood-inhabiting fungal communities is crucial for forest ecosystem conservation.

  7. Topotactic decomposition and crystal structure of white molybdenum trioxide--monohydrate: prediction of structure by topotaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, H.R.; Guenter, J.R.; Dubler, E.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystals of the white MoO 3 . H 2 O modification (''α-molybdic acid'') were transformed by heating to 160 0 C into perfect pseudomorphs built up from oriented MoO 3 crystallites of known structure. From the mutual orientation relationship of the unit cells of both phases involved in this topotactic reaction, as determined by X-ray photographs, a model for the so far unknown crystal structure of white MoO 3 . H 2 O could be deduced. Independently, this structure was determined by X-ray diffractometer data then: space group P anti 1, a = 7.388, b = 3.700, c = 6.673 A, α = 107.8, β = 113.6, γ = 91.2 0 , Z = 2. The structure was solved from the Patterson function and refined until R = 0.088. It is built up from isolated double chains of strongly distorted [MoO 5 (H 2 O)]-octahedra sharing two common edges with each other. This result agrees well with the model derived from topotaxy, and it becomes evident how the MoO 3 lattice is formed through corner linking of the isolated double chains after the water molecules are removed. The study of topotactic phenomena seems rather generally applicable to deduce the main features of structures involved and for better understanding of structural relationships. (U.S.)

  8. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy links structural moieties of soil organic matter to the temperature sensitivity of its decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    be recognized. It was hence possible to follow the fate of specific structural moieties in soils. We observed differences between litter and soil samples, and were able to relate them to the decomposition of identifiable moieties. Using multivariate data analysis, we aimed at linking the detailed chemical fingerprints of SOM to turnover rates in a soil incubation experiment. With the multivariate models, we were able to relate signal patterns in the 2D spectra and intensities of identifiable molecular moieties to variability in the temperature response of organic matter decomposition, as assessed by Q10. In conclusion, the characterization of SOM composition at the molecular level by solution-state 2D NMR spectroscopy is highly promising; it offers unprecedented possibilities to link SOM molecular composition to ecosystem processes, and their responses to environmental changes.

  9. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  10. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesicki, Fabian; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce energy-related CO 2 emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO 2 emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: → A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. → The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. → Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. → Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. → Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  11. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesicki, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.kesicki.09@ucl.ac.uk [UCL Energy Institute, University College London, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Anandarajah, Gabrial [UCL Energy Institute, University College London, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    In order to reduce energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO{sub 2} emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: > A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. > The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. > Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. > Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. > Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  12. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry; Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  13. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry I.

    2017-12-08

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  14. Linear stability analysis of detonations via numerical computation and dynamic mode decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry

    2018-03-20

    We introduce a new method to investigate linear stability of gaseous detonations that is based on an accurate shock-fitting numerical integration of the linearized reactive Euler equations with a subsequent analysis of the computed solution via the dynamic mode decomposition. The method is applied to the detonation models based on both the standard one-step Arrhenius kinetics and two-step exothermic-endothermic reaction kinetics. Stability spectra for all cases are computed and analyzed. The new approach is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional normal-mode analysis used in detonation theory.

  15. Reliability analysis of prestressed concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Zhao, Y.; Sun, J.

    1993-01-01

    The reliability analysis of prestressed concrete containment structures subjected to combinations of static and dynamic loads with consideration of uncertainties of structural and load parameters is presented. Limit state probabilities for given parameters are calculated using the procedure developed at BNL, while that with consideration of parameter uncertainties are calculated by a fast integration for time variant structural reliability. The limit state surface of the prestressed concrete containment is constructed directly incorporating the prestress. The sensitivities of the Choleskey decomposition matrix and the natural vibration character are calculated by simplified procedures. (author)

  16. China's energy consumption under the global economic crisis: Decomposition and sectoral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fangyi; Song, Zhouying; Liu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that there is a strong relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. Most countries′ energy demands declined during the economic depression of 2008–2009 when a worldwide economic crisis occurred. As an export-oriented economy, China suffered a serious exports decline in the course of the crisis. However, it was found that energy consumption continued to increase. Against such a background, this paper aims to assess and explain the factors causing the growth of energy consumption in China. First, we will explain the impact of domestic final use and international trade on energy consumption by using decomposition analysis. Second, embodied energy and its variation across sectors are quantified to identify the key sectors contributing to the growth. Lastly, the policy implications for long-term energy conservation are discussed. The results show that the decline in exports was one of the driving forces for energy consumption reduction in the crisis, but that the growth of domestic demand in manufacturing and construction, largely stimulated by economic stimulus plans, had the opposite effect on energy consumption. International trade contributed to decreasing energy consumption of China during and after the crisis because the structure of exports and imports changed in this period. - Highlights: • We analyze the reasons for China's energy consumption change under the global economic crisis during 2007–2010. • Domestic final use growth, especially in construction and manufacturing of machinery and equipment, resulted in energy consumption increase. • International trade is identified as a driver of energy consumption reduction during and after the crisis. • Increasing China's share of consumption or reducing its share of investment in the GDP can reduce national energy intensity

  17. Tensor decomposition in electronic structure calculations on 3D Cartesian grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoromskij, B.N.; Khoromskaia, V.; Chinnamsetty, S.R.; Flad, H.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a novel approach based on the combination of Tucker-type and canonical tensor decomposition techniques for the efficient numerical approximation of functions and operators in electronic structure calculations. In particular, we study applicability of tensor approximations for the numerical solution of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham equations on 3D Cartesian grids. We show that the orthogonal Tucker-type tensor approximation of electron density and Hartree potential of simple molecules leads to low tensor rank representations. This enables an efficient tensor-product convolution scheme for the computation of the Hartree potential using a collocation-type approximation via piecewise constant basis functions on a uniform nxnxn grid. Combined with the Richardson extrapolation, our approach exhibits O(h 3 ) convergence in the grid-size h=O(n -1 ). Moreover, this requires O(3rn+r 3 ) storage, where r denotes the Tucker rank of the electron density with r=O(logn), almost uniformly in n. For example, calculations of the Coulomb matrix and the Hartree-Fock energy for the CH 4 molecule, with a pseudopotential on the C atom, achieved accuracies of the order of 10 -6 hartree with a grid-size n of several hundreds. Since the tensor-product convolution in 3D is performed via 1D convolution transforms, our scheme markedly outperforms the 3D-FFT in both the computing time and storage requirements.

  18. Harmonic analysis of traction power supply system based on wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaohong

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway and heavy-haul transport, AC drive electric locomotive and EMU large-scale operation in the country on the ground, the electrified railway has become the main harmonic source of China's power grid. In response to this phenomenon, the need for timely monitoring of power quality problems of electrified railway, assessment and governance. Wavelet transform is developed on the basis of Fourier analysis, the basic idea comes from the harmonic analysis, with a rigorous theoretical model, which has inherited and developed the local thought of Garbor transformation, and has overcome the disadvantages such as window fixation and lack of discrete orthogonally, so as to become a more recently studied spectral analysis tool. The wavelet analysis takes the gradual and precise time domain step in the high frequency part so as to focus on any details of the signal being analyzed, thereby comprehensively analyzing the harmonics of the traction power supply system meanwhile use the pyramid algorithm to increase the speed of wavelet decomposition. The matlab simulation shows that the use of wavelet decomposition of the traction power supply system for harmonic spectrum analysis is effective.

  19. Examining the sectoral energy use in Turkish economy (1980-2000) with the help of decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Huvaz, Ozkan

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the sectoral energy use in the Turkish economy for the 1980-2000 period when significant changes occurred in the economic and demographic structure of the country. These changes had several impacts on the energy use in the primary sectors such as agriculture, industry and services. Decomposition analysis is conducted on these sectors by using the additive version of the LMDI method due to its advantages over others. Although a close relationship exists between primary energy consumption and GDP, analyses show that significant variations occurred in the sectoral energy use during the 1982, 1988-1989, 1994 and 1998-2000 periods. Such variations are related to the economic policies of the governments. The Turkish economy has undergone a transformation from agricultural to industrial enhanced by rapid urbanization, especially after 1982. However, industrialization has not been completed yet, and the energy demand should be increasing faster than national income until the energy intensity of the country reaches a peak. This study is performed on three basic sectors; however, decomposition into secondary and tertiary sectors will provide detailed information for further investigations

  20. Temporal and Spatial Impact of Human Cadaver Decomposition on Soil Bacterial and Arthropod Community Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baneshwar; Minick, Kevan J.; Strickland, Michael S.; Wickings, Kyle G.; Crippen, Tawni L.; Tarone, Aaron M.; Benbow, M. Eric; Sufrin, Ness; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Pechal, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    As vertebrate carrion decomposes, there is a release of nutrient-rich fluids into the underlying soil, which can impact associated biological community structure and function. How these changes alter soil biogeochemical cycles is relatively unknown and may prove useful in the identification of carrion decomposition islands that have long lasting, focal ecological effects. This study investigated the spatial (0, 1, and 5 m) and temporal (3–732 days) dynamics of human cadaver decomposition on soil bacterial and arthropod community structure and microbial function. We observed strong evidence of a predictable response to cadaver decomposition that varies over space for soil bacterial and arthropod community structure, carbon (C) mineralization and microbial substrate utilization patterns. In the presence of a cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples), the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was greater, while the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia was lower when compared to samples at 1 and 5 m. Micro-arthropods were more abundant (15 to 17-fold) in soils collected at 0 m compared to either 1 or 5 m, but overall, micro-arthropod community composition was unrelated to either bacterial community composition or function. Bacterial community structure and microbial function also exhibited temporal relationships, whereas arthropod community structure did not. Cumulative precipitation was more effective in predicting temporal variations in bacterial abundance and microbial activity than accumulated degree days. In the presence of the cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples), the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased significantly with cumulative precipitation. Furthermore, soil bacterial communities and C mineralization were sensitive to the introduction of human cadavers as they diverged from baseline levels and did not recover completely in approximately 2 years. These data are valuable for understanding ecosystem

  1. Temporal and Spatial Impact of Human Cadaver Decomposition on Soil Bacterial and Arthropod Community Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneshwar Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As vertebrate carrion decomposes, there is a release of nutrient-rich fluids into the underlying soil, which can impact associated biological community structure and function. How these changes alter soil biogeochemical cycles is relatively unknown and may prove useful in the identification of carrion decomposition islands that have long lasting, focal ecological effects. This study investigated the spatial (0, 1, and 5 m and temporal (3–732 days dynamics of human cadaver decomposition on soil bacterial and arthropod community structure and microbial function. We observed strong evidence of a predictable response to cadaver decomposition that varies over space for soil bacterial and arthropod community structure, carbon (C mineralization and microbial substrate utilization patterns. In the presence of a cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was greater, while the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia was lower when compared to samples at 1 and 5 m. Micro-arthropods were more abundant (15 to 17-fold in soils collected at 0 m compared to either 1 or 5 m, but overall, micro-arthropod community composition was unrelated to either bacterial community composition or function. Bacterial community structure and microbial function also exhibited temporal relationships, whereas arthropod community structure did not. Cumulative precipitation was more effective in predicting temporal variations in bacterial abundance and microbial activity than accumulated degree days. In the presence of the cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased significantly with cumulative precipitation. Furthermore, soil bacterial communities and C mineralization were sensitive to the introduction of human cadavers as they diverged from baseline levels and did not recover completely in approximately 2 years. These data are valuable for understanding

  2. Identification of dominant flow structures in rapidly rotating convection of liquid metals using Dynamic Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, S.; Schmid, P. J.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's metal core acts as a dynamo whose efficiency in generating and maintaining the magnetic field is essentially determined by the rotation rate and the convective motions occurring in its outer liquid part. For the description of the primary physics in the outer core the idealized system of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is often invoked, with the majority of studies considering only working fluids with Prandtl numbers of Pr ≳ 1. However, liquid metals are characterized by distinctly smaller Prandtl numbers which in turn result in an inherently different type of convection. Here, we will present results from direct numerical simulations of rapidly rotating convection in a fluid with Pr ≈ 0.025 in cylindrical containers and Ekman numbers as low as 5 × 10-6. In this system, the Coriolis force is the source of two types of inertial modes, the so-called wall modes, that also exist at moderate Prandtl numbers, and cylinder-filling oscillatory modes, that are a unique feature of small Prandtl number convection. The obtained flow fields were analyzed using the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). This technique allows to extract and identify the structures that govern the dynamics of the system as well as their corresponding frequencies. We have investigated both the regime where the flow is purely oscillatory and the regime where wall modes and oscillatory modes co-exist. In the purely oscillatory regime, high and low frequency oscillatory modes characterize the flow. When both types of modes are present, the DMD reveals that the wall-attached modes dominate the flow dynamics. They precess with a relatively low frequency in retrograde direction. Nonetheless, also in this case, high frequency oscillations have a significant contribution.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of six soil organic matter models applied to the decomposition of animal manures and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two features distinguishing soil organic matter simulation models are the type of kinetics used to calculate pool decomposition rates, and the algorithm used to handle the effects of nitrogen (N shortage on carbon (C decomposition. Compared to widely used first-order kinetics, Monod kinetics more realistically represent organic matter decomposition, because they relate decomposition to both substrate and decomposer size. Most models impose a fixed C to N ratio for microbial biomass. When N required by microbial biomass to decompose a given amount of substrate-C is larger than soil available N, carbon decomposition rates are limited proportionally to N deficit (N inhibition hypothesis. Alternatively, C-overflow was proposed as a way of getting rid of excess C, by allocating it to a storage pool of polysaccharides. We built six models to compare the combinations of three decomposition kinetics (first-order, Monod, and reverse Monod, and two ways to simulate the effect of N shortage on C decomposition (N inhibition and C-overflow. We conducted sensitivity analysis to identify model parameters that mostly affected CO2 emissions and soil mineral N during a simulated 189-day laboratory incubation assuming constant water content and temperature. We evaluated model outputs sensitivity at different stages of organic matter decomposition in a soil amended with three inputs of increasing C to N ratio: liquid manure, solid manure, and low-N crop residue. Only few model parameters and their interactions were responsible for consistent variations of CO2 and soil mineral N. These parameters were mostly related to microbial biomass and to the partitioning of applied C among input pools, as well as their decomposition constants. In addition, in models with Monod kinetics, CO2 was also sensitive to a variation of the half-saturation constants. C-overflow enhanced pool decomposition compared to N inhibition hypothesis when N shortage occurred. Accumulated C in the

  4. Structure, morphology and electrochemical behaviour of manganese oxides prepared by controlled decomposition of permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, S.W.; Jones, B.C. [Discipline of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hollenkamp, A.F. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal decomposition of permanganate, conducted in a range of pH-controlled solutions (from strongly acidic to strongly basic), is used to prepare manganese dioxides that are well-suited for use as supercapacitor electrode materials. While permanganate is thermodynamically unstable, the kinetics of its decomposition in an aqueous environment are very slow, until the temperature is raised to {proportional_to}200 C. Although the resultant materials are relatively crystalline and have low total pore volume, their prominent meso-porosity leads to good electrochemical performance. Best behaviour is obtained for material from permanganate decomposition in 0.01 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, for which composite electrodes (150 {mu}m thick) yield {proportional_to}150 F g{sup -1} at 5 mV s{sup -1} in a 9 M KOH electrolyte. (author)

  5. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  6. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunke Alaba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1 construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2 estimate concentration indices (CI to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3 perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa.

  7. Minimizing the trend effect on detrended cross-correlation analysis with empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaojun; Shang Pengjian; Zhao Chuang; Wang Jing; Tao Rui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigate the effects of linear, exponential and periodic trends on DCCA. ► Apply empirical mode decomposition to extract trend term. ► Strong and monotonic trends are successfully eliminated. ► Get the cross-correlation exponent in a persistent behavior without crossover. - Abstract: Detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) is a scaling method commonly used to estimate long-range power law cross-correlation in non-stationary signals. However, the susceptibility of DCCA to trends makes the scaling results difficult to analyze due to spurious crossovers. We artificially generate long-range cross-correlated signals and systematically investigate the effect of linear, exponential and periodic trends. Specifically to the crossovers raised by trends, we apply empirical mode decomposition method which decomposes underlying signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMF) and a residual trend. After the removal of residual term, strong and monotonic trends such as linear and exponential trends are successfully eliminated. But periodic trend cannot be separated out according to the criterion of IMF, which can be eliminated by Fourier transform. As a special case of DCCA, detrended fluctuation analysis presents similar results.

  8. Efficient analysis of three dimensional EUV mask induced imaging artifacts using the waveguide decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Erdmann, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    This paper employs the Waveguide decomposition method as an efficient rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) solver to investigate three dimensional mask-induced imaging artifacts in EUV lithography. The major mask diffraction induced imaging artifacts are first identified by applying the Zernike analysis of the mask nearfield spectrum of 2D lines/spaces. Three dimensional mask features like 22nm semidense/dense contacts/posts, isolated elbows and line-ends are then investigated in terms of lithographic results. After that, the 3D mask-induced imaging artifacts such as feature orientation dependent best focus shift, process window asymmetries, and other aberration-like phenomena are explored for the studied mask features. The simulation results can help lithographers to understand the reasons of EUV-specific imaging artifacts and to devise illumination and feature dependent strategies for their compensation in the optical proximity correction (OPC) for EUV masks. At last, an efficient approach using the Zernike analysis together with the Waveguide decomposition technique is proposed to characterize the impact of mask properties for the future OPC process.

  9. Explaining time changes in oral health-related quality of life in England: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakos, Georgios; Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; O'Connor, Rhiannon; Wildman, John; Steele, Jimmy G; Allen, Patrick Finbarr

    2017-12-01

    Oral diseases are highly prevalent and impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). However, time changes in OHRQoL have been scarcely investigated in the current context of general improvement in clinical oral health. This study aims to examine changes in OHRQoL between 1998 and 2009 among adults in England, and to analyse the contribution of demographics, socioeconomic characteristics and clinical oral health measures. Using data from two nationally representative surveys in England, we assessed changes in the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), in both the sample overall (n=12 027) and by quasi-cohorts. We calculated the prevalence and extent of oral impacts and summary OHIP-14 scores. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition analysis was used to assess the contribution of demographics (age, gender, marital status), socioeconomic position (education, occupation) and clinical measures (presence of decay, number of missing teeth, having advanced periodontitis). There were significant improvements in OHRQoL, predominantly among those that experienced oral impacts occasionally, but no difference in the proportion with frequent oral impacts. The decomposition model showed that 43% (-4.07/-9.47) of the decrease in prevalence of oral impacts reported occasionally or more often was accounted by the model explanatory variables. Improvements in clinical oral health and the effect of ageing itself accounted for most of the explained change in OHRQoL, but the effect of these factors varied substantially across the lifecourse and quasi-cohorts. These decomposition findings indicate that broader determinants could be primarily targeted to influence OHRQoL in different age groups or across different adult cohorts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Thermal decomposition of dolomite under CO2: insights from TGA and in situ XRD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Perejon, Antonio; Medina, Santiago; Perez-Maqueda, Luis A

    2015-11-28

    Thermal decomposition of dolomite in the presence of CO2 in a calcination environment is investigated by means of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The in situ XRD results suggest that dolomite decomposes directly at a temperature around 700 °C into MgO and CaO. Immediate carbonation of nascent CaO crystals leads to the formation of calcite as an intermediate product of decomposition. Subsequently, decarbonation of this poorly crystalline calcite occurs when the reaction is thermodynamically favorable and sufficiently fast at a temperature depending on the CO2 partial pressure in the calcination atmosphere. Decarbonation of this dolomitic calcite occurs at a lower temperature than limestone decarbonation due to the relatively low crystallinity of the former. Full decomposition of dolomite leads also to a relatively low crystalline CaO, which exhibits a high reactivity as compared to limestone derived CaO. Under CO2 capture conditions in the Calcium-Looping (CaL) process, MgO grains remain inert yet favor the carbonation reactivity of dolomitic CaO especially in the solid-state diffusion controlled phase. The fundamental mechanism that drives the crystallographic transformation of dolomite in the presence of CO2 is thus responsible for its fast calcination kinetics and the high carbonation reactivity of dolomitic CaO, which makes natural dolomite a potentially advantageous alternative to limestone for CO2 capture in the CaL technology as well as SO2in situ removal in oxy-combustion fluidized bed reactors.

  11. The decomposition of deformation: New metrics to enhance shape analysis in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, Valerio; Piras, Paolo; Gabriele, Stefano; Teresi, Luciano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Dryden, Ian L; Torromeo, Concetta; Puddu, Paolo E

    2018-05-01

    In landmarks-based Shape Analysis size is measured, in most cases, with Centroid Size. Changes in shape are decomposed in affine and non affine components. Furthermore the non affine component can be in turn decomposed in a series of local deformations (partial warps). If the extent of deformation between two shapes is small, the difference between Centroid Size and m-Volume increment is barely appreciable. In medical imaging applied to soft tissues bodies can undergo very large deformations, involving large changes in size. The cardiac example, analyzed in the present paper, shows changes in m-Volume that can reach the 60%. We show here that standard Geometric Morphometrics tools (landmarks, Thin Plate Spline, and related decomposition of the deformation) can be generalized to better describe the very large deformations of biological tissues, without losing a synthetic description. In particular, the classical decomposition of the space tangent to the shape space in affine and non affine components is enriched to include also the change in size, in order to give a complete description of the tangent space to the size-and-shape space. The proposed generalization is formulated by means of a new Riemannian metric describing the change in size as change in m-Volume rather than change in Centroid Size. This leads to a redefinition of some aspects of the Kendall's size-and-shape space without losing Kendall's original formulation. This new formulation is discussed by means of simulated examples using 2D and 3D platonic shapes as well as a real example from clinical 3D echocardiographic data. We demonstrate that our decomposition based approaches discriminate very effectively healthy subjects from patients affected by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.

  13. Benchmarking lithium amide versus amine bonding by charge density and energy decomposition analysis arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Felix; Maaß, Christian; Andrada, Diego M; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Stalke, Dietmar

    2018-03-28

    Lithium amides are versatile C-H metallation reagents with vast industrial demand because of their high basicity combined with their weak nucleophilicity, and they are applied in kilotons worldwide annually. The nuclearity of lithium amides, however, modifies and steers reactivity, region- and stereo-selectivity and product diversification in organic syntheses. In this regard, it is vital to understand Li-N bonding as it causes the aggregation of lithium amides to form cubes or ladders from the polar Li-N covalent metal amide bond along the ring stacking and laddering principle. Deaggregation, however, is more governed by the Li←N donor bond to form amine adducts. The geometry of the solid state structures already suggests that there is σ- and π-contribution to the covalent bond. To quantify the mutual influence, we investigated [{(Me 2 NCH 2 ) 2 (C 4 H 2 N)}Li] 2 ( 1 ) by means of experimental charge density calculations based on the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and DFT calculations using energy decomposition analysis (EDA). This new approach allows for the grading of electrostatic Li + N - , covalent Li-N and donating Li←N bonding, and provides a way to modify traditional widely-used heuristic concepts such as the -I and +I inductive effects. The electron density ρ ( r ) and its second derivative, the Laplacian ∇ 2 ρ ( r ), mirror the various types of bonding. Most remarkably, from the topological descriptors, there is no clear separation of the lithium amide bonds from the lithium amine donor bonds. The computed natural partial charges for lithium are only +0.58, indicating an optimal density supply from the four nitrogen atoms, while the Wiberg bond orders of about 0.14 au suggest very weak bonding. The interaction energy between the two pincer molecules, (C 4 H 2 N) 2 2- , with the Li 2 2+ moiety is very strong ( ca. -628 kcal mol -1 ), followed by the bond dissociation energy (-420.9 kcal mol -1 ). Partitioning the interaction energy

  14. Fast multidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition for the analysis of big spatio-temporal datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaohua; Feng, Jiaxin; Qiao, Fangli; Tan, Zhe-Min

    2016-04-13

    In this big data era, it is more urgent than ever to solve two major issues: (i) fast data transmission methods that can facilitate access to data from non-local sources and (ii) fast and efficient data analysis methods that can reveal the key information from the available data for particular purposes. Although approaches in different fields to address these two questions may differ significantly, the common part must involve data compression techniques and a fast algorithm. This paper introduces the recently developed adaptive and spatio-temporally local analysis method, namely the fast multidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD), for the analysis of a large spatio-temporal dataset. The original MEEMD uses ensemble empirical mode decomposition to decompose time series at each spatial grid and then pieces together the temporal-spatial evolution of climate variability and change on naturally separated timescales, which is computationally expensive. By taking advantage of the high efficiency of the expression using principal component analysis/empirical orthogonal function analysis for spatio-temporally coherent data, we design a lossy compression method for climate data to facilitate its non-local transmission. We also explain the basic principles behind the fast MEEMD through decomposing principal components instead of original grid-wise time series to speed up computation of MEEMD. Using a typical climate dataset as an example, we demonstrate that our newly designed methods can (i) compress data with a compression rate of one to two orders; and (ii) speed-up the MEEMD algorithm by one to two orders. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Decomposition analysis of gas consumption in the residential sector in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogan, Fionn; Cahill, Caiman J.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    To-date, decomposition analysis has been widely used at the macro-economic level and for in-depth analyses of the industry and transport sectors; however, its application in the residential sector has been rare. This paper uses the Log-Mean Divisia Index I (LMDI-I) methodology to decompose gas consumption trends in the gas-connected residential sector in Ireland from 1990 to 2008, which despite an increasing number of energy efficiency policies, experienced total final consumption growth of 470%. The analysis decomposes this change in gas consumption into a number of effects, examining the impact over time of market factors such as a growing customer base, varying mix of dwelling types, changing share of vacant dwellings, changing size of new dwellings, the impact of building regulations policy and other factors such as the weather. The analysis finds the most significant effects are changing customer numbers and changing intensity; the analysis also quantifies the impact of building regulations and compares it with other effects such as changing size of new dwellings. By comparing the historical impact on gas consumption of policy factors and non-policy factors, this paper highlights the challenge for policy-makers in achieving overall energy consumption reduction. - Highlights: ► Contribution to a gap in the literature with a residential sector decomposition analysis of gas TFC. ► Activity effect had the largest impact and was cumulatively the best explainer of total TFC change. ► Intensity effect was the second biggest effect with a 19% share of total TFC change. ► In line with rising surface temperatures, the weather effect is declining over time. ► Building regulations are having a diminishing impact but are being negated by larger dwellings.

  16. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  17. The Decomposition Analysis of CO2 Emission and Economic Growth in Pakistan India and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conflict between economic growth and keeping greenhouse gases (GHG at controllable levels is one of the ultimate challenges of this century. The aim of Kyoto Protocol is to keep the level of carbon dioxide (CO2 below a certain threshold level. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of CO2 emission on economic growth by conducting the regional analysis of PIC nations i.e. Pakistan, India and China. The study also provides the detail information regarding the atmospheric emission by applying decomposition analysis. It is suggested that environmental policies need more attention in the region by keeping the differences aside. So, the emission trading is considered to be the new concept. The approach should be introduced to tackle down the global warming in the region. Now it is time to respond because the low Carbon Economy is the reality.

  18. Denoising of chaotic signal using independent component analysis and empirical mode decomposition with circulate translating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wen-Bo; Zhang Xiao-Dong; Chang Yuchan; Wang Xiang-Li; Wang Zhao; Chen Xi; Zheng Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new method to reduce noises within chaotic signals based on ICA (independent component analysis) and EMD (empirical mode decomposition) is proposed. The basic idea is decomposing chaotic signals and constructing multidimensional input vectors, firstly, on the base of EMD and its translation invariance. Secondly, it makes the independent component analysis on the input vectors, which means that a self adapting denoising is carried out for the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of chaotic signals. Finally, all IMFs compose the new denoised chaotic signal. Experiments on the Lorenz chaotic signal composed of different Gaussian noises and the monthly observed chaotic sequence on sunspots were put into practice. The results proved that the method proposed in this paper is effective in denoising of chaotic signals. Moreover, it can correct the center point in the phase space effectively, which makes it approach the real track of the chaotic attractor. (paper)

  19. Thermal and X-ray diffraction analysis studies during the decomposition of ammonium uranyl nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, B. H.; Lee, Y. B.; Prelas, M. A.; Ghosh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    Two types of ammonium uranyl nitrate (NH4)2UO2(NO3)4?2H2O and NH4UO2(NO3)3, were thermally decomposed and reduced in a TG-DTA unit in nitrogen, air, and hydrogen atmospheres. Various intermediate phases produced by the thermal decomposition and reduction process were investigated by an X-ray diffraction analysis and a TG/DTA analysis. Both (NH4)2UO2(NO3)4?2H2O and NH4UO2(NO3)3 decomposed to amorphous UO3 regardless of the atmosphere used. The amorphous UO3 from (NH4)2UO2(NO3)4?2H2O was crysta...

  20. Coarse-to-fine markerless gait analysis based on PCA and Gauss-Laguerre decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Michela; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; Carli, Marco; Neri, Alessandro; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2005-04-01

    Human movement analysis is generally performed through the utilization of marker-based systems, which allow reconstructing, with high levels of accuracy, the trajectories of markers allocated on specific points of the human body. Marker based systems, however, show some drawbacks that can be overcome by the use of video systems applying markerless techniques. In this paper, a specifically designed computer vision technique for the detection and tracking of relevant body points is presented. It is based on the Gauss-Laguerre Decomposition, and a Principal Component Analysis Technique (PCA) is used to circumscribe the region of interest. Results obtained on both synthetic and experimental tests provide significant reduction of the computational costs, with no significant reduction of the tracking accuracy.

  1. Cellular decomposition in vikalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyatskaya, I.S.; Vintajkin, E.Z.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Golikov, V.A.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Austenite decomposition in Fe-Co-V and Fe-Co-V-Ni alloys at 475-600 deg C is investigated. The cellular decomposition in ternary alloys results in the formation of bcc (ordered) and fcc structures, and in quaternary alloys - bcc (ordered) and 12R structures. The cellular 12R structure results from the emergence of stacking faults in the fcc lattice with irregular spacing in four layers. The cellular decomposition results in a high-dispersion structure and magnetic properties approaching the level of well-known vikalloys [ru

  2. Decomposition of Polarimetric SAR Images Based on Second- and Third-order Statics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, S.; Hensley, S.

    2012-12-01

    There are many papers concerning the research of the decomposition of polerimetric SAR imagery. Most of them are based on second-order statics analysis that Freeman and Durden [1] suggested for the reflection symmetry condition that implies that the co-polarization and cross-polarization correlations are close to zero. Since then a number of improvements and enhancements have been proposed to better understand the underlying backscattering mechanisms present in polarimetric SAR images. For example, Yamaguchi et al. [2] added the helix component into Freeman's model and developed a 4 component scattering model for the non-reflection symmetry condition. In addition, Arii et al. [3] developed an adaptive model-based decomposition method that could estimate both the mean orientation angle and a degree of randomness for the canopy scattering for each pixel in a SAR image without the reflection symmetry condition. This purpose of this research is to develop a new decomposition method based on second- and third-order statics analysis to estimate the surface, dihedral, volume and helix scattering components from polarimetric SAR images without the specific assumptions concerning the model for the volume scattering. In addition, we evaluate this method by using both simulation and real UAVSAR data and compare this method with other methods. We express the volume scattering component using the wire formula and formulate the relationship equation between backscattering echo and each component such as the surface, dihedral, volume and helix via linearization based on second- and third-order statics. In third-order statics, we calculate the correlation of the correlation coefficients for each polerimetric data and get one new relationship equation to estimate each polarization component such as HH, VV and VH for the volume. As a result, the equation for the helix component in this method is the same formula as one in Yamaguchi's method. However, the equation for the volume

  3. A Blind Adaptive Color Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis, Singular Value Decomposition and Human Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A blind adaptive color image watermarking scheme based on principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, and human visual system is proposed. The use of principal component analysis to decorrelate the three color channels of host image, improves the perceptual quality of watermarked image. Whereas, human visual system and fuzzy inference system helped to improve both imperceptibility and robustness by selecting adaptive scaling factor, so that, areas more prone to noise can be added with more information as compared to less prone areas. To achieve security, location of watermark embedding is kept secret and used as key at the time of watermark extraction, whereas, for capacity both singular values and vectors are involved in watermark embedding process. As a result, four contradictory requirements; imperceptibility, robustness, security and capacity are achieved as suggested by results. Both subjective and objective methods are acquired to examine the performance of proposed schemes. For subjective analysis the watermarked images and watermarks extracted from attacked watermarked images are shown. For objective analysis of proposed scheme in terms of imperceptibility, peak signal to noise ratio, structural similarity index, visual information fidelity and normalized color difference are used. Whereas, for objective analysis in terms of robustness, normalized correlation, bit error rate, normalized hamming distance and global authentication rate are used. Security is checked by using different keys to extract the watermark. The proposed schemes are compared with state-of-the-art watermarking techniques and found better performance as suggested by results.

  4. Analysis of Human's Motions Based on Local Mean Decomposition in Through-wall Radar Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Liu, Cai; Zeng, Zhaofa; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    Observation of human motions through a wall is an important issue in security applications and search-and rescue. Radar has advantages in looking through walls where other sensors give low performance or cannot be used at all. Ultrawideband (UWB) radar has high spatial resolution as a result of employment of ultranarrow pulses. It has abilities to distinguish the closely positioned targets and provide time-lapse information of targets. Moreover, the UWB radar shows good performance in wall penetration when the inherently short pulses spread their energy over a broad frequency range. Human's motions show periodic features including respiration, swing arms and legs, fluctuations of the torso. Detection of human targets is based on the fact that there is always periodic motion due to breathing or other body movements like walking. The radar can gain the reflections from each human body parts and add the reflections at each time sample. The periodic movements will cause micro-Doppler modulation in the reflected radar signals. Time-frequency analysis methods are consider as the effective tools to analysis and extract micro-Doppler effects caused by the periodic movements in the reflected radar signal, such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), wavelet transform (WT), and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT).The local mean decomposition (LMD), initially developed by Smith (2005), is to decomposed amplitude and frequency modulated signals into a small set of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a frequency modulated signal from which a time-vary instantaneous phase and instantaneous frequency can be derived. As bypassing the Hilbert transform, the LMD has no demodulation error coming from window effect and involves no negative frequency without physical sense. Also, the instantaneous attributes obtained by LMD are more stable and precise than those obtained by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) because LMD uses smoothed local

  5. Burning management in the tallgrass prairie affects root decomposition, soil food web structure and carbon flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, E. A.; Denef, K.; Milano de Tomasel, C.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Wall, D. H.

    2015-09-01

    Root litter decomposition is a major component of carbon (C) cycling in grasslands, where it provides energy and nutrients for soil microbes and fauna. This is especially important in grasslands where fire is a common management practice and removes aboveground litter accumulation. In this study, we investigated whether fire affects root decomposition and C flow through the belowground food web. In a greenhouse experiment, we applied 13C-enriched big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) root litter to intact tallgrass prairie soil cores collected from annually burned (AB) and infrequently burned (IB) treatments at the Konza Prairie Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Incorporation of 13C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids and nematode trophic groups was measured on six occasions during a 180-day decomposition study to determine how C was translocated through the soil food web. Results showed significantly different soil communities between treatments and higher microbial abundance for IB. Root decomposition occurred rapidly and was significantly greater for AB. Microbes and their nematode consumers immediately assimilated root litter C in both treatments. Root litter C was preferentially incorporated in a few groups of microbes and nematodes, but depended on burn treatment: fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungivore nematodes for AB and only omnivore nematodes for IB. The overall microbial pool of root litter-derived C significantly increased over time but was not significantly different between burn treatments. The nematode pool of root litter-derived C also significantly increased over time, and was significantly higher for the AB treatment at 35 and 90 days after litter addition. In conclusion, the C flow from root litter to microbes to nematodes is not only measurable, but significant, indicating that higher nematode trophic levels are critical components of C flow during root decomposition which, in turn, is significantly

  6. Hierarchical prediction of industrial water demand based on refined Laspeyres decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yizi; Lu, Shibao; Gong, Jiaguo; Shang, Ling; Li, Xiaofei; Wei, Yongping; Shi, Hongwang

    2017-12-01

    A recent study decomposed the changes in industrial water use into three hierarchies (output, technology, and structure) using a refined Laspeyres decomposition model, and found monotonous and exclusive trends in the output and technology hierarchies. Based on that research, this study proposes a hierarchical prediction approach to forecast future industrial water demand. Three water demand scenarios (high, medium, and low) were then established based on potential future industrial structural adjustments, and used to predict water demand for the structural hierarchy. The predictive results of this approach were compared with results from a grey prediction model (GPM (1, 1)). The comparison shows that the results of the two approaches were basically identical, differing by less than 10%. Taking Tianjin, China, as a case, and using data from 2003-2012, this study predicts that industrial water demand will continuously increase, reaching 580 million m 3 , 776.4 million m 3 , and approximately 1.09 billion m 3 by the years 2015, 2020 and 2025 respectively. It is concluded that Tianjin will soon face another water crisis if no immediate measures are taken. This study recommends that Tianjin adjust its industrial structure with water savings as the main objective, and actively seek new sources of water to increase its supply.

  7. Thermal decomposition of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.; Popovic, S.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of natural pyrite (cubic, FeS 2 ) has been investigated using X-ray diffraction and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis of pyrite ore from different sources showed the presence of associated minerals, such as quartz, szomolnokite, stilbite or stellerite, micas and hematite. Hematite, maghemite and pyrrhotite were detected as thermal decomposition products of natural pyrite. The phase composition of the thermal decomposition products depends on the terature, time of heating and starting size of pyrite chrystals. Hematite is the end product of the thermal decomposition of natural pyrite. (author) 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Vibrational Order, Structural Properties, and Optical Gap of ZnO Nanostructures Sintered through Thermal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Londono-Calderon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of different ZnO nanostructures by the thermal decomposition of zinc acetate is reported. Morphological changes from nanorods to nanoparticles are exhibited with the increase of the decomposition temperature from 300 to 500°C. The material showed a loss in the crystalline order with the increase in the temperature, which is correlated to the loss of oxygen due to the low heating rate used. Nanoparticles have a greater vibrational freedom than nanorods which is demonstrated in the rise of the main Raman mode E 2(high during the transformation. The energy band gap of the nanostructured material is lower than the ZnO bulk material and decreases with the rise in the temperature.

  9. Short-time maximum entropy method analysis of molecular dynamics simulation: Unimolecular decomposition of formic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Osamu; Nomura, Tetsuo; Tabayashi, Kiyohiko; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi

    2008-07-01

    We performed spectral analysis by using the maximum entropy method instead of the traditional Fourier transform technique to investigate the short-time behavior in molecular systems, such as the energy transfer between vibrational modes and chemical reactions. This procedure was applied to direct ab initio molecular dynamics calculations for the decomposition of formic acid. More reactive trajectories of dehydrolation than those of decarboxylation were obtained for Z-formic acid, which was consistent with the prediction of previous theoretical and experimental studies. Short-time maximum entropy method analyses were performed for typical reactive and non-reactive trajectories. Spectrograms of a reactive trajectory were obtained; these clearly showed the reactant, transient, and product regions, especially for the dehydrolation path.

  10. LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.

  11. Analysis of ZDDP Content and Thermal Decomposition in Motor Oils Using NAA and NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, S.; Johnson, J.; Gonzales, D.; Hobbs, C.; Allen, C.; Williams, S.

    Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) are one of the most common anti-wear additives present in commercially-available motor oils. The ZDDP concentrations of motor oils are most commonly determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). As part of an undergraduate research project, we have determined the Zn concentrations of eight commercially-available motor oils and one oil additive using neutron activation analysis (NAA), which has potential for greater accuracy and less sensitivity to matrix effects as compared to ICP-AES. The 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectra were also obtained for several oil additive samples which have been heated to various temperatures in order to study the thermal decomposition of ZDDPs.

  12. Water Complexes of Cytochrome P450: Insights from Energy Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Hirao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is a small molecule that nevertheless perturbs, sometimes significantly, the electronic properties of an enzyme’s active site. In this study, interactions of a water molecule with the ferric heme and the compound I (Cpd I intermediate of cytochrome P450 are studied. Energy decomposition analysis (EDA schemes are used to investigate the physical origins of these interactions. Localized molecular orbital EDA (LMOEDA implemented in the quantum chemistry software GAMESS and the EDA method implemented in the ADF quantum chemistry program are used. EDA reveals that the electrostatic and polarization effects act as the major driving force in both of these interactions. The hydrogen bonding in the Cpd I•••H2O complex is similar to that in the water dimer; however, the relative importance of the electrostatic effect is somewhat larger in the water dimer.

  13. Empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transforms for analysis of oil-film interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Kapil; Ng, Henry C H; Marusic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Oil-film interferometry is rapidly becoming the preferred method for direct measurement of wall shear stress in studies of wall-bounded turbulent flows. Although being widely accepted as the most accurate technique, it does have inherent measurement uncertainties, one of which is associated with determining the fringe spacing. This is the focus of this paper. Conventional analysis methods involve a certain level of user input and thus some subjectivity. In this paper, we consider empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert transform as an alternative tool for analyzing oil-film interferograms. In contrast to the commonly used Fourier-based techniques, this new method is less subjective and, as it is based on the Hilbert transform, is superior for treating amplitude and frequency modulated data. This makes it particularly robust to wide differences in the quality of interferograms

  14. Index decomposition analysis of residential energy consumption in China: 2002–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Hongguang; Kemp, René

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine residential energy use in China and predict household electricity use. • We decompose the dramatic increase of residential energy use in China. • Driving factors consist of population, floor space, energy mix and appliances. • Floor space per capita effect becomes increasingly important over time. • Electricity use from appliances will continue to rise despite a saturation. - Abstract: Residential energy consumption in China increased dramatically over the period of 2002–2010. In this paper, we undertake a decomposition analysis of changes in energy use by Chinese households for five energy-using activities: space heating/cooling, cooking, lighting and electric appliances. We investigate to what extent changes in energy use are due to changes from appliances and to change in floor space, population and energy mix. Our decomposition analysis is based on the logarithmic mean Divisia index technique using data from the China statistical yearbook and China energy statistical yearbook in the period of 2002–2010. According to our results, the increase in energy-using appliances is the biggest contributor to the increase of residential energy consumption during 2002–2010 but the effect declines over time, due to energy efficiency improvements in those appliances. The second most important contributor is floor space per capita, which increased with 28%. Of the four factors, population is the most stable factor and energy mix is the least important factor. We predicted electricity use, with the help of regression-based predictions for ownership of appliances and the energy efficiency of appliances. We found that electricity use will continue to rise despite a gradual saturation of demand

  15. Decomposition analysis of the variations in household electricity consumption in Brazil; Analise de decomposicao das variacoes no consumo de energia eletrica no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla da Costa Lopes

    2009-09-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this thesis, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The results obtained in a preliminary analysis point out, in a general way, that the observed variables in electricity consumption in the Brazilian residential sector are, mainly, the product of the increase in the number of consumers and the changes in the specific consumption of electricity in households. In a further analysis, carried out when the structure is given through consumers participation in consumption categories (Low Income and Conventional) taken from an overall point of view, although the intensity and activity effects may be considered the main explaining factors in consumption variation, the structure effect stands out in the period immediately after the 2001 rationing, as a reflect of the changes in the inclusion criteria in the Low Income category, specifically in the Northeast. (author)

  16. Kernel based pattern analysis methods using eigen-decompositions for reading Icelandic sagas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    We want to test the applicability of kernel based eigen-decomposition methods, compared to the traditional eigen-decomposition methods. We have implemented and tested three kernel based methods methods, namely PCA, MAF and MNF, all using a Gaussian kernel. We tested the methods on a multispectral...... image of a page in the book 'hauksbok', which contains Icelandic sagas....

  17. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  18. Decomposition analysis of the change of energy intensity of manufacturing industries in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chontanawat, Jaruwan; Wiboonchutikula, Paitoon; Buddhivanich, Atinat

    2014-01-01

    The study computes and analyses the sources of the change of energy intensity of the manufacturing industries in Thailand during the period (1991–2011) using the decomposition method. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index is computed and the results show that the energy intensity in the period (1991–2000) increased greatly from the increased energy intensity of each industry. In the more recent period (2000–2011) the energy intensity declined a little. However the decline was mainly from the structural change effect with negligible contribution from decreased energy intensity of each industry. The findings imply the need to balance industrial restructuring policies with efforts to reduce energy intensity for a sustainable economic development. Besides, there is much room for individual industries to improve their energy efficiency. Policies on restructuring energy prices and other non-price related measures should be devised to induce individual industries, particularly the highly energy intensive ones, to reduce their energy intensity. - Highlights: • Decomposing change of energy intensity of Thai manufacturing industries, 1991–2011. • 1991–2000 energy intensity rose due to increased energy intensity of each industry. • 2000–2011 energy intensity declined due mainly to the structural change effect. • Need to balance industrial restructuring policies to reduce energy intensity

  19. A new approach for crude oil price analysis based on empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xun; Wang, Shou-Yang; Lai, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of understanding the underlying characteristics of international crude oil price movements attracts much attention from academic researchers and business practitioners. Due to the intrinsic complexity of the oil market, however, most of them fail to produce consistently good results. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), recently proposed by Huang et al., appears to be a novel data analysis method for nonlinear and non-stationary time series. By decomposing a time series into a small number of independent and concretely implicational intrinsic modes based on scale separation, EMD explains the generation of time series data from a novel perspective. Ensemble EMD (EEMD) is a substantial improvement of EMD which can better separate the scales naturally by adding white noise series to the original time series and then treating the ensemble averages as the true intrinsic modes. In this paper, we extend EEMD to crude oil price analysis. First, three crude oil price series with different time ranges and frequencies are decomposed into several independent intrinsic modes, from high to low frequency. Second, the intrinsic modes are composed into a fluctuating process, a slowly varying part and a trend based on fine-to-coarse reconstruction. The economic meanings of the three components are identified as short term fluctuations caused by normal supply-demand disequilibrium or some other market activities, the effect of a shock of a significant event, and a long term trend. Finally, the EEMD is shown to be a vital technique for crude oil price analysis. (author)

  20. Study of I11-conditioning of Linac stereotactic irradiation subspaces using singular values decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platoni, K.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Grandjean, P.; Schlienger, M.

    1999-01-01

    A Linac sterotactic irradiation space is characterized by different angular separations of beams because of the geometry of the stereotactic irradiation. The regions of the stereotactic space characterized by low angular separations are one of the causes of ill-conditioning of the stereotactic irradiation inverse problem. The singular value decomposition (SVD) is a powerful mathematical analysis that permits the measurement of the ill-conditioning of the stereotactic irradiation problem. This study examines the ill-conditioning of the stereotactic irradiation space, provoked by the different angular separations of beams, using the SVD analysis. We subdivided the maximum irradiation space (MIS: (AA) AP x (AA) RL =180 x 180 ) into irradiation subspaces (ISSs), each characterized by its own angular separation. We studied the influence of ISSs on the SVD analysis and the evolution of the reconstruction quality of well defined three-dimensional dose matrices in each configuration. The more the ISS is characterized by low angular separation the more the condition number and the reconstruction inaccuracy are increased. Based on the above results we created two reduced irradiation spaces (RIS: (AA) AP x (AA) RL =180 x 140 and (AA) AP x (AA) RL =180 x 120 ) and compared the reconstruction quality of the RISs with respect to the MIS. The more an irradiation space is free of low angular separations the more the irradiation space contains useful singular components. (orig.)

  1. Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Signal Analysis and Efficient-Storage in Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Albright, Austin P [ORNL; Rahimpour, Alireza [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guo, Jiandong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Qi, Hairong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Yilu [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2017-01-01

    Wide-area-measurement systems (WAMSs) are used in smart grid systems to enable the efficient monitoring of grid dynamics. However, the overwhelming amount of data and the severe contamination from noise often impede the effective and efficient data analysis and storage of WAMS generated measurements. To solve this problem, we propose a novel framework that takes advantage of Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (MEMD), a fully data-driven approach to analyzing non-stationary signals, dubbed MEMD based Signal Analysis (MSA). The frequency measurements are considered as a linear superposition of different oscillatory components and noise. The low-frequency components, corresponding to the long-term trend and inter-area oscillations, are grouped and compressed by MSA using the mean shift clustering algorithm. Whereas, higher-frequency components, mostly noise and potentially part of high-frequency inter-area oscillations, are analyzed using Hilbert spectral analysis and they are delineated by statistical behavior. By conducting experiments on both synthetic and real-world data, we show that the proposed framework can capture the characteristics, such as trends and inter-area oscillation, while reducing the data storage requirements

  2. Decomposition Analysis of the Factors that Influence Energy Related Air Pollutant Emission Changes in China Using the SDA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We decompose factors affecting China’s energy-related air pollutant (NOx, PM2.5, and SO2 emission changes into different effects using structural decomposition analysis (SDA. We find that, from 2005 to 2012, investment increased NOx, PM2.5, and SO2 emissions by 14.04, 7.82 and 15.59 Mt respectively, and consumption increased these emissions by 11.09, 7.98, and 12.09 Mt respectively. Export and import slightly increased the emissions on the whole, but the rate of the increase has slowed down, possibly reflecting the shift in China’s foreign trade structure. Energy intensity largely reduced NOx, PM2.5, and SO2 emissions by 12.49, 14.33 and 23.06 Mt respectively, followed by emission efficiency that reduces these emissions by 4.57, 9.08, and 17.25 Mt respectively. Input-output efficiency slightly reduces the emissions. At sectoral and sub-sectoral levels, consumption is a great driving factor in agriculture and commerce, whereas investment is a great driving factor in transport, construction, and some industrial subsectors such as iron and steel, nonferrous metals, building materials, coking, and power and heating supply. Energy intensity increases emissions in transport, chemical products and manufacturing, but decreases emissions in all other sectors and subsectors. Some policies arising from our study results are discussed.

  3. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of plaster status at the U.S. Capitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignola, Joseph F.; Bucaro, Joseph A.; Tressler, James F.; Ellingston, Damon; Kurdila, Andrew J.; Adams, George; Marchetti, Barbara; Agnani, Alexia; Esposito, Enrico; Tomasini, Enrico P.

    2004-06-01

    A large-scale survey (~700 m2) of frescos and wall paintings was undertaken in the U.S. Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. to identify regions that may need structural repair due to detachment, delamination, or other defects. The survey encompassed eight pre-selected spaces including: Brumidi's first work at the Capitol building in the House Appropriations Committee room; the Parliamentarian's office; the House Speaker's office; the Senate Reception room; the President's Room; and three areas of the Brumidi Corridors. Roughly 60% of the area surveyed was domed or vaulted ceilings, the rest being walls. Approximately 250 scans were done ranging in size from 1 to 4 m2. The typical mesh density was 400 scan points per square meter. A common approach for post-processing time series called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, or POD, was adapted to frequency-domain data in order to extract the essential features of the structure. We present a POD analysis for one of these panels, pinpointing regions that have experienced severe substructural degradation.

  4. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Stefko, George L.; Riha, David S.; Thacker, Ben H.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is a general-purpose, probabilistic analysis program that computes probability of failure and probabilistic sensitivity measures of engineered systems. Because NASA/NESSUS uses highly computationally efficient and accurate analysis techniques, probabilistic solutions can be obtained even for extremely large and complex models. Once the probabilistic response is quantified, the results can be used to support risk-informed decisions regarding reliability for safety-critical and one-of-a-kind systems, as well as for maintaining a level of quality while reducing manufacturing costs for larger-quantity products. NASA/NESSUS has been successfully applied to a diverse range of problems in aerospace, gas turbine engines, biomechanics, pipelines, defense, weaponry, and infrastructure. This program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general-purpose structural analysis and lifting methods to compute the probabilistic response and reliability of engineered structures. Uncertainties in load, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include non-linear finite-element methods, heat-transfer analysis, polymer/ceramic matrix composite analysis, monolithic (conventional metallic) materials life-prediction methodologies, boundary element methods, and user-written subroutines. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is structured in a modular format with 15 elements.

  5. Photocatalytical Properties and Theoretical Analysis of N, Cd-Codoped TiO2 Synthesized by Thermal Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N, Cd-codoped TiO2 have been synthesized by thermal decomposition method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET specific surface area analysis, respectively. The products represented good performance in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The effect of the incorporation of N and Cd on electronic structure and optical properties of TiO2 was studied by first-principle calculations on the basis of density functional theory (DFT. The impurity states, introduced by N 2p or Cd 5d, lied between the valence band and the conduction band. Due to dopants, the band gap of N, Cd-codoped TiO2 became narrow. The electronic transition from the valence band to conduction band became easy, which could account for the observed photocatalytic performance of N, Cd-codoped TiO2. The theoretical analysis might provide a probable reference for the experimentally element-doped TiO2 synthesis.

  6. Combination of canonical correlation analysis and empirical mode decomposition applied to denoising the labor electrohysterogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Boudaoud, Sofiane; Terrien, Jérémy; Karlsson, Brynjar; Marque, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The electrohysterogram (EHG) is often corrupted by electronic and electromagnetic noise as well as movement artifacts, skeletal electromyogram, and ECGs from both mother and fetus. The interfering signals are sporadic and/or have spectra overlapping the spectra of the signals of interest rendering classical filtering ineffective. In the absence of efficient methods for denoising the monopolar EHG signal, bipolar methods are usually used. In this paper, we propose a novel combination of blind source separation using canonical correlation analysis (BSS_CCA) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) methods to denoise monopolar EHG. We first extract the uterine bursts by using BSS_CCA then the biggest part of any residual noise is removed from the bursts by EMD. Our algorithm, called CCA_EMD, was compared with wavelet filtering and independent component analysis. We also compared CCA_EMD with the corresponding bipolar signals to demonstrate that the new method gives signals that have not been degraded by the new method. The proposed method successfully removed artifacts from the signal without altering the underlying uterine activity as observed by bipolar methods. The CCA_EMD algorithm performed considerably better than the comparison methods.

  7. ALIF: A New Promising Technique for the Decomposition and Analysis of Nonlinear and Nonstationary Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicone, A.; Zhou, H.; Piersanti, M.; Materassi, M.; Spogli, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear and nonstationary signals are ubiquitous in real life. Their decomposition and analysis is of crucial importance in many research fields. Traditional techniques, like Fourier and wavelet Transform have been proved to be limited in this context. In the last two decades new kind of nonlinear methods have been developed which are able to unravel hidden features of these kinds of signals. In this poster we present a new method, called Adaptive Local Iterative Filtering (ALIF). This technique, originally developed to study mono-dimensional signals, unlike any other algorithm proposed so far, can be easily generalized to study two or higher dimensional signals. Furthermore, unlike most of the similar methods, it does not require any a priori assumption on the signal itself, so that the technique can be applied as it is to any kind of signals. Applications of ALIF algorithm to real life signals analysis will be presented. Like, for instance, the behavior of the water level near the coastline in presence of a Tsunami, length of the day signal, pressure measured at ground level on a global grid, radio power scintillation from GNSS signals,

  8. The Energy Footprint of China’s Textile Industry: Perspectives from Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the essential input for operations along the industrial manufacturing chain of textiles. China’s textile industry is facing great pressure on energy consumption reduction. This paper presents an analysis of the energy footprint (EFP of China’s textile industry from 1991 to 2015. The relationship between EFP and economic growth in the textile industry was investigated with a decoupling index approach. The logarithmic mean Divisia index approach was applied for decomposition analysis on how changes in key factors influenced the EFP of China’s textile industry. Results showed that the EFP of China’s textile industry increased from 41.1 Mt in 1991 to 99.6 Mt in 2015. EFP increased fastest in the period of 1996–2007, with an average annual increasing rate of 7.7 percent, especially from 2001 to 2007 (8.5 percent. Manufacture of textile sector consumed most (from 58 percent to 76 percent of the energy among the three sub-sectors, as it has lots of energy-intensive procedures. EFP and economic growth were in a relative decoupling state for most years of the researched period. Their relationship showed a clear tendency toward decoupling. Industrial scale was the most important factor that led to the increase of EFP, while decreasing energy intensity contributed significantly to reducing the EFP. The promoting effect of the factors was larger than the inhibiting effect on EFP in most years from 1991 to 2015.

  9. Denoising of chaotic signal using independent component analysis and empirical mode decomposition with circulate translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Bo, Wang; Xiao-Dong, Zhang; Yuchan, Chang; Xiang-Li, Wang; Zhao, Wang; Xi, Chen; Lei, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new method to reduce noises within chaotic signals based on ICA (independent component analysis) and EMD (empirical mode decomposition) is proposed. The basic idea is decomposing chaotic signals and constructing multidimensional input vectors, firstly, on the base of EMD and its translation invariance. Secondly, it makes the independent component analysis on the input vectors, which means that a self adapting denoising is carried out for the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of chaotic signals. Finally, all IMFs compose the new denoised chaotic signal. Experiments on the Lorenz chaotic signal composed of different Gaussian noises and the monthly observed chaotic sequence on sunspots were put into practice. The results proved that the method proposed in this paper is effective in denoising of chaotic signals. Moreover, it can correct the center point in the phase space effectively, which makes it approach the real track of the chaotic attractor. Project supported by the National Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012BAJ15B04), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41071270 and 61473213), the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2015CFB424), the State Key Laboratory Foundation of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, China (Grant No. SOED1405), the Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory Foundation of Metallurgical Industry Process System Science, China (Grant No. Z201303), and the Hubei Key Laboratory Foundation of Transportation Internet of Things, Wuhan University of Technology, China (Grant No.2015III015-B02).

  10. The Living Dead: Bacterial Community Structure of a Cadaver at the Onset and End of the Bloat Stage of Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Haarmann, Daniel P.; Lynne, Aaron M.; Bucheli, Sibyl R.; Petrosino, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphono...

  11. On the Structure Sensitivity of Direct NO Decomposition over Low-Index Transition Metal Facets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne; Shen, Juan; Khan, Tuhin Suvra

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the dissociative chemisorption of NO, O2, and N2 over close-packed, stepped, kinked, and open (fcc {111}, {211}, {311}, {532}, {100}, and {110}) transition metal facets using density functional theory (DFT). The offset of the Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations suggest......} rate. The ordering of the maximum activity over the facets is: {110} > {100} similar to {532} > {311} similar to {211} > {111}, which is in general agreement with the offset in the BEP relations. We show that the top-point location and shape of the volcano relations are approximately independent...... for generally obtaining quantitative agreement between theory and experiments is for the simulations to address in detail the propensities of the various types of active sites. Finally, we show that the ordering of NO decomposition rates among metals and facets is essentially unaltered when using BEP...

  12. 3D quantitative analysis of early decomposition changes of the human face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplova, Zuzana; Gibelli, Daniele Maria; Poppa, Pasquale; Cummaudo, Marco; Obertova, Zuzana; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    Decomposition of the human body and human face is influenced, among other things, by environmental conditions. The early decomposition changes that modify the appearance of the face may hamper the recognition and identification of the deceased. Quantitative assessment of those changes may provide important information for forensic identification. This report presents a pilot 3D quantitative approach of tracking early decomposition changes of a single cadaver in controlled environmental conditions by summarizing the change with weekly morphological descriptions. The root mean square (RMS) value was used to evaluate the changes of the face after death. The results showed a high correlation (r = 0.863) between the measured RMS and the time since death. RMS values of each scan are presented, as well as the average weekly RMS values. The quantification of decomposition changes could improve the accuracy of antemortem facial approximation and potentially could allow the direct comparisons of antemortem and postmortem 3D scans.

  13. Model-free method for isothermal and non-isothermal decomposition kinetics analysis of PET sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.; Maiti, A.K.; Ghoshal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis, one possible alternative to recover valuable products from waste plastics, has recently been the subject of renewed interest. In the present study, the isoconversion methods, i.e., Vyazovkin model-free approach is applied to study non-isothermal decomposition kinetics of waste PET samples using various temperature integral approximations such as Coats and Redfern, Gorbachev, and Agrawal and Sivasubramanian approximation and direct integration (recursive adaptive Simpson quadrature scheme) to analyze the decomposition kinetics. The results show that activation energy (E α ) is a weak but increasing function of conversion (α) in case of non-isothermal decomposition and strong and decreasing function of conversion in case of isothermal decomposition. This indicates possible existence of nucleation, nuclei growth and gas diffusion mechanism during non-isothermal pyrolysis and nucleation and gas diffusion mechanism during isothermal pyrolysis. Optimum E α dependencies on α obtained for non-isothermal data showed similar nature for all the types of temperature integral approximations

  14. Study of the decomposition of phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) by simultaneous thermal analysis: determination of kinetic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, P. N.; Pedroso, L. M.; Portugal, A. A.; Campos, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) has been extensively used both in explosive and propellant formulations. Unlike AN, there is a lack of information about the thermal decomposition and related kinetic analysis of phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN). Simultaneous thermal analysis (DSC-TG) has been used in the thermal characterisation of a specific type of PSAN containing 1.0% of NiO (stabilizing agent) and 0.5% of Petro (anti-caking agent) as additives. Repeated runs covering the nominal heating rate...

  15. Pattern decomposition and quantitative-phase analysis in pulsed neutron transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Santisteban, J.R.; Withers, P.J.; Edwards, L.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron diffraction methods provide accurate quantitative insight into material properties with applications ranging from fundamental physics to applied engineering research. Neutron radiography or tomography on the other hand, are useful tools in the non-destructive spatial imaging of materials or engineering components, but are less accurate with respect to any quantitative analysis. It is possible to combine the advantages of diffraction and radiography using pulsed neutron transmission in a novel way. Using a pixellated detector at a time-of-flight source it is possible to collect 2D 'images' containing a great deal of interesting information in the thermal regime. This together with the unprecedented intensities available at spallation sources and improvements in computing power allow for a re-assessment of the transmission methods. It opens the possibility of simultaneous imaging of diverse material properties such as strain or temperature, as well as the variation in attenuation, and can assist in the determination of phase volume fraction. Spatial and time resolution (for dynamic experiment) are limited only by the detector technology and the intensity of the source. In this example, phase information contained in the cross-section is extracted from Bragg edges using an approach similar to pattern decomposition

  16. Alternative definitions of the frozen energy in energy decomposition analysis of density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Paul R; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-02-28

    In energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of intermolecular interactions calculated via density functional theory, the initial supersystem wavefunction defines the so-called "frozen energy" including contributions such as permanent electrostatics, steric repulsions, and dispersion. This work explores the consequences of the choices that must be made to define the frozen energy. The critical choice is whether the energy should be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed density. Numerical results for Ne2, (H2O)2, BH3-NH3, and ethane dissociation show that there can be a large energy lowering associated with constant density orbital relaxation. By far the most important contribution is constant density inter-fragment relaxation, corresponding to charge transfer (CT). This is unwanted in an EDA that attempts to separate CT effects, but it may be useful in other contexts such as force field development. An algorithm is presented for minimizing single determinant energies at constant density both with and without CT by employing a penalty function that approximately enforces the density constraint.

  17. Electrochemical stability of organic electrolytes in supercapacitors: Spectroscopy and gas analysis of decomposition products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzweil, P.; Chwistek, M. [University of Applied Sciences, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring 23, D-92224 Amberg (Germany)

    2008-02-01

    The fundamental aging mechanisms in double-layer capacitors based on alkylammonium electrolytes in acetonitrile were clarified for the first time. After abusive testing at cell voltages above 4 V, ultracapacitors cast out a crystalline mass of residual electrolyte, organic acids, acetamide, aromatics, and polymer compounds. The mixture could be reproduced by electrolysis. The decomposition products of active carbon electrodes and electrolyte solution after a heat treatment at 70 C were identified by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, liquid and headspace GC-MS, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The alkylammonium cation is destroyed by the elimination of ethene. The fluoroborate anion works as source of fluoride and hydrogenfluoride, and boric acid derivates. Acetonitrile forms acetamide, acetic and fluoroacetic acid, and derivates thereof. Due to the catalytic activity of the electrode, heterocyclic compounds are generated in the liquid phase. The etched aluminium support under the active carbon layer is locally destroyed by fluorination. Exploring novel electrolytes, ionic liquids were characterized by impedance spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Investigating properties of the cardiovascular system using innovative analysis algorithms based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Yun; Sun, Wei-Zen; Abbod, Maysam F; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular system is known to be nonlinear and nonstationary. Traditional linear assessments algorithms of arterial stiffness and systemic resistance of cardiac system accompany the problem of nonstationary or inconvenience in practical applications. In this pilot study, two new assessment methods were developed: the first is ensemble empirical mode decomposition based reflection index (EEMD-RI) while the second is based on the phase shift between ECG and BP on cardiac oscillation. Both methods utilise the EEMD algorithm which is suitable for nonlinear and nonstationary systems. These methods were used to investigate the properties of arterial stiffness and systemic resistance for a pig's cardiovascular system via ECG and blood pressure (BP). This experiment simulated a sequence of continuous changes of blood pressure arising from steady condition to high blood pressure by clamping the artery and an inverse by relaxing the artery. As a hypothesis, the arterial stiffness and systemic resistance should vary with the blood pressure due to clamping and relaxing the artery. The results show statistically significant correlations between BP, EEMD-based RI, and the phase shift between ECG and BP on cardiac oscillation. The two assessments results demonstrate the merits of the EEMD for signal analysis.

  19. A Posteriori Analysis of Adaptive Multiscale Operator Decomposition Methods for Multiphysics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Estep; Michael Holst; Simon Tavener

    2010-02-08

    This project was concerned with the accurate computational error estimation for numerical solutions of multiphysics, multiscale systems that couple different physical processes acting across a large range of scales relevant to the interests of the DOE. Multiscale, multiphysics models are characterized by intimate interactions between different physics across a wide range of scales. This poses significant computational challenges addressed by the proposal, including: (1) Accurate and efficient computation; (2) Complex stability; and (3) Linking different physics. The research in this project focused on Multiscale Operator Decomposition methods for solving multiphysics problems. The general approach is to decompose a multiphysics problem into components involving simpler physics over a relatively limited range of scales, and then to seek the solution of the entire system through some sort of iterative procedure involving solutions of the individual components. MOD is a very widely used technique for solving multiphysics, multiscale problems; it is heavily used throughout the DOE computational landscape. This project made a major advance in the analysis of the solution of multiscale, multiphysics problems.

  20. Identifying the oil price-macroeconomy relationship. An empirical mode decomposition analysis of US data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to filter cyclical components of US quarterly gross domestic product (GDP) and quarterly average oil price (West Texas Intermediate - WTI). The method is adaptive and applicable to non-linear and non-stationary data. A correlation analysis of the resulting components is performed and examined for insights into the relationship between oil and the economy. Several components of this relationship are identified. However, the principal one is that the medium-run component of the oil price has a negative relationship with the main cyclical component of the GDP. In addition, weak correlations suggesting a lagging, demand-driven component and a long-run component of the relationship were also identified. Comparisons of these findings with significant oil supply disruption and recession dates were supportive. The study identifies a number of lessons applicable to recent oil market events, including the eventuality of persistent oil price and economic decline following a long oil price run-up. In addition, it was found that oil market related exogenous events are associated with short- to medium-run price implications regardless of whether they lead to actual supply losses. (author)

  1. Singular value decomposition based feature extraction technique for physiological signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ding; Wang, Chien-Chih; Jiang, Bernard C

    2012-06-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) is one of the popular techniques to calculate and describe the complexity of the physiological signal. Many studies use this approach to detect changes in the physiological conditions in the human body. However, MSE results are easily affected by noise and trends, leading to incorrect estimation of MSE values. In this paper, singular value decomposition (SVD) is adopted to replace MSE to extract the features of physiological signals, and adopt the support vector machine (SVM) to classify the different physiological states. A test data set based on the PhysioNet website was used, and the classification results showed that using SVD to extract features of the physiological signal could attain a classification accuracy rate of 89.157%, which is higher than that using the MSE value (71.084%). The results show the proposed analysis procedure is effective and appropriate for distinguishing different physiological states. This promising result could be used as a reference for doctors in diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) disease.

  2. Acoustics flow analysis in circular duct using sound intensity and dynamic mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyna, S

    2014-01-01

    Sound intensity generation in hard-walled duct with acoustic flow (no mean-flow) is treated experimentally and shown graphically. In paper, numerous methods of visualization illustrating the vortex flow (2D, 3D) can graphically explain diffraction and scattering phenomena occurring inside the duct and around open end area. Sound intensity investigation in annular duct gives a physical picture of sound waves in any duct mode. In the paper, modal energy analysis are discussed with particular reference to acoustics acoustic orthogonal decomposition (AOD). The image of sound intensity fields before and above 'cut-off' frequency region are found to compare acoustic modes which might resonate in duct. The experimental results show also the effects of axial and swirling flow. However acoustic field is extremely complicated, because pressures in non-propagating (cut-off) modes cooperate with the particle velocities in propagating modes, and vice versa. Measurement in cylindrical duct demonstrates also the cut-off phenomenon and the effect of reflection from open end. The aim of experimental study was to obtain information on low Mach number flows in ducts in order to improve physical understanding and validate theoretical CFD and CAA models that still may be improved.

  3. Fault feature extraction method based on local mean decomposition Shannon entropy and improved kernel principal component analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlu Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To effectively extract the typical features of the bearing, a new method that related the local mean decomposition Shannon entropy and improved kernel principal component analysis model was proposed. First, the features are extracted by time–frequency domain method, local mean decomposition, and using the Shannon entropy to process the original separated product functions, so as to get the original features. However, the features been extracted still contain superfluous information; the nonlinear multi-features process technique, kernel principal component analysis, is introduced to fuse the characters. The kernel principal component analysis is improved by the weight factor. The extracted characteristic features were inputted in the Morlet wavelet kernel support vector machine to get the bearing running state classification model, bearing running state was thereby identified. Cases of test and actual were analyzed.

  4. Contribution of price/expenditure factors of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zengming; Zhao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis about energy prices and the residential expenditure on energy in China. • Though the prices of energy declined, the price effect was negative. • The effect of price was the strongest restraining contribution. • Discussion on the proportion of energy expenditure in residential incomes. - Abstract: Since the establishment of the market economy in 1993, the residential consumption of commodities, including energy, has been highly influenced by prices in China. However, the contribution of the factors related to prices in residential energy consumption is relatively unexplored. This paper extends the KAYA identity with price and expenditure factors and then applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011. Our results show the following: (1) Though the prices of a majority of residential energy sources in China declined, the effect of energy prices restrained residential energy consumption because the expenditure structure changed during the period. (2) During the research period, the urban energy expenditure proportion experienced two progresses of rising and falling, and the rural proportion, which was stable before 2002, sharply increased. (3) The energy consumption intensity effect, which is the negative of the average energy price effect, contributed to most of the decrease in energy consumption, whereas residential income played a key role in the growth of consumption. According to the conclusions, we suggest further marketization and deregulation of energy prices, the promotion of advanced energy types and guidance for better energy consumption patterns

  5. Energy Decomposition Analysis Based on Absolutely Localized Molecular Orbitals for Large-Scale Density Functional Theory Calculations in Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, M J S; Fox, T; Tautermann, C S; Skylaris, C-K

    2016-07-12

    We report the development and implementation of an energy decomposition analysis (EDA) scheme in the ONETEP linear-scaling electronic structure package. Our approach is hybrid as it combines the localized molecular orbital EDA (Su, P.; Li, H. J. Chem. Phys., 2009, 131, 014102) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital EDA (Khaliullin, R. Z.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 8753-8765) to partition the intermolecular interaction energy into chemically distinct components (electrostatic, exchange, correlation, Pauli repulsion, polarization, and charge transfer). Limitations shared in EDA approaches such as the issue of basis set dependence in polarization and charge transfer are discussed, and a remedy to this problem is proposed that exploits the strictly localized property of the ONETEP orbitals. Our method is validated on a range of complexes with interactions relevant to drug design. We demonstrate the capabilities for large-scale calculations with our approach on complexes of thrombin with an inhibitor comprised of up to 4975 atoms. Given the capability of ONETEP for large-scale calculations, such as on entire proteins, we expect that our EDA scheme can be applied in a large range of biomolecular problems, especially in the context of drug design.

  6. A highly efficient autothermal microchannel reactor for ammonia decomposition: Analysis of hydrogen production in transient and steady-state regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Nicolaas; Chiuta, Steven; Bessarabov, Dmitri G.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental evaluation of an autothermal microchannel reactor for H2 production from NH3 decomposition is described. The reactor design incorporates an autothermal approach, with added NH3 oxidation, for coupled heat supply to the endothermic decomposition reaction. An alternating catalytic plate arrangement is used to accomplish this thermal coupling in a cocurrent flow strategy. Detailed analysis of the transient operating regime associated with reactor start-up and steady-state results is presented. The effects of operating parameters on reactor performance are investigated, specifically, the NH3 decomposition flow rate, NH3 oxidation flow rate, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio. Overall, the reactor exhibits rapid response time during start-up; within 60 min, H2 production is approximately 95% of steady-state values. The recommended operating point for steady-state H2 production corresponds to an NH3 decomposition flow rate of 6 NL min-1, NH3 oxidation flow rate of 4 NL min-1, and fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio of 1.4. Under these flows, NH3 conversion of 99.8% and H2 equivalent fuel cell power output of 0.71 kWe is achieved. The reactor shows good heat utilization with a thermal efficiency of 75.9%. An efficient autothermal reactor design is therefore demonstrated, which may be upscaled to a multi-kW H2 production system for commercial implementation.

  7. Detection of Copper (II) and Cadmium (II) binding to dissolved organic matter from macrophyte decomposition by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra combined with parallel factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Dong-hai; Guo, Xu-jing; Wen, Li; He, Lian-sheng; Wang, Jing-gang; Li, Jun-qi

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from macrophyte decomposition, and to study its complexation with Cu (II) and Cd (II). Both the protein-like and the humic-like components showed a marked quenching effect by Cu (II). Negligible quenching effects were found for Cd (II) by components 1, 5 and 6. The stability constants and the fraction of the binding fluorophores for humic-like components and Cu (II) can be influenced by macrophyte decomposition of various weight gradients in aquatic plants. Macrophyte decomposition within the scope of the appropriate aquatic phytomass can maximize the stability constant of DOM-metal complexes. A large amount of organic matter was introduced into the aquatic environment by macrophyte decomposition, suggesting that the potential risk of DOM as a carrier of heavy metal contamination in macrophytic lakes should not be ignored. - Highlights: • Macrophyte decomposition increases fluorescent DOM components in the upper sediment. • Protein-like components are quenched or enhanced by adding Cu (II) and Cd (II). • Macrophyte decomposition DOM can impact the affinity of Cu (II) and Cd (II). • The log K M and f values showed a marked change due to macrophyte decomposition. • Macrophyte decomposition can maximize the stability constant of DOM-Cu (II) complexes. - Macrophyte decomposition DOM can influence on the binding affinity of metal ions in macrophytic lakes

  8. Sources of energy productivity change in China during 1997–2012: A decomposition analysis based on the Luenberger productivity indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Given that different energy inputs play different roles in production and that energy policy decision making requires an evaluation of productivity change in individual energy input to provide insight into the scope for improvement of the utilization of specific energy input, this study develops, based on the Luenberger productivity indicator and data envelopment analysis models, an aggregated specific energy productivity indicator combining the individual energy input productivity indicators that account for the contributions of each specific energy input toward energy productivity change. In addition, these indicators can be further decomposed into four factors: pure efficiency change, scale efficiency change, pure technology change, and scale of technology change. These decompositions enable a determination of which specific energy input is the driving force of energy productivity change and which of the four factors is the primary contributor of energy productivity change. An empirical analysis of China's energy productivity change over the period 1997–2012 indicates that (i) China's energy productivity growth may be overestimated if energy consumption structure is omitted; (ii) in regard to the contribution of specific energy input toward energy productivity growth, oil and electricity show positive contributions, but coal and natural gas show negative contributions; (iii) energy-specific productivity changes are mainly caused by technical changes rather than efficiency changes; and (iv) the Porter Hypothesis is partially supported in China that carbon emissions control regulations may lead to energy productivity growth. - Highlights: • An energy input specific Luenberger productivity indicator is proposed. • It enables to examine the contribution of specific energy input productivity change. • It can be decomposed for identifying pure and scale efficiency changes, as well as pure and scale technical changes. • China's energy productivity growth may

  9. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal over-determined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps...

  10. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal overdetermined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps....

  11. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    , by the implementation of the Simpy tool box. This is an object oriented system implemented in the Python language. It can be used for analysis of DAEs, ODEs and non-linear equation and uses e.g. symbolic representations of expressions and equations. The presentations of theory and algorithms for structural index......Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE...... analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since it e.g. proves...

  12. An ill-conditioning conformal radiotherapy analysis based on singular values decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefkopoulos, D.; Grandjean, P.; Bendada, S.; Dominique, C.; Platoni, K.; Schlienger, M.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical experience in stereotactic radiotherapy of irregular complex lesions had shown that optimization algorithms were necessary to improve the dose distribution. We have developed a general optimization procedure which can be applied to different conformal irradiation techniques. In this presentation this procedure is tested on the stereotactic radiotherapy modality of complex cerebral lesions treated with multi-isocentric technique based on the 'associated targets methodology'. In this inverse procedure we use the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis which proposes several optimal solutions for the narrow beams weights of each isocentre. The SVD analysis quantifies the ill-conditioning of the dosimetric calculation of the stereotactic irradiation, using the condition number which is the ratio of the bigger to smaller singular values. Our dose distribution optimization approach consists on the study of the irradiation parameters influence on the stereotactic radiotherapy inverse problem. The adjustment of the different irradiation parameters into the 'SVD optimizer' procedure is realized taking into account the ratio of the quality reconstruction to the time calculation. It will permit a more efficient use of the 'SVD optimizer' in clinical applications for real 3D lesions. The evaluation criteria for the choice of satisfactory solutions are based on the dose-volume histograms and clinical considerations. We will present the efficiency of ''SVD optimizer'' to analyze and predict the ill-conditioning in stereotactic radiotherapy and to recognize the topography of the different beams in order to create optimal reconstructed weighting vector. The planification of stereotactic treatments using the ''SVD optimizer'' is examined for mono-isocentrically and complex dual-isocentrically treated lesions. The application of the SVD optimization technique provides conformal dose distribution for complex intracranial lesions. It is a general optimization procedure

  13. Structural characteristics of mixed oxides MOx/SiO2 affecting photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun’ko, V.M.; Blitz, J.P.; Bandaranayake, B.; Pakhlov, E.M.; Zarko, V.I.; Sulym, I.Ya.; Kulyk, K.S.; Galaburda, M.V.; Bogatyrev, V.M.; Oranska, O.I.; Borysenko, M.V.; Leboda, R.; Skubiszewska-Zięba, J.; Janush, W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of photocatalysts based on silica (nanoparticulate) supported titania, ceria, and ceria/zirconia were synthesized and characterized by a variety of techniques including surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, surface charge density, and photocatalytic behavior toward methylene blue decomposition. Thermal treatment at 600 °C increases the anatase content of the titania based catalysts detected by XRD. Changes in the infrared spectra before and after thermal treatment indicate that at low temperature there are more ≡Si-O-Ti≡ bonds than at high temperature. As these bonds break upon heating the SiO 2 and TiO 2 separate, allowing the TiO 2 anatase phase to form. This results in an increased catalytic activity for the thermally treated samples. Nearly all titania based samples exhibit a negative surface charge density at pH 7 (initial pH of photocatalytic studies) which aids adsorption of methylene blue. The crystallinity of ceria and ceria/zirconia based catalysts are in some cases limited, and in others non-existent. Even though the energy band gap (E g ) can be lower for these catalysts than for the titania based catalysts, their photocatalytic properties are inferior.

  14. Projection of energy demand of the agricultural sector of Mato Grosso using the model of structural decomposition; Projecao da demanda energetica do setor agropecuario de Mato Grosso utilizando o modelo de decomposicao estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    Agriculture in Mato Grosso is, currently, the main responsible for the high economic growth of the state's economy, sustaining population in rural areas and pushing industrialization. Around 30% of the state's GDP is provided by this sector. A retrospective analysis of the evolution of the economic and energy consumption related parameters involved in the structural decomposition forecasting model precedes, in this paper, a prospective analysis, up to the year 2012, using this model, of energy consumption in this sector in the State. The energy demand forecasts follow a structure of macro economic scenarios which correspond to several possibilities of the local GDP growth. (author)

  15. Structural System Identification with Extended Kalman Filter and Orthogonal Decomposition of Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the structural parameter and external excitation have coupling influence on structural response. A new system identification method in time domain is proposed to simultaneously evaluate structural parameter and external excitation. The method can be used for linear and hysteresis nonlinear structural condition assessment based on incomplete structural responses. In this method, the structural excitation is decomposed by orthogonal approximation. With this approximation, the strongly time-variant excitation identification is transformed to gentle time-variant, even constant parameters identification. Then the extended Kalman filter is applied to simultaneously identify state vector including the structural parameters and excitation orthogonal parameters in state space based on incomplete measurements. The proposed method is validated numerically with the simulation of three-story linear and nonlinear structures subject to external force. The external force on the top floor and the structural parameters are simultaneously identified with the proposed system identification method. Results from both simulations indicate that the proposed method is capable of identifing the dynamic load and structural parameters fairly accurately with contaminated incomplete measurement for both of the linear and nonlinear structural systems.

  16. Thermal and X-ray diffraction analysis studies during the decomposition of ammonium uranyl nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B H; Lee, Y B; Prelas, M A; Ghosh, T K

    Two types of ammonium uranyl nitrate (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·2H 2 O and NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 , were thermally decomposed and reduced in a TG-DTA unit in nitrogen, air, and hydrogen atmospheres. Various intermediate phases produced by the thermal decomposition and reduction process were investigated by an X-ray diffraction analysis and a TG/DTA analysis. Both (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·2H 2 O and NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 decomposed to amorphous UO 3 regardless of the atmosphere used. The amorphous UO 3 from (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·2H 2 O was crystallized to γ-UO 3 regardless of the atmosphere used without a change in weight. The amorphous UO 3 obtained from decomposition of NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 was crystallized to α-UO 3 under a nitrogen and air atmosphere, and to β-UO 3 under a hydrogen atmosphere without a change in weight. Under each atmosphere, the reaction paths of (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·2H 2 O and NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 were as follows: under a nitrogen atmosphere: (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·2H 2 O → (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·H 2 O → (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4  → NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3  → A-UO 3  → γ-UO 3  → U 3 O 8 , NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3  → A-UO 3  → α-UO 3  → U 3 O 8 ; under an air atmosphere: (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·2H 2 O → (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·H 2 O → (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4  → NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3  → A-UO 3  → γ-UO 3  → U 3 O 8 , NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3  → A-UO 3  → α-UO 3  → U 3 O 8 ; and under a hydrogen atmosphere: (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·2H 2 O → (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·H 2 O → (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4  → NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3  → A-UO 3  → γ-UO 3  → α-U 3 O 8  → UO 2 , NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3  → A-UO 3  → β-UO 3  → α-U 3 O 8  → UO 2 .

  17. Modal analysis of fluid flows using variants of proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Clarence; Dawson, Scott

    2017-11-01

    This talk gives an overview of several methods for analyzing fluid flows, based on variants of proper orthogonal decomposition. These methods may be used to determine simplified, approximate models that capture the essential features of these flows, in order to better understand the dominant physical mechanisms, and potentially to develop appropriate strategies for model-based flow control. We discuss balanced proper orthogonal decomposition as an approximation of balanced truncation, and explain connections with system identification methods such as the eigensystem realization algorithm. We demonstrate the methods on several canonical examples, including a linearized channel flow and the flow past a circular cylinder. Supported by AFOSR, Grant FA9550-14-1-0289.

  18. Inequality in early childhood neurodevelopment in six poor rural counties of China: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuihong; Zhao, Chunxia; Liu, Xiangyu; Wei, Qianwei; Luo, Shusheng; Guo, Sufang; Zhang, Jingxu; Wang, Xiaoli; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2017-12-08

    Previous studies about inequality in children's health focused more on physical health than the neurodevelopment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inequality in early childhood neurodevelopment in poor rural China and explore the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the inequality. Information of 2120 children aged 0 to 35 months and their households in six poor rural counties of China was collected during July - September, 2013. Age and Stages Questionnaire-Chinese version, concentration index and decomposition analysis were used to assess the neurodevelopment of early childhood, measure its inequality and evaluate the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the inequality, respectively. The prevalence of suspected developmental delay in children under 35 months of age in six poor rural counties of China was nearly 40%, with the concentration index of -0.0877. Household economic status, caregivers' depressive symptoms, learning material and family support for learning were significantly associated with children's suspected developmental delay, and explained 34.1, 14.1, 8.9 and 7.0% of the inequality in early childhood neurodevelopment, respectively. The early childhood neurodevelopment in the surveyed area is poor and unfair. Factors including household economic status, caregivers' depressive symptoms, learning material and family support for learning are significantly associated with children's suspected developmental delay and early developmental inequality. The results highlight the urgent need of monitoring child neurodevelopment in poor rural areas. Interventions targeting the caregivers' depressive symptoms, providing learning material and developmental appropriate stimulating activities may help improve early childhood neurodevelopment and reduce its inequality.

  19. Temporal associations between weather and headache: analysis by empirical mode decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert C Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients frequently report that weather changes trigger headache or worsen existing headache symptoms. Recently, the method of empirical mode decomposition (EMD has been used to delineate temporal relationships in certain diseases, and we applied this technique to identify intrinsic weather components associated with headache incidence data derived from a large-scale epidemiological survey of headache in the Greater Taipei area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study sample consisted of 52 randomly selected headache patients. The weather time-series parameters were detrended by the EMD method into a set of embedded oscillatory components, i.e. intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Multiple linear regression models with forward stepwise methods were used to analyze the temporal associations between weather and headaches. We found no associations between the raw time series of weather variables and headache incidence. For decomposed intrinsic weather IMFs, temperature, sunshine duration, humidity, pressure, and maximal wind speed were associated with headache incidence during the cold period, whereas only maximal wind speed was associated during the warm period. In analyses examining all significant weather variables, IMFs derived from temperature and sunshine duration data accounted for up to 33.3% of the variance in headache incidence during the cold period. The association of headache incidence and weather IMFs in the cold period coincided with the cold fronts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using EMD analysis, we found a significant association between headache and intrinsic weather components, which was not detected by direct comparisons of raw weather data. Contributing weather parameters may vary in different geographic regions and different seasons.

  20. Cognitive costs of decision-making strategies: A resource demand decomposition analysis with a cognitive architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Hanna B; Schooler, Lael J; Pachur, Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    Several theories of cognition distinguish between strategies that differ in the mental effort that their use requires. But how can the effort-or cognitive costs-associated with a strategy be conceptualized and measured? We propose an approach that decomposes the effort a strategy requires into the time costs associated with the demands for using specific cognitive resources. We refer to this approach as resource demand decomposition analysis (RDDA) and instantiate it in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R). ACT-R provides the means to develop computer simulations of the strategies. These simulations take into account how strategies interact with quantitative implementations of cognitive resources and incorporate the possibility of parallel processing. Using this approach, we quantified, decomposed, and compared the time costs of two prominent strategies for decision making, take-the-best and tallying. Because take-the-best often ignores information and foregoes information integration, it has been considered simpler than strategies like tallying. However, in both ACT-R simulations and an empirical study we found that under increasing cognitive demands the response times (i.e., time costs) of take-the-best sometimes exceeded those of tallying. The RDDA suggested that this pattern is driven by greater requirements for working memory updates, memory retrievals, and the coordination of mental actions when using take-the-best compared to tallying. The results illustrate that assessing the relative simplicity of strategies requires consideration of the overall cognitive system in which the strategies are embedded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polar decomposition of the Mueller matrix: a polarimetric rule of thumb for square-profile surface structure recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J M; Saiz, J M; González, F; Moreno, F

    2011-07-20

    In this research, the polar decomposition (PD) method is applied to experimental Mueller matrices (MMs) measured on two-dimensional microstructured surfaces. Polarization information is expressed through a set of parameters of easier physical interpretation. It is shown that evaluating the first derivative of the retardation parameter, δ, a clear indication of the presence of defects either built on or dug in the scattering flat surface (a silicon wafer in our case) can be obtained. Although the rule of thumb thus obtained is established through PD, it can be easily implemented on conventional surface polarimetry. These results constitute an example of the capabilities of the PD approach to MM analysis, and show a direct application in surface characterization. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. Energy saving analysis and management modeling based on index decomposition analysis integrated energy saving potential method: Application to complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Zhiqiang; Gao, Huachao; Wang, Yanqing; Han, Yongming; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The integrated framework that combines IDA with energy-saving potential method is proposed. • Energy saving analysis and management framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. • This proposed method is efficient in energy optimization and carbon emissions of complex chemical processes. - Abstract: Energy saving and management of complex chemical processes play a crucial role in the sustainable development procedure. In order to analyze the effect of the technology, management level, and production structure having on energy efficiency and energy saving potential, this paper proposed a novel integrated framework that combines index decomposition analysis (IDA) with energy saving potential method. The IDA method can obtain the level of energy activity, energy hierarchy and energy intensity effectively based on data-drive to reflect the impact of energy usage. The energy saving potential method can verify the correctness of the improvement direction proposed by the IDA method. Meanwhile, energy efficiency improvement, energy consumption reduction and energy savings can be visually discovered by the proposed framework. The demonstration analysis of ethylene production has verified the practicality of the proposed method. Moreover, we can obtain the corresponding improvement for the ethylene production based on the demonstration analysis. The energy efficiency index and the energy saving potential of these worst months can be increased by 6.7% and 7.4%, respectively. And the carbon emissions can be reduced by 7.4–8.2%.

  3. First-principles and thermodynamic analysis of trimethylgallium (TMG) decomposition during MOVPE growth of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Shirakawa, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Araidai, M.; Kangawa, Y.; Kakimoto, K.; Shiraishi, K.

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed the decomposition mechanisms of trimethylgallium (TMG) used for the gallium source of GaN fabrication based on first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analysis. We considered two conditions. One condition is under the total pressure of 1 atm and the other one is under metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of GaN. Our calculated results show that H2 is indispensable for TMG decomposition under both conditions. In GaN MOVPE, TMG with H2 spontaneously decomposes into Ga(CH3) and Ga(CH3) decomposes into Ga atom gas when temperature is higher than 440 K. From these calculations, we confirmed that TMG surely becomes Ga atom gas near the GaN substrate surfaces.

  4. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S; Chen, Y; Huang, N E; Wu, Z; Peng, C-K

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven

  5. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption for an freeway during its operation period: A case study for Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, DuoQi; Wang, DuanYi

    2016-01-01

    Freeways have become the main subject of energy conservation reviews in China because of their large energy consumption. Decomposition analysis has been widely applied in energy consumption studies. However, most studies have only analyzed the driving forces of energy consumption on the national level, and seldom at smaller levels, e.g. for departments like toll stations and maintenance centers. Based on the characteristics of the freeway operation period, this paper serves as a preliminary attempt at applying the logarithm mean Divisia index method I on the department level to analyze the energy consumption of freeways during the operation period. To elucidate the evolution of energy consumption during the operational period, the logarithm mean Divisia index analysis was performed to disentangle the energy consumption based on a real case in Guangdong from 2005 to 2013. The analyses establish that the traffic volume influences energy consumption. The results show that some departments can influence the total energy consumption. For example, the tunnels and toll stations are key factors that influence the total energy consumption of the whole road. The decomposition in the departments revealed that energy efficiency improvements caused by the use of alternate materials and energy-saving technologies mainly contributed to energy conservation. - Highlights: • Decomposition model was used to analyze energy consumption of freeway management. • This attempt finds the impact of traffic volume on management energy consumption. • Tunnels and toll stations mainly affect the management energy consumption. • Using alternate materials and energy-saving technology improved energy efficiency.

  6. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Far-East Road, Chung-Li, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y [Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Huang, N E [Research Center for Adaptive Data Analysis, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Z [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (United States); Peng, C-K [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School (United States)], E-mail: s939205@ mail.yzu.edu.tw

    2008-02-15

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven.

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of industrial CO{sub 2} emission (1989-2004) in Taiwan by input-output structural decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yih F. [Department of Tourism and Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717 (China); Lewis, Charles [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Lin, Sue J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China)

    2008-07-15

    Taiwan currently emits approximately 1% of the world's CO{sub 2} - ranking it 22nd among nations. Herein, we use the input-output (I-O) structural decomposition method to examine the changes in CO{sub 2} emission over a 15-year period. By decomposing the CO{sub 2} emission changes into nine factors for the periods of 1989-1994, 1994-1999, and 1999-2004, we have identified the key factors causing the emission changes, as well as the most important trends regarding the industrial development process in Taiwan. The 5-year increment with the largest increase of CO{sub 2} emission was that of 1999-2004, due to the rapid increase of electricity consumption. From the decomposition, the industrial energy coefficient and the CO{sub 2} emission factors were identified as the most important parameters for the determination of the highway, petrochemical materials, iron and steel, the commercial sector, and electric machinery as the major sources of increased CO{sub 2} emission during the past 15 years. From 1989 to 2004, the level of exports and the level of domestic final demand were the largest contributors to the increase in the total increment of CO{sub 2} change. During 1989-2004, the industrial energy coefficient and CO{sub 2} emission factors, being minimally significant during 1989-1994, became extremely important, joining the domestic final demand and the level of exports factors as the major causes of the increase increment of CO{sub 2}. This indicates a heavy reliance upon high-energy (and CO{sub 2}) intensity for Taiwanese industries; therefore, continuous efforts to improve energy intensity and fuel mix toward lower carbon are important for CO{sub 2} reduction, especially for the electricity and power generation sectors. Relevant strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from major industries are also highlighted. (author)

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of industrial CO2 emission (1989-2004) in Taiwan by input-output structural decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yih F.; Lewis, Charles; Lin, Sue J.

    2008-01-01

    Taiwan currently emits approximately 1% of the world's CO 2 - ranking it 22nd among nations. Herein, we use the input-output (I-O) structural decomposition method to examine the changes in CO 2 emission over a 15-year period. By decomposing the CO 2 emission changes into nine factors for the periods of 1989-1994, 1994-1999, and 1999-2004, we have identified the key factors causing the emission changes, as well as the most important trends regarding the industrial development process in Taiwan. The 5-year increment with the largest increase of CO 2 emission was that of 1999-2004, due to the rapid increase of electricity consumption. From the decomposition, the industrial energy coefficient and the CO 2 emission factors were identified as the most important parameters for the determination of the highway, petrochemical materials, iron and steel, the commercial sector, and electric machinery as the major sources of increased CO 2 emission during the past 15 years. From 1989 to 2004, the level of exports and the level of domestic final demand were the largest contributors to the increase in the total increment of CO 2 change. During 1989-2004, the industrial energy coefficient and CO 2 emission factors, being minimally significant during 1989-1994, became extremely important, joining the domestic final demand and the level of exports factors as the major causes of the increase increment of CO 2 . This indicates a heavy reliance upon high-energy (and CO 2 ) intensity for Taiwanese industries; therefore, continuous efforts to improve energy intensity and fuel mix toward lower carbon are important for CO 2 reduction, especially for the electricity and power generation sectors. Relevant strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from major industries are also highlighted. (author)

  9. Analysis of local ionospheric time varying characteristics with singular value decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Anders; Knudsen, Per; Jensen, Anna B. O.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a time series from 1999 to 2007 of absolute total electron content (TEC) values has been computed and analyzed using singular value decomposition (SVD). The data set has been computed using a Kalman Filter and is based on dual frequency GPS data from three reference stations in Den...

  10. [Analysis of the bacterial community developing in the course of Sphagnum moss decomposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaia, I S; Belova, S E; Kevbrin, V V; Dedysh, S N; Zavarzin, G A

    2007-01-01

    Slow degradation of organic matter in acidic Sphagnum peat bogs suggests a limited activity of organotrophic microorganisms. Monitoring of the Sphagnum debris decomposition in a laboratory simulation experiment showed that this process was accompanied by a shift in the water color to brownish due to accumulation of humic substances and by the development of a specific bacterial community with a density of 2.4 x 10(7) cells ml(-1). About half of these organisms are metabolically active and detectable with rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Molecular identification of the components of this microbial community showed the numerical dominance of bacteria affiliated with the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Phanctomycetes. The population sizes of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are believed to be the main agents of bacterially-mediated decomposition in eutrophic wetlands, were low. The numbers of planctomycetes increased at the final stage of Sphagnum decomposition. The representative isolates of Alphaproteobacteria were able to utilize galacturonic acid, the only low-molecular-weight organic compound detected in the water samples; the representatives of Planctomycetes were able to decompose some heteropolysaccharides, which points to the possible functional role of these groups of microorganisms in the community under study. Thus, the composition of the bacterial community responsible for Sphagnum decomposition in acidic and low-mineral oligotrophic conditions seems to be fundamentally different from that of the bacterial community which decomposes plant debris in eutrophic ecosystems at neutral pH.

  11. Educational Outcomes and Socioeconomic Status: A Decomposition Analysis for Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Sandra; Ramos, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the factors that explain the gap in educational outcomes between the top and bottom quartile of students in different countries, according to their socioeconomic status. To do so, it uses PISA microdata for 10 middle-income and 2 high-income countries, and applies the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Its results show that…

  12. Parallel processing of structural integrity analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    Structural integrity analysis forms an important role in assessing and demonstrating the safety of nuclear reactor components. This analysis is performed using analytical tools such as Finite Element Method (FEM) with the help of digital computers. The complexity of the problems involved in nuclear engineering demands high speed computation facilities to obtain solutions in reasonable amount of time. Parallel processing systems such as ANUPAM provide an efficient platform for realising the high speed computation. The development and implementation of software on parallel processing systems is an interesting and challenging task. The data and algorithm structure of the codes plays an important role in exploiting the parallel processing system capabilities. Structural analysis codes based on FEM can be divided into two categories with respect to their implementation on parallel processing systems. The first category codes such as those used for harmonic analysis, mechanistic fuel performance codes need not require the parallelisation of individual modules of the codes. The second category of codes such as conventional FEM codes require parallelisation of individual modules. In this category, parallelisation of equation solution module poses major difficulties. Different solution schemes such as domain decomposition method (DDM), parallel active column solver and substructuring method are currently used on parallel processing systems. Two codes, FAIR and TABS belonging to each of these categories have been implemented on ANUPAM. The implementation details of these codes and the performance of different equation solvers are highlighted. (author). 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  13. Structured Analysis - IDEF0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    This note introduces the IDEF0 modelling language (semantics and syntax), and associated rules and techniques, for developing structured graphical representations of a system or enterprise. Use of this standard for IDEF0 permits the construction of models comprising system functions (activities...... that require a modelling technique for the analysis, development, re-engineering, integration, or acquisition of information systems; and incorporate a systems or enterprise modelling technique into a business process analysis or software engineering methodology.This note is a summary of the Standard...... for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0). I.e. the Draft Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 183, 1993, December 21, Announcing the Standard for Integration Definition for Function Modelling (IDEF0)....

  14. Thermal decomposition process of silver behenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianhao; Lu Shuxia; Zhang Jingchang; Cao Weiliang

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition processes of silver behenate have been studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), combined thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TG-DTA and the higher temperature IR and XRD measurements indicated that complicated structural changes took place while heating silver behenate, but there were two distinct thermal transitions. During the first transition at 138 deg. C, the alkyl chains of silver behenate were transformed from an ordered into a disordered state. During the second transition at about 231 deg. C, a structural change took place for silver behenate, which was the decomposition of silver behenate. The major products of the thermal decomposition of silver behenate were metallic silver and behenic acid. Upon heating up to 500 deg. C, the final product of the thermal decomposition was metallic silver. The combined TG-MS analysis showed that the gas products of the thermal decomposition of silver behenate were carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, acetylene and some small molecule alkenes. TEM and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to investigate the process of the formation and growth of metallic silver nanoparticles

  15. SEBAL-based Daily Actual Evapotranspiration Forecasting using Wavelets Decomposition Analysis and Multivariate Relevance Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    two excellent tools from the Learning Machine field know as the Wavelet Decomposition Analysis (WDA) and the Multivariate Relevance Vector Machine (MVRVM) to forecast the results obtained from the SEBAL algorithm using LandSat imagery and soil moisture maps. The predictive capability of this novel hybrid WDA-RVM actual evapotranspiration forecasting technique is tested by comparing the crop water requirements and delivered crop water in the Lower Sevier River Basin, Utah, for the period 2007-2011. This location was selected because of their success increasing the efficiency of water use and control along the entire irrigation system. Research is currently on going to assess the efficacy of the WDA-RVM technique along the irrigation season, which is required to enhance the water use efficiency and minimize climate change impact on the Sevier River Basin.

  16. Synthesis, Structure, Characterization, and Decomposition of Nickel Dithiocarbamates: Effect of Precursor Structure and Processing Conditions on Solid-State Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Duffy, Norman V.; Hoops, Michael D.; Gorse, Elizabeth; Fanwick, Philip E.; Masnovi, John; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Dominey, Raymond N.

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal X-ray structures of four nickel dithiocarbamate complexes, the homoleptic mixed-organic bis-dithiocarbamates Ni[S2CN(isopropyl)(benzyl)]2, Ni[S2CN(ethyl)(n-butyl)]2, and Ni[S2CN(phenyl)(benzyl)]2, as well as the heteroleptic mixed-ligand complex NiCl[P(phenyl)3][(S2CN(phenyl)(benzyl)], were determined. Synthetic, spectroscopic, structural, thermal, and sulfide materials studies are discussed in light of prior literature. The spectroscopic results are routine. A slightly distorted square-planar nickel coordination environment was observed for all four complexes. The organic residues adopt conformations to minimize steric interactions. Steric effects also may determine puckering, if any, about the nickel and nitrogen atoms, both of which are planar or nearly so. A trans-influence affects the Ni-S bond distances. Nitrogen atoms interact with the CS2 carbons with a bond order of about 1.5, and the other substituents on nitrogen display transoid conformations. There are no strong intermolecular interactions, consistent with prior observations of the volatility of nickel dithiocarbamate complexes. Thermogravimetric analysis of the homoleptic species under inert atmosphere is consistent with production of 1:1 nickel sulfide phases. Thermolysis of nickel dithiocarbamates under flowing nitrogen produced hexagonal or -NiS as the major phase; thermolysis under flowing forming gas produced millerite (-NiS) at 300 C, godlevskite (Ni9S8) at 325 and 350 C, and heazlewoodite (Ni3S2) at 400 and 450 C. Failure to exclude oxygen results in production of nickel oxide. Nickel sulfide phases produced seem to be primarily influenced by processing conditions, in agreement with prior literature. Nickel dithiocarbamate complexes demonstrate significant promise to serve as single-source precursors to nickel sulfides, a quite interesting family of materials with numerous potential applications.

  17. Main drivers of health expenditure growth in China: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tiemin; Goss, John; Li, Jinjing

    2017-03-09

    In past two decades, health expenditure in China grew at a rate of 11.6% per year, which is much faster than the growth of the country's economy (9.9% per year). As cost containment is a key aspect of China's new health system reform agenda, this study aims to identify the main drivers of past growth so that cost containment policies are focussed in the right areas. The analysis covered the period 1993-2012. To understand the drivers of past growth during this period, Das Gupta's decomposition method was used to decompose the changes in health expenditure by disease into five main components that include population growth, population ageing, disease prevalence rate, expenditure per case of disease, and excess health price inflation. Demographic data on population size and age-composition were obtained from the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. Age- and disease- specific expenditure and prevalence rates by age and disease were extracted from China's National Health Accounts studies and Global Burden of Disease 2013 studies of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, respectively. Growth in health expenditure in China was mainly driven by a rapid increase in real expenditure per prevalent case, which contributed 8.4 percentage points of the 11.6% annual average growth. Excess health price inflation and population growth contributed 1.3 and 1.3% respectively. The effect of population ageing was relatively small, contributing 0.8% per year. However, reductions in disease prevalence rates reduced the growth rate by 0.3 percentage points. Future policy in optimising growth in health expenditure in China should address growth in expenditure per prevalent case. This is especially so for neoplasms, and for circulatory and respiratory disease. And a focus on effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of disease in the country will ensure that changing disease rates do not lead to a higher growth in future health expenditure

  18. Empirical mode decomposition and long-range correlation analysis of sunspot time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yu; Leung, Yee

    2010-01-01

    Sunspots, which are the best known and most variable features of the solar surface, affect our planet in many ways. The number of sunspots during a period of time is highly variable and arouses strong research interest. When multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is employed to study the fractal properties and long-range correlation of the sunspot series, some spurious crossover points might appear because of the periodic and quasi-periodic trends in the series. However many cycles of solar activities can be reflected by the sunspot time series. The 11-year cycle is perhaps the most famous cycle of the sunspot activity. These cycles pose problems for the investigation of the scaling behavior of sunspot time series. Using different methods to handle the 11-year cycle generally creates totally different results. Using MF-DFA, Movahed and co-workers employed Fourier truncation to deal with the 11-year cycle and found that the series is long-range anti-correlated with a Hurst exponent, H, of about 0.12. However, Hu and co-workers proposed an adaptive detrending method for the MF-DFA and discovered long-range correlation characterized by H≈0.74. In an attempt to get to the bottom of the problem in the present paper, empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a data-driven adaptive method, is applied to first extract the components with different dominant frequencies. MF-DFA is then employed to study the long-range correlation of the sunspot time series under the influence of these components. On removing the effects of these periods, the natural long-range correlation of the sunspot time series can be revealed. With the removal of the 11-year cycle, a crossover point located at around 60 months is discovered to be a reasonable point separating two different time scale ranges, H≈0.72 and H≈1.49. And on removing all cycles longer than 11 years, we have H≈0.69 and H≈0.28. The three cycle-removing methods—Fourier truncation, adaptive detrending and the

  19. Computer simulation of the formation of tweed and modulated structures in decomposition reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Morris, J.W. Jr.; Khachaturyan, A.G.

    1979-03-01

    A model of coarsening in a heterogeneous cubic alloy with cubic or tetragonal precipitates is proposed. According to the model the coarsening is controlled by the relaxation of the elastic strain energy. The computer simulation of coarsening demonstrates good agreement with electron microscopic observation of the structure and diffraction pattern

  20. Decomposition of Diffuse Reflectance Images - Features for Monitoring Structure in Turbid Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering in turbid media can be related to the microstructure of media. Thus, light scattering can potentially be used for process control of products where the structure is a key component. However process control requires robust and sensitive input data to function properly. In this study...

  1. Computer simulation of the formation of ''tweed'' and modulated structures in decomposition reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Morris, J.W. Jr.; Khachaturyan, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    A model of coarsening in a heterogeneous cubic alloy with cubic or tetragonal precipitates is proposed. According to the model the coarsening is controlled by the relaxation of the elastic strain energy. The computer simulation of coarsening demonstrates good agreement with electron microscopic observation of the structure and diffraction pattern

  2. Why Electricity Demand Is Highly Income-Elastic in Spain: A Cross-Country Comparison Based on an Index-Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez-García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, Spain has had one of the highest elasticities of electricity demand in the European Union. We provide an in-depth analysis into the causes of this high elasticity, and we examine how these same causes influence electricity demand in other European countries. To this end, we present an index-decomposition analysis of growth in electricity demand which allows us to identify three key factors in the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP and electricity demand: (i structural change; (ii GDP growth; and (iii intensity of electricity use. Our findings show that the main differences in electricity demand elasticities across countries and time are accounted for by the fast convergence in residential per capita electricity consumption. This convergence has almost concluded, and we expect the Spanish energy demand elasticity to converge to European standards in the near future.

  3. Decomposition analysis of cupric chloride hydrolysis in the Cu-Cl cycle of hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daggupati, V.N.; Naterer, G.F.; Gabriel, K.S.; Gravelsins, R.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines cupric chloride solid conversion during hydrolysis in a thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for hydrogen production. The hydrolysis reaction is a challenging step, in terms of the excess steam requirement and the decomposition of cupric chloride (CuCl 2 ) into cuprous chloride (CuCl) and chlorine (Cl 2 ). The hydrolysis and decomposition reactions are analyzed with respect to the chemical equilibrium constant. The effects of operating parameters are examined, including the temperature, pressure, excess steam and equilibrium conversion. A maximization of yield and selectivity are very important. Rate constants for the simultaneous reaction steps are determined using a uniform reaction model. A shrinking core model is used to determine the rate coefficients and predict the solid conversion time, with diffusional and reaction control. These new results are useful for scale-up of the engineering equipment in the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle for hydrogen production. (author)

  4. Local sensitivity analysis for inverse problems solved by singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.C.; Nolan, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    Local sensitivity analysis provides computationally frugal ways to evaluate models commonly used for resource management, risk assessment, and so on. This includes diagnosing inverse model convergence problems caused by parameter insensitivity and(or) parameter interdependence (correlation), understanding what aspects of the model and data contribute to measures of uncertainty, and identifying new data likely to reduce model uncertainty. Here, we consider sensitivity statistics relevant to models in which the process model parameters are transformed using singular value decomposition (SVD) to create SVD parameters for model calibration. The statistics considered include the PEST identifiability statistic, and combined use of the process-model parameter statistics composite scaled sensitivities and parameter correlation coefficients (CSS and PCC). The statistics are complimentary in that the identifiability statistic integrates the effects of parameter sensitivity and interdependence, while CSS and PCC provide individual measures of sensitivity and interdependence. PCC quantifies correlations between pairs or larger sets of parameters; when a set of parameters is intercorrelated, the absolute value of PCC is close to 1.00 for all pairs in the set. The number of singular vectors to include in the calculation of the identifiability statistic is somewhat subjective and influences the statistic. To demonstrate the statistics, we use the USDA’s Root Zone Water Quality Model to simulate nitrogen fate and transport in the unsaturated zone of the Merced River Basin, CA. There are 16 log-transformed process-model parameters, including water content at field capacity (WFC) and bulk density (BD) for each of five soil layers. Calibration data consisted of 1,670 observations comprising soil moisture, soil water tension, aqueous nitrate and bromide concentrations, soil nitrate concentration, and organic matter content. All 16 of the SVD parameters could be estimated by

  5. Industrial and simulation analysis of the nitrogen trichloride decomposition process in electrolytic chlorine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares Neto, J.I.H.; Brito, K.D.; Vasconcelos, L.G.S.; Alves, J.J.N.; Fossy, M.F.; Brito, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the dynamic simulation of the thermal decomposition of nitrogen trichloride (NCl 3 ) during electrolytic chlorine (Cl 2 ) production, using an industrial plant as a case study. NCl 3 is an extremely unstable and explosive compound and the decomposition process has the following main problems: changeability of the reactor temperature and loss of solvent. The results of this work will be used to establish a more efficient and safe control strategy and to analyze the loss of solvent during the dynamic period. The implemented model will also be used to study the use of a new solvent, considering that currently used solvent will be prohibited from commercial use in 2010. The process was simulated by using the commercial simulator Aspen TM and the simulations were validated with plant data. From the results of the simulation it can be concluded that the rate of decomposition depends strongly on the temperature of the reactor, which has a stronger relationship to the liquid Cl 2 (reflux) and gaseous Cl 2 flow rates which feed the system. The results also showed that the loss of solvent changes strongly during the dynamic period

  6. Regularities of ferritic-pearlitic structure formation during subcooled austenite decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkatov, V.V.; Frantsenyuk, L.I.; Bogomolov, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    Relationships of ferrite-pearlite structure parameters to austenite grain size and cooling conditions during γ -> α transformation are studied for steel 3 sp. A mathematical description has been proposed for grain evolution in carbon and low alloy steel cooling after hot rolling. It is shown that ferrite grain size can be controlled by changing temperature range of water spraying when the temperatures of rolling completion and strip coiling are the same

  7. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebohon, Obas John; Ikeme, Anthony Jekwu

    2006-01-01

    The need to decompose CO 2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO 2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO 2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO 2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO 2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO 2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO 2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO 2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO 2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO 2 emission

  8. A new time-varying harmonic decomposition structure based on recursive hanning window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.H.; Silva, L.R.M.; Duque, C.A.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Teixeira, E.C.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of power quality phenomena under time-varying conditions has become an important subject as the complexity of the grid increases. As a consequence, several methods have been developed/applied also to study power quality parameters during transient conditions such as time-frequency methods.

  9. [The structure of micromycete communities and their synecologic interactions with basidiomycetes during decomposition of plant debris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, V A; Semenova, T A

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the interactions between micromycetes and basidiomycete mycelium on plant substrates in the course of their 3-year incubation in the litter of ecologically intact spruce forests of the Central State Biosphere Forest Sanctuary (Nelidovo District, Tver oblast). Only 40-60% of the micromycetes were involved in direct antagonistic interactions with basidiomycetous fungi. In terms of the ratio between physiologically active strains and those which did not interact with basidiomycete mycelium, we revealed differences in the structure of micromycete communities developing on various types of substrates (xylem, bark, sphagnum, leaves, needles, litter, and cotton grass). The micromycetes tested belonged to 49 species. At the end of the observation period, the fraction of microscopic fungi that actively influenced basidiomycete mycelium was four times lower in the inactive litter fraction (lignin-containing xylem debris) than in the active fraction (grass substrates). The mechanisms of indirect regulation of the structure and functions of micromycete communities are discussed, which may be based on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in the medium and changes in the enzyme activities of basidiomycete mycelium.

  10. Automatic screening of obstructive sleep apnea from the ECG based on empirical mode decomposition and wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, M O; Cerutti, S; Bianchi, A M; Corthout, J; Van Huffel, S; Matteucci, M; Penzel, T

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses two different methods to detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during sleep time based only on the ECG signal. OSA is a common sleep disorder caused by repetitive occlusions of the upper airways, which produces a characteristic pattern on the ECG. ECG features, such as the heart rate variability (HRV) and the QRS peak area, contain information suitable for making a fast, non-invasive and simple screening of sleep apnea. Fifty recordings freely available on Physionet have been included in this analysis, subdivided in a training and in a testing set. We investigated the possibility of using the recently proposed method of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for this application, comparing the results with the ones obtained through the well-established wavelet analysis (WA). By these decomposition techniques, several features have been extracted from the ECG signal and complemented with a series of standard HRV time domain measures. The best performing feature subset, selected through a sequential feature selection (SFS) method, was used as the input of linear and quadratic discriminant classifiers. In this way we were able to classify the signals on a minute-by-minute basis as apneic or nonapneic with different best-subset sizes, obtaining an accuracy up to 89% with WA and 85% with EMD. Furthermore, 100% correct discrimination of apneic patients from normal subjects was achieved independently of the feature extractor. Finally, the same procedure was repeated by pooling features from standard HRV time domain, EMD and WA together in order to investigate if the two decomposition techniques could provide complementary features. The obtained accuracy was 89%, similarly to the one achieved using only Wavelet analysis as the feature extractor; however, some complementary features in EMD and WA are evident

  11. Species-specific effects of epigeic earthworms on microbial community structure during first stages of decomposition of organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community diversity and

  12. Species-specific effects of epigeic earthworms on microbial community structure during first stages of decomposition of organic matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested.To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus.Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community

  13. LMDI decomposition analysis of greenhouse gas emissions in the Korean manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyonghwa; Kim, Suyi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we decomposed Korean industrial manufacturing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the log mean Divisia index (LMDI) method, both multiplicatively and additively. Changes in industrial CO 2 emissions from 1991 to 2009 may be studied by quantifying the contributions from changes in five different factors: overall industrial activity (activity effect), industrial activity mix (structure effect), sectoral energy intensity (intensity effect), sectoral energy mix (energy-mix effect) and CO 2 emission factors (emission-factor effect). The results indicate that the structure effect and intensity effect played roles in reducing GHG emissions, and the structure effect played a bigger role than the intensity effect. The energy-mix effect increased GHG emissions, and the emission-factor effect decreased GHG emissions. The time series analysis indicates that the GHG emission pattern was changed before and after the International Monetary Fund (IMF) regime in Korea. The structure effect and the intensity effect had contributed more in emission reductions after rather than before the IMF regime in Korea. The structure effect and intensity effect have been stimulated since the high oil price period after 2001. - Highlights: • We decomposed greenhouse gas emissions of Korea's manufacturing industry using LMDI. • The structure effect and intensity effect play a role in reducing GHG emissions. • The role of structure effect was bigger than intensity effect. • The energy-mix effect increased and the emission-factor effect decreased GHG emissions. • The GHG emission pattern has been changed before and after IMF regime in Korea

  14. Multipole decomposition analysis of the 27Al, 90Zr, 208Pb(p, n) reactions at 295 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, T.; Greenfield, M.B.; Koori, N.; Okihana, A.; Hatanaka, K.

    1996-01-01

    Differential cross sections at θ lab between 0 and 15 and the polarization transfer D NN at zero degrees for the 27 Al, 90 Zr, 208 Pb(p,n) reactions are measured at a bombarding energy of 295 MeV. A multipole decomposition (MD) technique is applied to extract L=0, L=1, and L≥2 contributions to the cross sections. The summed Gamow-Teller strength B(GT) is compared with shell-model calculations for the 27 Al(p,n) and 90 Zr(p,n) reactions. The usefulness of the polarization transfer observable in the MD analysis is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Structures Panel of the Aeronautics Research and Development Board of India ... A great variety of topics was covered, including themes such as nonlinear finite ... or shell structures, and three are on the composite form of construction, ...

  16. FDG decomposition products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Buriova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present the results of analysis of decomposition products of [ 18 ]fluorodexyglucose. It is concluded that the coupling of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation is a suitable tool for quantitative analysis of FDG radiopharmaceutical, i.e. assay of basic components (FDG, glucose), impurities (Kryptofix) and decomposition products (gluconic and glucuronic acids etc.); 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) is sufficiently stable and resistant towards autoradiolysis; the content of radiochemical impurities (2-[ 18 F]fluoro-gluconic and 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-glucuronic acids in expired FDG did not exceed 1%

  17. Numerical difficulties associated with using equality constraints to achieve multi-level decomposition in structural optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thareja, R.; Haftka, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    There has been recent interest in multidisciplinary multilevel optimization applied to large engineering systems. The usual approach is to divide the system into a hierarchy of subsystems with ever increasing detail in the analysis focus. Equality constraints are usually placed on various design quantities at every successive level to ensure consistency between levels. In many previous applications these equality constraints were eliminated by reducing the number of design variables. In complex systems this may not be possible and these equality constraints may have to be retained in the optimization process. In this paper the impact of such a retention is examined for a simple portal frame problem. It is shown that the equality constraints introduce numerical difficulties, and that the numerical solution becomes very sensitive to optimization parameters for a wide range of optimization algorithms.

  18. Approximate analytical solutions in the analysis of elastic structures of complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloskokov, Dmitriy P.; Matrosov, Alexander V.

    2018-05-01

    A method of analytical decomposition for analysis plane structures of a complex configuration is presented. For each part of the structure in the form of a rectangle all the components of the stress-strain state are constructed by the superposition method. The method is based on two solutions derived in the form of trigonometric series with unknown coefficients using the method of initial functions. The coefficients are determined from the system of linear algebraic equations obtained while satisfying the boundary conditions and the conditions for joining the structure parts. The components of the stress-strain state of a bent plate with holes are calculated using the analytical decomposition method.

  19. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Doshi, Riddhi; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy

    2013-01-01

    Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06), this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs), institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501), institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214), children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340), underweight children (CI = -0.19420), and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596). Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical pathways through which economic factors operate on inequalities in

  20. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Goli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. METHODS: Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06, this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs, institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR. Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. RESULTS: The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501, institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214, children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340, underweight children (CI = -0.19420, and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596. Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical

  1. Analysis of Coherent Phonon Signals by Sparsity-promoting Dynamic Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Shin; Aihara, Shingo; Tokuda, Satoru; Iwamitsu, Kazunori; Mizoguchi, Kohji; Akai, Ichiro; Okada, Masato

    2018-05-01

    We propose a method to decompose normal modes in a coherent phonon (CP) signal by sparsity-promoting dynamic mode decomposition. While the CP signals can be modeled as the sum of finite number of damped oscillators, the conventional method such as Fourier transform adopts continuous bases in a frequency domain. Thus, the uncertainty of frequency appears and it is difficult to estimate the initial phase. Moreover, measurement artifacts are imposed on the CP signal and deforms the Fourier spectrum. In contrast, the proposed method can separate the signal from the artifact precisely and can successfully estimate physical properties of the normal modes.

  2. Identification of flow structures in fully developed canonical and wavy channels by means of modal decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebali, Sacha; Garicano-Mena, Jesús; Ferrer, Esteban; Valero, Eusebio

    2018-04-01

    A Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of fully developed channel flows is undertaken in order to study the main differences in flow features between a plane-channel flow and a passively “controlled” flow wherein the mean friction was reduced relative to the baseline by modifying the geometry in order to generate a streamwise-periodic spanwise pressure gradient, as is the case for an oblique wavy wall. The present analysis reports POD and DMD modes for the plane channel, jointly with the application of a sparsity-promoting method, as well as a reconstruction of the Reynolds shear stress with the dynamic modes. Additionally, a dynamic link between the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the friction on the wall is sought by means of a composite approach both in the plane and wavy cases. One of the DMD modes associated with the wavy-wall friction exhibits a meandering motion which was hardly identifiable on the instantaneous friction fluctuations.

  3. Reliable structural information from multiscale decomposition with the Mellor-Brady filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Image-based medical diagnosis typically relies on the (poorly reproducible) subjective classification of textures in order to differentiate between diseased and healthy pathology. Clinicians claim that significant benefits would arise from quantitative measures to inform clinical decision making. The first step in generating such measures is to extract local image descriptors - from noise corrupted and often spatially and temporally coarse resolution medical signals - that are invariant to illumination, translation, scale and rotation of the features. The Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) provides a wavelet multiresolution analysis (WMRA) tool e.g. in 2D with good properties, but has limited rotational selectivity. Also, it requires computationally-intensive steering due to the inherently 1D operations performed. The monogenic signal, which is defined in n >= 2D with the Riesz transform gives excellent orientation information without the need for steering. Recent work has suggested the Monogenic Riesz-Laplace wavelet transform as a possible tool for integrating these two concepts into a coherent mathematical framework. We have found that the proposed construction suffers from a lack of rotational invariance and is not optimal for retrieving local image descriptors. In this paper we show: 1. Local frequency and local phase from the monogenic signal are not equivalent, especially in the phase congruency model of a "feature", and so they are not interchangeable for medical image applications. 2. The accuracy of local phase computation may be improved by estimating the denoising parameters while maximizing a new measure of "featureness".

  4. Thermal decomposition of lutetium propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of lutetium(III) propionate monohydrate (Lu(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dehydration takes place around 90 °C. It is followed by the decomposition of the anhydrous...... °C. Full conversion to Lu2O3 is achieved at about 1000 °C. Whereas the temperatures and solid reaction products of the first two decomposition steps are similar to those previously reported for the thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) propionate monohydrate, the final decomposition...... of the oxycarbonate to the rare-earth oxide proceeds in a different way, which is here reminiscent of the thermal decomposition path of Lu(C3H5O2)·2CO(NH2)2·2H2O...

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure and catalytic effect on thermal decomposition of RDX and AP: An energetic coordination polymer [Pb{sub 2}(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N{sub 5}O{sub 5}){sub 2}(NMP)·NMP]{sub n}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin-jian [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Liu, Zu-Liang, E-mail: liuzl@mail.njust.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Cheng, Jian [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Fang, Dong, E-mail: fangdong106@163.com [Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng 224002 (China)

    2013-04-15

    An energetic lead(II) coordination polymer based on the ligand ANPyO has been synthesized and its crystal structure has been got. The polymer was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, DSC and TG-DTG technologies. Thermal analysis shows that there are one endothermic process and two exothermic decomposition stages in the temperature range of 50–600 °C with final residues 57.09%. The non-isothermal kinetic has also been studied on the main exothermic decomposition using the Kissinger's and Ozawa–Doyle's methods, the apparent activation energy is calculated as 195.2 KJ/mol. Furthermore, DSC measurements show that the polymer has significant catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. - Graphical abstract: An energetic lead(II) coordination polymer of ANPyO has been synthesized, structurally characterized and properties tested. Highlights: ► We have synthesized and characterized an energetic lead(II) coordination polymer. ► We have measured its molecular structure and thermal decomposition. ► It has significant catalytic effect on thermal decomposition of AP.

  6. Decomposition methods for unsupervised learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of decomposition methods for Unsupervised Learning. It covers topics from classical factor analysis based decomposition and its variants such as Independent Component Analysis, Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Sparse Coding...... methods and clustering problems is derived both in terms of classical point clustering but also in terms of community detection in complex networks. A guiding principle throughout this thesis is the principle of parsimony. Hence, the goal of Unsupervised Learning is here posed as striving for simplicity...... in the decompositions. Thus, it is demonstrated how a wide range of decomposition methods explicitly or implicitly strive to attain this goal. Applications of the derived decompositions are given ranging from multi-media analysis of image and sound data, analysis of biomedical data such as electroencephalography...

  7. Assessment of a new method for the analysis of decomposition gases of polymers by a combining thermogravimetric solid-phase extraction and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duemichen, E; Braun, U; Senz, R; Fabian, G; Sturm, H

    2014-08-08

    For analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products of polymers, the common techniques are thermogravimetry, combined with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These methods offer a simple approach to the decomposition mechanism, especially for small decomposition molecules. Complex spectra of gaseous mixtures are very often hard to identify because of overlapping signals. In this paper a new method is described to adsorb the decomposition products during controlled conditions in TGA on solid-phase extraction (SPE) material: twisters. Subsequently the twisters were analysed with thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS), which allows the decomposition products to be separated and identified using an MS library. The thermoplastics polyamide 66 (PA 66) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) were used as example polymers. The influence of the sample mass and of the purge gas flow during the decomposition process was investigated in TGA. The advantages and limitations of the method were presented in comparison to the common analysis techniques, TGA-FTIR and TGA-MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Speech rhythm analysis with decomposition of the amplitude envelope: characterizing rhythmic patterns within and across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsen, Sam; Arvaniti, Amalia

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a method for analyzing speech rhythm using empirical mode decomposition of the speech amplitude envelope, which allows for extraction and quantification of syllabic- and supra-syllabic time-scale components of the envelope. The method of empirical mode decomposition of a vocalic energy amplitude envelope is illustrated in detail, and several types of rhythm metrics derived from this method are presented. Spontaneous speech extracted from the Buckeye Corpus is used to assess the effect of utterance length on metrics, and it is shown how metrics representing variability in the supra-syllabic time-scale components of the envelope can be used to identify stretches of speech with targeted rhythmic characteristics. Furthermore, the envelope-based metrics are used to characterize cross-linguistic differences in speech rhythm in the UC San Diego Speech Lab corpus of English, German, Greek, Italian, Korean, and Spanish speech elicited in read sentences, read passages, and spontaneous speech. The envelope-based metrics exhibit significant effects of language and elicitation method that argue for a nuanced view of cross-linguistic rhythm patterns.

  9. Socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities among the older population in India: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Singh, Lucky; Jain, Kshipra; Pou, Ladumai Maikho Apollo

    2014-12-01

    This study quantified and decomposed health inequalities among the older population in India and analyzes how health status varies for populations between 60 to 69 years and 70 years and above. Data from the 60th round of the National Sample Survey (NSS) was used for the analyses. Socioeconomic inequalities in health status were measured by using Concentration Index (CI) and further decomposed to find critical determinants and their relative contributions to total health inequality. Overall, CI estimates were negative for the older population as a whole (CI = -0.1156), as well as for two disaggregated groups, 60 to 69 years (CI = -0.0943) and 70 years and above (CI = -0.08198). This suggests that poor health status is more concentrated among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older population. Decomposition analyses revealed that poor economic status (54 %) is the dominant contributor to total health inequalities in the older population, followed by illiteracy (24 %) and rural place of residence (20 %). Other indicators, such as religion, gender and marital status were positive, while Caste was negatively associated with health inequality in the older populations. Finally, a comparative assessment of decomposition results suggest that critical contributors for health inequality vary for the older population of 60 to 69 years and 70 years and above. These findings provide important insights on health inequalities among the older population in India. Implications are advanced.

  10. Analysis of respiratory mechanomyographic signals by means of the empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, A; Jane, R; Fiz, J A; Laciar, E; Galdiz, J B; Gea, J; Morera, J

    2007-01-01

    The study of the mechanomyographic (MMG) signals of respiratory muscles is a promising technique in order to evaluate the respiratory muscles effort. A critical point in MMG studies is the selection of the cut-off frequency in order to separate the low frequency (LF) component (basically due to gross movement of the muscle or of the body) and the high frequency (HF) component (related with the vibration of the muscle fibres during contraction). In this study, we propose to use the Empirical Mode Decomposition method in order to analyze the Intrinsic Mode Functions of MMG signals of the diaphragm muscle, acquired by means of a capacitive accelerometer applied on the costal wall. The method was tested on an animal model, with two incremental respiratory protocols performed by two non anesthetized mongrel dogs. The proposed EMD based method seems to be a useful tool to eliminate the low frequency component of MMG signals. The obtained correlation coefficients between respiratory and MMG parameters were higher than the ones obtained with a Wavelet multiresolution decomposition method utilized in a previous work

  11. Thermogravimetric and kinetic analysis of thermal decomposition characteristics of low-lipid microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Chao; Zhang, Yuanhui; Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Peng; Dong, Yuping

    2013-12-01

    The thermal decomposition behavior of two microalgae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CP) and Spirulina platensis (SP), were investigated on a thermogravimetric analyzer under non-isothermal conditions. Iso-conversional Vyazovkin approach was used to calculate the kinetic parameters, and the universal integral method was applied to evaluate the most probable mechanisms for thermal degradation of the two feedstocks. The differential equations deduced from the models were compared with experimental data. For the range of conversion fraction investigated (20-80%), the thermal decomposition process of CP could be described by the reaction order model (F3), which can be calculated by the integral equation of G(α) = [(1 - α)(-2) - 1]/2. And the apparent activation energy was in the range of 58.85-114.5 kJ/mol. As for SP, it can be described by the reaction order model (F2), which can be calculated by the integral equation of G(α) = (1 - α)(-1) - 1, and the range of apparent activation energy was 74.35-140.1 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decomposition for the analysis of radionuclides in solidified cement radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Jin; Pyo, Hyung Yeal; Jee, Kwang Yung; Jeon, Jong Seon

    2004-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins make solid radioactive wastes when mixed with cement as solidifying material that was widely used in securing human environment from radionuclides for at least hundreds years. The cumulative increase of low and medium level radioactive wastes results in capacity problem of temporary storage in some NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) of Korea around 2008. Radioactive wastes are scheduled to be disposed in a permanent disposal facility in accordance with the Korean Radioactive Wastes Management Program. It is mandatory to identify kinds and concentration of radionuclides immobilized for transporting them from temporary storage in NPPs to disposal facility. Accordingly, the effective sample decomposition prior to radiochemical separation is prerequisite to obtain the analytical data about radionuclides in cement waste forms. The closed-vessel microwave digestion technology among several sample preparation methods is taken into account to decompose cement waste forms. In this study, SRM 1880a (Portland cement) which is known for its certified values was used to optimize decomposition condition of cement waste forms containing nonradioactive ion exchange resins from NPP. With such variables as reagents, time, and power, the variation of the transparency and the color of the solution after closed-vessel microwave digestion can be examine. SRM 1880a is decomposed by suggested digestion procedure and the recoveries of constituents were investigated by ICP-AES and AAS

  13. Application of the whole powder pattern decomposition procedure in the residual stress analysis of layers and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoderböck, Peter; Brechbühl, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray investigation of stress states in materials, based on the determination of elastic lattice strains which are converted to stresses by means of theory of elasticity, is a necessity in quality control of thin layers and coatings for optimizing manufacturing steps and process parameters. This work introduces the evaluation of residual stress from complex and overlapping diffraction patterns using a whole-powder pattern decomposition procedure defining a 2θ-offset caused by residual stresses. Furthermore corrections for sample displacement and refraction are directly implemented in the calculation procedure. The correlation matrices of the least square fitting routines have been analyzed for parameter interactions and obvious interdependencies have been decoupled by the introduction of an internal standard within the diffraction experiment. This decomposition based evaluation has been developed on tungsten as a model material system and its efficiency was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell multilayer system. The results are compared with those obtained by the classical sin 2 Ψ-method. - Highlights: • Analysis of complex multiphase diffraction patterns with respect to residual stress • Stress-gradient determination with in situ correction of displacement and refraction • Consideration of the elastic anisotropy within the refinement

  14. Micro structured reactors for synthesis/decomposition of hazardous chemicals. Challenging prospects for micro structured reaction architectures (4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebrov, E.V.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    A review. This paper completes a series of four publications dealing with the different aspects of the applications of micro reactor technol. This article focuses on the application of micro structured reactors in the processes for synthesis/decompn. of hazardous chems., such as unsym.

  15. LMDI Decomposition Analysis of Energy Consumption in the Korean Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyi Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption of Korea’s manufacturing sector has sharply increased over the past 20 years. This paper decomposes the factors influencing energy consumption in this sector using the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method and analyzes the specific characteristics of energy consumption from 1991 to 2011. The analysis reveals that the activity effect played a major role in increasing energy consumption. While the structure and intensity effects contributed to the reduction in energy consumption, the structure effect was greater than the intensity effect. Over the periods, the effects moved in opposite directions; that is, the structure effect decreased when the intensity effect increased and vice versa. The energy consumption by each industry is decomposed into two factors, activity and intensity effects. The increase of energy consumption due to the activity effect is largest in the petroleum and chemical industry, followed by the primary metal and non-ferrous industry, and the fabricated metal industry. The decrease of energy consumption due to the intensity effect is largest in the fabricated metal industry, followed by the primary metal and non-ferrous industry, and the non-metallic industry. The energy consumption due to intensity effect in the petroleum and chemical industry has risen. To save energy consumption more efficiently for addressing climate change in this sector, industrial restructuring and industry-specific energy saving policies should be introduced.

  16. Analysis of the Compounds from the BTEX Group, Emitted During Thermal Decomposition of Alkyd Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubecki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of the given binding agent for the moulding sands preparation depends on the one hand on the estimation of technological properties of the sand and the mould made of it and the obtained casting quality and on the other hand on the assessment of this sand influence on the natural and working environment. Out of moulding sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. If in the initial state these resins are not very dangerous for people and for the environment, thus under an influence of high temperatures they generate very harmful products, being the result of their thermal decomposition. Depending on the kind of the applied resin (phenol-formaldehyde, urea, furfuryl, urea–furfuryl, alkyd under an influence of a temperature such compounds as: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol, BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH can be formed and released.The aim of the study was the development of the method, selection of analytical methods and the determination of optimal conditionsof formation compounds from the BTEX group. An emission of these components constitutes one of the basic criteria of the harmfulnessassessment of binders applied for moulding and core sands. Investigations were carried out in the specially designed set up for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in a temperature range: 5000C – 13000C at the laboratory scale. The object for testing was alkyd resin applied as a binding material for moulding sands. Within investigations the minimal amount of adsorbent necessary for the adsorption of compounds released during the decomposition of the resin sample of a mass app. 15 mg was selected. Also the minimal amount of solvent needed for

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermal decomposition mechanism of the complex [Sm(p-BrBA)3bipy.H2O]2.H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiyan; Zhang Jianjun; Ren Ning; Xu Suling; Tian Liang; Bai Jihai

    2008-01-01

    A new binuclear samarium (III) complex [Sm(p-BrBA) 3 bipy.H 2 O] 2 .H 2 O (p-BrBA = p-bromobenzoic acid; bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV, IR, molar conductance and TG-DTG techniques. The structure of the complex was established by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in triclinic, space group P1-bar with a = 8.2476(7) A, b = 13.3483(10) A, c = 15.9035(13) A, α 73.9160(10) o , β = 78.9630(10) o , γ = 74.4770(10) o , Z = 1, D c 1.947 g cm -3 , F(000) = 910. The carboxylic groups are bonded to the samarium ion in two modes: bidentate bridging, monodentate. Each center Sm 3+ ion is eight-coordinated by one 2,2'-bipyridine molecular, four bidentate bridging and a monodentate carboxylic group, as well as one water molecular. The coordination polyhedron around each Sm 3+ ion can be described as bi-capped triangular prism geometry. The thermal decomposition behavior of the title complex in a static air atmosphere was investigated by TG-DTG and IR techniques

  18. Structures and their analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Maurice Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...

  19. A transient analysis of decomposition and erosion of concrete exposed to a surface heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    A simple approximation for predicting the concrete erosion rate and depth is derived based on the heat balance integral method for conduction with the time-dependent boundary conditions. The problem is considered a four-region model including separate, moving heat sinks at the boundaries due to endothermic decomposition reactions. Polynomial temperature profiles are assumed, and the results are compared with previous experimental data and other analytical solutions. Since the technique provides an approximate temperature distribution on the average, it does not give the real temperature evaluation but provides a simple prediction of the erosion rates and the depth of defaulted concrete in terms of the parameters that are important during the physical phenomena. Because of its simplicity and reliability, the model might be useful for the larger molten core/concrete interaction codes and aerosol generation models

  20. Performance analysis of humid air turbine cycle with solar energy for methanol decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hongbin; Yue, Pengxiu

    2011-01-01

    According to the physical and chemical energy cascade utilization and concept of synthesis integration of variety cycle systems, a new humid air turbine (HAT) cycle with solar energy for methanol decomposition has been proposed in this paper. The solar energy is utilized for methanol decomposing as a heat source in the HAT cycle. The low energy level of solar energy is supposed to convert the high energy level of chemical energy through methanol absorption, realizing the combination of clean energy and normal chemical fuels as compared to the normal chemical recuperative cycle. As a result, the performance of normal chemical fuel thermal cycle can be improved to some extent. Though the energy level of decomposed syngas from methanol is decreased, the cascade utilization of methanol is upgraded. The energy level and exergy losses in the system are graphically displayed with the energy utilization diagrams (EUD). The results show that the cycle's exergy efficiency is higher than that of the conventional HAT cycle by at least 5 percentage points under the same operating conditions. In addition, the cycle's thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency and solar thermal efficiency respond to an optimal methanol conversion. -- Highlights: → This paper proposed and studied the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle with methanol through decomposition with solar energy. → The cycle's exergy efficiency is higher than that of the conventional HAT cycle by at least 5 percentage points. → It is estimated that the solar heat-work conversion efficiency is about 39%, higher than usual. → There is an optimal methanol conversation for the cycle's thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency at given π and TIT. → Using EUD, the exergy loss is decreased by 8 percentage points compared with the conventional HAT cycle.

  1. The decomposition of mixed oxide Ag2Cu2O3: Structural features and the catalytic properties in CO and C2H4 oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svintsitskiy, Dmitry A.; Kardash, Tatyana Yu.; Slavinskaya, Elena M.; Stonkus, Olga A.; Koscheev, Sergei V.; Boronin, Andrei I.

    2018-01-01

    The mixed silver-copper oxide Ag2Cu2O3 with a paramelaconite crystal structure is a promising material for catalytic applications. The as-prepared sample of Ag2Cu2O3 consisted of brick-like particles extended along the [001] direction. A combination of physicochemical techniques such as TEM, XPS and XRD was applied to investigate the structural features of this mixed silver-copper oxide. The thermal stability of Ag2Cu2O3 was investigated using in situ XRD under different reaction conditions, including a catalytic CO + O2 mixture. The first step of Ag2Cu2O3 decomposition was accompanied by the appearance of ensembles consisting of silver nanoparticles with sizes of 5-15 nm. Silver nanoparticles were strongly oriented to each other and to the surface of the initial Ag2Cu2O3 bricks. Based on the XRD data, it was shown that the release of silver occurred along the a and b axes of the paramelaconite structure. Partial decomposition of Ag2Cu2O3 accompanied by the formation of silver nanoparticles was observed during prolonged air storage under ambient conditions. The high reactivity is discussed as a reason for spontaneous decomposition during Ag2Cu2O3 storage. The full decomposition of the mixed oxide into metallic silver and copper (II) oxide took place at temperatures higher than 300 °C regardless of the nature of the reaction medium (helium, air, CO + O2). Catalytic properties of partially and fully decomposed samples of mixed silver-copper oxide were measured in low-temperature CO oxidation and C2H4 epoxidation reactions.

  2. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...

  3. Impact Analysis of Economic Contributors on Knowledge Creation Activity by Using the Symmetric Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunam Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies using various methods for analysis have tried to evaluate factors affecting knowledge creation activity, but few analyses quantitatively account for the impact that economic determinants have on them. This paper introduces a non-parametric method to structurally analyze changes in information and communication technology (ICT patenting trends as representative outcomes of knowledge creation activity with economic indicators. For this, the authors established a symmetric model that enables several economic contributors to be decomposed through the perspective of ICTs’ research and development (R&D performance, industrial change, and overall manufacturing growth. Additionally, an empirical analysis of some countries from 2001 to 2009 was conducted through this model. This paper found that all countries except the United States experienced an increase of 10.5–267.4% in ICT patent applications, despite fluctuations in the time series. It is interesting that the changes in ICT patenting of each country generally have a negative relationship with the intensity of each country’s patent protection system. Positive determinants include ICT R&D productivity and overall manufacturing growth, while ICT industrial change is a negative determinant in almost all countries. This paper emphasizes that each country needs to design strategic plans for effective ICT innovation. In particular, ICT innovation activities need to be promoted by increasing ICT R&D investment and developing the ICT industry, since ICT R&D intensity and ICT industrial change generally have a low contribution to ICT patenting.

  4. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability: An Application of DuPont Analysis to the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jason; Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO hospitals, significant financial differences remain

  5. Influence of thermal-decomposition temperatures on structures and properties of V2O5 as cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Submicron spherical V2O5 particles with a uniform size and a lower crystallinity were successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition technique using the commercial V2O5 powders as starting material. The crystal structure and grain morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Electrochemical testing such as discharge–charge cycling (CD and cyclic voltammetry (CV were employed in evaluating their electrochemical properties as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Results reveal that the crystallinity and crystalline size of V2O5 particles increased when the thermal-decomposition temperature increased from 400 °C to 500 °C, and their adhesiveness was also synchronously increased. This indicate that the thermal-decomposition temperature palyed a significant influence on electrochemical properties of V2O5 cathodes. The V2O5 sample obtained at 400 °C delivered not only a high initial discharge capacity of 330 mA h g−1 and also the good cycle stability during 50 cycles due to its higher values of α in crystal structure and better dispersity in grain morphology.

  6. Structural investigation of oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base complexes: X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry and kinetic of thermal decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asadi, M.; Asadi, Z.; Savaripoor, N.; Dušek, Michal; Eigner, Václav; Shorkaei, M.R.; Sedaghat, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 136, Feb (2015), 625-634 ISSN 1386-1425 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0809 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Oxovanadium(IV) complexes * Schiff base * Kinetic s of thermal decomposition * Electrochemistry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.653, year: 2015

  7. Effect of an Invasive Grass on Ambient Rates of Decomposition and Microbial Community Structure: A Search for Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In sutu decomposition of above and below ground plant biomass of the native grass species Andropogon glmoeratus (Walt.) B.S.P and exotic Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (cogongrass) was investigated using litter bags over the course of a 12 month period. The above and below ground biomass of the inv...

  8. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Molecular C dynamics downstream: the biochemical decomposition sequence and its impact on soil organic matter structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, A Stuart; Neff, Jason C

    2008-10-15

    Advances in spectroscopic and other chemical methods have greatly enhanced our ability to characterize soil organic matter chemistry. As a result, the molecular characteristics of soil C are now known for a range of ecosystems, soil types, and management intensities. Placing this knowledge into a broader ecological and management context is difficult, however, and remains one of the fundamental challenges of soil organic matter research. Here we present a conceptual model of molecular soil C dynamics to stimulate inter-disciplinary research into the ecological implications of molecular C turnover and its management- and process-level controls. Our model describes three properties of soil C dynamics: 1) soil size fractions have unique molecular patterns that reflect varying degrees of biological and physical control over decomposition; 2) there is a common decomposition sequence independent of plant inputs or other ecosystem properties; and 3) molecular decomposition sequences, although consistent, are not uniform and can be altered by processes that accelerate or slow the microbial transformation of specific molecules. The consequences of this model include several key points. First, lignin presents a constraint to decomposition of plant litter and particulate C (>53 microm) but exerts little influence on more stable mineral-associated soil fractions stabilized onto mineral fractions has a distinct composition related more to microbially processed organic matter than to plant-related compounds. Third, disturbances, such as N fertilization and tillage, which alter decomposition rates, can have "downstream effects"; that is, a disturbance that directly alters the molecular dynamics of particulate C may have a series of indirect effects on C stabilization in silt and clay fractions.

  10. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China's cement industry: A perspective from LMDI decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jinhua; Fleiter, Tobias; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fan Ying

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the change of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China's cement industry and its driving factors over the period 1990–2009 by applying a log-mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. It is based on the typical production process for clinker manufacturing and differentiates among four determining factors: cement output, clinker share, process structure and specific energy consumption per kiln type. The results show that the growth of cement output is the most important factor driving energy consumption up, while clinker share decline, structural shifts mainly drive energy consumption down (similar for CO 2 emissions). These efficiency improvements result from a number of policies which are transforming the entire cement industry towards international best practice including shutting down many older plants and raising the efficiency standards of cement plants. Still, the efficiency gains cannot compensate for the huge increase in cement production resulting from economic growth particularly in the infrastructure and construction sectors. Finally, scenario analysis shows that applying best available technology would result in an additional energy saving potential of 26% and a CO 2 mitigation potential of 33% compared to 2009. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China's cement industry. ► The growth of cement output is the most important driving factor. ► The efficiency policies and industrial standards significantly narrowed the gap. ► Efficiency gains cannot compensate for the huge increase in cement production. ► The potentials of energy-saving of 26% and CO 2 mitigation of 33% exist based on BAT.

  11. Generalized Fisher index or Siegel-Shapley decomposition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is generally believed that index decomposition analysis (IDA) and input-output structural decomposition analysis (SDA) [Rose, A., Casler, S., Input-output structural decomposition analysis: a critical appraisal, Economic Systems Research 1996; 8; 33-62; Dietzenbacher, E., Los, B., Structural decomposition techniques: sense and sensitivity. Economic Systems Research 1998;10; 307-323] are different approaches in energy studies; see for instance Ang et al. [Ang, B.W., Liu, F.L., Chung, H.S., A generalized Fisher index approach to energy decomposition analysis. Energy Economics 2004; 26; 757-763]. In this paper it is shown that the generalized Fisher approach, introduced in IDA by Ang et al. [Ang, B.W., Liu, F.L., Chung, H.S., A generalized Fisher index approach to energy decomposition analysis. Energy Economics 2004; 26; 757-763] for the decomposition of an aggregate change in a variable in r = 2, 3 or 4 factors is equivalent to SDA. They base their formulae on the very complicated generic formula that Shapley [Shapley, L., A value for n-person games. In: Kuhn H.W., Tucker A.W. (Eds), Contributions to the theory of games, vol. 2. Princeton University: Princeton; 1953. p. 307-317] derived for his value of n-person games, and mention that Siegel [Siegel, I.H., The generalized 'ideal' index-number formula. Journal of the American Statistical Association 1945; 40; 520-523] gave their formulae using a different route. In this paper tables are given from which the formulae of the generalized Fisher approach can easily be derived for the cases of r = 2, 3 or 4 factors. It is shown that these tables can easily be extended to cover the cases of r = 5 and r = 6 factors. (author)

  12. EKC Analysis and Decomposition of Influencing Factors in Building Energy Consumption of Three Municipalities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X. Y.; Gao, J. X.; Ren, H.; Cai, W. G.

    2018-04-01

    The acceleration of the urbanization process has brought new opportunities for China’s development. With the rapid economic development and people’s living standards improving, building energy consumption also showed a rigid growth trend. With the continuous improvement of the level of industrialization, industrial energy-saving potential declines. The construction industry to bear the task of energy-saving emission reduction will face more severe challenges. As the three municipalities of China, Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing have significant radiation effects in the economy, urbanization level and construction industry development of the region. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the building energy consumption in the three regions with the change of urbanization level and the key factors. Based on the data of Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing from 2001 to 2015, this paper attempts to find out whether the EKC curve of building energy consumption exists. At the same time, based on the results of the model, the data of the three regions are divided into three periods. The exponential decomposition method (LMDI) is used to find out the factors that have the greatest impact on the energy consumption of buildings in different stages. Moreover, analyzes the policy background of each stage and puts forward some policy suggestions on this basis.

  13. Frenkel-exciton decomposition analysis of circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence for multichromophoric systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraogawa, Takafumi; Ehara, Masahiro; Jurinovich, Sandro; Cupellini, Lorenzo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2018-06-15

    Recently, a method to calculate the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra based on the exciton coupling has been developed. In this work, the method was utilized for the decomposition of the CD and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectra of a multichromophoric system into chromophore contributions for recently developed through-space conjugated oligomers. The method which has been implemented using rotatory strength in the velocity form and therefore it is gauge-invariant, enables us to evaluate the contribution from each chromophoric unit and locally excited state to the CD and CPL spectra of the total system. The excitonic calculations suitably reproduce the full calculations of the system, as well as the experimental results. We demonstrate that the interactions between electric transition dipole moments of adjacent chromophoric units are crucial in the CD and CPL spectra of the multichromophoric systems, while the interactions between electric and magnetic transition dipole moments are not negligible. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Low-order modelling of shallow water equations for sensitivity analysis using proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokagoa, Jean-Marie; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a reduced-order model (ROM) of the shallow water equations (SWEs) for use in sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo type applications. Since, in the real world, some of the physical parameters and initial conditions embedded in free-surface flow problems are difficult to calibrate accurately in practice, the results from numerical hydraulic models are almost always corrupted with uncertainties. The main objective of this work is to derive a ROM that ensures appreciable accuracy and a considerable acceleration in the calculations so that it can be used as a surrogate model for stochastic and sensitivity analyses in real free-surface flow problems. The ROM is derived using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method coupled with Galerkin projections of the SWEs, which are discretised through a finite-volume method. The main difficulty of deriving an efficient ROM is the treatment of the nonlinearities involved in SWEs. Suitable approximations that provide rapid online computations of the nonlinear terms are proposed. The proposed ROM is applied to the simulation of hypothetical flood flows in the Bordeaux breakwater, a portion of the 'Rivière des Prairies' located near Laval (a suburb of Montreal, Quebec). A series of sensitivity analyses are performed by varying the Manning roughness coefficient and the inflow discharge. The results are satisfactorily compared to those obtained by the full-order finite volume model.

  15. Pattern Decomposition Method and a New Vegetation Index for Hyper-Multispectral Satellite Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, K.; Furumi, S.; Hayashi, A.; Shiono, Y.; Ono, A.; Fujiwara, N.; Daigo, M.; Ochiai, F.

    We have developed the ``pattern decomposition method'' based on linear spectral mixing of ground objects for n-dimensional satellite data. In this method, spectral response patterns for each pixel in an image are decomposed into three components using three standard spectral shape patterns determined from the image data. Applying this method to AMSS (Airborne Multi-Spectral Scanner) data, eighteen-dimensional data are successfully transformed into three-dimensional data. Using the three components, we have developed a new vegetation index in which all the multispectral data are reflected. We consider that the index should be linear to the amount of vegetation and vegetation vigor. To validate the index, its relations to vegetation types, vegetation cover ratio, and chlorophyll contents of a leaf were studied using spectral reflectance data measured in the field with a spectrometer. The index was sensitive to vegetation types and vegetation vigor. This method and index are very useful for assessment of vegetation vigor, classifying land cover types and monitoring vegetation changes

  16. Error and symmetry analysis of Misner's algorithm for spherical harmonic decomposition on a cubic grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiske, David R

    2006-01-01

    Computing spherical harmonic decompositions is a ubiquitous technique that arises in a wide variety of disciplines and a large number of scientific codes. Because spherical harmonics are defined by integrals over spheres, however, one must perform some sort of interpolation in order to compute them when data are stored on a cubic lattice. Misner (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 S243) presented a novel algorithm for computing the spherical harmonic components of data represented on a cubic grid, which has been found in real applications to be both efficient and robust to the presence of mesh refinement boundaries. At the same time, however, practical applications of the algorithm require knowledge of how the truncation errors of the algorithm depend on the various parameters in the algorithm. Based on analytic arguments and experience using the algorithm in real numerical simulations, I explore these dependences and provide a rule of thumb for choosing the parameters based on the truncation errors of the underlying data. I also demonstrate that symmetries in the spherical harmonics themselves allow for an even more efficient implementation of the algorithm than was suggested by Misner in his original paper

  17. Improved Prediction of Preterm Delivery Using Empirical Mode Decomposition Analysis of Uterine Electromyography Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ren

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery increases the risk of infant mortality and morbidity, and therefore developing reliable methods for predicting its likelihood are of great importance. Previous work using uterine electromyography (EMG recordings has shown that they may provide a promising and objective way for predicting risk of preterm delivery. However, to date attempts at utilizing computational approaches to achieve sufficient predictive confidence, in terms of area under the curve (AUC values, have not achieved the high discrimination accuracy that a clinical application requires. In our study, we propose a new analytical approach for assessing the risk of preterm delivery using EMG recordings which firstly employs Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD to obtain their Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF. Next, the entropy values of both instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency of the first ten IMF components are computed in order to derive ratios of these two distinct components as features. Discrimination accuracy of this approach compared to those proposed previously was then calculated using six differently representative classifiers. Finally, three different electrode positions were analyzed for their prediction accuracy of preterm delivery in order to establish which uterine EMG recording location was optimal signal data. Overall, our results show a clear improvement in prediction accuracy of preterm delivery risk compared with previous approaches, achieving an impressive maximum AUC value of 0.986 when using signals from an electrode positioned below the navel. In sum, this provides a promising new method for analyzing uterine EMG signals to permit accurate clinical assessment of preterm delivery risk.

  18. Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan in Skeletal Remains Following Decomposition in Different Microclimate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, K A; Watterson, J H

    2016-10-01

    The effects of decomposition microclimate on the distribution of dextromethorphan (DXM) and dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletonized remains of rats acutely exposed to DXM were examined. Animals (n = 10) received DXM (75 mg/kg, i.p.), were euthanized 30 min post-dose and immediately allowed to decompose at either Site A (shaded forest microenvironment on a grass-covered soil substrate) or Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were automatically recorded 3 cm above rats at each site. Skeletal elements (vertebral columns, ribs, pelvic girdles, femora, tibiae, humeri and scapulae) were harvested, and analyzed using microwave assisted extraction, microplate solid phase extraction, and GC/MS. Drug levels, expressed as mass-normalized response ratios, and the ratios of DXT and DXM levels were compared across bones and between microclimate sites. No significant differences in DXT levels or metabolite/parent ratios were observed between sites or across bones. Only femoral DXM levels differed significantly between microclimate sites. For pooled data, microclimate was not observed to significantly affect analyte levels, nor the ratio of levels of DXT and DXM. These data suggest that microclimate conditions do not influence DXM and metabolite distribution in skeletal remains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Confronting South Africa’s water challenge: A decomposition analysis of water intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kohler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is a vital natural resource, demanding careful management. It is essential for life and integral to virtually all economic activities, including energy and food production and the production of industrial outputs. The availability of clean water in sufficient quantities is not only a prerequisite for human health and well-being but the life-blood of freshwater ecosystems and the many services that these provide. Water resource intensity measures the intensity of water use in terms of volume of water per unit of value added. It is an internationally accepted environmental indicator of the pressure of economic activity on a country’s water resources and therefore a reliable indicator of sustainable economic development. The indicator is particularly useful in the allocation of water resources between sectors of the economy since in waterstressed countries like South Africa, there is competition for water among various users, which makes it necessary to allocate water resources to economic activities that are less intensive in their use of water. This study focuses on economy-wide changes in South Africa’s water intensity using both decomposition and empirical estimation techniques in an effort to identify and understand the impact of economic activity on changes in the use of the economy’s water resources. It is hoped that this study will help inform South Africa’s water conservation and resource management policies

  20. Analysis of reproducibility of the single photon tomography reconstruction by the method of singular value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, J.Y.; Mazelier, L.; Lefkopoulos, D.

    1997-01-01

    We have earlier shown that the method of singular value decomposition (SVD) allows the image reconstruction in single-photon-tomography with precision higher than the classical method of filtered back-projections. Actually, the establishing of an elementary response matrix which incorporates both the photon attenuation phenomenon, the scattering, the translation non-invariance principle and the detector response, allows to take into account the totality of physical parameters of acquisition. By an non-consecutive optimized truncation of the singular values we have obtained a significant improvement in the efficiency of the regularization of bad conditioning of this problem. The present study aims at verifying the stability of this truncation under modifications of acquisition conditions. Two series of parameters were tested, first, those modifying the geometry of acquisition: the influence of rotation center, the asymmetric disposition of the elementary-volume sources against the detector and the precision of rotation angle, and secondly, those affecting the correspondence between the matrix and the space to be reconstructed: the effect of partial volume and a noise propagation in the experimental model. For the parameters which introduce a spatial distortion, the alteration of reconstruction has been, as expected, comparable to that observed with the classical reconstruction and proportional with the amplitude of shift from the normal one. In exchange, for the effect of partial volume and of noise, the study of truncation signature revealed a variation in the optimal choice of the conserved singular values but with no effect on the global precision of reconstruction

  1. Investigating hydrogel dosimeter decomposition by chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The chemical oxidative decomposition of leucocrystal violet micelle hydrogel dosimeters was investigated using the reaction of ferrous ions with hydrogen peroxide or sodium bicarbonate with hydrogen peroxide. The second reaction is more effective at dye decomposition in gelatin hydrogels. Additional chemical analysis is required to determine the decomposition products

  2. Multifractal features of EUA and CER futures markets by using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis based on empirical model decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Basing on daily price data of carbon emission rights in futures markets of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) and European Union Allowances (EUA), we analyze the multiscale characteristics of the markets by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) based on EMD. The complexity of the daily returns of CER and EUA futures markets changes with multiple time scales and multilayered features. The two markets also exhibit clear multifractal characteristics and long-range correlation. We employ shuffle and surrogate approaches to analyze the origins of multifractality. The long-range correlations and fat-tail distributions significantly contribute to multifractality. Furthermore, we analyze the influence of high returns on multifractality by using threshold method. The multifractality of the two futures markets is related to the presence of high values of returns in the price series.

  3. Resident Load Influence Analysis Method for Price Based on Non-intrusive Load Monitoring and Decomposition Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenqian; Zeng, Bo; Yang, Zhou; Li, Gang

    2018-01-01

    In the non-invasive load monitoring mode, the load decomposition can reflect the running state of each load, which will help the user reduce unnecessary energy costs. With the demand side management measures of time of using price, a resident load influence analysis method for time of using price (TOU) based on non-intrusive load monitoring data are proposed in the paper. Relying on the current signal of the resident load classification, the user equipment type, and different time series of self-elasticity and cross-elasticity of the situation could be obtained. Through the actual household load data test with the impact of TOU, part of the equipment will be transferred to the working hours, and users in the peak price of electricity has been reduced, and in the electricity at the time of the increase Electrical equipment, with a certain regularity.

  4. Removal of artifacts in knee joint vibroarthrographic signals using ensemble empirical mode decomposition and detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Yang, Shanshan; Zheng, Fang; Cai, Suxian; Lu, Meng; Wu, Meihong

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution knee joint vibroarthrographic (VAG) signals can help physicians accurately evaluate the pathological condition of a degenerative knee joint, in order to prevent unnecessary exploratory surgery. Artifact cancellation is vital to preserve the quality of VAG signals prior to further computer-aided analysis. This paper describes a novel method that effectively utilizes ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) algorithms for the removal of baseline wander and white noise in VAG signal processing. The EEMD method first successively decomposes the raw VAG signal into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with fast and low oscillations, until the monotonic baseline wander remains in the last residue. Then, the DFA algorithm is applied to compute the fractal scaling index parameter for each IMF, in order to identify the anti-correlation and the long-range correlation components. Next, the DFA algorithm can be used to identify the anti-correlated and the long-range correlated IMFs, which assists in reconstructing the artifact-reduced VAG signals. Our experimental results showed that the combination of EEMD and DFA algorithms was able to provide averaged signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values of 20.52 dB (standard deviation: 1.14 dB) and 20.87 dB (standard deviation: 1.89 dB) for 45 normal signals in healthy subjects and 20 pathological signals in symptomatic patients, respectively. The combination of EEMD and DFA algorithms can ameliorate the quality of VAG signals with great SNR improvements over the raw signal, and the results were also superior to those achieved by wavelet matching pursuit decomposition and time-delay neural filter. (paper)

  5. Sustainability Assessment of Solid Waste Management in China: A Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingpeng Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As the largest solid waste (SW generator in the world, China is facing serious pollution issues induced by increasing quantities of SW. The sustainability assessment of SW management is very important for designing relevant policy for further improving the overall efficiency of solid waste management (SWM. By focusing on industrial solid waste (ISW and municipal solid waste (MSW, the paper investigated the sustainability performance of SWM by applying decoupling analysis, and further identified the main drivers of SW change in China by adopting Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI model. The results indicate that China has made a great achievement in SWM which was specifically expressed as the increase of ISW utilized amount and harmless disposal ratio of MSW, decrease of industrial solid waste discharged (ISWD, and absolute decoupling of ISWD from economic growth as well. However, China has a long way to go to achieve the goal of sustainable management of SW. The weak decoupling, even expansive negative decoupling of ISW generation and MSW disposal suggests that China needs timely technology innovation and rational institutional arrangement to reduce SW intensity from the source and promote classification and recycling. The factors of investment efficiency and technology are the main determinants of the decrease in SW, inversely, economic growth has increased SW discharge. The effects of investment intensity showed a volatile trend over time but eventually decreased SW discharged. Moreover, the factors of population and industrial structure slightly increased SW.

  6. Changes in socioeconomic inequality in Indonesian children's cognitive function from 2000 to 2007: a decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Maika

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children's cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. METHODS: Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS were used. Study participants were children aged 7-14 years (n = 6179 and n = 6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. The relative concentration index (RCI was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. RESULTS: Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI = 0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36 in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20 in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure, use of improved sanitation and maternal high school attendance. Changes in maternal high school participation (27%, use of improved sanitation (25% and per capita expenditures (18% were largely responsible for the decreasing inequality in children's cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Government policy to increase basic education coverage for women along with economic growth may have influenced gains in children's cognitive function and reductions in inequalities in Indonesia.

  7. Changes in socioeconomic inequality in Indonesian children's cognitive function from 2000 to 2007: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maika, Amelia; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brinkman, Sally; Harper, Sam; Satriawan, Elan; Lynch, John W

    2013-01-01

    Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children's cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) were used. Study participants were children aged 7-14 years (n = 6179 and n = 6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). The relative concentration index (RCI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI = 0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36) in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20) in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure, use of improved sanitation and maternal high school attendance. Changes in maternal high school participation (27%), use of improved sanitation (25%) and per capita expenditures (18%) were largely responsible for the decreasing inequality in children's cognitive function between 2000 and 2007. Government policy to increase basic education coverage for women along with economic growth may have influenced gains in children's cognitive function and reductions in inequalities in Indonesia.

  8. Factors explaining the North-South differentials in contraceptive use in Nigeria: A nonlinear decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Babalola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Northern Nigeria has some of the worst reproductive health indicators worldwide. Conspicuous North-South variations exist in contraceptive use; not much is known about the drivers of contraceptive use disparities in the North compared to the South. Objective: In this study, we examine the relative weights of the factors that contribute to this North-South gap in contraceptive prevalence. Methods: Using the women's 2013 Demographic Health Survey dataset, we applied a nonlinear decomposition technique to determine the contribution of sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, conjugal relationship dynamics, intimate partner violence, ideational variables, and Islamic culture to the North-South disparities in contraceptive use. Results: There was a gap of 12.4 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence between the north and south of Nigeria (5.2Š vs 17.6Š. The largest contributors to the gap were ideational characteristics (explaining 42.0Š of the gap and socio-economic profiles (explaining 42.6Š. Patterns of conjugal relationship dynamics (11.1Š, socio-demographic characteristics (‒11.0Š, Islamic religious culture (7.6Š, and exposure to family planning messaging (6.1Š were also significant contributors. Conclusions: Effective interventions to increase contraceptive use in northern Nigeria should aim at addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in the North, impacting ideational characteristics and specifically targeting poor women and those with low levels of education. Working with Islamic religious leaders is also critical to bridging the gap. Contribution: This paper broadens the knowledge on the determinants of contraceptive use in Nigeria by identifying contextual factors that operate differently in the North compared to the South.

  9. Spatial Harmonic Decomposition as a tool for unsteady flow phenomena analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duparchy, A; Guillozet, J; De Colombel, T; Bornard, L

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower is already the largest single renewable electricity source today but its further development will face new deployment constraints such as large-scale projects in emerging economies and the growth of intermittent renewable energy technologies. The potential role of hydropower as a grid stabilizer leads to operating hydro power plants in ''off-design'' zones. As a result, new methods of analyzing associated unsteady phenomena are needed to improve the design of hydraulic turbines. The key idea of the development is to compute a spatial description of a phenomenon by using a combination from several sensor signals. The spatial harmonic decomposition (SHD) extends the concept of so-called synchronous and asynchronous pulsations by projecting sensor signals on a linearly independent set of a modal scheme. This mathematical approach is very generic as it can be applied on any linear distribution of a scalar quantity defined on a closed curve. After a mathematical description of SHD, this paper will discuss the impact of instrumentation and provide tools to understand SHD signals. Then, as an example of a practical application, SHD is applied on a model test measurement in order to capture and describe dynamic pressure fields. Particularly, the spatial description of the phenomena provides new tools to separate the part of pressure fluctuations that contribute to output power instability or mechanical stresses. The study of the machine stability in partial load operating range in turbine mode or the comparison between the gap pressure field and radial thrust behavior during turbine brake operation are both relevant illustrations of SHD contribution

  10. The analysis of cracked structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, I.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review of the general problem of stable crack systems in many classes of structures, notably reinforced concrete structures, is made. Very simple methods of analysis are derived and some elaboration is described, as well as methods of optimising the calculations. Analytical methods are compared with experiments

  11. Effects of catalyst-bed’s structure parameters on decomposition and combustion characteristics of an ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yu-Song; Li, Guo-Xiu; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Jun; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The decomposition and combustion process is investigated by numerical method. • Heat transfer in catalyst bed is modeled using non-isothermal and radiation model. • The wall heat transfer can impact on the distribution of temperature and species. • The value of catalyst bed length, diameter and wall thickness are optimized. - Abstract: The present investigation numerically studies the evolutions of decomposition and combustion within an ADN-based thruster, and the effects of the catalyst-bed’s three structure parameters (length, diameter, and wall thickness) on the general performance of ADN-based thruster have been systematically investigated. Based upon the calculated results, it can be known that the distribution of temperature gives a Gaussian manner at the exits of the catalyst-bed and the combustion chamber, and the temperature can be obviously effected by each the three structure parameters of the catalyst-bed. With the rise of each the three structure parameter, the temperature will first increases and decreases, and there exists an optimal design value making the temperature be the highest. Via the comparison on the maximal temperature at combustion chamber’s exit and the specific impulse, it can be obtained that the wall thickness plays an important role in the influences on the general performance of ADN-based thruster while the catalyst-bed’s length has the weak effects on the general performance among the three structure parameters.

  12. The Contribution of Ageing to Hospitalisation Days in Hong Kong: A Decomposition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chi Leung; Lee, Carmen Km; Lo, William Tl; Yip, Paul Sf

    2016-08-17

    Ageing has become a serious challenge in Hong Kong and globally. It has serious implications for health expenditure, which accounts for nearly 20% of overall government expenditure. Here we assess the contribution of ageing and related factors to hospitalisation days in Hong Kong. We used hospital discharge data from all publicly funded hospitals in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2012. A decomposition method was used to examine the factors that account for the change of total hospitalisation days during the two periods, 2001-2004 and 2004-2012. The five factors include two demographic factors - population size and age-gender composition - and three service components - hospital discharge rate, number of discharge episodes per patient, and average length of stay (LOS) - which are all measured at age-gender group level. In order to assess the health cost burden in the future, we also project the total hospitalisation days up to 2041, for a range of scenarios. During the decreasing period of hospitalisation days (2001-2004), the reduction of LOS contributed to about 60% of the reduction. For the period of increase (2004-2012), ageing is associated with an increase in total hospitalisation days of 1.03 million, followed by an increase in hospital discharge rates (0.67 million), an increase in the number of discharge episodes per patient (0.62 million), and population growth (0.43 million). The reduction of LOS has greatly offset these increases (-2.19 million days), and has become one of the most significant factors in containing the increasing number of hospitalisation days. Projected increases in total hospitalisation days under different scenarios have highlighted that the contribution of ageing will become even more prominent after 2022. Hong Kong is facing increasing healthcare burden caused by the rapid increase in demand for inpatient services due to ageing. Better management of inpatient services with the aim of increasing efficiency and reducing LOS, avoidable

  13. Structural analysis of NPP components and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.; Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.

    1998-01-01

    Capabilities for effective structural integrity assessment have been created and extended in several important cases. In the paper presented applications deal with pressurised thermal shock loading, PTS, and severe dynamic loading cases of containment, reinforced concrete structures and piping components. Hydrogen combustion within the containment is considered in some severe accident scenarios. Can a steel containment withstand the postulated hydrogen detonation loads and still maintain its integrity? This is the topic of Chapter 2. The following Chapter 3 deals with a reinforced concrete floor subjected to jet impingement caused by a postulated rupture of a near-by high-energy pipe and Chapter 4 deals with dynamic loading resistance of the pipe lines under postulated pressure transients due to water hammer. The reliability of the structural integrity analysing methods and capabilities which have been developed for application in NPP component assessment, shall be evaluated and verified. The resources available within the RATU2 programme alone cannot allow performing of the large scale experiments needed for that purpose. Thus, the verification of the PTS analysis capabilities has been conducted by participation in international co-operative programmes. Participation to the European Network for Evaluating Steel Components (NESC) is the topic of a parallel paper in this symposium. The results obtained in two other international programmes are summarised in Chapters 5 and 6 of this paper, where PTS tests with a model vessel and benchmark assessment of a RPV nozzle integrity are described. (author)

  14. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Theory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project is to develop analysis techniques and computer programs for predicting the probabilistic response of critical structural components for current and future space propulsion systems. This technology will play a central role in establishing system performance and durability. The first year's technical activity is concentrating on probabilistic finite element formulation strategy and code development. Work is also in progress to survey critical materials and space shuttle mian engine components. The probabilistic finite element computer program NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) is being developed. The final probabilistic code will have, in the general case, the capability of performing nonlinear dynamic of stochastic structures. It is the goal of the approximate methods effort to increase problem solving efficiency relative to finite element methods by using energy methods to generate trial solutions which satisfy the structural boundary conditions. These approximate methods will be less computer intensive relative to the finite element approach.

  15. On an efficient modification of singular value decomposition using independent component analysis for improved MRS denoising and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatopoulos, V G; Karras, D A; Mertzios, B G

    2009-01-01

    An efficient modification of singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed in this paper aiming at denoising and more importantly at quantifying more accurately the statistically independent spectra of metabolite sources in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although SVD is known in MRS applications and several efficient algorithms exist for estimating SVD summation terms in which the raw MRS data are analyzed, however, it would be more beneficial for such an analysis if techniques with the ability to estimate statistically independent spectra could be employed. SVD is known to separate signal and noise subspaces but it assumes orthogonal properties for the components comprising signal subspace, which is not always the case, and might impose heavy constraints for the MRS case. A much more relaxing constraint would be to assume statistically independent components. Therefore, a modification of the main methodology incorporating techniques for calculating the assumed statistically independent spectra is proposed by applying SVD on the MRS spectrogram through application of the short time Fourier transform (STFT). This approach is based on combining SVD on STFT spectrogram followed by an iterative application of independent component analysis (ICA). Moreover, it is shown that the proposed methodology combined with a regression analysis would lead to improved quantification of the MRS signals. An experimental study based on synthetic MRS signals has been conducted to evaluate the herein proposed methodologies. The results obtained have been discussed and it is shown to be quite promising

  16. Assessment of autonomic nervous system by using empirical mode decomposition-based reflection wave analysis during non-stationary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C C; Hsiao, T C; Kao, S C; Hsu, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an important indicator of cardiovascular circulation and presents various intrinsic regulations. It has been found that the intrinsic characteristics of blood vessels can be assessed quantitatively by ABP analysis (called reflection wave analysis (RWA)), but conventional RWA is insufficient for assessment during non-stationary conditions, such as the Valsalva maneuver. Recently, a novel adaptive method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was proposed for non-stationary data analysis. This study proposed a RWA algorithm based on EMD (EMD-RWA). A total of 51 subjects participated in this study, including 39 healthy subjects and 12 patients with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The results showed that EMD-RWA provided a reliable estimation of reflection time in baseline and head-up tilt (HUT). Moreover, the estimated reflection time is able to assess the ANS function non-invasively, both in normal, healthy subjects and in the patients with ANS dysfunction. EMD-RWA provides a new approach for reflection time estimation in non-stationary conditions, and also helps with non-invasive ANS assessment. (paper)

  17. TENSOR DECOMPOSITIONS AND SPARSE LOG-LINEAR MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johndrow, James E.; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Dunson, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Contingency table analysis routinely relies on log-linear models, with latent structure analysis providing a common alternative. Latent structure models lead to a reduced rank tensor factorization of the probability mass function for multivariate categorical data, while log-linear models achieve dimensionality reduction through sparsity. Little is known about the relationship between these notions of dimensionality reduction in the two paradigms. We derive several results relating the support of a log-linear model to nonnegative ranks of the associated probability tensor. Motivated by these findings, we propose a new collapsed Tucker class of tensor decompositions, which bridge existing PARAFAC and Tucker decompositions, providing a more flexible framework for parsimoniously characterizing multivariate categorical data. Taking a Bayesian approach to inference, we illustrate empirical advantages of the new decompositions. PMID:29332971

  18. Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity among older people in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia - a decomposition analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujilestari, Cahya Utamie; Nyström, Lennarth; Norberg, Margareta; Weinehall, Lars; Hakimi, Mohammad; Ng, Nawi

    2017-12-12

    Obesity has become a global health challenge as its prevalence has increased globally in recent decades. Studies in high-income countries have shown that obesity is more prevalent among the poor. In contrast, obesity is more prevalent among the rich in low- and middle-income countries, hence requiring different focal points to design public health policies in the latter contexts. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia and identified factors contributing to the inequalities. We utilised data from the WHO-INDEPTH Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-INDEPTH SAGE) conducted in the Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Purworejo District, Indonesia in 2010. The study included 14,235 individuals aged 50 years and older. Inequalities in abdominal obesity across wealth groups were assessed separately for men and women using concentration indexes. Decomposition analysis was conducted to assess the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity was five-fold more prevalent among women than in men (30% vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001). The concentration index (CI) analysis showed that socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity were less prominent among women (CI = 0.26, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) compared to men (CI = 0.49, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001). Decomposition analysis showed that physical labour was the major determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among men, explaining 47% of the inequalities, followed by poor socioeconomic status (31%), ≤ 6 years of education (15%) and current smoking (11%). The three major determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among women were poor socio-economic status (48%), physical labour (17%) and no formal education (16%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among older women in a rural Indonesian setting. Socioeconomic inequality in

  19. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfa, F.; Bensouici, F.; Barama, S.E.; Harabi, A.; Achour, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg +2 and layers of Ca +2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO 2 .....MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO 3 + CO 2 .....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO 2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO 3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO 3 , under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO 3 , CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  20. Decomposition and Projection Methods for Distributed Robustness Analysis of Interconnected Uncertain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    We consider a class of convex feasibility problems where the constraints that describe the feasible set are loosely coupled. These problems arise in robust stability analysis of large, weakly interconnected uncertain systems. To facilitate distributed implementation of robust stability analysis o...

  1. Integrated piping structural analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoi, Toshio; Yamadera, Masao; Horino, Satoshi; Idehata, Takamasa

    1979-01-01

    Structural analysis of the piping system for nuclear power plants has become larger in scale and in quantity. In addition, higher quality analysis is regarded as of major importance nowadays from the point of view of nuclear plant safety. In order to fulfill to the above requirements, an integrated piping structural analysis system (ISAP-II) has been developed. Basic philosophy of this system is as follows: 1. To apply the date base system. All information is concentrated. 2. To minimize the manual process in analysis, evaluation and documentation. Especially to apply the graphic system as much as possible. On the basis of the above philosophy four subsystems were made. 1. Data control subsystem. 2. Analysis subsystem. 3. Plotting subsystem. 4. Report subsystem. Function of the data control subsystem is to control all information of the data base. Piping structural analysis can be performed by using the analysis subsystem. Isometric piping drawing and mode shape, etc. can be plotted by using the plotting subsystem. Total analysis report can be made without the manual process through the reporting subsystem. (author)

  2. Organic matter decomposition and microarthropod community structure in corn fields under low input and intensive management in Guaíra (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S Rodrigues

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of organic matter decomposition and the structure of the communities of microarthropods were compared between two corn fields receiving contrasting agricultural management practices (low input and intensive farming. The rate of decomposition tended to be higher in the intensively managed field in the beginning of the growing season, but decreased to a level significantly lower than the observed in the low input field by the end of the growing season. This suggested that the biological community associated with the decomposition process could be negatively influenced in the intensively managed field. Analyses of the structure of microarthropod communities indicated differences between the two areas. The microarthropod populations present in the intensively managed field suffered abrupt decrease in numbers as the season progressed.A taxa de decomposição da matéria orgânica e a estrutura da comunidade de microartrópodes foram comparadas entre dois campos cultivados com milho mas recebendo manejos distintos, sendo um campo manejado intensivamente e outro com baixo uso de insumos. A taxa de decomposição foi mais alta no campo intensivamente manejado no início da cultura, mas decresceu para um nível significativamente inferior àquela observada no campo com baixo uso de insumos ao final da estação. Tal tendência sugeriu que a estrutura da comunidade dos organismos associados ao processo de decomposição poderia estar sendo negativamente influenciada no campo intensivamente manejado. Análises da estrutura das comunidades de microartrópodes indicaram que diferentes comunidades estavam presentes nos dois campos. As populações de microartrópodes presentes no campo sob manejo intensivo sofreram queda abrupta em números, sendo praticamente eliminadas já no segundo mês de desenvolvimento da cultura.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Multiway Data Decomposition Using Principal Tensor Analysis on k-Modes: The R Package PTAk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier G. Leibovici

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the R package {PTAk and how the spatio-temporal context can be taken into account in the analyses. Essentially PTAk( is a multiway multidimensional method to decompose a multi-entries data-array, seen mathematically as a tensor of any order. This PTAk-modes method proposes a way of generalizing SVD (singular value decomposition, as well as some other well known methods included in the R package, such as PARAFAC or CANDECOMP and the PCAn-modes or Tucker-n model. The example datasets cover different domains with various spatio-temporal characteristics and issues: (i~medical imaging in neuropsychology with a functional MRI (magnetic resonance imaging study, (ii~pharmaceutical research with a pharmacodynamic study with EEG (electro-encephaloegraphic data for a central nervous system (CNS drug, and (iii~geographical information system (GIS with a climatic dataset that characterizes arid and semi-arid variations. All the methods implemented in the R package PTAk also support non-identity metrics, as well as penalizations during the optimization process. As a result of these flexibilities, together with pre-processing facilities, PTAk constitutes a framework for devising extensions of multidimensional methods such ascorrespondence analysis, discriminant analysis, and multidimensional scaling, also enabling spatio-temporal constraints.

  4. The effects of utility cost reduction on residential energy consumption in Hungary – a decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekla Sebestyén Szép

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residential energy consumption is influenced by a lot of factors. Understanding and calculating these factors is essential to making conscious energy policy decisions and feedbacks. Since 2013 the energy prices for households have been controlled by the government in Hungary and as a result of the utility cost reduction program a sharp decline can be observed in residential electricity, district heating and natural gas prices. This paper applies the LMDI (~Logarithmic Mean Division Index method to decompose the absolute change of the residential energy consumption during the period of 2010-2015. We calculate the price, the intensive structure (it means the change of energy expenditure share on energy sources, the extensive structure (it is in connection with the change of energy expenditure share in total expenditure, expenditure (it is the change of per capita total expenditure and population effect. All of that shows the impact of the specific factor on the residential energy consumption by income deciles. Our results have verified the preliminary expectations: the decreasing energy prices for households have a positive impact on energy use and it has been strengthened by the expenditure effect as well. However, the intensive structure, the extensive structure and the population effect have largely offset it.

  5. Automated measurement of heterogeneity in CT images of healthy and diseased rat lungs using variogram analysis of an octree decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Richard E; Carson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Assessing heterogeneity in lung images can be an important diagnosis tool. We present a novel and objective method for assessing lung damage in a rat model of emphysema. We combined a three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics method–octree decomposition–with a geostatistics-based approach for assessing spatial relationships–the variogram–to evaluate disease in 3D computed tomography (CT) image volumes. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed intratracheally with saline (control), or with elastase dissolved in saline to either the whole lung (for mild, global disease) or a single lobe (for severe, local disease). Gated 3D micro-CT images were acquired on the lungs of all rats at end expiration. Images were masked, and octree decomposition was performed on the images to reduce the lungs to homogeneous blocks of 2 × 2 × 2, 4 × 4 × 4, and 8 × 8 × 8 voxels. To focus on lung parenchyma, small blocks were ignored because they primarily defined boundaries and vascular features, and the spatial variance between all pairs of the 8 × 8 × 8 blocks was calculated as the square of the difference of signal intensity. Variograms–graphs of distance vs. variance–were constructed, and results of a least-squares-fit were compared. The robustness of the approach was tested on images prepared with various filtering protocols. Statistical assessment of the similarity of the three control rats was made with a Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. A Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to measure statistical distinction between individuals. For comparison with the variogram results, the coefficient of variation and the emphysema index were also calculated for all rats. Variogram analysis showed that the control rats were statistically indistinct (p = 0.12), but there were significant differences between control, mild global disease, and severe local disease groups (p < 0.0001). A heterogeneity index was calculated to describe the difference of an individual variogram from

  6. Decomposition based parallel processing technique for efficient collaborative optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Sung Chan; Kim, Min Soo; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2000-01-01

    In practical design studies, most of designers solve multidisciplinary problems with complex design structure. These multidisciplinary problems have hundreds of analysis and thousands of variables. The sequence of process to solve these problems affects the speed of total design cycle. Thus it is very important for designer to reorder original design processes to minimize total cost and time. This is accomplished by decomposing large multidisciplinary problem into several MultiDisciplinary Analysis SubSystem (MDASS) and processing it in parallel. This paper proposes new strategy for parallel decomposition of multidisciplinary problem to raise design efficiency by using genetic algorithm and shows the relationship between decomposition and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization(MDO) methodology

  7. Seismic spectral decomposition and analysis based on Wigner–Ville distribution for sandstone reservoir characterization in West Sichuan depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Tianyou

    2010-01-01

    Reflections from a hydrocarbon-saturated zone are generally expected to have a tendency to be low frequency. Previous work has shown the application of seismic spectral decomposition for low-frequency shadow detection. In this paper, we further analyse the characteristics of spectral amplitude in fractured sandstone reservoirs with different fluid saturations using the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD)-based method. We give a description of the geometric structure of cross-terms due to the bilinear nature of WVD and eliminate cross-terms using smoothed pseudo-WVD (SPWVD) with time- and frequency-independent Gaussian kernels as smoothing windows. SPWVD is finally applied to seismic data from West Sichuan depression. We focus our study on the comparison of SPWVD spectral amplitudes resulting from different fluid contents. It shows that prolific gas reservoirs feature higher peak spectral amplitude at higher peak frequency, which attenuate faster than low-quality gas reservoirs and dry or wet reservoirs. This can be regarded as a spectral attenuation signature for future exploration in the study area

  8. Causality analysis of leading singular value decomposition modes identifies rotor as the dominant driving normal mode in fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Yaacov; Rabinovitch, Avinoam; Braunstein, Doron; Aviram, Ira; Campbell, Katherine; Mironov, Sergey; Herron, Todd; Jalife, José; Berenfeld, Omer

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac fibrillation is a major clinical and societal burden. Rotors may drive fibrillation in many cases, but their role and patterns are often masked by complex propagation. We used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), which ranks patterns of activation hierarchically, together with Wiener-Granger causality analysis (WGCA), which analyses direction of information among observations, to investigate the role of rotors in cardiac fibrillation. We hypothesized that combining SVD analysis with WGCA should reveal whether rotor activity is the dominant driving force of fibrillation even in cases of high complexity. Optical mapping experiments were conducted in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte monolayers (diameter, 35 mm), which were genetically modified to overexpress the delayed rectifier K+ channel IKr only in one half of the monolayer. Such monolayers have been shown previously to sustain fast rotors confined to the IKr overexpressing half and driving fibrillatory-like activity in the other half. SVD analysis of the optical mapping movies revealed a hierarchical pattern in which the primary modes corresponded to rotor activity in the IKr overexpressing region and the secondary modes corresponded to fibrillatory activity elsewhere. We then applied WGCA to evaluate the directionality of influence between modes in the entire monolayer using clear and noisy movies of activity. We demonstrated that the rotor modes influence the secondary fibrillatory modes, but influence was detected also in the opposite direction. To more specifically delineate the role of the rotor in fibrillation, we decomposed separately the respective SVD modes of the rotor and fibrillatory domains. In this case, WGCA yielded more information from the rotor to the fibrillatory domains than in the opposite direction. In conclusion, SVD analysis reveals that rotors can be the dominant modes of an experimental model of fibrillation. Wiener-Granger causality on modes of the rotor domains confirms their

  9. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Firstly, we discuss the use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed prototype Test Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is the same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to he checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, we make use of ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47, for high temperature design. The problem faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's breakdown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields. In other fields, namely, inelastic analysis, piping analysis in the creep regime etc. we are only at a start

  10. Multiscale change-point analysis of inhomogeneous Poisson processes using unbalanced wavelet decompositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.H.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Peletier, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a continuous wavelet analysis of count data with timevarying intensities. The objective is to extract intervals with significant intensities from background intervals. This includes the precise starting point of the significant interval, its exact duration and the (average) level of

  11. Modal Analysis Using the Singular Value Decomposition and Rational Fraction Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    also consistent. In the subsequent analysis, the normal direction at each node is computed using the cross product of the connected element edges...For this mode in particular, the revised RFP mode shape is much cleaner than the original SVD mode shape. The algorithm for computing the revised

  12. Knowledge, Skills and Competence Modelling in Nuclear Engineering Domain using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, V.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The European Qualifications Framework categorizes learning objectives into three qualifiers “knowledge”, “skills”, and “competences” (KSCs) to help improve the comparability between different fields and disciplines. However, the management of KSCs remains a great challenge given their semantic fuzziness. Similar texts may describe different concepts and different texts may describe similar concepts among different domains. This is difficult for the indexing, searching and matching of semantically similar KSCs within an information system, to facilitate transfer and mobility of KSCs. We present a working example using a semantic inference method known as Latent Semantic Analysis, employing a matrix operation called Singular Value Decomposition, which have been shown to infer semantic associations within unstructured textual data comparable to that of human interpretations. In our example, a few natural language text passages representing KSCs in the nuclear sector are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. It can be shown that LSA is able to infer latent semantic associations between texts, and cluster and match separate text passages semantically based on these associations. We propose this methodology for modelling existing natural language KSCs in the nuclear domain so they can be semantically queried, retrieved and filtered upon request. (author

  13. Quantitative phase analysis using the whole-powder-pattern decomposition method. Pt. 1. Solution from knowledge of chemical compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toraya, H.; Tusaka, S.

    1995-01-01

    A new procedure for quantitative phase analysis using the whole-powder-pattern decomposition method is proposed. The procedure consists of two steps. In the first, the whole powder patterns of single-component materials are decomposed separately. The refined parameters of integrated intensity, unit cell and profile shape for respective phases are stored in computer data files. In the second step, the whole powder pattern of a mixture sample is fitted, where the parameters refined in the previous step are used to calculate the profile intensity. The integrated intensity parameters are, however, not varied during the least-squares fitting, while the scale factors for the profile intensities of individual phases are adjusted instead. Weight fractions are obtained by solving simultaneous equations, coefficients of which include the scale factors and the mass-absorption coefficients calculated from chemical formulas of respective phases. The procedure can be applied to all mixture samples, including those containing an amorphous material, if single-component samples with known chemical compositions and their approximate unit-cell parameters are provided. The procedure has been tested by using two-to five-component samples, giving average deviations of 1 to 1.5%. Optimum refinement conditions are discussed in connection with the accuracy of the procedure. (orig.)

  14. The Removal of EOG Artifacts From EEG Signals Using Independent Component Analysis and Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Teng, Chaolin; Li, Kuo; Zhang, Zhonglin; Yan, Xiangguo

    2016-09-01

    The recorded electroencephalography (EEG) signals are usually contaminated by electrooculography (EOG) artifacts. In this paper, by using independent component analysis (ICA) and multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD), the ICA-based MEMD method was proposed to remove EOG artifacts (EOAs) from multichannel EEG signals. First, the EEG signals were decomposed by the MEMD into multiple multivariate intrinsic mode functions (MIMFs). The EOG-related components were then extracted by reconstructing the MIMFs corresponding to EOAs. After performing the ICA of EOG-related signals, the EOG-linked independent components were distinguished and rejected. Finally, the clean EEG signals were reconstructed by implementing the inverse transform of ICA and MEMD. The results of simulated and real data suggested that the proposed method could successfully eliminate EOAs from EEG signals and preserve useful EEG information with little loss. By comparing with other existing techniques, the proposed method achieved much improvement in terms of the increase of signal-to-noise and the decrease of mean square error after removing EOAs.

  15. A Combined Methodology to Eliminate Artifacts in Multichannel Electrogastrogram Based on Independent Component Analysis and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengottuvel, S; Khan, Pathan Fayaz; Mariyappa, N; Patel, Rajesh; Saipriya, S; Gireesan, K

    2018-06-01

    Cutaneous measurements of electrogastrogram (EGG) signals are heavily contaminated by artifacts due to cardiac activity, breathing, motion artifacts, and electrode drifts whose effective elimination remains an open problem. A common methodology is proposed by combining independent component analysis (ICA) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to denoise gastric slow-wave signals in multichannel EGG data. Sixteen electrodes are fixed over the upper abdomen to measure the EGG signals under three gastric conditions, namely, preprandial, postprandial immediately, and postprandial 2 h after food for three healthy subjects and a subject with a gastric disorder. Instantaneous frequencies of intrinsic mode functions that are obtained by applying the EEMD technique are analyzed to individually identify and remove each of the artifacts. A critical investigation on the proposed ICA-EEMD method reveals its ability to provide a higher attenuation of artifacts and lower distortion than those obtained by the ICA-EMD method and conventional techniques, like bandpass and adaptive filtering. Characteristic changes in the slow-wave frequencies across the three gastric conditions could be determined from the denoised signals for all the cases. The results therefore encourage the use of the EEMD-based technique for denoising gastric signals to be used in clinical practice.

  16. Finite element analysis of multi-material models using a balancing domain decomposition method combined with the diagonal scaling preconditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Actual problems in science and industrial applications are modeled by multi-materials and large-scale unstructured mesh, and the finite element analysis has been widely used to solve such problems on the parallel computer. However, for large-scale problems, the iterative methods for linear finite element equations suffer from slow or no convergence. Therefore, numerical methods having both robust convergence and scalable parallel efficiency are in great demand. The domain decomposition method is well known as an iterative substructuring method, and is an efficient approach for parallel finite element methods. Moreover, the balancing preconditioner achieves robust convergence. However, in case of problems consisting of very different materials, the convergence becomes bad. There are some research to solve this issue, however not suitable for cases of complex shape and composite materials. In this study, to improve convergence of the balancing preconditioner for multi-materials, a balancing preconditioner combined with the diagonal scaling preconditioner, called Scaled-BDD method, is proposed. Some numerical results are included which indicate that the proposed method has robust convergence for the number of subdomains and shows high performances compared with the original balancing preconditioner. (author)

  17. Comparative evaluation of thermal oxidative decomposition for oil-plant residues via thermogravimetric analysis: Thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal oxidative decomposition characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of rape straw (RS), rapeseed meal (RM), camellia seed shell (CS), and camellia seed meal (CM) were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TG-DTG-DSC curves demonstrated that the combustion of oil-plant residues proceeded in three stages, including dehydration, release and combustion of organic volatiles, and chars oxidation. As revealed by combustion characteristic parameters, the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustion performance of residues were quite distinct from each other, and were improved by increasing heating rate. The kinetic parameters were determined by Coats-Redfern approach. The results showed that the most possible combustion mechanisms were order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was clearly observed. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS) at peak temperatures were calculated through the activated complex theory. With the combustion proceeding, the variation trends of ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS for RS (RM) similar to those for CS (CM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A decomposition analysis of change in skilled birth attendants, 2003 to 2008, Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomprah, Samuel; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecelia; Nonvignon, Justice; Adanu, Richard M

    2014-12-24

    The single most critical intervention to improve maternal and neonatal survival is to ensure that a competent health worker with midwifery skills is present at every birth, and transport is available to a referral facility for obstetric care in case of an emergency. This study aims to describe changes in percentage of skilled birth attendants in Ghana and to identify causes of the observed changes as well as the contribution of different categories of mother's characteristics to these changes. This study uses two successive nationally representative household surveys: the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS). The two datasets have comparable information on household characteristics and skilled attendants at birth at the time of the survey. The 2003 GDHS database includes information on 6,251 households and 3639 live births in the five years preceding the survey, whereas the 2008 GDHS database had information on11, 778 households and 2909 live births in the five years preceding the survey. A decomposition approach was used to explain the observed change in percentage of skilled birth attendants. Random-effects generalized least square regression was used to explore the effect of changes in population structure in respect of the mother's characteristics on percentage of skilled birth attendants over the period. Overall, the data showed absolute gain in the proportion of births attended by a health professional from 47.1% in 2003 to 58.7% in 2008, which represents 21.9% of gap closed to reach universal coverage. The increase in skilled birth attendants was found to be caused by changes in general health behaviour. The gain is regardless of the mother's characteristics. The structural change in the proportion of births in respect of birth order and mother's education had little effect on the change in percentage of skilled birth attendants. Improvement in general health behaviour can potentially contribute to an accelerated increase in proportion

  19. One Size Does Not Fit All: Human Failure Event Decomposition and Task Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring, PhD

    2014-09-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered or exacerbated by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question remains central as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PSAs tend to be top-down—defined as a subset of the PSA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are more likely to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications. In this paper, I first review top-down and bottom-up approaches for defining HFEs and then present a seven-step guideline to ensure a task analysis completed as part of human error identification decomposes to a level suitable for use as HFEs. This guideline illustrates an effective way to bridge the bottom-up approach with top-down requirements.

  20. A Posteriori Error Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification for Adaptive Multiscale Operator Decomposition Methods for Multiphysics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Integral Role in Soft Tissue Mechanics, K. Troyer, D. Estep, and C. Puttlitz, Acta Biomaterialia 8 (201 2), 234-244 • A posteriori analysis of multi rate...2013, submitted • A posteriori error estimation for the Lax -Wendroff finite difference scheme, J. B. Collins, D. Estep, and S. Tavener, Journal of...oped over neArly six decades of activity and the major developments form a highly inter- connected web. We do not. ətternpt to review the history of

  1. Shakedown analysis of elastoplastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Classical shakedown analysis rests on the assumptions of perfectly plastic, associative temperature-independent constitutive laws, negligible inertia and damping forces and negligible geometric effects. This paper provides a survey of the recent literature on the structural behaviour under variable repeated loads, with emphasis on the developments which relaxed some of the above assumptions, but preserved the character of generalization of limit analysis typical of the 'classical' shakedown theory and methods of analysis and design (in contrast to evolutive, step-by-step approaches of incremental plasticity). (orig.)

  2. Economic analysis of energy supply and national economy on the basis of general equilibrium models. Applications of the input-output decomposition analysis and the Computable General Equilibrium models shown by the example of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jong-Hwan.

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de

  3. Structural analysis of syndiotactic polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, Masahiro

    1988-09-01

    Since the stereostructure of a high-molecular compound includes three types of isotactic, atactic and sydiotactic structures, a high-molecular compound with excellent properties can be produced by controlling the stereogularity of the compound with the identical composition. The stereoregularity of a stereogular polystyrene, or syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), which had been successfully synthesized recently was quantitatively determined and the open chain structure by polymerization was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two SPSs were synthesized from cis-beta-d/sub/1-styrene and trans-beta-d/sub/1-styrene with alpha, beta, beta-d/sub/3-styrene. The results of spectral analysis of these two SPSs indicate that the former is of trans-conformation and the latter is of gauche conformation and that accordingly the open chain structure by polymerization of SPS is of cis-open chain and SPS has a planar zigzag structure even in the solution. (5 figs, 9 refs)

  4. On structures developed by spinodal decomposition; the interpretation of the X-ray diffraction and the role of excess vacancies in the coarsening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keijser, Th. H. de

    1977-01-01

    Structures developed by spinodal decomposition in a AuPt (20-80) alloy were studied by X-ray diffraction. The structures consist of a quasi-periodic concentration modulation which causes a modulation of the lattice spacing in the cube directions. The modulation of the lattice spacing gives rise to the occurrence of side-bands in an X-ray diffraction pattern. Information on the nature of the modulation was deduced from the intensities of the side-bands. From the positions of the side-bands, the wavelength of the modulation was determined. The increase of the wavelength with aging time was investigated. Special attention was paid to the role of quenched-in excess vacancies in the coarsening process

  5. Kinetic analysis of the termal decomposition of colombian vacuum residua by termogravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Andrey Diaz Mateus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Five different Colombian vacuum residues were thermally decomposed in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Three heating rates were employed to heat the sample up to 650°C. The kinetic analysis was performed by the Coats-Redfern method to describe the non-isothermal pyrolysis of the residua, a reaction model where the reaction order gradually increases from first to second order is proposed and an excellent agreement of the experimental with the calculated data is presented. The results also indicate that the pyrolysis of a vacuum residue cannot be modeled by a single reaction mechanism.

  6. Leakage detection in galvanized iron pipelines using ensemble empirical mode decomposition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Makeen; Ghazali, M. Fairusham

    2015-05-01

    There are many numbers of possible approaches to detect leaks. Some leaks are simply noticeable when the liquids or water appears on the surface. However many leaks do not find their way to the surface and the existence has to be check by analysis of fluid flow in the pipeline. The first step is to determine the approximate position of leak. This can be done by isolate the sections of the mains in turn and noting which section causes a drop in the flow. Next approach is by using sensor to locate leaks. This approach are involves strain gauge pressure transducers and piezoelectric sensor. the occurrence of leaks and know its exact location in the pipeline by using specific method which are Acoustic leak detection method and transient method. The objective is to utilize the signal processing technique in order to analyse leaking in the pipeline. With this, an EEMD method will be applied as the analysis method to collect and analyse the data.

  7. Decomposition analysis and mitigation strategies of CO2 emissions from energy consumption in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ilyoung; Wehrmeyer, Walter; Mulugetta, Yacob

    2010-01-01

    Energy-related CO 2 emissions in South Korea have increased substantially, outpacing those of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries since 1990. To mitigate CO 2 emissions in South Korea, we need to understand the main contributing factors to rising CO 2 levels as part of the effort toward developing targeted policies. This paper aims to analyze the specific trends and influencing factors that have caused changes in emissions patterns in South Korea over a 15-year period. To this end, we employed the Log Mean Divisia index method with five energy consumption sectors and seven sub-sectors in terms of fuel mix (FM), energy intensity (EI), structural change (SC) and economic growth (EG). The results showed that EG was a dominant explanation for the increase in CO 2 emissions in all of the sectors. The results also demonstrated that FM causes CO 2 reduction across the array of sectors with the exception of the energy supply sector. CO 2 reduction as a function of SC was also observed in manufacturing, services and residential sectors. Furthermore, EI was an important driver of CO 2 reduction in most sectors except for several manufacturing sub-sectors. Based on these findings, it appears that South Korea should implement climate change policies that consider the specific influential factors associated with increasing CO 2 emissions in each sector.

  8. Comparative Amino Acid Decomposition Analysis of Potent Type I P38α Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ebadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study:p38α is a member of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK considered as a prominent target in development of anti-inflammatory agents. Any abnormality in the phosphorylation process leads to the different human diseases such as cancer, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. Several small molecule p38α inhibitors have been developed up to now. In this regard, structural elucidation of p38 inhibitors needs to be done enabling us in rational lead development strategies.Methods:Various interactions of three potent inhibitors with p38α active site have been evaluated in terms of binding energies and bond lengths via density function theory and MD simulations.Results:Our comparative study showed that both ab initio and MD simulation led to the relatively similar results in pharmacophore discrimination of p38α inhibitors.Conclusion:The results of the present study may find their usefulness in pharmacophore based modification of p38α inhibitors.

  9. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009 Using the LMDI I Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beidou Xi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N, between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity, structure effects (caused by change in economic structure and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector, using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I decomposition method. Results showed that: (1 the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2 the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3 the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4 the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub

  10. Knee Joint Vibration Signal Analysis with Matching Pursuit Decomposition and Dynamic Weighted Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxian Cai

    2013-01-01

    detected with the fixed threshold in the time domain. To perform a better classification over the data set of 89 VAG signals, we applied a novel classifier fusion system based on the dynamic weighted fusion (DWF method to ameliorate the classification performance. For comparison, a single leastsquares support vector machine (LS-SVM and the Bagging ensemble were used for the classification task as well. The results in terms of overall accuracy in percentage and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve obtained with the DWF-based classifier fusion method reached 88.76% and 0.9515, respectively, which demonstrated the effectiveness and superiority of the DWF method with two distinct features for the VAG signal analysis.

  11. Thermal decomposition and Moessbauer analysis of two iron hydroxy-carbonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, T.L.; Cashio, J.D.; Turney, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The two iron hydroxy carbonate complexes (NH 4 ) 2 Fe 2 (OH) 4 (CO 3 ) 2 .H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 4 Fe 2 (OH) 4 (CO 3 ) 3 .3H 2 O were prepared by the method of Dvo a k and Feitknecht. Moessbauer spectra of the first sample at room temperature and 81K showed principally a ferric doublet with a small quadrupole splitting while spectra of the second sample showed a broad ferric doublet with a large mean quadrupole splitting of 1mm/s. Parameters for both spectra were characteristic of distorted octahedral coordination to oxygens. Thermal gravimetric analysis of both samples up to 750 K showed several fractions corresponding to the loss of the more volatile components

  12. Dual-energy x-ray image decomposition by independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yifeng; Jiang, Dazong; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Dengfu; Lin, Gang

    2001-09-01

    The spatial distributions of bone and soft tissue in human body are separated by independent component analysis (ICA) of dual-energy x-ray images. It is because of the dual energy imaging modelí-s conformity to the ICA model that we can apply this method: (1) the absorption in body is mainly caused by photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering; (2) they take place simultaneously but are mutually independent; and (3) for monochromatic x-ray sources the total attenuation is achieved by linear combination of these two absorption. Compared with the conventional method, the proposed one needs no priori information about the accurate x-ray energy magnitude for imaging, while the results of the separation agree well with the conventional one.

  13. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaze, M.K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components is discussed. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to be checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47 are used for high temperature design. The problems faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's shakedown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields

  14. Structural Analysis of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Filling a gap in literature, this self-contained book presents theoretical and application-oriented results that allow for a structural exploration of complex networks. The work focuses not only on classical graph-theoretic methods, but also demonstrates the usefulness of structural graph theory as a tool for solving interdisciplinary problems. Applications to biology, chemistry, linguistics, and data analysis are emphasized. The book is suitable for a broad, interdisciplinary readership of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in discrete mathematics, statistics, computer science,

  15. Cluster analysis of track structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, V.

    1991-01-01

    One of the possibilities of classifying track structures is application of conventional partition techniques of analysis of multidimensional data to the track structure. Using these cluster algorithms this paper attempts to find characteristics of radiation reflecting the spatial distribution of ionizations in the primary particle track. An absolute frequency distribution of clusters of ionizations giving the mean number of clusters produced by radiation per unit of deposited energy can serve as this characteristic. General computation techniques used as well as methods of calculations of distributions of clusters for different radiations are discussed. 8 refs.; 5 figs

  16. Adaptive surrogate modeling by ANOVA and sparse polynomial dimensional decomposition for global sensitivity analysis in fluid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Kunkun; Congedo, Pietro M.; Abgrall, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The Polynomial Dimensional Decomposition (PDD) is employed in this work for the global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ) of stochastic systems subject to a moderate to large number of input random variables. Due to the intimate connection between the PDD and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) approaches, PDD is able to provide a simpler and more direct evaluation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices, when compared to the Polynomial Chaos expansion (PC). Unfortunately, the number of PDD terms grows exponentially with respect to the size of the input random vector, which makes the computational cost of standard methods unaffordable for real engineering applications. In order to address the problem of the curse of dimensionality, this work proposes essentially variance-based adaptive strategies aiming to build a cheap meta-model (i.e. surrogate model) by employing the sparse PDD approach with its coefficients computed by regression. Three levels of adaptivity are carried out in this paper: 1) the truncated dimensionality for ANOVA component functions, 2) the active dimension technique especially for second- and higher-order parameter interactions, and 3) the stepwise regression approach designed to retain only the most influential polynomials in the PDD expansion. During this adaptive procedure featuring stepwise regressions, the surrogate model representation keeps containing few terms, so that the cost to resolve repeatedly the linear systems of the least-squares regression problem is negligible. The size of the finally obtained sparse PDD representation is much smaller than the one of the full expansion, since only significant terms are eventually retained. Consequently, a much smaller number of calls to the deterministic model is required to compute the final PDD coefficients.

  17. Adaptive surrogate modeling by ANOVA and sparse polynomial dimensional decomposition for global sensitivity analysis in fluid simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kunkun, E-mail: ktg@illinois.edu [The Center for Exascale Simulation of Plasma-Coupled Combustion (XPACC), University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 1308 W Main St, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Inria Bordeaux – Sud-Ouest, Team Cardamom, 200 avenue de la Vieille Tour, 33405 Talence (France); Congedo, Pietro M. [Inria Bordeaux – Sud-Ouest, Team Cardamom, 200 avenue de la Vieille Tour, 33405 Talence (France); Abgrall, Rémi [Institut für Mathematik, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-06-01

    The Polynomial Dimensional Decomposition (PDD) is employed in this work for the global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ) of stochastic systems subject to a moderate to large number of input random variables. Due to the intimate connection between the PDD and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) approaches, PDD is able to provide a simpler and more direct evaluation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices, when compared to the Polynomial Chaos expansion (PC). Unfortunately, the number of PDD terms grows exponentially with respect to the size of the input random vector, which makes the computational cost of standard methods unaffordable for real engineering applications. In order to address the problem of the curse of dimensionality, this work proposes essentially variance-based adaptive strategies aiming to build a cheap meta-model (i.e. surrogate model) by employing the sparse PDD approach with its coefficients computed by regression. Three levels of adaptivity are carried out in this paper: 1) the truncated dimensionality for ANOVA component functions, 2) the active dimension technique especially for second- and higher-order parameter interactions, and 3) the stepwise regression approach designed to retain only the most influential polynomials in the PDD expansion. During this adaptive procedure featuring stepwise regressions, the surrogate model representation keeps containing few terms, so that the cost to resolve repeatedly the linear systems of the least-squares regression problem is negligible. The size of the finally obtained sparse PDD representation is much smaller than the one of the full expansion, since only significant terms are eventually retained. Consequently, a much smaller number of calls to the deterministic model is required to compute the final PDD coefficients.

  18. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  19. Mathematical modelling of the decomposition of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev P

    2010-01-01

    Studies on mathematical modelling of the molecular and supramolecular structures of explosives and the elementary steps and overall processes of their decomposition are analyzed. Investigations on the modelling of combustion and detonation taking into account the decomposition of explosives are also considered. It is shown that solution of problems related to the decomposition kinetics of explosives requires the use of a complex strategy based on the methods and concepts of chemical physics, solid state physics and theoretical chemistry instead of empirical approach.

  20. Thermal decomposition and kinetics of coal and fermented cornstalk using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuyuan; Chang, Chun; Li, Pan; Han, Xiuli; Li, Hongliang; Fang, Shuqi; Chen, Junying; Ma, Xiaojian

    2018-07-01

    The thermal behavior and kinetics of Yiluo coal (YC) and the residues of fermented cornstalk (FC) were investigated in this study. The Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods were used for the kinetic analysis of the pyrolysis process. The results showed that the activation energy (E α ) was increased with the increase of the thermal conversion rate (α), and the average values of E α of YC, FC and the blend (m YC /m FC  = 6/4) were 304.26, 224.94 and 233.46 kJ/mol, respectively. The order reaction model function for the blend was also developed by the master-plots method. By comparing the E a and the enthalpy, it was found that the blend was favored to format activated complex due to the lower potential energy barrier. Meanwhile, the average value of Gibbs free energy of the blend was 169.83 kJ/mol, and the changes of entropies indicated that the pyrolysis process was evolved from ordered-state to disordered-state. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DFT analysis of the reaction paths of formaldehyde decomposition on silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alejandro; Haynes, Brian S

    2009-07-16

    Periodic density functional theory is used to study the dehydrogenation of formaldehyde (CH(2)O) on the Ag(111) surface and in the presence of adsorbed oxygen or hydroxyl species. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of elementary surface reactions have been determined. The dehydrogenation of CH(2)O on clean Ag(111) is thermodynamically and kinetically unfavorable. In particular, the activation energy for the first C-H bond scission of adsorbed CH(2)O (25.8 kcal mol(-1)) greatly exceeds the desorption energy for molecular CH(2)O (2.5 kcal mol(-1)). Surface oxygen promotes the destruction of CH(2)O through the formation of CH(2)O(2), which readily decomposes to CHO(2) and then in turn to CO(2) and adsorbed hydrogen. Analysis of site selectivity shows that CH(2)O(2), CHO(2), and CHO are strongly bound to the surface through the bridge sites, whereas CO and CO(2) are weakly adsorbed with no strong preference for a particular surface site. Dissociation of CO and CO(2) on the Ag(111) surface is highly activated and therefore unfavorable with respect to their molecular desorption.

  2. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star......-shaped three-dimensional objects using the radial function. It appears that the model is highly fleksiblel in the sense that it can be used to describe an object with arbitrary irregular surface. Results on the distribution of well-known local stereological volume estimators are provided....

  3. Structural/surface characterization and catalytic evaluation of rare-earth (Y, Sm and La) doped ceria composite oxides for CH{sub 3}SH catalytic decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Dedong; Chen, Dingkai; Hao, Husheng; Yu, Jie; Liu, Jiangping; Lu, Jichang; Liu, Feng [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500 (China); Wan, Gengping [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500 (China); Research Center for Analysis and Measurement, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228 (China); He, Sufang [Research Center for Analysis and Measurement, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650093 (China); Luo, Yongming, E-mail: environcatalysis222@yahoo.com [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 0.75}RE{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ} (RE = Y, Sm and La) were synthesized by citrate complexation method. • Ce{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ} exhibited the best stability for the decomposition of CH{sub 3}SH. • Cation radius played a key role in determining structure and surface characteristics. • Catalytic behavior depended on synergistic role of oxygen vacancies and basic sites. • Ce{sub 2}S{sub 3} accumulation on the surface was responsible for the deactivation of catalyst. - Abstract: A series of rare earth (Y, Sm and La) doped ceria composite oxides and pure CeO{sub 2} were synthesized and evaluated by conducting CH{sub 3}SH catalytic decomposition test. Several characterization studies, including XRD, BET, Raman, H{sub 2}-TPR, XPS, FT-IR, CO{sub 2}-TPD and CH{sub 3}SH-TPD, were undertaken to correlate structural and surface properties of the obtained ceria-based catalysts with their catalytic performance for CH{sub 3}SH decomposition. More oxygen vacancies and increased basic sites exhibited in the rare earth doped ceria catalysts. Y doped ceria sample (Ce{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ}), with a moderate increase in basic sites, contained more oxygen vacancies. More structural defects and active sites could be provided, and a relatively small amount of sulfur would accumulate, which resulted in better catalytic performance. The developed catalyst presented good catalytic behavior with stability very similar to that of typical zeolite-based catalysts reported previously. However, La doped ceria catalyst (Ce{sub 0.75}La{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ}) with the highest alkalinity was not the most active one. More sulfur species would be adsorbed and a large amount of cerium sulfide species (Ce{sub 2}S{sub 3}) would accumulate, which caused deactivation of the catalysts. The combined effect of increased oxygen vacancies and alkalinity led to the catalytic stability of Ce{sub 0.75}Sm{sub 0.25}O{sub 2-δ} sample was comparable to that of pure Ce

  4. Mechanistic and Kinetic Analysis of Na2SO4-Modified Laterite Decomposition by Thermogravimetry Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    Full Text Available Nickel laterites cannot be effectively used in physical methods because of their poor crystallinity and fine grain size. Na2SO4 is the most efficient additive for grade enrichment and Ni recovery. However, how Na2SO4 affects the selective reduction of laterite ores has not been clearly investigated. This study investigated the decomposition of laterite with and without the addition of Na2SO4 in an argon atmosphere using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS. Approximately 25 mg of samples with 20 wt% Na2SO4 was pyrolyzed under a 100 ml/min Ar flow at a heating rate of 10°C/min from room temperature to 1300°C. The kinetic study was based on derivative thermogravimetric (DTG curves. The evolution of the pyrolysis gas composition was detected by mass spectrometry, and the decomposition products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The decomposition behavior of laterite with the addition of Na2SO4 was similar to that of pure laterite below 800°C during the first three stages. However, in the fourth stage, the dolomite decomposed at 897°C, which is approximately 200°C lower than the decomposition of pure laterite. In the last stage, the laterite decomposed and emitted SO2 in the presence of Na2SO4 with an activation energy of 91.37 kJ/mol. The decomposition of laterite with and without the addition of Na2SO4 can be described by one first-order reaction. Moreover, the use of Na2SO4 as the modification agent can reduce the activation energy of laterite decomposition; thus, the reaction rate can be accelerated, and the reaction temperature can be markedly reduced.

  5. Hourly forecasting of global solar radiation based on multiscale decomposition methods: A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjoly, Stéphanie; André, Maïna; Calif, Rudy; Soubdhan, Ted

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for the forecasting of solar radiation series at 1 h ahead. We investigated on several techniques of multiscale decomposition of clear sky index K_c data such as Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and Wavelet Decomposition. From these differents methods, we built 11 decomposition components and 1 residu signal presenting different time scales. We performed classic forecasting models based on linear method (Autoregressive process AR) and a non linear method (Neural Network model). The choice of forecasting method is adaptative on the characteristic of each component. Hence, we proposed a modeling process which is built from a hybrid structure according to the defined flowchart. An analysis of predictive performances for solar forecasting from the different multiscale decompositions and forecast models is presented. From multiscale decomposition, the solar forecast accuracy is significantly improved, particularly using the wavelet decomposition method. Moreover, multistep forecasting with the proposed hybrid method resulted in additional improvement. For example, in terms of RMSE error, the obtained forecasting with the classical NN model is about 25.86%, this error decrease to 16.91% with the EMD-Hybrid Model, 14.06% with the EEMD-Hybid model and to 7.86% with the WD-Hybrid Model. - Highlights: • Hourly forecasting of GHI in tropical climate with many cloud formation processes. • Clear sky Index decomposition using three multiscale decomposition methods. • Combination of multiscale decomposition methods with AR-NN models to predict GHI. • Comparison of the proposed hybrid model with the classical models (AR, NN). • Best results using Wavelet-Hybrid model in comparison with classical models.

  6. Eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition (EED) analysis of dissimilarity and covariance matrix obtained from total synchronous fluorescence spectral (TSFS) data sets of herbal preparations: Optimizing the classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarai, Madhumita; Kumar, Keshav; Divya, O.; Bairi, Partha; Mishra, Kishor Kumar; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2017-09-01

    The present work compares the dissimilarity and covariance based unsupervised chemometric classification approaches by taking the total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data sets acquired for the cumin and non-cumin based herbal preparations. The conventional decomposition method involves eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the covariance of the data set and finds the factors that can explain the overall major sources of variation present in the data set. The conventional approach does this irrespective of the fact that the samples belong to intrinsically different groups and hence leads to poor class separation. The present work shows that classification of such samples can be optimized by performing the eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition on the pair-wise dissimilarity matrix.

  7. Eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition (EED) analysis of dissimilarity and covariance matrix obtained from total synchronous fluorescence spectral (TSFS) data sets of herbal preparations: Optimizing the classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarai, Madhumita; Kumar, Keshav; Divya, O; Bairi, Partha; Mishra, Kishor Kumar; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2017-09-05

    The present work compares the dissimilarity and covariance based unsupervised chemometric classification approaches by taking the total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data sets acquired for the cumin and non-cumin based herbal preparations. The conventional decomposition method involves eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the covariance of the data set and finds the factors that can explain the overall major sources of variation present in the data set. The conventional approach does this irrespective of the fact that the samples belong to intrinsically different groups and hence leads to poor class separation. The present work shows that classification of such samples can be optimized by performing the eigenvalue-eigenvector decomposition on the pair-wise dissimilarity matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Litter Decomposition Rate of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriana Siska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Litter decomposition rate is useful method to determine forest fertility level. The aims of this study were to measure decomposition rate, and analyze the nutrient content released organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphor from Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata litters during the decomposition process. The research was conducted in the Pulau Dua Nature Reserve, Serang-Banten on A. marina and R. apiculata forest communities. Litter decomposition rate measurements performed in the field. Litter that has been obtained with the trap system is inserted into litter bag and than tied to the roots or trees to avoid drifting sea water. Litter decomposition rate was measured every 15 days and is accompanied by analysis of the content of organic C , total N and P. Our research results showed decomposition rate of A. marina (k= 0.83 was higher than that of R. apiculata (k= 0.41. Differences of  leaf anatomical structure and sea water salinity  influenced to the rate of litter decomposition. Organic C released was declined with longer of litter decomposition, on the contrary of releasing N and P nutrients.

  9. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  10. Structural analysis of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.; Hyppoenen, P.; Mikkola, T.; Noro, H.; Raiko, H.; Salminen, P.; Talja, H.

    1983-05-01

    THe report describes the activities accomplished in the project 'Structural Analysis Project of Nuclear Power Plant Components' during the years 1974-1982 in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The objective of the project has been to develop Finnish expertise in structural mechanics related to nuclear engineering. The report describes the starting point of the research work, the organization of the project and the research activities on various subareas. Further the work done with computer codes is described and also the problems which the developed expertise has been applied to. Finally, the diploma works, publications and work reports, which are mainly in Finnish, are listed to give a view of the content of the project. (author)

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modified by salicylic acid and arginine: Structure, surface properties and photocatalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Youzhi; Wei, Bing; Guo, Jiaxin; Jiao, Weizhou [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhaohan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Qiaoling, E-mail: zhangqiaoling@nuc.edu.cn [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A simple and versatile synthetic method to produce TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles surface-modified with various organic capping agents can be used for novel multifunctional photocatalysts as required for various applications in energy saving and environmental protection. - Highlights: • SA and Arg was modified through the method of dipping treatment-based on chemical adsorption in saturated solution. • Surface modified TiO{sub 2} applied in photodecomposition of nitroaromatic. • The photoreduction of nitroaromatic and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation were enhanced by TiO{sub 2}–SA–Arg. • TiO{sub 2}–SA–Arg showed better lipophilic, dispersion and adsorption properties. - Abstract: In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were surface-modified with salicylic acid (SA) and arginine (Arg) using an environmentally friendly and convenient method, and the bonding structure, surface properties and degradation efficiency of p-nitrophenol (PNP) were investigated. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), water contact angle (WCA) measurements, ζ-potentiometric analysis, UV/visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed to evaluate the modification effect. The degradation rates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that bidentate or bridging bonds are most likely formed between SA/Arg and TiO{sub 2} surface. Surface modification with SA, Arg, or both can improve the lipophilic properties and decrease the zeta potential, and also result in a red shift of the absorption wavelength. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified by Arg or both SA and Arg show a large specific surface area and pore volume. Further, degradation

  12. Structural analysis and design of multivariable control systems: An algebraic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Yih Tsong; Shieh, Leang-San; Barnett, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    The application of algebraic system theory to the design of controllers for multivariable (MV) systems is explored analytically using an approach based on state-space representations and matrix-fraction descriptions. Chapters are devoted to characteristic lambda matrices and canonical descriptions of MIMO systems; spectral analysis, divisors, and spectral factors of nonsingular lambda matrices; feedback control of MV systems; and structural decomposition theories and their application to MV control systems.

  13. Functional Generalized Structured Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Hye Won; Hwang, Heungsun

    2016-12-01

    An extension of Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA), called Functional GSCA, is proposed to analyze functional data that are considered to arise from an underlying smooth curve varying over time or other continua. GSCA has been geared for the analysis of multivariate data. Accordingly, it cannot deal with functional data that often involve different measurement occasions across participants and a large number of measurement occasions that exceed the number of participants. Functional GSCA addresses these issues by integrating GSCA with spline basis function expansions that represent infinite-dimensional curves onto a finite-dimensional space. For parameter estimation, functional GSCA minimizes a penalized least squares criterion by using an alternating penalized least squares estimation algorithm. The usefulness of functional GSCA is illustrated with gait data.

  14. Thermal decomposition of ammonium hexachloroosmate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asanova, T I; Kantor, Innokenty; Asanov, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes of (NH4)2[OsCl6] occurring during thermal decomposition in a reduction atmosphere have been studied in situ using combined energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ED-XAFS) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). According to PXRD, (NH4)2[OsCl6] transforms directly to meta...

  15. Multi-perspective comparisons and mitigation implications of SO2 and NO x discharges from the industrial sector of China: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junsong; Gong, Zhihai; Gu, Zhongyu; Chen, Chundi; Xie, Dongming

    2018-04-01

    This study is the first attempt to investigate the drivers of Chinese industrial SO 2 and NO x emissions from both periodic and structural perspectives through a decomposition analysis using the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI). The two pollutants' emissions were decomposed into output effects, structural effects, clean production effects, and pollution abatement effects. The results showed that China's industrial SO 2 discharge increased by 1.14 Mt during 2003-2014, and the contributions from the four effects were 23.17, - 1.88, - 3.80, and - 16.36 Mt, respectively. Likewise, NO x discharge changed by - 3.44 Mt over 2011-2014, and the corresponding contributions from the four effects were 2.97, - 0.62, - 1.84, and - 3.95 Mt. Thus, the output effect was mainly responsible for the growth of the two discharges. The average annual contribution rates of SO 2 and NO x from output were 14.33 and 5.97%, respectively, but pollution abatement technology presented the most obvious mitigating effects (- 10.11 and - 7.92%), followed by the mitigating effects of clean production technology (- 2.35 and - 3.7%), and the mitigation from the structural effect was the weakest (- 1.16 and - 1.25%, respectively), which meant pollutant reduction policies related to industrial structure adjustment should be a long-term measure for the two discharges. In addition, the sub-sectors of I20 (manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products), I24 (manufacture of non-metallic mineral products), and I26 (smelting and pressing of non-ferrous metals) were the major contributors to both discharges. Thus, these sub-sectors should be given priority consideration when designing mitigation-related measures. Last, some particular policy implications were recommended for reducing the two discharges, including that the government should seek a technological discharge reduction route.

  16. Dynamic analysis of embedded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausel, E.; Whitman, R.V.; Morray, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents simplified rules to account for embeddment and soil layering in the soil-structure interaction problem, to be used in dynamic analysis. The relationship between the spring method, and a direct solution (in which both soil and structure are modeled with finite elements and linear members) is first presented. It is shown that for consistency of the results with the two solution methods the spring method should be performed in the following three steps: 1. Determination of the motion of the massless foundation (having the same shape as the actual one) when subjected to the same input motion as the direct solution. 2. Determination of the frequency dependent subgrade stiffness for the relevant degrees of freedom. 3. Computations of the response of the real structure supported on frequency dependent soil springs and subjected at the base of these springs to the motion computed in step 1. The first two steps require, in general, finite element methods, which would make the procedure not attractive. It is shown in the paper, however, that excellent approximations can be obtained, on the basis of 1-dimensional wave propagation theory for the solution of step 1, and correction factors modifying for embeddment the corresponding springs of a surface footing on a layered stratum, for the solution of step 2. (Auth.)

  17. Analysis of Pumphouse RCC Frame Structure for Soil Structure Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mr A.S. Thombare; Prof. V.P. Kumbhar; Prof. A.H. Kumbhar

    2016-01-01

    When structure is built on ground some elements of structure are direct contact with soil. When loads are applied on structure internal forces are developed in both the structure as well as in soil. It results in deformation of both the components which are independent to each other. This are called soil structure interaction. The analysis is done by using (Bentley STAAD.Pro V8i Version 2007) software. The analysis carried out been pump house structure R.C.C. frame structure find ...

  18. Structural stability and decomposition of Mg(BH4)2 isomorphs - an ab initio free energy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Lodziana, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive comparison between free energies, based on a phonon dispersion calculation within density functional theory, of theoretically predicted structures and the experimentally proposed a (P6(1)) and beta (Fddd) phases of the promising hydrogen storage material Mg(BH4...... of the unstable modes, we have obtained a new F222 structure, which has a lower energy than all previously experimentally and theoretically proposed phases of Mg( BH4) 2 and is free of imaginary eigenmodes. A new meta-stable high-density I4(1)/amd structure is also derived from the I (4) over bar m2 phase...

  19. Liquid State Thermochemical Decomposition of Neat 1,3,5,5-Tetranitrohexahydropyrimidine (DNNC) and its DNNC-d2, DNNC-d4, DNNC-d6 Structural Isotopomers: Mechanistic Entrance into the DNNC Molecule (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shackelford, S. A; Menapace, J. A; Goldman, J. F

    2007-01-01

    ... decomposition process. Using IDSC-based KDIE comparisons with the DNNC-d2, DNNC-d4, and DNNC-d6 isotopomers, a more detailed chemical structure/mechanistic relationship emerged by entering the interior of the DNNC molecule...

  20. Liquid State Thermochemical Decomposition of Neat 1,3,5,5-Tetranitrohexahydropyrimidine (DNNC) and its DNNC-d2, DNNC-d4, DNNC-d6 Structural Isotopomers: Mechanistic Entrance into the DNNC Molecule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shackelford, S. A; Menapace, J. A; Goldman, J. F

    2007-01-01

    ... thermochemical decomposition process. Using IDSC-based KDIE comparisons with the DNNC-d2, DNNC-d4, and DNNC-d6 isotopomers, a more detailed chemical structure/mechanistic relationship emerged by entering the interior of the DNNC molecule...

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Viscoelastic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.G. de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of control of sound and vibration of mechanical systems, the use of viscoelastic materials has been regarded as a convenient strategy in many types of industrial applications. Numerical models based on finite element discretization have been frequently used in the analysis and design of complex structural systems incorporating viscoelastic materials. Such models must account for the typical dependence of the viscoelastic characteristics on operational and environmental parameters, such as frequency and temperature. In many applications, including optimal design and model updating, sensitivity analysis based on numerical models is a very usefull tool. In this paper, the formulation of first-order sensitivity analysis of complex frequency response functions is developed for plates treated with passive constraining damping layers, considering geometrical characteristics, such as the thicknesses of the multi-layer components, as design variables. Also, the sensitivity of the frequency response functions with respect to temperature is introduced. As an example, response derivatives are calculated for a three-layer sandwich plate and the results obtained are compared with first-order finite-difference approximations.

  2. Soil Retaining Structures : Development of models for structural analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these

  3. Spatial and Inter-temporal Sources of Poverty, Inequality and Gender Disparities in Cameroon: a Regression-Based Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface Ngah Epo; Francis Menjo Baye; Nadine Teme Angele Manga

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the regression-based inequality decomposition technique to explain poverty and inequality trends in Cameroon. We also identify gender related factors which explain income disparities and discrimination based on the 2001 and 2007 Cameroon household consumption surveys. The results show that education, health, employment in the formal sector, age cohorts, household size, gender, ownership of farmland and urban versus rural residence explain household economic wellbeing; dispa...

  4. Structural refinement of Nd[Fe(CN)6].4H2O and study of NdFeO3 obtained by its oxidative thermal decomposition at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, M. Carolina; Pannunzio-Miner, Elisa V.; Pagola, Silvina; Gomez, M. Ines; Carbonio, Raul E.

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of Nd[Fe(CN) 6 ].4H 2 O has been refined by Rietveld analysis using high resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. It belonged to the orthorhombic crystal system, Cmcm space group, with cell parameters: a=7.473952(1)A, b=12.919104(2)A and c=13.800549(2)A. The change in space group from P6 3 /m which is observed in the pentahydrates (LnFe(CN) 6 .5H 2 O) to Cmcm in the tetrahydrates has been analyzed to be a consequence of the change in 9-fold coordination of Nd 3+ in the pentahydrates to 8-fold coordination in the tetrahydrates, which changes the Nd 3+ environment from tricapped trigonal prism to a distorted tricapped trigonal prism or square antiprism. Its decomposition process in air to produce NdFeO 3 has been followed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy and laboratory powder XRD. We found that it is possible to synthesize crystalline NdFeO 3 at temperatures as low as 380 o C and refine the structure of single phase crystalline NdFeO 3 synthesized by this method at 600 deg. C

  5. Art of spin decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangsong; Sun Weimin; Wang Fan; Goldman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the problem of spin decomposition for an interacting system from a natural perspective of constructing angular-momentum eigenstates. We split, from the total angular-momentum operator, a proper part which can be separately conserved for a stationary state. This part commutes with the total Hamiltonian and thus specifies the quantum angular momentum. We first show how this can be done in a gauge-dependent way, by seeking a specific gauge in which part of the total angular-momentum operator vanishes identically. We then construct a gauge-invariant operator with the desired property. Our analysis clarifies what is the most pertinent choice among the various proposals for decomposing the nucleon spin. A similar analysis is performed for extracting a proper part from the total Hamiltonian to construct energy eigenstates.

  6. Experimental study of strain prediction on wave induced structures using modal decomposition and quasi static Ritz vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Anders; Kristoffersen, Julie; Vestermark, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    into two parts using complementary filters: Low frequency response caused by the quasi-static effect of the waves acting on the structure, and the high frequency response given by the modal properties of the structure. The high frequency response is then decomposed into modal coordinates using...... the experimental mode shapes. Strain histories are predicted by multiplying the modal coordinates with the expanded strain mode shapes. The low frequency response is decomposed using Ritz-vectors corresponding to the shapes that the structure vibrates with due to the wave loading. Strain Ritz......-vectors are then extracted from the finite element model by applying a load corresponding to a representative wave and the strain history for the low frequency response is found by multiplying the decomposed signal with the strain Ritz-vectors. Finally the combined strain history is found by adding the strain histories from...

  7. Decomposition characteristics of humic-like matters with the hollow ellipsoid structure sludge inoculated from decayed soil in mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lan, Sijie; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-01-01

    The organics in mature leachate are mainly humic-like matters, which account for over 80% weight of the total organics. In this work, the microorganisms in decayed soil were found to be capable of decomposing the humic-like matters evidently using an anaerobic-aerobic/anoxic bioprocess in two sequencing bio-reactors. The 3D excitation-emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) were applied to characterize the variation of dissolved organic matters in mature leachate while sludge morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The intensities of fluorescence peaks A and C of leachate effluents were 71.66% and 48.75% lower than those of influents, respectively, which indicated the extraordinary degradation ability of microorganisms inoculated from the decayed soil. Meanwhile a kind of distinctive hollow ellipsoid structure sludge organized by tiny soil particles was observed, which might favour the humic-like matters' decomposition and has never been reported before as we know. The formation mechanisms of hollow ellipsoid structure sludge will need further study.

  8. A green approach towards adoption of chemical reaction model on 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(tert-butylperoxy)hexane decomposition by differential isoconversional kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Mitali; Shu, Chi-Min, E-mail: shucm@yuntech.edu.tw

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Thermally degraded DBPH products are identified. • An appropriate mathematical model was selected for decomposition study. • Differential isoconversional analysis was performed to obtain kinetic parameters. • Simulation on thermal analysis model was conducted for the best storage conditions. - Abstract: This study investigated the thermal degradation products of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(tert-butylperoxy) hexane (DBPH), by TG/GC/MS to identify runaway reaction and thermal safety parameters. It also included the determination of time to maximum rate under adiabatic conditions (TMR{sub ad}) and self-accelerating decomposition temperature obtained through Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions. The apparent activation energy (E{sub a}) was calculated from differential isoconversional kinetic analysis method using differential scanning calorimetry experiments. The E{sub a} value obtained by Friedman analysis is in the range of 118.0–149.0 kJ mol{sup −1}. The TMR{sub ad} was 24.0 h with an apparent onset temperature of 82.4 °C. This study has also established an efficient benchmark for a thermal hazard assessment of DBPH that can be applied to assure safer storage conditions.

  9. Energy decomposition analysis of the interactions in adduct ions of acetophenone and Na+, NH4+ and H+ in the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Igarashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Reiko; Shibue, Toshimichi

    2017-09-01

    The physical origins of the interactions in the acetophenone cation adducts [M+Na]+, [M+NH4]+, and [M+H]+ were explored by localized molecular orbital-energy decomposition analysis and density functional theory. The analyses highlighted the differences in the interactions in the three adduct ions. Electrostatic energy was important in [M+Na]+ and there was little change in the acetophenone orbital shape. Both electrostatic and polarization energy were important in [M+NH4]+, and a considerable change in the orbital shape occurred to maximize the strength of the hydrogen bond. Polarization energy was the major attractive force in [M+H]+.

  10. In situ study of glasses decomposition layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarembowitch-Deruelle, O.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the involved mechanisms during the decomposition of glasses by water and the consequences on the morphology of the decomposition layer, in particular in the case of a nuclear glass: the R 7 T 7 . The chemical composition of this glass being very complicated, it is difficult to know the influence of the different elements on the decomposition kinetics and on the resulting morphology because several atoms have a same behaviour. Glasses with simplified composition (only 5 elements) have then been synthesized. The morphological and structural characteristics of these glasses have been given. They have then been decomposed by water. The leaching curves do not reflect the decomposition kinetics but the solubility of the different elements at every moment. The three steps of the leaching are: 1) de-alkalinization 2) lattice rearrangement 3) heavy elements solubilization. Two decomposition layer types have also been revealed according to the glass heavy elements rate. (O.M.)

  11. Analysis of temporal-longitudinal-latitudinal characteristics in the global ionosphere based on tensor rank-1 decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shikun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xihai; Li, Yihong; Niu, Chao; Yang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Daizhi

    2018-03-01

    Combining analyses of spatial and temporal characteristics of the ionosphere is of great significance for scientific research and engineering applications. Tensor decomposition is performed to explore the temporal-longitudinal-latitudinal characteristics in the ionosphere. Three-dimensional tensors are established based on the time series of ionospheric vertical total electron content maps obtained from the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe. To obtain large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere, rank-1 decomposition is used to obtain U^{(1)}, U^{(2)}, and U^{(3)}, which are the resulting vectors for the time, longitude, and latitude modes, respectively. Our initial finding is that the correspondence between the frequency spectrum of U^{(1)} and solar variation indicates that rank-1 decomposition primarily describes large-scale temporal variations in the global ionosphere caused by the Sun. Furthermore, the time lags between the maxima of the ionospheric U^{(2)} and solar irradiation range from 1 to 3.7 h without seasonal dependence. The differences in time lags may indicate different interactions between processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Based on the dataset displayed in the geomagnetic coordinates, the position of the barycenter of U^{(3)} provides evidence for north-south asymmetry (NSA) in the large-scale ionospheric variations. The daily variation in such asymmetry indicates the influences of solar ionization. The diurnal geomagnetic coordinate variations in U^{(3)} show that the large-scale EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) variations during the day and night have similar characteristics. Considering the influences of geomagnetic disturbance on ionospheric behavior, we select the geomagnetic quiet GIMs to construct the ionospheric tensor. The results indicate that the geomagnetic disturbances have little effect on large-scale ionospheric characteristics.

  12. Gas Sensing Analysis of Ag-Decorated Graphene for Sulfur Hexafluoride Decomposition Products Based on the Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of decomposition products of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 is one of the best ways to diagnose early latent insulation faults in gas-insulated equipment, and the occurrence of sudden accidents can be avoided effectively by finding early latent faults. Recently, functionalized graphene, a kind of gas sensing material, has been reported to show good application prospects in the gas sensor field. Therefore, calculations were performed to analyze the gas sensing properties of intrinsic graphene (Int-graphene and functionalized graphene-based material, Ag-decorated graphene (Ag-graphene, for decomposition products of SF6, including SO2F2, SOF2, and SO2, based on density functional theory (DFT. We thoroughly investigated a series of parameters presenting gas-sensing properties of adsorbing process about gas molecule (SO2F2, SOF2, SO2 and double gas molecules (2SO2F2, 2SOF2, 2SO2 on Ag-graphene, including adsorption energy, net charge transfer, electronic state density, and the highest and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. The results showed that the Ag atom significantly enhances the electrochemical reactivity of graphene, reflected in the change of conductivity during the adsorption process. SO2F2 and SO2 gas molecules on Ag-graphene presented chemisorption, and the adsorption strength was SO2F2 > SO2, while SOF2 absorption on Ag-graphene was physical adsorption. Thus, we concluded that Ag-graphene showed good selectivity and high sensitivity to SO2F2. The results can provide a helpful guide in exploring Ag-graphene material in experiments for monitoring the insulation status of SF6-insulated equipment based on detecting decomposition products of SF6.

  13. Automated analysis and design of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the following: 1. The relationship of analysis to design. 2. New methods of analysis. 3. Improved finite elements. 4. Effect of minicomputer on structural analysis methods. 5. The use of system of microprocessors for nonlinear structural analysis. 6. The role of interacting graphics systems in future analysis and design. The discussion focusses on the impact of new inexpensive computer hardware on design and analysis methods. (Auth.)

  14. Wavelet Space-Scale-Decomposition Analysis of QSO's Ly$\\alpha$ Absorption Lines: Spectrum of Density Perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Pando, Jesus; Fang, Li-Zhi

    1995-01-01

    A method for measuring the spectrum of a density field by a discrete wavelet space-scale decomposition (SSD) has been studied. We show how the power spectrum can effectively be described by the father function coefficients (FFC) of the wavelet SSD. We demonstrate that the features of the spectrum, such as the magnitude, the index of a power law, and the typical scales, can be determined with high precision by the FFC reconstructed spectrum. This method does not require the mean density, which...

  15. Proton mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Ying; Draper, Terrence; Liang, Jian; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2018-03-01

    We report the results on the proton mass decomposition and also on the related quark and glue momentum fractions. The results are based on overlap valence fermions on four ensembles of Nf = 2 + 1 DWF configurations with three lattice spacings and volumes, and several pion masses including the physical pion mass. With 1-loop pertur-bative calculation and proper normalization of the glue operator, we find that the u, d, and s quark masses contribute 9(2)% to the proton mass. The quark energy and glue field energy contribute 31(5)% and 37(5)% respectively in the MS scheme at µ = 2 GeV. The trace anomaly gives the remaining 23(1)% contribution. The u, d, s and glue momentum fractions in the MS scheme are consistent with the global analysis at µ = 2 GeV.

  16. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  17. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  18. Band structure and visible light photocatalytic activity of multi-type nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fan; Zhao, Weirong; Wu, Zhongbiao; Guo, Sen

    2009-03-15

    Multi-type nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of the mixture of titanium hydroxide and urea at 400 degrees C for 2h. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and photoluminescence (PL). The results showed that the as-prepared samples exhibited strong visible light absorption due to multi-type nitrogen doped in the form of substitutional (N-Ti-O and Ti-O-N) and interstitial (pi* character NO) states, which were 0.14 and 0.73 eV above the top of the valence band, respectively. A physical model of band structure was established to clarify the visible light photocatalytic process over the as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the photodegradation of gaseous toluene under visible light irradiation. The activity of the sample prepared from wet titanium hydroxide and urea (TiO(2)-Nw, apparent reaction rate constant k = 0.045 min(-1)) was much higher than other samples including P25 (k = 0.0013 min(-1)). The high activity can be attributed to the results of the synergetic effects of strong visible light absorption, good crystallization, large surface hydroxyl groups, and enhanced separation of photoinduced carriers.

  19. Performance and thermal decomposition analysis of foaming agent NPL-10 for use in heavy oil recovery by steam injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Fa-Jun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Foaming agents, despite holding potential in steam injection technology for heavy oil recovery, are still poorly investigated. In this work, we analyzed the performance of the foaming agent NPL-10 in terms of foam height and half-life under various conditions of temperature, pH, salinity, and oil content by orthogonal experiments. The best conditions of use for NPL-10 among those tested are T=220°C, pH 7, salinity 10000 mg·L–1 and oil content 10 g·L–1. Thermal decomposition of NPL-10 was also studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. NPL-10 decomposes above 220°C, and decomposition is a two-step process. The kinetic triplet (activation energy, kinetic function and pre-exponential factor and the corresponding rate law were calculated for each step. Steps 1 and 2 follow kinetics of different order (n = 2 and ½, respectively. These findings provide some criteria for the selection of foaming agents for oil recovery by steam injection.

  20. Nitrated graphene oxide and its catalytic activity in thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Luo, Qingping; Duan, Xiaohui [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhou, Yong [Eco-materials and Renewable Energy Research Center (ERERC), School of Physics, National Lab of Solid State Microstructure, ERERC, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Pei, Chonghua, E-mail: peichonghua@swust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • The NGO was synthesized by nitrifying homemade GO. • The N content of resulted NGO is up to 1.45 wt.%. • The NGO can facilitate the decomposition of AP and release much heat. - Abstract: Nitrated graphene oxide (NGO) was synthesized by nitrifying homemade GO with nitro-sulfuric acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), laser Raman spectroscopy, CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the structure of NGO. The thickness and the compositions of GO and NGO were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and elemental analysis (EA), respectively. The catalytic effect of the NGO for the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Adding 10% of NGO to AP decreases the decomposition temperature by 106 °C and increases the apparent decomposition heat from 875 to 3236 J/g.

  1. Nitrated graphene oxide and its catalytic activity in thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Luo, Qingping; Duan, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yong; Pei, Chonghua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The NGO was synthesized by nitrifying homemade GO. • The N content of resulted NGO is up to 1.45 wt.%. • The NGO can facilitate the decomposition of AP and release much heat. - Abstract: Nitrated graphene oxide (NGO) was synthesized by nitrifying homemade GO with nitro-sulfuric acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), laser Raman spectroscopy, CP/MAS 13 C NMR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the structure of NGO. The thickness and the compositions of GO and NGO were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and elemental analysis (EA), respectively. The catalytic effect of the NGO for the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Adding 10% of NGO to AP decreases the decomposition temperature by 106 °C and increases the apparent decomposition heat from 875 to 3236 J/g

  2. Decision analysis for deteriorating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, Dimitri V.; Stewart, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Measures that improve durability of a structure usually increase its initial cost. Thus, in order to make a decision about a cost-effective solution the life-cycle cost of a structure including cost of structural failure needs to be considered. Due to uncertainties associated with structural properties, loads and environmental conditions the cost of structural failure is a random variable. The paper derives probability distributions of the cost of failure of a single structure and a group of identical structures when single or multiple failures are possible during the service life of a structure. The probability distributions are based on cumulative probabilities of failure of a single structure over its service life. It is assumed that failures occur at discrete points in time, the cost of failure set at the time of decision making remains constant for a particular design solution and the discount rate is a deterministic parameter not changing with time. The probability distributions can be employed to evaluate the expected life-cycle cost or the expected utility, which is then used in decision making. An example, which considers the selection of durability specifications for a reinforced concrete structure built on the coast, illustrates the use of the derived probability distributions

  3. Improved performance of parallel surface/packed-bed discharge reactor for indoor VOCs decomposition: optimization of the reactor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Nan; Hui, Chun-Xue; Li, Jie; Lu, Na; Shang, Ke-Feng; Wu, Yan; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a high-efficiency air-cleaning system for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) existing in the workshop of a chemical factory. A novel parallel surface/packed-bed discharge (PSPBD) reactor, which utilized a combination of surface discharge (SD) plasma with packed-bed discharge (PBD) plasma, was designed and employed for VOCs removal in a closed vessel. In order to optimize the structure of the PSPBD reactor, the discharge characteristic, benzene removal efficiency, and energy yield were compared for different discharge lengths, quartz tube diameters, shapes of external high-voltage electrode, packed-bed discharge gaps, and packing pellet sizes, respectively. In the circulation test, 52.8% of benzene was removed and the energy yield achieved 0.79 mg kJ −1 after a 210 min discharge treatment in the PSPBD reactor, which was 10.3% and 0.18 mg kJ −1 higher, respectively, than in the SD reactor, 21.8% and 0.34 mg kJ −1 higher, respectively, than in the PBD reactor at 53 J l −1 . The improved performance in benzene removal and energy yield can be attributed to the plasma chemistry effect of the sequential processing in the PSPBD reactor. The VOCs mineralization and organic intermediates generated during discharge treatment were followed by CO x selectivity and FT-IR analyses. The experimental results indicate that the PSPBD plasma process is an effective and energy-efficient approach for VOCs removal in an indoor environment. (paper)

  4. Superresolution microscope image reconstruction by spatiotemporal object decomposition and association: application in resolving t-tubule structure in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhai; Huang, Jiaqing; Bunyak, Filiz; Gumpper, Kristyn; De, Gejing; Sermersheim, Matthew; Liu, George; Lin, Pei-Hui; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Ma, Jianjie

    2014-05-19

    One key factor that limits resolution of single-molecule superresolution microscopy relates to the localization accuracy of the activated emitters, which is usually deteriorated by two factors. One originates from the background noise due to out-of-focus signals, sample auto-fluorescence, and camera acquisition noise; and the other is due to the low photon count of emitters at a single frame. With fast acquisition rate, the activated emitters can last multiple frames before they transiently switch off or permanently bleach. Effectively incorporating the temporal information of these emitters is critical to improve the spatial resolution. However, majority of the existing reconstruction algorithms locate the emitters frame by frame, discarding or underusing the temporal information. Here we present a new image reconstruction algorithm based on tracklets, short trajectories of the same objects. We improve the localization accuracy by associating the same emitters from multiple frames to form tracklets and by aggregating signals to enhance the signal to noise ratio. We also introduce a weighted mean-shift algorithm (WMS) to automatically detect the number of modes (emitters) in overlapping regions of tracklets so that not only well-separated single emitters but also individual emitters within multi-emitter groups can be identified and tracked. In combination with a maximum likelihood estimator method (MLE), we are able to resolve low to medium density of overlapping emitters with improved localization accuracy. We evaluate the performance of our method with both synthetic and experimental data, and show that the tracklet-based reconstruction is superior in localization accuracy, particularly for weak signals embedded in a strong background. Using this method, for the first time, we resolve the transverse tubule structure of the mammalian skeletal muscle.

  5. Structure, surface area and morphology of aluminas from thermal decomposition of Al(OH(CH3COO2 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIYOHARA PEDRO K.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline aluminium hydroxiacetate was prepared by reaction between aluminium powder (ALCOA 123 and aqueous solution of acetic acid at 96ºC ±1ºC. The white powder of Al(OH(CH3COO2 is constituted by agglomerates of crystalline plates, having size about 10mum. The crystals were fired from 200ºC to 1550ºC, in oxidizing atmosphere and the products characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and surface area measurements by BET-nitrogen method. Transition aluminas are formed from heating at the following temperatures: gamma (300ºC; delta (750ºC; alpha (1050ºC. The aluminas maintain the original morphology of the Al(OHAc2 crystal agglomerates, up to 1050ºC, when sintering and coalescence of the alpha-alumina crystals start and proceed up to 1550ºC. High surface area aluminas are formed in the temperature range of 700ºC to 1100ºC; the maximum value of 198m²/g is obtained at 900ºC, with delta-alumina structure. The formation sequence of transition aluminas is similar to the sequence from well ordered boehmite, but with differences in the transition temperatures and in the development of high surface areas. It is suggested that the causes for these diversities between the two sequences from Al(OH Ac2 and boehmite are due to the different particle sizes, shapes and textures of the gamma-Al2O3 which acts as precursor for the sequence gamma- to alpha-Al2O3.

  6. Multilevel LMDI decomposition of changes in aggregate energy consumption. A cross country analysis in the EU-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.; Landajo, M.; Presno, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the factors behind the change in aggregate energy consumption in the EU-27, also identifying differences between member states. The logarithmic-mean Divisia index method (LMDI) is applied to multiplicatively decompose, at the country level, the variation in aggregate energy consumption in the EU-27 member states for the 2001–2008 period. We also analyse the sensitivity of the results when several aggregation levels are considered, with energy intensity used as the criterion to aggregate countries. This allows us to check robustness of results, also enabling an improved understanding of both inter and intra-unit effects. Results indicate that improvements in energy efficiency in the EU-27 were not enough to overcome the pressure of European economic activity on aggregate energy consumption. Mediterranean countries, and especially former communist states, increased their energy consumptions, most of them favoured by structural change. The analysis also reveals that the impact of intra-group movements on aggregate energy consumption is partially offset when moving from higher to lower aggregation levels. - Highlights: • Increase in EU-27 aggregate energy consumption is decomposed through LMDI at 3 levels. • We present the subgroup activity effect and we demonstrate its nulls consequences. • Structural and intensity group effects lose influence when moving to a higher level. • R and D, quality energies, efficient technologies, are main tools to lower energy consumption. • Structural effect: “Green” attitudes and changes in consumer choices, also necessary

  7. Automated analysis of Physarum network structure and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Mark D.; Akita, Dai; Heaton, Luke LM; Jones, Nick; Obara, Boguslaw; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    We evaluate different ridge-enhancement and segmentation methods to automatically extract the network architecture from time-series of Physarum plasmodia withdrawing from an arena via a single exit. Whilst all methods gave reasonable results, judged by precision-recall analysis against a ground-truth skeleton, the mean phase angle (Feature Type) from intensity-independent, phase-congruency edge enhancement and watershed segmentation was the most robust to variation in threshold parameters. The resultant single pixel-wide segmented skeleton was converted to a graph representation as a set of weighted adjacency matrices containing the physical dimensions of each vein, and the inter-vein regions. We encapsulate the complete image processing and network analysis pipeline in a downloadable software package, and provide an extensive set of metrics that characterise the network structure, including hierarchical loop decomposition to analyse the nested structure of the developing network. In addition, the change in volume for each vein and intervening plasmodial sheet was used to predict the net flow across the network. The scaling relationships between predicted current, speed and shear force with vein radius were consistent with predictions from Murray’s law. This work was presented at PhysNet 2015.

  8. Automated analysis of Physarum network structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricker, Mark D; Heaton, Luke LM; Akita, Dai; Jones, Nick; Obara, Boguslaw; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate different ridge-enhancement and segmentation methods to automatically extract the network architecture from time-series of Physarum plasmodia withdrawing from an arena via a single exit. Whilst all methods gave reasonable results, judged by precision-recall analysis against a ground-truth skeleton, the mean phase angle (Feature Type) from intensity-independent, phase-congruency edge enhancement and watershed segmentation was the most robust to variation in threshold parameters. The resultant single pixel-wide segmented skeleton was converted to a graph representation as a set of weighted adjacency matrices containing the physical dimensions of each vein, and the inter-vein regions. We encapsulate the complete image processing and network analysis pipeline in a downloadable software package, and provide an extensive set of metrics that characterise the network structure, including hierarchical loop decomposition to analyse the nested structure of the developing network. In addition, the change in volume for each vein and intervening plasmodial sheet was used to predict the net flow across the network. The scaling relationships between predicted current, speed and shear force with vein radius were consistent with predictions from Murray’s law. This work was presented at PhysNet 2015. (paper)

  9. Heterometallic molecular precursors for a lithium-iron oxide material: synthesis, solid state structure, solution and gas-phase behaviour, and thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haixiang; Wei, Zheng; Barry, Matthew C; Filatov, Alexander S; Dikarev, Evgeny V

    2017-05-02

    Three heterometallic single-source precursors with a Li : Fe = 1 : 1 ratio for a LiFeO 2 oxide material are reported. Heterometallic compounds LiFeL 3 (L = tbaoac (1), ptac (2), and acac(3)) have been obtained on a large scale, in nearly quantitative yields by one-step reactions that employ readily available reagents. The heterometallic precursor LiFe(acac) 3 (3) with small, symmetric substituents on the ligand (acac = pentane-2,4-dionate), maintains a 1D polymeric structure in the solid state that limits its volatility and prevents solubility in non-coordinating solvents. The application of the unsymmetrical ligands, tbaoac (tert-butyl acetoacetate) and ptac (1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexanedionate), that exhibit different bridging properties at the two ends of the ligand, allowed us to change the connectivity pattern within the heterometallic assembly. The latter was demonstrated by structural characterization of heterometallic complexes LiFe(tbaoac) 3 (1) and LiFe(ptac) 3 (2) that consist of discrete heterocyclic tetranuclear molecules Li 2 Fe 2 L 6 . The compounds are highly volatile and exhibit a congruent sublimation character. DART mass spectrometric investigation revealed the presence of heterometallic molecules in the gas phase. The positive mode spectra are dominated by the presence of [M - L] + peaks (M = Li 2 Fe 2 L 6 ). In accord with their discrete molecular structure, complexes 1 and 2 are highly soluble in nearly all common solvents. In order to test the retention of the heterometallic structure in solution, the diamagnetic analog of 1, LiMg(tbaoac) 3 (4), has been isolated. Its tetranuclear molecular structure was found to be isomorphous to that of the iron counterpart. 1 H and 7 Li NMR spectroscopy unambiguously confirmed the presence of heterometallic molecules in solutions of non-coordinating solvents. The heterometallic precursor 1 was shown to exhibit clean thermal decomposition in air that results in phase-pure

  10. Synthetic generation of myocardial blood-oxygen-level-dependent MRI time series via structural sparse decomposition modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Cristian; Morisi, Rita; Boschetto, Davide; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to identify approaches that generate appropriate synthetic data (computer generated) for cardiac phase-resolved blood-oxygen-level-dependent (CP-BOLD) MRI. CP-BOLD MRI is a new contrast agent- and stress-free approach for examining changes in myocardial oxygenation in response to coronary artery disease. However, since signal intensity changes are subtle, rapid visualization is not possible with the naked eye. Quantifying and visualizing the extent of disease relies on myocardial segmentation and registration to isolate the myocardium and establish temporal correspondences and ischemia detection algorithms to identify temporal differences in BOLD signal intensity patterns. If transmurality of the defect is of interest pixel-level analysis is necessary and thus a higher precision in registration is required. Such precision is currently not available affecting the design and performance of the ischemia detection algorithms. In this work, to enable algorithmic developments of ischemia detection irrespective to registration accuracy, we propose an approach that generates synthetic pixel-level myocardial time series. We do this by 1) modeling the temporal changes in BOLD signal intensity based on sparse multi-component dictionary learning, whereby segmentally derived myocardial time series are extracted from canine experimental data to learn the model; and 2) demonstrating the resemblance between real and synthetic time series for validation purposes. We envision that the proposed approach has the capacity to accelerate development of tools for ischemia detection while markedly reducing experimental costs so that cardiac BOLD MRI can be rapidly translated into the clinical arena for the noninvasive assessment of ischemic heart disease.

  11. Efficient morse decompositions of vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoning; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Laramee, Robert S; Zhang, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Existing topology-based vector field analysis techniques rely on the ability to extract the individual trajectories such as fixed points, periodic orbits, and separatrices that are sensitive to noise and errors introduced by simulation and interpolation. This can make such vector field analysis unsuitable for rigorous interpretations. We advocate the use of Morse decompositions, which are robust with respect to perturbations, to encode the topological structures of a vector field in the form of a directed graph, called a Morse connection graph (MCG). While an MCG exists for every vector field, it need not be unique. Previous techniques for computing MCG's, while fast, are overly conservative and usually results in MCG's that are too coarse to be useful for the applications. To address this issue, we present a new technique for performing Morse decomposition based on the concept of tau-maps, which typically provides finer MCG's than existing techniques. Furthermore, the choice of tau provides a natural tradeoff between the fineness of the MCG's and the computational costs. We provide efficient implementations of Morse decomposition based on tau-maps, which include the use of forward and backward mapping techniques and an adaptive approach in constructing better approximations of the images of the triangles in the meshes used for simulation.. Furthermore, we propose the use of spatial tau-maps in addition to the original temporal tau-maps. These techniques provide additional trade-offs between the quality of the MCGs and the speed of computation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique with various examples in the plane and on surfaces including engine simulation data sets.

  12. PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rogac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the plastic analysis of steel frame structure loaded by gravity loads. By applying the cinematic theorem of ultimate analysis, the ultimate load for the case of elastic - ideally plastic material is calculated. The identical structure was treated in the computer program SAP2000 where the zone of material reinforcement in the plastic area was covered. Keywords: Steel frame structure, plastic analysis, ultimate gravity load, material reinforcement.

  13. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational...

  14. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  15. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  16. Gyroscope-driven mouse pointer with an EMOTIV® EEG headset and data analysis based on Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Cholula, Gerardo; Ramirez-Cortes, Juan Manuel; Alarcon-Aquino, Vicente; Gomez-Gil, Pilar; Rangel-Magdaleno, Jose de Jesus; Reyes-Garcia, Carlos

    2013-08-14

    This paper presents a project on the development of a cursor control emulating the typical operations of a computer-mouse, using gyroscope and eye-blinking electromyographic signals which are obtained through a commercial 16-electrode wireless headset, recently released by Emotiv. The cursor position is controlled using information from a gyroscope included in the headset. The clicks are generated through the user's blinking with an adequate detection procedure based on the spectral-like technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). EMD is proposed as a simple and quick computational tool, yet effective, aimed to artifact reduction from head movements as well as a method to detect blinking signals for mouse control. Kalman filter is used as state estimator for mouse position control and jitter removal. The detection rate obtained in average was 94.9%. Experimental setup and some obtained results are presented.

  17. Gyroscope-Driven Mouse Pointer with an EMOTIV® EEG Headset and Data Analysis Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Reyes-Garcia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a project on the development of a cursor control emulating the typical operations of a computer-mouse, using gyroscope and eye-blinking electromyographic signals which are obtained through a commercial 16-electrode wireless headset, recently released by Emotiv. The cursor position is controlled using information from a gyroscope included in the headset. The clicks are generated through the user’s blinking with an adequate detection procedure based on the spectral-like technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD. EMD is proposed as a simple and quick computational tool, yet effective, aimed to artifact reduction from head movements as well as a method to detect blinking signals for mouse control. Kalman filter is used as state estimator for mouse position control and jitter removal. The detection rate obtained in average was 94.9%. Experimental setup and some obtained results are presented.

  18. Qualitative Analysis of Chang'e-1 γ-ray Spectrometer Spectra Using Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jia; Ge Liangquan; Xiong Shengqing

    2010-01-01

    From the features of spectra shape of Chang'e-1 γ-ray spectrometer(CE1-GRS) data, it is difficult to determine elemental compositions on the lunar surface. Aimed at this problem, this paper proposes using noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) method to extract orthogonal spectral components from CE1-GRS data. Then the peak signals in the spectra of lower-order layers corresponding to the observed spectrum of each lunar region are respectively analyzed. Elemental compositions of each lunar region can be determined based upon whether the energy corresponding to each peak signal equals to the energy corresponding to the characteristic gamma-ray line emissions of specific elements. The result shows that a number of elements such as U, Th, K, Fe, Ti, Si, O, Al, Mg, Ca and Na are qualitatively determined by this method. (authors)

  19. Comparative analysis of gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods and regularized singular-value decomposition for fringe pattern processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Fu, Shujun

    2017-09-20

    Fringe orientation is an important feature of fringe patterns and has a wide range of applications such as guiding fringe pattern filtering, phase unwrapping, and abstraction. Estimating fringe orientation is a basic task for subsequent processing of fringe patterns. However, various noise, singular and obscure points, and orientation data degeneration lead to inaccurate calculations of fringe orientation. Thus, to deepen the understanding of orientation estimation and to better guide orientation estimation in fringe pattern processing, some advanced gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods are compared and analyzed. At the same time, following the ideas of smoothing regularization and computing of bigger gradient fields, a regularized singular-value decomposition (RSVD) technique is proposed for fringe orientation estimation. To compare the performance of these gradient-field-based methods, quantitative results and visual effect maps of orientation estimation are given on simulated and real fringe patterns that demonstrate that the RSVD produces the best estimation results at a cost of relatively less time.

  20. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  1. Biclustering via Sparse Singular Value Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Mihee

    2010-02-16

    Sparse singular value decomposition (SSVD) is proposed as a new exploratory analysis tool for biclustering or identifying interpretable row-column associations within high-dimensional data matrices. SSVD seeks a low-rank, checkerboard structured matrix approximation to data matrices. The desired checkerboard structure is achieved by forcing both the left- and right-singular vectors to be sparse, that is, having many zero entries. By interpreting singular vectors as regression coefficient vectors for certain linear regressions, sparsity-inducing regularization penalties are imposed to the least squares regression to produce sparse singular vectors. An efficient iterative algorithm is proposed for computing the sparse singular vectors, along with some discussion of penalty parameter selection. A lung cancer microarray dataset and a food nutrition dataset are used to illustrate SSVD as a biclustering method. SSVD is also compared with some existing biclustering methods using simulated datasets. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  2. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  3. Spectral decomposition of nonlinear systems with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenkeson, Adam; Glaz, Bryan; Stanton, Samuel; West, Bruce J.

    2016-02-01

    We present an alternative approach to the analysis of nonlinear systems with long-term memory that is based on the Koopman operator and a Lévy transformation in time. Memory effects are considered to be the result of interactions between a system and its surrounding environment. The analysis leads to the decomposition of a nonlinear system with memory into modes whose temporal behavior is anomalous and lacks a characteristic scale. On average, the time evolution of a mode follows a Mittag-Leffler function, and the system can be described using the fractional calculus. The general theory is demonstrated on the fractional linear harmonic oscillator and the fractional nonlinear logistic equation. When analyzing data from an ill-defined (black-box) system, the spectral decomposition in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions that we propose may uncover inherent memory effects through identification of a small set of dynamically relevant structures that would otherwise be obscured by conventional spectral methods. Consequently, the theoretical concepts we present may be useful for developing more general methods for numerical modeling that are able to determine whether observables of a dynamical system are better represented by memoryless operators, or operators with long-term memory in time, when model details are unknown.

  4. Thermal decomposition of biphenyl (1963); Decomposition thermique du biphenyle (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The rates of formation of the decomposition products of biphenyl; hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, as well as triphenyl have been measured in the vapour and liquid phases at 460 deg. C. The study of the decomposition products of biphenyl at different temperatures between 400 and 460 deg. C has provided values of the activation energies of the reactions yielding the main products of pyrolysis in the vapour phase. Product and Activation energy: Hydrogen 73 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Benzene 76 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Meta-triphenyl 53 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Biphenyl decomposition 64 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; The rate of disappearance of biphenyl is only very approximately first order. These results show the major role played at the start of the decomposition by organic impurities which are not detectable by conventional physico-chemical analysis methods and the presence of which accelerates noticeably the decomposition rate. It was possible to eliminate these impurities by zone-melting carried out until the initial gradient of the formation curves for the products became constant. The composition of the high-molecular weight products (over 250) was deduced from the mean molecular weight and the dosage of the aromatic C - H bonds by infrared spectrophotometry. As a result the existence in tars of hydrogenated tetra, penta and hexaphenyl has been demonstrated. (author) [French] Les vitesses de formation des produits de decomposition du biphenyle: hydrogene, methane, ethane, ethylene, ainsi que des triphenyles, ont ete mesurees en phase vapeur et en phase liquide a 460 deg. C. L'etude des produits de decomposition du biphenyle a differentes temperatures comprises entre 400 et 460 deg. C, a fourni les valeurs des energies d'activation des reactions conduisant aux principaux produits de la pyrolyse en phase vapeur. Produit et Energie d'activation: Hydrogene 73 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Benzene 76 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Metatriphenyle, 53 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Decomposition du biphenyle 64 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; La

  5. Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 - Essentials is an excellent introduction to the essential features, functions, and workflows of Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional. Master the tools you will need to make Robot work for you: Go from zero to proficiency with this thorough and detailed introduction to the essential concepts and workflows of Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016. - Demystify the interface - Manipulate and manage Robot tables like a pro - Learn how to use Robot's modeling tools - Master loading techniques - Harness Robot automated load combinations - Decipher simplified seismic loading - Discover workflows for steel and concrete design - Gain insights to help troubleshoot issues Guided exercises are provided to help cement fundamental concepts in Robot Structural Analysis and drive home key functions. Get up to speed quickly with this essential text and add Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 to your analysis and design toolbox. New in 2016: AWC-NDS ...

  6. Automated analysis and design of complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The present application of optimum design appears to be restricted to components of the structure rather than to the total structural system. Since design normally involved many analysis of the system any improvement in the efficiency of the basic methods of analysis will allow more complicated systems to be designed by optimum methods. The evaluation of the risk and reliability of a structural system can be extremely important. Reliability studies have been made of many non-structural systems for which the individual components have been extensively tested and the service environment is known. For such systems the reliability studies are valid. For most structural systems, however, the properties of the components can only be estimated and statistical data associated with the potential loads is often minimum. Also, a potentially critical loading condition may be completely neglected in the study. For these reasons and the previous problems associated with the reliability of both linear and nonlinear analysis computer programs it appears to be premature to place a significant value on such studies for complex structures. With these comments as background the purpose of this paper is to discuss the following: the relationship of analysis to design; new methods of analysis; new of improved finite elements; effect of minicomputer on structural analysis methods; the use of system of microprocessors for nonlinear structural analysis; the role of interacting graphics systems in future analysis and design. This discussion will focus on the impact of new, inexpensive computer hardware on design and analysis methods

  7. LMDI decomposition approach: A guide for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Since it was first used by researchers to analyze industrial electricity consumption in the early 1980s, index decomposition analysis (IDA) has been widely adopted in energy and emission studies. Lately its use as the analytical component of accounting frameworks for tracking economy-wide energy efficiency trends has attracted considerable attention and interest among policy makers. The last comprehensive literature review of IDA was reported in 2000 which is some years back. After giving an update and presenting the key trends in the last 15 years, this study focuses on the implementation issues of the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition methods in view of their dominance in IDA in recent years. Eight LMDI models are presented and their origin, decomposition formulae, and strengths and weaknesses are summarized. Guidelines on the choice among these models are provided to assist users in implementation. - Highlights: • Guidelines for implementing LMDI decomposition approach are provided. • Eight LMDI decomposition models are summarized and compared. • The development of the LMDI decomposition approach is presented. • The latest developments of index decomposition analysis are briefly reviewed.

  8. Note on Symplectic SVD-Like Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOUJIL Said

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a constructive method to compute a symplectic singular value decomposition (SVD-like decomposition of a 2n-by-m rectangular real matrix A, based on symplectic refectors.This approach used a canonical Schur form of skew-symmetric matrix and it allowed us to compute eigenvalues for the structured matrices as Hamiltonian matrix JAA^T.

  9. Structure of polysaccharide and structural analysis by x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Polysaccharides occur in plants and the living body in the solid, gel, or liquid. They have a highly structural diversity and possess the potential to be used for development of new materials and energy sources. So it is very important to understand their molecular structure under various conditions. This review introduces the structural characteristics of polysaccharides and the examples of their analysis by the X-ray scattering method. (author)

  10. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2009-01-01

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to 'heavy' industry; 'light' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency

  11. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias [Energy Management Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100 (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to ''heavy'' industry; ''light'' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency. (author)

  12. Dynamic analysis program for frame structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kozo; Chiba, Toshio

    1975-01-01

    A general purpose computer program named ISTRAN/FD (Isub(HI) STRucture ANalysis/Frame structure, Dynamic analysis) has been developed for dyn